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Sample records for cyclase-activating polypeptide pacap

  1. Distribution and protective function of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in the retina

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    Tomoya eNakamachi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, which is found in 27- or 38-amino acid forms, belongs to the VIP/glucagon/secretin family. PACAP and its three receptor subtypes are expressed in neural tissues, with PACAP known to exert a protective effect against several types of neural damage. The retina is considered to be part of the central nervous system, and retinopathy is a common cause of profound and intractable loss of vision. This review will examine the expression and morphological distribution of PACAP and its receptors in the retina, and will summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the protective effect of PACAP against different kinds of retinal damage, such as that identified in association with diabetes, ultraviolet light, hypoxia, optic nerve transection, and toxins. This article will also address PACAP-mediated protective pathways involving retinal glial cells.

  2. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) knockout mice

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    Hattori, Satoko; Takao, Keizo; Tanda, Koichi; Toyama, Keiko; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO) mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J × 129SvEv) for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage (HC) activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction (SI) in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased SI in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on SI in a HC. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze (RM) and the T-maze (TM), while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the TM. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially, working memory. PMID:23060763

  3. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko eHattori

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1. Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC1 genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J x 129SvEv for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased social interaction in Crawley’s three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on social interaction in a home cage. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze and the T-maze, while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the T-maze. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially

  4. The origin and function of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/glucagon superfamily.

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    Sherwood, N M; Krueckl, S L; McRory, J E

    2000-12-01

    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/ glucagon superfamily includes nine hormones in humans that are related by structure, distribution (especially the brain and gut), function (often by activation of cAMP), and receptors (a subset of seven-transmembrane receptors). The nine hormones include glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), GLP-2, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), GH-releasing hormone (GRF), peptide histidine-methionine (PHM), PACAP, secretin, and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). The origin of the ancestral superfamily members is at least as old as the invertebrates; the most ancient and tightly conserved members are PACAP and glucagon. Evidence to date suggests the superfamily began with a gene or exon duplication and then continued to diverge with some gene duplications in vertebrates. The function of PACAP is considered in detail because it is newly (1989) discovered; it is tightly conserved (96% over 700 million years); and it is probably the ancestral molecule. The diverse functions of PACAP include regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in some cell populations. In addition, PACAP regulates metabolism and the cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune systems, although the physiological event(s) that coordinates PACAP responses remains to be identified.

  5. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), stress, and sex hormones.

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    King, S Bradley; Toufexis, Donna J; Hammack, Sayamwong E

    2017-09-01

    Stressor exposure is associated with the onset and severity of many psychopathologies that are more common in women than men. Moreover, the maladaptive expression and function of stress-related hormones have been implicated in these disorders. Evidence suggests that PACAP has a critical role in the stress circuits mediating stress-responding, and PACAP may interact with sex hormones to contribute to sex differences in stress-related disease. In this review, we describe the role of the PACAP/PAC1 system in stress biology, focusing on the role of stress-induced alterations in PACAP expression and signaling in the development of stress-induced behavioral change. Additionally, we present more recent data suggesting potential interactions between stress, PACAP, and circulating estradiol in pathological states, including PTSD. These studies suggest that the level of stress and circulating gonadal hormones may differentially regulate the PACAPergic system in males and females to influence anxiety-like behavior and may be one mechanism underlying the discrepancies in human psychiatric disorders.

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP in zebrafish models of nephrotic syndrome.

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    Benedicte Eneman

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is an inhibitor of megakaryopoiesis and platelet function. Recently, PACAP deficiency was observed in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS, associated with increased platelet count and aggregability and increased risk of thrombosis. To further study PACAP deficiency in NS, we used transgenic Tg(cd41:EGFP zebrafish with GFP-labeled thrombocytes. We generated two models for congenital NS, a morpholino injected model targeting nphs1 (nephrin, which is mutated in the Finnish-type congenital NS. The second model was induced by exposure to the nephrotoxic compound adriamycin. Nephrin RNA expression was quantified and zebrafish embryos were live-screened for proteinuria and pericardial edema as evidence of renal impairment. Protein levels of PACAP and its binding-protein ceruloplasmin were measured and GFP-labeled thrombocytes were quantified. We also evaluated the effects of PACAP morpholino injection and the rescue effects of PACAP-38 peptide in both congenital NS models. Nephrin downregulation and pericardial edema were observed in both nephrin morpholino injected and adriamycin exposed congenital NS models. However, PACAP deficiency was demonstrated only in the adriamycin exposed condition. Ceruloplasmin levels and the number of GFP-labeled thrombocytes remained unchanged in both models. PACAP morpholino injections worsened survival rates and the edema phenotype in both congenital NS models while injection with human PACAP-38 could only rescue the adriamycin exposed model. We hereby report, for the first time, PACAP deficiency in a NS zebrafish model as a consequence of adriamycin exposure. However, distinct from the human congenital NS, both zebrafish models retained normal levels of ceruloplasmin and thrombocytes. We further extend the renoprotective effects of the PACAP-38 peptide against adriamycin toxicity in zebrafish.

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP signalling exerts chondrogenesis promoting and protecting effects: implication of calcineurin as a downstream target.

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    Tamás Juhász

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is an important neurotrophic factor influencing differentiation of neuronal elements and exerting protecting role during traumatic injuries or inflammatory processes of the central nervous system. Although increasing evidence is available on its presence and protecting function in various peripheral tissues, little is known about the role of PACAP in formation of skeletal components. To this end, we aimed to map elements of PACAP signalling in developing cartilage under physiological conditions and during oxidative stress. mRNAs of PACAP and its receptors (PAC1,VPAC1, VPAC2 were detectable during differentiation of chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Expression of PAC1 protein showed a peak on days of final commitment of chondrogenic cells. Administration of either the PAC1 receptor agonist PACAP 1-38, or PACAP 6-38 that is generally used as a PAC1 antagonist, augmented cartilage formation, stimulated cell proliferation and enhanced PAC1 and Sox9 protein expression. Both variants of PACAP elevated the protein expression and activity of the Ca-calmodulin dependent Ser/Thr protein phosphatase calcineurin. Application of PACAPs failed to rescue cartilage formation when the activity of calcineurin was pharmacologically inhibited with cyclosporine A. Moreover, exogenous PACAPs prevented diminishing of cartilage formation and decrease of calcineurin activity during oxidative stress. As an unexpected phenomenon, PACAP 6-38 elicited similar effects to those of PACAP 1-38, although to a different extent. On the basis of the above results, we propose calcineurin as a downstream target of PACAP signalling in differentiating chondrocytes either in normal or pathophysiological conditions. Our observations imply the therapeutical perspective that PACAP can be applied as a natural agent that may have protecting effect during joint inflammation and/or may promote

  8. The biological role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in growth and feeding behavior in juvenile fish.

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    Lugo, Juana Maria; Oliva, Aymé; Morales, Antonio; Reyes, Osvaldo; Garay, Hilda Elisa; Herrera, Fidel; Cabrales, Ania; Pérez, Ever; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2010-11-01

    To date, many technologies have been developed to increase efficiency in aquaculture, but very few successful biotechnology molecules have arrived on the market. In this context, marine biotechnology has an opportunity to develop products to improve the output of fish in aquaculture. Published in vivo studies on the action of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in fish are scarce. Recently, our group, for the first time, demonstrated the biological role of this neuropeptide administrated by immersion baths in the growth and development of larval fish. In this work, we have evaluated the effects of recombinant Clarias gariepinus PACAP administration by intraperitoneal injection on growth performance and feeding behavior in juvenile fish. Our results showed the physiological role of this peptide for growth control in fish, including the juvenile stage, and confirm that its biological functions are well conserved in fish, since C. gariepinus PACAP stimulated growth in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In addition, we have observed that the growth-promoting effect of PACAP in juvenile tilapia was correlated with higher GH concentration in serum. With regard to the neuroendocrine regulation of growth control by PACAP, it was demonstrated that PACAP stimulates food intake in juvenile tilapia. In general, PACAP appears to act in the regulation of the growth control in juvenile fish. These findings propose that PACAP is a prominent target with the potential to stimulate fish growth in aquaculture. Copyright © 2010 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) alters parasympathetic neuron gene expression in a time-dependent fashion.

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    Sumner, Adriane D; Margiotta, Joseph F

    2008-11-01

    Neuropeptides, including pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), can influence diverse cellular processes over a broad temporal range. In ciliary ganglion (CG) neurons, for example, PACAP binding to high-affinity PAC1 receptors triggers transduction cascades that both rapidly modulate nicotinic receptors and synapses and support long-term survival. Since PACAP/PAC1 signaling recruits intracellular messengers and effectors that potently alter transcription, we examined its activation of the transcription factor CREB and then tested for changes in gene expression. PACAP/PAC1 signaling rapidly induced prolonged CREB activation in CG neurons by a phospholipase C -independent mechanism supported by Ca2+-influx, adenylate cyclase, and effectors, including protein kinase C (PKC) and possibly PKA. Since PACAP is abundant in the CG and released from depolarized presynaptic terminals, it is well suited to regulate gene expression relevant to neuronal and synaptic development. Gene array screens conducted using RNA from CG cultures grown with PACAP for 1/4, 24, or 96 h revealed a time-dependent pattern of > 600 regulated transcripts, including several encoding proteins implicated in synaptic function, neuronal survival, and development. The results underscore rapid, neuromodulatory, and long-term, neurotrophic consequences of PAC1 signaling in CG neurons and suggest that PACAP exerts such diverse influences by altering the expression of specific gene transcripts in a time-dependent fashion.

  10. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) contributes to the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in murine bone marrow via PACAP-specific receptor.

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    Xu, Zhifang; Ohtaki, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Jun; Miyamoto, Kazuyuki; Murai, Norimitsu; Sasaki, Shun; Matsumoto, Minako; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Hiraizumi, Yutaka; Numazawa, Satoshi; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-02-29

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, encoded by adcyap1) plays an important role in ectodermal development. However, the involvement of PACAP in the development of other germ layers is still unclear. This study assessed the expression of a PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1) gene and protein in mouse bone marrow (BM). Cells strongly expressing PAC1(+) were large in size, had oval nuclei, and merged with CD34(+) cells, suggesting that the former were hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Compared with wild-type mice, adcyap1(-/-) mice exhibited lower multiple potential progenitor cell populations and cell frequency in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Exogenous PACAP38 significantly increased the numbers of colony forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) with two peaks in semi-solid culture. PACAP also increased the expression of cyclinD1 and Ki67 mRNAs. These increases were completely and partially inhibited by the PACAP receptor antagonists, PACAP6-38 and VIP6-28, respectively. Little or no adcyap1 was expressed in BM and the number of CFU-GM colonies was similar in adcyap1(-/-) and wild-type mice. However, PACAP mRNA and protein were expressed in paravertebral sympathetic ganglia, which innervate tibial BM, and in the sympathetic fibers of BM cavity. These results suggested that sympathetic nerve innervation may be responsible for PACAP-regulated hematopoiesis in BM, mainly via PAC1.

  11. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

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    Tamás Juhász

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.

  12. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Controls Stimulus-Transcription Coupling in the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis to Mediate Sustained Hormone Secretion During Stress

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    Stroth, Nikolas; Liu, Ying; Aguilera, Greti; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    External and internal stimuli that threaten homeostasis trigger coordinated stress responses through activation of specialised neuroendocrine circuits. In mammals, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis mediates responses to stressors such as restraint, ultimately enhancing adrenocortical hormone secretion. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been implicated in central control of the HPA axis, and we have recently shown PACAP-dependent expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and secretion of corticosterone in response to restraint. We now provide a more detailed analysis of PACAP-dependent HPA axis stimulation in the mouse, indicating that the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is the primary site of action. We demonstrate by quantitative PCR and in situ hybridisation that upregulation of mRNAs encoding CRH and inducible transcription factors from the Nr4a family (Nur77, Nor1) in the PVN is PACAP-dependent. Furthermore, CRH hnRNA is rapidly upregulated in cultured hypothalamic neurones after treatment with PACAP. Induction of Nr4a factors (Nur77, Nurr1) in response to restraint is attenuated in the pituitary gland of PACAP-deficient mice. In the adrenal glands, restraint elicits a marked PACAP-dependent increase in adrenocortical mRNA levels of all three Nr4a transcription factors, SF-1 (steroidogenic factor 1; Nr5a1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and steroid 21-hydroxylase. Taken together, our results show that PACAP controls HPA responses to restraint primarily at the level of the hypothalamus by upregulating CRH, possibly involving transcription factors such as Nur77 and Nor1. Subsequent adrenocortical steroidogenesis also appears to involve PACAP-dependent stimulus-transcription coupling, suggesting a mechanism by which PACAP exerts control over HPA axis function during stress. PMID:21824204

  13. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide enhances saliva secretion via direct binding to PACAP receptors of major salivary glands in mice.

