WorldWideScience

Sample records for cycle cryocooler development

  1. Development of 0.5-5 W, 10K Reverse Brayton Cycle Cryocoolers - Phase II Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, F. D.; Boman, A.; Arnold, S.; Spitzmesser, J. B.; Jones, D.; McCree, D.; Hacker, L. J.

    2001-10-15

    Miniature cryocoolers for the 8-30 K range are needed to provide 0.5-5 w of cooling to high sensitivity detectors (for long-wave-length IR, magnetism, mm-wave, X-ray, dark matter, and possibly y-ray detection) while maintaining low mass, ultra-low vibration, and good efficiency. This project presents a new approach to eliminating the problems normally encountered in efforts to build low-vibration, fieldable, miniature cryocoolers. Using the reverse Brayton Cycle (RBC), the approach applies and expands on existing spinner technology previously used only in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) probes.

  2. Stirling cryocoolers: Trends in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.

    1986-01-01

    Following a lengthy period of development, Stirling refrigerators have emerged as the preferred system for the miniature cryocoolers used in infrared night-vision, missile guidance systems and other low capacity cryogenic sensors. Single stage expansion integral and split-Stirling refrigerators having capacities of 1/4 to 1 watt at 80 K are in series volume production. They are characterised by increasing reliability (multi-thousand hours operation). Future preference is anticipated for split-Stirling systems with close tolerance seals replacing rubbing contact seals and linear electric motors increasingly preferred as the compressor drive. Present difficulties with the cooler/sensor interface and of fluid leakage will be overcome by manufacture of integrated cooler-sensor units welded leak-proof and having no provision for field servicing. Eventual production is anticipated of throw-away, radio-tube-like, cryocooler/sensor units capable of plugging-in to ambient temperature circuits. Control of compression speed in accordance with load demand will be routine. The use of multi-stage expansion Stirling cryocoolers for superconducting electronics is anticipated with the development of the high-temperature superconducting materials having critical temperatures near 20 K and operating temperatures near 10 K. Availability of a reliable, compact, relatively low cost, 10 K refrigerator would eliminate the need for liquid helium cooling and open possibilities for application of superconducting electronics on a broad front for diverse military and civil purposes

  3. Development of a fluorescent cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Epstein, R.I.; Gosnell, T.R.; Mungan, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Recent work at Los Alamos National Laboratory has demonstrated the physical principles for a new type of solid-state cryocooler based on anti-Stokes fluorescence. Design studies indicate that a vibration-free, low-mass ''fluorescent cryocooler'' could operate for years with efficiencies and cooling powers comparable to current commercial systems. This paper presents concepts for a fluorescent cryocooler, design considerations and expected performance

  4. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  5. The first law and the second law analysis of Stirling cycle cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiyi, W.; Yalin, H.

    1989-01-01

    Stirling cycle cryocoolers have been widely used in research and high technology including civil and military applications. This paper presents two kinds of analysis of Stirling cryocooler. The first law analysis is a full computational simulation in which the thermodynamic processes with variable mass and heat transfer under oscillating gas flow are taken into account simultaneously. The second law analysis deals with the exergy analysis of variable mass processes. An illustrative calculation is for a practical Stirling cryocooler manufactured by Hangzhou Oxygen Plant Manufactory. These two kinds of analysis are better to reveal the real working processes occurring in the modern practical Stirling cryocoolers

  6. Development of 1 kW Stirling cryocooler using a linear compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, J.; Kim, H.; Hong, Y. J.; Yeom, H.; In, S.; Park, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic cooling systems for HTS electric power devices require a reliable and efficient high-capacity cryocooler. A Striling cryocooler with a linear compressor can be a good candidate. It has advantages of low vibration and long maintenance cycle compared with a kinematic-driven Stirling cryocooler. In this study, we developed a dual-opposed linear compressor of 12 kW electric input power with two 6 kW linear motors. Electrical performance of the fabricated linear compressor is verified by experimental measurement of thrust constant. The developed Stirling cryocooler has a gamma-type configuration. The piston and displacer are supported with a flexure spring. A slit-type heat exchanger is adopted for the cold and warm-end, and the generated heat is rejected by cooling water. In the cooling performance test, waveforms of voltage, current, displacement and pressure are obtained and their amplitude and phase difference are analysed. The developed cryocooler reaches 47.8 K within 23.4 min. with no-load. Heat load tests shows a cooling capacity of 440 W at 78.1 K with 6.45 kW of electric input power and 19.4 of % Carnot COP.

  7. Development of 1 kW Stirling cryocooler using a linear compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, J; Kim, H; Hong, Y J; Yeom, H; In, S; Park, S J

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic cooling systems for HTS electric power devices require a reliable and efficient high-capacity cryocooler. A Striling cryocooler with a linear compressor can be a good candidate. It has advantages of low vibration and long maintenance cycle compared with a kinematic-driven Stirling cryocooler. In this study, we developed a dual-opposed linear compressor of 12 kW electric input power with two 6 kW linear motors. Electrical performance of the fabricated linear compressor is verified by experimental measurement of thrust constant. The developed Stirling cryocooler has a gamma-type configuration. The piston and displacer are supported with a flexure spring. A slit-type heat exchanger is adopted for the cold and warm-end, and the generated heat is rejected by cooling water. In the cooling performance test, waveforms of voltage, current, displacement and pressure are obtained and their amplitude and phase difference are analysed. The developed cryocooler reaches 47.8 K within 23.4 min. with no-load. Heat load tests shows a cooling capacity of 440 W at 78.1 K with 6.45 kW of electric input power and 19.4 of % Carnot COP. (paper)

  8. Recent development status of compact 2 K GM cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Q.; Xu, M. Y.; Tsuchiya, A.; Li, R.

    2015-12-01

    To meet the growing demand for a compact cooling solution for superconducting electronic devices, we developed a two-stage 2 K GM cryocooler and a cryostat system, which can reach 46.3 K / 2.2 K on the first and second stages under no-load conditions. Nevertheless, with several innovative technologies applied, the total length of the expander cylinder is reduced to under 70% of the smallest conventional 4 K GM cryocooler. In this paper we will present the design method, including material selection and structure design with detailed explanation, which has been confirmed by both simulation and experiment.

  9. Recent development of cryocooler technology focused on pulse-tube refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    1994-01-01

    The low-temperature refrigerator (cryocooler) is one of the key technologies to support the development of superconductivity technology from the view point of its application. The recent cryocooler technology has taken a new approach based on the new concept of thermodynamic analysis. The pulse-tube refrigerator, particular, has shown a great improvement in performance in comparison with the refrigerators generally used in the application fields, such as Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle refrigerators. This paper includes the energy flow concept based on the Stirling cycle to elucidate the phase-shift mechanism of the pulse tube. Recent developments of single and multiple-staged pulse-tube refrigerators are also described. (author)

  10. Innovative Stirling-Cycle Cryocooler for Long Term In-Space Storage of Cryogenic Liquid Propellants, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this Phase II SBIR project we will build and test a stirling-cycle cryocooler and coolant circulating subsystem for use with broad area cooling (BAC) systems...

  11. Development of a 77K Reverse-Brayton Cryocooler with Multiple Coldheads, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RTI will design and optimize an 80 W, 77K cryocooler based on the reverse turbo Brayton cycle (RTBC) with four identical coldheads for distributed cooling. Based on...

  12. Development of miniature moving magnet cryocooler SX040

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Rosenhagen, C.; Schreiter, A.; Möhl, C.

    2011-06-01

    State of the art high performance cooled IR systems need to have more than just excellent E/O performance. Minimum size weight and power (SWaP) are the design goals to meet our forces' mission requirements. Key enabler for minimum SWaP of IR imagers is the operation temperature of the focal plane array (FPA) employed. State of the art MCT or InAsSb nBn technology has the potential to rise the FPA temperature from 77 K to 130-150 K (high operation temperature HOT) depending on the specific cut-off wavelength. Using a HOT FPA will significantly lower SWaP and keep those parameters finally dominated by the employed cryocooler. Therefore compact high performance cryocoolers are mandatory. For highest MTTF life AIM developed its Flexure Bearing Moving Magnet product family "SF". Such coolers achieve more than 20000 h MTTF with Stirling type expander and more than 5 years MTTF life with Pulse Tube coldfinger (like for Space applications). To keep the high lifetime potential but to significantly improve SWaP AIM is developing its "SX" type cooler family. The new SX040 cooler incorporates a highly efficient dual piston Moving Magnet driving mechanism resulting in very compact compressor of less than 100mm length. The cooler's high lifetime is also achieved by placing the coils outside the helium vessel as usual for moving magnet motors. The mating ¼" expander is extremely compact with less than 63 mm length. This allows a total dewar length from optical window to expander warm end of less than 100 mm even for large cold shields. The cooler is optimized for HOT detectors with operating temperatures exceeding 95 K. While this kind of cooler is the perfect match for many applications, handheld sights or targeting devices for the dismounted soldier are even more challenging with respect to SWaP. AIM therefore started to develop an even smaller cooler type with single piston and balancer. This paper gives an overview on the development of this new compact cryocooler. Technical

  13. A 9 K conical Stirling-cycle cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrtle, K.; Winter, C.; Gygax, S.

    1982-01-01

    A low power closed cycle Stirling refrigerator with a conical glass-fibre reinforced epoxy displacer/regenerator and an external compressor is described. The single stage device has demonstrated cooling to 9 K directly from room temperature and may be used for cooling SQUID systems. (author)

  14. The effect of low temperature cryocoolers on the development of low temperature superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    The commercial development of reliable 4 K cryocoolers improves the future prospects for magnets made from low temperature superconductors (LTS). The hope of the developers of high temperature superconductors (HTS) has been to replace liquid helium cooled LTS magnets with HTS magnets that operate at or near liquid nitrogen temperature. There has been limited success in this endeavor, but continued problems with HTS conductors have greatly slowed progress toward this goal. The development of cryocoolers that reliably operate below 4 K will allow magnets made from LTS conductor to remain very competitive for many years to come. A key enabling technology for the use of low temperature cryocoolers on LTS magnets has been the development of HTS leads. This report describes the characteristics of LTS magnets that can be successfully melded to low-temperature cryocoolers. This report will also show when it is not appropriate to consider the use of low-temperature cryocoolers to cool magnets made with LTS conductor. A couple of specific examples of LTS magnets where cryocoolers can be used are given

  15. 8th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed a substantial maturing of long life Stirling-cycle cryocoolers built upon the heritage of the flexure-bearing cryocoolers from Oxford University, and have seen the emergence of mature pulse tube cryocoolers competing head-to-head with the Stirling cryocoolers. Hydrogen sorption cryocoolers, Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers with rare earth regenerators, and helium Joule-Thomson cryocoolers have also made tremendous progress in opening up applications in the 4 K to 10 K temperature range. Tactical Stirling cryocoolers, now commonplace in the defense industry, are finding application in a number of cost­ constrained commercial applications and space missions, and are achieving ever longer lives as they move to linear-drive, clearance-seal compressors. Building on this expanding availability of commercially viable cryocoolers, numerous new applications are being enabled; many of these involve infrared imaging systems, and high­ temperature superconductors in the medical and ...

  16. RICOR Cryocoolers for HOT IR detectors from development to optimization for industrialized production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Eli; Katz, Amiram; Bar Haim, Zvi; Nachman, Ilan; Riabzev, Sergey; Gover, Dan; Segal, Victor; Filis, Avishai

    2017-05-01

    The modern needs of the electro-optical market for small low-power and light-weight IR systems are impelling research and development of High Operating Temperature (HOT) IR detectors, requiring development of dedicated "HOT" cryocoolers. The development of cryocoolers with emphasis on the "SWAP3" configuration means small size, low weight, improved performance, low power consumption and low price, in order to optimize IDDCA for future hand held thermal sights. This paper will present the development and the progress made with the new "HOT" cryocooler, including customer data after the evaluation process, performances achieved using a common cold finger, test results update on a large series of production coolers, life and qualification test update and acoustic noise reduction. All the above mentioned information relates to the FPA temperature range of 130 - 200K for various cryocooler models based on rotary and linear design concepts. The paper will also review the progress with the latest development activities implemented in the cryocoolers and the electronic control modules in order to improve reliability and minimize regulated power consumption.

  17. Closed-cycle cryocooled SQUID system with superconductive shield for biomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kwon Kyu; Lee, Yong Ho; Lee, Seong Joo; Shim, Jeong Hyun; Hwang, Seong min; Kim, Jin Mok; Kwon, Hyuckchan; Kim, Kiwoong

    2014-10-01

    We developed a cryocooled SQUID system with which human magnetocardiogram (MCG) and possibly magnetoenceparogram (MEG) can be measured. To reduce cyclic magnetic noises originating from the regenerator of the cold heads of the cryocooler, a superconductive shield (99.5% Pb) was used to protect the SQUID sensors, and a ferromagnetic shield (78% Ni alloy) was used to screen the cold head. In addition, the SQUID sensors’ chamber was placed at a distance of 1.8 m from the cold head chamber to install the cold-head chamber outside the magnetically shielded room (MSR) for future development. The loss in cooling power due to the increased distance was compensated by increasing the number of thermal rods, and thus the SQUID sensor and superconductive shield could be refrigerated to 4.8 K and 5 K, respectively. The superconductive shield successfully rejected thermal noise emitted from metallic blocks used to improve thermal conduction. The noise of the SQUID system was 3 fT/Hz1/2, and the cyclic magnetic noise could be reduced to 1.7 pT. We could obtain a clear MCG signal while the entire cryogenics was in operation without any special digital processing.

  18. Development of high-efficiency Stirling cryocoolers for high temperature superconducting motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, K; Yumoto, K; Hiratsuka, Y

    2015-01-01

    For wide spread high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, a cryocooler having COP of >0.1, with a compact size, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability is required. For practical use of superconductive devices, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) developed a high-efficiency Stirling type pulse tube cryocooler (STPC). The STPC had high reliability and low vibration. However, its efficiency was not enough to meet the demands of an HTS motor. To further improve the efficiency, we reconsidered the expander of cryocooler and developed a Stirling cryocooler (STC). Two prototype units of a compact, high-efficiency split Stirling cryocooler were designed, built and tested. With the second prototype unit, a cooling capacity of 151 W at 70 K and a minimum temperature of 33 K have been achieved with a compressor input power of 2.15 kW. Accordingly, COP of about 0.07 has been achieved. The detailed design of the prototype units and the experimental results will be reported in this paper. (paper)

  19. Performance Characterization of the Astrium 10k Developmental Cryocooler

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruninghaus, C. H; Kallman, J. P; Tomlinson, B. J., Jr; Myrick, E

    2002-01-01

    .... Under the technology development program, Astrium (formerly Matra Marconi Space) in Stevenage, United Kingdom, developed a Stirling cycle cryocooler with four Oxford flexure compressors and a two-stage expansion cold end...

  20. Recent development status of stirling type pulse tube cryocooler for HTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Y; Nakano, K; Kato, T

    2014-01-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been developing a high power stirling type pulse tube cryocooler. For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motor, SMES and current fault limiter, requested specifications from the devices to a cryocooler are compact size, light weight, high efficiency and high reliability. Especially, the cryocooler must be demanded COP > 0.1 in the efficiency. The experimental results of prototype pulse tube cryocooler were reported in June 2012 [1]. For an In-line type expander, the cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW and the operating frequency was 49 Hz. Accordingly, COP was about 0.055. Moreover, for miniaturization a U type expander was tested and the performance is about 10 % less than that of an In-line type expander. After that, we have estimated that the cooling performance is influenced by the environment such as the effect of the pulse-tube inclination, the temperature and the flowing quantity of cooling water. The detailed results are reported in this paper.

  1. 17th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Cryocoolers 17 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 17th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 9-12, 2012. The program of this conference consisted of 94 papers; of these, 71 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  2. 16th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Cryocoolers 16 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 16th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 17-20, 2010. The program of this conference consisted of 116 papers; of these, 89 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  3. Development of a hermetically sealed brushless DC motor for a J-T cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joscelyn, Edwin; Hochler, Irwin; Ferri, Andrew; Rott, Heinz; Soukaris, Ted

    1996-01-01

    This development was sponsored by Ball Aerospace for the Cryogenic On-Orbit LongLife Active Refrigerator (COOLLAR) program. The cryocooler is designed to cool objects to 65 K and operate in space for at least 7 years. The system also imports minimal impact to the spacecraft in terms of vibration and heat. The basic Joule-Thompson cycle involves compressing a working fluid, nitrogen in this case, at near-constant temperature from 17.2 KPa to 6.89 MPa. The nitrogen is then expanded through a Joule-Thompson valve. The pure nitrogen gas must be kept clean; therefore, any contamination from motor organic materials must be eliminated. This requirement drove the design towards sealing of the motor within a titanium housing without sacrificing motor performance. It is estimated that an unsealed motor would have contributed 1.65 g of contaminants, due to the organic insulation and potting materials, over the 7-year life. This paper describes the motor electrical and mechanical design, as well as the sealing difficulties encountered, along with their solutions.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A 4 K STIRLING-TYPE PULSE TUBE CRYOCOOLER FOR A MOBILE TERAHERTZ DETECTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P. E.; Gerecht, E.; Radebaugh, R.; Garaway, I.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the design and development of a 4 K Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler for a mobile terahertz detection system. This system integrates new heterodyne detector technology at terahertz frequencies with advancements of Stirling-type pulse tube technology that brings the advent of cooled detector sensitivities in a mobile, compact, and long duration operation system without degradation of sensitivity. To achieve this goal we reduced overall system size, input power, and temperature fluctuations and mechanical vibrations in order to maintain the detector sensitivity. The Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler developed for this system is a hybrid design employing a He-4 pulse-tube cryocooler operating at 60 Hz and 2.5 MPa average pressure that precools a He-3 pulse tube cryocooler operating at 30 Hz and 1.0 MPa average pressure to achieve 4 K cooling for the terahertz receiver. The He-4 cryocooler employs stainless steel mesh regenerators for the first stage and ErPr spheres for the second stage, while the He-3 cryocooler employs stainless mesh for the first stage and ErPr spheres for the second stage with a layered rare-earth third stage regenerator. Design details and cooler performance goals are discussed.

  5. Development of a miniature Stirling cryocooler for LWIR small satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Hon, R. C.; Perella, M. D.; Crittenden, T. M.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-05-01

    The optimum small satellite (SmallSat) cryocooler system must be extremely compact and lightweight, achieved in this paper by operating a linear cryocooler at a frequency of approximately 300 Hz. Operation at this frequency, which is well in excess of the 100-150 Hz reported in recent papers on related efforts, requires an evolution beyond the traditional Oxford-class, flexure-based methods of setting the mechanical resonance. A novel approach that optimizes the electromagnetic design and the mechanical design together to simultaneously achieve the required dynamic and thermodynamic performances is described. Since highly miniaturized pulse tube coolers are fundamentally ill-suited for the sub-80K temperature range of interest because the boundary layer losses inside the pulse tube become dominant at the associated very small pulse tube size, a moving displacer Stirling cryocooler architecture is used. Compact compressor mechanisms developed on a previous program are reused for this design, and they have been adapted to yield an extremely compact Stirling warm end motor mechanism. Supporting thermodynamic and electromagnetic analysis results are reported.

  6. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  7. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  8. 10th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Cryocoolers 10 is the premier archival publication of the latest advances and performance of small cryogenic refrigerators designed to provide localized cooling for military, space, semi-conductor, medical, computing, and high-temperature superconductor cryogenic applications in the 2-200 K temperature range. Composed of papers written by leading engineers and scientists in the field, Cryocoolers 10 reports the most recent advances in cryocooler development, contains extensive performance test results and comparisons, and relates the latest experience in integrating cryocoolers into advanced applications.

  9. Design and Development of a Novel Knudsen Compressor as a Part of a Joule-Thomson Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvijayan, Indra; Antelius, Mikael; Björneklett, Are; Nilsson, Peter; Thorslund, Robert

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a novel Knudsen compressor, with no moving parts, as a part of a Joule-Thomson cryocooler. The compressor works by using the Knudsen diffusion principle and includes a combination of graphene-based layers and Knudsen membranes in a particular fashion to pressurize the fluid. The Knudsen membrane for this application was selected by testing several commercially available materials. Prototypes of single stage and a multistage compressors are presented together with experimental evaluations. Insights on a Tube-in-Tube heat exchanger, as another part a the Joule-Thomson cryocooler, intended to integrate with the Knudsen compressor, are also presented.

  10. 6th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Knox, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Cryocoolers 6 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 6th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Plymouth, Massachusetts, on October 25-26, 1990. This year's conference consisted of 54 papers and was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland. The conference proceedings containing 49 submitted manuscripts was published by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center in the report reproduced here.

  11. Recent cryocooler progress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Y.

    1985-05-01

    The progress of cryocoolers and related devices in Japan is reviewed. The Japanese National Railways has developed the light weight 4 K on-board refrigerators since 1977 as part of the MAGLEV train program. Superconducting and cryogenic fundamental technology was examined which included high performance cryocooler, magnetic refrigerator and superfluid refrigeration. Space cryogenics such as the cooling systems of IR-detectors was studied. Cryocooler for special applications such as cryopump, NMR-CT and JJ devices was investigated. Compact heat exchangers, high performance regenerators and reliable compressors are investigated as a critical component technology.

  12. 4th International Cryocoolers Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Patton, George; Knox, Margaret

    1987-01-01

    The Cryocoolers 4 proceedings archives the contributions of leading international experts at the 4th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Easton, Maryland on September 25-26, 1986. About 170 people attended the conference representing 11 countries, 14 universities, 21 government laboratories and 60 industrial companies. Thirty-one papers were presented describing advancements and applications of cryocoolers in the temperature range below 80K. This year's conference was sponsored by the David Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center of Annapolis, Maryland, and the conference proceedings reproduced here was published by them.

  13. 7th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    Cryocoolers 7 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 7th International Cryocooler Conference which was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, on November 17-19, 1992. This year's conference consisted of over 100 papers and was hosted by the Nichols Research Corp. and the Air Force Phillips Laboratory of Albuquerque, New Mexico. The conference proceedings were published by the Air Force Phillips Laboratory in the four-volume set reproduced here.

  14. 14th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2007-01-01

    This is the 14th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  15. 15th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    This is the 15th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocooler Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  16. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un [Ithaca, NY; Gruner, Sol M [Ithaca, NY

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  17. Development of a linear compressor for compact 2 K Gifford- McMahon cryocoolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiratsuka, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new, compact Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler for cooling superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) has been developed at Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) [1, 2]. The objective is to reduce the total height of the expander by 33% relative to the existing RDK-101 GM expander and to reduce the total volume of the compressor unit by 50% relative to the existing CNA-11 compressor. In addition, considering the targeted cooling application, we set the design temperature targets of the first and the second stages to 1 W and 20 mW of heat load at 60 K and 2.3 K, respectively. Although optimization of the internal components is one way to miniaturize the volume of the compressor unit, major design changes are required because the volume of the adsorber and the oil separator is almost the same as the volume of the compressor capsule. Thus, one approach is to develop a non-lubricated compressor, such as a valved linear compressor. An experimental unit of a valved linear compressor was designed and built, and preliminary experiments were conducted. Under no-load condition, a low temperature of 2.19 K has been achieved. With 1 W and 14 mW heat load, the temperature is 48 K at the first stage and 2.3 K at the second stage, with an input power of about 1.2 KW. The detailed experimental results will be discussed in this paper. (paper)

  18. Development of a rotary union for Gifford-McMahon cryocoolers utilized in a 10 MW offshore superconducting wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiuce; Sanz, Santiago; León, Andrés; Fraser, Jim; Neumann, Holger

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting generators (SCG) show the potential to reduce the head mass of large offshore wind turbines. By evaluating the availability and required cooling capacity in the temperatures range around 20 K, a Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler among all the candidates was selected. The cold head of GM cryocooler is supposed to rotate together with the rotating superconducting coil. However, the scroll compressor of the GM cryocooler must stay stationary due to lubricating oil. As a consequence, a rotary helium union (RHU) utilizing Ferrofluidic® sealing technology was successfully developed to transfer helium gas between the rotating cold head and stationary helium compressor at ambient temperatures. It contains a high-pressure and low-pressure helium path with multiple ports, respectively. Besides the helium line, slip rings with optical fiber channels are also integrated into this RHU to transfer current and measurement signals. With promising preliminary test results, the RHU will be installed in a demonstrator of SCG and further performance investigation will be performed.

  19. Electromagnetic compatibility characterization of a BAe Stirling-cycle cryocooler for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dean L.; Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurements of an 80-K Stirling-cycle cooler. The measurements, performed in the JPL EMC test facility, include dc magnetic field characterization, radiated magnetic and electric field emissions, and conducted emissions on the internal lines between the cooler electronics and the cooler. The measurements conform to both the MILSTD-461C specifications as well as to the specifications for the NASA Earth Observing System.

  20. Thermal Systems (TS): High Capacity Cryocooler Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 20 Watt, 20 Kelvin cryocooler utilizes the reverse turbo-Brayton thermodynamic cycle to cool helium working gas at cryogenic temperatures, circulated through a...

  1. Operating single quantum emitters with a compact Stirling cryocooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehahn, A; Krüger, L; Gschrey, M; Schulze, J-H; Rodt, S; Strittmatter, A; Heindel, T; Reitzenstein, S

    2015-01-01

    The development of an easy-to-operate light source emitting single photons has become a major driving force in the emerging field of quantum information technology. Here, we report on the application of a compact and user-friendly Stirling cryocooler in the field of nanophotonics. The Stirling cryocooler is used to operate a single quantum emitter constituted of a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) at a base temperature below 30 K. Proper vibration decoupling of the cryocooler and its surrounding enables free-space micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy to identify and analyze different charge-carrier states within a single quantum dot. As an exemplary application in quantum optics, we perform a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss experiment demonstrating a strong suppression of multi-photon emission events with g((2))(0) Stirling-cooled single quantum emitter under continuous wave excitation. Comparative experiments performed on the same quantum dot in a liquid helium (LHe)-flow cryostat show almost identical values of g((2))(0) for both configurations at a given temperature. The results of this proof of principle experiment demonstrate that low-vibration Stirling cryocoolers that have so far been considered exotic to the field of nanophotonics are an attractive alternative to expensive closed-cycle cryostats or LHe-flow cryostats, which could pave the way for the development of high-quality table-top non-classical light sources.

  2. Stirling cryocooler test results and design model verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimko, M.A.; Stacy, W.D.; McCormick, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on progress in developing a long-life Stirling cycle cryocooler for space borne applications. It presents the results from tests on a preliminary breadboard version of the cryocooler used to demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and to validate the regenerator design code used in its development. This machine achieved a cold-end temperature of 65 K while carrying a 1/2 Watt cooling load. The basic machine is a double-acting, flexure-bearing, split Stirling design with linear electromagnetic drives for the expander and compressors. Flat metal diaphragms replace pistons for both sweeping and sealing the machine working volumes. In addition, the double-acting expander couples to a laminar-channel counterflow recuperative heat exchanger for regeneration. A PC compatible design code was developed for this design approach that calculates regenerator loss including heat transfer irreversibilities, pressure drop, and axial conduction in the regenerator walls

  3. Modified-Collins cryocooler for zero-boiloff storage of cryogenic fuels in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Charles L.; Krass, Brady; Hogan, Jake; Brisson, John

    2012-06-01

    Future lunar and planetary explorations will require the storage of cryogenic propellants, particularly liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid hydrogen (LH2), in low earth orbit (LEO) for periods of time ranging from days to months, and possibly longer. Without careful thermal management, significant quantities of stored liquid cryogens can be lost due to boil-off. Boil-off can be minimized by a variety of passive means including insulation, sun shades and passive radiational cooling. However, it has been shown that active cooling using space cryocoolers has the potential to result in Zero Boil-Off (ZBO) and the launch-mass savings using active cooling exceeds that of passive cooling of LOX for mission durations in LEO of less than 1 week, and for LH2 after about 2 months in LEO. Large-scale DC-flow cryogenic refrigeration systems operate at a fraction of the specific power levels required by small-scale AC-flow cryocoolers. The efficiency advantage of DC-flow cryogenic cycles motivates the current development of a cryocooler based on a modification of the Collins Cycle. The modified Collins cycle design employs piston type expanders that support high operating pressure ratios, electromagnetic valves that enable "floating pistons", and recuperative heat transfer. This paper will describe the design of a prototype Modified-Collins cryocooler for ZBO storage of cryogenic fuels in space.

  4. 3rd Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Louie, Berverly; McCarthy, Sandy

    1985-01-01

    Cryocoolers 3 documents the output of the Third Cryocooler Conference, held at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colorado, on September 17-18, 1984. About 140 people from 10 countries attended the conference representing industry, government, and academia. A total of 26 papers were presented orally at the conference and all appear in written form in the proceedings. The focus of this conference was on small cryocoolers in the temperature range of 4 - 80 K. Mechanical and nonmechanical types are discussed in the various papers. Applications of these small cryocoolers include the cooling of infrared detectors, cryopumps, small superconducting devices and magnets, and electronic devices. The conference proceedings reproduced here was published by the National Bureau of Standards in Boulder, Colorado as NBS Special Publication #698.

  5. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Update: FY98-99

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomlinson, B

    1999-01-01

    ... identified deficiencies. Cryocooler technology under evaluation at AFRL includes units from TRW, Creare, and Raytheon utilizing a variety of refrigeration cycles including Stirling, Pulse Tube (Stirling variant...

  6. Attenuation of cryocooler induced vibration in spaceborne infrared payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Twitto, A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of operational responsive space programs calls for a development of compact, reliable, low power and vibration free cryogenic cooling for sophisticated infrared payloads. The refrigeration in a typical closed cycle split Stirling linear cryocooler is achieved by a cyclic compression and expansion of a gaseous working agent due to a synchronized reciprocation of electro-dynamically and pneumatically actuated compressor and expander pistons. Attenuation of the cryocooler induced vibration usually relies on the concept of actively assisted momentum cancellation. In a typical dual-piston compressor this objective is achieved by actively synchronizing the motion of oppositely moving piston assemblies; a typical single-piston expander may be counterbalanced by a motorized counter-balancer. The above approach produces complexity, weight, size, high incurred costs and affects reliability. The authors analyze the case of passive attenuation the vibration export induced by the split Stirling linear cryocooler comprised of inline mounted single-piston compressor and expander. Placement of all the moving components onto a common axis results in a single axis consolidation of vibration export and enables use of single tuned dynamic absorber and low frequency vibration mount. From theoretical analysis and full-scale testing, the performance of such vibration protection arrangement is similar to known systems of active vibration cancellation.

  7. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  8. A 4 K tactical cryocooler using reverse-Brayton machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarola, M.; Cragin, K.; McCormick, J.; Hill, R.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting electronics and spectral-spatial holography have the potential to revolutionize digital communications, but must operate at cryogenic temperatures, near 4 K. Liquid helium is undesirable for military missions due to logistics and scarcity, and commercial low temperature cryocoolers are unable to meet size, weight, power, and environmental requirements for many missions. To address this need, Creare is developing a reverse turbo-Brayton cryocooler that provides refrigeration at 4.2 K and rejects heat at 77 K to an upper-stage cryocooler or through boil-off of liquid nitrogen. The cooling system is predicted to reduce size, weight, and input power by at least an order of magnitude as compared to the current state-of-the-art 4.2 K cryocooler. For systems utilizing nitrogen boil-off, the boil-off rate is reasonable. This paper reviews the design of the cryocooler, the key components, and component test results.

  9. Applications concepts of small regenerative cryocoolers in superconducitng magnet systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, M.T.G.; van der Laan, M.T.G.; Tax, R.B.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are in growing use outside laboratories for example MRI scanners in hospitals. Other applications under development are magnet systems for separation, levitated trains and ship propulsion. The application of cryocoolers can make these systems more practical. Interfacing these

  10. Low-T, Low-Q Cryocoolers for Science Instruments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the planned research is to advance the current space science instruments through the development of light weight and low power cryocoolers. Currently,...

  11. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  12. Second Generation Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics (LCCE-2) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LCCE-2 Program builds off the successes of the USAF "Low Cost Cryocooler Electronics for Space Missions" Program, extending the performance of the developed LCCE...

  13. Motor and Thermodynamic Losses in Linear Cryocooler Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J.; Bailey, P. B.; Dadd, M. W.; Davis, T.

    2006-04-01

    Stirling cycle and Pulse Tube cryocoolers can be described by ideal thermodynamic cycles with discrete losses, however experiments show a systematic underestimate of power consumed. Existing correlations have been unable to explain the magnitude of this additional `compression loss', but it can account for up to 50% of the power delivered to the gas. It appears that even a modest decrease could significantly improve the efficiency of future machines. One problem inherent in studying this effect is the complex geometry of cryocoolers. Experiments have therefore been performed on an existing `Oxford type' moving coil compressor with the simplest compression space geometry, a flat cylinder head. Measurements were made of the intrinsic motor losses (including windage), and the power delivered to the gas. The results show that for this machine the motor losses are greater than previously thought, accounting for up to 30% of the compression loss in the original cryocooler configuration. Measurements of the heat transfer losses are also presented.

  14. Review of the Oxford Cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, G.

    1990-01-01

    The Oxford Cryocooler incorporates a linear drive compressor operating close to resonance. All dynamic seals are noncontacting clearance seals maintained by mounting the piston and displacer on mechanical suspension systems with infinite fatigue life. The displacer is pneumatically driven but controlled by a miniature linear motor. The cooler is therefore nonwearing and performance can be maintained even in adverse environments by servo control of piston and displacer strokes and relative phase. Split and integral, single- and two-stage coolers have been produced with operating temperatures between 30 K and 200 K, refrigeration powers between 50 mW and several watts and capable of operating in ambient temperatures from -40 C to 70 C. A current project aims to extend the refrigeration power to 500 watts at 80 K. Experimental optimisation techniques have been devised for rapid development of high efficiency coolers

  15. The 4 K Stirling cryocooler demonstration. Final report No. 8, 1 May 1990-30 April 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacy, W.D.

    1992-09-01

    This report briefly summarizes the results and conclusions from an SBIR program intended to demonstrate an innovative Stirling cycle cryocooler concept for efficiently lifting heat from 4 K. Refrigeration at 4 K, a temperature useful for superconductors and sensitive instruments, is beyond the reach of conventional regenerative thermodynamic cycles due to the rapid loss of regenerator matrix heat capacity at temperatures below about 20 K. To overcome this fundamental limit, the cryocooler developed under this program integrated three unique features: recuperative regeneration between the displacement gas flow streams of two independent Stirling cycles operating at a 180 degree phase angle, tailored distortion of the two expander volume waveforms from sinusoidal to perfectly match the instantaneous regenerator heat flux from the two cycles and thereby unload the regenerator, and metal diaphragm working volumes to promote near isothermal expansion and compression processes. Use of diaphragms also provides unlimited operating life potential and eliminates bearings and high precision running seals. A phase 1 proof-of-principle experiment demonstrated that counterflow regenerator operation between 77 K and 4 K increases regenerator effectiveness by minimizing metal temperature transient cycling. In phase 2, a detailed design package for a breadboard cryocooler was completed. Fabrication techniques were successfully developed for manufacturing high precision miniature parallel plate recuperators, and samples were produced and inspected. Process development for fabricating suitably flat diaphragms proved more difficult and expensive than anticipated, and construction of the cryocooler was suspended at a completion level of approximately 75%. Subsequent development efforts on other projects have successfully overcome diaphragm fabrication difficulties

  16. A novel method to hit the limit temperature of Stirling-type cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Pan, Changzhao; Zhang, Tong; Luo, Kaiqi; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Junjie

    2018-02-01

    The Stirling-type cryocooler with its compact size and high efficiency is always expected to obtain its temperature limit of below 3 K. However, the pressure drop losses caused by high-frequency oscillation create large obstacles for this objective. This paper reports a novel thermal-driven Stirling-type cryocooler to obtain the lowest temperature of a Stirling-type cryocooler. The advantages of a thermal-driven cryocooler (Vuilleumier cryocooler) and pulse tube cryocooler are combined with a new type of cryocooler, called the Vuilleumier gas-coupling pulse tube hybrid cryocooler (VM-PT). A prototype of the VM-PT was recently developed and optimized in our laboratory. By using helium-4 as the working gas and magnetic regenerative materials (HoCu2 and Er3Ni), the lowest temperature of 2.5 K was obtained, which can be regarded as an important breakthrough for the Stirling-type cryocooler to achieve its limit temperature of below 3 K. It can supply >30 mW cooling power at 4.2 K and >500 mW cooling power at 20 K simultaneously. Theoretically, it is feasible to use this VM-PT for cooling the superconducting devices in space applications.

  17. High Capacity, High Efficiency 10 to 20 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Closed-cycle cryocooler alternatives currently available for space applications in the temperature range of 10 to 20 K are not well suited to the requirements of...

  18. Microcomputer simulation of Stirling cryocoolers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Weiss, M.; Fauvel, O.R.

    1989-01-01

    A design aid for Stirling cryocoolers is described. The design aid is a digital simulation program for use on microcomputers. It is written in the Fortran 77 language and is especially designed to be easy to use with no specialist expertise required and minimal training. The program is versatile in that it can be used for all known types and variations of Striling cryocoolers. It is quick and, in the comparisons with practical machines accomplished to date, is as accurate in predicting cryocooler performance as the more sophisticated simulation programmes. Copies of the program including a graphics package and an accompanying manual are available at nominal cost. Technical support and consulting assistance to implement the program can be provided

  19. An experimental study for the phase shift between piston and displacer in the Stirling cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. J.; Hong, Y. J.; Kim, H. B.; Son, H. K.; Yu, B. K.

    2002-01-01

    The small cryocooler is being widely applied to the areas of infrared detector, superconductor filter, satellite communication, and cryopump. The cryocooler working on the Stirling cycle are characterized by small size, lightweight, low power consumption and high reliability. For these reasons, FPFD (Free Piston Free Displacer) Stirling cryocooler is widely used not only tactical infrared imaging camera but also medical diagnostic apparatus. In this study, Stirling cryocooler actuated by the dual linear motor is designed and manufactured. And, displacement of the piston is measured by LVDTs (Linear Variable Differential Transformers), displacement of the displacer is measured by laser optic method, and phase shift between piston and displacer is discussed. Finally, when the phase shift between displacements of the piston and displacer is 45 .deg., operating frequency is optimum and is decided by resonant frequency of the expander, mass and cross section area of the displacer and constant by friction and flow resistance

  20. 5th International Conference on Cryocoolers

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    The Cryocoolers 5 proceedings archives the contributions of leading international experts at the 5th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Monterey, California on August 18-19, 1988. The authors submitted twenty six papers describing advancements and applications of cryocoolers in the temperature range below 80K. This year's conference was hosted by the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, and the conference proceedings reproduced here were published by the Wright-Patterson AFB in Ohio.

  1. Regenerators for Liquid Hydrogen Cryocoolers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA exloration, planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced...

  2. Regenerators for Liquid Hydrogen Cryocoolers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA exloration, planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced...

  3. Regenerators for 10 Kelvin Cryocoolers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA astrophysics and exploration missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced vibration...

  4. Business Cycles in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that developing countries differ considerably from their developed counterparts when focus is on the nature and characteristics of short run macroeconomic fluctuations. Cycles are generally shorter, and the stylized facts of business cycles across countries are more diverse...... than those of the rather uniform industrialized countries. Supply-side models are generally superior in explaining changes in output, but a “one-size fits all” approach in formulating policy is inappropriate. Our results also illustrate the critical importance of understanding business regularities...

  5. 4 Kelvin Cooling with Innovative Final Stage of Multistage Cryocooler, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed for development is a proof-of-concept prototype for the final stage of a multistage cryocooler. This final stage comprises a high frequency pulse tube cold...

  6. Modeling combined heat transfer in an all solid state optical cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Attaining cooling effect by using laser induced anti-Stokes fluorescence in solids appears to have several advantages over conventional mechanical systems and has been the topic of recent analysis and experimental work. Using anti-Stokes fluorescence phenomenon to remove heat from a glass by pumping it with laser light, stands as a pronouncing physical basis for solid state cooling. Cryocooling by fluorescence is a feasible solution for obtaining compactness and reliability. It has a distinct niche in the family of small capacity cryocoolers and is undergoing a revolutionary advance. In pursuit of developing laser induced anti-Stokes fluorescent cryocooler, it is required to develop numerical tools that support the thermal design which could provide a thorough analysis of combined heat transfer mechanism within the cryocooler. The paper presents the details of numerical model developed for the cryocooler and the subsequent development of a computer program. The program has been used for the understanding of various heat transfer mechanisms and is being used for thermal design of components of an anti-Stokes fluorescent cryocooler.

  7. Loss Analysis of High Power Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, K; Hiratsuka, Y

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of cooling high-temperature superconductor (HTS) devices, such as superconductor motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and current fault limiters, cryocoolers should be compact in size, light-weight, and have high efficiency and reliability. In order to meet the demand of HTS devices world-wide, the cryocooler needs to have COP efficiency >0.1. We have developed a high power Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) with an in-line expander. The experimental results were reported in June 2012[1]. The cooling capacity was 210 W at 77 K and the minimum temperature was 37 K when the compressor input power was 3.8 kW. Accordingly, the COP was about 0.055. To further improve the efficiency, the energy losses in the cryocooler were analyzed. The experimental results and the numerical calculation results are reported in this paper. (paper)

  8. Operating characteristics of a single-stage Stirling cryocooler capable of providing 700 W cooling power at 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya; Sun, Daming; Qiao, Xin; Yu, Yan S. W.; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Cai, Yachao

    2017-04-01

    High cooling capacity Stirling cryocooler generally has hundreds to thousands watts of cooling power at liquid nitrogen temperature. It is promising in boil-off gas (BOG) recondensation and high temperature superconducting (HTS) applications. A high cooling capacity Stirling cryocooler driven by a crank-rod mechanism was developed and studied systematically. The pressure and frequency characteristics of the cryocooler, the heat rejection from the ambient heat exchanger, and the cooling performance are studied under different charging pressure. Energy conversion and distribution in the cryocooler are analyzed theoretically. With an electric input power of 10.9 kW and a rotating speed of 1450 r/min of the motor, a cooling power of 700 W at 77 K and a relative Carnot efficiency of 18.2% of the cryocooler have been achieved in the present study, and the corresponding pressure ratio in the compression space reaches 2.46.

  9. Product development cycle time reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farran, Robin

    1992-05-01

    We are facing here today the key issues that face us in the competitive environment. North American companies are struggling to compete in the global marketplace. Gone are the days when presence ensured success. Then, sales and earnings were guaranteed. Today the competition is intense. Many manufacturing and service companies are no longer competitive. Traditionally, manufacturing companies have created the most wealth for the community and economy. Losing this ability to create wealth is tragic and unnecessary. A company can only be successful by focusing on customer satisfaction at competitive costs. Revenue growth and earnings growth require a continuous stream of products that anticipate the customers' needs, result from shorter and shorter innovation cycles, continually improve in quality, and are produced at improved costs on each cycle. The best opportunities for increased quality and decreased costs are with new products. Sure, work on quality and costs everyday. The biggest changes, however, will come through the new product development cycle. We must improve our development processes to provide leadership products which result in high levels of customer satisfaction. This is a prerequisite for business success. When presence in the marketplace was a virtual guarantee of success for a North American company, technology tended to drive the products, and the customers bought virtually everything that was produced. Functional excellence was stressed within companies ... and that was enough. Effective planning processes were not a prerequisite for success. Today success demands highly developed business research and planning processes, and functional excellence combined with organizational capabilities that ensure commercialization excellence.

  10. Study of reverse Brayton cryocooler with Helium-Neon mixture for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A. K.; Ghosh, P.

    2017-12-01

    As observed in the earlier studies, helium is more efficient than neon as a refrigerant in a reverse Brayton cryocooler (RBC) from the thermodynamic point of view. However, the lower molecular weight of helium leads to higher refrigerant inventory as compared to neon. Thus, helium is suitable to realize the high thermodynamic efficiency of RBC whereas neon is appropriate for the compactness of the RBC. A binary mixture of helium and neon can be used to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency in the compact reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) based cryocooler. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the thermodynamic performance of the RBC with a binary mixture of helium and neon as the working fluid to provide 1 kW cooling load for high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cables working with a temperature range of 50 K to 70 K. The basic RBC is simulated using Aspen HYSYS V8.6®, a commercial process simulator. Sizing of each component based on the optimized process parameters for each refrigerant is performed based on a computer code developed using Engineering Equation Solver (EES-V9.1). The recommendation is provided for the optimum mixture composition of the refrigerant based on the trade-off factors like thermodynamic efficiency such as the exergy efficiency and equipment considerations. The outcome of this study may be useful for recommending a suitable refrigerant for the RBC operating at a temperature level of 50 K to 70 K.

  11. Cryocooler for cryopump use. Cryopump yo goku teion reitoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Nishiba, T.; Nomura, K.; Murayama, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. (Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1991-11-01

    A cryocooler for cryopump using the G-M (Gifford-McMahon) cycle was developed. A cryopump is a type of vacuum pump which evacuates a gas by means of coagulating gaseous molecules on a cryogenic surface. The suction and exhaust valves adopted are of a unique double spool type to improve the performance and reliability of the freezer. Its features include a simple construction, easy maintenance, high reliability, and no staggered timing in the suction and exhaust at the valve seats. A PIA-based resin was selected for the valve material, which is slidable without lubrication in the working He gas, and excellent in wear resistance. The He compressor generates a large amount of heat because of its compression heat, raising temperatures at various parts. Oil was injected into the compressor cylinders to suppress the temperature rise and an He gas leakage. A long life and high reliability were realized through concurrent use of an oil injection system for internal cooling, lubrication and gas sealing, with an oil circulation system. 5 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Technology development life cycle processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin

    2013-05-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted in 2009 for the purpose of providing motivation and the necessary background material to support the definition and integration of engineering and management processes related to technology development. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. As presented herein, the material begins with a survey of open literature perspectives on technology development life cycles, including published data on %E2%80%9Cwhat went wrong.%E2%80%9D The main thrust of the material presents a rational expose%CC%81 of a structured technology development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of the systems engineering process. The material concludes with a discussion on the use of multiple measures to assess technology maturity, including consideration of the viewpoint of potential users.

  13. Reliability test results of LGE pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-Y.; Chung, W.-S.; Park, J.-J.; Hwang, D.-K.; Lee, H.-K.

    2002-05-01

    A low-cost and highly reliable cryocooler is strongly required for several applications. In this circumstance, LG Electronics has developed a 5 W at 65 K pulse tube cryocooler with high potential for low-cost manufacturing based on linear motor and compressor technology. Recently dozens of coolers have been fabricated and tested for the verification of performance stability with ambient temperature variation. From tests at high ambient temperature like 60°C, an average performance degradation of 45% is found and good performance stability of coolers is shown. Continuous operation at 40°C is ongoing for the verification of their reliability. To date no failure has been found. This paper discusses the test process, results and MTBF calculation.

  14. Effect of operating frequency and phase angle on performance of Alpha Stirling cryocooler driven by a novel compact mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, K D; Bapat, S L

    2015-01-01

    Amongst the mechanical cryocoolers in use, Stirling cycle cryocoolers exhibit the desirable features such as high efficiency, low specific power consumption, small size and mass and large mean time before failure. Stirling cycle cryocooler of Alpha configuration exhibits better theoretical performance as compared to Gamma. However, the theory could not be put into practice due to unavailability of compatible drive mechanism for Alpha cryocooler providing large stroke to diameter ratio. The concept of novel compact drive mechanism can be made functional to operate miniature Alpha Stirling cryocoolers. It allows the use of multicylinder system while converting rotary motion to reciprocating. This permits the drive mechanism to be employed for driving different configurations of Stirling cryocooler simultaneously. This drive is capable of providing large stroke to diameter ratio compared to other drive mechanisms generally in use for the purpose. A stroke to diameter ratio of three is chosen in the present work and the drive dimensions are calculated for four piston-cylinder arrangements with 90° phase difference between adjacent arrangements providing two Alpha Stirling cryocoolers working simultaneously. It has to be noted that the coolers operate at half the frequency of the motor used. As the two coolers operate at phase difference of 180°, during compression stroke of one unit, the suction stroke occurs for the other unit. Due to power output of second unit, the combined peak torque requirement falls by 26.81% below the peak torque needed when one unit is operated separately. This allows for use of a comparatively lower torque motor. The practicability of the drive ensuring smooth operation of the system is decided based on comparison between torque availability from the motor and torque requirement of the complete unit.The second order method of cyclic (or thermodynamic) analysis provides a simple computational procedure useful for the design of Stirling

  15. Progress on 10 Kelvin cryo-cooled sapphire oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Dick, G. John; Diener, William A.

    2004-01-01

    We present recent progress on the 10 Kelvin Cryocooled Sapphire Oscillator (10K CSO). Included are incorporation of a new pulse tube cryocooler, cryocooler vibration comparisons between G-M and pulse-tube types, phase noise, and frequency stability tests. For the advantage of a single stage pulse tube cryocooler, we also present results for a 40K Compensated Sapphire Oscillator (40K CSO).

  16. Role of size on the relative importance of fluid dynamic losses in linear cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, Carl; Ghavami, Ali; Ghiaasiaan, S. Mostafa; Perrella, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Thermodynamic modeling results for a novel small satellite (SmallSat) Stirling Cryocooler, capable of delivering over 200 mW net cooling power at 80 K for less than 6 W DC input power, are used in this paper as the basis for related pulse tube computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Industry and government requirements for SmallSat infrared sensors are driving the development of ever-more miniaturized cryocooler systems. Such cryocoolers must be extremely compact and lightweight, a challenge met by this research team through operating a Stirling cryocooler at a frequency of approximately 300 Hz. The primary advantage of operating at such a high frequency is that the required compression and expansion swept volumes are reduced relative to linear coolers operating at lower frequencies, which evidently reduces the size of the motor mechanisms and the thermodynamic components. In the case of a pulse tube cryocooler, this includes a reduction in diameter of the pulse tube itself. This unfortunately leads to high boundary layer losses, as the presented results demonstrate. Using a Stirling approach with a mechanical moving expander piston eliminates this small pulse tube loss mechanism, but other challenges are introduced, such as maintaining very tight clearance gaps between moving and stationary elements. This paper focuses on CFD modelling results for a highly miniaturized pulse tube cooler.

  17. Modelling heating effects in cryocooled protein crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, J; Fayz, K; Fell, B; Garman, E

    2001-01-01

    With the application of intense X-ray beams from third generation synchrotron sources, damage to cryocooled macromolecular crystals is being observed more commonly . In order to fully utilize synchrotron facilities now available for studying biological crystals, it is essential to understand the processes involved in radiation damage and beam heating so that, if possible, action can be taken to slow the rate of damage. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been applied to model the heating effects of X-rays on cryocooled protein crystals, and to compare the relative cooling efficiencies of nitrogen and helium.

  18. Design and test of the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; Ko, Junseok; Kim, Hyo-Bong; Yeom, Han-Kil; In, Sehwan; Park, Seong-Je

    2017-12-01

    Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers are very attractive for cooling of diverse application because it has it has several inherent advantages such as no moving part in the cold end, low manufacturing cost and long operation life. To develop the Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler, we need to design a linear compressor to drive the pulse tube cryocooler. A moving magnet type linear motor of dual piston configuration is designed and fabricated, and this compressor could be operated with the electric power of 100 W and the frequency up to 60 Hz. A single stage coaxial type pulse tube cold finger aiming at over 1.5 W at 80K is built and tested with the linear compressor. Experimental investigations have been conducted to evaluate their performance characteristics with respect to several parameters such as the phase shifter, the charging pressure and the operating frequency of the linear compressor.