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    Matoba, Yuko; Nonaka, Naoko; Takagi, Yoshitoki; Imamura, Eisaku; Narukawa, Masayuki; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shioda, Seiji; Banks, William A; Nakamura, Masanori

    2016-09-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is a common syndrome that is generally treated with artificial saliva; however, no other effective methods have yet been established. Saliva secretion is mainly under the control of the autonomic nervous system. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is recognized as a multifunctional neuropeptide in various organs. In this study, we examined the effect of PACAP on saliva secretion, and detected the distribution of the PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R) in major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands, in 9-week-old male C57BL/6 mice. Intranasal administration of PACAP 38 increased the amount of saliva secreted, which was not inhibited by atropine pretreatment. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PAC1R was distributed in the three major salivary glands. In the parotid and sublingual glands, PAC1R was detected in striated duct cells, whereas in the submandibular gland, a strong PAC1R immunoreaction was detected in tall columnar epithelial cells in the granular ducts (i.e., pillar cells), as well as in some striated duct cells. PACAP significantly increased the concentration of epidermal growth factor in saliva. These results suggest that PACAP directly regulates saliva secretion by controlling the absorption activity in the ducts, and that pillar cells regulate the function of granular epithelial cells in the granular duct, such as the secretion of growth factors into the saliva. Collectively, these results suggest the possibility of PACAP as a new effective treatment of xerostomia. Anat Rec, 299:1293-1299, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the circulation after sumatriptan

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    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Petersen, Jesper Troensegaard

    2013-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain is still elusive, but increasingly researchers focus on the neuropeptides in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. The parasympathetic neurotransmitters, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating pep...

  15. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Targets Down Syndrome Candidate Region 1 (DSCR1/RCAN1) to control Neuronal Differentiation*

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    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Seul; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic peptide involved in a wide range of nervous functions, including development, differentiation, and survival, and various aspects of learning and memory. Here we report that PACAP induces the expression of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1), which is abnormally expressed in the brains of Down syndrome patients. Increased RCAN1 expression is accompanied by activation of the PKA-cAMP response element-binding protein pathways. EMSA and ChIP analyses demonstrate the presence of a functional cAMP response element in the RCAN1 promoter. Moreover, we show that PACAP-dependent neuronal differentiation is significantly disturbed by improper RCAN1 expression. Our data provide the first evidence of RCAN1, a Down syndrome-related gene, as a novel target for control of the neurotrophic function of PACAP. PMID:26157140

  16. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Targets Down Syndrome Candidate Region 1 (DSCR1/RCAN1) to control Neuronal Differentiation.

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    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Seul; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-08-21

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a neurotrophic peptide involved in a wide range of nervous functions, including development, differentiation, and survival, and various aspects of learning and memory. Here we report that PACAP induces the expression of regulator of calcineurin 1 (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1), which is abnormally expressed in the brains of Down syndrome patients. Increased RCAN1 expression is accompanied by activation of the PKA-cAMP response element-binding protein pathways. EMSA and ChIP analyses demonstrate the presence of a functional cAMP response element in the RCAN1 promoter. Moreover, we show that PACAP-dependent neuronal differentiation is significantly disturbed by improper RCAN1 expression. Our data provide the first evidence of RCAN1, a Down syndrome-related gene, as a novel target for control of the neurotrophic function of PACAP. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and migraine

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    Zagami, Alessandro S; Edvinsson, Lars; Goadsby, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP) is found in human trigeminocervical complex and can trigger migraine. PACAP levels were measured using a sensitive radioimmunoassay. Stimulation of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) in cat elevated PACAP levels in cranial blood. Patients...... with moderate or severe migraine headache had elevated PACAP in the external jugular vein during headache (n = 15), that was reduced 1 h after treatment with sumatriptan 6 mg (n = 11), and further reduced interictally (n = 9). The data suggest PACAP, or its receptors, are a promising target for migraine...

  18. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion.

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    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H; Matsumoto, M; Murai, N; Nakamachi, T; Hannibal, J; Fahrenkrug, J; Hashimoto, H; Watanabe, H; Sueki, H; Honda, K; Miyazaki, A; Shioda, S

    2017-02-01

    Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is required. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exhibits pleiotropic functions that are mediated via its receptors [PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1R), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor type 1 (VPAC1R) and VPAC2R]. Although some studies have suggested a role for PACAP in the skin and several exocrine glands, the effects of PACAP on the process of eccrine sweat secretion have not been examined. To investigate the effect of PACAP on eccrine sweat secretion. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining were used to determine the expression and localization of PACAP and its receptors in mouse and human eccrine sweat glands. We injected PACAP subcutaneously into the footpads of mice and used the starch-iodine test to visualize sweat-secreting glands. Immunostaining showed PACAP and PAC1R expression by secretory cells from mouse and human sweat glands. PACAP immunoreactivity was also localized in nerve fibres around eccrine sweat glands. PACAP significantly promoted sweat secretion at the injection site, and this could be blocked by the PAC1R-antagonist PACAP6-38. VIP, an agonist of VPAC1R and VPAC2R, failed to induce sweat secretion. This is the first report demonstrating that PACAP may play a crucial role in sweat secretion via its action on PAC1R located in eccrine sweat glands. The mechanisms underlying the role of PACAP in sweat secretion may provide new therapeutic options to combat sweating disorders. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  19. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide induces vascular relaxation and inhibits non-vascular smooth muscle activity in the rabbit female genital tract

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    Steenstrup, B R; Ottesen, B; Jørgensen, M

    1994-01-01

    In vitro effects of two bioactive forms of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP): PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were studied on rabbit vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle. Segments of the ovarian artery and muscle strips from the fallopian tube were used. Two series of experiments...... with PACAP-38 (10(-7) M), PACAP-27 (10(-7) M) or VIP (10(-7) M). The effect of PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and VIP (10(-10)-10(-6) M) was investigated on spontaneously contracting smooth muscle of the fallopian tube. Longitudinally as well as transversally cut specimens were investigated. PACAP-38 produced...... a significant dose-related relaxation on the NA-precontracted vessels. However, pre-incubation of the vessels with 10(-7) M PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and vaso active intestinal polypeptide (VIP) did not induce a general rightward shift of the NA concentration-response curves, although a tendency to inhibition...

  20. Neurally released pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide enhances guinea pig intrinsic cardiac neurone excitability.

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    Tompkins, John D; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Hoover, Donald B; Parsons, Rodney L

    2007-07-01

    Intracellular recordings were made in vitro from guinea-pig cardiac ganglia to determine whether endogenous neuropeptides such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) or substance P released during tetanic neural stimulation modulate cardiac neurone excitability and/or contribute to slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (sEPSPs). When nicotinic and muscarinic receptors were blocked by hexamethonium and atropine, 20 Hz stimulation for 10 s initiated a sEPSP in all innervated neurones. In 40% of the cells, excitability was enhanced after termination of the sEPSP. This suggested that non-cholinergic receptor-mediated mechanisms contributed to the sEPSP and modulated neuronal excitability. Exogenous PACAP and substance P initiated a slow depolarization in the neurones whereas neuronal excitability was only increased by PACAP. When ganglia were treated with the PAC1 antagonist PACAP6-38 (500 nM), the sEPSP evoked by 20 Hz stimulation was reduced by approximately 50% and an enhanced excitability occurred in only 10% of the cells. These observations suggested that PACAP released from preganglionic nerve terminals during tetanic stimulation enhanced neuronal excitability and evoked sEPSPs. After addition of 1 nM PACAP to the bath, 7 of 9 neurones exhibited a tonic firing pattern whereas in untreated preparations, the neurons had a phasic firing pattern. PACAP6-38 (500 nM) diminished the increase in excitability caused by 1 nM PACAP so that only 4 of 13 neurones exhibited a tonic firing pattern and the other 9 cells retained a phasic firing pattern. These findings indicate that PACAP can be released by tetanic neural stimulation in vitro and increase the excitability of intrinsic cardiac neurones. We hypothesize that in vivo PACAP released during preganglionic firing may modulate neurotransmission within the intrinsic cardiac ganglia.

  1. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating.

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    Hurley, Matthew M; Maunze, Brian; Block, Megan E; Frenkel, Mogen M; Reilly, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Chen, Yao; Li, Yan; Baker, David A; Liu, Qing-Song; Choi, SuJean

    2016-01-01

    While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger) and hedonic-related (palatability) drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding); surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding). In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive.

  2. Cloning, tissue distribution and effects of fasting on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in largemouth bass

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    Li, Shengjie; Han, Linqiang; Bai, Junjie; Ma, Dongmei; Quan, Yingchun; Fan, Jiajia; Jiang, Peng; Yu, Lingyun

    2015-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a wide range of biological functions. We cloned the full-length cDNAs encoding PACAP and PACAP-related peptide (PRP) from the brain of largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides) and used real-time quantitative PCR to detect PRP-PACAP mRNA expression. The PRP-PACAP cDNA has two variants expressed via alternative splicing: a long form, which encodes both PRP and PACAP, and a short form, which encodes only PACAP. Sequence analysis results are consistent with a higher conservation of PACAP than PRP peptide sequences. The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts was highest in the forebrain, followed by the medulla, midbrain, pituitary, stomach, cerebellum, intestine, and kidney; however, these transcripts were either absent or were weakly expressed in the muscle, spleen, gill, heart, fatty tissue, and liver. The level of PACAP-short transcript expression was significantly higher than expression of the long transcript in the forebrain, cerebella, pituitary and intestine, but lower than that of the long transcript in the stomach. PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts were first detected at the blastula stage of embryogenesis, and the level of expression increased markedly between the muscular contraction stage and 3 d post hatch (dph). The expression of PACAP-long and PACAP-short transcripts decreased significantly in the brain following 4 d fasting compared with the control diet group. The down-regulation effect was enhanced as fasting continued. Conversely, expression levels increased significantly after 3 d of re-feeding. Our results suggest that PRP-PACAP acts as an important factor in appetite regulation in largemouth bass.

  3. Part II: Biochemical changes after pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 infusion in migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Hansen, Young Bae Lee; Frandsen, Erik; Andersen, Malene Rohr; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-02-01

    Background Intravenous infusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) provokes migraine attacks in 65-70% of migraine without aura (MO) patients. We investigated whether PACAP38 infusion causes changes in the endogenous production of PACAP38, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), neuron-specific enolase and pituitary hormones in migraine patients. Methods We allocated 32 previously genotyped MO patients to receive intravenous infusion PACAP38 (10 pmol/kg/minute) for 20 minutes and recorded migraine-like attacks. Sixteen of the patients were carriers of the risk allele rs2274316 ( MEF2D), which confers increased risk of MO and may regulate PACAP38 expression, and 16 were non-carriers. We collected blood samples at baseline and 20, 30, 40, 60 and 90 minutes after the start of the infusion. A control group of six healthy volunteers received intravenous saline. Results PACAP38 infusion caused significant changes in plasma concentrations of VIP ( p = 0.026), prolactin ( p = 0.011), S100B ( p migraine-like attacks compared to those who did not ( p > 0.05). There was no difference in the changes of biochemical variables between patients with and without the MEF2D-associated gene variant ( p > 0.05). Conclusion PACAP38 infusion elevated the plasma levels of VIP, prolactin, S100B and TSH, but not CGRP and TNFα. Development of delayed migraine-like attacks or the presence of the MEF2D gene variant was not associated with pre-ictal changes in plasma levels of neuropeptides, TNFα and pituitary hormones.

  4. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Reverses Ammonium Metavanadate-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Rats

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    Mounira Tlili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of atmospheric vanadium is constantly increasing due to fossil fuel combustion. This environmental pollution favours vanadium exposure in particular to its vanadate form, causing occupational bronchial asthma and bronchitis. Based on the well admitted bronchodilator properties of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, we investigated the ability of this neuropeptide to reverse the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in rats. Exposure to ammonium metavanadate aerosols (5 mg/m3/h for 15 minutes induced 4 hours later an array of pathophysiological events, including increase of bronchial resistance and histological alterations, activation of proinflammatory alveolar macrophages, and increased oxidative stress status. Powerfully, PACAP inhalation (0.1 mM for 10 minutes alleviated many of these deleterious effects as demonstrated by a decrease of bronchial resistance and histological restoration. PACAP reduced the level of expression of mRNA encoding inflammatory chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-2, and KC and cytokines (IL-1α and TNF-α in alveolar macrophages and improved the antioxidant status. PACAP reverses the vanadate-induced airway hyperresponsiveness not only through its bronchodilator activity but also by counteracting the proinflammatory and prooxidative effects of the metal. Then, the development of stable analogs of PACAP could represent a promising therapeutic alternative for the treatment of inflammatory respiratory disorders.

  5. Effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 on growth hormone and prolactin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkeniers, B; Zheng, L; Kazemzadeh, M; Robberecht, P; Vanhaelst, L; Hooghe-Peters, E L

    1994-10-01

    Time- and dose-dependent effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) on prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) release were examined in static and dynamic rat pituitary cell incubations and on different pituitary cell (sub)populations separated according to their density on a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry allowed us to examine in parallel the effects of PACAP on PRL and GH gene expression. PACAP did not alter GH or PRL secretion in a dynamic superfusion system, in any cell population tested. Static incubations (30 min, 2-36 h) with PACAP 38 resulted in a significant increase in GH release and stimulated GH synthesis, as measured by the cytoplasmic accumulation of GH mRNA in the somatotrophs. These effects on synthesis and release were also observed after the enrichment of GH cells on Percoll gradients. PRL release was not altered by longer periods of incubation. Although no significant changes were observed in PRL secretion after 38 h, accumulation of cytoplasmic PRL mRNA was significantly stimulated in total pituitary cell suspension. After fractioning lactotrophs on Percoll gradients, the stimulatory effect of PACAP on PRL synthesis was lost. These results suggest that PACAP stimulates GH release and synthesis, and that it may act as a physiological regulator of this cell type. The PRL cell is not the most likely target cell type for PACAP. Effects observed on PRL synthesis in the total cell population may involve paracrine action of other hormone- or non-hormone-secreting cell types.

  6. Pituitary Adenylate-Cyclase Activating Polypeptide Regulates Hunger- and Palatability-Induced Binge Eating

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    Matthew M. Hurley

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available While pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP signaling in the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN has been shown to regulate feeding, a challenge in unmasking a role for this peptide in obesity is that excess feeding can involve numerous mechanisms including homeostatic (hunger and hedonic-related (palatability drives. In these studies, we first isolated distinct feeding drives by developing a novel model of binge behavior in which homeostatic-driven feeding was temporally separated from feeding driven by food palatability. We found that stimulation of the VMN, achieved by local microinjections of AMPA, decreased standard chow consumption in food-restricted rats (e.g., homeostatic feeding; surprisingly, this manipulation failed to alter palatable food consumption in satiated rats (e.g., hedonic feeding. In contrast, inhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc, through local microinjections of GABA receptor agonists baclofen and muscimol, decreased hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. PACAP microinjections produced the site-specific changes in synaptic transmission needed to decrease feeding via VMN or NAc circuitry. PACAP into the NAc mimicked the actions of GABA agonists by reducing hedonic feeding without altering homeostatic feeding. In contrast, PACAP into the VMN mimicked the actions of AMPA by decreasing homeostatic feeding without affecting hedonic feeding. Slice electrophysiology recordings verified PACAP excitation of VMN neurons and inhibition of NAc neurons. These data suggest that the VMN and NAc regulate distinct circuits giving rise to unique feeding drives, but that both can be regulated by the neuropeptide PACAP to potentially curb excessive eating stemming from either drive.

  7. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP participates in adipogenesis by activating ERK signaling pathway.

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    Tatjana Arsenijevic

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP belongs to the secretin/glucagon/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP family. Its action can be mediated by three different receptor subtypes: PAC1, which has exclusive affinity for PACAP, and VPAC1 and VPAC2 which have equal affinity for PACAP and VIP. We showed that all three receptors are expressed in 3T3-L1 cells throughout their differentiation into adipocytes. We established the activity of these receptors by cAMP accumulation upon induction by PACAP. Together with insulin and dexamethasone, PACAP induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cell line. PACAP increased cAMP production within 15 min upon stimulation and targeted the expression and phosphorylation of MAPK (ERK1/2, strengthened by the ERK1/2 phosphorylation being partially or completely abolished by different combinations of PACAP receptors antagonists. We therefore speculate that ERK1/2 activation is crucial for the activation of CCAAT/enhancer- binding protein β (C/EBPβ.

  8. Changes in the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the human placenta during pregnancy and its effects on the survival of JAR choriocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubel, R; Boronkai, A; Reglodi, D; Racz, B; Nemeth, J; Kiss, P; Lubics, A; Toth, G; Horvath, G; Varga, T; Szogyi, D; Fonagy, E; Farkas, J; Barakonyi, A; Bellyei, Sz; Szereday, L; Koppan, M; Tamas, A

    2010-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a neuropeptide with survival-promoting actions, has been observed in endocrine organs and is thought to play a role in reproductive functions, including pregnancy. PACAP occurs in two forms, 27 and 38 amino acid residues, with PACAP38 being the predominant form in human tissues. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of PACAP38 and PACAP27 in first-trimester and full-term human placentas using radioimmunoassay. We found high levels of PACAP38 and lower levels of PACAP27 in different parts of the full-term human placenta. PACAP38 content increased in the placenta during pregnancy, both on the maternal side and on the fetal side. The effects of PACAP on the survival of JAR human choriocarcinoma cells were investigated using flow cytometry and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) cell viability assay in cells exposed to the widely used chemotherapeutic agent methotrexate (MTX). It was found that PACAP neither influenced the survival of JAR cytotrophoblast cells nor affected cellular response to the death-inducing effect of the chemotherapeutic agent MTX. The present observations further support the significance of PACAP in the human placenta. The observation that PACAP did not influence the effects of MTX may have future clinical importance, showing that PACAP does not decrease the effects of certain chemotherapeutic agents.

  9. The effects of isatin (indole-2, 3-dione on pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-induced hyperthermia in rats

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    Tóth Gábor

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated that centrally administered natriuretic peptides and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38 have hyperthermic properties. Isatin (indole-2, 3-dione is an endogenous indole that has previously been found to inhibit hyperthermic effects of natriuretic peptides. In this study the aim was to investigate the effects of isatin on thermoregulatory actions of PACAP-38, in rats. Results One μg intracerebroventricular (icv. injection of PACAP-38 had hyperthermic effect in male, Wistar rats, with an onset of the effect at 2 h and a decline by the 6th h after administration. Intraperitoneal (ip. injection of different doses of isatin (25-50 mg/kg significantly decreased the hyperthermic effect of 1 μg PACAP-38 (icv., whereas 12.5 mg/kg isatin (ip. had no inhibiting effect. Isatin alone did not modify the body temperature of the animals. Conclusion The mechanisms that participate in the mediation of the PACAP-38-induced hyperthermia may be modified by isatin. The capability of isatin to antagonize the hyperthermia induced by all members of the natriuretic peptide family and by PACAP-38 makes it unlikely to be acting directly on receptors for natriuretic peptides or on those for PACAP in these hyperthermic processes.

  10. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide Disrupts Motivation, Social Interaction, and Attention in Male Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Rachel J; Venkataraman, Archana; Carroll, F Ivy; Meloni, Edward G; Carlezon, William A

    2016-12-15

    Severe or prolonged stress can trigger psychiatric illnesses including mood and anxiety disorders. Recent work indicates that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) plays an important role in regulating stress effects. In rodents, exogenous PACAP administration can produce persistent elevations in the acoustic startle response, which may reflect anxiety-like signs including hypervigilance. We investigated whether PACAP causes acute or persistent alterations in behaviors that reflect other core features of mood and anxiety disorders (motivation, social interaction, and attention). Using male Sprague Dawley rats, we examined if PACAP (.25-1.0 µg, intracerebroventricular infusion) affects motivation as measured in the intracranial self-stimulation test. We also examined if PACAP alters interactions with a conspecific in the social interaction test. Finally, we examined if PACAP affects performance in the 5-choice serial reaction time task, which quantifies attention and error processing. Dose-dependent disruptions in motivation, social interaction, and attention were produced by PACAP, as reflected by increases in reward thresholds, decreases in social behaviors, and decreases in correct responses and alterations in posterror accuracy. Behavior normalized quickly in the intracranial self-stimulation and 5-choice serial reaction time task tests but remained dysregulated in the social interaction test. Effects on attention were attenuated by the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor-1 antagonist antalarmin but not the κ opioid receptor antagonist JDTic. Our findings suggest that PACAP affects numerous domains often dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders, but that individual signs depend on brain substrates that are at least partially independent. This work may help to devise therapeutics that mitigate specific signs of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intracerebroventricular injection of vasoactive intestinal peptide and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide inhibits feeding in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Tetsuya; Saito, Shin; Tomonaga, Shozo; Takagi, Tomo; Saito, Ei-Suke; Boswell, Tim; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2003-03-27

    Previous research has indicated an involvement of glucagon superfamily peptides in the regulation of feeding in the domestic chick brain. However the possible roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP) have not yet been investigated. We therefore examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of VIP or PACAP on food intake in chicks. ICV injection of both VIP and PACAP significantly inhibited food intake over 4 h at doses ranging from 12 to 188 pmol. Subsequently, we compared the anorexic effect the glucagon superfamily peptides VIP, PACAP, growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) after ICV injection at an equimolar dose (12 pmol). All four peptides significantly inhibited food intake, although the anorexic effects of VIP and PACAP were weaker than those of GRF and GLP-1. These findings support the hypothesis that glucagon superfamily peptides play an important role in the regulation of appetite in the chick brain.

  12. Pituitary Adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide orchestrates neuronal regulation of the astrocytic glutamate-releasing mechanism system xc (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Linghai; Albano, Rebecca; Madayag, Aric; Raddatz, Nicholas; Mantsch, John R; Choi, SuJean; Lobner, Doug; Baker, David A

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate signaling is achieved by an elaborate network involving neurons and astrocytes. Hence, it is critical to better understand how neurons and astrocytes interact to coordinate the cellular regulation of glutamate signaling. In these studies, we used rat cortical cell cultures to examine whether neurons or releasable neuronal factors were capable of regulating system xc (-) (Sxc), a glutamate-releasing mechanism that is expressed primarily by astrocytes and has been shown to regulate synaptic transmission. We found that astrocytes cultured with neurons or exposed to neuronal-conditioned media displayed significantly higher levels of Sxc activity. Next, we demonstrated that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) may be a neuronal factor capable of regulating astrocytes. In support, we found that PACAP expression was restricted to neurons, and that PACAP receptors were expressed in astrocytes. Interestingly, blockade of PACAP receptors in cultures comprised of astrocytes and neurons significantly decreased Sxc activity to the level observed in purified astrocytes, whereas application of PACAP to purified astrocytes increased Sxc activity to the level observed in cultures comprised of neurons and astrocytes. Collectively, these data reveal that neurons coordinate the actions of glutamate-related mechanisms expressed by astrocytes, such as Sxc, a process that likely involves PACAP. A critical gap in modeling excitatory signaling is how distinct components of the glutamate system expressed by neurons and astrocytes are coordinated. In these studies, we found that system xc (-) (Sxc), a glutamate release mechanism expressed by astrocytes, is regulated by releasable neuronal factors including PACAP. This represents a novel form of neuron-astrocyte communication, and highlights the possibility that pathological changes involving astrocytic Sxc may stem from altered neuronal activity. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide inhibits gli1 gene expression and proliferation in primary medulloblastoma derived tumorsphere cultures

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    Dong Hongmei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hedgehog (HH signaling is critical for the expansion of granule neuron precursors (GNPs within the external granular layer (EGL during cerebellar development. Aberrant HH signaling within GNPs is thought to give rise to medulloblastoma (MB - the most commonly-observed form of malignant pediatric brain tumor. Evidence in both invertebrates and vertebrates indicates that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA antagonizes HH signalling. Receptors specific for the neuropeptide pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP, gene name ADCYAP1 are expressed in GNPs. PACAP has been shown to protect GNPs from apoptosis in vitro, and to interact with HH signaling to regulate GNP proliferation. PACAP/ptch1 double mutant mice exhibit an increased incidence of MB compared to ptch1 mice, indicating that PACAP may regulate HH pathway-mediated MB pathogenesis. Methods Primary MB tumorsphere cultures were prepared from thirteen ptch1+/-/p53+/- double mutant mice and treated with the smoothened (SMO agonist purmorphamine, the SMO antagonist SANT-1, the neuropeptide PACAP, the PKA activator forskolin, and the PKA inhibitor H89. Gene expression of gli1 and [3H]-thymidine incorporation were assessed to determine drug effects on HH pathway activity and proliferation, respectively. PKA activity was determined in cell extracts by Western blotting using a phospho-PKA substrate antibody. Results Primary tumor cells cultured for 1-week under serum-free conditions grew as tumorspheres and were found to express PAC1 receptor transcripts. Gli1 gene expression was significantly reduced by SANT-1, PACAP and forskolin, but was unaffected by purmorphamine. The attenuation of gli1 gene expression by PACAP was reversed by the PKA inhibitor H89, which also blocked PKA activation. Treatment of tumorsphere cultures with PACAP, forskolin, and SANT-1 for 24 or 48 hours reduced proliferation. Conclusions Primary tumorspheres derived from ptch1+/-/p53

  14. Effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in the urinary system, with special emphasis on its protective effects in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reglodi, Dora; Kiss, Peter; Horvath, Gabriella; Lubics, Andrea; Laszlo, Eszter; Tamas, Andrea; Racz, Boglarka; Szakaly, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widespread neuropeptide with diverse effects in the nervous system and peripheral organs. One of the most well-studied effects of PACAP is its cytoprotective action, against different harmful stimuli in a wide variety of cells and tissues. PACAP occurs in the urinary system, from the kidney to the lower urinary tract. The present review focuses on the nephroprotective effects of PACAP and summarizes data obtained regarding the protective effects of PACAP in different models of kidney pathologies. In vitro data show that PACAP protects tubular cells against oxidative stress, myeloma light chain, cisplatin, cyclosporine-A and hypoxia. In vivo data provide evidence for its protective effects in ischemia/reperfusion, cisplatin, cyclosporine-A, myeloma kidney injury, diabetic nephropathy and gentamicin-induced kidney damage. Results accumulated on the renoprotective effects of PACAP suggest that PACAP is an emerging candidate for treatment of human kidney pathologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates glial fibrillary acidic protein gene expression in cortical precursor cells by activating Ras and Rap1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastres-Becker, Isabel; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio; Cebolla, Beatriz; Vallejo, Mario

    2008-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) acts on cortical precursor cells to trigger glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene expression and astrocyte differentiation by stimulation of intracellular cAMP production. Here, we show that as expected, PACAP activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. However, inhibition of protein kinase A does not prevent PACAP-induced GFAP gene expression or astrocytogenesis. PACAP also activates the small GTPases Rap1 and Ras, but either activation of Rap1 alone by selective stimulation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac, or expression of a constitutively active form of Ras, do not induce GFAP gene expression. Ras is activated by PACAP in a cAMP-dependent manner, and inhibition of Ras and/or Rap1 decreases PACAP-induced GFAP promoter stimulation. Thus, cAMP-dependent PACAP-induced GFAP expression during astrocytogenesis involves the coordinated activation of both Ras and Rap1, but activation of either one of them in isolation is not sufficient to trigger this response.