  19. New application of plate-fin heat exchanger with regenerative cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Gwak, Kyung Hyun

    2015-09-01

    A design idea is newly proposed and investigated for the application of plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHX) with regenerative cryocoolers. The role of this heat exchanger is to effectively absorb heat from the stream of coolant and deliver it to the cold-head of a cryocooler. While various types of tubular HX's have been developed so far, a small PFHX could be more useful for this purpose by taking advantage of compactness and design flexibility. In order to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness, a prototype of aluminum-brazed PFHX is designed, fabricated, and tested with a single-stage GM cryocooler in experiments for subcooling liquid nitrogen from 78 K to 65-70 K. The results show that the PFHX is 30-50% more effective in cooling rate than the tubular HX's. Several potential applications of PFHX are presented and discussed with specific design concepts.

  20. Millikelvin cryocooler for space- and ground-based detector systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I.; Milward, S.; Coker, P.; Theobald, C.

    2012-09-01

    This paper describes the design of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC) and its origins. It takes heritage from the double adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (dADR) which was built for the European Space Agency (ESA). The compact design is based on a tandem configuration continuous ADR which alternately cycles two dADRs. The mKCC is a single module (dimensions 355 x 56 x120 mm) which operates from a 4 K bath (liquid or cryocooler) and provides an interface to the user which is settable from cooling power at 100 mK is 7μW. It will use only single crystal tungsten magnetoresistive heat switches (the first ADR cooler to do so) and the measured thermal performance of these heat switches is presented. The mKCC uses ten shielded 2 Tesla superconducting magnets capable of ramping to full field in 20 - 30 seconds. This has been demonstrated in the lab and the results are given for the successful performance of a prototype Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) pill using one of these magnets. The mKCC has been designed to be fully automated and user friendly with the aim of expanding the use of millikelvin cryogenics and providing a good testing and operating platform for detector systems.

  1. Calorimetric thermal-vacuum performance characterization of the BAe 80K space cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotsubo, V.Y.; Johnson, D.L.; Ross, R.G. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper on a comprehensive characterization program which is underway at JPL to generate test data on long-life, miniature Stirling-cycle cryocoolers for space application. The key focus of this paper is on the thermal performance of the British Aerospace (BAe) 80K split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler as measured in a unique calorimetric thermal-vacuum test chamber that accurately simulates the heat-transfer interfaces of space. Two separate cooling fluid loops provide precis individual control of the compressor and displacer heatsink temperatures. In addition, heatflow transducers enable calorimetric measurements of the heat rejected separately by the compressor and displacer. Cooler thermal performance has been mapped for coldtip temperatures ranging from below 45 K to above 150 K, for heat-sink temperatures ranging from 280 K to 320 K, and for a wide variety of operational variables including compressor-displacer phase, compressor-displacer stoke, drive frequency, and piston-displacer dc offset

  2. A 1 T, 0.33 m bore superconducting magnet operating with cryocoolers at 12 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, M.T.G.; van der Laan, M.T.G.; Tax, R.B.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; van de Klundert, L.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The application of small cryocoolers to cooling a superconducting magnet at 12 K has important advantages, especially for small and medium-size magnets. Simple construction and a helium-free magnet system were obtained. The demonstration magnet developed is a six-coil system with a volume of 75 L

  3. Analysis and comparison of different phase shifters for Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Pfotenhauer, John M.; Zhou, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    Investigations of phase shifters and power recovery mechanisms are of sustainable interest for developing Stirling pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) with higher power density, more compact design and higher efficiency. This paper investigates the phase shifting capacity and the applications of four...

  4. Life cycle management in product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelton, Kristen; Pattis, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The integration of Life Cycle Thinking (LCT) and Life Cycle Management (LCM) into business operations poses great challenges, as it requires a wider range of environmental responsibility often extending beyond a company's immediate control. Simultaneously, it offers many opportunities...... in the innovation and design phases. This comparative analysis explores the various approaches and challenges two companies are currently facing in their attempts to integrate LCT into their core product development processes....

  5. MODIL cryocooler producibility demonstration project results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, G.E.; Franks, R.M.

    1993-04-07

    The production of large quantities of spacecraft needed by SDIO will require a cultural change in design and production practices. Low rates production and the need for exceedingly high reliability has driven the industry to custom designed, hand crafted, and exhaustively tested satellites. These factors have mitigated against employing design and manufacturing cost reduction methods commonly used in tactical missile production. Additional challenges to achieving production efficiencies are presented by the SDI spacecraft mission requirement. IR sensor systems, for example, are comprised of subassemblies and components that require the design, manufacture, and maintenance of ultra precision tolerances over challenging operational lifetimes. These IR sensors demand the use of reliable, closed loop, cryogenic refrigerators or active cryocoolers to meet stringent system acquisition and pointing requirements. The authors summarize some spacecraft cryocooler requirements and discuss observations regarding Industry`s current production capabilities of cryocoolers. The results of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Spacecraft Fabrication and Test (SF and T) MODIL`s Phase I producibility demonstration project is presented.

  6. MODIL cryocooler producibility demonstration project results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, G.E.; Franks, R.M.

    1993-06-24

    The production of large quantities of spacecraft needed by SDIO will require a cultural change in design and production practices. Low rates production and the need for exceedingly high reliability has driven the industry to custom designed, hand crafted, and exhaustingly tested satellites. These factors have mitigated against employing design and manufacturing cost reduction methods commonly used in tactical missile production. Additional challenges to achieving production efficiencies are presented by the SDI spacecraft mission requirement. IR sensor systems, for example, are comprised of subassemblies and components that require the design, manufacture, and maintenance of ultra precision tolerances over challenging operational lifetimes. These IR sensors demand the use of reliable, closed loop, cryogenic refrigerators or active cryocoolers to meet stringent system acquisition and pointing requirements. The authors summarize some spacecraft cryocooler requirements and discuss their observations regarding Industry`s current production capabilities of cryocoolers. The results of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Spacecraft Fabrication and Test (SF and T) MODIL`s Phase I producibility demonstration project are presented. The current project that involves LLNL and industrial participants is discussed.

  7. Recent developments in Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnveden, Göran; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Ekvall, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is a tool to assess the environmental impacts and resources used throughout a product’s life cycle, i.e., from raw material acquisition, via production and use phases, to waste management. The methodological development in LCA has been strong, and LCA is broadly applied...... in practice. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of recent developments of LCA methods. The focus is on some areas where there has been an intense methodological development during the last years. We also highlight some of the emerging issues. In relation to the Goal and Scope definition we...

  8. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    of the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes...... of possibilities which can be introduced in the design stage compared to the other life cycle stages of the product system. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies......Today's industry is being forced to consider the environmental performance of its products concurrently with traditional requirements such as quality, price or functional performance. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) technique has been identified as a powerful tool to calculate environmental impacts...

  9. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...... of possible future directions for product development. An Environmentally Conscious Design method is introduced and trade-offs are presented between design degrees of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around...

  10. French development program on fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viala, M.; Bourgeois, M.

    1991-01-01

    The need to close the fuel cycle of fast reactors makes the development of the cycle installations (fuel fabrication, irradiated assembly conditioning before reprocessing, reprocessing and waste management) especially independent with the development of the reactor. French experience with the integrated cycle over a period of about 25 years, the tonnage of fuels fabricated (more than 100 t of mixed oxides) for the Rapsodie, Phoenix and SuperPhoenix reactors, and the tonnage of reprocessed fuel (nearly 30 t of plutonium fuel) demonstrate the control of the cycle operations. The capacities of the cycle installations in existence and under construction are largely adequate for presents needs, even including a new European EFR reactor. They include the Cadarache fuel fabrication complex, the La Hague UP2-800 reprocessing plant, and the Marcoule pilot facility. Short- and medium-term R and D programs are connected with fuel developments, with the primary objective of very high burnups. For the longer term and for a specific plant to reprocess fast reactor fuels, the programs could concern new fabrication and reprocessing systems and the study of the consequences of the reduction in fuel out-of-core time

  11. Implementing Life Cycle Assessment in Product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating...... the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...

  12. Developing IAM for Life Cycle Safety Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toxopeus, Marten E.; Lutters, Diederick; Nee, Andrew Y.C.; Song, Bin; Ong, Soh-Khim

    2013-01-01

    This publication discusses aspects of the development of an impact assessment method (IAM) for safety. Compared to the many existing IAM’s for environmentally oriented LCA, this method should translate the impact of a product life cycle on the subject of safety. Moreover, the method should be

  13. Developing the Social Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas

    This thesis seeks to add to the development of the Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA), which can be defined as an assessment method for assessing the social impacts connected to the life cycle of a product, service or system. In such development it is important to realise that the SLCA is only...... on validity is that the usability inevitably will be addressed in the development of SLCA, whereas this in not the case with regards to validity. The first of these studies addresses the validity of impact pathways in SLCA, which denotes the cause effect relationship between indicator and the ‘Area...... of Protection’ (AoP), representing the underlying issue of importance assessed in the SLCA. The study is based on two examples from the existing work on SLCA: One considers whether the type of indicators included in SLCA approaches can validly assess impacts on the one of the two definitions of AoPs in SLCA...

  14. MODELLING AND FAILURE ANALYSIS OF FLEXURE SPRINGS FOR A STIRLING CRYOCOOLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJESH V. R.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the range of milliwatt to a few watts cooling capacity, Stirling cycle and pulse tube coolers are most suitable for producing cryogenic temperatures owing to their eco-friendliness, high efficiency, cooling capacity to mass ratio etc. The compressor of a Stirling cooler is powered by a linear motor. The power piston of the cooler is held in position and moves to and fro with the support of so called flexure springs or flexure bearings. Flexures avoid direct contact between moving parts of the compressor of the cooler. Thus, if designed adequately to withstand fatigue, flexure bearings can easily outlast rolling element bearings and slider bearings. In this work, a computational analysis is used to study the performance of flexure spring by varying the geometrical parameters. Three of the most common spring materials namely, SS304, beryllium copper and spring steel are considered for analysis. The analysis was made by varying the parameters like spiral sweep angle, slot width, number of spirals and disc thickness. The influence of each of these parameters on the fatigue life of the spring has been investigated. The results suggest that flexure springs of three spiral arms would be the ideal choice for the selected cryocooler. The variation of stress developed with respect to different design parameters and fatigue damage factor are presented graphically.

  15. HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Tuthill

    2002-07-18

    The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the

  16. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuoki, Akira; Matsumoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Kawamura, Fumio

    1995-01-01

    In the long term plan for atomic energy that the Atomic Energy Commission decided the other day, the necessity of the technical development for establishing full scale fuel cycle for future was emphasized. Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in technical development and facility construction in the fields of uranium enrichment, MOX fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing and so on. In uranium enrichment, it took part in the development of centrifuge process centering around Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), and took its share in the construction of the Rokkasho uranium enrichment plant of Japan Nuclear Fuel Service Co., Ltd. Also it cooperates with Laser Enrichment Technology Research Association. In Mox fuel fabrication, it took part in the construction of the facilities for Monju plutonium fuel production of PNC, for pellet production, fabrication and assembling processes. In spent fuel reprocessing, it cooperated with the technical development of maintenance and repair of Tokai reprocessing plant of PNC, and the construction of spent fuel stores in Rokkasho reprocessing plant is advanced. The centrifuge process and the atomic laser process of uranium enrichment are explained. The high reliability of spent fuel reprocessing plants and the advancement of spent fuel reprocessing process are reported. Hitachi Ltd. Intends to exert efforts for the technical development to establish nuclear fuel cycle which increases the importance hereafter. (K.I.)

  17. Microminiature rotary Stirling cryocooler for compact, lightweight, and low-power thermal imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Avishai; Bar Haim, Zvi; Pundak, Nachman; Broyde, Ramon

    2009-05-01

    Novel compact and low power consuming cooled infrared thermal imagers as used in gyro-stabilized payloads of miniature unmanned aerial vehicles, Thermal small arms sights and tactical night vision goggles often rely on integral rotary micro-miniature closed cycle Stirling cryogenic engines. Development of EPI Antimonides technology and optimization of MCT technology allowed decreasing in order of magnitudes the level of dark current in infrared detectors thus enabling an increase in the optimal focal plane temperature in excess of 95K while keeping the same radiometric performances as achieved at 77K using regular technologies. Maintaining focal plane temperature in the range of 95K to 110K instead of 77K improves the efficiency of Stirling thermodynamic cycle thus enlarging cooling power and enabling the development of a mini micro cooler similar to RICOR's K562S model which is three times smaller, lighter and more compact than a standard tactical cryocooler like RICOR's K508 model. This cooler also features a new type of ball bearings and internal components which were optimized to fit tight bulk constraints and maintain the required life span, while keeping a low level of vibration and noise signature. Further, the functions of management the brushless DC motor and temperature stabilization are delivered by the newly developed high performance sensorless digital controller. By reducing Dewar Detector thermal losses and increasing the focal plane temperature, longer life time operation is expected as was proved with RICOR's K508 model. Resulting from this development, the RICOR K562S model cryogenic engine consumes 1.2 - 3.0 WDC while operating in the closed loop mode and maintaining the typical focal plane arrays at 200-100K. This makes it compatible with very compact battery packages allowing further reduction of the overall thermal imager weight thus making it comparable with the compatible uncooled infrared thermal imager relying on a microbolometer detector

  18. Developing safety in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle had its origins in the new technology developed in the 1940s and 50s involving novel physical and chemical processes. At the front end of the cycle, mining, milling and fuel fabrication all underwent development, but in general the focus of process development and safety concerns was the reprocessing stage, with radiation, contamination and criticality the chief hazards. Safety research is not over and there is still work to be done in advancing technical knowledge to new generation nuclear fuels such as Mixed Oxide Fuel and in refining knowledge of margins and of potential upset conditions. Some comments are made on potential areas for work. The NUCEF facility will provide many useful data to aid safety analysis and accident prevention. The routine operations in such plants, basically chemical factories, requires industrial safety and in addition the protection of workers against radiation or contamination. The engineering and management measures for this were novel and the early operation of such plants pioneering. Later commissioning and operating experience has improved routine operating safety, leading to a new generation of factories with highly developed worker protection, engineering safeguards and safety management systems. Ventilation of contamination control zones, remote operation and maintenance, and advanced neutron shielding are engineering examples. In safety management, dose control practices, formally controlled operating procedures and safety cases, and audit processes are comparable with, or lead, best industry practice in other hazardous industries. Nonetheless it is still important that the knowledge and experience from operating plants continue to be gathered together to provide a common basis for improvement. The NEA Working Group on Fuel Cycle Safety provides a forum for much of this interchange. Some activities in the Group are described in particular the FINAS incident reporting system. (J.P.N.)

  19. Propellant Conditioning Using Improved Pulse Tube Cryocooler, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Application of the proposed technology (an affordable, large-scale, high-efficiency, low-temperature pulse tube cryocooler system), serves two NASA needs: an...

  20. Cryocooler With Cold Compressor for Deep Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The unique built-in design features of the proposed mini pulse tube cryocooler avoid all thermal expansion issues enabling it to operate within a cold, 150 K...

  1. Highly Effective Thermal Regenerator for Low Temperature Cryocoolers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future missions to investigate the structure and evolution of the universe require highly efficient, low-temperature cryocoolers for low-noise detector systems. We...

  2. IFR fuel cycle--pyroprocess development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, J.J.; Miller, W.E.; Johnson, T.R.; Ackerman, J.P.; Battles, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy, with nominal composition U-2OPu-lOZr. In its present state of development, this fuel system offers excellent high-burnup capabilities. Test fuel has been carried to burnups in excess of 20 atom % in EBR-II irradiations, and to peak burnups over 15 atom % in FFTF. The metallic fuel possesses physical characteristics, in particular very high thermal conductivity, that facilitate a high degree of passive inherent safety in the IFR design. The fuel has been shown to provide very large margins to failure in overpower transient events. Rapid overpower transient tests carried out in the TREAT reactor have shown the capability to withstand up to 400% overpower conditions before failing. An operational transient test conducted in EBR-II at a power ramp rate of 0.1% per second reached its termination point of 130% of normal power without any fuel failures. The IFR metallic fuel also exhibits superior compatibility with the liquid sodium coolant. Equally as important as the performance advantages offered by the use of metallic fuel is the fact that this fuel system permits the use of an innovative reprocessing method, known as ''pyroprocessing,'' featuring fused-salt electrorefining of the spent fuel. Development of the IFR pyroprocess has been underway at the Argonne National Laboratory for over five years, and great progress has been made toward establishing a commercially-viable process. Pyroprocessing offers a simple, compact means for closure of the fuel cycle, with anticipated significant savings in fuel cycle costs

  3. Cryocooler applications for high-temperature superconductor magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency and stability of rotational magnetic suspension systems are enhanced by the use of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) magnetic bearings. Fundamental aspects of the HTS magnetic bearings and rotational magnetic suspension are presented. HTS cooling can be by liquid cryogen bath immersion or by direct conduction, and thus there are various applications and integration issues for cryocoolers. Among the numerous cryocooler aspects to be considered are installation; operating temperature; losses; and vacuum pumping

  4. Linear Resonance Compressor for Stirling-Type Cryocoolers Activated by Piezoelectric Stack-Type Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol, S; Grossman, G

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of a PZT- based compressor operating at mechanical resonance, suitable for pneumatically-driven Stirling-type cryocoolers was developed theoretically and built practically during this research. A resonance operation at relatively low frequency was achieved by incorporating the piezo ceramics into the moving part, and by reducing the effective piezo stiffness using hydraulic amplification. The detailed concept, analytical model and the test results of the preliminary prototype were reported earlier and presented at ICC17 [2]. A fine agreement between the simulations and experiments spurred development of the current actual compressor designed to drive a miniature Pulse Tube cryocooler, particularly our MTSa model, which operates at 103 Hz and requires an average PV power of 11 W, filling pressure of 40 Bar and a pressure ratio of 1.3. The paper concentrates on design aspects and optimization of the governing parameters. The small stroke to diameter ratio (about 1:10) allows for the use of a composite diaphragm instead of a clearance-seal piston. The motivation is to create an adequate separation between the working fluid and the buffer gas of the compressor, thus preventing possible contamination in the cryocooler. Providing efficiency and power density similar to those of conventional linear compressors, the piezo compressor may serve as a good alternative for cryogenic applications requiring extreme reliability and absence of magnetic field interference. (paper)

  5. Advanced Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sienicki, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nellis, Gregory [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Klein, Sanford [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Fluids operating in the supercritical state have promising characteristics for future high efficiency power cycles. In order to develop power cycles using supercritical fluids, it is necessary to understand the flow characteristics of fluids under both supercritical and two-phase conditions. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methodology was developed for supercritical fluids flowing through complex geometries. A real fluid property module was implemented to provide properties for different supercritical fluids. However, in each simulation case, there is only one species of fluid. As a result, the fluid property module provides properties for either supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) or supercritical water (SCW). The Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) was employed to model the two-phase flow. HEM assumes two phases have same velocity, pressure, and temperature, making it only applicable for the dilute dispersed two-phase flow situation. Three example geometries, including orifices, labyrinth seals, and valves, were used to validate this methodology with experimental data. For the first geometry, S-CO2 and SCW flowing through orifices were simulated and compared with experimental data. The maximum difference between the mass flow rate predictions and experimental measurements is less than 5%. This is a significant improvement as previous works can only guarantee 10% error. In this research, several efforts were made to help this improvement. First, an accurate real fluid module was used to provide properties. Second, the upstream condition was determined by pressure and density, which determines supercritical states more precise than using pressure and temperature. For the second geometry, the flow through labyrinth seals was studied. After a successful validation, parametric studies were performed to study geometric effects on the leakage rate. Based on these parametric studies, an optimum design strategy for the see

  6. Miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooling principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Maytal, Ben-Zion

    2013-01-01

    This book is the first in English being entirely dedicated to Miniature Joule-Thomson Cryocooling. The category of Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers takes us back to the roots of cryogenics, in 1895, with figures like Linde and Hampson. The "cold finger" of these cryocoolers is compact, lacks moving parts, and sustains a large heat flux extraction at a steady temperature. Potentially, they cool down unbeatably fast. For example, cooling to below 100 K (minus 173 Celsius) might be accomplished within only a few seconds by liquefying argon. A level of about 120 K can be reached almost instantly with krypton. Indeed, the species of coolant plays a central role dictating the size, the intensity and the level of cryocooling. It is the JT effect that drives these cryocoolers and reflects the deviation of the "real" gas from the ideal gas properties. The nine chapters of the book are arranged in five parts. • The Common Principle of Cyrocoolers shared across the broad variety of cryocooler types • Theoretical Aspec...

  7. Opposed piston linear compressor driven two-stage Stirling Cryocooler for cooling of IR sensors in space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojwani, Virendra; Inamdar, Asif; Lele, Mandar; Tendolkar, Mandar; Atrey, Milind; Bapat, Shridhar; Narayankhedkar, Kisan

    2017-04-01

    A two-stage Stirling Cryocooler has been developed and tested for cooling IR sensors in space application. The concept uses an opposed piston linear compressor to drive the two-stage Stirling expander. The configuration used a moving coil linear motor for the compressor as well as for the expander unit. Electrical phase difference of 80 degrees was maintained between the voltage waveforms supplied to the compressor motor and expander motor. The piston and displacer surface were coated with Rulon an anti-friction material to ensure oil less operation of the unit. The present article discusses analysis results, features of the cryocooler and experimental tests conducted on the developed unit. The two-stages of Cryo-cylinder and the expander units were manufactured from a single piece to ensure precise alignment between the two-stages. Flexure bearings were used to suspend the piston and displacer about its mean position. The objective of the work was to develop a two-stage Stirling cryocooler with 2 W at 120 K and 0.5 W at 60 K cooling capacity for the two-stages and input power of less than 120 W. The Cryocooler achieved a minimum temperature of 40.7 K at stage 2.

  8. RMs1: qualification results of the rotary miniature Stirling cryocooler at Thales Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jean-Yves; Seguineau, Cédric; Van-Acker, Sébastien; Sacau, Mikel; Le Bordays, Julien; Etchanchu, Thierry; Vasse, Christophe; Abadie, Christian; Laplagne, Gilles; Benschop, Tonny

    2017-05-01

    The trend for miniaturized Integrated Dewar and Cooler Assemblies (IDCA) has been confirmed over the past few years with several mentions of a new generation of IR detector working at High Operating Temperature (HOT). This key technology enables the use of cryocooler with reduced needs of cryogenics power. As a consequence, miniaturized IDCA are the combination of a HOT IR detector coupled with a low-size, low-weight and low-power (SWaP) cryocooler. Thales Cryogenics has developed his own line of SWaP products. Qualification results on linear solution where shown last year. The current paper focuses on the latest results obtained on RMs1 prototypes, the new rotary SWaP cryocooler from Thales Cryogenics. Cryogenic performances and induced vibrations are presented. In a second part, progress is discussed on compactness and weight on one side, and on power consumption on the other side. It shows how the trade-off made between weight and power consumption could lead to an optimized solution at system level. At least, an update is made on the qualification status.

  9. An air-cooled pulse tube cryocooler with 50 W cooling capacity at 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianying; Wang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Luo, Ercang; Li, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    A pulse tube cryocooler with 50 W cooling capacity at 77 K is developed to cool superconducting devices mounted on automobiles. The envisioned cryocooler weight is less than 40 kg, and the input electric power is less than 1 kW. To achieve these requirements, the working frequency is increased to 75 Hz, and the dual-opposed pistons use gas bearings to reduce compressor weight and volume. The heat from the main heat exchanger is rejected by forced convective air instead of water. The compressor and the cold finger are carefully matched to improve the efficiency. The details of these will be presented in this paper. After some adjustment, a no load temperature for the pulse tube cryocooler of 40 K was achieved with 1 kW input electric power in surroundings at 298 K. At 77 K, the cooling capacity is 50 W. If the main heat exchanger is cooled by water at 293 K, the cooling capacity increases to 64 W, corresponding to a relative Carnot efficiency of 18%.

  10. Training development in Juzbado's Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.; Cunado, E.; Ortiz, D.

    2003-01-01

    In Juzbado's fuel cycle facility, because of the special activities developed, training is a very important issues. Training has been evolved, due to changes on the standards applicable each moment, and also due to the technological resources available. Both aspects have resulted in an evolution of the documents referred to training, such as training programs procedures, Radiation Protection Manual as well as the teaching methods. In the report we are going to present, we will show more precisely the changes that take place, referring to the different training methods used, present training sanitations, and the improvements already planned in training subjects as well as tools used, accomplishing with the legislation and improving in our effort of a better assimilation of the necessary knowledge. (Author)

  11. Human resource development for uranium production cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fission energy is a viable option for meeting the ever increasing demand for electricity and high quality process heat in a safe, secured and sustainable manner with minimum carbon foot print and degradation of the environment. The growth of nuclear power has shifted from North America and Europe to Asia, mostly in China and India. Bangladesh, Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates are also in the process of launching nuclear power program. Natural uranium is the basic raw material for U-235 and Pu-239, the fuels for all operating and upcoming nuclear power reactors. The present generation of nuclear power reactors are mostly light water cooled and moderated reactor (LWR) and to a limited extent pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). The LWRs and PHWRs use low enriched uranium (LEU with around 5% U-235) and natural uranium as fuel in the form of high density UO 2 pellets. The uranium production cycle starts with uranium exploration and is followed by mining and milling to produce uranium ore concentrate, commonly known as yellow cake, and ends with mine and mill reclamation and remediation. Natural uranium and its daughter products, radium and radon, are radioactive and health hazardous to varying degrees. Hence, radiological safety is of paramount importance to uranium production cycle and there is a need to review and share best practices in this area. Human Resource Development (HRD) is yet another challenge as most of the experts in this area have retired and have not been replaced by younger generation because of the continuing lull in the uranium market. Besides, uranium geology, exploration, mining and milling do not form a part of the undergraduate or post graduate curriculum in most countries. Hence, the Technical Co-operation activities of the IAEA are required to be augmented and more country specific and regional training and workshop should be conducted at different universities with the involvement of international experts

  12. The Cycle of Development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2017-01-01

    During the last 60 years development in Sub-Saharan Africa has had three main phases – P1, P2 and P3 – divided by kinks in 1972 and in 1994. P1 and P3 had fairly satisfactory growth, but P2 had negative growth. This cyclical growth path has to be explained by variables with a similar path. A set...... of socio-economic variables representing 11 hypotheses are considered. Some of these hypotheses have been proposed to explain the low growth of Africa, while most are meant to explain the growth tragedy of P2. Most of the variables have paths with no relation to the cycle, but the path corresponds...... to the shifts in the dominating development strategy. At the end of P1 the main policy-package in Africa became the one of African socialism. It led to large scale rent seeking, inefficiency and economic regression. At the end of P2 policies were adjusted towards a more market based system and growth resumed....

  13. Outgas analysis of mechanical cryocoolers for long lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoichi; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Sawada, Kenichiro; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Nakagawa, Takao; Tsunematsu, Shoji; Otsuka, Kiyomi; Kanao, Kenichi; Yoshida, Seiji; Narasaki, Katsuhiro

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical cryocoolers for space applications are required to have high reliability to achieve long-term operation in orbit. ASTRO-H (Hitomi), the 6th Japanese X-ray astronomy mission, has a major scientific instrument onboard-the Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) with several 20K-class two-stage Stirling (2ST) coolers and a 4K-class Joule Thomson (JT) cooler, which must operate for 3 years to ensure the lifetime of liquid helium as a cryogen for cooling of its detectors [1,2]. Other astronomical missions such as SPICA [3,4], LiteBIRD [5], and Athena [6] also have top requirements for these mechanical cryocoolers, including a 1K-class JT cooler to be operated for more than 3-5 years with no cryogen system. The reliability and lifetime of mechanical cryocoolers are generally understood to depend on (1) mechanical wear of the piston seal and valve seal, and (2) He working gas contaminated by impurity outgases, mainly H2O and CO2 released from the materials in the components of the cryocoolers. The second factor could be critical relative to causing blockage in the JT heat exchanger plumbing and the JT orifice or resulting in blockage in the Stirling regenerator and thereby degrading its performance. Thus, reducing the potential for outgassing in the cryocooler design and fabrication process, and predicting the total amount of outgases in the cryocooler are very important to ensure cryocooler lifetime and cooling performance in orbit. This paper investigates the outgas analysis of the 2ST and the 1K/4K-JT coolers for achieving a long lifetime. First, gas analysis was conducted for the materials and components of the mechanical cryocoolers, focusing on non-metallic materials as impurity gas sources. Then gas analysis of the mechanical wear effect of the piston seal materials and linear ball bearings was investigated. Finally, outgassing from a fully assembled cryocooler was measured to evaluate whether the outgas reduction process works properly to meet the requirement

  14. Development of FR fuel cycle in japan (1) development scope of fuel cycle technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.; Funasaka, H.; Namekawa, T.

    2008-01-01

    A fast reactor (FR) cycle has a potential to realize a sustainable energy supply system that is harmonized with environment by fully recycling both uranium (U) and transuranium (TRU) elements. In Japan, a Feasibility Study on Commercialized FR Cycle Systems (FS) was launched in July 1999, and through two different study phases, a final report was presented in 2006. As a result of FS, a combined system of sodium-cooled FR with mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel, advanced aqueous reprocessing and simplified pelletizing fuel fabrication was considered to be most promising for commercialization. The advanced aqueous reprocessing system, which is called the New Extraction system for TRU recovery (NEXT), consists of a U crystallization process for the bulk of U recovery, a simplified solvent extraction process for residual U, plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np) without Pu partitioning and purification, and a process for recovering americium (Am) and curium (Cm) from the raffinate. The ratio of Pu/U concentration in the mother solution after crystallization is adequate for MOX fuel fabrication, and thus complicated powder mixing processes for adjusting Pu content in MOX fuel can be eliminated in the subsequent simplified fuel fabrication system. In this system, lubricant-mixing process can also be eliminated by adopting the advanced technology in which lubricant is coated on the inner surface of a die before fuel powder supply. Such a simplification could help us overcoming the difficulty to treat MA bearing fuel powders in a hot cell. Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) reviewed these results of FS in 2006 and identified the most promising FR cycle concept proposed in the FS phase II study as a mainline choice for commercialization. According to such a governmental assessment, R and D activities of FR cycle systems were decided to be concentrated mainly to the innovative technology development for the mainline concept. The stage of R and D project was

  15. Status and development of the thorium fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Weijing; Wei Renjie

    2003-01-01

    A perspective view of the thorium fuel cycle is provided in this paper. The advantages and disadvantages of the thorium fuel cycle are given and the development of thorium fuel cycle in several types of reactors is introduced. The main difficulties in developing the thorium fuel cycle lie in the reprocessing and disposal of the waste and its economy, and the ways tried by foreign countries to solve the problems are presented in the paper

  16. Cell cycle control factors and skeletal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Ogasawara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the oral and maxillofacial region, conditions such as delayed bone healing after tooth extraction, bone fracture, trauma-induced bone or cartilage defects, and tumors or birth defects are common, and it is necessary to identify the molecular mechanisms that control skeletogenesis or the differentiation of cells, in order to establish new treatment strategies for these conditions. Multiple studies have been conducted to investigate the involvement of factors that may be crucial for skeletogenesis or the differentiation of cells, including transcription factors, growth factors and cell cycle factors. Several genetically engineered mouse models of cell cycle factors have been generated in research seeking to identify cell cycle factor(s involved in the differentiation of cells, carcinogenesis, etc. Many groups have also reported the importance of cell cycle factors in the differentiation of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondrocytes and other cell types. Herein, we review the phenotypes of the genetically engineered mouse models of cell cycle factors with a particular focus on the size, body weight and skeletal abnormalities of the mice, and we discuss the potential of cell cycle factors as targets of clinical applications.

  17. Human Resource Development for Uranium Production Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    2014-01-01

    Concluding Remarks & Suggestions: • HRD will be one of the major challenges in the expanding nuclear power program in countries like China and India. • China and India get uranium raw material from domestic mines and international market. In addition, China has overseas uranium property. India is also exploring the possibility of overseas Joint Venture and uranium properties. For uranium production cycle there is a need for trained geologist, mining engineers, chemical and mechanical engineers. • There is a need for introducing specialization course on “uranium production cycle” at post graduate levels in government and private universities. Overseas Utilities and private firms in India engaged in nuclear power and fuel cycle activities may like to sponsor MTech students with assurance of employment after the successful completion of the course. • The IAEA may consider to extend Technical Assistance to universities in HRD in nuclear power and fuel cycle in general and uranium production cycle in particular - IAEA workshops, with participation of international experts, on uranium geology, mining, milling and safety and best practices in uranium production cycle will be of great help. • The IAEA – UPSAT could play an important role in HRD in uranium production cycle

  18. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    , affordability is defined as lifecycle cost, which includes design, development, test, and engineering (DDT&E), production and operational costs (P&O). For this study, the system objectives include reducing DDT&E schedule by a factor of three, showing 99.9% reliability, flying up to four times per year, serving both crew and cargo missions, and evolving to a lift capability of 130 metric tons.3 After identifying gaps in the current system s capabilities, this study seeks to identify non-traditional and innovative technologies and processes that may improve performance in these areas and assess their impacts on booster system development. The DDT&E phase may be improved by incorporating incremental development testing and integrated demonstrations to mitigate risk. To further reduce DDT&E, this study will also consider how aspects of the booster system may have commonality with other users, such as the Department of Defense, commercial applications, or international partners; by sharing some of the risk and investment, the overall development cost may be reduced. Consideration is not limited to solid and liquid rocket boosters. A set of functional performance characteristics, such as engine thrust, specific impulse (Isp), mixture ratio, and throttle range are identified and their impacts on the system are evaluated. This study also identifies how such characteristics affect overall life cycle cost, including DDT&E and fixed and variable P&O.

  19. Numerical study of a VM type multi-bypass pulse tube cryocooler operating at 4K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Changzhao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Jue; Chen, Liubiao; Cui, Chen; Wang, Junjie; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-12-01

    VM cryocooler is one kind of Stirling type cryocooler working at low frequency. At present, we have obtained the liquid helium temperature by using a two-stage VM/pulse tube hybrid cryocooler. As a new kind of 4K cryocooler, there are many aspects need to be studied and optimized in detail. In order to reducing the vibration and improving the stability of this cryocooler, a pulse tube cryocooler was designed to get rid of the displacer in the first stage. This paper presents a detail numerical investigation on this pulse tube cryocooler by using the SAGE software. The low temperature phase shifters were adopted in this cryocooler, which were low temperature gas reservoir, low temperature double-inlet and multi-bypass. After optimizing, the structure parameters and the best diameters of orifice, multi-bypass and double-inlet were obtained. With the pressure ratio of about 1.6 and operating frequency 2Hz, this cryocooler could supply above 40mW cooling power at 4.2K, and the total input power needs no more than 60W at 77K. Based on the highest efficiency of 77K high capacity cryocooler, the overall efficiency of this VM type pulse tube cryocooler is above 0.5% relative Carnot efficient.

  20. Cell cycle entry in C. elegans development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korzelius, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Cell division is controlled by a mechanism that uses Cyclins, in association with their Cyclin-dependent kinase partners (Cdk’s), to regulate the transitions in the cell cycle.Studies in mammalian cell culture and single cell eukaryotes such as budding and fission yeast have uncovered much about how

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF STREINGHT IN ANNUAL CYCLE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Rašović

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, strength training important place because it belongs to the forces should ensure the formation of such physical fitness swimmers that would provide up to arrival of top sports achievements. Strength training should be planned and systematic work during the micro, mezo and macro cycle during many years of training plan. Preparation of land and water should be planned so that the exercises in a dry supplement and compensate for deficiencies of preparation that is done directly in the water.

  2. Development of Virtual Reality Cycling Simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Schramka, Filip; Arisona, Stefan; Joos, Michael; Erath, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a cycling simulator implemented using consumer virtual reality hardware and additional off-the-shelf sensors. Challenges like real time motion tracking within the performance requirements of state of the art virtual reality are successfully mastered. Retrieved data from digital motion processors is sent over Bluetooth to a render machine running Unity3D. By processing this data a bicycle is mapped into virtual space. Physically correct behaviour is simulated and high quali...

  3. Raytheon long life cryocoolers for future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, T.; Schaefer, B.; Bellis, L.; Yates, R.; Barr, M.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last several years, Raytheon has made significant advances on two long-life cryocoolers designed for efficient operation on space platforms. The first is the Low-Temperature Raytheon Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-stage (LT-RSP2) hybrid cryocooler, which is capable of providing simultaneous cooling at 55 K and 10 K nominal first and second stage temperatures. The LT-RSP2 design was finalized in mid-2009, with fabrication of the prototype unit taking place in late 2009 and early 2010 and execution of the production program in 2011-2015. During this period the LT-RSP2 has undergone extensive characterization testing and has successfully been integrated with an optical bench. The second cryocooler is the Raytheon Advanced Miniature (RAM) cryocooler, a flight packaged single stage pulse tube cooler with an integrated surge volume and inertance tube. It has been designed for high frequency operation and has been fully optimized to make use of the Raytheon Advanced Regenerator, resulting in improved efficiency relative to previous Raytheon pulse tube coolers. In this paper, aspects of both the LT-RSP2 and RAM mechanical and thermodynamic designs will be presented as well as information regarding their capabilities and performance.

  4. Development of an Enhanced Generic Data Mining Life Cycle (DMLC)

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Markus; Tierney, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Data mining projects are complex and have a high failure rate. In order to improve project management and success rates of such projects a life cycle is vital to the overall success of the project. This paper reports on a research project that was concerned with the life cycle development for large scale data mining projects. The paper provides a detailed view of the design and development of a generic data mining life cycle called DMLC. The life cycle aims to support all members of data mini...

  5. Automated Cryocooler Monitor and Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britcliffe, Michael J.; Hanscon, Theodore R.; Fowler, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    A system was designed to automate cryogenically cooled low-noise amplifier systems used in the NASA Deep Space Network. It automates the entire operation of the system including cool-down, warm-up, and performance monitoring. The system is based on a single-board computer with custom software and hardware to monitor and control the cryogenic operation of the system. The system provides local display and control, and can be operated remotely via a Web interface. The system controller is based on a commercial single-board computer with onboard data acquisition capability. The commercial hardware includes a microprocessor, an LCD (liquid crystal display), seven LED (light emitting diode) displays, a seven-key keypad, an Ethernet interface, 40 digital I/O (input/output) ports, 11 A/D (analog to digital) inputs, four D/A (digital to analog) outputs, and an external relay board to control the high-current devices. The temperature sensors used are commercial silicon diode devices that provide a non-linear voltage output proportional to temperature. The devices are excited with a 10-microamp bias current. The system is capable of monitoring and displaying three temperatures. The vacuum sensors are commercial thermistor devices. The output of the sensors is a non-linear voltage proportional to vacuum pressure in the 1-Torr to 1-millitorr range. Two sensors are used. One measures the vacuum pressure in the cryocooler and the other the pressure at the input to the vacuum pump. The helium pressure sensor is a commercial device that provides a linear voltage output from 1 to 5 volts, corresponding to a gas pressure from 0 to 3.5 MPa (approx. = 500 psig). Control of the vacuum process is accomplished with a commercial electrically operated solenoid valve. A commercial motor starter is used to control the input power of the compressor. The warm-up heaters are commercial power resistors sized to provide the appropriate power for the thermal mass of the particular system, and

  6. Sustainable Urban Development Calls for Responsibility through Life Cycle Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miro Ristimäki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Urban development bestows a great opportunity to increase sustainability in the built environment as cities are responsible for the majority of environmental impacts. However, the urban development process is fragmented and sub-optimization leads to unsustainable life cycle outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine the urban development process from a life cycle perspective and identify how different actors understand life cycle management. By utilizing an inductive qualitative research design, 38 in-depth thematic interviews were conducted within the Finnish urban development industry including a case study and independent interviews from different phases of the urban development life cycle. The theoretical perspective is a combination of the ecosystem construct and life cycle management. Results show that there is no clear responsible actor for life cycle management in urban development. All actors claim that there is value to be added, mostly in economic, but also environmental and social terms. This study reveals that investors should be the responsible actor in the urban development process. By claiming responsibility and focusing on life cycle leadership we can improve sustainability in urban development, and respond to the urban sustainability challenge, thus improving the quality of life and welfare in our urban society.

  7. A computational approach for coupled 1D and 2D/3D CFD modelling of pulse Tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Spoor, P. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The physics behind Stirling-type cryocoolers are complicated. One dimensional (1D) simulation tools offer limited details and accuracy, in particular for cryocoolers that have non-linear configurations. Multi-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) methods are useful but are computationally expensive in simulating cyrocooler systems in their entirety. In view of the fact that some components of a cryocooler, e.g., inertance tubes and compliance tanks, can be modelled as 1D components with little loss of critical information, a 1D-2D/3D coupled model was developed. Accordingly, one-dimensional – like components are represented by specifically developed routines. These routines can be coupled to CFD codes and provide boundary conditions for 2D/3D CFD simulations. The developed coupled model, while preserving sufficient flow field details, is two orders of magnitude faster than equivalent 2D/3D CFD models. The predictions show good agreement with experimental data and 2D/3D CFD model.

  8. Development of Urban Driving Cycle with GPS Data Post Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lipar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GIS-based methodology for urban area driving cycle construction. The approach reaches beyond the frames of usual driving cycle development methods and takes into account another perspective of data collection. Rather than planning data collection, the approach is based on available in-vehicle measurement data post processing using Geographic Information Systems to manipulate the excessive database and extract only the representative and geographically limited individual trip data. With such data post processing the data was carefully adjusted to include only the data that describe representative driving in Ljubljana urban area. The selected method for the driving cycle development is based on searching for the best microtrips combination while minimizing the difference between two vectors; one based on generated cycle and the other on the database. Accounting for a large random sample of actual trip data, our approach enables more representative area-specific driving cycle development than the previously used techniques.

  9. Crash Attenuator Data Collection and Life Cycle Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-14

    This research study was aimed at data collection and development of a decision support tool for life cycle cost assessment of crash attenuators. Assessing arrenuator life cycle costs based on in-place expected costs and not just the initial cost enha...

  10. Development tendencies in cycle chemistry of fossil fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daucik, K. [Skaerbaekvaerket, Faelleskemikerne, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    The development of cycle chemistry during the past 50 years is described and the main tendencies are pointed out. Improvement of cycle purity is the most dominant evolution, which introduces more freedom with respect to pH and redox potential control. Units with once-through boilers have profited most from this development. The development of boiler water chemistry in drum boilers also tends towards higher purity and less chemicals, which raises possibilities for oxygenated treatment. (au)

  11. Three-stage linear, split-Stirling cryocooler for 1 to 2K magnetic cold stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longsworth, R.C.

    1993-08-01

    A long-life, linear, high efficiency 8K split Stirling cycle cryocooler was designed, built, and tested. The refrigerator is designed for cooling a 50 mW, 1.5K magnetic cold stage. Dual opposed piston compressors are driven by moving-coil linear motors. The three stage expander, although not completed, is also driven by a linear motor and is designed to produce 1 SW at 60K, 4W at 16K, and 1.2W at 8K. The cold regenerator employs a parallel gap construction for high efficiency. The key technology areas addressed include warm and cold flexible suspension bearings and a new cold regenerator geometry for high efficiency at 8K

  12. International development within the spent nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggeryd, I.; Broden, K.; Gelin, R.

    1990-06-01

    The report gives a survey of the newest international development of the fuel processing and the spent nuclear fuel cycle. The transmutation technology of long lived nuclides is discussed in more details. (K.A.E)

  13. Course Development Cycle Time: A Framework for Continuous Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Erinn

    2003-01-01

    Details Edinboro University's efforts to reduce the extended cycle time required to develop new courses and programs. Describes a collaborative process improvement framework, illustrated data findings, the team's recommendations for improvement, and the outcomes of those recommendations. (EV)

  14. Efficient methodology of route selection for driving cycle development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahayadin, A. R.; Shahriman, A. B.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Razlan, Z. M.; Faizi, M. K.; Harun, A.; Kamarrudin, N. S.; Ibrahim, I.; Saad, M. A. M.; Rani, M. F. H.; Zunaidi, I.; Sahari, M.; Sarip, M. S.; Razali, M. Q. H. A.

    2017-10-01

    Driving cycle is a series of data points representing the speed of vehicle versus time and used to determine the performance of vehicle in general. One of the critical portions of driving cycle development is route selection methodology. This paper describes the efficient methodology of route selection for driving cycle development. Previous data from JKR Road Traffic Volume Malaysia (RTVM) in 2015 is studied and analysed to propose the methodology in route selection. The selected routes are then analysed by using Google Maps. For each region, four (4) routes are selected for each urban and rural. For this paper, the selection of route is focused on northern region of Malaysia specifically in Penang. Penang is chosen for this study because it is one of the developed state in Malaysia that has many urban and rural routes. The methods of route selection constructed in this study could be used by other region to develop their own driving cycles.

  15. Numerical analysis of inertance pulse tube cryocooler with a modified reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Derick; Damu, C.; Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Pulse tube cryocoolers are used for cooling applications, where very high reliability is required as in space applications. These cryocoolers require a buffer volume depending on the temperature to be maintained and cooling load. A miniature single stage coaxial Inertance Pulse Tube Cryocooler is proposed which operates at 80 K to provide a cooling effect of at least 2 W. In this paper a pulse tube cryocooler, with modified reservoir is suggested, where the reverse fluctuation in compressor case is used instead of a steady pressure in the reservoir to bring about the desired phase shift between the pressure and the mass flow rate in the cold heat exchanger. Therefore, the large reservoir of the cryocooler is replaced by the crank volume of the hermetically sealed linear compressor, and hence the cryocooler is simplified and compact in size. The components of the cryocooler consist of a connecting tube, aftercooler, regenerator, cold heat exchanger, flow straightener, pulse tube, warm heat exchanger, inertance tube and the modified reservoir along with the losses were designed and analyzed. Each part of the cryocooler was analysed using SAGE v11 and verified with ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results clearly show that there is 50% reduction in the reservoir volume for the modified Inertance pulse tube cryocooler.

  16. High-Efficiency, Low-Temperature Regenerators for Cryocoolers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced vibration...

  17. High-Efficiency, Low-Temperature Regenerators for Cryocoolers, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary and astrophysics missions will require various enhancements in multi-stage cryocoolers. These include increased efficiency, reduced vibration...

  18. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 1, Data Analysis-The Deliverables provides a comprehensive treatment of data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and all the deliverables that need to be collected in analysis. The purpose of deliverables is explained and a number of alternative ways of collecting them are discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of what """"analysis"""" actually means, with particular reference to tasks such as hardware planning and software evaluation and where they fit into the overall cycle. The ne

  19. A miniature pulse tube cryocooler used in a superspectral imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhenhua; Wu, Yinong

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we describe a hihg0 frequency pulse tube cryocooler used in a superspectral imager to be launched in 2020. The superspectral imager is a field-dividing optical imaging system and uses 14 sets of integrated IR detector cryocooler dewar assembly. For the requirements of less heat loss an smaller size, each set is highly integrated by directly mounting the IR dectector's sapphire substrate on the pulse tube's cold tip, and welding the dewar's housing to the flange of the cold finger. Driven by a pair of moving magnet linear motors, the dual-opposed piston compressor of the croycooler is running at 120Hz. Filled with customized stainless screens in the regenerator, the cryolooler reaches 8.1% carnot efficiency at the cooling power of 1W@80K with 34Wac input power.

  20. Multimodal tuned dynamic absorber for split Stirling linear cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veprik, A.; Tuito, A.

    2017-02-01

    Forthcoming low size, weight, power and price split Stirling linear cryocoolers may rely on electro-dynamically driven single-piston compressors and pneumatically driven expanders interconnected by the configurable transfer line. For compactness, compressor and expander units may be placed in a side-by-side manner, thus producing tonal vibration export comprising force and moment components. In vibration sensitive applications, this may result in excessive angular line of sight jitter and translational defocusing affecting the image quality. The authors present Multimodal Tuned Dynamic Absorber (MTDA), having one translational and two tilting modes essentially tuned to the driving frequency. The dynamic reactions (force and moment) produced by such a MTDA are simultaneously counterbalancing force and moment vibration export produced by the cryocooler. The authors reveal the design details, the method of fine modal tuning and outcomes of numerical simulation on attainable performance.

  1. Liquid helium free mechanical property test system with G-M cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hengcheng; Xu, Dong; Huang, Rongjin; Huang, Chuanjun; Liu, Huiming; Han, Yemao; Li, Laifeng

    2017-07-01

    In the present work, a cryogenic mechanical property testing system conduction-cooled by two G-M cryocoolers was developed. The testing sample can be cooled from room temperature to 2.7 K within 7.5 h. The sample was first cooled down to 11.1 K directly by the two G-M cryocoolers and then cooled down to 2.7 K by decompressing the chamber. Instead of liquid helium, the cooling process is characterized by cooling with recycled helium gas as heat transfer medium. The heat load of the system was analyzed and optimizations were adopted in terms of material selections and design. The static load capacity of the system reaches 200 kN and the fatigue load capacity can reach 50 kN. This system can be installed onto an electronic universal testing machine or a fatigue testing machine to characterize static tension, fracture mechanics or fatigue properties at tunable low temperatures. Tensile properties of 316L austenitic stainless steels at 4.2 K were tested with the system and the results were compared with those obtained by cooled using liquid helium, which demonstrates high reliability.

  2. The study on a gas-coupled two-stage stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Zhu, X. S.; Pan, C. Z.; Guo, J.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A two-stage gas-coupled Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) driven by a linear dual-opposed compressor has been designed, manufactured and tested. Both of the stages adopted coaxial structure for compactness. The effect of a cold double-inlet at the second stage on the cooling performance was investigated. The test results show that the cold double-inlet will help to achieve a lower cooling temperature, but it is not conducive to achieving a higher cooling capacity. At present, without the cold double-inlet, the second stage has achieved a no-load temperature of 11.28 K and a cooling capacity of 620 mW/20 K with an input electric power of 450 W. With the cold double-inlet, the no-load temperature is lowered to 9.4 K, but the cooling capacity is reduced to 400 mW/20 K. The structure of the developed cryocooler and the influences of charge pressure, operating frequency and hot end temperature will also be introduced in this paper.

  3. Validation of accelerated ageing of Thales rotary Stirling cryocoolers for the estimation of MTTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguineau, C.,; Cauquil, J.-M.; Martin, J.-Y.; Benschop, T.

    2016-05-01

    The cooled IR detectors are used in a wide range of applications. Most of the time, the cryocoolers are one of the components dimensioning the lifetime of the system. The current market needs tend to reliability figures higher than 15,000hrs in "standard conditions". Field returns are hardly useable mostly because of the uncertain environmental conditions of use, or the differences in user profiles. A previous paper explains how Thales Cryogenics has developed an approach based on accelerated ageing and statistical analysis [1]. The aim of the current paper is to compare results obtained on accelerated ageing on one side, and on the other side, specific field returns where the conditions of use are well known. The comparison between prediction and effective failure rate is discussed. Moreover, a specific focus is done on how some new applications of cryocoolers (continuous operation at a specific temperature) can increase the MTTF. Some assumptions are also exposed on how the failure modes, effects and criticality analysis evolves for continuous operation at a specific temperature and compared to experimental data.

  4. Business cycle development in Czech and Slovak economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poměnková, J.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the business cycle development of Czech and Slovak economies. The main objective is to compare several methodological approaches to identify business cycles with the main theoretical sources of the economic activity movements in the analyzed periods. As both economies are of transition type, the growth business cycle concept will be considered. In this respect, deterministic as well as stochastic methods for obtaining cyclical fluctuations are applied. Czech and Slovak economies fall into the group of transition economies where the problems of insufficient number of observations and structural changes in empirical time series analysis occur. Even if there are many similarities in the institutions of both economies, the authors identified different regular periodicities of the waves. The used frequency analysis is a slightly unique approach of business cycle modeling. The analysis of business cycle movements has significant potential to improve economic policy efficiency.