  16. Part I: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 induced migraine-like attacks in patients with and without familial aggregation of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song; Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Hansen, Rikke Dyhr; Esserlind, Ann-Louise; Amin, Faisal Mohammed; Christensen, Anne Francke; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-02-01

    Background Intravenous infusion of adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) provokes migraine-like attacks in 65-70% of migraine sufferers. Whether aggregation of migraine in first-degree relatives contributes to this discrepancy in PACAP38-induced response is unknown. We hypothesized that genetic enrichment plays a role in triggering of migraine and that migraine without aura patients with a high family load ( ≥ 2 first-degree relatives with migraine) would report more migraine-like attacks after intravenous infusion of human PACAP38. Methods In this study, we allocated 32 previously genotyped migraine without aura patients to receive intravenous infusion of 10 pmol/kg/min PACAP38 and recorded migraine-like attacks including headache characteristics and associated symptoms. Information of familial aggregation was obtained by telephone interview of first-degree relatives using a validated semi-structured questionnaire. Results PACAP38 infusion induced a migraine-like attack in 75% (nine out of 12) of patients with high family load compared to 70% (14 out of 20) with low family load ( P = 0.761). In an explorative investigation, we found that the migraine response after PACAP38 was not associated with the risk allele of rs2274316 ( MEF2D), which confers increased risk of migraine without aura and may regulate PACAP38 expression. Conclusion Migraine response to PACAP38 infusion in migraine without aura patients is not associated with high family load or the risk allele of rs2274316 ( MEF2D).

  17. Investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine attacks induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Schytz, Henrik W

    2014-01-01

    samples (plasma PACAP38 and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and serum tryptase), and vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory frequency, and end-tidal pressure of CO2) was recorded before and up to 5 h after infusion. Twenty-two patients [mean age 24 years (range 19-36)] completed the study...... on both days. Sixteen patients (73%) reported migraine-like attacks after PACAP38 and four after vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (18%) infusion (P = 0.002). Three of four patients, who reported migraine-like attacks after vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, also reported attacks after PACAP38. Both...... the start of PACAP38 infusion only in those patients who later reported migraine attacks. Blood levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and tryptase were unchanged after PACAP38 infusion. In conclusion, PACAP38-induced migraine was associated with sustained dilatation of extracranial arteries...

  18. PACAP stimulates insulin secretion but inhibits insulin sensitivity in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filipsson, K; Pacini, G; Scheurink, AJW; Ahren, B

    Although pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates insulin secretion, its net influence on glucose homeostasis in vivo has not been established. We therefore examined the action of PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and glucose disposal as

  19. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (1-38 and its analog (Acetyl-[Ala15, Ala20] PACAP 38-polyamide reverse methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness in rats

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    Mounira Tlili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate both functionally and structurally bronchodilator effects of Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP38 and acetyl-[Ala15, Ala20] PACAP38-polyamide, a potent PACAP38 analog, in rats challenged by methacholine (MeCh. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 inhaled respectively aerosols of saline or increasing doses of MeCh (0.5, 1, 2.12, 4.25, 8.5, 17, 34 and 68mg/L. The other groups received terbutaline (Terb (250 µg/rat (10-6 M, PACAP38 (50 µg/rat (0.1 mM or PACAP38 analog (50 µg/rat associated to MeCh from the dose of 4.25 mg/L. Total lung resistances (RL were recorded before and 2 min after MeCh administration by pneumomultitest equipment. MeCh administration induced a significant and a dose-dependent increase (p<0.05 of RL compared to control rats. Terb, PACAP38 and PACAP38 analog reversed significantly the MeCh-induced bronchial constriction, smooth muscle (SM layer thickness and bronchial lumen mucus abundance. PACAP38 analog prevents effectively bronchial smooth muscle layer thickness, mucus hypersecretion and lumen decrease. Therefore, it may constitute a potent therapeutic bronchodilator.

  20. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: occurrence and relaxant effect in female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Alm, P; Hannibal, J

    1995-01-01

    tract. The highest concentrations of PACAP-38 were detected in the ovary, the upper part of vagina, and the perineum. The concentrations of PACAP-27 were generally low, in some regions below the detection limit and in other regions 1 to 5% of the PACAP-38 concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed...

  1. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: a potent activator of human intestinal ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, M; Adermann, K; Raab, H R; Forssmann, W G; Kuhn, M

    1996-12-26

    To investigate the effects of PACAP-27 on electrolyte transport across the isolated human intestinal mucosa, changes in short-circuit current (Isc) were measured in Ussing chamber experiments. Serosally added PACAP-27 increased Isc in a concentration-dependent manner, eliciting a similar maximal effect in both the jejunal and the colonic mucosa. Bumetanide inhibited Isc responses, indicating stimulation of Cl- secretion. The potency and efficacy of PACAP-27 were comparable to those of VIP, suggesting that both peptides activate intestinal secretion by way of a common receptor located in the basolateral membrane of the intestinal epithelium.

  2. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide stimulates renin secretion via activation of PAC1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautmann, Matthias; Friis, Ulla G; Desch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    with a half-maximum concentration of 1.9 nmol/L. In addition, PACAP stimulated renin release and enhanced membrane capacitance of isolated juxtaglomerular cells, indicating a direct stimulation of exocytotic events. The effect of PACAP on renin release was mediated by the specific PACAP receptors (PAC1......), because PACAP (1-27) applied in concentrations in the physiologic range (10 and 100 pmol/L) did not enhance renin release from isolated kidneys of PAC1 receptor knockout mice (PAC1-/-), whereas it stimulated renin release 1.38- and 2.5-fold in kidneys from wild-type mice. Moreover, plasma renin...... concentration was significantly lower in PAC1-/- compared with their wild-type littermates under control conditions as well as under a low- or high-salt diet and under treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril, whereas no differences in plasma renin concentration between the genotypes...

  3. Changes in vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide and neuropeptide Y-ergic structures of the enteric nervous system in the carcinoma of the human large intestine.

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    Ireneusz Mirosław Łakomy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was aimed at immunohistochemical analysis of potential changes in the enteric nervous system caused by cancer of the large intestine. In this purpose, neurons and nerve fibers of intestinal plexuses containing neuropeptides: vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and neuropeptide Y (NPY, in pathologically changed part of the large intestine were microscpically observed and compared. Samples were taken from patients operated due to cancer of the sigmoid colon and rectum. The number of neurons and density of nerve fibres containing neuropeptides found in sections with cancer tissues were compared to those observed in sections from the uninvolved intestinal wall. Changes relating to reductions in the number of NPY-ergic neurons and density of nerve fibres in submucous and myenteric plexuses in the sections with cancer tissues (pathological sections were statistically significant. A statistically similar presence of VIP-ergic and PACAP-ergic neurons in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses was observed in both the pathological and control sections. On the other hand, in the pathological sections, VIP-ergic nerve fibres in the myenteric plexuses and PACAP-ergic nerve fibres in the submucosal and myenteric plexuses were found to be less dense. Analysis revealed changes in pathologically affected part of the large intestine may caused disruption of proper intestinal function. Observed changes in the neural elements which are responsible for relaxation of the intestine may suggest dysfunction in the innervation of this part of the colon.

  4. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined the ...

  5. Accelerated evolution of the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide precursor gene during human origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yin-Qiu; Qian, Ya-Ping; Yang, Su

    2005-01-01

    a strong functional constraint during the course of evolution. However, through comparative sequence analysis, we demonstrated that the PACAP precursor gene underwent an accelerated evolution in the human lineage since the divergence from chimpanzees, and the amino acid substitution rate in humans...

  6. Vascular effects and cyclic AMP production produced by VIP, PHM, PHV, PACAP-27, PACAP-38, and NPY on rabbit ovarian artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, W; Sheikh, S P; Ottesen, B

    1996-01-01

    -38 all increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. The cAMP accumulation induced by PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 was five times higher than the cAMP content induced by the other three peptides. The peptide-induced smooth muscle relaxation did not correlate to the cAMP accumulation. NPY (10......The relationship between vessel tone and cAMP production induced by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), peptide histidine methionine (PHM), peptide histidine valine (PHV), pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP-27 and PACAP-38), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) was investigated......(-7) M) markedly reversed the relaxations induced by VIP, PHM, PHV, PACAP-27, and PACAP-38, but did not influence the cAMP production induced by these peptides. In conclusion, the relaxation induced by VIP, PHM, PHV, PACAP-27, and PACAP-38 and the contraction induced by NPY are not solely related...

  7. Transduction of PACAP38 protects primary cortical neurons from neurotoxic injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Alma; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizo; Grammas, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Neurotrophic factors such as pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP38) are promising therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. However, delivery of trophic factors into brain neurons remains a challenge. The objective of this study is to determine whether adeno-associated virus (AAV) can mediate PACAP38 gene delivery into neurons in vitro and if transduction of AAV/PACAP38 into cortical neurons protects cells against neurotoxic insult. Primary cortical neuronal cultures ...

  8. Cellular localization of PACAP and its receptors in the ovary of the spotted ray Torpedo marmorata Risso 1880 (Elasmobranchii: Torpediniformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Valiante, Salvatore; Laforgia, Vincenza; Andreuccetti, Piero; Prisco, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the glucagon-related family and occurs in two amidated forms, PACAP38 and PACAP27, with 38 and 27 amino acids, respectively. PACAP acts by binding to three different receptors, that are classified by their binding affinity for PACAP and VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide): PAC(1)R (PACAP-specific receptor) exclusively binds PACAP, while VPAC(1)R (VIP/PACAP receptor, subtype 1) and VPAC(2)R (VIP/PACAP receptor, subtype 2) bind both PACAP and VIP. PACAP, first discovered in the brain, was then localized in several peripheral tissues of mammals, including the ovary. Besides mammals, PACAP and its receptors have been reported in fish too; however, less is known about the presence of PACAP in the fish ovary and the studies are limited to teleosts. The aim of our work was to study the distribution of the PACAP/PACAP-Rs system in the ovary of the cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata. Using in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry techniques, we demonstrated that PACAP and its receptors are widely represented in the Torpedo ovary in a stage-dependent manner. Moreover, our findings suggest an involvement of this peptide in the whole follicologenesis, probably influencing steroidogenesis, follicle development, and oocyte growth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, Birgitte; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene...... in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells....... expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and approximately 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists...

  10. Signaling pathways in PACAP regulation of VIP gene expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2009-01-01

    Ganglia expressing the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) innervate vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) containing neurons suggesting a role of PACAP in regulating VIP expression. Human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells were applied to study PACAP regulated VIP gene...... in PACAP regulation of the FOS and VIP gene expressions suggest for the first time a role of FOS in PACAP-induced VIP gene expression in human NB-1 neuroblastoma cells. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/10...... expression aiming to identify the receptor and the signaling proteins involved. The PACAP receptor subtype PAC1 induced VIP gene expression as (i) PACAP and the PAC1 receptor agonist maxadilan were equally efficient and similar to 200-fold more potent than VIP, and (ii) PACAP6-38 and PG99-465, antagonists...

  11. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) and PAC1 receptor in the testis of cartilaginous fish Torpedo marmorata: A molecular and phylogenetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, Marisa; Valiante, Salvatore; Rosati, Luigi; Andreuccetti, Piero; Prisco, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The role of PACAP in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis has been largely investigated in last years in mammals; conversely, a few studies have been performed in non mammalian vertebrates. In this paper we investigated the sequence, expression and localization of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in the testis of the benthic elasmobranch Torpedo marmorata, the marbled electric ray. Cloning a partial PACAP cDNA, we demonstrated for the first time in elasmobranches that PACAP shows a highly conserved sequence, compared with the PACAP of other chordates (tunicates and vertebrates). Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that PACAP has been well preserved during evolution and that a negative selection acts on PACAP sequence, leading to the conservation of the coding sites. The phylogenetic consensus tree showed also that Torpedo PACAP is more related with the amphibian PACAP than with the teleost one. Finally, we demonstrated that in T. marmorata PACAP and its PAC1 receptor are synthesized directly in the testis, where they show a wider localization than mammals, suggesting that this neuropeptide is involved in the control of Torpedo spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The PACAP receptor: a novel target for migraine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik W; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2010-01-01

    The origin of migraine pain has not yet been clarified, but accumulating data point to neuropeptides present in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is present in s......) receptor, which suggests a possible signaling pathway implicated in migraine pain. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting the involvement of PACAP in migraine pathophysiology and the PAC(1) receptor as a possible novel target for migraine treatment.......The origin of migraine pain has not yet been clarified, but accumulating data point to neuropeptides present in the perivascular space of cranial vessels as important mediators of nociceptive input during migraine attacks. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is present...

  13. De rol van PACAP in nefrotisch syndroom.

    OpenAIRE

    Eneman, Benedicte

    2015-01-01

    An elevated risk for thromboembolic disease, including both deep venous and arterial thrombosis, leads to an increase in morbidity and mortality rates in nephrotic syndrome (NS) patients. Platelet alterations have repeatedly been observed in patients with NS. However, the mechanisms underlying these platelet alterations in NS remained unclear. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) was recently identified as an inhibitor of megakaryopoiesis and platelet aggregation, and in...

  14. PACAP-38 infusion causes sustained vasodilation of the middle meningeal artery in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatt, Deepak K; Gupta, Saurabh; Olesen, Jes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In healthy human volunteers and in migraineurs, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP-38) infusion caused sustained vasodilation of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and an immediate as well as a delayed headache. All the study subjects experienced facial flushing...... were depleted by chronic treatment with compound 48/80. The effect of 20 minutes' intravenous (i.v.) infusion of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), PACAP-38, PACAP(6-38) (PAC-1 receptor antagonist) and PACAP-27 on the diameter of the MMA and on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in control.......v.) was given 10 minutes prior to PACAP-38 infusion. Increasing doses of PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and VIP were infused through the intracarotid artery (i.c.) in control and MCD rats to see the direct effects of these peptides on MMA diameter change. RESULTS: There was no significant change in CGRP-induced MMA...

  15. Tritium labelling of PACAP-38 using a synthetic diiodinated precursor peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg; Baun, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the interest of developing efficient methods for tritium labelling peptides, we here demonstrate the successful labelling of PACAP-38 (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide), a 38-mer peptide, using a synthetic diiodinated PACAP-38 precursor. In this example, we employ standard hy...... hydrogenation chemistry with the use of a heterogeneous palladium catalyst and carrier-free tritium gas on a tritium manifold system....

  16. Headache and prolonged dilatation of the middle meningeal artery by PACAP38 in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Guo, Song

    2012-01-01

    To explore a possible relationship between vasodilatation and delayed headache we examined the effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) on the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) using high resolution magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)....

  17. Distribution of PACAP in the brain of the cartilaginous fish torpedo marmorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiante, Saluatore; Prisco, Marina; Ricchiari, Loredana; Laforgia, Vincenza; Varano, Lorenzo; Andreuccetti, Piero

    2006-07-01

    In this article, we investigated the distribution of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its mRNA by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR techniques, in the central nervous system of the elasmobranch Torpedo marmorata. RT-PCR analysis showed that the CNS of T. marmorata expresses a messenger encoding PACAP. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization patterns were partly overlapping, with a major expression in the hypothalamo-pituitary region and, surprisingly, in the saccus vasculosus. Our results show that, in T. marmorata, PACAP is synthesized and widely distributed in the CNS, suggesting an as yet unidentified role for this peptide in elasmobranch brain physiology.

  18. Examination of PACAP38-like immunoreactivity in different milk and infant formula samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csanaky, K; Reglődi, D; Bánki, E; Tarcai, I; Márk, L; Helyes, Zs; Ertl, T; Gyarmati, J; Horváth, K; Sántik, L; Tamás, Andrea

    2013-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide with special importance in reproductive and developmental processes. PACAP is found in two bioactive forms: PACAP27 and PACAP38. Recently, we have described that PACAP38 is present in high levels in the milk of human and ruminant animals. Breastfeeding is of utmost importance in proper nutrition of the newborn, but artificial nursing with infant formulas is necessary when breastfeeding is not available. Composition of the breast milk varies during the whole period of nursing and it shows differences at the beginning (foremilk) and the end of an actual suckling (hindmilk). The aim of this study was to investigate PACAP38-like immunoreactivity (PACAP38-LI) in different milk and infant formula samples by radioimmunoassay and to prove the presence of PACAP38 in the infant formula by mass spectrometry. We found similar PACAP38-LI in human mature foremilk and hindmilk samples, in the fresh and pasteurized cow milk and also in formulas. However, we found significantly higher PACAP38-LI in the hypoantigenic formula undergoing extensive hydrolysis compared to the non-hypoantigenic ones. Our results suggest that PACAP38 is relatively stable in the milk and it can withstand the manufacturing processes.

  19. Altered pupillary light reflex in PACAP receptor 1-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Anna; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2012-01-01

    The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is regulated by the classical photoreceptors, rods and cones, and by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) expressing the photopigment melanopsin. IpRGCs receive input from rods and cones and project to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN......), which is the primary visual center involved in PLR. Mice lacking either the classical photoreceptors or melanopsin exhibit some changes in PLR, whereas the reflex is completely lost in mice deficient of all three photoreceptors. The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP......) is co-stored with melanopsin in ipRGCs and mediates light signaling to the brain via the specific PACAP receptor 1 (PAC1R). Here, we examined the occurrence of PACAP and PAC1R in the mouse OPN, and studied if lack of PAC1R affected the PLR. PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were shown in the mouse OPN...

  20. Localisation of the neuropeptide PACAP and its receptors in the rat parathyroid and thyroid glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahrenkrug, Jan; Hannibal, Jens

    2011-01-01

    PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide) is widely distributed neuropeptide acting via three subtypes of receptors, PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Here we examined the localisation and nature of PACAP-immunoreactive nerves in the rat thyroid and parathyroid glands and defined...... the distribution of PAC(1), VPAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptor mRNA's. In the parathyroid gland a large number of nerve fibres displaying PACAP-immunoreactivity were distributed beneath the capsule, around blood vessels and close to glandular cells. Most of the PACAP-nerves were sensory, since they co-stored CGRP...... (calcitonin-gene-related peptide) and were sensitive to capsaicin-treatment. mRNA's for PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors occurred in the parathyroid gland, mainly located in the glandular cells. In the thyroid gland PACAP-immunoreactive nerve fibres were associated with blood vessels, thyroid follicles...

  1. PACAP modulates the consolidation and extinction of the contextual fear conditioning through NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S D; Myskiw, J C; Furini, C R G; Schmidt, B E; Cavalcante, L E; Izquierdo, I

    2015-02-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has a broad spectrum of biological functions including neurotransmitter, neurotrophic and neuroprotective. Moreover, it has been suggested that PACAP plays a role in the modulation of learning and memory as well as on the modulation of glutamate signaling. Thus, in the current study we investigated in the CA1 region of hippocampus and in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) the role of PACAP in the consolidation and extinction of contextual fear conditioning (CFC) and the interaction between PACAP and NMDA receptors. Male rats with cannulae implanted in the CA1 region of the hippocampus or in the BLA received immediately after the training or extinction training of the CFC infusions of the Vehicle, PACAP-38 (40 pg/side), PACAP 6-38 (40 pg/side) or PACAP 6-38 plus D-serine (50 μg/side). After 24h, the animals were subjected to a 3-min retention test. The results indicated that in the CA1 region of hippocampus, PACAP participates in the consolidation and extinction of the CFC, and in the BLA, PACAP participates only in the consolidation of the CFC. Additionally, the results suggest that the action of PACAP on the consolidation and extinction of the CFC is mediated by the glutamate NMDA receptors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neuronal localization of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38 in the adrenal medulla and growth-inhibitory effect on chromaffin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frödin, M; Hannibal, J; Wulff, B S

    1995-01-01

    medulla showed PACAP38 immunoreactivity in a widely distributed network of delicate nerve fibers surrounding the chromaffin cells. In a primary culture system, PACAP38 inhibited growth factor-stimulated DNA synthesis by 90% in neonatal and adult rat chromaffin cells with half-maximal inhibition at 4 and 0...

  3. Altered circadian food anticipatory activity rhythms in PACAP receptor 1 (PAC1) deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Georg, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Light signals from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) entrain the circadian clock and regulate negative masking. Two neurotransmitters, glutamate and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), found in the ipRGCs transmit light signals to the brain via...... glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1) receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior...

  4. Localization of CGRP, CGRP receptor, PACAP and glutamate in trigeminal ganglion. Relation to the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Salvatore, Christopher A; Johansson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    ) and related this to the expression of CGRP and its receptor in rhesus trigeminal ganglion. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and glutamate were examined and related to the CGRP system. Furthermore, we examined if the trigeminal ganglion is protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB......), and the distribution of PACAP and glutamate in rhesus and rat TG. Evans blue was used to examine large molecule penetration into the rat TG. High receptor binding densities were found in rhesus TG. Immunofluorescence revealed expression of CGRP, CLR and RAMP1 in trigeminal cells. CGRP positive neurons expressed PACAP...... but not glutamate. Some neurons expressing CLR and RAMP1 co-localized with glutamate. Evans blue revealed that the TG is not protected by BBB. This study demonstrates CGRP receptor binding sites and expression of the CGRP receptor in rhesus and rat TG. The expression pattern of PACAP and glutamate suggests...

  5. Transduction of PACAP38 protects primary cortical neurons from neurotoxic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Alma; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizo; Grammas, Paula

    2008-12-19

    Neurotrophic factors such as pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP38) are promising therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases. However, delivery of trophic factors into brain neurons remains a challenge. The objective of this study is to determine whether adeno-associated virus (AAV) can mediate PACAP38 gene delivery into neurons in vitro and if transduction of AAV/PACAP38 into cortical neurons protects cells against neurotoxic insult. Primary cortical neuronal cultures are transduced with rAAV/PACAP38/GFP and cell survival against the nitric oxide releasing neurotoxin sodium nitroprusside (SNP) determined. GFP expression, a surrogate marker for successful transduction, is detected using fluorescent microscopy. The results show expression of GFP transgene and AAV capsid proteins in neurons. PACAP38 transduction significantly increases cell survival of neurons exposed to SNP. These results support the feasibility of using AAV-mediated delivery of PACAP38 to enhance neuronal survival and suggest that AAV-delivered PACAP38 maybe a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases.

  6. High-Fat Diet Augments VPAC1 Receptor-Mediated PACAP Action on the Liver, Inducing LAR Expression and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Nakata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP acts on multiple processes of glucose and energy metabolism. PACAP potentiates insulin action in adipocytes and insulin release from pancreatic β-cells, thereby enhancing glucose tolerance. Contrary to these effects at organ levels, PACAP null mice exhibit hypersensitivity to insulin. However, this apparent discrepancy remains to be solved. We aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the antidiabetic phenotype of PACAP null mice. Feeding with high-fat diet (HFD impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in wild type mice, whereas these changes were prevented in PACAP null mice. HFD also impaired insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in the liver in wild type mice, but not in PACAP null mice. Using GeneFishing method, HFD increased the leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR protein tyrosine phosphatase in the liver in wild type mice. Silencing of LAR restored the insulin signaling in the liver of HFD mice. Moreover, the increased LAR expression by HFD was prevented in PACAP null mice. HFD increased the expression of VPAC1 receptor (VPAC1-R, one of three PACAP receptors, in the liver of wild type mice. These data indicate that PACAP-VPAC1-R signaling induces LAR expression and insulin resistance in the liver of HFD mice. Antagonism of VPAC1-R may prevent progression of HFD-induced insulin resistance in the liver, providing a novel antidiabetic strategy.