  5. Preliminary investigation study of code of developed country for developing Korean fuel cycle code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il; Lee, Ho Hee; Cho, Dong Keun; Park, Chang Je

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop Korean fuel cycle code, the analyses has been performed with the fuel cycle codes which are used in advanced country. Also, recommendations were proposed for future development. The fuel cycle codes are AS FLOOWS: VISTA which has been developed by IAEA, DANESS code which developed by ANL and LISTO, and VISION developed by INL for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) system analysis. The recommended items were proposed for software, program scheme, material flow model, isotope decay model, environmental impact analysis model, and economics analysis model. The described things will be used for development of Korean nuclear fuel cycle code in future

  6. Development of a Theoretical Decoupled Stirling Cycle Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Barry; McGovern, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Stirling cycle engine is gaining increasing attention in the current energy market as a clean, quiet and versatile prime mover for use in such situations as solar thermal generation, micro cogeneration and other micro distributed generation situations. A theoretical Stirling cycle engine model is developed. Using a theoretical decoupled engine configuration in which working space swept volume, volume variation, phase angle and dead space ratio are controlled via a black-box electronic con...

  7. Simulation of oat development cycle by photoperiod and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubia D. Mantai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The simulation of oat development cycle can be used in the planning of agricultural practices. The aim of the study was to simulate and validate the duration of oat development cycle by photoperiod, temperature and coefficients of development of wheat for use in the WE-Streck model, considering different doses of N-fertilizer and systems of succession of high and low C/N ratio. The study was conducted in 2015 in a randomized block design with four replicates in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, corresponding to N rates (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 and oat cultivars (Barbarasul and Brisasul, respectively, in the soybean/oat and maize/oat systems. The duration of the stages from emergence to anthesis and from anthesis to maturation of oats was simulated in the WE-Streck model. The minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures that effectively simulate the oat development cycle were 4, 22 and 30 °C from emergence to anthesis and 15, 25 and 35 °C from anthesis to maturation, respectively. The intermediate-cycle oat development was efficiently simulated by the WE-Streck model using coefficients developed for wheat, with vegetative and reproductive cycles estimated at 89 and 43 days, respectively.

  8. Facilitating protein crystal cryoprotection in thick-walled plastic capillaries by high-pressure cryocooling

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yi-Fan; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.

    2009-01-01

    The minimal concentrations of three common cryoprotectants were determined for high-pressure cryocooling of water in thick-walled plastic capillaries. The substantial reduction in the minimal concentrations by high-pressure cryocooling can be of significant use in high-throughput X-ray protein structure determination.

  9. Development of a KT driving cycle for UMT PHEV powertrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiq, W. H.; Haezah, M. N.; Norbakyah, J. S.; Salisa, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Driving cycles were identified as one of the core sources that contribute to develop the powertrain for vehicle. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the future transport for next generation. Compared to conventional internal combustion engine vehicle, hybrid and electric vehicle can improve fuel economy and reduce green house gases. This paper describes a development of Kuala Terengganu driving cycle for Universiti Malaysia Terengganu PHEV. Car speed-time data along the two selected fixed route is obtained by using on-board technique which is Global Positioning System, GPS. The developed driving cycle contains a 1050s speed time series, with a distance of 2.17 km, and an average and a maximum speed of 20.67 km/h and 61.47 km/h, respectively. The results obtained from this analysis are within reasonable range and satisfactory.

  10. Performance analysis on free-piston Stirling cryocooler based on an idealized mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. X.; Chao, Y. J.; Gan, Z. H.; Li, S. Z.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    Free-piston Stirling cryocoolers have extensive applications for its simplicity in structure and decrease in mass. However, the elimination of the motor and the crankshaft has made its thermodynamic characteristic different from that of Stirling cryocoolers with displacer driving mechanism. Therefore, an idealized mathematical model has been established, and with this model, an attempt has been made to analyse the thermodynamic characteristic and the performance of free-piston Stirling cryocooler. To certify this mathematical model, a comparison has been made between the model and a numerical model. This study reveals that due to the displacer damping force necessary for the production of cooling capacity, the free-piston Stirling cryocooler is inherently less efficient than Stirling cryocooler with displacer driving mechanism. Viscous flow resistance and incomplete heat transfer in the regenerator are the two major causes of the discrepancy between the results of the idealized mathematical model and the numerical model.

  11. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle, Book 3: Activity Analysis - The Deliverables provides a comprehensive coverage of the deliverables of activity analysis. The book also details purpose of each deliverable in the context of the next tasks in the systems development cycle (SDC). The text first covers the concept of deliverables and the benefits of making deliverables visible. In the second chapter, the book introduces the main concepts and diagrammatic techniques of activity analysis. The third chapter deals with the important classes or categories of concept, while the fourth

  12. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 2, Data Analysis-The Methods describes the methods for carrying out data analysis within the systems development life-cycle and demonstrates how the results of fact gathering can be used to produce and verify the analysis deliverables. A number of alternative methods of analysis other than normalization are suggested. Comprised of seven chapters, this book shows the tasks to be carried out in the logical order of progression-preparation, collection, analysis of the existing system (which comprises the tasks of synthesis, verification, an

  13. Analysis within the systems development life-cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Rock-Evans, Rosemary

    1987-01-01

    Analysis within the Systems Development Life-Cycle: Book 4, Activity Analysis-The Methods describes the techniques and concepts for carrying out activity analysis within the systems development life-cycle. Reference is made to the deliverables of data analysis and more than one method of analysis, each a viable alternative to the other, are discussed. The """"bottom-up"""" and """"top-down"""" methods are highlighted. Comprised of seven chapters, this book illustrates how dependent data and activities are on each other. This point is especially brought home when the task of inventing new busin

  14. Research and development of nitride fuel cycle technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Arai, Yasuo; Akabori, Mitsuo; Tamaki, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Kunihiro

    2004-01-01

    The research on the nitride fuel was started for an advanced fuel, (U, Pn)N, for fast reactors, and the research activities have been expanded to minor actinide bearing nitride fuels. The fuel fabrication, property measurements, irradiation tests and pyrochemical process experiments have been made. In 2002 a five-year-program named PROMINENT was started for the development of nitride fuel cycle technology within the framework of the Development of Innovative Nuclear Technologies by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. In the research program PROMINENT, property measurements, pyrochemical process and irradiation experiments needed for nitride fuel cycle technology are being made. (author)

  15. Fuel cycle research and development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Goff, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) developed a road map of its research, development, and demonstration activities to ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. One of the four objectives defined in the road map is developing sustainable nuclear fuel cycles. DOE's Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program is focused on meeting this objective. The current reference fuel cycle in the United States is once through or direct disposal of used fuel in a geological repository. The FCRD Program is developing fuel cycle options that increase sustainability compared to this reference. Measures for increased sustainability include improving uranium resource availability and utilization, minimizing waste generation, and providing adequate capability and capacity to manage all wastes produced. Future decision makers will use the suite of options developed under the program to make informed choices about how best to manage used nuclear fuel. The overall goal is to demonstrate the technologies necessary to allow deployment of a sustainable system for management of used nuclear fuel by 2050

  16. Demonstration of Extractive Cryocooled Inert Preconcentration with FTIR spectroscopy instrumentation and methodology for autonomous measurements of atmospheric organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckely, Patrick I.

    At present researchers exclusively use gas chromatography (GC) systems to monitor multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in either real- or near-real-time. We have designed, developed, and constructed an experimental atmospheric air-quality monitoring system capable of measuring low-concentration VOCs using advanced optical techniques. This system uses a commercial Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR), a commercial long-path gas cell, a commercial acoustic Stirling cryocooler, and a custom cryogen-free cryotrap to autonomously monitor a multi-pollutant suite of VOCs with on-board quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) calibration. Every four hours, the system records a five minute co-added FTIR interferogram using preconcentrated batch samples which are thermally desorbed from the cryotrap into the gas cell. From this interferogram, the spectral processing algorithm calculates a corresponding absorption spectrum and derives trace gas concentrations using a peak fitting technique to achieve compound-specific detection limits of 6-60 parts per trillion volume (pptv). During the calibration cycle, the system acquires QA/QC measurements made in a similar fashion using high-purity calibration gas bottles. The presented laboratory results show the system is capable of measuring single- and multi-component calibration gas mixtures within the manufacturer's accuracy specifications. In situ canister samples analyzed using gas chromatography with electron capture and flame ionization detection (GC/ECD/FID) presents a narrow background for possible VOC concentrations at the National Space Science and Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. In situ observations by the FTIR-based system showcase the capabilities of the system to run fully autonomously and analyze a complex atmospheric mixture with a high degree of fidelity. Complex error analysis highlights the shortfalls of this methodology and presents quantitative correction factors for a number of

  17. Biodemographic and live cycle development comparison of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tribolium castaneum is a cosmopolitan parasite of dry agricultural products. It is harmful and must be the subject of a rational struggle to protect grains during the storage and preservation. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate cycles of development of the populations genetically differentiated. Methodology and ...

  18. Factors which could limit the nuclear fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecqueur, M.; Barre, B.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a most important industry for the energy future of the world. It has also a leading part as regards the physical continuity of energy supply of the countries engaged in the nuclear field. The development of this industry is subject to the economic or political constraints involved by the availability of raw materials, technologies or production means. The various limiting factors which could affect the different stages of the fuel cycle are linked with the technical, economic and financial aspects, with the impact on the environment, nuclear safety, risks of non-pacific uses and proliferation of arms. Interesting to note is also the correlation between the fuel cycle development and the problems of energy independence and security of nuclear programs. As a conclusion, the nuclear fuel cycle industry is confronted to difficulties due to its extremely rapid growth (doubling time 5 years) which only few heavy industries have encountered for long periods. It is more over submitted to the political and safety constraints always linked with nuclear matters. The task is therefore a difficult one. But the objective is worth-while since it is a condition to the development of nuclear industry [fr

  19. Nuclear fuel cycle and sustainable development: strategies for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation, the author aims to define the major role of the nuclear energy in the future, according a sustainable development scenario. The today aging park and the new Generation IV technologies are presented. The transition scenario from Pu mono-recycling in PWRs to actinide global recycling in fast neutron Gen IV systems is also developed. Closed cycles and fast reactors appear as the appropriate answer to sustainable objectives in a vision of a large expansion. (A.L.B.)

  20. Developing Asset Life Cycle Management capabilities through the implementation of Asset Life Cycle Plans – an Action Research project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenburg, Richard; Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan

    2017-01-01

    Asset Life Cycle Management is a strategic approach to managing physical assets over their complete life cycle. However, the literature and the recent ISO 55,000 standard do not offer guidance as to how to develop such an approach. This paper investigates the main capabilities for Asset Life Cycle

  1. Cryocooled wideband digital channelizing radio-frequency receiver based on low-pass ADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernik, Igor V; Kirichenko, Dmitri E; Dotsenko, Vladimir V; Miller, Robert; Webber, Robert J; Shevchenko, Pavel; Talalaevskii, Andrei; Gupta, Deepnarayan; Mukhanov, Oleg A

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated a digital receiver performing direct digitization of radio-frequency signals over a wide frequency range from kilohertz to gigahertz. The complete system, consisting of a cryopackaged superconductor all-digital receiver (ADR) chip followed by room-temperature interface electronics and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based post-processing module, has been developed. The ADR chip comprises a low-pass analog-to-digital converter (ADC) delta modulator with phase modulation-demodulation architecture together with digital in-phase and quadrature mixer and a pair of digital decimation filters. The chip is fabricated using a 4.5 kA cm -2 process and is cryopackaged using a commercial-off-the-shelf cryocooler. Experimental results in HF, VHF, UHF and L bands and their analysis, proving consistent operation of the cryopackaged ADR chip up to 24.32 GHz clock frequency, are presented and discussed

  2. High-efficiency 3 W/40 K single-stage pulse tube cryocooler for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ankuo; Wu, Yinong; Liu, Shaoshuai; Liu, Biqiang; Yang, Baoyu

    2018-03-01

    Temperature is an extremely important parameter for space-borne infrared detectors. To develop a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), a high-efficiency Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) has been designed, manufactured and experimentally investigated for providing a large cooling power at 40 K cold temperature. Simulated and experimental studies were carried out to analyse the effects of low temperature on different energy flows and losses, and the performance of the PTC was improved by optimizing components and parameters such as regenerator and operating frequency. A no-load lowest temperature of 26.2 K could be reached at a frequency of 51 Hz, and the PTC could efficiently offer cooling power of 3 W at 40 K cold temperature when the input power was 225 W. The efficiency relative to the Carnot efficiency was approximately 8.4%.

  3. Developing Asset Life Cycle Management capabilities through the implementation of Asset Life Cycle Plans – an Action Research project

    OpenAIRE

    Ruitenburg, Richard; Braaksma, Anne Johannes Jan

    2017-01-01

    Asset Life Cycle Management is a strategic approach to managing physical assets over their complete life cycle. However, the literature and the recent ISO 55,000 standard do not offer guidance as to how to develop such an approach. This paper investigates the main capabilities for Asset Life Cycle Management by means of a four year Action Research project implementing Asset Life Cycle Plans. Five main capabilities emerged: 1. strategic information use; 2. alignment of operations and strategy;...

  4. Effects of cyclic mean pressure of helium gas on performance of integral crank driven stirling cryocooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Yong Ju; Ko, Jun Seok; Kim, Hyo Bong; Park, Seong Je [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    An integral crank driven Stirling cryocooler is solidly based on concepts of direct IR detector mounting on the cryocooler's cold finger, and the integral construction of the cryocooler and Dewar envelope. Performance factors of the cryocooler depend on operating conditions of the cryocooler such as a cyclic mean pressure of the working fluid, a rotational speed of driving mechanism, a thermal environment, a targeted operation temperature and etc.. At given charging condition of helium gas, the cyclic mean pressure of helium gas in the cryocooler changes with temperatures of the cold end and the environment. In this study, effects of the cyclic mean pressure of helium gas on performances of the Stirling cryocooler were investigated by numerical analyses using the Sage software. The simulation model takes into account thermodynamic losses due to an inefficiency of regenerator, a pressure drop, a shuttle heat transfer and solid conductions. Simulations are performed for the performance variation according to the cyclic mean pressure induced by the temperature of the cold end and the environment. This paper presents P-V works in the compression and expansion space, cooling capacity, contribution of losses in the expansion space.

  5. Effects of cyclic mean pressure of helium gas on performance of integral crank driven stirling cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Ju; Ko, Jun Seok; Kim, Hyo Bong; Park, Seong Je

    2016-01-01

    An integral crank driven Stirling cryocooler is solidly based on concepts of direct IR detector mounting on the cryocooler's cold finger, and the integral construction of the cryocooler and Dewar envelope. Performance factors of the cryocooler depend on operating conditions of the cryocooler such as a cyclic mean pressure of the working fluid, a rotational speed of driving mechanism, a thermal environment, a targeted operation temperature and etc.. At given charging condition of helium gas, the cyclic mean pressure of helium gas in the cryocooler changes with temperatures of the cold end and the environment. In this study, effects of the cyclic mean pressure of helium gas on performances of the Stirling cryocooler were investigated by numerical analyses using the Sage software. The simulation model takes into account thermodynamic losses due to an inefficiency of regenerator, a pressure drop, a shuttle heat transfer and solid conductions. Simulations are performed for the performance variation according to the cyclic mean pressure induced by the temperature of the cold end and the environment. This paper presents P-V works in the compression and expansion space, cooling capacity, contribution of losses in the expansion space

  6. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment in Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Hauschild, M.

    2003-01-01

    The overall aim of the paper is to provide an understanding of the environmental issues involved in the early stages of product development and the capacity of life cycle assessment techniques to address these issues. The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating...... the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. A discussion is given about the barriers to implementation of LCA by developers of products......, and of the opportunities for introducing environmental criteria in the design process through meeting the information requirements of the designer on the different life cycle stages, producing an in-depth understanding of the attitudes of practitioners among product developers to the subject area, and an understanding...

  7. Development of FBR cycle data base system (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Sadae; Ohtaki, Akira; Hirao, Kazuhiro

    2003-05-01

    In the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized FBR Cycle Systems (F/S)', scenario evaluations, cost-benefit evaluations and system characteristic evaluations to show the significance of the FBR cycle system introduction concretely are performed while design studies for FBR plants, reprocessing systems and fabrication systems are conducted. In these evaluations, future society of various conditions and situation is assumed, and investigation and analysis about needs and social effects of FBR cycle are carried out. In this study, promising FBR cycle concepts are suggested by taking information such as domestic and foreign policies and bills, an economic prediction, a supply and demand prediction of resources, a project of technology development into consideration in addition to system design information. The development of the FBR Cycle Database which this report introduced started in 1999 fiscal year to enable managed unitarity and searched reference information to use for the above scenario evaluations, cost-benefit evaluations and system characteristic evaluations. In 2000 fiscal year, its prototype was made and used tentatively, and we extracted the problems in operation and functions from that, and, in 2001 fiscal year, the entry system and the search system using the Web page were made in order to solve problems of the prototype, and started use in our group. Moreover, in 2002 fiscal year, we expanded and improved the search system and promoted the efficiency of management work, and use in JNC through intranet of the database was started. In addition, as a result of having made the entry of about 350 data in 2002 fiscal year, the collected number of the database reaches about 7,250 by the end of March, 2003. We are to continue the entry of related information of various evaluations in F/S phase 2 from now on. In addition, we are to examine improvement of convenience of the search system and cooperation with the economy database. (author)

  8. Technology and component development for a closed tritium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Haange, R.; Naruse, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A brief summary on recent advances in the field of tritium technology concerning the most important subsystems of the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor, i.e. the plasma exhaust pumping system, the exhaust gas clean up system, the isotope separation, the tritium storage and the tritium extraction from a blanket is provided. Experimental results, single component developments, and technical tests including those with relevants amounts of tritium that constitute the basis of proposed integral process concepts are described. 48 refs

  9. Development of soil properties and nitrogen cycling in created wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, K.L.; Ahn, C.; Noe, G.B.

    2011-01-01

    Mitigation wetlands are expected to compensate for the loss of structure and function of natural wetlands within 5–10 years of creation; however, the age-based trajectory of development in wetlands is unclear. This study investigates the development of coupled structural (soil properties) and functional (nitrogen cycling) attributes of created non-tidal freshwater wetlands of varying ages and natural reference wetlands to determine if created wetlands attain the water quality ecosystem service of nitrogen (N) cycling over time. Soil condition component and its constituents, gravimetric soil moisture, total organic carbon, and total N, generally increased and bulk density decreased with age of the created wetland. Nitrogen flux rates demonstrated age-related patterns, with younger created wetlands having lower rates of ammonification, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, and denitrification potential than older created wetlands and natural reference wetlands. Results show a clear age-related trajectory in coupled soil condition and N cycle development, which is essential for water quality improvement. These findings can be used to enhance N processing in created wetlands and inform the regulatory evaluation of mitigation wetlands by identifying structural indicators of N processing performance.

  10. Development of a nuclear fuel cycle transparency framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, Tracia L.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle transparency can be defined as a confidence building approach among political entities to ensure civilian nuclear facilities are not being used for the development of nuclear weapons. Transparency concepts facilitate the transfer of nuclear technology, as the current international political climate indicates a need for increased methods of assuring non-proliferation. This research develops a system which will augment current non-proliferation assessment activities undertaken by U.S. and international regulatory agencies. It will support the export of nuclear technologies, as well as the design and construction of Gen. IV energy systems. Additionally, the framework developed by this research will provide feedback to cooperating parties, thus ensuring full transparency of a nuclear fuel cycle. As fuel handling activities become increasingly automated, proliferation or diversion potential of nuclear material still needs to be assessed. However, with increased automation, there exists a vast amount of process data to be monitored. By designing a system that monitors process data continuously, and compares this data to declared process information and plant designs, a faster and more efficient assessment of proliferation risk can be made. Figure 1 provides an illustration of the transparency framework that has been developed. As shown in the figure, real-time process data is collected at the fuel cycle facility; a reactor, a fabrication plant, or a recycle facility, etc. Data is sent to the monitoring organization and is assessed for proliferation risk. Analysis and recommendations are made to cooperating parties, and feedback is provided to the facility. The analysis of proliferation risk is based on the following factors: (1) Material attractiveness: the quantification of factors relevant to the proliferation risk of a certain material (e.g., highly enriched Pu-239 is more attractive than that of lower enrichment) (2) The static (baseline) risk: the

  11. Technologists' challenge for independent development of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) was established on Oct. 1998 in cooperation of national and local governments concerned and private companies. This report outlines the activities to develop the technology of nuclear fuel cycle by Power Reactor Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), which was reorganized to JNC. JNC is now effectively performing the research and the development of nuclear fuel cycle based on the basic principles defined by the national government concerned. First, 'Joyo', a fast breeder reactor (FBR) was constructed and put in operation in later sixties, leading to the criticality in 1977, whereas for 'Monju' it was in the later eighties. In Dec. 1995, however, an accident of sodium leak occurred in 'Monju'. Then, members selected from various fields discussed the strategy of the development of FBR. It was thus reconfirmed that FBR is the important choice as non-fossil energy in Japan. Study on strategy for practical utilization of FBR has started from 1999. Then, an advanced thermal reactor (ATR) called as 'Fugen' was constructed in Tsuruga City by Hitachi, Ltd. and the reactor reached to the criticality in 1978 for the first and to practical operation in 1979. ATR has contributed to the establishment of plutonium utilization system in Japan. Furthermore, PNC has attempted to make exploration development for uranium resource. After the exploration in Canada, Australia, Africa, etc., the amount of Japanese uranium possession reached 13% of uranium mined in the world for 1985-1994. Meanwhile 10% enriched uranium was successively produced in 1994. Development of plutonium fuel, MOX (mixed-oxide fuel) is now in progress. (M.N.)

  12. Development of a small Stirling cycle cooler for spaceflight applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werrett, S.T.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Davey, G.; Delderfield, T.W.; Peskett, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the development, from a previously proven design approach, of a robust and simple Stirling cycle cooler with long life potential. The need for a closed cycle refrigerator for use in a spacecraft borne infra-red radiometer is explained. The refrigerator is to supply 1 watt of cooling at 80 K for less than 80 watts of input power, be able to survive the launch environment and subsequently run for 26000 hours. Clearance seals achieved with a spring suspension developed from earlier space proven mechanisms have led to the production of a linear split Stirling cycle machine with no apparent life limiting features. A servo control system, in conjunction with moving coil motors and LVDT position sensors, permits running of balanced pairs of mechanisms. The working fluid, helium at a pressure of 1.2 MPa, is contained within titanium bodies having gold O-ring seals. A vacuum bakeout procedure, based upon experience and outgassing trials, reduces residual contaminant release to acceptable levels. A prototype refrigerator has been subjected to a vibration test and has subsequently run for 6000 hours with no detectable change in performance

  13. Development on nuclear fuel cycle business in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Kogo

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. (JNF) develops five businesses on nuclear fuel cycle such as uranium concentration, storage and administration of high level radioactive wastes, disposition of low level radioactive wastes, used fuel reprocessing, MOX fuel, at Rokkasho-mura in Aomori prefecture. Here were introduced on outline, construction and operation in reprocessing and MOX fuel works, outline, present state and future subjects on technical development of uranium concentration, outline and safety of disposition center on low level radioactive wastes, and storage and administration of high level radioactive wastes. (G.K.)

  14. Conceptual development and retention within the learning cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Lisa Jo

    1998-12-01

    This research was designed to achieve two goals: (1) examine concept development and retention within the learning cycle and (2) examine how students' concept development is mediated by classroom discussions and the students' small cooperative learning group. Forty-eight sixth-grade students and one teacher at an urban middle school participated in the study. The research utilized both quantitative and qualitative analyses. Quantitative assessments included a concept mapping technique as well as teacher generated multiple choice tests. Preliminary quantitative analysis found that students' reading levels had an effect on students' pretest scores in both the concept mapping and the multiple-choice assessment. Therefore, a covariant design was implemented for the quantitative analyses. Quantitative analysis techniques were used to examine concept development and retention, it was discovered that the students' concept knowledge increased significantly from the time of the conclusion of the term introduction phase to the conclusion of the expansion phase. These findings would indicate that all three phases of the learning cycle are necessary for conceptual development. However, quantitative analyses of concept maps indicated that this is not true for all students. Individual students showed evidence of concept development and integration at each phase. Therefore, concept development is individualized and all phases of the learning cycle are not necessary for all students. As a result, individual's assimilation, disequilibration, accommodation and organization may not correlate with the phases of the learning cycle. Quantitative analysis also indicated a significant decrease in the retention of concepts over time. Qualitative analyses were used to examine how students' concept development is mediated by classroom discussions and the students' small cooperative learning group. It was discovered that there was a correlation between teacher-student interaction and small

  15. Development of turbine cycle performance analyzer using intelligent data mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young

    2004-02-01

    In recent year, the performance enhancement of turbine cycle in nuclear power plants is being highlighted because of worldwide deregulation environment. Especially the first target of operating plants became the reduction of operating cost to compete other power plants. It is known that overhaul interval is closely related to operating cost Author identified that the rapid and reliable performance tests, analysis, and diagnosis play an important role in the control of overhaul interval through field investigation. First the technical road map was proposed to clearly set up the objectives. The controversial issues were summarized into data gathering, analysis tool, and diagnosis method. Author proposed the integrated solution on the basis of intelligent data mining techniques. For the reliable data gathering, the state analyzer composed of statistical regression, wavelet analysis, and neural network was developed. The role of the state analyzer is to estimate unmeasured data and to increase the reliability of the collected data. For the advanced performance analysis, performance analysis toolbox was developed. The purpose of this tool makes analysis process easier and more accurate by providing three novel heat balance diagrams. This tool includes the state analyzer and turbine cycle simulation code. In diagnosis module, the probabilistic technique based on Bayesian network model and the deterministic technique based on algebraical model are provided together. It compromises the uncertainty in diagnosis process and the pin-point capability. All the modules were validated by simulated data as well as actual test data, and some modules are used as industrial applications. We have a lot of thing to be improved in turbine cycle in order to increase plant availability. This study was accomplished to remind the concern about the importance of turbine cycle and to propose the solutions on the basis of academic as well as industrial needs

  16. Influence of minor geometric features on Stirling pulse tube cryocooler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, T.; Spoor, P. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Perrella, M.

    2017-12-01

    Minor geometric features and imperfections are commonly introduced into the basic design of multi-component systems to simplify or reduce the manufacturing expense. In this work, the cooling performance of a Stirling type cryocooler was tested in different driving powers, cold-end temperatures and inclination angles. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations based on a prototypical cold tip was carried out. Detailed CFD model predictions were compared with the experiment and were used to investigate the impact of such apparently minor geometric imperfections on the performance of Stirling type pulse tube cryocoolers. Predictions of cooling performance and gravity orientation sensitivity were compared with experimental results obtained with the cryocooler prototypes. The results indicate that minor geometry features in the cold tip assembly can have considerable negative effects on the gravity orientation sensitivity of a pulse tube cryocooler.

  17. A High Efficiency 30 K Cryocooler with Low-Temperature Heat Sink, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA planetary science missions have very limited access to solar power and therefore reducing the cryocooling system power input is even more critical than...

  18. Advanced, Long-Life Cryocooler Technology for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-life, high-capacity cryocoolers are a critical need for future space systems utilizing stored cryogens. The cooling requirements for planetary and...

  19. Advanced, Long-Life Cryocooler Technology for Zero-Boil-Off Cryogen Storage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-life, high-capacity cryocoolers are a critical need for future space systems utilizing stored cryogens. The cooling requirements for planetary and...

  20. Air Force Research Laboratory Spacecraft Cryocooler Endurance Evaluation Update: FY98-99

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomlinson, B

    1999-01-01

    The need for long term endurance evaluation data on space cryocoolers has long been an issue due to the 10-year plus design life of this technology and the absence of any accepted accelerated testing methodology...

  1. A 10 K Multistage Cryocooler with Very Low Vibration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced space-borne instruments require cooling at temperatures of 10 K and below. These coolers will be used for as upper-stage cryocoolers for sub-Kelvin...

  2. Air liquide's space pulse tube cryocooler systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trollier, T.; Tanchon, J.; Buquet, J.; Ravex, A.

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to important development efforts completed with ESA funding, Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division (AL/DTA), is now in position to propose two Pulse Tube cooler systems in the 40-80K temperature range for coming Earth Observation missions such as Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), SIFTI, etc… The Miniature Pulse Tube Cooler (MPTC) is lifting up to 2.47W@80K with 50W compressor input power and 10°C rejection temperature. The weight is 2.8 kg. The Large Pulse Tube Cooler (LPTC) is providing 2.3W@50K for 160W input power and 10°C rejection temperature. This product is weighing 5.1 kg. The two pulse tube coolers thermo-mechanical units are qualified against environmental constraints as per ECSS-E-30. They are both using dual opposed pistons flexure bearing compressor with moving magnet linear motors in order to ensure very high lifetime. The associated Cooler Drive Electronics is also an important aspect specifically regarding the active control of the cooler thermo-mechanical unit during the launch phase and the active reduction of the vibrations induced by the compressor (partly supported by the French Agency CNES). This paper details the presentation of the two Pulse Tube Coolers together with the Cooler Drive Electronics aspects.

  3. Proceeding of the Fifth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Development of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology in Third Millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suripto, A.; Sastratenaya, A.S.; Sutarno, D.

    2000-01-01

    The proceeding contains papers presented in the Fifth Scientific Presentation on Nuclear Fuel Element Cycle with theme of Development of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology in Third Millennium, held on 22 February in Jakarta, Indonesia. These papers were divided by three groups that are technology of exploration, processing, purification and analysis of nuclear materials; technology of nuclear fuel elements and structures; and technology of waste management, safety and management of nuclear fuel cycle. There are 35 papers indexed individually. (id)

  4. Technology and component development for a closed tritium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Haange, R.; Hircq, B.; Meikle, A.; Naruse, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A brief summary on recent advances in the field of tritium technology concerning the most important subsystems of the fuel cycle of a fusion reactor, i.e. the plasma exhaust pumping system, the exhaust gas clean up system, the isotope separation, the tritium storage and the tritium extraction from a blanket is provided. Experimental results, single component developments, and technical tests including those with relevant amounts of tritium that constitute the basis of proposed integral process concepts are described. 48 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Basis for developing samarium AMS for fuel cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Biegalski, Steven R.; Whitney, Scott M.; Tumey, Scott J.; Jordan Weaver, C.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling of nuclear reactor fuel burnup indicates that the production of samarium isotopes can vary significantly with reactor type and fuel cycle. The isotopic concentrations of 146 Sm, 149 Sm, and 151 Sm are potential signatures of fuel reprocessing, if analytical techniques can overcome the inherent challenges of lanthanide chemistry, isobaric interferences, and mass/charge interferences. We review the current limitations in measurement of the target samarium isotopes and describe potential approaches for developing Sm-AMS. AMS sample form and preparation chemistry will be discussed as well as possible spectrometer operating conditions.

  6. Life cycle assessment of nanoadsorbents at early stage technological development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazemi, Ali; Bahramifar, Nader; Heydari, Akbar

    2018-01-01

    in the control and removal of environmental pollutants. This application is still an emerging technology at the early stages of development. Hence, the heart of this study enables an environmental assessment of nanoadsorbents as an emerging product. In addition, the environmental impacts of synthesized...... the process of the functionalization of nanoadsorbents leads to the increase of the adsorption capacity of nanoadsorbents, it is also paired with a significant enhancement of negative environmental impacts. The results of t-test comparing the cradle-to-use life cycle impacts of studied impact categories for 1...

  7. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  8. The Development of Vocational Vehicle Drive Cycles and Segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Phillips, Caleb T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    results of the statistical analysis performed by NREL, review of the logistic model developed to predict cluster membership, and a discussion and detailed summary of the development of the vocational drive cycle weights and representative transient drive cycles for testing and simulation. Additional discussion of known limitations and potential future work are also included in the report content.

  9. Modelling of a stirling cryocooler regenerator under steady and steady - periodic flow conditions using a correlation based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishor Kumar, V. V.; Kuzhiveli, B. T.

    2017-12-01

    The performance of a Stirling cryocooler depends on the thermal and hydrodynamic properties of the regenerator in the system. CFD modelling is the best technique to design and predict the performance of a Stirling cooler. The accuracy of the simulation results depend on the hydrodynamic and thermal transport parameters used as the closure relations for the volume averaged governing equations. A methodology has been developed to quantify the viscous and inertial resistance terms required for modelling the regenerator as a porous medium in Fluent. Using these terms, the steady and steady - periodic flow of helium through regenerator was modelled and simulated. Comparison of the predicted and experimental pressure drop reveals the good predictive power of the correlation based method. For oscillatory flow, the simulation could predict the exit pressure amplitude and the phase difference accurately. Therefore the method was extended to obtain the Darcy permeability and Forchheimer’s inertial coefficient of other wire mesh matrices applicable to Stirling coolers. Simulation of regenerator using these parameters will help to better understand the thermal and hydrodynamic interactions between working fluid and the regenerator material, and pave the way to contrive high performance, ultra-compact free displacers used in miniature Stirling cryocoolers in the future.

  10. Development of System Engineering Technology for Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Dong; Kim, Sung Ki; Song, Kee Chan

    2010-04-01

    This report is aims to establish design requirements for constructing mock-up system of pyroprocess by 2011 to realize long-term goal of nuclear energy promotion comprehensive plan, which is construction of engineering scale pyroprocess integrated process demonstration facility. The development of efficient process for spent fuel and establishment of system engineering technology to demonstrate the process are required to develop nuclear energy continuously. The detailed contents of research for these are as follows; - Design of Mock-up facility for demonstrate pyroprocess, Construction, Approval, Trial run, Performance test - Development of nuclear material accountancy technology for unit processes of pyroprocess and design of safeguards system - Remote operation of demonstrating pyroprocess / Development of maintenance technology and equipment - Establishment of transportation system and evaluation of pre-safety for interim storage system - Deriving and implementation of a method to improve nuclear transparency for commercialization proliferation resistance nuclear fuel cycle Spent fuel which is the most important pending problem of nuclear power development would be reduced and recycled by developing the system engineering technology of pyroprocess facility by 2010. This technology would contribute to obtain JD for the use of spent fuel between the ROK-US and to amend the ROK-US Atomic Energy Agreement scheduled in 2014

  11. Development of computer software for pavement life cycle cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The life cycle cost analysis program (LCCA) is designed to automate and standardize life cycle costing in Virginia. It allows the user to input information necessary for the analysis, and it then completes the calculations and produces a printed copy...

  12. Recent development in safety regulation of nuclear fuel cycle activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.

    2001-01-01

    Through the effort of deliberation and legislation over five years, Japanese government structure was reformed this January, with the aim of realizing simple, efficient and transparent administration. Under the reform, the Agency for Nuclear and Industrial Safety (ANIS) was founded in the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) to be responsible for safety regulation of energy-related nuclear activities, including nuclear fuel cycle activities, and industrial activities, including explosives, high-pressure gasses and mining. As one of the lessons learned from the JCO criticality accident of September 1999, it was pointed out that the government's inspection function was not enough for fuel fabrication facilities. Accordingly, new statutory regulatory activities were introduced, namely, inspection of observance of safety rules and procedures for all kinds of nuclear operators and periodic inspection of fuel fabrication facilities. In addition, in order to cope with insufficient safety education and training of workers in nuclear facilities, licensees of nuclear facilities are required by law to specify safety education and training for their workers. ANIS is committed to enforce these new regulatory activities effectively and efficiently. In addition, it is going to be prepared, in its capacity as safety regulatory authority, for future development of Japanese fuel cycle activities, including commissioning of JNFL Rokkasho reprocessing plant and possible application for licenses for JNFL MOX fabrication plant and for spent fuel interim storage facilities. (author)

  13. Recent development in safety regulation of nuclear fuel cycle activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, S.

    2002-01-01

    Through the effort of deliberation and legislation over five years, Japanese government structure was reformed this January, with the aim of realizing simple, efficient and transparent administration. Under the reform, the Agency for Nuclear and Industrial Safety (ANIS) was founded in the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) to be responsible for safety regulation of energy-related nuclear activities, including nuclear fuel cycle activities, and industrial activities, including explosives, high-pressure gasses and mining. As one of the lessons learned from the JCO criticality accident of September 1999, it was pointed out that government's inspection function was not enough for fuel fabrication facilities. Accordingly, new statutory regulatory activities were introduced, namely, inspection of observance of safety rules and procedures for all kinds of nuclear operators and periodic inspection of fuel fabrication facilities. In addition, in order to cope with insufficient safety education and training of workers in nuclear facilities, licensees of nuclear facilities are required by law to specify safety education and training for their workers. ANIS is committed to enforce these new regulatory activities effectively and efficiently. In addition, it is going to be prepared for, in its capacity of safety regulatory authority, future development of Japanese fuel cycle activities, including commissioning of JNFL Rokkasho reprocessing plant and possible application for licenses for JNFL MOX fabrication plant and for spent fuel interim storage facilities. (author)

  14. Development and weighting of a life cycle assessment screening model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Wayne E.; O'Shaughnessy, James; Johnson, Sharon A.; Sisson, Richard

    2004-02-01

    Nearly all life cycle assessment tools available today are high priced, comprehensive and quantitative models requiring a significant amount of data collection and data input. In addition, most of the available software packages require a great deal of training time to learn how to operate the model software. Even after this time investment, results are not guaranteed because of the number of estimations and assumptions often necessary to run the model. As a result, product development, design teams and environmental specialists need a simplified tool that will allow for the qualitative evaluation and "screening" of various design options. This paper presents the development and design of a generic, qualitative life cycle screening model and demonstrates its applicability and ease of use. The model uses qualitative environmental, health and safety factors, based on site or product-specific issues, to sensitize the overall results for a given set of conditions. The paper also evaluates the impact of different population input ranking values on model output. The final analysis is based on site or product-specific variables. The user can then evaluate various design changes and the apparent impact or improvement on the environment, health and safety, compliance cost and overall corporate liability. Major input parameters can be varied, and factors such as materials use, pollution prevention, waste minimization, worker safety, product life, environmental impacts, return of investment, and recycle are evaluated. The flexibility of the model format will be discussed in order to demonstrate the applicability and usefulness within nearly any industry sector. Finally, an example using audience input value scores will be compared to other population input results.

  15. Remote maintenance system technology development for nuclear fuel cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashihara, Hidechiyo

    1984-01-01

    The necessity of establishing the technology of remote maintenance, the kinds of maintenance techniques and the change, the image of a facility adopting remote maintenance canyon process, and the outline of the R and D plan to put remote maintenance canyon process in practical use are described. As the objects of development, there are twin arm type servo manipulator system, rack system, remote tube connectors, solution sampling system, inspection system for in-cell equipment, and large plugs for wall penetration. The outline of those are also reported. The development of new remote maintenance technology has been forwarded in the Tokai Works aiming at the application to a glass solidification pilot plant and a FBR fuel recycling test facility. The lowering of the rate of utilization of cells due to poor accessibility and the increase of radiation exposure of workers must be overcome to realize nuclear fuel cycle technology. The maintenance technology is classified into crane canyon method, direct maintenance cell method, remote maintenance cell method and remote maintenance canyon method, and those are described briefly. The development plan of remote maintenance technology is outlined. (Kako, I.)

  16. Cryocooled superconducting magnets for high magnetic fields at the HFLSM and future collaboration with the TML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, K; Nishijima, G; Awaji, S; Koyama, K; Takahashi, K; Kobayashi, N; Kiyoshi, T

    2006-01-01

    A hybrid magnet needs a large amount of liquid helium for operation. In order to make an easy-to-operate hybrid magnet system, we constructed a cryocooled 28 T hybrid magnet, consisting of an outer cryocooled 10 T superconducting magnet and an inner traditional water-cooled 19 T resistive magnet. As a performance test, the cryocooled hybrid magnet generated 27.5 T in a 32 mm room temperature experimental bore. As long as Nb3Sn superconducting wires are employed, the expected maximum high field generation in the cryocooled superconducting magnet will be 17 T at 5 K. We adopted the high temperature superconducting insert coil, employing Ag-sheathed Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 superconducting tape. In combination with the low temperature 16.5 T back-up coil with a 174 mm cold bore, the cryocooled high temperature superconducting magnet successfully generated the total central field of 18.1 T in a 52 mm room temperature bore. As a next step, we start the collaboration with the National Institute for Materials Science for the new developmental works of a 30 T high temperature superconducting magnet and a 50 T-class hybrid magnet

  17. How to manage MTTF larger than 30,000hr on rotary cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauquil, Jean-Marc; Seguineau, Cédric; Martin, Jean-Yves; Van-Acker, Sébastien; Benschop, Tonny

    2017-05-01

    The cooled IR detectors are used in a wide range of applications. Most of the time, the cryocoolers are one of the components dimensioning the lifetime of the system. Indeed, Stirling coolers are mechanical systems where wear occurs on millimetric mechanisms. The exponential law classically used in electronics for Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) calculation cannot be directly used for mechanical devices. With new applications for thermal sensor like border surveillance, an increasing reliability has become mandatory for rotary cooler. The current needs are above several tens of thousands of continuous hour of cooling. Thales Cryogenics made specific development on that topic, for both linear and rotary applications. The time needed for validating changes in processes through suited experimental design is hardly affordable by following a robust and rigorous standard scientific approach. The targeted Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) led us to adopt an innovative approach to keep development phases in line with expected time to market. This innovative approach is today widespread on all of Thales Cryogenics rotary products and results in a proven increase of MTTF for RM2, RM3 and recently RM1. This paper will then focused on the current MTTF figures measured on RM1, RM2 and RM3. After explaining the limit of a conventional approach, the paper will then describe the current method. At last, the authors will explain how these principles are taken into account for the new SWaP rotary cooler of Thales Cryogénie SAS.

  18. Heavy-duty approval test cycles: assessment of currently applied test cycles and theories for the development of new duty cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijer, C.J.T. van de; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    In the development of the new emission reduction technologies, the benefits of the use of these technologies must be assessed for real-life engine use. As in practice engines are developed to perform as good as possible on the approval test cycle on the basis of which emission limits are set, it is

  19. International collaboration, the route to fuel cycle research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, T.; Mathers, D.; Rayment, F.

    2013-01-01

    In hindsight, involvement with European Framework projects such as GoFastR (Gas-cooled Fast Reactors) and ACSEPT (Actinide Recycling by Separation and Transmutation) was a crucial and, at the time, an innovative step in maintaining the UK skills base during a period of major changes in the UK nuclear industry. It has undoubtedly delivered the objectives intended in terms of maintenance of the key skills, developing and training new staff, regenerating facilities and building strong links with the European nuclear research community. Over the last 2-3 years NNL's participation in European projects has moved forward such that NNL (National Nuclear Laboratory) is an integral partner of several major projects, fully engaged with delivering the core objectives of the projects and intent on forging deep collaborations with key organisations across Europe. With the renewed interest in nuclear energy and future fuel cycle options in the UK, NNL is now well positioned to contribute at an even deeper level in European level programmes

  20. Cutting More than Metal: Breaking the Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Chris

    2014-01-01

    New technology is changing the way we do business at NASA. The ability to use these new tools is made possible by a learning culture able to embrace innovation, flexibility, and prudent risk tolerance, while retaining the hard-won lessons learned of other successes and failures. Technologies such as 3-D manufacturing and structured light scanning are re-shaping the entire product life cycle, from design and analysis, through production, verification, logistics and operations. New fabrication techniques, verification techniques, integrated analysis, and models that follow the hardware from initial concept through operation are reducing the cost and time of building space hardware. Using these technologies to be more efficient, reliable and affordable requires we bring them to a level safe for NASA systems, maintain appropriate rigor in testing and acceptance, and transition new technology. Maximizing these technologies also requires cultural acceptance and understanding and balancing rules with creativity. Evolved systems engineering processes at NASA are increasingly more flexible than they have been in the past, enabling the implementation of new techniques and approaches. This paper provides an overview of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's new approach to development, as well as examples of how that approach has been incorporated into NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program, which counts among its key tenants - safety, affordability, and sustainability. One of the 3D technologies that will be discussed in this paper is the design and testing of various rocket engine components.

  1. Development of a driving cycle to evaluate the energy economy of electric vehicles in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, John; O’Mahony, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a driving cycle to evaluate energy economy of electric vehicles. • Improves on existing driving cycles by using real world data from electric vehicles. • Driving data from different road types and traffic conditions included. - Abstract: Understanding real-world driving conditions in the form of driving cycles is instrumental in the design of efficient powertrains and energy storage systems for electric vehicles. In addition, driving cycles serve as a standardised measurement procedure for the certification of a vehicle’s fuel economy and driving range. They also facilitate the evaluation of the economic and lifecycle costs of emerging vehicular technologies. However, discrepancies between existing driving cycles and real-world driving conditions exist due to a number of factors such as insufficient data, inadequate driving cycle development methodologies and methods to assess the representativeness of developed driving cycles. The novel aspect of the work presented here is the use of real-world data from electric vehicles, over a six month period, to derive a driving cycle appropriate for their assessment. A stochastic and statistical methodology is used to develop and assess the representativeness of the driving cycle against a separate set of real world electric vehicle driving data and the developed cycle performs well in that comparison. Although direct comparisons with internal combustion engine driving cycles are not that informative or relevant due to the marked differences between how they and electric vehicles operate, some discussion around how the developed electric vehicle cycle relates to them is also included.

  2. Estimation of Freezing Point of Hydrocarbon and Hydrofluorocarbon Mixtures for Mixed Refrigerant jt Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, G.; Lee, J.; Jeong, S.

    2010-04-01

    Estimating the freezing point of refrigerant is an essential part in designing an MR JT (Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson) cryocooler to prevent itself from clogging and to operate with stability. There were researches on estimating freezing point, but some of them resulted in the wrong prediction of clogging. In this paper, the freezing point of the MR is precisely estimated with caution of clogging. The solubility of HC (hydrocarbon) and HFC (hydrofluorocarbon) mixture components are obtained with their activity coefficients, which represent the molecular interaction among the components. The freezing points of the MR JT cryocooler are systematically investigated in the operating temperature range from 70 K to 90 K.

  3. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  4. Developing Anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment Tools to Support Responsible Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Benjamin

    Several prominent research strategy organizations recommend applying life cycle assessment (LCA) early in the development of emerging technologies. For example, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Research Council, the Department of Energy, and the National Nanotechnology Initiative identify the potential for LCA to inform research and development (R&D) of photovoltaics and products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). In this capacity, application of LCA to emerging technologies may contribute to the growing movement for responsible research and innovation (RRI). However, existing LCA practices are largely retrospective and ill-suited to support the objectives of RRI. For example, barriers related to data availability, rapid technology change, and isolation of environmental from technical research inhibit application of LCA to developing technologies. This dissertation focuses on development of anticipatory LCA tools that incorporate elements of technology forecasting, provide robust explorations of uncertainty, and engage diverse innovation actors in overcoming retrospective approaches to environmental assessment and improvement of emerging technologies. Chapter one contextualizes current LCA practices within the growing literature articulating RRI and identifies the optimal place in the stage gate innovation model to apply LCA. Chapter one concludes with a call to develop anticipatory LCA---building on the theory of anticipatory governance---as a series of methodological improvements that seek to align LCA practices with the objectives of RRI. Chapter two provides a framework for anticipatory LCA, identifies where research from multiple disciplines informs LCA practice, and builds off the recommendations presented in the preceding chapter. Chapter two focuses on crystalline and thin film photovoltaics (PV) to illustrate the novel framework, in part because PV is an environmentally motivated technology undergoing extensive R&D efforts and

  5. Anisotropic steady-flow hydrodynamic parameters of microporous media applied to pulse tube and Stirling cryocooler regenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearman, W. M.; Cha, J. S.; Ghiaasiaan, S. M.; Kirkconnell, C. S.

    2008-03-01

    The hydrodynamic parameters associated with steady longitudinal and lateral (radial) flow of helium in several widely-used pulse tube and Stirling cryocooler regenerator fillers were measured and correlated in this investigation. Pressure drops in test sections packed with regenerator fillers were experimentally measured. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the regenerator test sections and their vicinities were developed and simulations were performed in which the regenerator test sections were modeled as porous media. By iterative repetition of the simulations, the longitudinal and radial permeability and Forchheimer inertial coefficients were determined such that they would lead to agreement between experimental measurements and the simulations. The regenerator fillers included 325 and 400 mesh stainless steel screens, stainless steel metal foam, sintered 400 mesh stainless steel screens, and a stack of micromachined perforated plates. The hydrodynamic response of the regenerator fillers were also correlated as friction factors. The results confirm that the aforementioned regenerator fillers are anisotropic.

  6. Survey report on trends of technical development on FBR cycle in Russia. Result report of business entrusted by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Kamata, Kuniko

    2001-02-01

    This survey was carried out for aims to smoothly promote the FBR cycle cooperation carried out between the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute and Nuclear Energy Agency in Russia Republic and to contribute their future cooperative planning, on a survey of technical developmental trend for items shown as follows: 1) recent trend on Russian FBR cycle technology, 2) Russian laws related on Russian FBR cycle cooperation, and 3) trends on separation and reprocessing technologies in Russia. Here was described on results on the survey, shown in the following items: 1) performing method, 2) Russian FBR fuel cycle; recent technical development, 3) basic laws on nuclear energy application in Russia, and 4) trends on separation and reprocessing technologies in Russia. (G.K.)

  7. Developing suitable buffers to capture transport cycling behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas; Schipperijn, Jasper; Christiansen, Lars Breum

    2014-01-01

    buffers for transport cycling. The percentage of GPS points per square meter was used as indicator of the effectiveness of a series of different buffer types, including home-based network buffers, shortest route to city center buffers, and city center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers. The results show...... that GPS tracks can help us understand where people go and stay during the day, which can help us link built environment with cycling. Analysis showed that the further people live from the city center, the more elongated are their GPS tracks, and the better an ellipse-shaped directional buffer captured...... center-directed ellipse-shaped buffers yielded better results than traditional home-based network buffer types. The ellipse-shaped buffer types could therefore be considered an alternative to more traditional buffers or administrative units in future studies of transport cycling behavior....

  8. Numerical study of a gas coupled VM-PT hybrid cryocooler using 3He as the working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Pan, C. Z.; Zhang, T.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The two-stage Vuilleumier gas-coupling pulse tube cryocooler (VM-PT) is one kind of novel low-frequency cryocoolers. In this gas-coupled form, the single stage Vuilleumier cryocooler serves as both pressure wave generator and a pre-cooler for coaxial pulse tube. Compared with the most commercialized GM and GM pulse tube cryocooler, the two-stage VM-PT cryocooler is characterized by its high stability, compact size and thermal actuation which are indispensable for space application. It has already been verified experimentally that this cryocooler can obtain 9.75mW@4.2K and the lowest no-load temperature 3.39K when 4He as the working fluid. However, such refrigerating capacity seems not enough for further application. 3He as a more potential substitution of 4He has better physical properties to improve performance, which has been studied in GM type and Stirling pulse tube cryocooler. For further optimization, a numerical study on the specific performance of two-stage VM-PT cryocooler using 3He is carried out in the present paper though Sage software. Working at the frequency of 1.0Hz and the pressure of 0.8MPa, the two-stage VM-PT cryocooler with 3He obtained 50mW@4.06K. The usage of 3He was 0.0038kg, about 30L under STP. At 4.2K, using 3He can obtain 58mW cooling power and 0.49% relative Carnot efficiency, about 1.6 times higher than using 4He.

  9. Standards life cycle and a methodolgy and infrastructure for standards development and implementation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available -practice methodology and infrastructure for selecting, developing, implementing and refining standards across Stats SA. The life cycle for standards in an organisation is also described...