  7. Effects of combinatorial treatment with pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide and human mesenchymal stem cells on spinal cord tissue repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Min Fang

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand if human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs and neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP have synergistic protective effect that promotes functional recovery in rats with severe spinal cord injury (SCI. To evaluate the effect of delayed combinatorial therapy of PACAP and hMSCs on spinal cord tissue repair, we used the immortalized hMSCs that retain their potential of neuronal differentiation under the stimulation of neurogenic factors and possess the properties for the production of several growth factors beneficial for neural cell survival. The results indicated that delayed treatment with PACAP and hMSCs at day 7 post SCI increased the remaining neuronal fibers in the injured spinal cord, leading to better locomotor functional recovery in SCI rats when compared to treatment only with PACAP or hMSCs. Western blotting also showed that the levels of antioxidant enzymes, Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD and peroxiredoxin-1/6 (Prx-1 and Prx-6, were increased at the lesion center 1 week after the delayed treatment with the combinatorial therapy when compared to that observed in the vehicle-treated control. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that co-culture with hMSCs in the presence of PACAP not only increased a subpopulation of microglia expressing galectin-3, but also enhanced the ability of astrocytes to uptake extracellular glutamate. In summary, our in vivo and in vitro studies reveal that delayed transplantation of hMSCs combined with PACAP provides trophic molecules to promote neuronal cell survival, which also foster beneficial microenvironment for endogenous glia to increase their neuroprotective effect on the repair of injured spinal cord tissue.

  8. Molecular cloning of the helodermin and exendin-4 cDNAs in the lizard. Relationship to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1 and evidence against the existence of mammalian homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, M; Wank, S A

    1998-04-17

    Helodermin and exendin-4, two peptides isolated from the salivary gland of the Gila monster, Heloderma suspectum, are approximately 50% homologous to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), respectively, and interact with the mammalian receptors for VIP and GLP-1 with equal or higher affinity and efficacy. Immunohistochemical studies suggested the presence of helodermin-like peptides in mammals. To determine whether helodermin and exendin-4 are present in mammals and their evolutionary relationship to VIP and GLP-1, their cDNAs were first cloned from Gila monster salivary gland. Northern blots and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of multiple Gila monster tissues identified approximately 500-base pair transcripts only from salivary gland. Both helodermin and exendin-4 full-length cDNAs were approximately 500 base pairs long, and they encoded precursor proteins containing the entire amino acid sequence of helodermin and exendin-4, as well as a 44- or 45-amino acid N-terminal extension peptide, respectively, having approximately 60% homology. The size and structural organization of these cDNAs indicated that they were closely related to one another but markedly different from known cDNAs for the VIP/GLP-1 peptide family previously identified in both lower and higher evolved species. Cloning of the Gila monster VIP/peptide histidine isoleucine, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide, and glucagon/GLP-1 cDNAs and Southern blotting of Gila monster DNA demonstrate the coexistence of separate genes for these peptides and suggests, along with the restricted salivary gland expression, that helodermin and exendin-4 coevolved to serve a separate specialized function. Probing of a variety of rat and human tissues on Northern blots, human and rat Southern blots, and genomic and cDNA libraries with either helodermin- or exendin-4-specific cDNAs failed to identify evidence for mammalian homologues. These data indicate

  9. Ameliorative Effects of PACAP against Cartilage Degeneration. Morphological, Immunohistochemical and Biochemical Evidence from in Vivo and in Vitro Models of Rat Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, Salvatore; Castorina, Alessandro; Marzagalli, Rubina; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Pichler, Karin; Mobasheri, Ali; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA); the most common form of degenerative joint disease, is associated with variations in pro-inflammatory growth factor levels, inflammation and hypocellularity resulting from chondrocyte apoptosis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide endowed with a range of trophic effects in several cell types; including chondrocytes. However; its role in OA has not been studied. To address this issue, we investigated whether PACAP expression is affected in OA cartilage obtained from experimentally-induced OA rat models, and then studied the effects of PACAP in isolated chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β in vitro to mimic the inflammatory milieu of OA cartilage. OA induction was established by histomorphometric and histochemical analyses. Changes in PACAP distribution in cartilage, or its concentration in synovial fluid (SF), were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. Results showed that PACAP abundance in cartilage tissue and SF was high in healthy controls. OA induction decreased PACAP levels both in affected cartilage and SF. In vitro, PACAP prevented IL-1β-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, as determined by MTT assay; Hoechst staining and western blots of apoptotic-related proteins. These changes were also accompanied by decreased i-NOS and COX-2 levels, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Altogether, these findings support a potential role for PACAP as a chondroprotective agent for the treatment of OA. PMID:25782157

  10. PACAP is essential for the adaptive thermogenic response of brown adipose tissue to cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diané, Abdoulaye; Nikolic, Nikolina; Rudecki, Alexander P; King, Shannon M; Bowie, Drew J; Gray, Sarah L

    2014-09-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, neurotropic factor, neuroprotectant, secretagogue, and neurohormone. Owing to its pleiotropic biological actions, knockout of Pacap (Adcyap1) has been shown to induce several abnormalities in mice such as impaired thermoregulation. However, the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. A previous report has shown that cold-exposed Pacap null mice cannot supply appropriate levels of norepinephrine (NE) to brown adipocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that exogenous NE would rescue the impaired thermogenic response of Pacap null mice during cold exposure. We compared the adaptive thermogenic capacity of Pacap(-/-) to Pacap(+/+) mice in response to NE when housed at room temperature (24 °C) and after a 3.5-week cold exposure (4 °C). Biochemical parameters, expression of thermogenic genes, and morphological properties of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) were also characterized. Results showed that there was a significant effect of temperature, but no effect of genotype, on the resting metabolic rate in conscious, unrestrained mice. However, the normal cold-induced increase in the basal metabolic rate and NE-induced increase in thermogenesis were severely blunted in cold-exposed Pacap(-/-) mice. These changes were associated with altered substrate utilization, reduced β3-adrenergic receptor (β3-Ar (Adrb3)) and hormone-sensitive lipase (Hsl (Lipe)) gene expression, and increased fibroblast growth factor 2 (Fgf2) gene expression in BAT. Interestingly, Pacap(-/-) mice had depleted WAT depots, associated with upregulated uncoupling protein 1 expression in inguinal WATs. These results suggest that the impairment of adaptive thermogenesis in Pacap null mice cannot be rescued by exogenous NE perhaps in part due to decreased β3-Ar-mediated BAT activation. © 2014 Society for

  11. Injury-Associated PACAP Expression in Rat Sensory and Motor Neurons Is Induced by Endogenous BDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Lina M. E.; Geremia, Nicole M.; Ying, Zhengxin; Verge, Valerie M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury results in dramatic upregulation in pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) expression in adult rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal motor neurons mirroring that described for the neurotrophin brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Thus, we posited that injury-associated alterations in BDNF expression regulate the changes in PACAP expression observed in the injured neurons. The role of endogenous BDNF in induction and/or maintenance of PACAP mRNA expression in injured adult rat motor and sensory neurons was examined by intrathecally infusing or intraperitoneally injecting BDNF-specific antibodies or control IgGs immediately at the time of L4-L6 spinal nerve injury, or in a delayed fashion one week later for 3 days followed by analysis of impact on PACAP expression. PACAP mRNA in injured lumbar sensory and motor neurons was detected using in situ hybridization, allowing quantification of relative changes between experimental groups, with ATF-3 immunofluorescence serving to identify the injured subpopulation of motor neurons. Both the incidence and level of PACAP mRNA expression were dramatically reduced in injured sensory and motor neurons in response to immediate intrathecal anti-BDNF treatment. In contrast, neither intraperitoneal injections nor delayed intrathecal infusions of anti-BDNF had any discernible impact on PACAP expression. This impact on PACAP expression in response to BDNF immunoneutralization in DRG was confirmed using qRT-PCR or by using BDNF selective siRNAs to reduce neuronal BDNF expression. Collectively, our findings support that endogenous injury-associated BDNF expression is critically involved in induction, but not maintenance, of injury-associated PACAP expression in sensory and motor neurons. PMID:24968020

  12. Calmodulin interacts with PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors and regulates PACAP-induced FOS expression in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falktoft, B.; Georg, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) mediates its physiological functions through activation of PAC1, VPAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, and the ubiquitous Ca2+-sensor calmodulin has been implicated in PACAP-induced signaling. The immediate early response gene FOS....... NB-I cells were shown to express PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors, and immunoprecipitation of both receptors displayed a co-association with calmodulin in the absence of Ca2+. Our findings indicate a novel mechanism of calmodulin in regulating PACAP signaling by possible interaction with the inactive state...... of PAC1 and VPAC2 receptors. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4...

  13. PACAP38 dose-response pilot study in migraine patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Guo, Song; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-01-01

    Background Intravenous infusion of 10 pmol/kg/min pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) induces migraine-like attacks in migraine patients without aura (MO). Here, we conducted a pilot study and investigated if lower doses of PACAP38 exert similar migraine......-inducing abilities. Methods We randomly allocated six MO patients to receive intravenous infusion of 4, 6, and 8 pmol/kg/min of PACAP38 over 20 minutes in a double-blind, three-way cross-over study. Headache and migraine characteristics were recorded during hospital (0-2 hours) and post-hospital (2-13 hours) phases....... Results PACAP38 induced migraine-like attacks in one out of six patients with 4 pmol, two out of six patients with 6 pmol and three out of six patients with 8 pmol ( p = 0.368). All patients reported head pain after 8 pmol/kg/min, whereas five of six participants reported head pain after both 4 and 6 pmol...

  14. PACAP inhibits β-cell mass expansion in a mouse model of type II diabetes: persistent suppressive effects on islet density

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    Hiroaki eInoue

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a potent insulinotropic G-protein-coupled receptor ligand, for which morphoregulative roles in pancreatic islets have recently been suggested. Here, we evaluated the effects of pancreatic overexpression of PACAP on morphometric changes of islets in a severe type II diabetes model. Following cross-breeding of obese-diabetic model KKAy mice with mice overexpressing PACAP in their pancreatic β-cells, the resulting KKAy mice with or without PACAP transgene (PACAP/+:Ay/+ or Ay/+ mice were fed with a high-fat diet up to the age of 11 months. Pancreatic sections from 5 and 11 month old littermates were examined. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant suppression of islet mass expansion in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice compared with Ay/+ mice at 11 months, but no significant difference between PACAP/+ and +/+ (wild-type mice, as previously reported. The suppressed islet mass in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice was due to a decrease in islet density but not islet size. In addition, the density of tiny islets (<0.001 mm2 and of insulin-positive clusters in ductal structures were markedly decreased in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice compared with Ay/+ mice at 5 months of age. In contrast, PACAP overexpression caused no significant effects on the level of aldehyde-fuchsin reagent staining (a measure of β-cell granulation or the volume and localization of glucagon-positive cells in the pancreas. These results support previously reported inhibitory effects of PACAP on pancreatic islet mass expansion, and suggest it has persistent suppressive effects on pancreatic islet density which may be related with ductal cell-associated islet neogenesis in type II diabetes.

  15. PACAP38 differentially effects genes and CRMP2 protein expression in ischemic core and penumbra regions of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model mice brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Motohide; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Tsuchida, Masachi; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-09-23

    Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective and axonal guidance functions, but the mechanisms behind such actions remain unclear. Previously we examined effects of PACAP (PACAP38, 1 pmol) injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) along with control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches using ischemic (ipsilateral) brain hemisphere revealed differentially regulated genes and proteins by PACAP38 at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. However, as the ischemic hemisphere consisted of infarct core, penumbra, and non-ischemic regions, specificity of expression and localization of these identified molecular factors remained incomplete. This led us to devise a new experimental strategy wherein, ischemic core and penumbra were carefully sampled and compared to the corresponding contralateral (healthy) core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h post PACAP38 or saline injections. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to examine targeted gene expressions and the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) protein profiles, respectively. Clear differences in expression of genes and CRMP2 protein abundance and degradation product/short isoform was observed between ischemic core and penumbra and also compared to the contralateral healthy tissues after PACAP38 or saline treatment. Results indicate the importance of region-specific analyses to further identify, localize and functionally analyse target molecular factors for clarifying the neuroprotective function of PACAP38.

  16. PACAP38 Differentially Effects Genes and CRMP2 Protein Expression in Ischemic Core and Penumbra Regions of Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Model Mice Brain

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    Motohide Hori

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP has neuroprotective and axonal guidance functions, but the mechanisms behind such actions remain unclear. Previously we examined effects of PACAP (PACAP38, 1 pmol injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO along with control saline (0.9% NaCl injection. Transcriptomic and proteomic approaches using ischemic (ipsilateral brain hemisphere revealed differentially regulated genes and proteins by PACAP38 at 6 and 24 h post-treatment. However, as the ischemic hemisphere consisted of infarct core, penumbra, and non-ischemic regions, specificity of expression and localization of these identified molecular factors remained incomplete. This led us to devise a new experimental strategy wherein, ischemic core and penumbra were carefully sampled and compared to the corresponding contralateral (healthy core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h post PACAP38 or saline injections. Both reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to examine targeted gene expressions and the collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2 protein profiles, respectively. Clear differences in expression of genes and CRMP2 protein abundance and degradation product/short isoform was observed between ischemic core and penumbra and also compared to the contralateral healthy tissues after PACAP38 or saline treatment. Results indicate the importance of region-specific analyses to further identify, localize and functionally analyse target molecular factors for clarifying the neuroprotective function of PACAP38.

  17. PACAP/Receptor System in Urinary Bladder Dysfunction and Pelvic Pain Following Urinary Bladder Inflammation or Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Beatrice M.; Tooke, Katharine; Vizzard, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Complex organization of CNS and PNS pathways is necessary for the coordinated and reciprocal functions of the urinary bladder, urethra and urethral sphincters. Injury, inflammation, psychogenic stress or diseases that affect these nerve pathways and target organs can produce lower urinary tract (LUT) dysfunction. Numerous neuropeptide/receptor systems are expressed in the neural pathways of the LUT and non-neural components of the LUT (e.g., urothelium) also express peptides. One such neuropeptide receptor system, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP; Adcyap1) and its cognate receptor, PAC1 (Adcyap1r1), have tissue-specific distributions in the LUT. Mice with a genetic deletion of PACAP exhibit bladder dysfunction and altered somatic sensation. PACAP and associated receptors are expressed in the LUT and exhibit neuroplastic changes with neural injury, inflammation, and diseases of the LUT as well as psychogenic stress. Blockade of the PACAP/PAC1 receptor system reduces voiding frequency in preclinical animal models and transgenic mouse models that mirror some clinical symptoms of bladder dysfunction. A change in the balance of the expression and resulting function of the PACAP/receptor system in CNS and PNS bladder reflex pathways may underlie LUT dysfunction including symptoms of urinary urgency, increased voiding frequency, and visceral pain. The PACAP/receptor system in micturition pathways may represent a potential target for therapeutic intervention to reduce LUT dysfunction. PMID:29255407

  18. PACAP Promotes Matrix-Driven Adhesion of Cultured Adult Murine Neural Progenitors

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    James A. Waschek

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs, which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM. We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion. Gene array and reconstitution assays indicate that this effect can be attributed to the regulation of ECM components and ECM-modifying enzymes in aNPCs by PACAP. Our work suggests that PACAP regulates a bidirectional interaction between the aNPCs and their niche: PACAP modifies ECM production and remodeling, in turn the ECM regulates progenitor cell adherence. We speculate that PACAP may in this manner help restrict adult neural progenitors to the stem cell niche in vivo, with potential significance for aNPC function in physiological and pathological states.

  19. PACAP system evolution and its role in melanophore function in teleost fish skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Martins, Rute S T; Trindade, Marlene; Fonseca, Vera G; Fuentes, Juan; Power, Deborah M

    2015-08-15

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) administered to tilapia melanophores ex-vivo causes significant pigment aggregation and this is a newly identified function for this peptide in fish. The G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), adcyap1r1a (encoding Pac1a) and vipr2a (encoding Vpac2a), are the only receptors in melanophores with appreciable levels of expression and are significantly (p skin and that the melanin aggregating effect of PACAP results from the interaction of Pac1a with Ramp that attenuates cAMP-dependent PKA activity and favours the Ca(2+)/Calmodulin dependent pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of the possible functions of PACAP in human trophoblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, G; Reglodi, D; Brubel, R; Halasz, M; Barakonyi, A; Tamas, A; Fabian, E; Opper, B; Toth, G; Cohen, M; Szereday, L

    2014-11-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is an endogenous neuropeptide having a widespread distribution both in the nervous system and peripheral organs including the female reproductive system. Both the peptide and its receptors have been shown in the placenta but its role in placental growth, especially its human aspects, remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on invasion, proliferation, cell survival, and angiogenesis of trophoblast cells. Furthermore, cytokine production was investigated in human decidual and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. For in vitro studies, human invasive proliferative extravillous cytotrophoblast (HIPEC) cells and HTR-8/SVneo human trophoblast cells were used. Both cell types were used for testing the effects of PACAP on invasion and cell survival in order to investigate whether the effects of PACAP in trophoblasts depend on the examined cell type. Invasion was studied by standardized invasion assay. PACAP increased proliferation in HIPEC cells, but not in HTR-8 cells. Cell viability was examined using MTT test, WST-1 assay, and annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry assay. Survival of HTR-8/SVneo cells was studied under oxidative stress conditions induced by hydrogen peroxide. PACAP as pretreatment, but not as co-treatment, significantly increased the number of surviving HTR-8 cells. Viability of HIPEC cells was investigated using methotrexate (MTX) toxicity, but PACAP1-38 could not counteract its toxic effect. Angiogenic molecules were determined both in the supernatant and the cell lysate by angiogenesis array. In the supernatant, we found that PACAP decreased the secretion of various angiogenic markers, such as angiopoietin, angiogenin, activin, endoglin, ADAMTS-1, and VEGF. For the cytokine assay, human decidual and peripheral blood lymphocytes were separated and treated with PACAP1-38. Th1 and Th2 cytokines were analyzed with CBA assay and the results showed

  1. PACAP neurons in the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus are targets of central leptin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Zoe; Ivanov, Tina R; Bechtold, David A; Dhillon, Harveen; Lowell, Brad B; Luckman, Simon M

    2009-11-25

    The adipose-derived hormone, leptin, was discovered over 10 years ago, but only now are we unmasking its downstream pathways which lead to reduced energy intake (feeding) and increased energy expenditure (thermogenesis). Recent transgenic models have challenged the long-standing supposition that the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) is omnipotent in the central response to leptin, and research focus is beginning to shift to examine roles of extra-arcuate sites. Dhillon et al. (2006) demonstrated that targeted knock out of the signaling form of the leptin receptor (lepr-B) in steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) cells of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN) produces obesity of a similar magnitude to the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-driven lepr-B deleted mouse, via a functionally distinct mechanism. These findings reveal that SF-1 cells of the VMN could be equally as important as POMC cells in mediating leptin's anti-obesity effects. However, the identification of molecular and cellular correlates of this relationship remains tantalizingly unknown. Here, we have shown that mRNA expression of the VMN-expressed neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is regulated according to energy status and that it exerts catabolic effects when administered centrally to mice. Furthermore, we have shown that SF-1 and PACAP mRNAs are colocalized in the VMN, and that leptin signaling via lepr-B is required for normal PACAP expression in these cells. Finally, blocking endogenous central PACAP signaling with the antagonist PACAP(6-38) markedly attenuates leptin-induced hypophagia and hyperthermia in vivo. Thus, it appears that PACAP is an important mediator of central leptin effects on energy balance.

  2. Transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of the PACAP38 influenced ischemic brain in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model mice

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    Hori Motohide

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is considered to be a potential therapeutic agent for prevention of cerebral ischemia. Ischemia is a most common cause of death after heart attack and cancer causing major negative social and economic consequences. This study was designed to investigate the effect of PACAP38 injection intracerebroventrically in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO along with corresponding SHAM control that used 0.9% saline injection. Methods Ischemic and non-ischemic brain tissues were sampled at 6 and 24 hours post-treatment. Following behavioral analyses to confirm whether the ischemia has occurred, we investigated the genome-wide changes in gene and protein expression using DNA microarray chip (4x44K, Agilent and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, respectively. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining were also used to further examine the identified protein factor. Results Our results revealed numerous changes in the transcriptome of ischemic hemisphere (ipsilateral treated with PACAP38 compared to the saline-injected SHAM control hemisphere (contralateral. Previously known (such as the interleukin family and novel (Gabra6, Crtam genes were identified under PACAP influence. In parallel, 2-DGE analysis revealed a highly expressed protein spot in the ischemic hemisphere that was identified as dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2 (DPYL2. The DPYL2, also known as Crmp2, is a marker for the axonal growth and nerve development. Interestingly, PACAP treatment slightly increased its abundance (by 2-DGE and immunostaining at 6 h but not at 24 h in the ischemic hemisphere, suggesting PACAP activates neuronal defense mechanism early on. Conclusions This study provides a detailed inventory of PACAP influenced gene expressions

  3. Developmental changes in the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of PACAP and its receptor PAC1 and their sensitivity to fasting in male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Maira; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    The actions and responses of hypothalamic appetite regulatory and factors change markedly during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been found to play pivotal roles in the regulation of metabolic and nutritional status through its specific receptor PAC1. PACAP/PAC1 have anorectic roles, and their functions are regulated by leptin in adulthood. In the present study, we showed that hypothalamic PACAP mRNA expression decreases during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period (from postnatal day 10-30) in both male and female rats. During this period, hypothalamic PACAP mRNA expression was not affected by 24h fasting in either sex, while the serum leptin levels (leptin is a positive regulator of hypothalamic PACAP expression in adulthood) of both sexes were decreased by fasting. On the other hand, hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA expression did not change during the neonatal to pre-pubertal period in either sex; however, its levels were consistently higher in males than in females. Hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA expression was decreased by 24h fasting in males, but no such changes were observed in females. These results indicate while hypothalamic PACAP expression is sensitive to a negative energy state and the serum leptin level in adulthood, no such relationships are seen in the pre-pubertal period. In addition, we speculate that differences in the gonadal steroidal milieu might induce sexual dimorphism in the basal hypothalamic PAC1 mRNA level and its response to fasting. The mechanisms responsible for and the physiological effects of such changes in hypothalamic PACAP and PAC1 expression during the developmental period remain to be clarified. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide affects homeostatic sleep regulation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murck, Harald; Steiger, Axel; Frieboes, Ralf M; Antonijevic, Irina A

    2007-03-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is involved in autonomous regulation, including timekeeping, by its action on the suprachiasmatic nucleus and on neuroendocrine secretion, energy metabolism, and transmitter release. In particular, the interactions between PACAP and the glutamatergic system are well recognized. We compared the effect of intravenously administered PACAP to that of placebo in eight healthy male subjects. PACAP in a concentration of 4x12.5 microg was administered in a pulsatile fashion hourly between 2200 and 0100. Sleep EEG was recorded from 2300 to 1000, which was also the time when subjects were allowed to sleep. Blood samples were taken every 20 min between 2200 and 0700 for the determination of cortisol, GH, and prolactin. PACAP administration led to no changes in the macro-sleep structure as assessed according to standard criteria. Spectral analysis revealed a significant reduction in the theta-frequency range in the first 4-h interval and of the spindle frequency range in the second 4-h interval of the registration period. This was accompanied by an increase in the time constant tau of the physiological delta-power decline in the course of the night, i.e., a less pronounced dynamic of the reduction of delta-power with time. This was accompanied by a trend (Pnapping, i.e., a reduced sleep propensity. This implies that PACAP might be involved in homeostatic sleep regulation.

  5. Unraveling the Specific Ischemic Core and Penumbra Transcriptome in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model Brain Treated with the Neuropeptide PACAP38

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohide Hori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our group has been systematically investigating the effects of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP on the ischemic brain. To do so, we have established and utilized the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO mouse model, in which PACAP38 (1 pmol injection is given intracerebroventrically and compared to a control saline (0.9% sodium chloride, NaCl injection, to unravel genome‑wide gene expression changes using a high-throughput DNA microarray analysis approach. In our previous studies, we have accumulated a large volume of data (gene inventory from the whole brain (ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres after both PMCAO and post-PACAP38 injection. In our latest research, we have targeted specifically infarct or ischemic core (hereafter abbreviated IC and penumbra (hereafter abbreviated P post-PACAP38 injections in order to re-examine the transcriptome at 6 and 24 h post injection. The current study aims to delineate the specificity of expression and localization of differentially expressed molecular factors influenced by PACAP38 in the IC and P regions. Utilizing the mouse 4 × 44 K whole genome DNA chip we show numerous changes (≧/≦ 1.5/0.75-fold at both 6 h (654 and 456, and 522 and 449 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively and 24 h (2568 and 2684, and 1947 and 1592 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively after PACAP38 treatment. Among the gene inventories obtained here, two genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf and transthyretin (Ttr were found to be induced by PACAP38 treatment, which we had not been able to identify previously using the whole hemisphere transcriptome analysis. Using bioinformatics analysis by pathway- or specific-disease-state focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA the differentially expressed genes are functionally classified and discussed. Among these, we specifically discuss some novel and

  6. Unraveling the Specific Ischemic Core and Penumbra Transcriptome in the Permanent Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Mouse Model Brain Treated with the Neuropeptide PACAP38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Motohide; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2015-01-21

    Our group has been systematically investigating the effects of the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain. To do so, we have established and utilized the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model, in which PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection is given intracerebroventrically and compared to a control saline (0.9% sodium chloride, NaCl) injection, to unravel genome‑wide gene expression changes using a high-throughput DNA microarray analysis approach. In our previous studies, we have accumulated a large volume of data (gene inventory) from the whole brain (ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres) after both PMCAO and post-PACAP38 injection. In our latest research, we have targeted specifically infarct or ischemic core (hereafter abbreviated IC) and penumbra (hereafter abbreviated P) post-PACAP38 injections in order to re-examine the transcriptome at 6 and 24 h post injection. The current study aims to delineate the specificity of expression and localization of differentially expressed molecular factors influenced by PACAP38 in the IC and P regions. Utilizing the mouse 4 × 44 K whole genome DNA chip we show numerous changes (≧/≦ 1.5/0.75-fold) at both 6 h (654 and 456, and 522 and 449 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) and 24 h (2568 and 2684, and 1947 and 1592 up- and down-regulated genes for IC and P, respectively) after PACAP38 treatment. Among the gene inventories obtained here, two genes, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and transthyretin (Ttr) were found to be induced by PACAP38 treatment, which we had not been able to identify previously using the whole hemisphere transcriptome analysis. Using bioinformatics analysis by pathway- or specific-disease-state focused gene classifications and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) the differentially expressed genes are functionally classified and discussed. Among these, we specifically discuss some novel and previously

  7. Cutaneous nociception and neurogenic inflammation evoked by PACAP38 and VIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    no statistical difference in pain perception between PACAP38 and VIP. Skin blood flow increase, flare and wheal were larger after both PACAP38 (P = 0.011) and VIP (P = 0.001) compared to placebo. VIP induced a considerably larger increase in skin blood flow, flare and wheal than PACAP38 (P = 0......Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) belong to the same secretin-glucagon superfamily and are present in nerve fibers in dura and skin. Using a model of acute cutaneous pain we explored differences in pain perception and vasomotor...... responses between PACAP38 and VIP in 16 healthy volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All participants received intradermal injections of 200 pmol PACAP38, 200 pmol VIP and placebo into the volar forearm. Measurements included pain intensity on a visual analog scale (VAS), blood...