  10. Development of a methodology for life cycle building energy ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the majority of building energy use has been linked to its operation (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.), and much attention has been directed to reduce this energy use through technical innovation, regulatory control and assessed through a wide range of rating methods. However buildings generally employ an increasing amount of materials and systems to reduce the energy use in operation, and energy embodied in these can constitute an important part of the building's life cycle energy use. For buildings with 'zero-energy' use in operation the embodied energy is indeed the only life cycle energy use. This is not addressed by current building energy assessment and rating methods. This paper proposes a methodology to extend building energy assessment and rating methods accounting for embodied energy of building components and systems. The methodology is applied to the EU Building Energy Rating method and, as an illustration, as implemented in Irish domestic buildings. A case study dwelling is used to illustrate the importance of embodied energy on life cycle energy performance, particularly relevant when energy use in operation tends to zero. The use of the Net Energy Ratio as an indicator to select appropriate building improvement measures is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: → The definitions for 'zero energy buildings' and current building energy ratings are examined. → There is a need to integrate a life cycle perspective within building energy ratings. → A life cycle building energy rating method (LC-BER), including embodied energy is presented. → Net Energy Ratio is proposed as an indicator to select building energy improvement options.

  11. Miniature PT Cryocooler Activated by Resonant Piezoelectric Compressor and Passive Warm Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, S.; Grossman, G.

    2017-12-01

    A novel type of PZT-based compressor operating at mechanical resonance, suitable for pneumatically-driven Stirling-type cryocoolers, was presented at CEC-ICMC 2015. The detailed concept, analytical model and the test results on the preliminary prototype were reported earlier and presented at ICC17. Despite some mismatch between the impedances and insufficient structural stiffness, this compressor demonstrated the feasibility to drive our miniature Pulse Tube cryocooler MTSa, operating at 103 Hz and requiring an average PV power of 11 W, filling pressure of 40 Bar and a pressure ratio of 1.3. At ICC19 the prototype of a miniature passive warm expander (WE) was presented. The WE mechanism included a phase shifting piston suspended on a silicone diaphragm, a mass element, and a viscous damping system. Several technical drawbacks prevented perfect matching between the WE and MTSa; however, the presented prototype proved the ability to create any flow-to-pressure phase appropriate for a PT cryocooler. This paper concentrates on integration of the MTSa cryocooler with the recently modified PZT compressor operating at corrected mechanical resonance and the modified WE, which was also updated recently to match the MTSa requirements.

  12. Study on a high capacity two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler working around 30 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotao; Zhu, Jian; Chen, Shuai; Dai, Wei; Li, Ke; Pang, Xiaomin; Yu, Guoyao; Luo, Ercang

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a two-stage high-capacity free-piston Stirling cryocooler driven by a linear compressor to meet the requirement of the high temperature superconductor (HTS) motor applications. The cryocooler system comprises a single piston linear compressor, a two-stage free piston Stirling cryocooler and a passive oscillator. A single stepped displacer configuration was adopted. A numerical model based on the thermoacoustic theory was used to optimize the system operating and structure parameters. Distributions of pressure wave, phase differences between the pressure wave and the volume flow rate and different energy flows are presented for a better understanding of the system. Some characterizing experimental results are presented. Thus far, the cryocooler has reached a lowest cold-head temperature of 27.6 K and achieved a cooling power of 78 W at 40 K with an input electric power of 3.2 kW, which indicates a relative Carnot efficiency of 14.8%. When the cold-head temperature increased to 77 K, the cooling power reached 284 W with a relative Carnot efficiency of 25.9%. The influences of different parameters such as mean pressure, input electric power and cold-head temperature are also investigated.

  13. Construction and tests of a heart scanner based on superconducting sensors cooled by small stirling cryocoolers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, A.P.; Blom, C.J.H.A.; Blom, Cock; Balena, A.P.; de Vries, E.; Holland, Herman J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Rogalla, Horst

    2001-01-01

    At the University of Twente, a heart scanner has been designed and constructed that uses superconducting devices (superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)) to measure the magnetic field of the heart. A key feature is the elimination of liquid cryogens by incorporating cryocoolers. In

  14. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models

  15. Fuel cycle safety research. Role and development in future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shiro

    2005-01-01

    The report stresses important roles played by risk informed methodology in chemical process safety problems as encountered in fuel cycle facility such as a reprocessing plant. Abnormal situation management is a safety issue - The lesson learned from the pesticide manufacturing facility in Bhopal, India. Little attention has been given to understanding the issues regarding performance during normal versus abnormal situation. The first step is in abnormal situation management is to define what really is abnormal. The second step is to ensure that everyone understands the difference between normal and abnormal, and the root causes of abnormal events. The third step is to be aware of current practices that support abnormal situation management, and the procedures, practices, and techniques used to respond to abnormal conditions. Dynamic simulation will become to useful techniques for abnormal situation management as well as probabilistic safety assessment for process facilities including nuclear fuel cycle. (S. Ohno)

  16. Swiss contributions to advanced fuel cycles research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledergerber, G.; Stanculescu, A.

    1997-01-01

    Based on its interdisciplinary know-how and facilities, PSI intends, through the AFC project, to maintain its support to the Swiss utilities on issues linked to safety and performance of advanced options for plutonium recycle. It will thus continue to contribute to the international R+D efforts toward strengthening the sustainability arguments for nuclear power from the view-point of the back end of the fuel cycle. (author) 2 figs., 12 refs

  17. Development of web based performance analysis program for nuclear power plant turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon; Yu, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seong Kun; Ji, Moon Hak; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seong Ryeol

    2002-01-01

    Performance improvement of turbine cycle affects economic operation of nuclear power plant. We developed performance analysis system for nuclear power plant turbine cycle. The system is based on PTC (Performance Test Code), that is estimation standard of nuclear power plant performance. The system is developed using Java Web-Start and JSP(Java Server Page)

  18. A Simple Model to Teach Business Cycle Macroeconomics for Emerging Market and Developing Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The canonical neoclassical model is insufficient to understand business cycle fluctuations in emerging market and developing economies. The author reformulates the model proposed by Aguiar and Gopinath (2007) in a simple setting that can be used to teach business cycle macroeconomics for emerging market and developing economies at the…

  19. Orphan drugs in development for urea cycle disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häberle J

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Johannes Häberle,1 Shawn E McCandless2 1Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Center for Human Genetics, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, and Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: The urea cycle disorders are caused by deficiency of one of the six hepatic enzymes or two transporters involved in detoxification of ammonia. The resulting hyperammonemia causes severe brain injury unless aggressive steps are taken to reduce the accumulation of ammonia, which is thought to be the most toxic metabolite. This review describes the current state of chronic management of urea cycle disorders, focusing on new and emerging therapies. Management strategies include the mainstay of treatment, namely dietary protein restriction and supplementation with l-arginine or l-citrulline. Several currently approved medications utilize and enhance alternative pathways of waste nitrogen excretion (sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate, sodium phenylbutyrate in several formulations, and glycerol phenylbutyrate, working through conjugation of the drug to either glycine (in the case of benzoate or glutamine, the products of which are excreted in the urine. Carglumic acid activates the first committed step of conversion of ammonia to urea, carbamoylphosphate synthetase, and thus effectively treats defective synthesis of the endogenous activator, N-acetylglutamate, whether due to genetic defects or biochemical inhibition of the N-acetylglutamate synthase enzyme. Approaches to neuroprotection during episodes of hyperammonemia are discussed, including the use of controlled hypothermia (brain cooling, as well as proposed, but as yet untested, pharmacologic therapies. Finally, cell-based therapies, including liver transplantation, infusion of fresh or cryopreserved hepatocytes, use of stem cells, and new approaches to gene

  20. Field Investigation and Modeling Development for Hydrological and Carbon Cycles in Southwest Karst Region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X. B.

    2017-12-01

    It is required to understanding water cycle and carbon cycle processes for water resource management and pollution prevention and global warming influence in southwest karst region of China. Lijiang river basin is selected as our study region. Interdisciplinary field and laboratory experiments with various technologies are conducted to characterize the karst aquifers in detail. Key processes in the karst water cycle and carbon cycle are determined. Based on the MODFLOW-CFP model, new watershed flow and carbon cycle models are developed coupled subsurface and surface water flow models. Our study focus on the karst springshed in Mao village, the mechanisms coupling carbon cycle and water cycle are explored. This study provides basic theory and simulation method for water resource management and groundwater pollution prevention in China karst region.

  1. Performance analysis of a miniature Joule-Thomson cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Rashmin; Atrey, Milind

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic temperatures are obtained with Joule-Thomson (J-T) cryocoolers in an easier way as compared to other cooling techniques. Miniature J-T cryocoolers are often employed for cooling of infrared sensors, cryoprobes, biological samples, etc. A typical miniature J-T cryocooler consists of a storage reservoir/compressor providing the high pressure gas, a finned tube recuperative heat exchanger, an expansion valve/orifice, and the cold end. The recuperative heat exchanger is indispensable for attaining cryogenic temperatures. The geometrical parameters and the operating conditions of the heat exchanger drastically affect the cryocooler performance in terms of cool down time and cooling effect. In the literature, the numerical models for the finned recuperative heat exchanger have neglected the distributed J-T effect. The distributed J-T effect accounts for the changes in enthalpy of the fluid due to changes of pressure in addition to those due to changes of temperature. The objective of this work is to explore the distributed J-T effect and study the performance of a miniature J-T cryocooler with and without the distributed J-T effect. A one dimensional transient model is employed for the numerical analysis of the cryocooler. Cases with different operating conditions are worked out with argon and nitrogen as working fluids.

  2. Development of hot test equipment for advanced nuclear fuel cycle development in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, K.; Shibata, A.; Nemoto, S.; Aoshima, A.; Funasaka, H.

    2001-01-01

    JNC (Japan nuclear fuel cycle development institute) has been developing a mini centrifugal contactor. JNC has experience of the development of the RETF (Recycle equipment test facility; under construction at Tokai-works) type centrifugal contactor and the mini centrifugal contactor is designed on the basis of this knowledge. The followings were carried out in order to estimate the performance of the mini centrifugal contactor: functional test for evaluating basic performance of this extractor, acid-solvent test and uranium test for confirming that sufficient performance is attained. The results showed wide performance in comparison with the mini mixer settler used so far and it is expected that shortening in operating time and higher efficiency of extracting tests will be achieved. (author)

  3. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle - impact of developments on fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear energy will have to cope more and more with a rapid changing environment due to economic competitive pressure and the deregulatory progress. In current economic environment, utilities will have to focus strongly on the reduction of their total generation costs, covering the fuel cycle costs, which are only partly under their control. Developments in the fuel cycle will be in the short-term rather evolutionary addressing the current needs of utilities. However, within the context of sustainable development and more and more inclusion of externalities in energy generation costs, more performing developments in the fuel cycle could become important and feasible. A life-cycle design approach of the fuel cycle will be requested in order to cover all factors in order to decrease significantly the nuclear energy generation cost to complete with other alternative fuels in the long-term. This paper will report on some of the trends one could distinguish in the fuel cycle with emphasis on cost reduction. OECD/NEA is currently conducting a study on the fuel cycle aiming to assess current and future nuclear fuel cycles according to the potential for further improvement of the full added-value chain of these cycles from a mainly technological and economic perspective including environmental and social considerations. (orig.) [de

  4. Development and Validation of A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Analysis Tool: A FUTURE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Ko, W. I.; Lee, Yoon Hee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and validation methods of the FUTURE (FUel cycle analysis Tool for nUcleaR Energy) code, which was developed for a dynamic material flow evaluation and economic analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle. This code enables an evaluation of a nuclear material flow and its economy for diverse nuclear fuel cycles based on a predictable scenario. The most notable virtue of this FUTURE code, which was developed using C and MICROSOFT SQL DBMS, is that a program user can design a nuclear fuel cycle process easily using a standard process on the canvas screen through a drag-and-drop method. From the user's point of view, this code is very easy to use thanks to its high flexibility. In addition, the new code also enables the maintenance of data integrity by constructing a database environment of the results of the nuclear fuel cycle analyses

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE ANALYSIS TOOL: A FUTURE CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. KIM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and validation methods of the FUTURE (FUel cycle analysis Tool for nUcleaR Energy code, which was developed for a dynamic material flow evaluation and economic analysis of the nuclear fuel cycle. This code enables an evaluation of a nuclear material flow and its economy for diverse nuclear fuel cycles based on a predictable scenario. The most notable virtue of this FUTURE code, which was developed using C# and MICROSOFT SQL DBMS, is that a program user can design a nuclear fuel cycle process easily using a standard process on the canvas screen through a drag-and-drop method. From the user's point of view, this code is very easy to use thanks to its high flexibility. In addition, the new code also enables the maintenance of data integrity by constructing a database environment of the results of the nuclear fuel cycle analyses.

  6. Use of MR imaging in following follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, C.L.; Gendal, E.S.; Wyczyk, H.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Laufer, N.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging in monitoring follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle. MR images, US scans, and hormonal levels of estradiol and progesterone were obtained in six ovulatory volunteers on six designated days of the cycle. As illustrated in this exhibit, MR imaging demonstrated more secondary smaller follicles and better follicular detail than US and surpassed US in demonstrating endometrial and myometrial changes. The finer details observed on MR imaging during the normal cycle have practical implications for women undergoing stimulated cycles and in vitro fertilization

  7. The Development of SCORM-Conformant Learning Content Based on the Learning Cycle Using Participatory Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Wang, T. I.

    2010-01-01

    This study incorporates the 5E learning cycle strategy to design and develop Sharable Content Object Reference Model-conformant materials for elementary science education. The 5E learning cycle that supports the constructivist approach has been widely applied in science education. The strategy consists of five phases: engagement, exploration,…

  8. Progress and status of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and the future plans and directions. 10 refs

  9. Progress and status of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and the future plans and directions

  10. Progress and status of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and the future plans and directions.

  11. Progress and status of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and the future plans and directions. (author)

  12. Progress and status of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and the future plans and directions. 10 refs.

  13. Progress and status of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1993-03-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and the future plans and directions.

  14. Dinoflagellate biogeochemistry: developing new proxies for past carbon cycling (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijs, A.; Hoins, M.; van de Waal, D.; Reichart, G.; Rost, B.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate reconstructions of atmospheric CO2 levels for time intervals that are beyond the reach of the ice cores (> ~850 kyr) remain one of the grand challenges of paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental research. Despite recent progress in analytical techniques and application in several proxies, uncertainties in reconstructed values remain large. Based on culturing experiments combined with gene expression analysis and physiological assays, we quantify and mechanistically underpin the geochemical response of dinoflagellates and their cysts to various CO2 concentrations. The results confirm theoretical inferences that the isotopic composition of both organic and calcite dinoflagellate cysts may serve as a proxy for past ocean carbonate chemistry, notably pCO2. We found a strong effect (~10x as strong as in foraminifera) of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of a calcareous dinoflagellate cyst. Moreover, we found that the stable carbon isotopic composition of four dinoflagellate species, of which two have organic dinocyst fossil records down to the early Cenozoic and Cretaceous, strongly respond to pCO2. Critically, the experiments show that the mechanisms forcing the changes in fractionation factors differ between species, opening a suite of opportunities to study past carbon cycling as well as protist physiology during Earth System perturbations. The dinoflagellate Apectodinium dominated dinoflagellate assemblages during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Will its carbon isotopic composition reveal CO2 concentrations at that time?

  15. Research on development model of nuclear component based on life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Shiyi; Zhou Yu; He Shuyan

    2005-01-01

    At present the development process of nuclear component, even nuclear component itself, is more and more supported by computer technology. This increasing utilization of the computer and software has led to the faster development of nuclear technology on one hand and also brought new problems on the other hand. Especially, the combination of hardware, software and humans has increased nuclear component system complexities to an unprecedented level. To solve this problem, Life Cycle Management technology is adopted in nuclear component system. Hence, an intensive discussion on the development process of a nuclear component is proposed. According to the characteristics of the nuclear component development, such as the complexities and strict safety requirements of the nuclear components, long-term design period, changeable design specifications and requirements, high capital investment, and satisfaction for engineering codes/standards, the development life-cycle model of nuclear component is presented. The development life-cycle model is classified at three levels, namely, component level development life-cycle, sub-component development life-cycle and component level verification/certification life-cycle. The purposes and outcomes of development processes are stated in detailed. A process framework for nuclear component based on system engineering and development environment of nuclear component is discussed for future research work. (authors)

  16. Development and applications of GREET 2.7 -- The Transportation Vehicle-CycleModel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Wu, Y.

    2006-12-20

    Argonne National Laboratory has developed a vehicle-cycle module for the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been cited extensively and contains data on fuel cycles and vehicle operations. The vehicle-cycle model evaluates the energy and emission effects associated with vehicle material recovery and production, vehicle component fabrication, vehicle assembly, and vehicle disposal/recycling. With the addition of the vehicle-cycle module, the GREET model now provides a comprehensive, lifecycle-based approach to compare the energy use and emissions of conventional and advanced vehicle technologies (e.g., hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell vehicles). This report details the development and application of the GREET 2.7 model. The current model includes six vehicles--a conventional material and a lightweight material version of a mid-size passenger car with the following powertrain systems: internal combustion engine, internal combustion engine with hybrid configuration, and fuel cell with hybrid configuration. The model calculates the energy use and emissions that are required for vehicle component production; battery production; fluid production and use; and vehicle assembly, disposal, and recycling. This report also presents vehicle-cycle modeling results. In order to put these results in a broad perspective, the fuel-cycle model (GREET 1.7) was used in conjunction with the vehicle-cycle model (GREET 2.7) to estimate total energy-cycle results.

  17. Development of nuclear fuel cycle remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, B. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-04-01

    This report presents the development of remote handling systems and remote equipment for use in the pyprocessing verification at the PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive Demonstration facility). There are three areas conducted in this work. In first area, developed were the prototypes of an engineering-scale high-throughput decladding voloxidizer which is capable of separating spent fuel rod-cuts into hulls and powder and collecting them separately and an automatic equipment which is capable of collecting residual powder remaining on separated hulls. In second area, a servo-manipulator prototype was developed to operate and maintain pyroprocess equipment located at the argon cell of the PRIDE in a remote manner. A servo-manipulator with dual arm that is mounted on the lower part of a bridge transporter will be installed on the ceiling of the in-cell and can travel the length of the ceiling. In last area, a simulator was developed to simulate and evaluate the design developments of the pyroprocess equipment from the in-cell arrangements, remote operability and maintainability viewpoint in a virtual process environment in advance before they are constructed. The developed decladding voloxidizer and automatic equipment will be utilized in the development of a head-end process for pyroprocessing. In addition, the developed servo-manipulator will be installed in the PRIDE and used for remote operation and maintenance of the pyroprocess equipment. The developed simulator will be also used to verify and improve the design of the pyroprocess equipment for the PRIDE application. Moreover, these remote technologies described above can be directly used in the PRIDE and applied for the ESPF (Engineering Scale Pyroprocess Facility) and KAPF (Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility) development

  18. Development of nuclear fuel cycle remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, B. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-04-15

    This report presents the development of remote handling systems and remote equipment for use in the pyprocessing verification at the PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive Demonstration facility). There are three areas conducted in this work. In first area, developed were the prototypes of an engineering-scale high-throughput decladding voloxidizer which is capable of separating spent fuel rod-cuts into hulls and powder and collecting them separately and an automatic equipment which is capable of collecting residual powder remaining on separated hulls. In second area, a servo-manipulator prototype was developed to operate and maintain pyroprocess equipment located at the argon cell of the PRIDE in a remote manner. A servo-manipulator with dual arm that is mounted on the lower part of a bridge transporter will be installed on the ceiling of the in-cell and can travel the length of the ceiling. In last area, a simulator was developed to simulate and evaluate the design developments of the pyroprocess equipment from the in-cell arrangements, remote operability and maintainability viewpoint in a virtual process environment in advance before they are constructed. The developed decladding voloxidizer and automatic equipment will be utilized in the development of a head-end process for pyroprocessing. In addition, the developed servo-manipulator will be installed in the PRIDE and used for remote operation and maintenance of the pyroprocess equipment. The developed simulator will be also used to verify and improve the design of the pyroprocess equipment for the PRIDE application. Moreover, these remote technologies described above can be directly used in the PRIDE and applied for the ESPF (Engineering Scale Pyroprocess Facility) and KAPF (Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility) development

  19. New oxide magnetic material for sub-4K cryocoolers; Sankabutsu jiseitai no chikureizai eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, T.; Sato, A.; Wada, H. [National Research Inst. of Metals, Tokyo (Japan). Tsukuba Magnet Lab.; Arai, O. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-29

    Aiming at improvement of refrigerating performance below 4 K, magnetic cryocoolers with large heat capacity in this region were examined. Noticing comparatively weak and simple magnetic interaction of oxide magnetic materials, possible substances which have large volume specific heat below 4 K were searched, and found perovskite system rare earth magnetic material GdAlO{sub 3}. Though GdAlO{sub 3} polycrystal shows {lambda} type ferromagnetic transition directly below 4 K, magnetic entropy of Gd is sufficiently maintained, and Gd has a large specific heat peak in 3 {approx} 4 K. Comparing with practical magnetic cryocooler HoCu{sub 2}, this GdAlO{sub 3} was found to have over 3.5 times specific heat. (NEDO)

  20. A 1 kW-class multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler system operating at liquefied natural gas temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. M.; Hu, J. Y.; Wu, Z. H.; Luo, E. C.; Xu, J. Y.; Bi, T. J.

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces a multi-stage heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocooler capable of reaching cooling capacity about 1 kW at liquefied natural gas temperature range without any moving mechanical parts. The cooling system consists of an acoustically resonant double-acing traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engine and three identical pulse tube coolers. Unlike other traditional traveling wave thermoacoustic heat engines, the acoustically resonant double-acting thermoacoustic heat engine is a closed-loop configuration consists of three identical thermoacoustic conversion units. Each pulse tube cooler is bypass driven by one thermoacoustic heat engine unit. The device is acoustically completely symmetric and therefore "self-matching" for efficient traveling-wave thermoacoustic conversion. In the experiments, with 7 MPa helium gas as working gas, when the heating temperature reaches 918 K, total cooling capacity of 0.88 kW at 110 K is obtained with a resonant frequency of about 55 Hz. When the heating temperature is 903 K, a maximum total cooling capacity at 130 K of 1.20 kW is achieved, with a thermal-to-cold exergy efficiency of 8%. Compared to previously developed heat-driven thermoacoustic cryocoolers, this device has higher thermal efficiency and higher power density. It shows a good prospect of application in the field of natural gas liquefaction and recondensation.

  1. Development of Gene Centric Modeling for Nutrient Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    opportunity to participate in the development of a gene-centric model to help predict potential changes in the biogeochemistry of aquatic ecosystems that may arise from anthropogenic stressors and management decisions

  2. Development of nuclear fuel cycle remote handling technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, B. S.; Kim, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    This report presents the development of remote handling systems and remote equipment for use in the pyprocessing verification at the PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive Demonstration facility). There are four areas conducted in this work. In first area, the prototypes of an engineering-scale high-throughput decladding voloxidizer which is capable of separating spent fuel rod-cuts into hulls and powder and collecting them separately, and an automatic equipment which is capable of collecting residual powder remaining on separated hulls were developed. In second area, a servo-manipulator system was developed to operate and maintain pyroprocess equipment located at the argon cell of the PRIDE in a remote manner. A servo-manipulator with dual arm that is mounted on the lower part of a bridge transporter will be installed on the ceiling of the in-cell and can travel the length of the ceiling. In third area, a digital mock-up and a remote handling evaluation mock-up were constructed to evaluate the pyroprocess equipments from the in-cell arrangements, remote operability and maintainability viewpoint before they are installed in the PRIDE. In last area, a base technology for remote automation of integrated pyroprocess was developed. The developed decladding voloxidizer and automatic equipment will be utilized in the development of a head-end process for pyroprocessing. In addition, the developed servo-manipulator will be used for remote operation and maintenance of the pyroprocess equipments in the PRIDE. The constructed digital mock-up and remote handling evaluation mock-up will be also used to verify and improve the pyroprocess equipments for the PRIDE application. Moreover, these remote technologies described above can be directly used in the PRIDE and applied for the KAPF (Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility) development

  3. Development of nuclear fuel cycle remote handling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Park, B. S.; Kim, S. H.; and others

    2012-04-15

    This report presents the development of remote handling systems and remote equipment for use in the pyprocessing verification at the PRIDE (PyRoprocess Integrated inactive Demonstration facility). There are four areas conducted in this work. In first area, the prototypes of an engineering-scale high-throughput decladding voloxidizer which is capable of separating spent fuel rod-cuts into hulls and powder and collecting them separately, and an automatic equipment which is capable of collecting residual powder remaining on separated hulls were developed. In second area, a servo-manipulator system was developed to operate and maintain pyroprocess equipment located at the argon cell of the PRIDE in a remote manner. A servo-manipulator with dual arm that is mounted on the lower part of a bridge transporter will be installed on the ceiling of the in-cell and can travel the length of the ceiling. In third area, a digital mock-up and a remote handling evaluation mock-up were constructed to evaluate the pyroprocess equipments from the in-cell arrangements, remote operability and maintainability viewpoint before they are installed in the PRIDE. In last area, a base technology for remote automation of integrated pyroprocess was developed. The developed decladding voloxidizer and automatic equipment will be utilized in the development of a head-end process for pyroprocessing. In addition, the developed servo-manipulator will be used for remote operation and maintenance of the pyroprocess equipments in the PRIDE. The constructed digital mock-up and remote handling evaluation mock-up will be also used to verify and improve the pyroprocess equipments for the PRIDE application. Moreover, these remote technologies described above can be directly used in the PRIDE and applied for the KAPF (Korea Advanced Pyroprocess Facility) development.

  4. Development of Chemical Technology in Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Kwang Yong; Kim, W. H.; Kim, J. S.

    2007-06-01

    This project mainly concentrates on the development of technologies related to elemental analysis for the mass balance of pyro-chemical process, on the development of in-line measurement system for high temperature molten salt, and on the development of radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD system to evaluate the integrity of nuclear fuel. Chemical analysis methods for the quantitative determination of fissile elements, minor actinide elements, fission products, chemical additive and corrosion products in Uranium Metal Ingots are established. It will be applied to the evaluation of mass balance in electrolytic reduction process for the optimization of the process. Optical fiber based UV-VIS spectrophotometer combined with reaction cell was developed for the measurement of reactions in high temperature molten salt. This system is applicable to in-line monitoring of electro-refining process and contribute to clarify the chemical reactions. Radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD systems are planned to be used for the analysis of isotopic distribution and structural changes from core to rim of spent nuclear fuel pellet, respectively. The developed techniques can contribute to produce database needed for authorization and practical use of ultra high burn-up fuel. In addition, it can be applicable to the other industries such as microelectronics, nano material science and semiconductor to analyze micro region

  5. Mars Propellant Liquefaction and Storage Performance Modeling using Thermal Desktop with an Integrated Cryocooler Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Pooja; Hauser, Dan; Sutherlin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    NASAs current Mars architectures are assuming the production and storage of 23 tons of liquid oxygen on the surface of Mars over a duration of 500+ days. In order to do this in a mass efficient manner, an energy efficient refrigeration system will be required. Based on previous analysis NASA has decided to do all liquefaction in the propulsion vehicle storage tanks. In order to allow for transient Martian environmental effects, a propellant liquefaction and storage system for a Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) was modeled using Thermal Desktop. The model consisted of a propellant tank containing a broad area cooling loop heat exchanger integrated with a reverse turbo Brayton cryocooler. Cryocooler sizing and performance modeling was conducted using MAV diurnal heat loads and radiator rejection temperatures predicted from a previous thermal model of the MAV. A system was also sized and modeled using an alternative heat rejection system that relies on a forced convection heat exchanger. Cryocooler mass, input power, and heat rejection for both systems were estimated and compared against sizing based on non-transient sizing estimates.

  6. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo.

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs

  7. Technology development of nuclear material safeguards for DUPIC fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Kim, Ho Dong; Kang, Hee Young; Lee, Young Gil; Byeon, Kee Ho; Park, Young Soo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Park, Ho Joon; Lee, Byung Doo; Chung, Sang Tae; Choi, Hyung Rae; Park, Hyun Soo

    1997-07-01

    During the second phase of research and development program conducted from 1993 to 1996, nuclear material safeguards studies system were performed on the technology development of DUPIC safeguards system such as nuclear material measurement in bulk form and product form, DUPIC fuel reactivity measurement, near-real-time accountancy, and containment and surveillance system for effective and efficient implementation of domestic and international safeguards obligation. By securing in advance a optimized safeguards system with domestically developed hardware and software, it will contribute not only to the effective implementation of DUPIC safeguards, but also to enhance the international confidence build-up in peaceful use of spent fuel material. (author). 27 refs., 13 tabs., 89 figs.

  8. Cutting More than Metal: Breaking Through the Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Christopher E.; Onken, Jay

    2014-01-01

    NASA is advancing a new development approach and new technologies in the design construction, and testing of the next great launch vehicle for space exploration. The ability to use these new tools is made possible by a learning culture able to embrace innovation, flexibility, and prudent risk tolerance, while retaining the hard-won lessons learned through the successes and failures of the past. This paper provides an overview of the Marshall Space Flight Center's new approach to launch vehicle development, as well as examples of how that approach has been leveraged by NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program to achieve its key goals to safety, affordability, and sustainability.

  9. Developing New Working Methods in Medium Cycle Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Hans Jørgen

    and complete a higher education study, independently of the geographic, social and cultural distance from their home 2) to intensify collaboration between the university college and local enterprises. ICT-based satellites are supposed to facilitate a close collaboration with local enterprises and authorities......This paper outlines the intentions of a research and development project running from January 2011until July 2014. The project, called FlexVid, aims at developing new structures and working methods for university college education. The intentions are 1) to make it easier for students to join...

  10. Development of a Hemispherical Metal Diaphragm for Single-Cycle Liquid-Metal Positive Expulsion Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorland, Sol

    1965-01-01

    This report presents experimental results pertaining to the design and development of a metallic expulsion diaphragm for single-cycle positive expulsion of high-temperature liquid in an agravity condition...

  11. Fast-Cycle Curriculum Development Strategies for E-Business Programs: The Bentley College Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowicz, Jane; Gogan, Janis L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents two types of fast-cycle curriculum development processes: research driven and stakeholder driven. Illustrates their application in the Bentley College business school's new course modules, elective courses, and graduate program on electronic commerce. (Contains 19 references.) (SK)

  12. Development methodology for the software life cycle process of the safety software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, S. S.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Han, H. B.

    2002-01-01

    A methodology for developing software life cycle processes (SLCP) is proposed to develop the digital safety-critical Engineered Safety Features - Component Control System (ESF-CCS) successfully. A software life cycle model is selected as the hybrid model mixed with waterfall, prototyping, and spiral models and is composed of two stages , development stages of prototype of ESF-CCS and ESF-CCS. To produce the software life cycle (SLC) for the Development of the Digital Reactor Safety System, the Activities referenced in IEEE Std. 1074-1997 are mapped onto the hybrid model. The SLCP is established after the available OPAs (Organizational Process Asset) are applied to the SLC Activities, and the known constraints are reconciled. The established SLCP describes well the software life cycle activities with which the Regulatory Authority provides

  13. Biodemographic and live cycle development comparison of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... not significant at the threshold of risk alpha=0.05. Between the average durations of development from the laying to the appearance of the nymph of the second generation (F2) of the populations of T. castaneum stemming from Djilas and Karang, we have a probability value of P=0.000971<0.05.

  14. Industry best practices for the software development life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    In the area of software development, there are many different views of what constitutes a best practice. The goal of this project was to identify a set of industry best practice techniques that fit the needs of the Montana Department of Transportatio...

  15. Annual cycle of shoot development in sugar maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Gregory

    1980-01-01

    Cytohistology and the development and morphogenesis of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) shoots were studied. Three types were recognized: short shoots, long shoots entirely preformed in the bud (Epf long), and long shoots partially preformed in the bud (heterophyllous). The three shoot types varied not only in the size and number of internodes...

  16. International Projects Development: From Decision Cycle to Overseas Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklyn, Gaston J.

    The major elements of the industry-based planning process can be successfully applied to the development and implementation of international projects in educational institutions. International education programs share the following fundamental structural elements with business and industry: they compete in the market place, and exist by managing…

  17. Development of Information Management System for Plant Life Cycle Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byon, SuJin; Lee, SangHyun; Kim, WooJoong [KOREA HYDRO and NUCLEAR POWER CO. LTD, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The study subjects are S. Korean NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) construction projects. Design, construction, operations companies have different nuclear power plant construction project structures, and each company has its own Information Management System. In this study, the end user developed an Information Management System early in the project, and developed a management structure that systematically integrates and interfaces with information in each lifecycle phase. The main perspective of Information Management is moving from the existent document-centric management to the data-centric management. To do so, we intend to integrate information with interfaces among systems. Integrated information management structure and management system are essential for an effective management of the lifecycle information of nuclear power plants that have a lifespan over as much as 80 years. The concept of integration management adopted by the defence, ocean industries or various PLM solution providers is important. Although the NPP project has application systems in each key lifecycle phase, it is more effective to develop and use PLIMS in consideration of the interface and compatibility of information among systems. As an initial study for development of that integrated information management structure, this study is building the system and has interfaced it with a design-stage system.

  18. Development of Information Management System for Plant Life Cycle Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byon, SuJin; Lee, SangHyun; Kim, WooJoong

    2015-01-01

    The study subjects are S. Korean NPP(Nuclear Power Plant) construction projects. Design, construction, operations companies have different nuclear power plant construction project structures, and each company has its own Information Management System. In this study, the end user developed an Information Management System early in the project, and developed a management structure that systematically integrates and interfaces with information in each lifecycle phase. The main perspective of Information Management is moving from the existent document-centric management to the data-centric management. To do so, we intend to integrate information with interfaces among systems. Integrated information management structure and management system are essential for an effective management of the lifecycle information of nuclear power plants that have a lifespan over as much as 80 years. The concept of integration management adopted by the defence, ocean industries or various PLM solution providers is important. Although the NPP project has application systems in each key lifecycle phase, it is more effective to develop and use PLIMS in consideration of the interface and compatibility of information among systems. As an initial study for development of that integrated information management structure, this study is building the system and has interfaced it with a design-stage system

  19. Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment - Decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Won, Hui Jun; Yoon, Ji Sup and others

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of D econtamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology development , the following were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Environmental remediation technology development. (author). 95 refs., 45 tabs., 163 figs

  20. Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment - Decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Won, Hui Jun; Yoon, Ji Sup [and others

    1997-12-01

    Through the project of 'Decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology development', the following were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Environmental remediation technology development. (author). 95 refs., 45 tabs., 163 figs.

  1. Software architecture innovation cycle - development, documentation, and compliance checking

    OpenAIRE

    Knodel, J.; Kolb, R.; Muthig, D.; Leszak, M.; Rauch, P.; Meier, G.; Schitter, C.; Büren, G.; Rückert, C.; Mende, T.; Guder, F.

    2006-01-01

    The results and activities presented in this report were conducted in the context of the ArQuE project (ArQuE stands for Architecture-centric Quality Engineering). The goal of ArQuE is to develop an integrated and comprehensive method that enables goal-oriented, architecture-centric, and strategic quality engineering based on experiences with existing systems and their properties assessed by reverse engineering, metrics and historic data. This report introduces and describes the software arch...

  2. Review of supercritical CO2 power cycle technology and current status of research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonhan Ahn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical CO2 (S-CO2 Brayton cycle has recently been gaining a lot of attention for application to next generation nuclear reactors. The advantages of the S-CO2 cycle are high efficiency in the mild turbine inlet temperature region and a small physical footprint with a simple layout, compact turbomachinery, and heat exchangers. Several heat sources including nuclear, fossil fuel, waste heat, and renewable heat sources such as solar thermal or fuel cells are potential application areas of the S-CO2 cycle. In this paper, the current development progress of the S-CO2 cycle is introduced. Moreover, a quick comparison of various S-CO2 layouts is presented in terms of cycle performance.

  3. Development Life Cycle and Tools for XML Content Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Buhwan, Jeong [POSTECH University, South Korea; Goyal, Puja [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

    2004-11-01

    Many integration projects today rely on shared semantic models based on standards represented using Extensible Mark up Language (XML) technologies. Shared semantic models typically evolve and require maintenance. In addition, to promote interoperability and reduce integration costs, the shared semantics should be reused as much as possible. Semantic components must be consistent and valid in terms of agreed upon standards and guidelines. In this paper, we describe an activity model for creation, use, and maintenance of a shared semantic model that is coherent and supports efficient enterprise integration. We then use this activity model to frame our research and the development of tools to support those activities. We provide overviews of these tools primarily in the context of the W3C XML Schema. At the present, we focus our work on the W3C XML Schema as the representation of choice, due to its extensive adoption by industry.

  4. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-10-06

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  5. Heavy-Duty Vehicle Port Drayage Drive Cycle Characterization and Development: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prohaska, Robert; Konan, Arnaud; Kelly, Kenneth; Lammert, Michael

    2016-08-01

    In an effort to better understand the operational requirements of port drayage vehicles and their potential for adoption of advanced technologies, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers collected over 36,000 miles of in-use duty cycle data from 30 Class 8 drayage trucks operating at the Port of Long Beach and Port of Los Angeles in Southern California. These data include 1-Hz global positioning system location and SAE J1939 high-speed controller area network information. Researchers processed the data through NREL's Drive-Cycle Rapid Investigation, Visualization, and Evaluation tool to examine vehicle kinematic and dynamic patterns across the spectrum of operations. Using the k-medoids clustering method, a repeatable and quantitative process for multi-mode drive cycle segmentation, the analysis led to the creation of multiple drive cycles representing four distinct modes of operation that can be used independently or in combination. These drive cycles are statistically representative of real-world operation of port drayage vehicles. When combined with modeling and simulation tools, these representative test cycles allow advanced vehicle or systems developers to efficiently and accurately evaluate vehicle technology performance requirements to reduce cost and development time while ultimately leading to the commercialization of advanced technologies that meet the performance requirements of the port drayage vocation. The drive cycles, which are suitable for chassis dynamometer testing, were compared to several existing test cycles. This paper presents the clustering methodology, accompanying results of the port drayage duty cycle analysis and custom drive cycle creation.

  6. Development of alternate extractant systems for fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudeva Rao, P.R.; Suresh, A.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Raj, Baldev

    2007-01-01

    Due to the limitations of TBP in processing of high burn-up, Pu-rich fast reactor fuels, there is a need to develop alternate extractants for fast reactor fuel processing. In this context, our Centre has been examining the suitability of alternate tri-alkyl phosphates. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(IV) by TBP, tri-n-amyl phosphate (TAP) and tri-2-methyl-butyl phosphate (T2MBP) from nitric acid media has been investigated under various conditions to derive conclusions on their application for extraction of Pu at macro levels. The chemical and radiolytic degradation of tri-n-amyl-phosphate (TAP) diluted in normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) in the presence of nitric acid has been investigated by the measurement of plutonium retention in organic phase. The potential application of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel has been explored. Extraction of uranium (VI) and palladium (II) from nitric acid medium by commercially available RTIL and tri-n-butyl phosphate solution in RTIL have been studied and the feasibility of electrodeposition of uranium as uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and palladium (II) as metallic palladium from the loaded organic phase have been demonstrated. This paper describes results of the above studies and discusses the suitability of the systems for fast reactor fuel reprocessing. (authors)

  7. New development cycle through long-term investment ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Dittgen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Depuis quelques années, le Gabon nourrit l’ambition de réduire sa dépendance envers les revenus du pétrole et de diversifier son économie. Cette volonté coïncide avec l'augmentation des investissements chinois dans les pays africains richement dotés en ressources. Parmi l’éventail des relations sino-gabonaises, le secteur minier - et surtout le projet de la mine de fer de Bélinga - se place au centre de l'intérêt des deux parties.Sous le règne d’Omar Bongo, ce vaste projet minier avait été promu et présenté comme fleuron de l’économie nationale. Cependant, malgré les promesses de développer les infrastructures et de fournir des opportunités d'emploi, la tentative de diversification économique du Gabon semble toutefois limitée et ne pas vraiment mener vers un changement structurel majeur. Un certain nombre de critères ont par ailleurs retardé la réalisation du projet Bélinga et introduit de nouveaux risques et coûts pour les Chinois. Parmi les plus révélateurs figurent la volatilité des prix des matières premières, la mort du président Omar Bongo en 2009 ainsi que l’opposition croissante de la société civile. L’objectif principal de cet article consiste à étudier les possibilités de développement liées au projet et d’analyser l’approche évolutive de la Chine envers le projetGabon’s recent ambition to reduce its dependency on oil revenue by diversifying its economy coincides with China’s growing investment in resource-rich African countries. Within the wide range of Sino–Gabonese co-operation, the mining sector – and above all the Bélinga iron ore project – is central to both parties’ interests. Omar Bongo’s regime promoted this large-scale project as the flagship of the national economy. However, despite the promise of infrastructure development and employment opportunities, Gabon’s attempt at diversification seems limited and is not leading towards any major structural

  8. LCSoft – the Life Cycle Assessment Software: New developments and status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavewanmas, Yodsathorn; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    2017-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment or LCA is a technique to evaluate environmental impacts through the entire life cycle of products and/or processes, which is an important key to identify the environmental hotspot and make more informed decision for process design. In order to perform LCA, LCSoft has been...... and management options of Life Cycle Inventory database. The third task deals with development & introduction of new LCSoft features - parameter sensitivity analysis, normalization, and data quality indicator. The final task is validation of the integrated software. In this paper, assessment results...

  9. MR imaging in following follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janus, C.L.; Gendal, E.S.; Wiczyk, H.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Laufer, N.

    1987-01-01

    The authors assessed the usefulness of MR imaging in monitoring follicular and endometrial development during the menstrual cycle. MR images, sonograms, and hormonal levels of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) obtained from five ovulatory volunteers were evaluated in approximately days 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 of the cycle. MR imaging surpassed US in demonstrating endometrial and myometrial changes. Follicular growth and development seen on MR images correlated well with US appearance and hormonal levels, with MR imaging demonstrating more secondary smaller follicles than US. Information about the normal cycle obtained with MR imaging is described and may have practical implications for women in infertility programs undergoing stimulated cycles and in vitro fertilization

  10. International Source Book: Nuclear Fuel Cycle Research and Development Vol 1 Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmon, K. M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lakey, L. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1983-07-01

    This document starts with an overview that summarizes nuclear power policies and waste management activities for nations with significant commercial nuclear fuel cycle activities either under way or planned. A more detailed program summary is then included for each country or international agency conducting nuclear fuel cycle and waste management research and development. This first volume includes the overview and the program summaries of those countries listed alphabetically from Argentina to Italy.

  11. DEVELOPING A CYCLING SUBSYSTEM AS PART OF A SUSTAINABLE MOBILITY STRATEGY: THE CASE OF GDANSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanika OKRASZEWSKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modal share is an important component in developing sustainable transport within a city. In recent years, many cities have set modal share targets for balanced and sustainable transport modes: 30% of public transport and 30% of non-motorized (cycling and walking modes. Gdansk strategic documents have set similar goals with some actions already taken towards those goals. The cycle network is increasing popular. Gdansk’s cycling infrastructure is more developed than that in other Polish cities. Promotional actions are undertaken each year. Despite that, the share of cycling in the modal split still remains at the low level of 1-3%. The article analyses the case study of Gdansk’s cycling policy and its results. The article summarizes the modal share targets set in Gdansk’s strategic documents, describes the development of its cycle network and promotional campaigns, and presents the volume of bicycle traffic and its share in the city’s modal split. Finally, the article aims to identify the causes behind the low percentage of bicyclists in Gdansk.

  12. Strategy development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies for nuclear energy program in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, N.

    1987-01-01

    Strategy of technology development includes also development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies required for nuclear energy programme in Yugoslavia. For this reason, it is of interest to take into consideration possible options which would be the basis for long-term strategy of the nuclear fuel technology development in our country. In the paper criteria which could be used in the technology selection and its valorisation are given. Based on postulated criteria priority selection is made which has shown that the highest importance in the selection of nuclear fuel cycle should be given to the uranium enrichment technology and irradiated fuel reprocessing. (author)

  13. Vibration Isolation System for Cryocoolers of Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) Onboard ASTRO-H (Hitomi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoh; Yasuda, Susumu; Ishimura, Kosei; Iwata, Naoko; Okamoto, Atsushi; Sato, Yoichi; Ogawa, Mina; Sawada, Makoto; Kawano, Taro; Obara, Shingo; hide

    2016-01-01

    Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) onboard ASTRO-H (named Hitomi after launch) is a micro-calorimeter-type spectrometer, installed in a dewar to be cooled at 50 mK. The energy resolution of the SXS engineering model suffered from micro-vibration from cryocoolers mounted on the dewar. This is mitigated for the flight model by introducing vibration isolation systems between the cryocoolers and the dewar. The detector performance of the flight model was verified before launch of the spacecraft in both ambient condition and thermal-vac condition, showing no detectable degradation in energy resolution. The in-orbit performance was also consistent with that on ground, indicating that the cryocoolers were not damaged by launch environment. The design and performance of the vibration isolation system along with the mechanism of how the micro-vibration could degrade the cryogenic detector is shown.

  14. Development of a methodological framework for social life-cycle assessment of novel technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaster, Berthe|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370550153; Ciroth, Andreas; Fontes, João; Wood, Richard; Ramirez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414

    Purpose: Environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) is broadly applied and recently social and economic LCA have emerged. However, the development of a general framework for social LCA is still at an early stage of development. The aims of this paper are to systematically discuss general

  15. Development of a computer code for a regenerative Rankine cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wi, Myung Hwan; Kim, Seong O; Choi, Seok Ki; Kim, Jin Hwan

    2005-01-01

    A regenerative Rankine cycle can increase the thermal efficiency of a steam system without increasing the steam pressure and temperature. The regenerative process involves heating the feedwater on its return trip to the steam generator by extracting steam at various stages of the turbine and transferring the energy to the feedwater via a feedwater heater. Some real plants use more than five feedwater heaters to enhance the cycle efficiency. However, the optimum number of feedwater heaters required is determined by balancing the efficiency improvement against the capital investment for a given cycle. In the present study, the computer code, TAOPCS, for the thermodynamic analysis of a regenerative steam cycle was developed to optimally design and accurately analyze the behavior of the power conversion system of Korea Advance Liquid Metal Reactor (KALIMER). In order to understand the functions and the characteristics of the code, the main features of the TAPCS were described and the example results are presented in this paper

  16. 77 FR 50724 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... Electronic Engineers (IEEE) Standard 1074-2006, ``IEEE Standard for Developing a Software Project Life Cycle... Project Life Cycle Process'' issued in 1987 with the exceptions stated in the regulatory positions. IEEE... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital...

  17. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  18. Cell cycle in egg cell and its progression during zygotic development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukawa, Yumiko; Okamoto, Takashi

    2018-03-01

    Rice egg is arrested at G1 phase probably by OsKRP2. After fusion with sperm, karyogamy, OsWEE1-mediated parental DNA integrity in zygote nucleus, zygote progresses cell cycle to produce two-celled embryo. In angiosperms, female and male gametes exist in gametophytes after the complementation of meiosis and the progression of nuclear/cell division of the haploid cell. Within the embryo sac, the egg cell is specially differentiated for fertilization and subsequent embryogenesis, and cellular programs for embryonic development, such as restarting the cell cycle and de novo gene expression, are halted. There is only limited knowledge about how the cell cycle in egg cells restarts toward zygotic division, although the conversion of the cell cycle from a quiescent and arrested state to an active state is the most evident transition of cell status from egg cell to zygote. This is partly due to the difficulty in direct access and analysis of egg cells, zygotes and early embryos, which are deeply embedded in ovaries. In this study, precise relative DNA amounts in the nuclei of egg cells, developing zygotes and cells of early embryos were measured, and the cell cycle of a rice egg cell was estimated as the G1 phase with a 1C DNA level. In addition, increases in DNA content in zygote nuclei via karyogamy and DNA replication were also detectable according to progression of the cell cycle. In addition, expression profiles for cell cycle-related genes in egg cells and zygotes were also addressed, and it was suggested that OsKRP2 and OsWEE1 function in the inhibition of cell cycle progression in egg cells and in checkpoint of parental DNA integrity in zygote nucleus, respectively.

  19. Environmental Product Development Combining the Life Cycle Perspective with Chemical Hazard Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askham, Cecilia

    ) are essential. Many life cycle assessments of product systems are performed without the inclusion of toxicity data and indicators. Ecodesign processes for products are often based upon just one, or very few, environmental indicators. Regulatory issues are sometimes addressed in an ad hoc fashion, often late......Concerns regarding the short- and long-term detrimental effects of chemicals on human health and ecosystems have made the minimisation of chemical hazards a vitally important issue. If sustainable development is to be achieved, environmental efficient products (and product life cycles...... in the design or redesign process. This thesis concerns marrying the life cycle perspective with chemical hazard information, in order to advance the practice of environmental product development, and hence takes further steps towards sustainable development. The need to consider the full value chain...

  20. Follicular Development Dynamics and Plasma Progesterone Profile during the Estrous Cycle of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PP Putro

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of five local Friesian cows, 4 to 5 years, healthy, reproductively sound, were used in the study to understand the development dynamics of dominant follicles and plasma progesterone profile during estrous cycle.   Transrectal ultrasonographic examination using real time, B-mode, with 7.5 MHz transducer was performed daily for one full cycle to follow the development of dominant follicle and corpus luteum dynamics.   Blood plasma was collected daily to determine progesterone levels using EIA technique.   Follicular development dynamics and plasma progesterone levels were analyzed statistically using analyses of variance, while correlation between plasma progesterone levels and corpus luteum size were tested using correlation analyses.   The length of estrous cycle in local Friesian cow was 21.00 + 1.00 days.   Follicular dynamics during estrous cycle indicated only had two waves of dominant follicular development.   The first wave of dominant follicle was firstly identified on day 3, reached maximum diameter (11.17 + 0.90 mm on day 11 and identifiable until day 15.   The second dominant follicle appeared on day 11, reached maximum size on day 21 (13.17 + 0.69 mm and underwent ovulation on the next day.   The increased diameter of dominant follicle from days 17 to 21 was linear with growth rate of 1.20 + 0.18 mm/day.   Ovulatory dominant follicle had larger size than non-ovulatory ones (P<0.05.   Corpus luteum was ultrasonically detectable from days 5 to 19 of the estrous cycle.   The maximum size of corpus luteum (11.83 + 0.75 mm attained on day 11, and then regressed substantially till day 19.  Plasma progesterone level started to rise during the luteal phase, reached the peak level on day 12 (4.64 + 0.23 ng/ml and then decreased steadily till the lowest level (0.42 + 0.05 ng/ml at the time of estrus.  The plasma progesterone profile and the corpus luteum development were concomitant each other during estrous

  1. Technical Issues in the development of high burnup and long cycle fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Joo; Yang, Jae Ho; Oh, Jang Soo; Kim, Keon Sik; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Jong Hun; Nam, Ik Hui

    2012-01-01

    Over the last half century, a nuclear fuel cycle, a fuel discharged burnup and a uranium enrichment of the LWR (Light Water Reactor) fuel have continuously increased. It was the efforts to reduce the LWR fuel cycle cost, and to make reactor operation more efficiently. Improved fuel and reactor performance contribute further to the reduction and management efficiency of spent fuels. The primary incentive for operating nuclear reactor fuel to higher burnup and longer cycle is the economic benefits. The fuel cycle costs could be reduced by extending fuel discharged burnup and fuel cycle length. The higher discharged burnup can increase the energy production per unit fuel mass or fuel assembly. The longer fuel cycle can increase reactor operation flexibility and reduce the fuel changing operation and the spent fuel management burden. The margin to storage capacity limits would be also increased because high burnup and long cycle fuel reduces the mass of spent fuels. However, increment of fuel burnup and cycle length might result in the acceleration of material aging consisting fuel assembly. Then, the safety and integrity of nuclear fuel will be degraded. Therefore, to simultaneously enhance the safety and economics of the LWR fuel through the fuel burnup and cycle extension, it is indispensable to develop the innovative nuclear fuel material concepts and technologies which can overcome degradation of fuel safety. New fuel research project to extend fuel discharged burnup and cycle length has been launched in KAERI. Main subject is to develop innovative LWR fuel pellets which can provide required fuel performance and safety at extended fuel burnup and cycle length. In order to achieve the mission, we need to know that what the impediments are and how to break through current limit of fuel pellet properties. In this study, the technical issues related to fuel pellets at high burnup were surveyed and summarized. We have collected the technical issues in the literatures

  2. Development of high-rise buildings: digitalization of life cycle management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusakova Elena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the accumulated long-term experience in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings reveals not only the engineering specificity of such projects, but also systemic problems in the field of project management. Most of the project decisions are made by the developer and the investor in the early stages of the life cycle - from the acquisition of the site to the start of operation, so most of the participants in the construction and operation of the high-rise building are far from the strategic life-cycle management of the project. The solution of these tasks due to the informatization of management has largely exhausted its efficiency resource. This is due to the fact that the applied IT-systems automated traditional "inherited" processes and management structures, and, in addition, they were focused on informatization of the activities of the construction company, rather than the construction project. Therefore, in the development of high-rise buildings, the tasks of researching approaches and methods for managing the full life cycle of projects that will improve their competitiveness become topical. For this purpose, the article substantiates the most promising approaches and methods of informational modeling of high-rise construction as a basis for managing the full life cycle of this project. Reengineering of information interaction schemes for project participants is considered; formation of a unified digital environment for the life cycle of the project; the development of systems for integrating data management and project management.

  3. Development of high-rise buildings: digitalization of life cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusakova, Elena

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of the accumulated long-term experience in the construction and operation of high-rise buildings reveals not only the engineering specificity of such projects, but also systemic problems in the field of project management. Most of the project decisions are made by the developer and the investor in the early stages of the life cycle - from the acquisition of the site to the start of operation, so most of the participants in the construction and operation of the high-rise building are far from the strategic life-cycle management of the project. The solution of these tasks due to the informatization of management has largely exhausted its efficiency resource. This is due to the fact that the applied IT-systems automated traditional "inherited" processes and management structures, and, in addition, they were focused on informatization of the activities of the construction company, rather than the construction project. Therefore, in the development of high-rise buildings, the tasks of researching approaches and methods for managing the full life cycle of projects that will improve their competitiveness become topical. For this purpose, the article substantiates the most promising approaches and methods of informational modeling of high-rise construction as a basis for managing the full life cycle of this project. Reengineering of information interaction schemes for project participants is considered; formation of a unified digital environment for the life cycle of the project; the development of systems for integrating data management and project management.

  4. Final Qualification and Early On-Orbit Performance of the HESSI Cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, R. F.; Banks, I. S.; Shirey, K.

    2002-01-01

    The High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (HESSI) spacecraft was launched on February 5, 2002. It now observes the Sun with the finest angular and energy resolutions ever achieved from a few keV to hundreds of keV, using an array of nine germanium detectors operating at 75K. The spacecraft was originally scheduled for launch in July 2000, but a vibration facility mishap damaged the primary structure of the spacecraft, along with the cryocooler, This paper describes issues in the qualification of a replacement for the original flight cooler, and describes early on-orbit performance.

  5. Germanium detector with Stirling cryocooler for lunar gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Hiramoto, Takuji; Miyachi, Takashi; Murasawa, Satoshi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Okudaira, Osamu; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Berezhnoy, Alexey A.; Shibamura, Eido; Takashima, Takeshi; D'Uston, Claude; Narasaki, Katsuhiro; Tsurumi, Keisuke; Kaneko, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Michio; Mori, Kunishiro; Fujii, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) of Japanese lunar polar orbiter SELENE uses a Ge detector for the first time on a lunar mission. This spectrometer will observe lunar gamma rays for 1 year or more to determine chemical composition over the entire lunar surface. For cooling the Ge detector, we adopted a Stirling cryocooler. The SELENE GRS flight model was completed and an energy resolution of 3.0 keV (FWHM) at 1.33 MeV was achieved. This paper describes the details of the detector-cryogenic system and its performance

  6. The importance of life cycle concepts for the development of safe nanoproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, Claudia; Berges, Markus; Chaudhry, Qasim; Dusinska, Maria; Fernandes, Teresa F.; Olsen, Stig I.; Nowack, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Whilst the global players in industry are rapidly moving forward to take advantage of the new opportunities and prospects offered by nanotechnologies, it is imperative that such developments take place in a safe and sustainable manner. The increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products has raised certain concerns over their safety to human health and the environment. There are currently a number of major uncertainties and knowledge gaps in regard to behavior, chemical and biological interactions and toxicological properties of ENMs. As dealing with these uncertainties will require the generation of new basic knowledge, it is unlikely that they will be resolved in the immediate future. One has to consider the whole life cycle of nanoproducts to ensure that possible impacts can be systematically discovered. For example, life cycle assessment (LCA) - a formalized life cycle concept - may be used to assess the relative environmental sustainability performance of nanoproducts in comparison with their conventional equivalents. Other less formalized life cycle concepts in the framework of prospective technology assessment may uncover further detailed and prospective knowledge for human and environmental exposure to ENMs during the life cycle of nanoproducts. They systematically reveal impacts such as cross product contamination or dissipation of scarce materials among others. The combination of different life cycle concepts with the evolving knowledge from toxicology and risk assessment can mitigate uncertainties and can provide an early basis for informed decision making by the industry and regulators.

  7. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity

  8. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity.

  9. Performance estimation of an oil-free linear compressor unit for a new compact 2K Gifford-McMahon cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Bao, Q.; Y Xu, M.

    2017-12-01

    Since 2012, a new, compact Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler for cooling superconducting single photon detectors (SSPD) has been developed and reported by Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI). Also, it was reported that National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) developed a multi-channel, conduction-cooled SSPD system. However, the size and power consumption reduction becomes indispensable to apply such a system to the optical communication of AdHoc for a mobile system installed in a vehicle. The objective is to reduce the total height of the expander by 33% relative to the existing RDK-101 GM expander and to reduce the total volume of the compressor unit by 50% relative to the existing CNA-11 compressor. In addition, considering the targeted cooling application, we set the design cooling capacity targets of the first and the second stages 1 W at 60 K and 20 mW at 2.3 K respectively. In 2016, Hiratsuka et al. reported that an oil-free compressor was developed for a 2K GM cryocooler. The cooling performance of a 2K GM expander driven by an experimental unit of the linear compressor was measured. No-load temperature less than 2.1 K and the cooling capacity of 20 mW at 2.3 K were successfully achieved with an electric input power of only 1.1 kW. After that, the compressor capsule and the heat exchanger, etc. were assembled into one enclosure as a compressor unit. The total volume of the compressor unit and electrical box was significantly reduced to about 38 L, which was close to the target of 35 L. Also, the sound noise, vibration characteristics, the effect of the compressor unit inclination and the ambient temperature on the cooling performance, were evaluated. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  10. Chemical dissection of the cell cycle: probes for cell biology and anti-cancer drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senese, S; Lo, Y C; Huang, D; Zangle, T A; Gholkar, A A; Robert, L; Homet, B; Ribas, A; Summers, M K; Teitell, M A; Damoiseaux, R; Torres, J Z

    2014-10-16

    Cancer cell proliferation relies on the ability of cancer cells to grow, transition through the cell cycle, and divide. To identify novel chemical probes for dissecting the mechanisms governing cell cycle progression and cell division, and for developing new anti-cancer therapeutics, we developed and performed a novel cancer cell-based high-throughput chemical screen for cell cycle modulators. This approach identified novel G1, S, G2, and M-phase specific inhibitors with drug-like properties and diverse chemotypes likely targeting a broad array of processes. We further characterized the M-phase inhibitors and highlight the most potent M-phase inhibitor MI-181, which targets tubulin, inhibits tubulin polymerization, activates the spindle assembly checkpoint, arrests cells in mitosis, and triggers a fast apoptotic cell death. Importantly, MI-181 has broad anti-cancer activity, especially against BRAF(V600E) melanomas.

  11. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

  12. New Product Development Process on High-Tech Innovation Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalo G. Aleixo; Alexandra B. Tenera

    2009-01-01

    This work will provide a new perspective of exploring innovation thematic. It will reveal that radical and incremental innovations are complementary during the innovation life cycle and accomplished through distinct ways of developing new products. Each new product development process will be constructed according to the nature of each innovation and the state of the product development. This paper proposes the inclusion of the organizational function areas that influence new product's develo...

  13. Sustainable Development Factors in Pavement Life-Cycle: Highway/Airport Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Babashamsi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability has gained as much importance as management in business. Sustainable pavement development as a business practice should involve making evaluations according to the triple bottom line in the pavement life-cycle. Despite the current approaches to evaluating the social as well as economic and environmental feasibility of pavement projects (involving highway and airport infrastructure, there has recently been a lack of consensus on a methodology to guarantee sustainability upon assessment and analysis during the pavement life-cycle. As sustainability is a complex issue, this study intends to further explore sustainability and elaborate on its meaning. The second step involves a general depiction of the major sustainability appraisal tools, namely cost-benefit analysis, life-cycle cost analysis, life-cycle assessment, multi-criteria decision-making, environmental impact assessment and social life-cycle assessment, and an explanation of their cons and pros. Subsequently, the article addresses the application of an organized methodology to highlight the main factors or concepts that should be applied in sustainable pavement development and, more specifically, in sustainable pavement management. In the final step, research recommendations toward sustainability are given. This study is aimed to assist decision-makers in pavement management to plan sustainability frameworks in accordance with probable boundaries and restrictions.

  14. Design and Development of a Novel Upper-Limb Cycling Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Tiele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rise in popularity of the Paralympics in recent years has created a need for effective, low-cost sports-prosthetic devices for upper-limb amputees. There are various opportunities for lower-limb amputees to participate in cycling; however, there are only few options for those with upper-limb amputations. If the individual previously participated in cycling, a cycling-specific prosthesis could allow these activities to be integrated into rehabilitation methods. This article describes the processes involved with designing, developing and manufacturing such a prosthesis. The fundamental needs of people with upper-limb amputation were assessed and realised in the prototype of a transradial terminal device with two release mechanisms, including a sliding mechanism (for falls and minor collisions and clamping mechanism (for head-on collisions. The sliding mechanism requires the rider to exert approximately 200 N, while the clamping mechanism requires about 700 N. The force ranges can be customised to match rider requirements. Experiments were conducted in a controlled environment to demonstrate stability of the device during normal cycling. Moreover, a volunteer test-rider was able to successfully activate the release mechanism during a simulated emergency scenario. The development of this prosthesis has the potential to enable traumatic upper-limb amputees to participate in cycling for rehabilitation or recreation.

  15. Design and Development of a Novel Upper-Limb Cycling Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiele, Akira; Soni-Sadar, Shivam; Rowbottom, Jack; Patel, Shilen; Mathewson, Edward; Pearson, Samuel; Hutchins, David; Head, John; Hutchins, Stephen

    2017-11-16

    The rise in popularity of the Paralympics in recent years has created a need for effective, low-cost sports-prosthetic devices for upper-limb amputees. There are various opportunities for lower-limb amputees to participate in cycling; however, there are only few options for those with upper-limb amputations. If the individual previously participated in cycling, a cycling-specific prosthesis could allow these activities to be integrated into rehabilitation methods. This article describes the processes involved with designing, developing and manufacturing such a prosthesis. The fundamental needs of people with upper-limb amputation were assessed and realised in the prototype of a transradial terminal device with two release mechanisms, including a sliding mechanism (for falls and minor collisions) and clamping mechanism (for head-on collisions). The sliding mechanism requires the rider to exert approximately 200 N, while the clamping mechanism requires about 700 N. The force ranges can be customised to match rider requirements. Experiments were conducted in a controlled environment to demonstrate stability of the device during normal cycling. Moreover, a volunteer test-rider was able to successfully activate the release mechanism during a simulated emergency scenario. The development of this prosthesis has the potential to enable traumatic upper-limb amputees to participate in cycling for rehabilitation or recreation.

  16. Globalisation of the nuclear fuel cycle - impact of developments on fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durpel, L. van den; Bertel, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2000-02-01

    Nuclear energy will have to cope more and more with a rapid changing environment due to economic competitive pressure and the deregulatory progress. In current economic environment, utilities will have to focus strongly on the reduction of their total generation costs, covering the fuel cycle costs, which are only partly under their control. Developments in the fuel cycle will be in the short-term rather evolutionary addressing the current needs of utilities. However, within the context of sustainable development and more and more inclusion of externalities in energy generation costs, more performing developments in the fuel cycle could become important and feasible. A life-cycle design approach of the fuel cycle will be requested in order to cover all factors in order to decrease significantly the nuclear energy generation cost to complete with other alternative fuels in the long-term. This paper will report on some of the trends one could distinguish in the fuel cycle with emphasis on cost reduction. OECD/NEA is currently conducting a study on the fuel cycle aiming to assess current and future nuclear fuel cycles according to the potential for further improvement of the full added-value chain of these cycles from a mainly technological and economic perspective including environmental and social considerations. (orig.) [German] Die Kernenergie wird sich mehr und mehr in einem Umfeld behaupten muessen, das durch schnelle Veraenderungen auf Grund des Wettbewerbsdrucks in der Wirtschaft und des Liberalisierungsprozesses gekennzeichnet ist. Im heutigen Wirtschaftsumfeld muessen sich die Energieversorgungsunternehmen hauptsaechlich auf die Senkung ihrer Stromerzeugungs-Gesamtkosten konzentrieren. Darunter fallen auch die Brennstoffkreislaufkosten, die sie nur zum Teil beeinflussen koennen. Kurzfristig gesehen, duerften die Entwicklungen im Brennstoffkreislauf eher evolutionaer verlaufen und den jeweiligen Beduerfnissen der EVUs entsprechen. Im Zusammenhang mit einer

  17. Development of a decision support model for determining building life-cycle strategies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnemars, S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Durmisevic, Elma; Durmisevic, E.; Pasic, A.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that there is a growing need for so-called green buildings with a lower environmental impact over the whole building life-cycle. The construction industry demands strategies that support a drastic change of the way we develop, construct and

  18. The Systems Development Life Cycle as a Planning Methodology for Library Automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, David

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of the systems development life cycle (SDLC) that supports operational and managerial planning of automation projects covers challenges of library automation, evolution and scope of SDLC, lack of dissemination of SDLC literature within library and information science community, and corrective measures to meet library automation demands.…

  19. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    .... ML12354A524. 3. Revision 1 of RG 1.170, ``Test Documentation for Digital Computer Software used in Safety... is in ADAMS at Accession No. ML12354A531. 4. Revision 1 of RG 1.171, ``Software Unit Testing for... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in...

  20. The Development of a New Practical Activity: Using Microorganisms to Model Gas Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    For many in the school science classroom, the term "microbiology" has become synonymous with "bacteriology". By overlooking other microbes, teachers may miss out on powerful practical tools. This article describes the development of an activity that uses algae and yeast to demonstrate gas cycling, and presents full instructions…

  1. Introducing the Cycle of Inquiry System: A Reflective Inquiry Practice for Early Childhood Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Jane Tingle; Hong, Seong Bock

    2011-01-01

    The Cycle of Inquiry (COI) is a tool for emergent curriculum planning and for professional development of early childhood teachers and teacher education students. The COI includes a sequence of five organizational forms connecting analysis of documentation data with intentional planning for long-term emergent inquiry inspired by the Reggio Emilia…

  2. Evaluating Managerial Styles for System Development Life Cycle Stages to Ensure Software Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocherla, Showry

    2012-01-01

    Information technology (IT) projects are considered successful if they are completed on time, within budget, and within scope. Even though, the required tools and methodologies are in place, IT projects continue to fail at a higher rate. Current literature lacks explanation for success within the stages of system development life-cycle (SDLC) such…

  3. Impact of Software Metrics on Object-Oriented Software Development Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.B.R.Sastry,; M.V.Vijaya Saradhi

    2010-01-01

    An attempt is made to implement software metrics with aid of GUI and several programs were developed to calculate the metrics, which can be used as a stand alone system. Further an emphasis is made on differentrelationships of metrics, which will help to determine quality and quantity of software attributes measured with regard of Object-oriented Software development life cycle. In this paper, we present existing and new Software metrics useful in the different phase of the Object-Oriented So...

  4. Sulfur cycling in plays an important role in the development of Ocean Anoxic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M. L.; Raven, M. R.; Fike, D. A.; Gill, B. C.; Johnston, D. T.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean Anoxic Events (OAEs) are major carbon cycle perturbations marked by enhanced organic carbon deposition in the marine realm and carbon isotope excursions in organic and inorganic carbon. Although not as severe as the "big five" mass extinctions, OAEs had dire consequences for marine ecosystems and thus influenced Mesozoic evolutionary patterns. Sulfur cycle reconstructions provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that played a role in the development of OAEs because the sulfur cycle is linked with the carbon and oxygen cycles. We present sulfur and oxygen isotope records from carbonate-associated sulfate from the Toarcian OAE that documents a positive sulfate-oxygen isotope excursion of +6‰, which is similar to the magnitude of the positive sulfur isotope excursion documented at the same site and other globally distributed sites. This high-resolution record allows us to explore temporal variability in the onset of the isotopic excursions: the onset of the positive sulfate-oxygen isotope excursion occurs at the same stratigraphic interval as the onset of the positive carbon isotope excursion and both precede the onset of the positive sulfate-sulfur isotope excursion. Because oxygen is rapidly recycled during oxidative sulfur cycling, changes in oxidative sulfur cycling affect oxygen isotope values of sulfate without impacting sulfur isotope values. Thus, the early onset of the sulfate-oxygen isotope excursion implies a change in oxidative sulfur cycling, which is likely due to a shoaling of the zone of sulfate reduction. We explore the consequences of sulfate reduction zone shoaling for organic carbon preservation. Specifically, the sulfurization of organic matter, which makes organic matter less susceptible to degradation, occurs more rapidly when the top of the zone of sulfate reduction is near or above the sediment water interface. Therefore, we suggest that the shoaling of the sulfate reduction zone locally changed pathways of oxidative sulfur

  5. Mortality and business cycles by level of development: evidence from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Fidel; Quast, Troy

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between mortality and business cycles within Mexico, where development varies significantly. We exploit this variation by separately analyzing the top ten and bottom ten developed states for the period 1993-2004. We find that while overall mortality is procyclical nationally and in the top ten states, it is countercyclical in the bottom ten. Further, we show that in the top ten states mortality due to non communicable conditions is procyclical, while in the bottom ten mortality due to non communicable conditions and infectious and parasitic diseases are countercyclical. Our results suggest that the relationship between mortality and business cycles may vary by level of development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Developing the User Experience for a Next Generation Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulator (NGFCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Pascucci, Valerio [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Livnat, Yarden [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hiromoto, Robert [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Scopatz, Anthony [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Brossard, Dominique [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Scheufele, Dietram [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-07-30

    This project made substantial progress on its original aim for providing a modern user experience for nuclear fuel cycle analysis while also creating a robust and functional next- generation fuel cycle simulator. The Cyclus kernel experienced a dramatic clari cation of its interfaces and data model, becoming a full- edged agent-based framework, with strong support for third party developers of novel archetypes. The most important contribution of this project to the the development of Cyclus was the introduction of tools to facilitate archetype development. These include automated code generation of routine archetype components, metadata annotations to provide re ection and rich description of each data member's purpose, and mechanisms for input validation and output of complex data. A comprehensive social science investigation of decision makers' interests in nuclear fuel cycles, and speci cally their interests in nuclear fuel cycle simulators (NFCSs) as tools for understanding nuclear fuel cycle options, was conducted. This included document review and analysis, stakeholder interviews, and a survey of decision makers. This information was used to study the role of visualization formats and features in communicating information about nuclear fuel cycles. A exible and user-friendly tool was developed for building Cyclus analysis models, featuring a drag-and-drop interface and automatic input form generation for novel archetypes. Cycic allows users to design fuel cycles from arbitrary collections of facilities for the rst time, with mechanisms that contribute to consistency within that fuel cycle. Interacting with some of the metadata capabilities introduced in the above-mentioned tools to support archetype development, Cycic also automates the generation of user input forms for novel archetypes with little to no special knowledge required by the archetype developers. Translation of the fundamental metrics of Cyclus into more interesting quantities is

  7. Development of a control system for compression and expansion cycles of critical valve for high vacuum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Jyoti, E-mail: jagarwal@ipr.res.in; Sharma, H.; Patel, Haresh; Gangradey, R.; Lambade, Vrushabh

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Control system with feedback loop of pressure gauge is developed for measuring the life cycle of vacuum isolation valve. • GUI based software developed for easy use and handling of control system. • Control system tested with an experiment showcasing the capability of the control system. • Control system can operate valve based on pressure inside the chamber, which helps to know the degradation of sealing capabilities of valve. • Control system can monitor the total closing and opening time of valve, cycles and pressure inside the vessel. - Abstract: A control system with feedback loop is designed, developed and tested to monitor the life cycles of the axial valve and bellows used in vacuum valves. The control system monitors number of compression cycles of any bellow or closing and opening cycle of a valve. It also interfaces vacuum gauges or pressure gauges to get pressure values inside the system. To find life cycle of valve, the developed control and monitoring system is integrated with an axial valve experimental test set up. In this system, feedback from the vacuum gauge attached to valve enclosure, is given and the life cycle test is automated. This paper describes the control and monitoring system in details and briefs the experiment carried out for valve life cycle. The same system can be used for life cycle estimate for bellows. A suitable GUI is also developed to control the function of the components and resister the number of cycles.

  8. Model development for quantitative evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle alternatives and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il

    2000-02-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance and the economics which are important factors of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles, and a fuel cycle cost analysis model was suggested to incorporate various uncertainties in the fuel cycle cost calculation. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. In this model, the proliferation resistance was described an a relative size of the barrier that must be overcome in order to acquire nuclear weapons. Therefore, a larger barriers means that the risk of failure is great, expenditure of resources is large and the time scales for implementation is long. The electromotive force was expressed as the political motivation of the potential proliferators, such as an unauthorized party or a national group to acquire nuclear weapons. The electrical current was then defined as a proliferation resistance index. There are two electrical circuit models used in the evaluation of the proliferation resistance: the series and the parallel circuits. In the series circuit model of the proliferation resistance, a potential proliferator has to overcome all resistance barriers to achieve the manufacturing of the nuclear weapons. This phenomenon could be explained by the fact that the IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency)'s safeguards philosophy relies on the defense-in-depth principle against nuclear proliferation at a specific facility. The parallel circuit model was also used to imitate the risk of proliferation for

  9. A Multiobjective Optimization Including Results of Life Cycle Assessment in Developing Biorenewables-Based Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmdach, Daniel; Yaseneva, Polina; Heer, Parminder K; Schweidtmann, Artur M; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2017-09-22

    A decision support tool has been developed that uses global multiobjective optimization based on 1) the environmental impacts, evaluated within the framework of full life cycle assessment; and 2) process costs, evaluated by using rigorous process models. This approach is particularly useful in developing biorenewable-based energy solutions and chemicals manufacturing, for which multiple criteria must be evaluated and optimization-based decision-making processes are particularly attractive. The framework is demonstrated by using a case study of the conversion of terpenes derived from biowaste feedstocks into reactive intermediates. A two-step chemical conversion/separation sequence was implemented as a rigorous process model and combined with a life cycle model. A life cycle inventory for crude sulfate turpentine was developed, as well as a conceptual process of its separation into pure terpene feedstocks. The performed single- and multiobjective optimizations demonstrate the functionality of the optimization-based process development and illustrate the approach. The most significant advance is the ability to perform multiobjective global optimization, resulting in identification of a region of Pareto-optimal solutions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Evaluation of mechanisms for trans-nationalizing research and development for reducing life cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Kurakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates that alongside the process of trans-nationalizing the scientific driven and hightech production there is a trend arising in trans-nationalising scientific-technological sphere and global venture capital. There is evaluated the scale of the diffusion of Russian venture capital and its investment preferences. Using the examples of projects, related to the development of the new generation of antitumor drugs, there are analysed models for reducing the life cycle of domestic scientific developments in the format of using the benefits of various national innovation ecosystems and practices. A conclusion is made about the relevancy of reproduction of the life cycle of a high-tech product in the global scope of resources, markets and investments.

  11. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Gallo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS is a very innovative and promising solution for greenhouse gases (GHG reduction, i.e., capturing carbon dioxide (CO2 at its source and storing it indefinitely to avoid its release to the atmosphere. This paper investigates a set of key issues in the development of specific rules for the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA to CCS. The following LCA-based information are addressed in this work: definition of service type, definition of functional unit, definition of system boundaries, choice of allocation rules, choice of selected Life Cycle Inventory (LCI results or other selected parameters for description of environmental performance. From a communication perspective, the specific rules defined in this study have been developed coherently with the requirements of a type III environment label scheme, the International EPD® System, according to the ISO 14025 standard.

  12. Securing personnel in nuclear fuel cycle research and development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekino, H.

    1993-01-01

    The PNC, a japanese governmental research and development organization, is concerned with research and development into building and operating advanced power reactors and R and D into the whole cycle of the nuclear fuel. PNC promotes international cooperation with the USA and European countries as well as technical cooperation with the private sectors in uranium enrichment, reprocessing and advanced reactor development. This report discusses the current situation and problems in securing PNC personnel, in securing 'loan' staff for PNC, and in personnel exchanges for technical transfer and international cooperation. 5 figs

  13. Using neuro-fuzzy based method to develop nuclear turbine cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yeakuang; Chang Chinjang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a hybrid soft-computing modeling technique used to develop the steam turbine cycle model for nuclear power plants. The technique uses neuro-fuzzy model to predict the generator output. Firstly, the plant past three fuel cycles operating data above 95% load were collected and validated as the baseline performance data set. Then the signal errors for new operating data were detected by comparison with the baseline data set and their allowable range of variations. Finally, the most important parameters were selected as an input of the neuro-fuzzy based steam turbine cycle model. After training and testing with key parameters (i.e. throttle pressure, condenser backpressure, feedwater flow rate, and final feedwater temperature), the proposed model can be used to predict the generator output. The analysis results show this neuro-fuzzy based turbine cycle model can be used to predict the generator output with a good agreement. Moreover, the achievement of this study provides an alternative approach in thermal performance evaluation for nuclear power plants. (author)

  14. Ovarian cycle and embryonic development in Gammarus fossarum: application for reproductive toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffard, Olivier; Xuereb, Benoit; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Alain; Biagianti, Sylvie; Noël, Claire; Abbaci, Khedidja; Garric, Jeanne; Charmantier, Guy; Charmantier-Daures, Mireille

    2010-10-01

    Among freshwater invertebrates, Gammarus fossarum is an important test organism and is currently used in ecotoxicology for acute and chronic assays; nevertheless, reproductive toxicity test methods are not yet available for these species. In the present study, the reproductive cycle in Gammarus fossarum was characterized in order to propose a reproductive toxicity test encompassing molting, follicle growth, and embryonic development that will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of chemicals disrupting these hormone-regulated processes. A detailed description of the reproductive cycle in Gammarus fossarum was obtained. As in some amphipods, molt and reproductive cycles of G. fossarum females occur concurrently, lasting 30 d at 12°C. Each molt stage is characterized by a specific marsupial embryonic development stage and the size of developing follicles visible on the ovarian membrane. Based on these results, a 21-d reproductive toxicity test is proposed for this species. This new bioassay was applied to identify the specific impact of different stressors: cadmium, methomyl, nonylphenol, and a starvation diet. Good reproducibility was obtained for different endpoints under control conditions and throughout the experiments. Preliminary robust reference values or benchmarks were proposed for these endpoints. Cadmium was found to specially inhibit secondary vitellogenesis. Nonylphenol had a specific concentration-dependent effect on embryonic development, with an increase in the percent abnormality from a concentration of 0.05 µg/L. A restricted food diet led to a significant delay in the molt cycle, which in turn induced inhibition of secondary vitellogenesis. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:2249-2259. © 2010 SETAC.

  15. Integrated gasification combined-cycle research development and demonstration activities in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, H.M.; Brdar, R.D.

    1996-09-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE)`s Office of Fossil Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, is managing a research development and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports the commercialization of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) advanced power systems. This overview briefly describes the supporting RD&D activities and the IGCC projects selected for demonstration in the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program.

  16. Development and a Validation of a Charge Sensitive Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Simulation Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Ziviani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing interest in organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems and the large number of cycle models proposed in the literature, charge-based ORC models are still almost absent. In this paper, a detailed overall ORC simulation model is presented based on two solution strategies: condenser subcooling and total working fluid charge of the system. The latter allows the subcooling level to be predicted rather than specified as an input. The overall cycle model is composed of independent models for pump, expander, line sets, liquid receiver and heat exchangers. Empirical and semi-empirical models are adopted for the pump and expander, respectively. A generalized steady-state moving boundary method is used to model the heat exchangers. The line sets and liquid receiver are used to better estimate the total charge of the system and pressure drops. Finally, the individual components are connected to form a cycle model in an object-oriented fashion. The solution algorithm includes a preconditioner to guess reasonable values for the evaporating and condensing temperatures and a main cycle solver loop which drives to zero a set of residuals to ensure the convergence of the solution. The model has been developed in the Python programming language. A thorough validation is then carried out against experimental data obtained from two test setups having different nominal size, working fluids and individual components: (i a regenerative ORC with a 5 kW scroll expander and an oil flooding loop; (ii a regenerative ORC with a 11 kW single-screw expander. The computer code is made available through open-source dissemination.

  17. A cryogen-free Vuilleumier type pulse tube cryocooler operating below 10 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaotao; Dai, Wei; Luo, Ercang

    2018-03-01

    Vuilleumier (VM) type pulse tube cryocooler (PTC) utilizes the thermal compressor to drive the low temperature stage PTC. This paper presents the latest experimental results of a cryogen-free VM type PTC that operates in the temperature range below 10 K. Stirling type pre-coolers instead of liquid nitrogen provide the cooling power for the thermal compressor. Compared with previous configuration, the thermal compressor was improved with a higher output pressure ratio, and lead and HoCu2 spheres were packed within the regenerator for the low temperature stage PTC for a better match with targeted cold end temperature. A lowest no-load temperature of 7.58 K was obtained with a pressure ratio of 1.23, a working frequency of 3 Hz and an average pressure of 1.63 MPa. The experimental results show good consistency in terms of lowest temperature with the simulation under the same working condition.

  18. An efficient miniature 120 Hz pulse tube cryocooler using high porosity regenerator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiqin; Wu, Yinong; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Liu, Shaoshuai

    2017-12-01

    A 1.22 kg coaxial miniature pulse tube cryocooler (MPTC) has been fabricated and tested in our laboratory to provide cooling for cryogenic applications demanding compactness, low mass and rapid cooling rate. The geometrical parameters of regenerator, pulse tube and phase shifter are optimized. The investigation demonstrates that using higher mesh number and thinner wire diameter of stainless steel screen (SSS) can promote the coefficient of performance (COP) when the MPTC operates at 120 Hz. In this study, the 604 mesh SSS with 17 μm diameter of mesh wire is constructed as filler of regenerator. The experimental results show the MPTC operating at 120 Hz achieves a no-load temperature of 53.5 K with 3.8 MPa charging pressure, and gets a cooling power of 2 W at 80 K with 55 W input electric power which has a relative Carnot efficiency of 9.68%.

  19. High efficiency 40 K single-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. L.; Chen, L. B.; Pan, C. Z.; Cui, C.; Wang, J. J.; Zhou, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A high efficiency single-stage Stirling-type coaxial pulse tube cryocooler (SPTC) operating at around 40 K has been designed, built and tested. The double-inlet and the inertance tubes together with the gas reservoir were adopted as the phase shifters. Under the conditions of 2.5 MPa charging pressure and 30 Hz operating frequency, the prototype has achieved a no-load temperature of 23.8 K with 330 W of electric input power at a rejection temperature of 279 K. When the input power increases to 400 W, it can achieve a cooling capacity of 4.7 W/40 K while rejecting heat at 279 K yielding an efficiency of 7.02% relative to Carnot. It achieves a cooling capacity of 5 W/40 K with an input power of 450 W. It takes 10 minutes for the SPTC to cool to its no-load temperature of 40 K from 295 K.

  20. Microcrystallography, high-pressure cryocooling and BioSAXS at MacCHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englich, Ulrich; Kriksunov, Irina A.; Cerione, Richard A.; Cook, Michael J.; Gillilan, Richard; Gruner, Sol M.; Huang, Qingqui; Kim, Chae Un; Miller, William; Nielsen, Soren; Schuller, David; Smith, Scott; Szebenyi, Doletha M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Three research initiatives pursued by the Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (MacCHESS) are presented. The Macromolecular Diffraction Facility at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (MacCHESS) is a national research resource supported by the National Center for Research Resources of the US National Institutes of Health. MacCHESS is pursuing several research initiatives designed to benefit both CHESS users and the wider structural biology community. Three initiatives are presented in further detail: microcrystallography, which aims to improve the collection of diffraction data from crystals a few micrometers across, or small well diffracting regions of inhomogeneous crystals, so as to obtain high-resolution structures; pressure cryocooling, which can stabilize transient structures and reduce lattice damage during the cooling process; and BioSAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering on biological solutions), which can extract molecular shape and other structural information from macromolecules in solution

  1. Reflections on Discourse Practices During Professional Development on the Learning Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Clare Valerie; Odom, Arthur Louis

    2012-10-01

    While much is known about K-12 teachers' participation in professional development (PD) on inquiry-based science instruction, how professors facilitate such PD is not as well documented. This reflective, descriptive study documents the pedagogical practices of three professors during a two-week summer PD program on inquiry-based science instruction. Twenty teachers of fourth- through ninth-grade students in a Midwestern city engaged in lessons based on the learning cycle (Lawson in Science teaching and the development of thinking. Wadsworth, Belmont, CA, Lawson 1995). Data sources included video-recorded observations with transcripts, video-recorded post-observation interviews with transcripts, and audio-recorded follow-up interviews with transcripts. Data were analyzed to create descriptive narratives around excerpts of discourse from PD sessions and interviews. Analyses indicated that implementation of the learning cycle lessons varied among the professors. These findings led to further questions concerning the professors' beliefs about the learning cycle and the ways that teachers were positioned as learners during PD.

  2. Development of the living thing transportation systems worksheet on learning cycle model to increase student understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, E.; Nurohman, S.; Widowati, A.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to know: 1) the feasibility LKPD review of aspects of the didactic requirements, construction requirements, technical requirements and compliance with the Learning Cycle. 2) Increase understanding of learners with Learning Model Learning Cycle in SMP N 1 Wates in the form LKPD. 3) The response of learners and educators SMP N 1 Wates to quality LKPD Transportation Systems Beings. This study is an R & D with the 4D model (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate). Data were analyzed using qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. Qualitative analysis in the form of advice description and assessment scores from all validates that was converted to a scale of 4. While the analysis of quantitative data by calculating the percentage of materializing learning and achievement using the standard gain an increased understanding and calculation of the KKM completeness evaluation value as an indicator of the achievement of students understanding. the results of this study yield LKPD IPA model learning Cycle theme Transportation Systems Beings obtain 108.5 total scores of a maximum score of 128 including the excellent category (A). LKPD IPA developed able to demonstrate an improved understanding of learners and the response of learners was very good to this quality LKPD IPA.

  3. Hoxc12 expression pattern in developing and cycling murine hair follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Lijuan; Pruett, Nathanael D; Awgulewitsch, Alexander

    2002-05-01

    We examine the Hoxc12 RNA expression pattern during both hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling in direct comparison to its only upstream neighbor, Hoxc13. Expression of both genes is restricted to the epidermal part of the follicle excluding the outer root sheath and interfollicular epidermis in a distinct stage-dependent and cyclical manner. During the progressive growth phase (anagen) of developing and cycling follicles, the distinct proximo-distal expression domain of Hoxc12 overlaps only proximally, at the upper-most region of the bulb, with the more proximally restricted Hoxc13 domain. This arrangement of the expression domains of the two genes along the proximal-toward-distal axis of increasing follicular differentiation correlates with the sequential expression of first Hoxc13 and then Hoxc12. This indicates a reversal of the typical temporal colinearity of Hox gene activation otherwise observed along the anterior-posterior morphogenetic axis of the embryo (review: Cell 78 (1994) 191).

  4. Enterprise and system of systems capability development life-cycle processes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report and set of appendices are a collection of memoranda originally drafted circa 2007-2009 for the purpose of describing and detailing a models-based systems engineering approach for satisfying enterprise and system-of-systems life cycle process requirements. At the time there was interest and support to move from Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level One (ad hoc processes) to Level Three. The main thrust of the material presents a rational exposâe of a structured enterprise development life cycle that uses the scientific method as a framework, with further rigor added from adapting relevant portions of standard systems engineering processes. While the approach described invokes application of the Department of Defense Architectural Framework (DoDAF), it is suitable for use with other architectural description frameworks.

  5. Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yoggwang 3,4 Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.Y.; Choi, K.H.; Jee, M.H.; Chung, S.I. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the study ''Development of Thermal Performance Analysis Computer Program on Turbine Cycle of Yonggwang 3,4 Units'' is to utilize computerized program to the performance test of the turbine cycle or the analysis of the operational status of the thermal plants. In addition, the result can be applicable to the analysis of the thermal output at the abnormal status and be a powerful tool to find out the main problems for such cases. As a results, the output of this study can supply the way to confirm the technical capability to operate the plants efficiently and to obtain the economic gains remarkably. (author). 27 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Development and validation of a partial life-cycle test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiss, Cornelia; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    -cycle Toxicity Testing[1].The DRP proposed inter alia the parthenogenetic mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum as standard test organism. In the P. antipodarum reproduction test the number of embryos in the brood pouch, reflecting the individual reproduction effort in snails, and adult mortality serve as main......Molluscs, though the second largest clade next to the arthropods, have widely been neglected in environmental risk assessment schemes for chemicals, mainly due to the lack of standardised and broadly accepted test guidelines for molluscs. However, they are known to be uniquely sensitive to a number...... endpoints. The present study aims to develop and validate the partial life-cycle test on the reproduction of P. antipodarum. Here, results from two pre-validation studies of the reproduction test with the chemicals tributyltin (TBT) with nominal concentrations of 10 - 400 ng TBT-Sn/L and cadmium...

  7. Trends and Developments for Fast Neutron Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carré, Frank

    2013-01-01

    • FR13 – A unique and dedicated framework to share updates on national programs of Fast Reactor developments, projects of new builds and plans for the future: - Near term projects of sodium and lead-alloy Fast Reactors; - Gen-IV visions of sodium-cooled and alternative types of Fast Neutron Reactors (GFR, LFR…). • FR13 – A special emphasis put on Fast Reactor Safety, Sustainability of nuclear fuel cycle and Young Generation perspective. • FR13 – A catalyst for further collaborations and alliances: - To share visions of goals and advisable options for future Fast Reactors and Nuclear Fuel Cycle; - To share cost of R&D and large demonstrations (safety, security, recycling); - To progress towards harmonized international standards; - To integrate national projects into a consistent international roadmap

  8. Development of porosity upon physical activation of grape seeds char by gas phase oxygen chemisorption–desorption cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez-Cordero, Diana; Heras, Francisco; Alonso-Morales, Noelia; Gilarranz, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Activation of grape seeds char upon cyclic oxygen chemisorption-desorption permits a controlled development of porosity versus burn-off using air as a cheap activation agent. In this work the influence of chemisorption and desorption temperature and the number of cycles is investigated. A fast increase of BET surface area (SBET) is obtained in the two first cycles; that increase becomes then lower although the SBET continues increasing upon the successive cycles. Regarding the Dubinin-Astakho...

  9. The Feedback Control Cycle of Mineral Supply, Increase of Raw Material Efficiency, and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich-W. Wellmer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development with regard to non-renewable resources can best be defined in terms of the inter-generational challenge of the Brundtland commission and the intra-generational challenge worked out in Agenda 21 of the 1992 Rio de Janeiro conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED. In meeting these challenges, the trilemma of security of supply under conditions of economic viability and environmental sustainability also needs to be addressed in order to achieve sustainable development. To fulfil the natural resources needs of future generations we have three resources at our disposal: (1 the geosphere or primary resources; (2 the technosphere or secondary resources and (3 human ingenuity and creativity driving innovation. Man does not need natural resources as such, only the intrinsic property of a material that enables the fulfilment of a function is required. Any material that can perform the same function more efficiently or cheaply can replace any other material. In our constant drive to secure the supply of efficient raw materials, the feedback control cycle plays an indispensable role by virtue of it reacting to price signals on both the supply and demand sides. The feedback cycle of course goes hand in hand with a continuous learning process. On the supply side, the learning effects are in technology development around primary resources and the increased use of secondary resources; on the demand side with thriftier use of raw materials.

  10. International political environment for the research and development of nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Young Sun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    The international acceptance of South Korea`s nuclear fuel cycle technology as a peaceful use of nuclear energy needs peaceful relations between South and North Korea. Thus, this study examines the current North Korea`s policy toward South Korea as a part of North Korea`s three-fold survival strategy in the post-cold war period and also forecasts future relations between two countries on the Korean peninsula. To cope with nuclear= nonproliferation policy of the United Sates successfully, which does not allow South Korea`s autonomous nuclear fuel cycle, this study reviews the history of Washington`s nuclear nonproliferation policy with case studies of South Korea`s reprocessing plant project in the 1970`s, US-Japan Nuclear Cooperation Agreement in the 1980`s, and North Korea`s nuclear program in the 1990`s, and for casts the future on nuclear nonproliferation policy of the United States. In conclusion, this analysis tries to develop new approaches to solve two major problems of Korean situation and nuclear nonproliferation policy of the United Sates for the autonomous nuclear fuel cycle in South Korea. (Author) 33 refs.

  11. Developing Singapore Driving Cycle for passenger cars to estimate fuel consumption and vehicular emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sze-Hwee; Wong, Yiik-Diew; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung

    2014-11-01

    Singapore has pledged to attain 7-11% Business-As-Usual carbon emissions reduction by 2020. Road transport sector is a significant source of carbon emissions, estimated to be the third largest sector in Singapore. A current gap in environmental evaluation for road transport activities in Singapore is the lack of a representative driving cycle for passenger cars (64% of the total population of 974,170 vehicles). This Singapore Driving Cycle (SDC) is hence developed for Singapore roads and traffic conditions. A chase-car (instrumented vehicle) was used to collect on-road data along 12 designed routes, and circulation driving on highly utilized arterial roads (including those in Central Business District (CBD) and both inner and outer ring roads fringing the CBD area). The SDC was thus hence constructed, with consideration of road type proportions, time periods and desired distance, duration and peak-lull proportion. In essence, the SDC is a 2400-s speed-time profile to represent the driving pattern for passenger car in Singapore. Microscopic estimation model (CMEM) shows that, as compared to SDC, the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) underestimates most of the vehicular emissions (fuel, CO2, HC and NOx by 5%, 5%, 22% and 47%, respectively) and overestimates CO by 8%. The SDC is thus more suitable than the NEDC that is currently in use in Singapore; the SDC can be used to generate more accurate fuel consumption and emissions ratings for various uses (for example, inventory of vehicular emissions and fuel economy labelling).

  12. The Development of a Safety Assessment Approach and Its Implication on the Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung

    2010-01-01

    The development of Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle (ANFC) technology is essential to meet the national mission for energy independence via a nuclear option in Korea. The action target is to develop environmentally friendly, cost-effective measures to reduce the burden of long term disposal. The proper scenarios regarding potential radionuclide release from a repository have been developed in this study based on the Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS). To predict safety for the various scenarios, a new assessment code based on the GoldSim software has also been developed. Deterministic analysis indicates an environmental benefit from the ANFC as long as the solid wastes from the ANFC act as a proper barrier

  13. Development of a Life Cycle Inventory of Water Consumption Associated with the Production of Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, David J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wu, May [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sullivan, John L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Elgowainy, Amgad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wang, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Keisman, Jennifer [American Association for the Advancemetn of Science (AAAS), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The production of all forms of energy consumes water. To meet increased energy demands, it is essential to quantify the amount of water consumed in the production of different forms of energy. By analyzing the water consumed in different technologies, it is possible to identify areas for improvement in water conservation and reduce water stress in energy-producing regions. The transportation sector is a major consumer of energy in the United States. Because of the relationships between water and energy, the sustainability of transportation is tied to management of water resources. Assessment of water consumption throughout the life cycle of a fuel is necessary to understand its water resource implications. To perform a comparative life cycle assessment of transportation fuels, it is necessary first to develop an inventory of the water consumed in each process in each production supply chain. The Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model is an analytical tool that can used to estimate the full life-cycle environmental impacts of various transportation fuel pathways from wells to wheels. GREET is currently being expanded to include water consumption as a sustainability metric. The purpose of this report was to document data sources and methodologies to estimate water consumption factors (WCF) for the various transportation fuel pathways in GREET. WCFs reflect the quantity of freshwater directly consumed per unit production for various production processes in GREET. These factors do not include consumption of precipitation or low-quality water (e.g., seawater) and reflect only water that is consumed (i.e., not returned to the source from which it was withdrawn). The data in the report can be combined with GREET to compare the life cycle water consumption for different transportation fuels.

  14. Cell cycle regulation and cytoskeletal remodelling are critical processes in the nutritional programming of embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swali, Angelina; McMullen, Sarah; Hayes, Helen; Gambling, Lorraine; McArdle, Harry J; Langley-Evans, Simon C

    2011-01-01

    Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream phenotypic effects. By using a cross-over design of two well established models of maternal protein and iron restriction we aimed to identify putative common "gatekeepers" which may drive nutritional programming.Both protein and iron deficiency in utero reduced the nephron complement in adult male Wistar and Rowett Hooded Lister rats (Pproteomic and pathway analyses identified diet-specific and strain-specific gatekeeper genes, proteins and processes which shared a common association with the regulation of the cell cycle, especially the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and cytoskeletal remodelling. A cell cycle-specific PCR array confirmed the down-regulation of cyclins with protein restriction and the up-regulation of apoptotic genes with iron deficiency.The timing and experimental design of this study have been carefully controlled to isolate the common molecular mechanisms which may initiate the sequelae of events involved in nutritional programming of embryonic development. We propose that despite differences in the individual genes and proteins affected in each strain and with each diet, the general response to nutrient deficiency in utero is perturbation of the cell cycle, at the level of interaction with the cytoskeleton and the mitotic checkpoints, thereby diminishing control over the integrity of DNA which is allowed to replicate. These findings offer novel insight into the primary causes and mechanisms leading to the pathologies which have been identified by previous

  15. Cell cycle regulation and cytoskeletal remodelling are critical processes in the nutritional programming of embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Swali

    Full Text Available Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream phenotypic effects. By using a cross-over design of two well established models of maternal protein and iron restriction we aimed to identify putative common "gatekeepers" which may drive nutritional programming.Both protein and iron deficiency in utero reduced the nephron complement in adult male Wistar and Rowett Hooded Lister rats (P<0.05. This occurred in the absence of damage to the glomerular ultrastructure. Microarray, proteomic and pathway analyses identified diet-specific and strain-specific gatekeeper genes, proteins and processes which shared a common association with the regulation of the cell cycle, especially the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and cytoskeletal remodelling. A cell cycle-specific PCR array confirmed the down-regulation of cyclins with protein restriction and the up-regulation of apoptotic genes with iron deficiency.The timing and experimental design of this study have been carefully controlled to isolate the common molecular mechanisms which may initiate the sequelae of events involved in nutritional programming of embryonic development. We propose that despite differences in the individual genes and proteins affected in each strain and with each diet, the general response to nutrient deficiency in utero is perturbation of the cell cycle, at the level of interaction with the cytoskeleton and the mitotic checkpoints, thereby diminishing control over the integrity of DNA which is allowed to replicate. These findings offer novel

  16. Impaired germ cell development due to compromised cell cycle progression in Skp2-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Keiko

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The gonads are responsible for the production of germ cells through both mitosis and meiosis. Skp2 is the receptor subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin ligase and is a major regulator of the progression of cells into S phase of the cell cycle, which it promotes by mediating the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of p27, an inhibitor of cell proliferation. However, the role of the Skp2-p27 pathway in germ cell development remains elusive. Results We now show that disruption of Skp2 in mice results in a marked impairment in the fertility of males, with the phenotypes resembling Sertoli cell-only syndrome in men. Testes of Skp2-/- mice manifested pronounced germ cell hypoplasia accompanied by massive apoptosis in spermatogenic cells. Flow cytometry revealed an increased prevalence of polyploidy in spermatozoa, suggesting that the aneuploidy of these cells is responsible for the induction of apoptosis. Disruption of the p27 gene of Skp2-/- mice restored germ cell development, indicating that the testicular hypoplasia of Skp2-/- animals is attributable to the antiproliferative effect of p27 accumulation. Conclusion Our results thus suggest that compromised cell cycle progression caused by the accumulation of p27 results in aneuploidy and the induction of apoptosis in gonadal cells of Skp2-/- mice. The consequent reduction in the number of mature gametes accounts for the decreased fertility of these animals. These findings reinforce the importance of the Skp2-p27 pathway in cell cycle regulation and in germ cell development.

  17. Developing a dynamic life cycle greenhouse gas emission inventory for wood construction for two different end-of-life scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; James Salazar; Scott Bowe

    2012-01-01

    Static life cycle assessment does not fully describe the carbon footprint of construction wood because of carbon changes in the forest and product pools over time. This study developed a dynamic greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory approach using US Forest Service and life-cycle data to estimate GHG emissions on construction wood for two different end-of-life scenarios....

  18. Eating of the pudding - Supporting the development life-cycle of wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring scientists and ecologists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Kui

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we present design and tooling solutions as well as network protocols to support application experts in the entire development life-cycle of wireless sensor networks. The complete life-cycle of wireless sensor networks starts with the user/application requirement analysis. It then goes

  19. [Acceleration of Embryonic Development of Pinus sibirica Trees with a One-Year Reproductive Cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tret'yakova, I N; Lukina, N V

    2016-01-01

    The study of the formation of embryonic structures in Pinus sibirica forms with a one-year reproductive cycle showed that the acceleration of the embryonic process manifested itself as a reduction of the coenocytic stage of the female gametophyte development (1.5 months instead of 1 year). The egg was not fertilized because of the asynchronous maturation of male and female gametophytes. Seeds without embryos were formed. We assumed that the acceleration of the reproductive process in Pinus sibirica was caused by a mutation in the female generative organs.

  20. Cyclic stress-strain curve for low cycle fatigue design and development of small specimen technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, A.; Nogami, S.; Wakai, Eiichi

    2012-11-01

    A blanket system in DEMO requires a low cycle fatigue design because higher inner pressure will act on a structural wall. An importance of cyclic stress-strain curve is investigated and necessity reason for a precise deformation measurement is discussed. Since a small specimen technique is necessary to investigate neutron irradiation effect, it is desired to establish a test procedure to obtain the stress-strain curve with small specimens. To do this, a new test procedure with nanometer scale resolution was developed and some data were obtained. (author)

  1. Development of Pyrochemical Reprocessing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Prospects of Closed Fuel Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Tulackova, R; Chuchvalcova-Bimova, K; Precek, M; Marecek, M; Uhlir, J

    2007-01-01

    Molten-Salt Reactor (MSR) is a design of an advanced reactor system from the GEN IV family working in thermal or epithermal neutron spectrum and using thorium or transuranium fuel in the form of molten fluorides. It is based on the experience with the development of the molten-salt reactor technology in the Oak-Ridge National Laboratory in the United States. The MSR fuel cycle with integrated reprocessing represents one of the potential ways both for significant decrease of total amount of ra...

  2. Development of materials for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD): ceramic electrode. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.

    1986-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory, supported by the US Department of Energy, developed advanced materials for use in open-cycle, closed cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) power generation, an advanced energy conversion system in which the flow of electrically conducting fluid interacts with an electric field to convert the energy directly into electricity. The purpose of the PNL work was to develop electrodes for the MHD channel. Such electrodes must have: (1) electrical conductivity above 0.01 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ from near room temperature to 1900/sup 0/K, (2) resistance to both electrochemical and chemical corrosion by both slag and potassium seed, (3) resistance to erosion by high-velocity gases and particles, (4) resistance to thermal shock, (5) adequate thermal conductivity, (6) compatibility with other channel components, particularly the electrical insulators, (7) oxidation-reduction stability, and (8) adequate thermionic emission. This report describes the concept and development of high-temperature, graded ceramic composite electrode materials and their electrical and structural properties. 47 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. Developing models and simulations from a life-cycle point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandbergen, Wayne; Barger, Millard

    2001-09-01

    When designing models and simulations, adopting a life-cycle perspective at the outset is the most effective and efficient course of action for both developer and end-user. Experience in software programs for the defense and commercial sectors reveals that change is a constant. This is so especially for the analytic simulations that, if proven useful, will see multiple applications over their lifetimes. The inevitable shifts in analytical focus exert pressure for the tool to adapt if it is to remain useful and relevant. Accommodating this evolution in the past has been difficult and expensive. In most cases, costs after initial operational capability are predominant in the simulation life cycle. This is particularly true for large-scale simulations, as complexity grows exponentially with size. Accommodating this change demands a software design concept that provides flexibility and modularity as well as a software implementation approach that loosely couples components and elements to make adaptation possible and practical. One approach, called the Common Analytical Simulation Architecture (CASA), is examined as a contemporary software design and development paradigm for military M&S that employs best commercial practices to effect in this regard. Simulations constructed in this manner are not only cost-effective in and of themselves, but can extend significant savings to other simulation efforts through the practical re-use of infrastructure. Consequently, it behooves all parties to such programs to recognize the inevitability of change and to employ a design and development paradigm that anticipates and accommodates the need to evolve.

  4. The First Cycle of Developing Teaching Materials for Fractions in Grade Five Using Realistic Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongki Julie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 3 questions that will be answered in this study, namely (1what are the contexts that can be used to introduce the meaning ofmultiplication of two fractions and to find the result of multiplying two fractions, (2 how to use these contexts to help students construct the understanding of the meaning of multiplication of two fractions and find the result of multiplying two fractions, and (3 what is the impact of the teaching-learning process that has been designed by researchers on the process of students’ knowledge construction.Learning approach which was used in developing teaching materialsabout fractions is realistic mathematics approach. Lesson plan wascreated for fifth grade elementary school students. The type of research used is development research. According to Gravemeijer and Cobb (in Akker, Gravemeijer, McKeney, and Nieveen, 2006 there are three phases in development research, namely (1 preparation of the trial design, (2 the trial design, and (3 a retrospective analysis. This paper presents the results of the first cycle of three cycles that have been planned.

  5. Contribution of Clinch River Breeder Reactor plant design and development to the LMFBR fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.R.; Dickson, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes how the CRBRP development and CRBRP focus of the LMFBR base technology program have led to advances in the state of the art in physics, thermal-hydraulics, structural analysis, core restraint, seismic analysis, and analysis of hypothetical core-disruptive accident energetics, all of which have been incorporated through disciplined engineering into the final CRBRP design. The total development in the US of fuels and materials, the analytical advances made on CRBRP design, and the incorporation of the latest experimental results into that design have put the US technology in general and the CRBRP design in particular at the forefront of technology. This has placed the US in a position to develop the most favorable LMFBR fuel cycle

  6. Development of Modal Aerosol Module in CAM5 for Biogeochemical Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaohong [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-11-18

    This project aims at developing new capabilities for the Modal Aerosol Module in the DOE’s E3SM model with the applications to the global biogeochemical cycle. The impacts of the new developments on model simulations of clouds and climate will be examined. There are thee objectives for this project study: Implementing primary marine organic aerosols into the modal aerosol module (MAM) and investigate effects of primary marine organic aerosols on climate in E3SM; Implementing dust speciation in MAM and investigate the effect of dust species on mixed-phase clouds through indirect effects in E3SM; Writing papers documenting the new MAM developments (e.g., MAM4 documentation paper, marine organic aerosol paper, dust speciation); These objectives will be accomplished in collaborations with Drs. Phil Rasch, Steve Ghan, and Susannah Burrows at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  7. Advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers for space applications in NLIP/SITP/CAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Haizheng; Tan, Jun; Zha, Rui; Li, Jiaqi; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yibo; Gao, Zhiqian; Bao, Dingli; Li, Ning; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Yongjiang; Zhao, Bangjian

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review of recent advances in single- and multi-stage Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTCs) for space applications developed at the National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NLIP/SITP/CAS). A variety of single-stage SPTCs operating at 25-150 K have been developed, including several mid-sized ones operating at 80-110 K. Significant progress has been achieved in coolers operating at 30-40 K which use common stainless steel meshes as regenerator matrices. Another important advance is the micro SPTCs with an overall mass of 300-800 g operating at high frequencies varying from 100 Hz to 400 Hz. The main purpose of developing two-stage SPTCs is to simultaneously acquire cooling capacities at both stages, obviating the need for auxiliary precooling in various applications. The three-stage SPTCs are developed mainly for applications at around 10 K, which are also used for precooling the J-T coolers to achieve further lower temperatures. The four-stage SPTCs are developed to directly achieve the liquid helium temperature for cooling space low-Tc superconducting devices and for the deep space exploration as well. Several typical development programs are described and an overview of the cooler performances is presented.

  8. CANFLEX-RU fuel development programs as one option of advanced fuel cycles in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Sim, Ki-Seob; Chung, Jang Hwan

    1999-01-01

    As one of the possible fuel cycles in Korea, RU (Recycled Uranium) fuel offers a very attractive alternative to the use of NU (Natural Uranium) and SEU in the CANDU reactors, because Korea is a unique country having both PWR and CANDU reactors. Korea can therefore exploit the natural synergism between the two reactor types to minimise overall waste production, and maximise energy derived from the fuel, by burning the spent fuel from its PWR reactors in CANDU reactors. Potential benefits can be derived from a number of stages in the fuel cycle: no enrichment required, no enrichment tails, direct conversion to UO 2 lower sensitivity to 234 U and 236 U absorption in the CANDU reactor, expected lower cost relative to NU and SEU. These benefits all fit well with the PWR-CANDU fuel cycle synergy. RU arising from the reprocessing of European and Japanese oxide spent fuel by 2000 is projected to be approaching 25,000 te. The use of RU fuel in a CANDU-6 reactor should result in no serious radiological difficulties and no requirements for special precautions and should not require any new technologies for the fuel fabrication and handling. A KAERI's feasibility shows that the use of the CANFLEX bundle as the carrier for RU will be compatible with the reactor design, current safety and operational requirements, and there will be no significant fuel performance difference from the CANDU 37-element NU fuel bundle. Compared with the 37-element NU bundle, the RU fuel has significantly improved fuel cycle economics derived from increased burnups, a large reduction in fuel requirements and spent fuel arisings and the potential lower cost for RU material. There is the potential for annual fuel cost savings to be in the range of one-third to two-thirds, with enhanced operating margins using RU in the CANFLEX bundle design. These benefits provide the rationale for justifying R and D effort on the use of RU fuel for advanced fuel cycles in the CANDU reactors of Korea. The RU fuel

  9. Progress and status of the integral fast reactor (IFR) fuel cycle development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle holds promise for substantial improvements in economics, diversion-resistance, and waste management. This paper discusses technical features of the IFR fuel cycle, its technical progress, the development status, and the future plans and directions. The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle, is based on the use of a metallic fuel alloy (U-Pu-Zr) that permits use of an innovative method for processing of spent fuel. This method, a combination of pyrometallurgical and electrochemical processes, has been termed pyroprocessing. It offers the advantages of a simple, compact processing system and limited volumes of stabilized high-level wastes. This translates to an economically viable system that is likely to receive favorable public response, particularly when combined with the other attributes of the Integral Fast Reactor. Substantial progress has been made in the development of the IFR pyroprocessing method. A comprehensive demonstration of the process will soon begin at the Argonne National Laboratory Idaho site, using spent fuel from the EBR-II reactor. An important advantage of the IFR is its ability to recycle fuel in the process of power generation, extending fuel resources by a considerable amount and assuring the continued viability of nuclear power stations by reducing dependence on external fuel supplies. Pyroprocessing is the means whereby the recycle process is accomplished. It can also be applied to the recovery of fuel constituents from spent fuel generated in the process of operation of conventional light water reactor power plants, offering the means to recover the valuable fuel resources remaining in that material

  10. INSTRUMENTATION AND MOTIVATIONS FOR ORGANISED CYCLING: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CYCLIST MOTIVATION INSTRUMENT (CMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trent D. Brown

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available 'Serious leisure' cycling has developed as a reinterpretation of the traditional form of the sport. This short term, informal, unstructured and unconventional conceptualisation represents a challenge to participant numbers in the mainstream sport. The purpose of this study was twofold: (i to ascertain the cultural, subcultural and ecological factors of participation in this new conceptualised form enabling clubs, associations and governments to a deeper understanding about participants practices and (ii as an ongoing validation to previous qualitative work (see O'Connor and Brown, 2005. This study reports on the development and psychometric properties (principal components analysis, confirmatory factor analysis of the Cyclists' Motivation Instrument. Four hundred and twenty two cyclists (371 males, 51 females who were registered members of the state competitive cycling body completed a fifty-one item instrument. Five factors were identified: social, embodiment, self-presentation, exploring environments and physical health outcomes and these accounted for 47.2% of the variance. Factor alpha coefficients ranged from .63 to .88, overall scale reliability was .92, suggesting moderate to high reliability for each of the factors and the overall scale.

  11. Optimization of controlled processes in combined-cycle plant (new developments and researches)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tverskoy, Yu S.; Muravev, I. K.

    2017-11-01

    All modern complex technical systems, including power units of TPP and nuclear power plants, work in the system-forming structure of multifunctional APCS. The development of the modern APCS mathematical support allows bringing the automation degree to the solution of complex optimization problems of equipment heat-mass-exchange processes in real time. The difficulty of efficient management of a binary power unit is related to the need to solve jointly at least three problems. The first problem is related to the physical issues of combined-cycle technologies. The second problem is determined by the criticality of the CCGT operation to changes in the regime and climatic factors. The third problem is related to a precise description of a vector of controlled coordinates of a complex technological object. To obtain a joint solution of this complex of interconnected problems, the methodology of generalized thermodynamic analysis, methods of the theory of automatic control and mathematical modeling are used. In the present report, results of new developments and studies are shown. These results allow improving the principles of process control and the automatic control systems structural synthesis of power units with combined-cycle plants that provide attainable technical and economic efficiency and operational reliability of equipment.

  12. The First Cycle of Developing Teaching Materials for Fractions in Grade Five Using Realistic Mathematics Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongki Julie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There are three questions that will be answered in this study, namely (1 what are the contexts that can be used to introduce the meaning of multiplication of two fractions and to find the result of multiplying two fractions, (2 how to use these contexts to help students construct the understanding of the meaning of multiplication of two fractions and find the result of multiplying two fractions, and (3 what is the impact of the teaching-learning process that has been designed by researchers on the process of students' knowledge construction. Learning approach which was used in developing teaching materials about fractions is realistic mathematics approach. Lesson plan was created for fifth grade elementary school students. The type of research used is developmental research. According to Gravemeijer and Cobb (in Akker, Gravemeijer, McKeney, and Nieveen, 2006 there are three phases in development research, namely (1 preparation of the trial design, (2 the trial design, and (3 retrospective analysis. This paper presents the results of the first cycle of three cycles that have been planned.Key words: fractions, realistic mathematics education, design research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.2.415.172-187

  13. Development of a system emulating the global carbon cycle in Earth system models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tachiiri

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that the uncertainty in the global carbon cycle may have a significant impact on the climate. Since state of the art models are too computationally expensive for it to be possible to explore their parametric uncertainty in anything approaching a comprehensive fashion, we have developed a simplified system for investigating this problem. By combining the strong points of general circulation models (GCMs, which contain detailed and complex processes, and Earth system models of intermediate complexity (EMICs, which are quick and capable of large ensembles, we have developed a loosely coupled model (LCM which can represent the outputs of a GCM-based Earth system model, using much smaller computational resources. We address the problem of relatively poor representation of precipitation within our EMIC, which prevents us from directly coupling it to a vegetation model, by coupling it to a precomputed transient simulation using a full GCM. The LCM consists of three components: an EMIC (MIROC-lite which consists of a 2-D energy balance atmosphere coupled to a low resolution 3-D GCM ocean (COCO including an ocean carbon cycle (an NPZD-type marine ecosystem model; a state of the art vegetation model (Sim-CYCLE; and a database of daily temperature, precipitation, and other necessary climatic fields to drive Sim-CYCLE from a precomputed transient simulation from a state of the art AOGCM. The transient warming of the climate system is calculated from MIROC-lite, with the global temperature anomaly used to select the most appropriate annual climatic field from the pre-computed AOGCM simulation which, in this case, is a 1% pa increasing CO2 concentration scenario.

    By adjusting the effective climate sensitivity (equivalent to the equilibrium climate sensitivity for an energy balance model of MIROC-lite, the transient warming of the LCM could be adjusted to closely follow the low sensitivity (with an equilibrium

  14. Life cycle assessment for coordination development of nuclear power and electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hong; Wang Yingrong

    2010-01-01

    Energy, environment and climate change have become focus political topics. In this paper, the life cycle assessment for cooperation development of nuclear power and electric vehicle were analyzed from the view of energy efficiency and pollutant emissions. The assessment results show that the pathway of nuclear power coupled with electric vehicle is better than coal electric power coupled with electric vehicle and normal gasoline coupled with internal combustion engine powered vehicle in terms of the environmental and energy characteristics. To charge the electric vehicle, instead of water power station, can safeguard the stable operation of nuclear power station. The results could provide consulted for coordination development of nuclear power, electric vehicle and brain power electric net. (authors)

  15. The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative: Development of separations technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laidler, James J.; Bresee, James C.

    2004-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel from 103 operating U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors is accumulating at a rate of about 2,000 metric tons per year. At this rate, the legislated capacity of the Yucca Mountain geologic repository (63,000 tons of commercial spent fuel) will be exceeded by 2015. Accordingly, the U.S. Department of Energy has instituted a new program, the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, which is intended to provide the technologies necessary for the economical and environmentally sound processing of spent fuel. The goal of this technology development program is to preclude or significantly delay the need for a second geologic repository. Separations technologies are being developed that will support the processing of commercial spent fuel as well as the spent fuel arising from the operation of future advanced reactors

  16. Association of versican with dermal matrices and its potential role in hair follicle development and cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Cros, D L; LeBaron, R G; Couchman, J R

    1995-01-01

    Versican is a member of the group of aggregating proteoglycans involved in matrix assembly and structure and in cell adhesion. We examined changes in the distribution of versican in mammalian skin, with emphasis on hair follicle development and cycling. In adult human skin, immunostaining...... for versican appeared predominantly in the dermis, with intense staining of the reticular dermis. Weak staining was observed at the dermoepidermal junction and the connective tissue sheath of hair follicles. Versican expression was also noted in the reticular dermis of rat skin, within dermal papillae......, and possibly associated with follicle basement membranes. During mouse hair follicle development, versican was not expressed until the hair follicles were beginning to produce fibers. With follicle maturation, versican expression intensified in the dermal papillae, reaching a maximum at the height...

  17. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Linda L.; Valverde Perez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the field of wastewater treatment where the focus has been to identify environmental trade-offs of current technologies. In a novel approach, we use LCA to support early stage research and development of a biochemical system for wastewater......, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts...... of the LCA pinpointed nutrient substitution and heavy metals content of algae biofertilizer as critical areas for further research if the performance of nutrient recovery systems such as TRENS is to be better characterized. Our study provides valuable feedback to the TRENS developers and identifies...

  18. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment innovative approaches developed in HeartCycle project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, S; Rocha, T; de Carvalho, P; Henriques, J; Morais, J; Ferreira, J; Mendes, M

    2013-01-01

    Two innovative CVD event risk assessment strategies were developed in the scope of HeartCycle project: i) combination of individual risk assessment tools; ii) personalization of risk assessment based on grouping of patients. These approaches aimed to defeat some of the major limitations of the tools currently applied in the daily clinical practice, namely to: i) improve the risk prediction performance when comparing it to the one achieved by the individual current risk assessment tools; ii) consider the available knowledge provided by other risk assessment tools; iii) cope with missing risk factors; iv) incorporate additional clinical knowledge. Two different real patients' datasets were applied to validate the developed strategies: i) Santa Cruz Hospital, Portugal, N=460 ACS-NSTEMI1 patients; ii) Leiria Pombal Hospital Centre, Portugal, N=99 ACS-NSTEMI. Based on the gathered results, we propose a new strategy in order to improve patients' stratification.

  19. Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted morphogen Dpp plays important roles in spatial regulation of gene expression and cell cycle progression in the developing Drosophila eye. Dpp signaling is required for timely cell cycle arrest ahead of the morphogenetic furrow as a prelude to differentiation, and is also important for eye disc growth. The dpp gene is expressed at multiple locations in the eye imaginal disc, including the morphogenetic furrow that sweeps across the eye disc as differentiation initiates. Results Studies of Brinker and Dad expression, and of Mad phosphorylation, establish that there is a gradient of Dpp signaling in the eye imaginal disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, predominantly in the anterior-posterior axis, and also Dpp signaling at the margins of the disc epithelium and in the dorsal peripodial membrane. Almost all signaling activity seems to spread through the plane of the epithelia, although peripodial epithelium cells can also respond to underlying disc cells. There is a graded requirement for Dpp signaling components for G1 arrest in the eye disc, with more stringent requirements further anteriorly where signaling is lower. The signaling level defines the cell cycle response, because elevated signaling through expression of an activated Thickveins receptor molecule arrested cells at more anterior locations. Very anterior regions of the eye disc were not arrested in response to activated receptor, however, and evidence is presented that expression of the Homothorax protein may contribute to this protection. By contrast to activated Thickveins, ectopic expression of processed Dpp leads to very high levels of Mad phosphorylation which appear to have non-physiological consequences. Conclusions G1 arrest occurs at a threshold level of Dpp signaling within a morphogen gradient in the anterior eye. G1 arrest is specific for one competent domain in the eye disc, allowing Dpp signaling to promote growth at earlier

  20. Research of the cost-benefit analysis for FR cycle research and development. The annual report of the FY 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Hiroki; Shinoda, Yoshihiko; Hirao, Kazunori

    2002-07-01

    This report is intended to explain the outline of the research and development (R and D) in the FY 2001 on cost-benefit analysis of FR (Fast Reactor) cycle system concepts. The work was conducted as a part of the JNC's Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (the F/S)'. In the FY 2001, the work conducted in the JNC was summed up as the followings: Conceptual study on cost-benefit analysis for FR cycle R and D. Refinement on the evaluation procedure and improvement over operation efficiency. Cost-benefit analysis of the reference FR cycle and sensitivity analysis with the revised system. Cost-benefit analyses of R and Ds for various FR cycle candidate concepts including FR cycle concepts studied in the F/S phase 1. The work made it possible to evaluate the cost effectiveness of various FR cycle systems efficiently. The cost-benefit analysis, which is often used for the policy evaluation, is considered to be applicable to FR cycle system concepts in the F/S. (author)

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A DATA WAREHOUSE FOR PROCESSES OF THE LOGISTICS CYCLE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polanco Garay, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently companies use transactional storage systems to manage their business; They do not meet the needs of data analysis, because they are not viable in obtaining useful data for decision-making. Therefore there is a need to create a data warehouse to check the information regarding the logistics cycle of media in order to support the process of decision making. To this end, various theoretical elements related to data warehouses addresses, which are an alternative management for enterprise business considering that the data are not altered or destroyed but are used for future reference, making it a powerful tool specializing in the management of historical data. For the design of the solution it was made using various tools and guidance for developing data warehouses Company XETID. A set of quality tests are also carried out to ensure proper operation.

  2. Development of a Scale Model for High Flux Isotope Reactor Cycle 400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Dan [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    The development of a comprehensive SCALE computational model for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is documented and discussed in this report. The SCALE model has equivalent features and functionality as the reference MCNP model for Cycle 400 that has been used extensively for HFIR safety analyses and for HFIR experiment design and analyses. Numerical comparisons of the SCALE and MCNP models for the multiplication constant, power density distribution in the fuel, and neutron fluxes at several locations in HFIR indicate excellent agreement between the results predicted with the two models. The SCALE HFIR model is presented in sufficient detail to provide the users of the model with a tool that can be easily customized for various safety analysis or experiment design requirements.

  3. Development of the CO2 Emission Evaluation Tool for the Life Cycle Assessment of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyoung Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the goal of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 26.9% below business-as-usual by 2020, the construction industry is recognized as an environmentally harmful industry because of the large quantity of consumption and waste with which it is associated, and the industry has therefore been requested to become more environmentally friendly. Concrete, a common construction material, is known to emit large amounts of environmentally hazardous waste during the processes related to its production, construction, maintenance, and demolition. To aid the concrete industry’s efforts to reduce its GHG emissions, this study developed a software program that can assess GHG emissions incurred over the life cycle of a concrete product, and a case study was conducted to determine the impact of the proposed concrete assessment program on a construction project.

  4. Development of LM10-MIRA LOX/LNG expander cycle demonstrator engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnykh, Mikhail; Carapellese, Stefano; Liuzzi, Daniele; Arione, Luigi; Caggiano, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Paolo; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Rocco; Lobov, S. D.; Gurtovoy, A. A.; Rachuk, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of joint works by Konstruktorskoe Buro Khimavtomatiki (KBKhA, Russia) and AVIO Company (Italy) on creation of the LM10-MIRA liquid-propellant rocket demonstrator engine for the third stage of the upgraded "Vega" launcher.Scientific and research activities conducted by KBKhA and AVIO in 2007-2014 in the frame of the LYRA Program, funded by the Italian Space Agency, with ELV as Prime contractor, and under dedicated ASI-Roscosmos inter-agencies agreement, were aimed at development and testing of a 7.5 t thrust expander cycle demonstrator engine propelled by oxygen and liquid natural gas (further referred to as LNG).

  5. Development and application of Siton, a new fuel cycle simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolly, Aron; Szieberth, Mate; Halasz, Mate; Nagy, Lajos; Feher, Sandor

    2015-01-01

    As the result of the co-operation between the Centre for Energy Research (EK) and the Institute of Nuclear Techniques (NTI) a new fuel cycle simulation code called SITON was developed. Physical model of the code takes into account six facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle namely material stocks, spent fuel interim storages, plants for uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing and reactors. Facilities can be linked in a flexible manner and their number is not limited. Lag time of the facilities and cooling time of the spent fuel, which are the two main parameters to introduce lag time into the fuel cycle, are taken into account. Material transfer between the facilities is modelled in a discrete manner tracking 52 nuclides and their short-lived decay daughters. Composition of the discharged fuel is determined by means of burn-up tables except for the 2400 MWth design of gas cooled fast reactor (GFR2400) which has a separate burn-up module developed at the NTI. To demonstrate the capabilities of SITON introduction of a GFR2400 into the Hungarian reactor park using the legacy spent fuel of the four presently operating VVER-440 units was simulated. 2040 was assumed as the commissioning date of the GFR2400 and recycling of its fuel was started as soon as possible. It was found that the plutonium content of the legacy spent fuel is sufficient to the start-up of only one GFR2400. There is an intermediate period between the commissioning of the reactor and the recycling of its first discharged fuel. Plutonium need of this period can be covered by the legacy spent fuel if the cooling time of the spent GFR2400 fuel is 2 years. If the cooling time is 5 years there will be a lack of plutonium in this period. To counterbalance this lack an EPR was started before the GFR2400 and its spent fuel was accumulated and reprocessed. Cooling time of the spent EPR fuel was also varied. Finally, an EPR only scenario is presented using two EPRs as a reference case

  6. PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT OF A MINIATURE STIRLING CRYOCOOLER WITH A MULTI MESH REGENERATOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KISHOR KUMAR V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A parametric study has been carried out using the software REGEN 3.3 to optimize the regenerator of a miniature Stirling cryocooler operating with a warm end temperature of 300 K and cold end temperature of 80 K. Regenerator designs which produce the maximum coefficient of performance (COP of the system is considered as an optimized regenerator. The length and diameter of the regenerator were fixed from the cooler system requirements. Single mesh regenerators made of 200, 250, 300, 400 and 450 Stainless Steel wire meshes were considered and the optimum phase angle and mesh size were obtained. A maximum COP of 0.1475 was obtained for 300 mesh regenerator at 70° phase angle. Then multi mesh regenerators were considered with finer mesh on the cold end and coarser mesh on the hot end. The optimum size and length of each mesh in the multi mesh regenerator and the optimum phase angle were calculated. The maximum COP of 0.156 was obtained for 200 300-400 multi mesh regenerator at 70° phase angle. The COP and net refrigeration obtained for an optimized multi mesh regenerator was found to be significantly higher than that of a single mesh regenerator. Thus a multi mesh regenerator design with a proper combination of regenerator mesh size and length can enhance the regenerator effectiveness.

  7. Study on the flow nonuniformity in a high capacity Stirling pulse tube cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, X.; Zhi, X.; Duan, C.; Jiang, X.; Qiu, L.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    High capacity Stirling-type pulse tube cryocoolers (SPTC) have promising applications in high temperature superconductive motor and gas liquefaction. However, with the increase of cooling capacity, its performance deviates from well-accepted one-dimensional model simulation, such as Sage and Regen, mainly due to the strong field nonuniformity. In this study, several flow straighteners placed at both ends of the pulse tube are investigated to improve the flow distribution. A two-dimensional model of the pulse tube based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method has been built to study the flow distribution of the pulse tube with different flow straighteners including copper screens, copper slots, taper transition and taper stainless slot. A SPTC set-up which has more than one hundred Watts cooling power at 80 K has been built and tested. The flow straighteners mentioned above have been applied and tested. The results show that with the best flow straightener the cooling performance of the SPTC can be significantly improved. Both CFD simulation and experiment show that the straighteners have impacts on the flow distribution and the performance of the high capacity SPTC.

  8. Multiobjective optimizations of a novel cryocooled dc gun based ultrafast electron diffraction beam line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliford, Colwyn; Bartnik, Adam; Bazarov, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of multiobjective genetic algorithm optimizations of a single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction beam line utilizing a 225 kV dc gun with a novel cryocooled photocathode system and buncher cavity. Optimizations of the transverse projected emittance as a function of bunch charge are presented and discussed in terms of the scaling laws derived in the charge saturation limit. Additionally, optimization of the transverse coherence length as a function of final rms bunch length at the sample location have been performed for three different sample radii: 50, 100, and 200 μ m , for two final bunch charges: 1 05 electrons (16 fC) and 1 06 electrons (160 fC). Example optimal solutions are analyzed, and the effects of disordered induced heating estimated. In particular, a relative coherence length of Lc ,x/σx=0.27 nm /μ m was obtained for a final bunch charge of 1 05 electrons and final bunch length of σt≈100 fs . For a final charge of 1 06 electrons the cryogun produces Lc ,x/σx≈0.1 nm /μ m for σt≈100 - 200 fs and σx≥50 μ m . These results demonstrate the viability of using genetic algorithms in the design and operation of ultrafast electron diffraction beam lines.

  9. AREVA Modular Steam Cycle – High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Development Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lommers, L.; Shahrokhi, F.; Southworth, F.; Mayer, J. III

    2014-01-01

    The AREVA Steam Cycle – High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (SCHTGR) is a modular graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactor currently being developed to support a wide variety of applications including industrial process heat, high efficiency electricity generation, and cogeneration. It produces high temperature superheated steam which makes it a good match for many markets currently dependent on fossil fuels for process heat. Moreover, the intrinsic safety characteristics of the SC-HTGR make it uniquely qualified for collocation with large industrial process heat users which is necessary for serving these markets. The NGNP Industry Alliance has selected the AREVA SC-HTGR as the basis for future development work to support commercial HTGR deployment. This paper provides a concise description of the SC-HTGR concept, followed by a summary of recent development activities. Since this concept was introduced, ongoing design activities have focused primarily on confirming key system capabilities and the suitability for potential future markets. These evaluations continue to confirm the suitability of the SC-HTGR for a variety of potential applications that are currently dependent on fossil fuels. (author)

  10. Chapter 10 the primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present a...... with the extracellular matrix, coordinate Wnt signaling, and modulate cytoskeletal changes that impinge on both cell cycle control and cell migration....

  11. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  12. Development and application of methods and computer codes of fuel management and nuclear design of reload cycles in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnert, C.; Aragones, J.M.; Corella, M.R.; Esteban, A.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Minguez, E.; Perlado, J.M.; Pena, J.; Matias, E. de; Llorente, A.; Navascues, J.; Serrano, J.

    1976-01-01

    Description of methods and computer codes for Fuel Management and Nuclear Design of Reload Cycles in PWR, developed at JEN by adaptation of previous codes (LEOPARD, NUTRIX, CITATION, FUELCOST) and implementation of original codes (TEMP, SOTHIS, CICLON, NUDO, MELON, ROLLO, LIBRA, PENELOPE) and their application to the project of Management and Design of Reload Cycles of a 510 Mwt PWR, including comparison with results of experimental operation and other calculations for validation of methods. (author) [es

  13. Closed fuel cycle and contemporary tendencies of the nuclear facilities development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.; Hron, M.

    2003-01-01

    The decision to develop nuclear facility is given not only through technical and financial arguments, but sometimes even the greater weight is on political, general safety and public acceptance reasons. Moreover a responsible statement about financial needs is at the beginning of the study possible only with a great error (roughly speaking - factor of two) and a time estimation up to the industrial facilities is about fifteen or even more years. If the technical development and realization is successful, we can express a more responsible conclusion only in such long time intervals. During such long periods, the criteria for political and financial decisions could be changed and the technical development will necessary follow the new situation with a change in the stream of money. On the other side, the stream of money into technology leads to a more precise forecast and a more responsible decision for future realizations. We shall try, in the paper, to reflect technical problems in the closed fuel cycle (like solid and liquid fuel options) with the public demands (refusing of nuclear energy and spent fuel disposal generally, preferring waste less technologies) and political safety aspects (nonproliferation, spent fuel storages). There will be a special attention devoted to such problems in smaller countries, where demands for energy cannot be covered by local classical sources and nuclear energy and spent fuel are already long time reality. The organizational measures and tendencies will be analyzed how to compose sufficiently great and qualified collectives to be able to overcome from the local final disposal development to the common technology realizing practically closed fuel cycle and enabling decomposition of water for the hydrogen production during the first half of this century. Overview information will be given about the Czech national technical program within the EU Program (MOST Project) and within the cooperation with Russian institutes in the molten

  14. Vitellocytes and vitellogenesis in cestodes in relation to embryonic development, egg production and life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Z; Xylander, W E

    2000-06-01

    Vitellocytes have two important functions in cestode embryogenesis: (1) formation of hard egg-shell (e.g. Pseudophyllidea) or a delicate capsule (e.g. Cyclophyllidea), and (2) supplying nutritive reserves for the developing embryos. During evolution any of these two functions can be reduced or intensified in different taxa depending on the type of their embryonic development, degree of ovoviviparity and life cycles. Within the Cestoda, there are three monozoic taxa with only one set of genital organs: Amphilinidea, Gyrocotylidea and Caryophyllidea. In these monozoic taxa and some polyzoic groups with well developed vitellaria (e.g. Pseudophyllidea, Trypanorhyncha) a single oocyte [=germocyte] and a large number of vitellocytes (up to 30) are enclosed within a thick, hardened egg-shell, forming a type of eggs typical for the basic pattern of Neodermata. Only one type of egg-shell enclosures, the so-called 'heterogeneous shell-globule vesicle' is common for the above mentioned cestode taxa. Each membrane-bounded vesicle of mature vitellocytes contains numerous electron-dense shell globules embedded in a translucent matrix. In free-living Neoophora and Monogenea there are two types of vesicles with dense granules; the second is considered to be proteinaceous reserve material. Within the Cestoda, the numbers of vitellocytes per germocyte are reduced in those taxa forming eggs of the 'Cyclophyllidean-type' (e.g. Cyclophyllidea, Tetraphyllidea, Pseudophyllidea). This is particularly evident in Cyclophyllidea; for example, in vitellocytes of Hymenolepis diminuta (Hymenolepididae) there are numerous vitelline granules of homogeneously electron-dense material; in Catenotaenia pusilla (Catenotaeniidae) there are three large, homogenous vitelline vesicles, while in Inermicapsifer madagascariensis (Anoplocephalidae) there is only one large vitelline vesicle, containing homogeneously electron-dense material, which occupies most of the vitelline cell volume. In this respect the

  15. Development of an onboard system to measure the on-road driving pattern for developing motorcycle driving cycle in Khon Kaen city, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Seedam, Atthapol; Satiennam, Thaned; Radpukdee, Thana; Satiennam, Wichuda

    2015-01-01

    This study developed an onboard system to measure the on-road driving pattern for a motorcycle driving cycle in Khon Kaen city, Thailand. The developed system, validated with high accuracy results, could measure and record a driving pattern, i.e. a speed profile of a driving motorcycle. The selected motorcycle was driven along selected routes in Khon Kaen city under the existing traffic conditions to collect the on-road driving pattern. The Khon Kaen motorcycle driving cycle (KMDC) was develo...

  16. The development of contact force construction in the dynamic-contact task of cycling [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas A T; Jensen, Jody L

    2003-01-01

    Purposeful movement requires that an individual produce appropriate joint torques to accelerate segments, and when environmental contact is involved, to develop task-appropriate contact forces. Developmental research has been confined largely to the mastery of unconstrained movement skills (pointing, kicking). The purpose of this study was to study the developmental progression that characterizes the interaction of muscular and non-muscular forces in tasks constrained by contact with the environment. Seven younger children (YC, 6-8 years), 7 older children (OC, 9-11 years) and 7 adults (AD) pedaled an ergometer (80 rpm) at an anthropometrically scaled cycling power. Resultant forces measured at the pedal's surface were decomposed into muscle, inertia and gravity components. Muscle pedal forces were further examined in terms of the underlying lower extremity joint torques and kinematic weights that constitute the muscular component of the pedal force. Data showed children applied muscle forces to the pedal in a significantly different manner compared to adults, and that this was due to the children's lower segmental mass and inertia. The children adjusted the contribution of the proximal joint muscle torques to compensate for reduced contributions to the resultant pedal force by gravitational and inertial components. These data show that smaller segmental mass and inertia limit younger children's ability to construct the dynamic-contact task of cycling in an adult-like form. On the basis of these results, however, the children's response was not "immature". Rather, the results show a task-appropriate adaptation to lower segmental mass and inertia. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. New developments and prospects on COSI, the simulation software for fuel cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschbach, R.; Meyer, M.; Coquelet-Pascal, C.; Tiphine, M.; Krivtchik, G.; Cany, C.

    2013-01-01

    COSI, software developed by the Nuclear Energy Direction of the CEA, is a code simulating a pool of nuclear power plants with its associated fuel cycle facilities. This code has been designed to study various short, medium and long term options for the introduction of various types of nuclear reactors and for the use of associated nuclear materials. In the frame of the French Act for waste management, scenario studies are carried out with COSI, to compare different options of evolution of the French reactor fleet and options of partitioning and transmutation of plutonium and minor actinides. Those studies aim in particular at evaluating the sustainability of Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) deployment and the possibility to transmute minor actinides. The COSI6 version is a completely renewed software released in 2006. COSI6 is now coupled with the last version of CESAR (CESAR5.3 based on JEFF3.1.1 nuclear data) allowing the calculations on irradiated fuel with 200 fission products and 100 heavy nuclides. A new release is planned in 2013, including in particular the coupling with a recommended database of reactors. An exercise of validation of COSI6, carried out on the French PWR historic nuclear fleet, has been performed. During this exercise quantities like cumulative natural uranium consumption, or cumulative depleted uranium, or UOX/MOX spent fuel storage, or stocks of reprocessed uranium, or plutonium content in fresh MOX fuel, or the annual production of high level waste, have been computed by COSI6 and compared to industrial data. The results have allowed us to validate the essential phases of the fuel cycle computation, and reinforces the credibility of the results provided by the code

  18. Development of Advanced Life Cycle Costing Methods for Technology Benefit/Cost/Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The overall objective of this three-year grant is to provide NASA Langley's System Analysis Branch with improved affordability tools and methods based on probabilistic cost assessment techniques. In order to accomplish this objective, the Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory (ASDL) needs to pursue more detailed affordability, technology impact, and risk prediction methods and to demonstrate them on variety of advanced commercial transports. The affordability assessment, which is a cornerstone of ASDL methods, relies on the Aircraft Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ALCCA) program originally developed by NASA Ames Research Center and enhanced by ASDL. This grant proposed to improve ALCCA in support of the project objective by updating the research, design, test, and evaluation cost module, as well as the engine development cost module. Investigations into enhancements to ALCCA include improved engine development cost, process based costing, supportability cost, and system reliability with airline loss of revenue for system downtime. A probabilistic, stand-alone version of ALCCA/FLOPS will also be developed under this grant in order to capture the uncertainty involved in technology assessments. FLOPS (FLight Optimization System program) is an aircraft synthesis and sizing code developed by NASA Langley Research Center. This probabilistic version of the coupled program will be used within a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) method to determine what types of technologies would have to be infused in a system in order to meet customer requirements. A probabilistic analysis of the CER's (cost estimating relationships) within ALCCA will also be carried out under this contract in order to gain some insight as to the most influential costs and the impact that code fidelity could have on future RDS (Robust Design Simulation) studies.

  19. Continued Development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) System for Advanced Extravehicular Activity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papale, William; Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer; Jeng, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Development activities related to the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Humidity control system have progressed to the point of integrating the RCA into an advanced Primary Life Support System (PLSS 2.0) to evaluate the interaction of the RCA among other PLSS components in a ground test environment. The RCA 2.0 assembly (integrated into PLSS 2.0) consists of a valve assembly with commercial actuator motor, a sorbent canister, and a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based process node controller. Continued design and development activities for RCA 3.0 have been aimed at optimizing the canister size and incorporating greater fidelity in the valve actuator motor and valve position feedback design. Further, the RCA process node controller is envisioned to incorporate a higher degree of functionality to support a distributed PLSS control architecture. This paper will describe the progression of technology readiness levels of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 along with a review of the design and manufacturing successes and challenges for 2.0 and 3.0 units. The anticipated interfaces and interactions with the PLSS 2.0/2.5/3.0 assemblies will also be discussed.

  20. Development and life cycle analysis of double slope active solar still with flat plate collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Sethi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Potable water is an essential ingredient of socio-economic development and economic growth. Often water sources are brackish (i.e. contain dissolved salts and/or contain harmful bacteria and therefore cannot be used for drinking. In addition, there are many coastal locations where seawater is abundant but potable water is not available. This study is focused on a development of solar still with flat plat collector for water desalination considered for small scale applications at remote locations where only saline water is available. In this paper the cost of distilled water per kg has been calculated by using the concept of life cycle cost analysis. The pay back periods for different conditions of the distribution of distilled water, namely at the cost it is produced and at the selling price on market rate have been evaluated. The cost of water per kg is minimum Rs. 0.59, when the interest rate and the lifetime of solar still are taken as 4% and 50 years respectively. The lowest payback time 1.23 years is obtained when the selling price of water Rs. 10 per kg.

  1. Research and development of an air-cycle heat-pump water heater. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, J.T.; Erickson, A.J.; Harvey, A.C.; Toscano, W.M.

    1979-10-01

    A prototype reverse Brayton air cycle heat pump water heater has been designed and built for residential applications. The system consists of a compressor/expander, an air-water heat exchanger, an electric motor, a water circulation pump, a thermostat, and fluid management controls. The prototype development program consisted of a market analysis, design study, and development testing. A potential residential market for the new high-efficiency water heater of approximately 480,000 units/y was identified. The retail and installation cost of this water heater is estimated to be between $500 and $600 which is approximately $300 more than a conventional electric water heater. The average payback per unit is less than 3-1/2 y and the average recurring energy cost savings after the payback period is approximately $105/y at the average seasonal coefficient of performance (COP) of 1.7. As part of the design effort, a thermodynamic parametric analysis was performed on the water heater system. It was determined that to obtain a coefficient of performance of 1.7, the isentropic efficiency of both the compressor and the expander must be at least 85%. The selected mechanical configuration is described. The water heater has a diameter of 25 in. and a height of 73 in. The results of the development testing of the prototype water heater system showed: the electrical motor maximum efficiency of 78%; the compressor isentropic efficiency is 95 to 119% and the volumetric efficiency is approximately 85%; the expander isentropic efficiency is approximately 58% and the volumetric efficiency is 92%; a significant heat transfer loss of approximately 16% occurred in the expander; and the prototype heat pump system COP is 1.26 which is less than the design goal of at least 1.7. Future development work is recommended.

  2. A Hospital Nursing Adverse Events Reporting System Project: An Approach Based on the Systems Development Life Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingjuan; Ball, Marion

    2017-01-01

    Based on the System Development Life Cycle, a hospital based nursing adverse event reporting system was developed and implemented which integrated with the current Hospital Information System (HIS). Besides the potitive outcomes in terms of timeliness and efficiency, this approach has brought an enormous change in how the nurses report, analyze and respond to the adverse events.

  3. Using the Engineering Design Cycle to Develop Integrated Project Based Learning in Aerospace Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saunders-Smits, G.N.; Roling, P.; Brügemann, V.; Timmer, N.; Melkert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past four years the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands has redeveloped its BSc curriculum to mimic an engineering design cycle. Each semester represents a step in the design cycle: exploration; system design; sub-system design; test,

  4. Developing Students' Understanding of Industrially Relevant Economic and Life Cycle Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Claudia J.; Chapman, Clint; Pennybaker, Atherly; Subramaniam, Bala

    2017-01-01

    Training future leaders to understand life cycle assessment data is critical for effective research, business, and sociopolitical decision-making. However, the technical nature of these life cycle reports often makes them challenging for students and other nonexperts to comprehend. Therefore, we outline here the key takeaways from recent economic…

  5. Systems Thinking for Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: A Review of Recent Developments, Applications, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Cihat Onat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tracking the environmental impacts of production, use, and disposal of products (e.g., goods, and services have been an important issue in the global economy. Although Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is a widely applied method to track these environmental impacts and support policies, it has certain limitations and an isolated way of evaluating the environmental impacts with no consideration of social and economic impacts and mechanisms. To overcome the limits of current LCA, three mechanisms have been proposed in the literature: (1 broadening the indicators by including social and economic indicators in addition to the environmental impacts; (2 broadening the scope of analysis from product-level assessment to national and global levels; (3 deepening the assessment by inclusion of more mechanisms to account for interrelations among the system elements, uncertainty analysis, stakeholder involvement, etc. With these developments, LCA has been evolving into a new framework called Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA. Practical application of LCSA requires integration of various methods, tools, and disciplines. In this study, a comprehensive literature review is conducted to investigate recent developments, current challenges, and future perspectives in the LCSA literature. According to the review, a high number (40% of LCSA studies are from the environmental science discipline, while contributions from other disciplines such as economics (3% and social sciences (9% are very low. On broadening the scope of analysis, 58% of the studies are product-level works, while 37% quantified the impacts at national level and achieved an economy-wide analysis, and only 5% of the studies were able to quantify the global impacts of products using LCSA framework. Furthermore, current applications of LCSA have not considered the rebound effects, feedback mechanisms, and interrelations of the system of interest sufficiently. To address these challenges, we present a

  6. The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

    1999-12-01

    Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  7. Development of a high-performance transtibial cycling-specific prosthesis for the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Bryce; Woolley, Howard

    2017-10-01

    It has been reported that cycling-specific research relating to participants with an amputation is extremely limited in both volume and frequency. However, practitioners might participate in the development of cycling-specific prosthetic limbs. This technical note presents the development of a successful design of a prosthetic limb developed specifically for competitive cycling. This project resulted in a hollow composite construction which was low in weight and shaped to reduce a rider's aerodynamic drag. The new prosthesis reduces the overall mass of more traditional designs by a significant amount yet provides a more aerodynamic shape over traditional approaches. These decisions have yielded a measurable increase in cycling performance. While further refinement is needed to reduce the aerodynamic drag as much as possible, this project highlights the benefits that can exist by optimising the design of sports-specific prosthetic limbs. Clinical relevance This project resulted in the creation of a cycling-specific prosthesis which was tailored to the needs of a high-performance environment. Whilst further optimisation is possible, this project provides insight into the development of sports-specific prostheses.

  8. Innovative Stirling-Cycle Cryocooler for Long Term In-Space Storage of Cryogenic Liquid Propellants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerous studies have concluded that increasing effectiveness of long-term storage of cryogenic liquid propellants, primarily LO2 and LH2, offers the largest single...

  9. Development of remote handling technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiromichi; Sakai, Akira; Miura, Noriaki; Kozaka, Tetsuo; Hamada, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Remote handling technology has been systematically developed for nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Japan since 1970s, primarily in parallel with the development of reprocessing and HLLW (High Level Liquid Waste) vitrification process. In case of reprocessing and vitrification process to handle highly radioactive and hazardous materials, the most of components are installed in the radiation shielded hot cells and operators are not allowed to enter the work area in the cells for operation and maintenance. Therefore, a completely remote handling system is adopted for the cells to reduce radiation doses of operators and increase the availability of the facility. The hot cells are generally designed considering the scale of components (laboratory, demonstration, or full-scale), the function of the systems (chemical process, material handling, dismantling, decontamination, or chemical analysis), and the environmental conditions (radiation dose rate, airborne concentration, surface contamination, or fume/mist/dust). Throughout our domestic development work for remote handling technology, the concept of the large scale integrated cell has been adopted rather than a number of small scale separated cells, for the reasons to reduce the total installation space and the number of remote handling equipment required for the each cell as much as possible. In our domestic remote maintenance design, several new concepts have been developed, tested, and demonstrated in the Tokai Virtrification Facility (TVF) and the Rokkasho HLLW Vitrification and Storage Facility (K-facility). Layout in the hot cells, the performance of remote handling equipment, and the structure of the in-cell components are important factors for remote maintenance design. In case of TVF (hot tests started in 1995), piping and vessels are prefabricated in the rack modules and installed in two lines on both sides of the cell. These modules are designed to be remotely replaced in the whole rack. Two overhead cranes

  10. Developing learning trajectory on the circumference of a cycle with realistic mathematics education (RME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriani, Novi; Julie, Hongki

    2017-08-01

    According Nuranisa, the students' difficulties on a lesson about the circumference of a circle were to understand the concept of what was the circumference of a circle and solve problems associated with the circumference of a circle [8]. According Nuranisa, this is because the teacher only gives a formula to find the circumference of a circle without helping students to construct the formula [8]. The purposes of this study were (1) to develop the hypothetical learning trajectory (HLT) for the cycle circumference material, (2) to describe the student results from the HLT implementation. The type of research used in this research was the design research developed by Gravemeijer and Cobb (2006). According Gravemeijer and Cobb, the design research was divided into three stages: (1) preparing for the experiment, (2) design experiments, and (3) retrospective analysis [6]. In this study, researchers developed the student learning trajectories which were help students to construct their knowledge about the understanding and how to calculate the circumference of a circle. The context used on the students' learning trajectory was sports and arts event. The learning trajectory has been tried out for 15 grade five students on the Budya Wacana elementary school in Yogyakarta. In this paper, researchers would describe how the learning trajectory traversed students to construct their knowledge about the understanding and how to calculate the circumference of the circle and the student thinking process on the understanding and how to calculate the circumference of a circle. The results showed that students could construct about the understanding of the circumference of a circle and how to calculate the circumference of a circle through the student learning trajectory.

  11. Development of a Thin Film Primary Surface Heat Exchanger for Advanced Power Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, Tim [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Beck, Griffin [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Bennett, Jeffrey [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Hoopes, Kevin [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Miller, Larry [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    2016-06-29

    This project objective is to develop a high-temperature design upgrade for an existing primary surface heat exchanger so that the redesigned hardware is capable of operation in CO2 at temperatures up to 1,510°F (821°C) and pressure differentials up to 130 psi (9 bar). The heat exchanger is proposed for use as a recuperator in an advanced low-pressure oxy-fuel Brayton cycle that is predicted to achieve over 50% thermodynamic efficiency, although the heat exchanger could also be used in other high-temperature, low-differential pressure cycles. This report describes the progress to date, which includes continuing work performed to select and test new candidate materials for the recuperator redesign, final mechanical and thermal performance analysis results of various redesign concepts, and the preliminary design of a test loop for the redesigned recuperator including a budgetary estimate for detailed test loop design, procurement, and test operation. A materials search was performed in order to investigate high-temperature properties of many candidate materials, including high-temperature strength and nickel content. These properties were used to rank the candidate materials, resulting in a reduced list of nine materials for corrosion testing. Multiple test rigs were considered and analyzed for short-term corrosion testing and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) was selected as the most cost-effective option for evaluating corrosion resistance of the candidate materials. In addition, tantalum, niobium, and chromium coatings were identified as potential options for increased corrosion resistance. The test results show that many materials exhibit relatively low weight gain rates, and that niobium and tantalum coatings may improve corrosion resistance for many materials, while chromium coatings appear to oxidize and debond quickly. Metallurgical analysis of alloys was also performed, showing evidence of intergranular attack in 282 that may cause long

  12. Multiobjective optimizations of a novel cryocooled dc gun based ultrafast electron diffraction beam line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colwyn Gulliford

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of multiobjective genetic algorithm optimizations of a single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction beam line utilizing a 225 kV dc gun with a novel cryocooled photocathode system and buncher cavity. Optimizations of the transverse projected emittance as a function of bunch charge are presented and discussed in terms of the scaling laws derived in the charge saturation limit. Additionally, optimization of the transverse coherence length as a function of final rms bunch length at the sample location have been performed for three different sample radii: 50, 100, and 200  μm, for two final bunch charges: 10^{5} electrons (16 fC and 10^{6} electrons (160 fC. Example optimal solutions are analyzed, and the effects of disordered induced heating estimated. In particular, a relative coherence length of L_{c,x}/σ_{x}=0.27  nm/μm was obtained for a final bunch charge of 10^{5} electrons and final bunch length of σ_{t}≈100  fs. For a final charge of 10^{6} electrons the cryogun produces L_{c,x}/σ_{x}≈0.1  nm/μm for σ_{t}≈100–200  fs and σ_{x}≥50  μm. These results demonstrate the viability of using genetic algorithms in the design and operation of ultrafast electron diffraction beam lines.

  13. Development and application of a method for the objective differentiation of fog life cycle phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Maier

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An objective classification of radiation fog in distinct evolutionary stages during its life cycle based on reliable criteria is essential for various applications, for example for numerical fog modelling and fog forecasting. However, there have been – up to now – merely qualitative approaches for the distinction of different evolutionary stages in radiation fog. Measurements of the microphysical fog properties with an optical particle counter obtained from droplet measurement technologies together with recordings of the horizontal visibility (VIS are statistically analyzed to determine individual evolutionary stages of radiation fog with consistent microphysical properties. The developed three-stage approach is based on a statistical change point analysis of the double sum curves of the VIS, the liquid water content, the droplet concentration and the mean radius of the drop size distributions. It could be shown that each of the three recorded radiation fog occurrences could be split into three consecutive phases from formation to dissipation, regardless whether the VIS or the microphysical properties were considered. Having featured consistent microphysical patterns, it could be assumed that the three separated phases of the single fog occurrence could be aggregated for radiation fog. Although this classification is statistically reliable, the dataset still has to be extended for a generalization concerning the separated evolutionary stages.

  14. Development of the Collimator System for the 3GEV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Kazami

    2005-01-01

    In order to localize the beam loss in the restricted area, the beam collimation system is prepared in the 3GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Complex (J-PARC) Project. The amount of the localized beam loss on the one collimator is estimated about 1.2kW, and that loss generates a large quantity of the secondary radiations. So the beam collimator must be designed that it is covered with enough shielding. We calculated the radiation level of the collimator and decided necessary shielding thickness. This result indicated that the residual dose rate at the outside surface of the shielding is mostly under 1mSv/h. We developed the remote cramp system and rad-hard components in order to reduce the radiation exposure during maintenance of the collimator. And also we coated Titanium Nitride (TiN) film on the inside surface of the vacuum chamber in order to reduce the secondary electron emission from the collimator and chamber surface. Now we investigate the possibility of another coatin...

  15. PDK1 regulates VDJ recombination, cell-cycle exit and survival during B-cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venigalla, Ram K C; McGuire, Victoria A; Clarke, Rosemary; Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Najafov, Ayaz; Toth, Rachel; McCarthy, Pierre C; Simeons, Frederick; Stojanovski, Laste; Arthur, J Simon C

    2013-04-03

    Phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) controls the activation of a subset of AGC kinases. Using a conditional knockout of PDK1 in haematopoietic cells, we demonstrate that PDK1 is essential for B cell development. B-cell progenitors lacking PDK1 arrested at the transition of pro-B to pre-B cells, due to a cell autonomous defect. Loss of PDK1 decreased the expression of the IgH chain in pro-B cells due to impaired recombination of the IgH distal variable segments, a process coordinated by the transcription factor Pax5. The expression of Pax5 in pre-B cells was decreased in PDK1 knockouts, which correlated with reduced expression of the Pax5 target genes IRF4, IRF8 and Aiolos. As a result, Ccnd3 is upregulated in PDK1 knockout pre-B cells and they have an impaired ability to undergo cell-cycle arrest, a necessary event for Ig light chain rearrangement. Instead, these cells underwent apoptosis that correlated with diminished expression of the pro-survival gene Bcl2A1. Reintroduction of both Pax5 and Bcl2A1 together into PDK1 knockout pro-B cells restored their ability to differentiate in vitro into mature B cells.

  16. A "footprint" of plant carbon fixation cycle functions during the development of a heterotrophic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xueliang; Shen, Cuicui; Xie, Jiatao; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Hu, Zijin; Tang, Lihua; Tang, Liguang; Ding, Feng; Li, Kunfei; Wu, Song; Hu, Yanping; Luo, Lilian; Li, Yuanhao; Wang, Qihua; Li, Guoqing; Cheng, Jiasen

    2015-08-11

    Carbon fixation pathway of plants (CFPP) in photosynthesis converts solar energy to biomass, bio-products and biofuel. Intriguingly, a large number of heterotrophic fungi also possess enzymes functionally associated with CFPP, raising the questions about their roles in fungal development and in evolution. Here, we report on the presence of 17 CFPP associated enzymes (ten in Calvin-Benson-Basham reductive pentose phosphate pathway and seven in C4-dicarboxylic acid cycle) in the genome of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a heterotrophic phytopathogenic fungus, and only two unique enzymes: ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) were absent. This data suggested an incomplete CFPP-like pathway (CLP) in fungi. Functional profile analysis demonstrated that the activity of the incomplete CLP was dramatically regulated during different developmental stages of S. sclerotiorum. Subsequent experiments confirmed that many of them were essential to the virulence and/or sclerotial formation. Most of the CLP associated genes are conserved in fungi. Phylogenetic analysis showed that many of them have undergone gene duplication, gene acquisition or loss and functional diversification in evolutionary history. These findings showed an evolutionary links in the carbon fixation processes of autotrophs and heterotrophs and implicated the functions of related genes were in course of continuous change in different organisms in evolution.

  17. Dual roles for macrophages in ovarian cycle-associated development and remodelling of the mammary gland epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Angela C L; Hodson, Leigh J; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Robertson, Sarah A; Ingman, Wendy V

    2010-12-01

    Each ovarian cycle, the mammary gland epithelium rotates through a sequence of hormonally regulated cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These studies investigate the role of macrophages in this cellular turnover. Macrophage populations and their spatial distribution were found to fluctuate across the cycle. The number of macrophages was highest at diestrus, and the greatest number of macrophages in direct contact with epithelial cells occurred at proestrus. The physiological necessity of macrophages in mammary gland morphogenesis during the estrous cycle was demonstrated in Cd11b-Dtr transgenic mice. Ovariectomised mice were treated with estradiol and progesterone to stimulate alveolar development, and with the progesterone receptor antagonist mifepristone to induce regression of the newly formed alveolar buds. Macrophage depletion during alveolar development resulted in a reduction in both ductal epithelial cell proliferation and the number of alveolar buds. Macrophage depletion during alveolar regression resulted in an increased number of branch points and an accumulation of TUNEL-positive cells. These studies show that macrophages have two roles in the cellular turnover of epithelial cells in the cycling mammary gland; following ovulation, they promote the development of alveolar buds in preparation for possible pregnancy, and they remodel the tissue back to its basic architecture in preparation for a new estrous cycle.

  18. New In-pile Instrumentation to Support Fuel Cycle Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rempe; H. MacLean; R. Schley; D. Hurley; J. Daw; S. Taylor; J. Smith; J. Svoboda; D. Kotter; D. Knudson; M. Guers; S. C. Wilkins

    2011-01-01

    New and enhanced nuclear fuels are a key enabler for new and improved reactor technologies. For example, the goals of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will not be met without irradiations successfully demonstrating the safety and reliability of new fuels. Likewise, fuel reliability has become paramount in ensuring the competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Recently, the Office of Nuclear Energy in the Department of Energy (DOE-NE) launched a new direction in fuel research and development that emphasizes an approach relying on first principle models to develop optimized fuel designs that offer significant improvements over current fuels. To facilitate this approach, high fidelity, real-time, data are essential for characterizing the performance of new fuels during irradiation testing. A three-year strategic research program is proposed for developing the required test vehicles with sensors of unprecedented accuracy and resolution for obtaining the data needed to characterize three-dimensional changes in fuel microstructure during irradiation testing. When implemented, this strategy will yield test capsule designs that are instrumented with new sensor technologies for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and other irradiation locations for the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FC R&D) program. Prior laboratory testing, and as needed, irradiation testing, of these sensors will have been completed to give sufficient confidence that the irradiation tests will yield the required data. Obtaining these sensors must draw upon the expertise of a wide-range of organizations not currently supporting nuclear fuels research. This document defines this strategic program and provides the necessary background information related to fuel irradiation testing, desired parameters for detection, and an overview of currently available in-pile instrumentation. In addition, candidate sensor technologies are identified in this document, and a list of proposed criteria for ranking

  19. New In-pile Instrumentation to Support Fuel Cycle Research and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.; MacLean, H.; Schley, R.; Hurley, D.; Daw, J.; Taylor, S.; Smith, J.; Svoboda, J.; Kotter, D.; Knudson, D.; Guers, M.; Wilkins, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    New and enhanced nuclear fuels are a key enabler for new and improved reactor technologies. For example, the goals of the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) will not be met without irradiations successfully demonstrating the safety and reliability of new fuels. Likewise, fuel reliability has become paramount in ensuring the competitiveness of nuclear power plants. Recently, the Office of Nuclear Energy in the Department of Energy (DOE-NE) launched a new direction in fuel research and development that emphasizes an approach relying on first principle models to develop optimized fuel designs that offer significant improvements over current fuels. To facilitate this approach, high fidelity, real-time, data are essential for characterizing the performance of new fuels during irradiation testing. A three-year strategic research program is proposed for developing the required test vehicles with sensors of unprecedented accuracy and resolution for obtaining the data needed to characterize three-dimensional changes in fuel microstructure during irradiation testing. When implemented, this strategy will yield test capsule designs that are instrumented with new sensor technologies for the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and other irradiation locations for the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FC R and D) program. Prior laboratory testing, and as needed, irradiation testing, of these sensors will have been completed to give sufficient confidence that the irradiation tests will yield the required data. Obtaining these sensors must draw upon the expertise of a wide-range of organizations not currently supporting nuclear fuels research. This document defines this strategic program and provides the necessary background information related to fuel irradiation testing, desired parameters for detection, and an overview of currently available in-pile instrumentation. In addition, candidate sensor technologies are identified in this document, and a list of proposed criteria for

  20. Development of a methodology for the economical analysis of fuel cycles, application to the Laguna Verde central

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malfavon, S.M.; Trejo, M.G.; Hernandez, H.; Francois, J.L.; Ortega, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this work a methodology developed to carry out the economical analysis of the fuel cycle of a nuclear reactor is presented. The methodology was applied to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station (CNLV). The design of the reload scenarios of the CNLV are made with the Core Master Presto code (CM-Presto), three-dimensional simulator of the reactor core, the launched data by this, as well as the information of the Energy use plan (PUE), it allowed us to obtain reliable results through the fitness of an algorithm of economic calculation that considers all the components of the fuel cycle to present worth. With the application of the methodology it was obtained the generated energy, as well as their respective cost of each sub lot type of assemblies by operation cycle, from the start-up of the CNLV until September 13, 2002. Using the present worth method its were moved all the values at November 5, 1988, date of operation beginning. To the final of the analysis an even cost of 6.188 mills/kWh was obtained for those first 9 cycles of the Unit 1 of the CNLV, being observed that the costs of those first 3 operation cycles are the more elevated. Considering only the values starting from the cycle 4, the levelled cost turns out to be of 5.96 mills/kWh. It was also obtained the cost by fuel lot to evaluate the performance of assemble with the same physical composition. (Author)

  1. Development of practical functional electrical stimulation cycling systems based on an electromyography study of the Cybathlon 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnin, Jetsada; Yamsa-Ard, Traisak; Triponyuwasin, Preechapawan; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to develop a functional electrical stimulation (FES) system based on the motor driving concept for use by spinal cord injury patients participating in the FES Cycling competition at the Cybathlon 2016. The proposed FES system consists of a low-power control system, a precise processor unit, and a 4-channel stimulation unit. Self-adhesive carbon conductive electrodes were utilized for stimulation. A 26-year-old SCI patient was qualified to participate in the competition. The pilot patient underwent training for 16 months, which included experience with FES stimulation, performing FES cycling, and reducing spasticity, to practice using the FES system. In addition, using surface electromyography (EMG) during cycling, the muscle activation pattern for generating the stimulation profile was applied and resulted in good performance. The best FES cycling performance the pilot achieved was 1000 meters translation with the cycling system during twelve minutes of using the FES system. The pilot achieved an 1000 meters translation mobility within an average of 16 minutes of cycling. Nevertheless, the system must be further investigated regarding muscle fatigue and other factors that may affect the stimulation conditions.

  2. Nuclear Power, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Sustainable Development in a Changing World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Important changes concerning nuclear energy are coming to the fore, such as economic competitiveness compared to other energy resources, requirement for severe measures to mitigate man-made greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, due to the rise of energy demand in Central and Eastern Europe and Asia and to the greater public concern with respect to the nuclear safety, particularly related to spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal. Global safety culture, as well as well focused nuclear research and development programs for safer and more efficient nuclear technology manifest themselves in a stronger and effective way. Information and data on nuclear technology and safety are disseminated to the public in timely, accurate and understandable fashion. Nuclear power is an important contributor to the world's electricity needs. In 1999, it supplied roughly one sixth of global electricity. The largest regional percentage of electricity generated through nuclear power last year was in western Europe (30%). The nuclear power shares in France, Belgium and Sweden were 75%, 58% and 47%, respectively. In North America, the nuclear share was 20% for the USA and 12% for Canada. In Asia, the highest figures were 43% for the Republic of Korea and 36% for Japan. In 1998, twenty-three nations produced uranium of which, the ten biggest producers (Australia, Canada, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Niger, the Russian Federation, South Africa, Ukraine, USA and Uzbekistan) supplied over 90% of the world's output. In 1998, world uranium production provided only about 59% of world reactor requirements. In OECD countries, the 1998 production could only satisfy 39% of the demand. The rest of the requirements were satisfied by secondary sources including civilian and military stockpiles, uranium reprocessing and re-enrichment of depleted uranium. With regard to the nuclear fuel industry, an increase in fuel burnup, higher thermal rates, longer fuel cycle and the use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX

  3. Development and calibration of an indoor cycling bicycle with load graduation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Sousa da Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor Cycling (IC has considerably grown at fitness centers, due to practitioners giving-up of street cycling because of security issues as well as the trainability and practicity. IC also has the potencial for helping to lose weight and cardiovascular conditioning. There are only few studies on this subject, and the main reason is thelimitation of the Indoor Cycling Bicycle (ICB, which does not either measure workload or power. Therefore, functional evaluation and adequate training prescription are limited and the solution lies on implementation of an ICB with loading system. This paper has the purpose of describing the development and calibration of an ICB that actually measures workload and power. The project was based on the adaptation of a loading system from a Monark mechanical lockwire cycloergometer (basket of weight, which measurement is considered a gold standard, on an ICB. The adaptation, for having maintaining the Monark dimensions of the Flywheel/Crown/Ratchet circuit as well as for using new materials, seems not to offer any type of limitation for prototype construct validity. The ICB also had a low cost. Therefore, this ICB can be classified as a cycloergometer. The adaptation permited to advance in this area, by both maintaining orignal ICB characteristics and also controlling for workload and power. RESUMO Tem havido uma grande busca pela modalidade de Ciclismo Indoor (CI em academias, o que se deve ao êxodo dos praticantes de ciclismo de rua em prol de segurança, treinamento e praticidade, além do interesse pelo potencial do CI nos processos de emagrecimento e condicionamento cardiovascular. Há poucos estudosnessa área, dentre as principais causas, está à limitação da bicicleta de ciclismo indoor (BCI que não quantifica a carga utilizada e da potência produzida. Isto tem dificultado a avaliação funcional e a prescrição adequada de treinamento. Assim, a solução é implementar a uma BCI um sistema de carga. O

  4. Area of Concern: a new paradigm in life cycle assessment for the development of footprint metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: As a class of environmental metrics, footprints have been poorly defined, have shared an unclear relationship to life cycle assessment (LCA), and the variety of approaches to quantification have sometimes resulted in confusing and contradictory messages in the marketplac...

  5. The importance of life cycle concepts for the development of safe nanoproducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Som, Claudia; Berges, Markus; Chaudhry, Qasim

    2010-01-01

    concept – may be used to assess the relative environmental sustainability performance of nanoproducts in comparison with their conventional equivalents. Other less formalized life cycle concepts in the framework of prospective technology assessment may uncover further detailed and prospective knowledge......) in consumer products has raised certain concerns over their safety to human health and the environment. There are currently a number of major uncertainties and knowledge gaps in regard to behavior, chemical and biological interactions and toxicological properties of ENMs. As dealing with these uncertainties...... will require the generation of new basic knowledge, it is unlikely that they will be resolved in the immediate future. One has to consider the whole life cycle of nanoproducts to ensure that possible impacts can be systematically discovered. For example, life cycle assessment (LCA) – a formalized life cycle...

  6. Development of tools to manage the operational monitoring and pre-design of the NPP-LV cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perusquia, R.; Arredondo S, C.; Hernandez M, J. L.; Montes T, J. L.; Castillo M, A.; Ortiz S, J. J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the development of tools to facilitate the management so much, the operational monitoring of boiling water reactors (BWR) of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) through independent codes, and how to carry out the static calculations corresponding to process of optimized pre-design of the reference cycle next to current cycle. The progress and preliminary results obtained with the program SACal, developed at Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), central tool to achieve provide a management platform of the operational monitoring and pre-design of NPP-LV cycle are also described. The reached preliminary advances directed to get an Analysis center and automated design of fuel assembly cells are also presented, which together with centers or similar modules related with the fuel reloads form the key part to meet the targets set for the realization of a Management Platform of Nuclear Fuel of the NPP-LV. (Author)

  7. Use of collateral sensitivity networks to design drug cycling protocols that avoid resistance development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Imamovic, Lejla; Sommer, Morten

    2013-01-01

    collateral sensitivity and resistance profiles, revealing a complex collateral sensitivity network. On the basis of these data, we propose a new treatment framework-collateral sensitivity cycling-in which drugs with compatible collateral sensitivity profiles are used sequentially to treat infection...... pathogens. These results provide proof of principle for collateral sensitivity cycling as a sustainable treatment paradigm that may be generally applicable to infectious diseases and cancer....

  8. Investigation and analysis of nuclear fuel cycle back-end technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kee Chan

    2012-01-01

    The R and D status of the nuclear fuel cycle beckoned was investigated and analyzed for Korea and overseas nuclear countries. The technical achievement and future plan of Korea were outlined, and up-to-date R and D status and strategies of overseas nuclear countries were investigated and analyzed. Ο United States Ο France and European Union Ο Japan Ο Russia Ο China And the recent trend of the multilateral approach in the nuclear fuel cycle backoned was arranged

  9. Development of novel strategies for enhancing the cycle life of lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, Digby D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, Mirna; Allcock, Harry; Engelhard, George; Bomberger, N.; Gao, L.; Olmeijer, D.

    2001-04-30

    Lithium/solid polymer electrolyte (Li/SPE) secondary batteries are under intense development as power sources for portable electronic devices as well as electric vehicles. These batteries offer high specific energy, high energy density, very low self-discharge rates, and flexibility in packaging; however, problems have inhibited their introduction into the marketplace. This report summarizes findings to examine processes that occur with Li/SPE secondary batteries upon cyclic charging/discharging. The report includes a detailed analysis of the impedance measured on the Li/SPE/IC and IC/SPE/IC systems. The SPE was a derivative of methoxyethoxyethoxyphosphazene (MEEP) with lithium triflate salt as the electrolyte, while the intercalated cathodes (IC) comprised mixtures of manganese dioxide, carbon powder, and MEEP as a binder. Studies on symmetrical Li/SPE/Li laminates show that cycling results in a significant expansion of the structure over the first few tens of cycles; however, no corresponding increase in the impedance was noted. The cycle life of the intercalation cathode was found to be very sensitive to the method of fabrication. Results indicate that the cycle life is due to the failure of the IC, not to the failure of the lithium/SPE interface. A pattern recognition neural network was developed to predict the cycle life of a battery from the charge/discharge characteristics.

  10. Numerical simulation of tubes-in-tube heat exchanger in a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, R. M.; Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Atrey, M. D.

    2017-02-01

    Mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MRJT) cryocoolers can produce cryogenic temperatures with high efficiency and low operating pressures. As compared to the high system pressures of around 150-200 bar with nitrogen, the operational pressures with non-azeotropic mixtures (e.g., nitrogen-hydrocarbons) come down to 10-25 bar. With mixtures, the heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger takes place in the two-phase region. The simultaneous boiling and condensation of the cold and hot gas streams lead to higher heat transfer coefficients as compared to single phase heat exchange. The two-phase heat transfer in the recuperative heat exchanger drastically affects the performance of a MRJT cryocooler. In this work, a previously reported numerical model for a simple tube-in-tube heat exchanger is extended to a multi tubes-in-tube heat exchanger with a transient formulation. Additionally, the J-T expansion process is also considered to simulate the cooling process of the heat exchanger from ambient temperature conditions. A tubes-in-tube heat exchanger offers more heat transfer area per unit volume resulting in a compact design. Also, the division of flow in multiple tubes reduces the pressure drop in the heat exchanger. Simulations with different mixtures of nitrogen-hydrocarbons are carried out and the numerical results are compared with the experimental data.

  11. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction of embry...

  12. Development of hydrothermal power generation plant. Development of binary cycle power generation plant (development of 10 MW-class plant); 1995 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant nado kaihatsu binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu. 10MW kyu plant no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    A 10 MW-class binary cycle power generation plant has been developed using a down hole pump (DHP) which exchanges the hydrothermal energy with secondary medium in the heat exchanger. For constructing the plant at Kuju-machi, Oita Prefecture, site preparation works, foundation of cooling tower, reconstruction of roads, and survey on environmental influences were conducted. To investigate installation and removal methods of DHP, a geothermal water pump-up system, current status of the binary cycle power generating system in the USA was surveyed. In this survey, a trailer mounting handling machine was inspected. Based on the survey results, a simple assembled, easy-installation type handling equipment was designed. In addition, the replacement work for motor connector joint of DHP and the strength of coil end were improved. Construction and method allowing reuse of the motor cable were considered by improving the cable and cable end portion. The air tight soundness of incoloy corrugate sheath was confirmed. Finally, a reproduction system for waste oil of DHP bearing oil was investigated. 106 figs., 52 tabs.

  13. General Method of Using Bayesian Nets for a Software Reliability Assessment in Varying SW Development Life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung Seop; Chang, Seung Cheol

    2008-01-01

    Bayesian Net (BN) has been used in many researches to predict software defects, because it allows all the evidence to be taken into account. However one of the serious difficulties in the earlier works was that the user had to build a different BN for each software development life cycle. This limits the practical use of BN in the field. One way to solve this problem is the use of general BN templates which are not restricted to a particular software life cycle. This paper describes a method for this purpose on the strength of Object- Oriented BN (OOBN) and Dynamic BN (DBN) technique

  14. Development of an improved two-cycle process for recovering uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.M.; Chen, H.J.; Tsai, Y.M.; Lee, T.W.; Ting, G.

    1987-01-01

    An improved two-cycle separation process for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid by extraction with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) plus dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP) in kerosene has been developed and demonstrated successfully in bench-scale, continuous mixer-settler tests. The sulfuric acid and water scrubbing steps for the recycled extraction in the second cycle solve the problems of the contamination and dilution of the phosphoric acid by the ammonium ion and water and also avoid the formation of undesirable phosphatic precipitates during the subsequent extraction of uranium by recycled organic extractant

  15. The International conference on fast reactors and related fuel cycles: next generation nuclear systems for sustainable development. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The materials of the International Conference on Fast Reactors and Related Fuel Cycles (June 26-29, 2017, Yekaterinburg) are presented. The forum was organized by the IAEA with the assistance of Rosatom State Corporation. The theme of the conference: “The New Generation of Nuclear Systems for Sustainable Development”. About 700 specialists from more than 30 countries took part in the conference. The state and prospects for the development of the direction of fast reactors in countries dealing with this topic were discussed. A wide range of scientific issues covered the concepts of prospective reactors, reactor cores, fuel and fuel cycles, operation and decommissioning, safety, licensing, structural materials, industrial implementation [ru

  16. U.S. Department of Energy & Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advanced Fuel Cycle Research & Development Seminar Series FY 2007 & 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2008-08-01

    In fiscal year 2007, the Advanced Burner Reactor project initiated an educational seminar series for the Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel on various aspects of fast reactor fuel cycle closure technologies. This important work was initiated to inform DOE and NRC personnel on initial details of sodium-cooled fast reactor, separations, waste form, and safeguard technologies being considered for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Research and Development program, and to learn the important lesson from the licensing process for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant that educating the NRC staff early in the regulatory process is very important and critical to a project success.

  17. Comparison of two thorium fuel cycles for use in light water prebreeder/breeder reactor systems (AWBA Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriman, F.C.; McCoy, D.F.; Boyd, W.A.; Dwyer, J.R.

    1983-05-01

    Light water prebreeder/breeder conceptual reactor systems have been developed which have the potential to significantly improve the fuel utilization of present generation light water reactors. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare two possible types of thorium fuel cycles for use in these light water prebreeder and breeder concepts. The two types of thorium fuel cycles basically differ in the fuel rod design used in the prebreeder cores and the uranium isotopic concentration of fuel supplied to the breeder cores

  18. Recent developments in thermally-driven seawater desalination: Energy efficiency improvement by hybridization of the MED and AD cycles

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2015-01-01

    The energy, water and environment nexus is a crucial factor when considering the future development of desalination plants or industry in the water-stressed economies. New generation of desalination processes or plants has to meet the stringent environment discharge requirements and yet the industry remains highly energy efficient and sustainable when producing good potable water. Water sources, either brackish or seawater, have become more contaminated as feed while the demand for desalination capacities increase around the world. One immediate solution for energy efficiency improvement comes from the hybridization of the proven desalination processes to the newer processes of desalination: For example, the integration of the available thermally-driven to adsorption desalination (AD) cycles where significant thermodynamic synergy can be attained when cycles are combined. For these hybrid cycles, a quantum improvement in energy efficiency as well as in increase in water production can be expected. The advent of MED with AD cycles, or simply called the MEDAD cycles, is one such example where seawater desalination can be pursued and operated in cogeneration with the electricity production plants: The hybrid desalination cycles utilize only the low exergy bled-steam at low temperatures, complemented with waste exhaust or renewable solar thermal heat at temperatures between 60 and 80. °C. In this paper, the authors have reported their pioneered research on aspects of AD and related hybrid MEDAD cycles, both at theoretical models and experimental pilots. Using the cogeneration of electricity and desalination concept, the authors examined the cost apportionment of fuel cost by the quality or exergy of working steam for such cogeneration configurations.

  19. Life cycle assessment as development and decision support tool for wastewater resource recovery technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Linda L; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Damgaard, Anders; Plósz, Benedek Gy; Rygaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been increasingly used in the field of wastewater treatment where the focus has been to identify environmental trade-offs of current technologies. In a novel approach, we use LCA to support early stage research and development of a biochemical system for wastewater resource recovery. The freshwater and nutrient content of wastewater are recognized as potential valuable resources that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. Both recovery and reuse are intended to address existing environmental concerns, for example, water scarcity and use of non-renewable phosphorus. However, the resource recovery may come at the cost of unintended environmental impacts. One promising recovery system, referred to as TRENS, consists of an enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (EBP2R) connected to a photobioreactor. Based on a simulation of a full-scale nutrient and water recovery system in its potential operating environment, we assess the potential environmental impacts of such a system using the EASETECH model. In the simulation, recovered water and nutrients are used in scenarios of agricultural irrigation-fertilization and aquifer recharge. In these scenarios, TRENS reduces global warming up to 15% and marine eutrophication impacts up to 9% compared to conventional treatment. This is due to the recovery and reuse of nutrient resources, primarily nitrogen. The key environmental concerns obtained through the LCA are linked to increased human toxicity impacts from the chosen end use of wastewater recovery products. The toxicity impacts are from both heavy metals release associated with land application of recovered nutrients and production of AlCl3, which is required for advanced wastewater treatment prior to aquifer recharge. Perturbation analysis of the LCA pinpointed nutrient substitution and heavy metals content of algae biofertilizer as critical areas for further research if the performance of nutrient recovery systems such as

  20. Indirect water management through Life Cycle Assessment: Fostering sustainable production in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, S.; Bayer, P.; Koehler, A.; Hellweg, S.

    2009-04-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) represents a methodological framework for analyzing the total environmental impact of any product or service of our daily life. After tracking all associated emissions and the consumption of resources, this impact is expressed with respect to a few common impact categories. These are supposed to reflect major societal and environmental priorities. However, despite their central role in environmental processes, to date hydrological as well as hydrogeological aspects are only rarely considered in LCA. Compared with standard impact categories within LCA, water is special. In contrast to other abiotic resources such as crude oil, it can be replenished. Total freshwater resources are immense, but not evenly distributed and often scarce in regions of high demand. Consequently, threads to natural water bodies have immense spatial dependency. Setting up functional relationships in order to derive a generally valid and practicable evaluation is tedious due to the complex, insufficiently understood, and uncertain natural processes involved. LCA that includes the environmental effects of water consumption means global indirect water resource management. It supports goal-directed consumer behaviour that aims to reduce pressure on natural water systems. By developing a hydrologically-based assessment of potential impacts from human interaction with natural water bodies, "greener" products can be prioritised. More sustainable and environmentally friendly water management is the result. The proposed contribution presents an operational assessment method of global surface water consumption for impacts on human health and ecosystem quality within a LCA framework. A major focus is the issue of how such global assessment helps to quantify potential impacts from water-intensive production in developing countries, where the means for proper water management are often limited. We depict a compensation scheme for impacts related to water consumption that

  1. A Framework for Economic Evaluation of Highway Development Projects Based on Network-Level Life Cycle Cost Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ziari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For economic evaluation of a highway development project, multiple criteria must be considered on a timeframe longer than the project implementation interval and a geographical area larger than the project zone. In this study, a framework is proposed based on the Network-Level Life Cycle Cost Analysis (NL-LCCA to assess the effect of highway development projects on mobility, safety, economy, environment and other monetizable criteria. In this approach, project impacts are estimated within physical boundaries of highway network over the network life cycle. This framework can be used as a decision-making support for evaluation and ranking of pre-defined development projects, proposing new cost-effective development projects, assessment of cost efficiency of existing highway network and budget allocation optimization.

  2. Design and development of gas cooled reactors with closed cycle gas turbines. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Technological advances over the past fifteen years in the design of turbomachinery, recuperators and magnetic bearings provide the potential for a quantum improvement in nuclear power generation economics through the use of the HTGR with a closed cycle gas turbine. Enhanced international co-operation among national gas cooled reactor programmes in these common technology areas could facilitate the development of this nuclear power concept thereby achieving safety, environmental and economic benefits with overall reduced development costs. This TCM and Workshop was convened to provide the opportunity to review and examine the status of design activities and technology development in national HTGR programmes with specific emphasis on the closed cycle gas turbine, and to identify pathways which take advantage of the opportunity for international co-operation in the development of this concept. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. The development of a new technical platform to measure soil organic nitrogen cycling processes by microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuntao; Richter, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is one of the most important processes of the global nitrogen cycle, having strong implications on soil N availability, terrestrial carbon cycling and soil carbon sequestration. During SOM decomposition low-molecular weight organic nitrogen (LMWON) is released which can be taken up by microbes (and plants). The breakdown of high-molecular weight organic nitrogen (HMWON, e.g. proteins, peptidoglycan, chitin, nucleic acids) represents the bottleneck of soil HMWON decomposition and is performed by extracellular enzymes released mainly by soil microorganisms. Despite that, the current understanding of the controls of these processes is incomplete. The only way to measure gross decomposition rates of these polymers is to use isotope pool dilution (IPD) techniques. In IPD approaches the product pool is isotopically enriched (by e.g. 15N) and the isotope dilution of this pool is measured over time. We have pioneered an IPD for protein and cellulose depolymerization, but IPD approaches for other polymers, specifically for important microbial necromass components such as chitin (fungi) and peptidoglycan (bacteria), or nucleic acids have not yet been developed. Here we present a workflow based on a universally applicable technical platform that allows to estimate the gross depolymerization rate of SOM (HMWON) at the molecular level, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography/high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UPLC/HRMS) combined with IPD techniques. The necessary isotopically labeled organic polymers (chitin, peptidoglycan and others) are extracted from laboratory bacterial and fungal cultures grown in fully isotopically labeled nutrient media (15N, 13C or both). A purification scheme for the different polymers is currently established. Labeled potential decomposition products (e.g. amino sugars and muropeptides from peptidoglycan, amino sugars and chitooligosaccharides from chitin, nucleotides and nucleosides from

  4. Implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in the early stages of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhander, Gurbakhash Singh; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; McAloone, Timothy Charles

    2003-01-01

    of freedom and environmental solutions. Life cycle design frameworks and strategies are addressed. The paper collects experiences and ideas around the state-of-the-art in eco-design, from literature and personal experience and further provides eco-design life cycle assessment strategies. The result...... of the paper is a definition of the requirements for performance measurement techniques and a performance measurement environment necessary to support life cycle evaluation throughout the evaluation of early stages of a product system.......The paper aims to outline the problems for the designer in evaluating the environmental benignity of the product from the outset and to provide the designer with a framework for decision support based on the performance evaluation at different stages of the design process. The overall aim...

  5. Life cycle development of obesity and its determinants in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaco, Sandra; Eriksson, Tor; Skalli, Ali

    2014-01-01

    the individual's own socioeconomic status as adult is more important in explaining obesity at later stages of the life cycle, (ii) changes in obesity status are associated with changes in health behaviours, (iii) obesity in late adulthood is strongly and positively correlated with overweight and obesity......This paper empirically examines the effect of parents’ and individuals’ own socioeconomic status on overweight and obesity, and investigates how this effect changes over the life cycle. The impact of individuals’ health behaviours on their obesity status later in life is also studied. We use data...... of the individuals’ obesity histories. We contribute to the literature by examining the role of a variety of obesity determinants over the whole life cycle, not only over a certain portion of individuals’ lives. Key findings are: (i) parents’ socioeconomic status predicts obesity in early adulthood whereas...

  6. Development of a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm associated with the evaluation of power management in different driving cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, Masih Tehrani; Mohammad Reza, Ha'iri Yazdi; Esfahanian, Vahid; Sagha, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid energy storage sizing algorithm for electric vehicles is developed to achieve a semi optimum cost effective design. Using the developed algorithm, a driving cycle is divided into its micro-trips and the power and energy demands in each micro trip are determined. The battery size is estimated because the battery fulfills the power demands. Moreover, the ultra capacitor (UC) energy (or the number of UC modules) is assessed because the UC delivers the maximum energy demands of the different micro trips of a driving cycle. Finally, a design factor, which shows the power of the hybrid energy storage control strategy, is utilized to evaluate the newly designed control strategies. Using the developed algorithm, energy saving loss, driver satisfaction criteria, and battery life criteria are calculated using a feed forward dynamic modeling software program and are utilized for comparison among different energy storage candidates. This procedure is applied to the hybrid energy storage sizing of a series hybrid electric city bus in Manhattan and to the Tehran driving cycle. Results show that a higher aggressive driving cycle (Manhattan) requires more expensive energy storage system and more sophisticated energy management strategy

  7. Development of tools for life cycle environmental management in the packaging company of Hartmann Ltd., Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Stig; Jørgensen, Jørgen; Alting, Leo

    1997-01-01

    into the decision making processes. The discipline of life cycle environmental management (LCEM) focuses on the incorporation of environmental criterions from the life cycles of products and other company activities into the company management processes. LCEM investigations are carried out at the packaging company......A precondition for making environmental conscious company managemnet is the managers awareness of the environmental impact potentials they manage, internally as well as externally. There is a need for managemnt tools to support the implementation of relevant environmental criterions...

  8. High fat diet triggers cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of granulosa cells during the follicular development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yanqing; Zhang, Zhenghong; Liao, Xinghui; Wang, Zhengchao, E-mail: zcwang@fjnu.edu.cn

    2015-10-23

    The regulatory mechanism of granulosa cells (GCs) proliferation during the follicular development is complicated and multifactorial, which is essential for the oocyte growth and normal ovarian functions. To investigate the role of high fat diet (HFD) on the proliferation of GCs, 4-week old female mice were fed with HFD or normal control diet (NC) for 15 weeks or 20 weeks and then detected the expression level of some regulatory molecules of cell cycle and apoptosis. The abnormal ovarian morphology was observed at 20 weeks. Further mechanistic studies indicated that HFD induced-obesity caused elevated apoptotic levels in GCs of the ovaries in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, cell cycle progress was also impacted after HFD fed. The cell cycle inhibitors, p27{sup Kip1} and p21{sup Cip1}, were significantly induced in the ovaries from the mice in HFD group when compared with that in the ovaries from the mice in NC group. Subsequently, the expression levels of Cyclin D1, D3 and CDK4 were also significantly influenced in the ovaries from the mice fed with HFD in a time-dependent manner. The present results suggested that HFD induced-obesity may trigger cell cycle arrest and excessive apoptosis of GCs, causing the abnormal follicular development and ovarian function failure. - Highlights: • HFD induced-obesity leads to abnormal ovarian morphology. • HFD induced-obesity triggers excessive apoptosis in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity up-regulates cell cycle inhibitors p21{sup Cip1} and p27{sup Kip1} in the ovary. • HFD induced-obesity causes cell cycle arrest in the ovary.

  9. Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus skin during hair follicle development and cycling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongqing Geng

    Full Text Available Cashmere goat (Capra hircus hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-β and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies.

  10. Exploring differentially expressed genes by RNA-Seq in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) skin during hair follicle development and cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Rongqing; Yuan, Chao; Chen, Yulin

    2013-01-01

    Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicle development and cycling can be divided into three stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. To elucidate the genes involved in hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats, transcriptome profiling of skin was carried out by analysing samples from three hair follicle developmental stages using RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated 8487344, 8142514 and 7345335 clean reads in anagen, catagen and telogen stages, respectively, which provided abundant data for further analysis. A total of 1332 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, providing evidence that the development of hair follicles among the three distinct stages changed considerably. A total of 683 genes with significant differential expression were detected between anagen and catagen, 530 DEGs were identified between anagen and telogen, and 119 DEGs were identified between catagen and telogen. A large number of DEGs were predominantly related to cellular process, cell & cell part, binding, biological regulation and metabolic process among the different stages of hair follicle development. In addition, the Wnt, Shh, TGF-β and Notch signaling pathways may be involved in hair follicle development and the identified DEGs may play important roles in these signaling pathways. These results will expand our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle development and cycling in cashmere goats and provide a foundation for future studies.

  11. Volume reduction technology development for solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Lee, Kune Woo; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Wang Kyu; Kim, Young Min

    1998-07-01

    A great deal of solid wastes, which have various physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, are generated from the nuclear fuel cycle facility as well as radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes. The treatment of the large quantity of solid wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle have great technical, economical and social effects on the domestic policy decision on the nuclear fuel cycle, such as operation and maintenance of the facility, waste disposal, etc. Cement immobilization, super compaction, and electrochemical dissolution were selected as the volume reduction technologies for solid wastes, which will generated from the domestic nuclear fuel cycle facility in the future. And the assessment of annual arisings and the preliminary conceptual design of volume reduction processes were followed. Electrochemical decontamination of α-radionuclides from the spent fuel hulls were experimentally investigated, and showed the successful results. However, β/γ radioactivity did not reduce to the level below which hulls can be classified as the low-level radioactive waste and sent to the disposal site for the shallow land burial. The effects of the various process variables in the electrochemical decontamination were experimentally analysed on the process. (author). 32 refs., 32 tabs., 52 figs

  12. Impact of imidaclorprid on live-cycle development of Coccinella septempunctata in laborratory microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caihong, Yu; Ronghua, Lin; Maoran, Fu; Yanming, Zhou; Brock, T.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term effects of a single application of imidacloprid on ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L., were studied in indoor laboratory microcosms, starting with the 2nd instar larvae of C. septempunctata but covering the full life cycle. The microcosms comprised enclosures containing a pot

  13. Thorium fuel cycle development activities in India (a decade of progress: 1981-1990)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, T.K.; Srinivasan, M.

    1990-01-01

    The report comprises of 72 papers on various aspects of thorium fuel cycle. These papers report the research work carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay and other units of the Department of Atomic Energy during the decade 1981-1990. figs., tabs

  14. A simple mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle: Follicle development and endocrine interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, H.M.T.; Stötzel, C.; Röblitz, S.; Deuflhard, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Woelders, H.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine fertility is the subject of extensive research in animal sciences, especially because fertility of dairy cows has declined during the last decades. The regulation of estrus is controlled by the complex interplay of various organs and hormones. Mathematical modeling of the bovine estrous cycle

  15. The Development of Terrestrial Water Cycle Applications for SMAP Soil Moisture Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil moisture storage sits at the locus of the terrestrial water cycle and governs the relative partitioning of precipitation into various land surface flux components. Consequently, improved observational constraint of soil moisture variations should improve our ability to globally monitor the te...

  16. Development of a common priority list of pharmaceuticals relevant for the water cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Janex-Habibi, M.-L.; Sacher, F.; Puijker, L.; Mons, M.

    2009-01-01

    Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs), including prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, drugs used in hospitals and veterinary drugs, have been found throughout the water cycle. A desk study was initiated by the Global Water Research Coalition to consolidate a uniform selection of

  17. Development and evaluation of the carbon-nitrogen cycle module for the GPFARM-Range model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangelands cover approximately 50% of the terrestrial surface of the earth. The soil carbon and nitrogen storage and turnover in rangeland systems are becoming increasingly important for sustainable grazing management and adaptations to climate change. In this study, a carbon-nitrogen (C-N) cycle m...

  18. Male germ line development in Arabidopsis. duo pollen mutants reveal gametophytic regulators of generative cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbarry, Anjusha; Vizir, Igor; Twell, David

    2005-01-01

    Male germ line development in flowering plants is initiated with the formation of the generative cell that is the progenitor of the two sperm cells. While structural features of the generative cell are well documented, genetic programs required for generative cell cycle progression are unknown. We describe two novel Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, duo pollen1 (duo1) and duo pollen2 (duo2), in which generative cell division is blocked, resulting in the formation of bicellular pollen grains at anthesis. duo1 and duo2 map to different chromosomes and act gametophytically in a male-specific manner. Both duo mutants progress normally through the first haploid division at pollen mitosis I (PMI) but fail at distinct stages of the generative cell cycle. Mutant generative cells in duo1 pollen fail to enter mitosis at G2-M transition, whereas mutant generative cells in duo2 enter PMII but arrest at prometaphase. In wild-type plants, generative and sperm nuclei enter S phase soon after inception, implying that male gametic cells follow a simple S to M cycle. Mutant generative nuclei in duo1 complete DNA synthesis but bypass PMII and enter an endocycle during pollen maturation. However, mutant generative nuclei in duo2 arrest in prometaphase of PMII with a 2C DNA content. Our results identify two essential gametophytic loci required for progression through different phases of the generative cell cycle, providing the first evidence to our knowledge for genetic regulators of male germ line development in flowering plants.

  19. Male Germ Line Development in Arabidopsis. duo pollen Mutants Reveal Gametophytic Regulators of Generative Cell Cycle Progression1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbarry, Anjusha; Vizir, Igor; Twell, David

    2005-01-01

    Male germ line development in flowering plants is initiated with the formation of the generative cell that is the progenitor of the two sperm cells. While structural features of the generative cell are well documented, genetic programs required for generative cell cycle progression are unknown. We describe two novel Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants, duo pollen1 (duo1) and duo pollen2 (duo2), in which generative cell division is blocked, resulting in the formation of bicellular pollen grains at anthesis. duo1 and duo2 map to different chromosomes and act gametophytically in a male-specific manner. Both duo mutants progress normally through the first haploid division at pollen mitosis I (PMI) but fail at distinct stages of the generative cell cycle. Mutant generative cells in duo1 pollen fail to enter mitosis at G2-M transition, whereas mutant generative cells in duo2 enter PMII but arrest at prometaphase. In wild-type plants, generative and sperm nuclei enter S phase soon after inception, implying that male gametic cells follow a simple S to M cycle. Mutant generative nuclei in duo1 complete DNA synthesis but bypass PMII and enter an endocycle during pollen maturation. However, mutant generative nuclei in duo2 arrest in prometaphase of PMII with a 2C DNA content. Our results identify two essential gametophytic loci required for progression through different phases of the generative cell cycle, providing the first evidence to our knowledge for genetic regulators of male germ line development in flowering plants. PMID:15618418

  20. Development of nuclear fuel cycle technologies - bases of long-term provision of fuel and environmental safety of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solonin, M.I.; Polyakov, A.S.; Zakharkin, B.S.; Smelov, V.S.; Nenarokomov, E.A.; Mukhin, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    To-day nuclear power is one of the options, however, to-morrow it may become the main source of the energy, thus, providing for the stable economic development for the long time to come. The availability of the large-scale nuclear power in the foreseeable future is governed by not only the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) but also by the environmentally safe management of spent nuclear fuel, radioactive waste conditioning and long-term storage. More emphasis is to be placed to the closing of the fuel cycle in view of substantial quantities of spent nuclear fuel arisings. The once-through fuel cycle that is cost effective at the moment cannot be considered to be environmentally safe even for the middle term since the substantial build-up of spent nuclear fuel containing thousands of tons Pu will require the resolution of the safe management problem in the nearest future and is absolutely unjustified in terms of moral ethics as a transfer of the responsibility to future generations. The minimization of radioactive waste arisings and its radioactivity is only feasible with the closed fuel cycle put into practice and some actinides and long-lived fission radionuclides burnt out. The key issues in providing the environmentally safe fuel cycle are efficient processes of producing fuel for NPP, radionuclide after-burning included, a long-term spent nuclear fuel storage and reprocessing as well as radioactive waste management. The paper deals with the problems inherent in producing fuel for NPP with a view for the closed fuel cycle. Also discussed are options of the fuel cycle, its effectiveness and environmental safety with improvements in technologies of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and long-lived radionuclide partitioning. (authors)

  1. Harvesting and cryo-cooling crystals of membrane proteins grown in lipidic mesophases for structure determination by macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dianfan; Boland, Coilín; Aragao, David; Walsh, Kilian; Caffrey, Martin

    2012-09-02

    An important route to understanding how proteins function at a mechanistic level is to have the structure of the target protein available, ideally at atomic resolution. Presently, there is only one way to capture such information as applied to integral membrane proteins (Figure 1), and the complexes they form, and that method is macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX). To do MX diffraction quality crystals are needed which, in the case of membrane proteins, do not form readily. A method for crystallizing membrane proteins that involves the use of lipidic mesophases, specifically the cubic and sponge phases(1-5), has gained considerable attention of late due to the successes it has had in the G protein-coupled receptor field(6-21) (www.mpdb.tcd.ie). However, the method, henceforth referred to as the in meso or lipidic cubic phase method, comes with its own technical challenges. These arise, in part, due to the generally viscous and sticky nature of the lipidic mesophase in which the crystals, which are often micro-crystals, grow. Manipulating crystals becomes difficult as a result and particularly so during harvesting(22,23). Problems arise too at the step that precedes harvesting which requires that the glass sandwich plates in which the crystals grow (Figure 2)(24,25) are opened to expose the mesophase bolus, and the crystals therein, for harvesting, cryo-cooling and eventual X-ray diffraction data collection. The cubic and sponge mesophase variants (Figure 3) from which crystals must be harvested have profoundly different rheologies(4,26). The cubic phase is viscous and sticky akin to a thick toothpaste. By contrast, the sponge phase is more fluid with a distinct tendency to flow. Accordingly, different approaches for opening crystallization wells containing crystals growing in the cubic and the sponge phase are called for as indeed different methods are required for harvesting crystals from the two mesophase types. Protocols for doing just that have been

  2. Safe Cycling Network : developing a system for assessing the safety of cycling infrastructure. Report on behalf of the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J. Dijkstra, A. & Petegem, J.W.H. van

    2015-01-01

    ANWB has initiated a project to improve the safety of the cycling infrastructure in the Netherlands — and, in the longer term, also in other countries: the Safe Cycling Network project. This project was inspired in part by the international European Road Assessment Programme (EuroRAP/iRAP). The

  3. Development of new historical global Nitrogen fertilizer map and the evaluation of their impacts on terrestrial N cycling and the evaluation of their impacts on terrestrial N cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Hayashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer was rapidly growing up after the birth of Haber-Bosch process in the early 20th century. The recent N loading derived from these sources on terrestrial ecosystems was estimated 2 times higher than biogenic N fixation in terrestrial ecosystems (Gruber et al., 2009). However, there are still large uncertainties in cumulative N impacts on terrestrial impact at global scale. In this study, to assess historical N impacts at global scale, we made a new global N fertilizer input map, which was a spatial-temporal explicit map (during 1960-2010) and considered the fraction of NH4+ and NO3- in the N fertilizer inputs. With the developed N fertilizer map, we evaluated historical N20 cycling changes by land-use changes and N depositions in N cycling using ecosystem model 'VISIT'. Prior to the downscaling processes for global N fertilizer map, we applied the statistical data imputation to FAOSTAT data due to there existing many missing data especially in developing countries. For the data imputation, we used multiple data imputation method proposed by Honaker & King (2010). The statistics of various types of synthetic fertilizer consumption are available in FAOSTAT, which can be sorted by the content of NH4+ and NO3-, respectively. To downscaling the country by country N fertilizer consumptions data to the 0.5˚x 0.5˚ grid-based map, we used historical land-use map in Earthstat (Rumankutty et al., 1999). Before the assignment of N fertilizer in each grid, we weighted the double cropping regions to be more N fertilizer input on to these regions. Using M3-Crops Data (Monfreda et al., 2008), we picked up the dominant cropping species in each grid cell. After that, we used Crop Calendar in SAGE dataset (Sacks et al., 2010) and determined schedule of N fertilizer input in each grid cell using dominant crop calendar. Base fertilizer was set to be 7 days before transplanting and second fertilizer to be 30 days after base fertilizer application

  4. Sustainable Industrial Product Systems. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment in Product development and Optimization of Product Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanssen, Ole Joergen

    1997-12-31

    This thesis contributes to the development and testing of environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) in product development and management in industry. It is based on systems theory and systems engineering. It develops a method for sustainable product development that has been successfully tested in the Nordic project called NEP. The LCA method is also a basis for an optimization model, where life cycle economy and environmental impacts from product systems are optimized with a non-linear model. A more complete mathematical model for LCA, based on the functional requirements on a product system, is also developed. The statistical properties of emission factors are studied using a data set from the Swedish Kraft Mill industry. It is shown that emission factors may be assumed constants in the LCA model, but with rather large variations within a population of Kraft mills. It is shown that there are a few environmental impacts which are important for most types of products under Scandinavian conditions, especially global warming potential, acidification, human toxicity and fossil energy depletion. There are significant differences between the contribution to these impacts from different life cycle stages, where raw material processing and use of products are generally more important than the other stages. Test cases indicate that there are no large conflicts between improvements in environmental impacts and customer requirements. Environmental improvements seem to increase purchase cost of products in some cases, but the life cycle cost of the products seem in most cases to be reduced. It is concluded that there are opportunities for 30-50% improvements in product system, based on relatively simple modifications of the systems. 246 refs., 63 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Modelling of pesticide emissions for Life Cycle Inventory analysis: Model development, applications and implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes

    The work presented in this thesis deals with quantification of pesticide emissions in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The motivation to model pesticide emissions is that reliable LCA results not only depend on accurate impact assessment models, but also...... good emission inventories. Recent LCA studies of agricultural products that take toxicity impacts into account show that pesticide emissions considerably contribute to toxicity impacts. At the same time, such conclusions are derived using a simplified approach to quantify pesticide emissions...... and freshwater ecotoxicity impacts obtained with two inventory approaches were compared. The first approach was PestLCI 2.0, the second is the currently prevalent approach (the Ecoinvent approach), which assumes that 100% of the applied mass is emitted to agricultural soil. For both impact categories...

  6. Sensitivity analysis of molecular design problem for the development of novel working fluids for power cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Abildskov, Jens; Sin, Gürkan

    and energy balances for a pump, a condenser, a turbine and an evaporator. As regards sensitivity analysis method, a global sensitivity analysis is performed based on Morris screening to determine which change of input parameters have important effects on the net power output. The screening is composed......In recent years there is a large availability of low-temperature heat sources in different applications such as waste heat in chemical industries and refrigeration plants as well as renewable energy sources such as biomass combustion, geothermal and solar heat sources. Power cycles are an important...... technology to convert such waste heat sources into usable energy. So far the low-temperature heat is not utilized efficiently for electricity generation. To optimize the heat transfer process and the power generation, the influence of the working fluid, the cycle designs and the operating conditions is vital...

  7. Development of lyophilization cycle and effect of excipients on the stability of catalase during lyophilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lale, Shantanu V; Goyal, Monu; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to screen excipients such as amino acids and non-aqueous solvents for their stabilizing effect on catalase, a model protein, for lyophilization. The present study also includes optimization of lyophilization cycle for catalase formulations, which is essential from the commercial point of view, since lyophilization is an extremely costly process. Materials and Methods: Activity of catalase was determined using catalase activity assay. Differen...

  8. APC-targeted RAA1 degradation mediates the cell cycle and root development in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunyuan; Cao, Hong; Chong, Kang

    2010-03-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is necessary for a normal cell cycle. As compared with knowledge of the mechanism in animals and yeast, that in plants is less known. Here we summarize research into the regulatory mechanism of protein degradation in the cell cycle in plants. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), in the E3 family of enzymes, plays an important role in maintaining normal mitosis. APC activation and substrate specificity is determined by its activators, which can recognize the destruction box (D-box) in APC target proteins. Oryza sativa root architecture-associated 1 (OsRAA1) with GTP-binding activity was originally cloned from rice. Overexpression of of OsRAA1 inhibits the growth of primary roots in rice. Knockdown lines showed reduced height of seedlings because of abnormal cell division. OsRAA1 transgenic rice and fission yeast show a higher proportion of metaphase cells than that of controls, which suggests a blocked transition from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis. OsRAA1 co-localizes with spindle tubulin. It contains the D-box motif and interacts with OsRPT4 of the regulatory particle of 26S proteasome. OsRAA1 may be a cell cycle inhibitor that can be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and its disruption is necessary for the transition from metaphase to anaphase during root growth in rice.

  9. APC-targeted RAAI degradation mediates the cell cycle and root development in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hong; Chong, Kang

    2010-01-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system is necessary for a normal cell cycle. As compared with knowledge of the mechanism in animals and yeast, that in plants is less known. Here we summarize research into the regulatory mechanism of protein degradation in the cell cycle in plants. Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), in the E3 family of enzymes, plays an important role in maintaining normal mitosis. APC activation and substrate specificity is determined by its activators, which can recognize the destruction box (D-box) in APC target proteins. Oryza sativa root architecture-associated I (OsRAA1) with GTP-binding activity was originally cloned from rice. Overexpression of of OsRAA1 inhibits the growth of primary roots in rice. Knockdown lines showed reduced height of seedlings because of abnormal cell division. OsRAA1 transgenic rice and fission yeast show a higher proportion of metaphase cells than that of controls, which suggests a blocked transition from metaphase to anaphase during mitosis. OsRAA1 co-localizes with spindle tubulin. It contains the D-box motif and interacts with OsRPT4 of the regulatory particle of 26S proteasome. OsRAA1 may be a cell cycle inhibitor that can be degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and its disruption is necessary for the transition from metaphase to anaphase during root growth in rice. PMID:20037474

  10. Cycling Traffic Development in Slovakia in the Terms of the City of Košice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neradilová Hana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycling traffic has been booming in urban agglomerations recently. This is due to the fact that using bicycles helps solve existing transport problems. The advantage is that it supports the limitation of the use of cars in city centers and thus reduces the negative impact of transport on the environment. It can be realized in various forms - using private bicycles or bike-sharing. Košice includes among cities where introducing bike-sharing is considered. Košice is a city that has its specific transport problems, whose partial solution may be to increase the support of cycling when one of the options is the introduction of a city bike-sharing system. The article offers a closer perspective at this issue in adaptation to real urban conditions. It introduces the possibility of introducing support for cycling traffic in the city of Košice based on the selection of suitable locations for building the stations and the subsequent evaluation of selected localities based on the determined criteria using the proportional index method.

  11. Development of silver-zinc cells of improved cycle life and energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serenyi, Roberto; James, Stanley D.

    1994-03-01

    Substantial increases in the cost effectiveness and range of naval underwater vehicles are possible by virtue of advances made, in this program, to silver-zinc, vehicle propulsion batteries. To improve battery cycle life and energy density, electropermeable membranes (EPM's) were used as additives and/or as coatings for the negative electrodes and as coatings for conventional separator materials. Also, bismuth oxide was tested as an additive to the negative electrodes and P2291-40/20, a radiation-grafted polyethylene film, as a separator used in conjunction with silver-treated cellophane. EPM's used as negative electrode additives and also as coatings for Celgard 2500 microporous polypropylene greatly improved cells. Cells with EPM's used as coatings for the negative electrodes failed rapidly because of an error in formulation. Cells with 10 percent bismuth oxide in the negative electrodes exhibited substantially lower capacity than the standard cells and were removed from the test. Cells with radiation-grafted polyethylene separators provided fewer cycles than the standard cells, with 5 percent higher capacity and 6 percent lower utilization of active materials by cycle 60. However, the slightly better capacity of these cells, realized due to the additional space available for active materials, does not compensate for their generally unimpressive performance.

  12. A decision analysis framework to support long-term planning for nuclear fuel cycle technology research, development, demonstration and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowder, A.G.; Machiels, A.J.; Dykes, A.A.; Johnson, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    To address challenges and gaps in nuclear fuel cycle option assessment and to support research, develop and demonstration programs oriented toward commercial deployment, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) is seeking to develop and maintain an independent analysis and assessment capability by building a suite of assessment tools based on a platform of software, simplified relationships, and explicit decision-making and evaluation guidelines. As a demonstration of the decision-support framework, EPRI examines a relatively near-term fuel cycle option, i.e., use of reactor-grade mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) in U.S. light water reactors. The results appear as a list of significant concerns (like cooling of spent fuels, criticality risk...) that have to be taken into account for the final decision

  13. Distribution of two basement membrane proteoglycans through hair follicle development and the hair growth cycle in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; King, J L; McCarthy, K J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of two distinct populations of basement membrane proteoglycans has been monitored through hair growth development in the rat embryo and subsequent hair growth cycle. An antiserum against a small heparan sulfate proteoglycan uniformly stained the dermal-epidermal junction...... as they developed. Through the hair growth cycle, it was found that the heparan sulfate proteoglycan persisted around the follicles, while the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan decreased in amount through catagen until it was undetectable at the base and dermal papilla of the telogen follicle. As anagen commenced...... of embryonic rats throughout the period of hair follicle formation. On the other hand, monoclonal antibodies recognizing a basement membrane-specific chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan only weakly stained 16-d embryo dermal-epidermal junction, but strong staining was associated with hair follicle buds...

  14. The application of interference fits for overcoming limitations in clamping methodologies for cryo-cooling first crystal configurations in x-ray monochromators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, J.; Docker, P.; Ward, M.; Kay, J.; Chapon, L.; Diaz-Moreno, S.

    2017-12-01

    The work detailed here describes how a novel approach has been applied to overcome the challenging task of cryo-cooling the first monochromator crystals of many of the world’s synchrotrons’ more challenging beam lines. The beam line configuration investigated in this work requires the crystal to diffract 15 Watts of 4-34 keV X-ray wavelength and dissipate the additional 485 watts of redundant X-ray power without significant deformation of the crystal surface. In this case the beam foot print is 25 mm by 25 mm on a crystal surface measuring 38 mm by 25 mm and maintain a radius of curvature of more than 50 km. Currently the crystal is clamped between two copper heat exchangers which have LN2 flowing through them. There are two conditions that must be met simultaneously in this scenario: the crystal needs to be clamped strongly enough to prevent the thermal deformation developing whilst being loose enough not to mechanically deform the diffracting surface. An additional source of error also occurs as the configuration is assembled by hand, leading to human error in the assembly procedure. This new approach explores making the first crystal cylindrical with a sleeve heat exchanger. By manufacturing the copper sleeve to be slightly larger than the silicon crystal at room temperature the sleeve can be slid over the silicon and when cooled will form an interference fit. This has the additional advantage that the crystal and its heat exchanger become a single entity and will always perform the same way each time it is used, eliminating error due to assembly. Various fits have been explored to investigate the associated crystal surface deformations under such a regime

  15. Development of TRU transmuters for optimization of the global fuel cycle. Final Report for the NERI Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This final report summarizes the research activities during the entire performance period of the NERI grant, including the extra 9 months granted under a no-cost time extension. Building up on the 14 quarterly reports submitted through October 2008, we present here an overview of the research accomplishments under the five tasks originally proposed in July 2004, together with citations for publications resulting from the project. The AFCI-NERI project provided excellent support for two undergraduate and 10 graduates students at the University of Michigan during a period of three years and nine months. Significant developments were achieved in three areas: (1) Efficient deterministic fuel cycle optimization algorithms both for PWR and SFR configurations, (2) Efficient search algorithm for PWR equilibrium cycles, and (3) Simplified Excel-based script for dynamic fuel cycle analysis of diverse cycles. The project resulted in a total of 8 conference papers and three journal papers, including two that will be submitted shortly. Three pending publications are attached to the report

  16. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-01-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for state-of-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency

  17. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-06-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

  18. Development of a strategic plan for an international R and D project on innovative nuclear fuel cycles and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.; Choi, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term outlook for nuclear energy should be considered in a broader perspective of future energy needs, operational safety, proliferation and environmental impacts. An Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Development of a Strategic Plan for an International R and D Project on Innovative Nuclear Fuel Cycles and Power Plants was convened in Vienna in October 1999 to assess the criteria, the needs for international cooperation, and to formulate a strategic plan for project integration. (author)

  19. Status of the natural and enriched uranium market: the basic economical factor for the development of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nochev, T.

    1999-01-01

    Status of the Natural and Enriched Uranium Market - the Basic. Economical Factor for the Development of the Fuel Cycle An overview of the status of the natural and enriched uranium market has been performed and it offers a possibility to estimate the changes and tendencies, the knowledge of which is needed in negotiations about the fresh fuel. The simplified financial analysis presented here demonstrates the economical profitability of the storage of the spent fuel making now the allocations for the future reprocessing

  20. Computer analysis of an adiabatic Stirling cryocooler using a two-phase two-component working fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfroe, D.A.; Cheung, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the performance and behavior of a Stirling cyrocooler incorporating a working fluid composed of helium and nitrogen. At the operating temperature of the cryocooler (80 K), the nitrogen component will condense in the freezer section. It is shown that the phase change in the working fluid increased the heat lifted for a given size and weight of machine and the coefficient of performance. The magnitude of these effects was dependent on the mass ratio of nitrogen to helium, phase angle between the compression and expansion processes, and the ratio of the compression space volume to the expansion space volume. The optimum heat lifted performance was obtained for a mass ratio of four parts of nitrogen to one part of helium, a phase angle of approximately 100 degrees, and a volume ratio of two which resulted in a heat lifted increase of 75% over the single phase, 90 degree phase angle configuration. The coefficient of performance showed a 20% improvement

  1. The development of an integrated nuclear fuel-cycle industry to meet the needs of the Italian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.M.; Badolato, G.; Clementel, E.

    1977-01-01

    The paper summarizes the Italian nuclear power station programme, recently approved by the Government, and illustrates the main reasons for the programme, which are in line with those presented at the Geneva Conference in 1971, and which lead to the consideration that nuclear energy is the main source for meeting practically all new electric power requirements in Italy. The implementation of this programme involves considerable nuclear fuel-cycle services, ranging from uranium supply to waste disposal. The industrial strategy to meet these needs is discussed. Technical and economic factors affecting such strategy, both for the fuel cycle as a whole and for its individual phases, are considered. Attention is focused on problems typical of the Italian situation and on various ways of solving them. A prominent feature of the Italian situation is the lack of sizeable domestic uranium resources, which makes it even more important to try, by local industrial efforts, to cover the phases of the cycle subsequent to uranium supply, so as to increase as much as possible the fraction of added value produced inside the country. The present status of the Italian nuclear fuel-cycle industry is reviewed in detail, and its capability of supporting the nuclear programme is analysed. Future development plans are discussed, taking into account the possibility of European co-operation. While the focus is on short- and medium-term programmes, the long-term nuclear programmes are discussed, such as those based on fast breeders, and stress is laid on the need to build up as quickly as possible a strong nuclear fuel-cycle industry. (author)

  2. Development of challengeable reprocessing and fuel fabrication technologies for advanced fast reactor fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, S.; Aoshima, T.; Myochin, M. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    R and D in the next five years in Feasibility Study Phase-2 are focused on selected key technologies for the advanced fuel cycle. These are the reference technology of simplified aqueous extraction and fuel pellet short process based on the oxide fuel and the innovative technology of oxide-electrowinning and metal- electrorefining process and their direct particle/metal fuel fabrication methods in a hot cell. Automatic and remote handling system operation in both reprocessing and fuel manufacturing can handle MA and LLFP concurrently with Pu and U attaining the highest recovery and an accurate accountability of these materials. (author)

  3. Development of challengeable reprocessing and fuel fabrication technologies for advanced fast reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, S.; Aoshima, T.; Myochin, M.

    2001-01-01

    R and D in the next five years in Feasibility Study Phase-2 are focused on selected key technologies for the advanced fuel cycle. These are the reference technology of simplified aqueous extraction and fuel pellet short process based on the oxide fuel and the innovative technology of oxide-electrowinning and metal- electrorefining process and their direct particle/metal fuel fabrication methods in a hot cell. Automatic and remote handling system operation in both reprocessing and fuel manufacturing can handle MA and LLFP concurrently with Pu and U attaining the highest recovery and an accurate accountability of these materials. (author)

  4. Development of substance flow based Life Cycle Assessment tool for sewage sludge treatment and disposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Clavreul, Julie; Scheutz, Charlotte

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method to quantify environmental impacts of products or systems. It is often done by correlating material and energy demands with certain input characteristics. An attempt was made to evaluate the robustness of the substance flow based LCA for wastewater and sludge...... treatment processes. Operational data of a conventional wastewater treatment plant over 12 years was collected. A cluster analysis was conducted to determine the relatedness of each input and output characteristic at the whole plant level. The results indicate that the output from the wastewater and sludge...

  5. Averaging business cycles vs. myopia: Do we need a long term vision when developing IRP?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C. [Synergic Resources Corporation, Bala Cynwyd, PA (United States); Gupta, P.C. [Synergic Resources Corp., Oakland, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Utility demand forecasting is inherently imprecise due to the number of uncertainties resulting from business cycles, policy making, technology breakthroughs, national and international political upheavals and the limitations of the forecasting tools. This implies that revisions based primarily on recent experience could lead to unstable forecasts. Moreover, new planning tools are required that provide an explicit consideration of uncertainty and lead to flexible and robust planning tools are required that provide an explicit consideration of uncertainty and lead to flexible and robust planning decisions.

  6. Development of a novel eccentric arm cycle ergometer for training the upper body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Steven J; Danvind, Jonas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2013-01-01

    Several investigators have demonstrated that chronic eccentric leg cycling is an effective method for improving lower body neuromuscular function (e.g., quadriceps muscle size, strength, and mobility) in a variety of patient and athletic populations. To date, there are no reports of using eccentric arm cycling (EC(arm)) as an exercise modality, probably in large part because of the lack of commercially available EC(arm) ergometers. Our purposes for conducting this study were to 1) describe the design and construction of an EC(arm) ergometer and 2) compare EC(arm) to traditional concentric arm cycling (CC(arm)). All of the parts of a Monark 891E cycle ergometer (Monark Exercise AB, Vansbro, Sweden) were removed, leaving the frame and flywheel. An electric motor (2.2 kW) was connected to the flywheel via a pulley and a belt. Motor speed and pedaling rate were controlled by a variable frequency drive. A power meter quantified power and pedaling rate, and provided feedback to the individual. Eight individuals performed 3-min EC(arm) and CC(arm) trials at 40, 80, and 120 W (60 rpm) while VO(2) was measured. The EC(arm) ergometer was simple to use, was adjustable, provided feedback on power output to the user, and allowed for a range of eccentric powers. VO(2) during EC(arm) was substantially lower compared with CC(arm) (P vs 0.91 ± 0.09 L·min(-1), for EC(arm) and CC(arm), respectively, P = 0.26), power absorbed during EC(arm) was approximately threefold greater than that produced during CC(arm) (118 ± 1 vs 40 ± 1 W, P < 0.001). This novel EC(arm) ergometer can be used to perform repetitive, high-force, multijoint, eccentric actions with the upper body at a low level of metabolic demand and may allow researchers and clinicians to use EC(arm) as a training and rehabilitation modality.

  7. Innovation and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Festré, Agnès

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this chapter is to assess the originality of Schumpeter's theory of business cycles. The first section outlines the distinctive features of Schumpeter's approach to business cycles and economic dynamics. Section two looks at the mechanisms constituting the cycle in Schumpeter's two major contributions on this subject, the Theory of Economic Development (1911) and Business Cycles (1939).

  8. Development of lyophilization cycle and effect of excipients on the stability of catalase during lyophilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lale, Shantanu V; Goyal, Monu; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to screen excipients such as amino acids and non-aqueous solvents for their stabilizing effect on catalase, a model protein, for lyophilization. The present study also includes optimization of lyophilization cycle for catalase formulations, which is essential from the commercial point of view, since lyophilization is an extremely costly process. Materials and Methods: Activity of catalase was determined using catalase activity assay. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine eutectic melting temperature of the frozen catalase solution, which is essential for the optimization of lyophilization cycle. Results: When catalase was lyophilized without excipients, it was found that about 65-78% of the initial activity of catalase was lost during the lyophilization process in a concentration dependent manner. The maximum stability of catalase during lyophilization was observed at pH 7.0. Amino acids like alanine, glycine, lysine, serine and 4-hydroxy proline showed strong stabilizing effect on catalase during lyophilization by protecting catalase activity above 95%, whereas valine and cysteine hydrochloride showed destabilizing effect on catalase. Non-aqueous solvents such as dimethyl formamide, dimethyl sulphoxide, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 200, PEG 400, PEG 600 and ethylene glycol also showed destabilizing effect on catalase during lyophilization. Conclusions: In order to prevent loss of catalase activity during lyophilization of catalase, use of amino acids like alanine, glycine, lysine, serine and 4-hydroxy proline in optimum concentration is highly advisable. PMID:23071946

  9. Wetland development, permafrost history and nutrient cycling inferred from late Holocene peat and lake sediment records in subarctic Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokfelt, U.; Reuss, N.; Struyf, E.

    2010-01-01

    Sweden to address the late Holocene (5,000 cal BP-present) development of the mire as well as related changes in carbon and nutrient cycling. Formation, sediment accumulation and biogeochemistry of two studied lakes are suggested to be largely controlled by the development of the mire and its permafrost......-induced changes in hydrology may further have affected the inflow of alkaline water from the catchment. Elevated contents of biogenic silica and diatom pigments in lake sediments during periods of poor fen and bog expansion further indicate that terrestrial vegetation influenced the amount of nutrients entering...

  10. Development with DMU. Options in the modern product life cycle; Entwicklung mit DMU. Moeglichkeiten im modernen Produktlebenszyklus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, H.; Moser, H. [Competent Engineering GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2005-02-01

    In this contribution, the Graz-based development company Competent Engineering outlines the advantages of digital mock-ups for efficient product development. The focus is on a uniform product and data structure that is to ensure early availability of DMU for all stages of the product life cycle. (orig.) [German] Der Grazer Entwicklungsdienstleister Competent Engineering beschreibt in diesem Beitrag anhand der Entwicklung eines Ottomotors, welche Vorteile der Einsatz von Digital Mock-Ups fuer eine effiziente Produktentwicklung hat. Besondere Bedeutung hat dabei eine moeglichst durchgaengige Produkt- und Datenstruktur, um eine fruehe Verfuegbarkeit der DMUs fuer alle Bereiche innerhalb des Produktlebenszyklus zu ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  11. Differential Expression of Genes of the Calvin-Benson Cycle and its Related Genes During Leaf Development in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Chihiro; Suzuki, Yuji; Makino, Amane

    2016-01-01

    To understand how the machinery for photosynthetic carbon assimilation is formed and maintained during leaf development, changes in the mRNA levels of the Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activase and two key enzymes for sucrose synthesis were determined in rice (Oryza sativa L.). According to the patterns of changes in the mRNA levels, these genes were categorized into three groups. Group 1 included most of the genes involved in the carboxylation and reduction phases of the Calvin-Benson cycle, as well as three genes in the regeneration phase. The mRNA levels increased and reached maxima during leaf expansion and then rapidly declined, although there were some variations in the residual mRNA levels in senescent leaves. Group 2 included a number of genes involved in the regeneration phase, one gene in the reduction phase of the Calvin-Benson cycle and one gene in sucrose synthesis. The mRNA levels increased and almost reached maxima before full expansion and then gradually declined. Group 3 included Rubisco activase, one gene involved in the regeneration phase and one gene in sucrose synthesis. The overall pattern was similar to that in group 2 genes except that the mRNA levels reached maxima after the stage of full expansion. Thus, genes of the Calvin-Benson cycle and its related genes were differentially expressed during leaf development in rice, suggesting that such differential gene expression is necessary for formation and maintenance of the machinery of photosynthetic carbon assimilation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Development of a thermal scheme for a cogeneration combined-cycle unit with an SVBR-100 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Dudolin, A. A.; Krasheninnikov, S. M.

    2017-02-01

    At present, the prospects for development of district heating that can increase the effectiveness of nuclear power stations (NPS), cut down their payback period, and improve protection of the environment against harmful emissions are being examined in the nuclear power industry of Russia. It is noted that the efficiency of nuclear cogeneration power stations (NCPS) is drastically affected by the expenses for heat networks and heat losses during transportation of a heat carrier through them, since NPSs are usually located far away from urban area boundaries as required for radiation safety of the population. The prospects for using cogeneration power units with small or medium power reactors at NPSs, including combined-cycle units and their performance indices, are described. The developed thermal scheme of a cogeneration combined-cycle unit (CCU) with an SBVR-100 nuclear reactor (NCCU) is presented. This NCCU should use a GE 6FA gasturbine unit (GTU) and a steam-turbine unit (STU) with a two-stage district heating plant. Saturated steam from the nuclear reactor is superheated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) to 560-580°C so that a separator-superheater can be excluded from the thermal cycle of the turbine unit. In addition, supplemental fuel firing in HRSG is examined. NCCU effectiveness indices are given as a function of the ambient air temperature. Results of calculations of the thermal cycle performance under condensing operating conditions indicate that the gross electric efficiency η el NCCU gr of = 48% and N el NCCU gr = 345 MW can be achieved. This efficiency is at maximum for NCCU with an SVBR-100 reactor. The conclusion is made that the cost of NCCU installed kW should be estimated, and the issue associated with NCCUs siting with reference to urban area boundaries must be solved.

  13. Analysis of Factors Controlling Cell Cycle that Can Be Synchronized Nondestructively During Root Cap Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawes, Martha

    2011-02-04

    Publications and presentations during the final funding period, including progress in defining the substrate specificity, the primary goal of the project, are listed below. Both short-term and long-term responses mediated by PsUGT1 have been characterized in transgenic or mutant pea, alfalfa, and Arabidopsis with altered expression of PsUGT1. Additional progress includes evaluation of the relationship between control of the cell cycle by PsUGT1 and other glycosyltransferase and glycosidase enzymes that are co-regulated in the legume root cap during the onset of mitosis and differentiation. Transcriptional profiling and multidimensional protein identification technology ('MudPIT') have been used to establish the broader molecular context for the mechanism by which PsUGT1 controls cell cycle in response to environmental signals. A collaborative study with the Norwegian Forest Research Institute (who provided $10,000.00 in supplies and travel funds for collaborator Dr. Toril Eldhuset to travel to Arizona and Dr. H. H. Woo to travel to Norway) made it possible to establish that the inducible root cap system for studying carbohydrate synthesis and solubilization is expressed in gymnosperm as well as angiosperm species. This discovery provides an important tool to amplify the potential applications of the research in defining conserved cell cycle machinery across a very broad range of plant species and habitats. The final work, published during 2009, revealed an additional surprising parallel with mammalian immune responses: The cells whose production is controlled by PsUGT1 appear to function in a manner which is analogous to that of white blood cells, by trapping and killing in an extracellular manner. This may explain why mutation within the coding region of PsUGT1 and its homolog in humans (UGT1) is lethal to plants and animals. The work has been the subject of invited reviews. A postdoctoral fellow, eight undergraduate students, four M.S. students and

  14. Modifications of the phosphorus cycle with development of lignite mine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trasar Cepeda, M.C.; Deblas, E.; Garcia Rodeja, I.; Leiros, M.C.; Gil Sotres, F. (Universidad de Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Departamento de Edafologia y Quimica Agricola)

    1993-10-01

    Various aspects of the P cycle in four and seven year old soils from the Meirama lignite mine (northwest Spain) were studied. With increasing soil age, the organic P (P(o)) content increased in parallel with the organic matter content. The observed increase in secondary inorganic P is related to the increase in the retention capacity for P with soil age. The observed increase in the HCl-P fraction can be attributed to a gradual dissolution of the non-extractable forms of P produced from fertilizers added in the course of spoil management. Both the C:P(o) ratio and phosphatase activity also increased with soil age, suggesting that biochemical mineralization processes are taking place and indicating a need for the hydrolysis of phosphate esters to ensure an adequate phosphorus supply to plants. All these findings suggest that in the long term plants may suffer a pronounced P deficiency.

  15. Enterprise SRS: leveraging ongoing operations to advance nuclear fuel cycles research and development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.M.; Marra, J.E.; Wilmarth, W.R.; McGuire, P.W.; Wheeler, V.B.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is re-purposing its vast array of assets (including H Canyon - a nuclear chemical separation plant) to solve issues regarding advanced nuclear fuel cycle technologies, nuclear materials processing, packaging, storage and disposition. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for 'all things nuclear' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into SRS facilities but also in other facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research has been established in SRS

  16. Development of aerodynamic bearing support for application in air cycle machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimek J.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Air cycle machines (ACM are used in environmental control system of aircrafts to manage pressurization of the cabin. The aim of this work is to gain theoretical and experimental data enabling replacement of rolling bearings, which require lubrication and have limited operating speed, with aerodynamic bearing support. Aerodynamic bearings do not pollute process air and at the same time allow achieving higher operating speed, thus enabling to reduce machine mass and dimensions. A test stand enabling the verification of aerodynamic bearing support properties for prospective ACM was designed, manufactured and tested with operating speeds up to 65 000 rpm. Some interesting features of the test stand design and the test results are presented. A smaller test stand with operating speed up to 100 000 rpm is in design stage.

  17. Future scenario development within life cycle assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisinella, Valentina

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an acknowledged tool for quantifying the sustainability of waste management solutions. However, the use of LCA for decision-making is hindered by the strong dependency of the LCA results on the assumptions regarding the future conditions in which the waste management...... solutions will operate. Future scenario methods from the management engineering field may provide valid approaches for formulating consistent assumptions on future conditions for the waste management system modelled with LCA. However, the standardized LCA procedure currently does not offer much guidance...... on how to model future scenarios in LCA. This thesis highlights critical findings aiming at strengthening the role of LCA in decision support and strategic planning for waste management. In particular, the thesis thoroughly investigated the future scenario methods, the existing guidance on modelling...

  18. Development and validation of a partial life-cycle test with Potamopyrgus antipodarum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiss, Cornelia; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    Molluscs, though the second largest clade next to the arthropods, have widely been neglected in environmental risk assessment schemes for chemicals, mainly due to the lack of standardised and broadly accepted test guidelines for molluscs. However, they are known to be uniquely sensitive to a numb...... and other chemicals. [1] OECD. 2010. Detailed review paper on molluscs life-cycle toxicity testing. ENV/JM/MONO(2010)9, Paris, France....... of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs, e.g. organotins) and other substances (e.g. copper). Therefore the German Federal Environment Agency and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the United Kingdom supported the preparation of a Detailed Review Paper (DRP) on Molluscs Life...

  19. Life cycle of the plastics in the wastes. Energy development analysis of the PET disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.; Carlini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The work is directed to an energy-environmental evaluation, through the LCA methodology, of the life cycle of the containers for liquids in PET, particularly to the phase post use. Applied the italian decree with the force of law (Decreto Ronchi), the methodology LCA has been described in the basic points. Then such methodology has been applied to the containers for liquids in PET. Several disposal systems have been studied and it was found out the most suitable system from the energy and environmental point of view. The recycling turned out to be the best solution either from the energy point of view or environmental. The incineration with energy saving has found out better than the conferring in disposal (with biogas recovery) from the energy point of view, on the contrary the conferring in disposal has found out better than the environmental one [it

  20. Developments in life cycle assessment applied to evaluate the environmental performance of construction and demolition wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovea, M D; Powell, J C

    2016-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the literature that applies the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to the assessment of the environmental performance of the life cycle of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management systems. This article is focused on generating a general mapping of the literature and on identifying the best practices in compliance with LCA framework and proposing directions for future LCA studies in this field. The temporal evolution of the research in this field and the aim of the studies have grown in parallel with the legal framework related to waste and energy efficiency of buildings. Most studies have been published in Europe, followed by USA. Asia and Australia, being at an incipient application stage to the rest of the world. Topics related to "LCA of buildings, including their EoL" and "LCA of general CDW management strategies" are the most frequently analysed, followed by "LCA of EoL of construction elements" and "LCA of natural material vs recycled material". Regarding the strategies, recycling off-site and incineration, both combined with landfill for the rejected fractions, are the most commonly applied. Re-use or recycling on-site is the strategy least applied. The key aspect when LCA is applied to evaluate CDW management systems is the need to normalise which processes to include in the system boundary and the functional unit, the use of inventory data adapted to the context of the case study and the definition of a common set of appropriate impact assessment categories. Also, it is important to obtain results disaggregated by unit processes. This will allow the comparison between case studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New Developments in Actinides Burning with Symbiotic LWR-HTR-GCFR Fuel Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomboni, Eleonora

    2008-01-01

    The long-term radiotoxicity of the final waste is currently the main drawback of nuclear power production. Particularly, isotopes of Neptunium and Plutonium along with some long-lived fission products are dangerous for more than 100000 years. 96% of spent Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel consists of actinides, hence it is able to produce a lot of energy by fission if recycled. Goals of Generation IV Initiative are reduction of long-term radiotoxicity of waste to be stored in geological repositories, a better exploitation of nuclear fuel resources and proliferation resistance. Actually, all these issues are intrinsically connected with each other. It is quite clear that these goals can be achieved only by combining different concepts of Gen. IV nuclear cores in a 'symbiotic' way. Light-Water Reactor - (Very) High Temperature Reactor ((V)HTR) - Fast Reactor (FR) symbiotic cycles have good capabilities from the viewpoints mentioned above. Particularly, HTR fuelled by Plutonium oxide is able to reach an ultra-high burn-up and to burn Neptunium and Plutonium effectively. In contrast, not negligible amounts of Americium and Curium build up in this core, although the total mass of Heavy Metals (HM) is reduced. Americium and Curium are characterised by an high radiological hazard as well. Nevertheless, at least Plutonium from HTR (rich in non-fissile nuclides) and, if appropriate, Americium can be used as fuel for Fast Reactors. If necessary, dedicated assemblies for Minor Actinides (MA) burning can be inserted in Fast Reactors cores. This presentation focuses on combining HTR and Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) concepts, fuelled by spent LWR fuel and depleted uranium if need be, to obtain a net reduction of total mass and radiotoxicity of final waste. The intrinsic proliferation resistance of this cycle is highlighted as well. Additionally, some hints about possible Curium management strategies are supplied. Besides, a preliminary assessment of different chemical forms of

  2. Increased risk of diabetes development in individuals with weight cycling over 4 years: The Kangbuk Samsung Health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Eun-Jung; Cho, Jung Hwan; Kwon, Hyemi; Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Oh, Ki-Won; Park, Sung-Woo; Lee, Won-Young

    2018-03-21

    Weight cycling is defined as cyclical loss and gain of weight and recent studies suggest deleterious effects of weight cycling on cardiometabolic health. We aimed to analyze the risk for diabetes development in association with weight cycling over 4 years of follow-up. A retrospective study performed in 4,818 non-diabetic participants (mean age 43 years, 78.3% men) in a health screening program in whom serial health examinations were performed in 5 consecutive years from 2010 to 2014. Average successive variability of weight (ASVW) was defined by the amount of body weight change in absolute value between the successive years over 5 years summed and divided by four. The subjects were divided into two groups according to body mass index (BMI), normal weight (<23 kg/m 2 ) and overweight (≥23 kg/m 2 ). Over 4 years, 3.2% developed diabetes. When the subjects were divided into 3 groups according to tertile groups of ASVW, those in the highest tertile showed significantly increased risk for diabetes development compared to those with the lowest tertile {odds ratio (OR) 1.860; 95% CI 1.130-3.063}. When similar analyses were performed according to the 4 groups divided by baseline body weight and ASVW over four years, those who were more than overweight at baseline with high ASVW showed significantly increased risk of diabetes development compared to those had normal weight and low ASVW (OR 2.266; 95% 1.123-4.572). When the subjects were divided into six group according to weight change and ASVW, those with increased weight over 4 years and high ASVW showed the highest risk for diabetes development among the groups compared to those with stable weight and low ASVW over four years (OR 3.660; 95% CI 1.402-9.553). Those with high ASVW showed significantly increased risk for diabetes development over four years compared with those who had low ASVW. Weight cycling was significantly associated with increased risk for diabetes. Copyright © 2018. Published by

  3. THE MISSION AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS FROM DOE’S FUEL CYCLE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (FCRD) ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Carmack; L. Braase; F. Goldner

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors, enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel, effectively utilize nuclear energy resources, and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state of the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of a “goal oriented science based approach.” AFC uses a “goal oriented, science based approach” aimed at a fundamental understanding of fuel and cladding fabrication methods and performance under irradiation, enabling the pursuit of multiple fuel forms for future fuel cycle options. This approach includes fundamental experiments, theory, and advanced modeling and simulation. One of the most challenging aspects of AFC is the management, integration, and coordination of major R&D activities across multiple organizations. AFC interfaces and collaborates with Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) campaigns, universities, industry, various DOE programs and laboratories, federal agencies (e.g., Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC]), and international organizations. Key challenges are the development of fuel technologies to enable major increases in fuel performance (safety, reliability, power and burnup) beyond current technologies, and development of characterization methods and predictive fuel performance models to enable more efficient development and licensing of advanced fuels. Challenged with the research and development of fuels for two different reactor technology platforms, AFC targeted transmutation fuel development and focused ceramic fuel development for Advanced LWR Fuels.

  4. Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive General email updates Enter email Submit Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is the hormonal process ... Preventing problems with your menstrual cycle View more Menstrual Cycle resources Related information Endometriosis Infertility Polycystic ovary ...

  5. Development and application of EEAST: a life cycle based model for use of harvested rainwater and composting toilets in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, J; Schlachter, H; Anand, C; Phillips, R; Apul, Defne

    2013-11-30

    Harvested rainwater systems and composting toilets are expected to be an important part of sustainable solutions in buildings. Yet, to this date, a model evaluating their economic and environmental impact has been missing. To address this need, a life cycle based model, EEAST was developed. EEAST was designed to compare the business as usual (BAU) case of using potable water for toilet flushing and irrigation to alternative scenarios of rainwater harvesting and composting toilet based technologies. In EEAST, building characteristics, occupancy, and precipitation are used to size the harvested rainwater and composting toilet systems. Then, life cycle costing and life cycle assessment methods are used to estimate cost, energy, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission payback periods (PPs) for five alternative scenarios. The scenarios modeled include use of harvested rainwater for toilet flushing, for irrigation, or both; and use of composting toilets with or without harvested rainwater use for irrigation. A sample simulation using EEAST showed that for the office building modeled, the cost PPs were greater than energy PPs which in turn were greater than GHG emission PPs. This was primarily due to energy and emission intensive nature of the centralized water and wastewater infrastructure. The sample simulation also suggested that the composting toilets may have the best performance in all criteria. However, EEAST does not explicitly model solids management and as such may give composting toilets an unfair advantage compared to flush based toilets. EEAST results were found to be very sensitive to cost values used in the model. With the availability of EEAST, life cycle cost, energy, and GHG emissions can now be performed fairly easily by building designers and researchers. Future work is recommended to further improve EEAST and evaluate it for different types of buildings and climates so as to better understand when composting toilets and harvested rainwater systems

  6. Performance of the Oxford miniature Stirling cycle refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, T.W.; Davey, G.; Delderfield, J.; Werrett, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of the Oxford Cryocooler is summarized. This cooler has been developed for space use by the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the Departments of Atmospheric Physics and Engineering Science at Oxford University. The design goal of 1/2 watt of cooling power at 80 K for 30 W electrical input power has been exceeded by a substantial amount. The power budget for the compressor and the losses in the displacer are discussed. Graphs of the cold end temperature vs. compressor input power and cooling power are presented

  7. Development of a Model of Geophysical and Geochemical Controls on Abiotic Carbon Cycling on Earth-Like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neveu, M.; Felton, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Desch, S. J.; Arney, G. N.

    2017-12-01

    About 20 Earth-sized planets (0.6-1.6 Earth masses and radii) have now been discovered beyond our solar system [1]. Although such planets are prime targets in the upcoming search for atmospheric biosignatures, their composition, geology, and climate are essentially unconstrained. Yet, developing an understanding of how these factors influence planetary evolution through time and space is essential to establishing abiotic backgrounds against which any deviations can provide evidence for biological activity. To this end, we are building coupled geophysical-geochemical models of abiotic carbon cycling on such planets. Our models are controlled by atmospheric factors such as temperature and composition, and compute interior inputs to atmospheric species. They account for crustal weathering, ocean-atmosphere equilibria, and exchange with the deep interior as a function of planet composition and size (and, eventually, age).Planets in other solar systems differ from the Earth not only in their bulk physical properties, but also likely in their bulk chemical composition [2], which influences key parameters such as the vigor of mantle convection and the near-surface redox state. Therefore, simulating how variations in such parameters affect carbon cycling requires us to simulate the above processes from first principles, rather than by using arbitrary parameterizations derived from observations as is often done with models of carbon cycling on Earth [3] or extrapolations thereof [4]. As a first step, we have developed a kinetic model of crustal weathering using the PHREEQC code [5] and kinetic data from [6]. We will present the ability of such a model to replicate Earth's carbon cycle using, for the time being, parameterizations for surface-interior-atmosphere exchange processes such as volcanism (e.g., [7]).[1] exoplanet.eu, 7/28/2017.[2] Young et al. (2014) Astrobiology 14, 603-626.[3] Lerman & Wu (2008) Kinetics of Global Geochemical Cycles. In Kinetics of Water

  8. Sustainable Product Development Through a Life-Cycle Approach to Product and Service Creation (Keynote speech)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    . These two schools of environmental re-search practice are mirrored in the way in which industry approaches environmental problems. Since the definition in 1987 of Sustainable Development [2] efforts have been made to relate the goals and ideals of sustainabil-ity to the domain of product development, thus...... adding new dimensions, such as social and moral values, to the original agenda of environmental improvement. The redefinition of the role of the product developer, from environmentally conscious product de-veloper to sustainably aware product developer has led to new insights into the way in which...... products are developed and used ¿ and to where environmental effects occur in the lifetime of a product. The role of the product developer is thus more complex in relation to sustainability, as the focus for improvement of a product may not (and very often does not) lie in the physical artefactual...

  9. The glutamate-glutamine(GABA cycle: importance of late postnatal development and potential reciprocal interactions between biosynthesis and degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif eHertz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The gold standard for studies of glutamate-glutamine(GABA cycling and its connections to brain biosynthesis from glucose of glutamate and GABA and their subsequent metabolism are the elegant in vivo studies by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR, showing the large fluxes in the cycle. However, simpler experiments in intact brain tissue (e.g. immunohistochemistry, brain slices, cultured brain cells and mitochondria have also made important contributions to the understanding of details, mechanisms and functional consequences of glutamate/GABA biosynthesis and degradation. The purpose of this review is to attempt to integrate evidence from different sources regarding i the enzyme(s responsible for the initial conversion of -ketoglutarate to glutamate; ii the possibility that especially glutamate oxidation is essentially confined to astrocytes; and iii the ontogenetically very late onset and maturation of glutamine-glutamate(GABA cycle function. Pathway models based on the functional importance of aspartate for glutamate synthesis suggest the possibility of interacting pathways for biosynthesis and degradation of glutamate and GABA and the use of transamination as the default mechanism for initiation of glutamate oxidation. The late development and maturation are related to the late cortical gliogenesis and convert brain cortical function from being purely neuronal to becoming neuronal-astrocytic. This conversion is associated with huge increases in energy demand and production, and the character of potentially incurred gains of function are discussed. These may include alterations in learning mechanisms, in mice indicated by lack of pairing of odor learning with aversive stimuli in newborn animals but the development of such an association 10-12 days later. The possibility is suggested that analogous maturational changes may contribute to differences in the way learning is accomplished in the newborn human brain and during later development.

  10. Effect of asynchronous transfer on bovine embryonic development and relationship with early cycle uterine proteome profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgard, A M; Berg, M C; McMillan, W H; Smolenski, G; Peterson, A J

    2012-01-01

    The uterus provides the nurturing environment that supports the growth of the early preimplantation bovine conceptus. To determine critical time points of uterine influence, in vitro-produced Day 7 blastocysts were transferred into synchronous (Day 7) uteri and asynchronous uteri (Days 5 or 9). Embryo growth was evaluated 7 and 15 days after transfer and compared with that of embryos generated by AI. Conceptuses recovered from asynchronous Day 9 transfers were fourfold larger than synchronous transfer or gestational Day 14 AI conceptuses; by 15 days after transfer, differences were less marked. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to compare the histotroph protein composition of uterine luminal flushings (ULF) on Days 5 and 9 after oestrous to determine any protein differences that would promote embryo growth. The ULF were collected by serially flushing the uteri of the same heifers and mature cows at different times of the cycle. Ten proteins that differed in abundance between Day 5 and 9 were identified by mass spectrometry. Three, namely phosphoserine aminotransferase 1, purine nucleoside phosphorylase and aldose reductase, were verified by western blot analysis as more abundant on Day 9 (Pembryo growth-enhancing environment on Day 9 was associated with temporal changes in the expression of several proteins of the histotroph.

  11. Development of a financing model for nuclear fuel cycle cost evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Yajima, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary to evaluate the prices of nuclear fuel pre- and post-processing in order to analyse the costs of the nuclear power generation. Those prices are directly related to the costs of construction and operation of facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this report, we propose a model which evaluates financing of an undertaking that constructs and operates one of the facilities such as uranium enrichment, reprocessing or interim storage of spent fuels. The model is divided into two phases, the construction phase and the operation phase. In the construction phase, it calculates expenses during the facility construction and corresponding financings for each term. In the operation phase, the model refers to the results of the construction phase and performs calculations on profits and losses, cash-flow, and disposition to profits term by according to a certain operation schedule. Using this model, feasibility of the undertaking and effects of various pricing strategies on the nuclear fuel costs can be evaluated by simulations. (author)

  12. Stability and quench development study in small HTSC magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilyin, Y.; Vysotski, V.S.; Kiss, T.; Takeo, M.; Okamoto, H.; Irie, F.

    2001-01-01

    Stability and quench development in a HTSC magnet have been experimentally studied with the transport current in the magnet being below or above the “thermal quench current” level. The magnet was tested at both cryocooler cooling and liquid nitrogen cooling, with and without background magnetic

  13. A Metabolite-Sensitive, Thermodynamically Constrained Model of Cardiac Cross-Bridge Cycling: Implications for Force Development during Ischemia

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    We present a metabolically regulated model of cardiac active force generation with which we investigate the effects of ischemia on maximum force production. Our model, based on a model of cross-bridge kinetics that was developed by others, reproduces many of the observed effects of MgATP, MgADP, Pi, and H(+) on force development while retaining the force/length/Ca(2+) properties of the original model. We introduce three new parameters to account for the competitive binding of H(+) to the Ca(2+) binding site on troponin C and the binding of MgADP within the cross-bridge cycle. These parameters, along with the Pi and H(+) regulatory steps within the cross-bridge cycle, were constrained using data from the literature and validated using a range of metabolic and sinusoidal length perturbation protocols. The placement of the MgADP binding step between two strongly-bound and force-generating states leads to the emergence of an unexpected effect on the force-MgADP curve, where the trend of the relationship (positive or negative) depends on the concentrations of the other metabolites and [H(+)]. The model is used to investigate the sensitivity of maximum force production to changes in metabolite concentrations during the development of ischemia.

  14. The IAEA international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO):status, development of approaches and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshev, M.; Sokolov, Y.; Facer, I.

    2005-01-01

    During the last fifty years remarkable results have been achieved in the application of nuclear technology for the production of electricity. Looking ahead to the next fifty years it is clear that the demand for energy will grow considerably and also new requirements have to be fulfilled for the way nuclear energy will be supplied, UNCSD, WSSD, IPCC and others have emphasized the substantial growth in 21st century energy supplies needed to meet sustainable development (SD) goals. This will be driven by continuing population growth, economic development and aspiration to provide access to modern energy systems to be 1,6 billion people now without such access, the growth demand on limiting greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing the risk oaf climate change. A key factor to the future of nuclear power is the degree to which innovative nuclear technologies can be developed to meet challenges of economic competitiveness, safety,waste and proliferation concerns. There are two major international initiatives in the area of innovative nuclear technology: the IAEA's International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycle (INPRO) and the Generation IV International Forum. Following a resolution of the General Conference of the IAEA in the year 2000 an International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles, referred to as INPRO, was initiated (Authors)

  15. Research Needs and Challenges from Science to Decision Support. Lesson Learnt from the Development of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Recommendations for Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Serenella; Pant, Rana; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2012-01-01

    Environmental implications of the whole supply-chain of products, both goods and services, their use, and waste management, i.e., their entire life cycle from "cradle to grave" have to be considered to achieve more sustainable production and consumption patterns. Progress toward environmental...... sustainability requires enhancing the methodologies for quantitative, integrated environmental assessment and promoting the use of these methodologies in different domains. In the context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of products, in recent years, several methodologies have been developed for Life Cycle Impact...... development highlighting relevant issues emerged from this "from science to decision support" process in terms of research needs and challenges for LCIA. Comprehensiveness of the assessment, as well as acceptability and applicability of the scientific developments by the stakeholders, are key elements...

  16. Development, characterization and evaluation of materials for open cycle MHD. Quarterly report for the period ending June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.L.; Marchant, D.D.; Daniel, J.L.

    1978-10-01

    The objectives of this program are directed toward the development and characterization of high temperature ceramics for open-cycle, coal-fired MHD power generators. The current activities are directed to electrode and insulator materials, and include (1) determination of the effects of alkali seed on the behavior of ceramics in a dc electric field; (2) development and testing of improved high temperature ceramic electrodes and insulators with controlled composition, microstructure, and properties; and (3) characterization and evaluation of materials utilized in channels being tested for MHD power generator development. Research is reported on (1) evaluation of metal electrodes from 250 hour MHD test, (2) characterization and properties of USSR MgO insulating wall material, (3) thermal diffusivity/thermal conductivity of electrode and insulator materials, (4) coprecipitation of ceramic powders, (5) properties of yttria chromites, and (6) rare earth hafnates. (WHK)

  17. Enterprise SRS: Leveraging Ongoing Operations To Advance Nuclear Fuel Cycles Research And Development Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Alice M.; Marra, John E.; Wilmarth, William R.; Mcguire, Patrick W.; Wheeler, Vickie B.

    2013-07-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is repurposing its vast array of assets to solve future national issues regarding environmental stewardship, national security, and clean energy. The vehicle for this transformation is Enterprise SRS which presents a new, radical view of SRS as a united endeavor for ''all things nuclear'' as opposed to a group of distinct and separate entities with individual missions and organizations. Key among the Enterprise SRS strategic initiatives is the integration of research into facilities in conjunction with on-going missions to provide researchers from other national laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial entities the opportunity to demonstrate their technologies in a relevant environment and scale prior to deployment. To manage that integration of research demonstrations into site facilities, The Department of Energy, Savannah River Operations Office, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have established a center for applied nuclear materials processing and engineering research (hereafter referred to as the Center). The key proposition of this initiative is to bridge the gap between promising transformational nuclear fuel cycle processing discoveries and large commercial-scale-technology deployment by leveraging SRS assets as facilities for those critical engineering-scale demonstrations necessary to assure the successful deployment of new technologies. The Center will coordinate the demonstration of R&D technologies and serve as the interface between the engineering-scale demonstration and the R&D programs, essentially providing cradle-to-grave support to the research team during the demonstration. While the initial focus of the Center will be on the effective use of SRS assets for these demonstrations, the Center also will work with research teams to identify opportunities to perform research demonstrations at other facilities. Unique to this approach is the fact

  18. Development and Utilization of mathematical Optimization in Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul; Hays, Ross

    2011-09-02

    Over the past sixty years, a wide variety of nuclear power technologies have been theorized, investigated and tested to various degrees. These technologies, if properly applied, could provide a stable, long-term, economical source of CO2-free electric power. However, the recycling of nuclear fuel introduces a degree of coupling between reactor systems which must be accounted for when making long term strategic plans. This work investigates the use of a simulated annealing optimization algorithm coupled together with the VISION fuel cycle simulation model in order to identify attractive strategies from economic, evironmental, non-proliferation and waste-disposal perspectives, which each have associated an objective function. The simulated annealing optimization algorithm works by perturbing the fraction of new reactor capacity allocated to each available reactor type (using a set of heuristic rules) then evaluating the resulting deployment scenario outcomes using the VISION model and the chosen objective functions. These new scenarios, which are either accepted or rejected according the the Metropolis Criterion, are then used as the basis for further perturbations. By repeating this process several thousand times, a family of near-optimal solutions are obtained. Preliminary results from this work using a two-step, Once-through LWR to Full-recycle/FRburner deployment scenario with exponentially increasing electric demand indicate that the algorithm is capable of nding reactor deployment pro les that reduce the long-term-heat waste disposal burden relative to an initial reference scenario. Further work is under way to re ne the current results and to extend them to include the other objective functions and to examine the optimization trade-o s that exist between these di erent objectives.

  19. Current state of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering and trends in their development according to the environmental safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vislov, I. S.; Pischulin, V. P.; Kladiev, S. N.; Slobodyan, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    The state and trends in the development of nuclear fuel cycles in nuclear engineering, taking into account the ecological aspects of using nuclear power plants, are considered. An analysis of advantages and disadvantages of nuclear engineering, compared with thermal engineering based on organic fuel types, was carried out. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) reprocessing is an important task in the nuclear industry, since fuel unloaded from modern reactors of any type contains a large amount of radioactive elements that are harmful to the environment. On the other hand, the newly generated isotopes of uranium and plutonium should be reused to fabricate new nuclear fuel. The spent nuclear fuel also includes other types of fission products. Conditions for SNF handling are determined by ecological and economic factors. When choosing a certain handling method, one should assess these factors at all stages of its implementation. There are two main methods of SNF handling: open nuclear fuel cycle, with spent nuclear fuel assemblies (NFAs) that are held in storage facilities with their consequent disposal, and closed nuclear fuel cycle, with separation of uranium and plutonium, their purification from fission products, and use for producing new fuel batches. The development of effective closed fuel cycles using mixed uranium-plutonium fuel can provide a successful development of the nuclear industry only under the conditions of implementation of novel effective technological treatment processes that meet strict requirements of environmental safety and reliability of process equipment being applied. The diversity of technological processes is determined by different types of NFA devices and construction materials being used, as well as by the composition that depends on nuclear fuel components and operational conditions for assemblies in the nuclear power reactor. This work provides an overview of technological processes of SNF treatment and methods of handling of nuclear fuel

  20. Evaluation of resistance development and viability recovery by a non-enveloped virus after repeated cycles of aPDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Liliana; Tomé, João P C; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Faustino, Maria A F; Cunha, Ângela; Gomes, Newton C M; Almeida, Adelaide

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays, the emergence of drug resistant microorganisms is a public health concern. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has an efficient action against a wide range of microorganisms and can be viewed as an alternative approach for treating microbial infections. The aim of this study was to determine if a model target virus (T4-like bacteriophage), in the presence of the tricationic porphyrin 5,10,15-tris(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)-20-(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin tri-iodide (Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF), can develop resistance to aPDT and recover its viability after photodynamic treatments. To assess the development of aPDT resistance after repeated treatments, a suspension of T4-like bacteriophage was irradiated with white light (40 Wm(-2)) for 120 min in the presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF (99.99% of inactivation) and new phage suspensions were produced from the surviving phages, after each cycle of light exposure. The procedure was repeated ten times. To evaluate the recovery of viral viability after photoinactivation, a suspension of T4-like bacteriophage was irradiated with white light for 120 min in the presence of 5.0 μM of Tri-Py(+)-Me-PF on five consecutive days. In each day, an aliquot of the irradiated suspension was plated and the number of lysis plaques was counted after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h of dark incubation at 37 °C. The profile of bacteriophage photoinactivation did not change after ten consecutive cycles and no recovery of viability was detected after five accumulated cycles of photodynamic treatment. The results suggest that aPDT represents a valuable and promising alternative therapy to treat viral infections, overcoming the problem of microbial resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.