  8. Two-color Dye-swap DNA Microarray approach toward confident gene expression profiling in PMCAO mouse model for ischemia-related and PACAP38-influenced genes

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    Motohide Hori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Toward twin goals of identifying molecular factors in brain injured by ischemic stroke, and the effects of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP on the ischemic brain, we have established the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO mouse model and utilized the Agilent mouse whole genome 4 × 44 K DNA chip. PACAP38 (1 pmol injection was given intracerebroventrically in comparison to a control saline (0.9% NaCl injection, to screen genes responsive to PACAP38. Two sets of tissues were prepared, whole hemispheres (ischemic and non-ischemic and infract core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h. In this study, we have detailed the experimental design and protocol used therein and explained the quality controls for the use of total RNA in the downstream DNA microarray experiment utilizing a two-color dye-swap approach for stringent and confident gene identification published in a series of papers by Hori and coworkers (Hori et al., 2012–2015.

  9. Two-color Dye-swap DNA Microarray approach toward confident gene expression profiling in PMCAO mouse model for ischemia-related and PACAP38-influenced genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Motohide; Shibato, Junko; Nakamachi, Tomoya; Rakwal, Randeep; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Toward twin goals of identifying molecular factors in brain injured by ischemic stroke, and the effects of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) on the ischemic brain, we have established the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (PMCAO) mouse model and utilized the Agilent mouse whole genome 4 × 44 K DNA chip. PACAP38 (1 pmol) injection was given intracerebroventrically in comparison to a control saline (0.9% NaCl) injection, to screen genes responsive to PACAP38. Two sets of tissues were prepared, whole hemispheres (ischemic and non-ischemic) and infract core and penumbra regions at 6 and 24 h. In this study, we have detailed the experimental design and protocol used therein and explained the quality controls for the use of total RNA in the downstream DNA microarray experiment utilizing a two-color dye-swap approach for stringent and confident gene identification published in a series of papers by Hori and coworkers (Hori et al., 2012-2015).

  10. Altered Circadian Food Anticipatory Activity Rhythms in PACAP Receptor 1 (PAC1 Deficient Mice.

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    Jens Hannibal

    Full Text Available Light signals from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs entrain the circadian clock and regulate negative masking. Two neurotransmitters, glutamate and Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP, found in the ipRGCs transmit light signals to the brain via glutamate receptors and the specific PACAP type 1 (PAC1 receptor. Light entrainment occurs during the twilight zones and has little effect on clock phase during daytime. When nocturnal animals have access to food only for a few hours during the resting phase at daytime, they adapt behavior to the restricted feeding (RF paradigm and show food anticipatory activity (FAA. A recent study in mice and rats demonstrating that light regulates FAA prompted us to investigate the role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling in the light mediated regulation of FAA. PAC1 receptor knock out (PAC1-/- and wild type (PAC1+/+ mice placed in running wheels were examined in a full photoperiod (FPP of 12:12 h light/dark (LD and a skeleton photoperiod (SPP 1:11:1:11 h L:DD:L:DD at 300 and 10 lux light intensity. Both PAC1-/- mice and PAC1+/+ littermates entrained to FPP and SPP at both light intensities. However, when placed in RF with access to food for 4-5 h during the subjective day, a significant change in behavior was observed in PAC1-/- mice compared to PAC1+/+ mice. While PAC1-/- mice showed similar FAA as PAC1+/+ animals in FPP at 300 lux, PAC1-/- mice demonstrated an advanced onset of FAA with a nearly 3-fold increase in amplitude compared to PAC1+/+ mice when placed in SPP at 300 lux. The same pattern of FAA was observed at 10 lux during both FPP and SPP. The present study indicates a role of PACAP/PAC1 signaling during light regulated FAA. Most likely, PACAP found in ipRGCs mediating non-image forming light information to the brain is involved.

  11. Cutaneous nociception and neurogenic inflammation evoked by PACAP38 and VIP

    OpenAIRE

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) belong to the same secretin–glucagon superfamily and are present in nerve fibers in dura and skin. Using a model of acute cutaneous pain we explored differences in pain perception and vasomotor responses between PACAP38 and VIP in 16 healthy volunteers in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. All participants received intradermal injections of 200 pmol PACAP38, 200 pmol VIP and p...

  12. Mice lacking the PACAP type I receptor have impaired photic entrainment and negative masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, J.; Brabet, P.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    2008-01-01

    and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), which in a rather complex interplay are mediators of photic adjustment of the circadian system. To further characterize the role of PACAP/PACAP receptor type 1 (PAC1) receptor signaling in light entrainment of the clock and in negative masking behavior......The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a retinofugal neuronal pathway which, in mammals, mediates nonimage-forming vision to various areas in the brain involved in circadian timing, masking behavior, and regulation of the pupillary light reflex. The RHT costores the two neurotransmitters glutamate...

  13. PACAP38 induces migraine-like attacks in patients with migraine without aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Birk, Steffen; Wienecke, Troels

    2009-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that infusion of vasoactive neurotransmitters may trigger headache or migraine-like attacks in man. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) is a strong vasodilator found in trigeminal sensory and parasympathetic perivascular nerve fibers. We the...

  14. Cutaneous nociception and neurogenic inflammation evoked by PACAP38 and VIP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther; Holst, Helle; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) belong to the same secretin-glucagon superfamily and are present in nerve fibers in dura and skin. Using a model of acute cutaneous pain we explored differences in pain perception and vasomotor res...

  15. Kynurenines and PACAP in Migraine: Medicinal Chemistry and Pathogenetic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajti, Janos; Szok, Delia; Nagy-Grocz, Gabor; Tuka, Bernadett; Petrovics-Balog, Anna; Toldi, Jozsef; Vecsei, Laszlo

    2017-01-01

    Migraine is a highly disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder, with its exact pathomechanism being still unrevealed. The current leading hypotheses are based on the sensitization and activation of the trigeminovascular system. To review the literature with focus on the effects of kynurenines (L-kynurenine and kynurenic acid) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on the regulation of the trigeminovascular system. A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical publications (198 references) by using the keywords 'kynurenines', 'pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide', and 'migraine' in the database of MEDLINE/PubMed up to 10 September 2016 for topical review. Additional filters used included 'review', 'systematic review', 'original article', and 'English language'. L-kynurenine and kynurenic acid act on the glutamatergic system at the level of the second-order nociceptive neurons in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Pituitary adenylate cyclase- activating polypeptide is released from the peripheral nerve endings of the trigeminal pseudounipolar neurons and causes vasodilation and mast cell degranulation, leading to consequent peripheral sensitization of the dural nociceptors. Centrally released pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis results in the central sensitization of the second-order neurons. The sensitization process leads to the characteristic features of migraine. L-kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide may have fundamental roles in the initiation of migraine headache attacks. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Distribution of vasoactive intestinal peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide, nitric oxide synthase, and their receptors in human and rat sphenopalatine ganglion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Csati, A; Tajti, J; Kuris, A

    2012-01-01

    Cranial parasympathetic outflow is mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). The present study was performed to examine the expression of the parasympathetic signaling transmitters and their receptors in human and rat SPG. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used for the demonstra......Cranial parasympathetic outflow is mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). The present study was performed to examine the expression of the parasympathetic signaling transmitters and their receptors in human and rat SPG. Indirect immunofluorescence technique was used...... for the demonstration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamine synthetase (GS), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), VIP and PACAP common receptors (VPAC1, VPAC2), and PACAP receptor (PAC1). In addition, double labeling...

  17. GHRH, PRP-PACAP and GHRHR Target Sequencing via an Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine Reveals an Association with Growth in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and the receptor, GHRHR, constitute important components of the hypothalamus-pituitary growth axis and act on the downstream growth hormone (GH. PACAP-related peptide/pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PRP-PACAP is a paralog of GHRH. These genes all play key roles in development and growth patterns. To improve the quality of cultured fish strains, natural genetic variation must be examined and understood. A mixed linear model has been widely used in association mapping, taking the population structures and pairwise kinship patterns into consideration. In this study, a mass cross population of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides was examined. These candidate genes were found to harbor low nucleotide diversity (θw from 0.00154 to 0.00388 and linkage disequilibrium levels (delay of 50% within 2 kbp. Association mapping was employed, and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (KR269823.1:g.475A>C and KR269823.1:g.2143T>C were found to be associated with growth (false discovery rate Q < 0.05, explaining 9.0%–17.0% of the phenotypic variance. The association of KR269823.1:g.2143T>C was also found via haplotype-based association (p < 0.05. The identified associations offer new insights into gene functions, and the associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs may be used for breeding purposes.

  18. Comparative effects of ACTH, PACAP, and VIP on fetal human adrenal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoux, E; Breault, L; LeHoux, J G; Gallo-Payet, N

    1998-01-01

    ACTH is a well-known stimulus of human adrenal cells, both in the adult and in the fetus. Two other stimuli, acting via the cAMP pathway, are also involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis and growth of the adult gland, the Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Peptide (PACAP) and the Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP). The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the three peptides on cAMP production and to investigate their possible effect on cytoskeletal organization in the different cell types present in the human fetal adrenal gland, i.e steroidogenic cells and chromaffin cells. Using phalloidin-rhodamine labeling of actin microfilaments, we observed that VIP and ACTH strongly affect cytoskeletal organization. Application of ACTH rapidly induces steroidogenic cells to elaborate fillopodia and junctions with neighboring cells. Application of VIP strongly stimulates the chromaffin cells to elaborate neurite-like extensions, suggesting that the effects of VIP could be, as in adult glands, mediated by the adrenal medulla.

  19. Interactions between Two Different G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Reproductive Hormone-Producing Cells: The Role of PACAP and Its Receptor PAC1R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Kanasaki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH—both gonadotropins—from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin. Prolactin, which is also known as luteotropic hormone and is released from pituitary lactotrophs, stimulates milk production in mammals. Prolactin is also regulated by hypothalamic factors, and it is thought that prolactin synthesis and release are principally under inhibitory control by dopamine through the dopamine D2 receptor. In addition, although it remains unknown whether it is a physiological regulator, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH is a strong secretagogue for prolactin. Thus, GnRH, LH and FSH, and prolactin are mainly regulated by hypothalamic kisspeptin, GnRH, and TRH, respectively. However, the synthesis and release of these hormones is also modulated by other neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP is a hypothalamic peptide that was first isolated from sheep hypothalamic extracts based on its ability to stimulate cAMP production in anterior pituitary cells. PACAP acts on GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs and lactotrophs, resulting in the modulation of their hormone producing/secreting functions. Furthermore, the presence of the PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R has been demonstrated in these cells. We have examined how PACAP and PAC1R affect GnRH- and pituitary hormone-secreting cells and interact with their principle regulators. In this review, we describe our understanding of the role of PACAP and PAC1R in the regulation of Gn

  20. The role of genetics on migraine induction triggered by CGRP and PACAP38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Song

    2017-03-01

    Migraine has a strong genetic component and is characterized by multiphasic events including an initial premonitory phase with premonitory symptoms (PS). Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide-38 (PACAP38) are endogenous neuropeptides that can trigger migraine attacks and have in recent years gained considerable interest in the migraine field. Yet, the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying CGRP- and PACAP38-induced attacks are not fully clarified. Human provocation models have shown that these peptides induce attacks in only two- thirds of migraine patients. Whether this diverse migraine response after CGRP or PACAP38 may be explained by genetic factors is unknown. The present thesis includes four studies that explore different factors that may be associated with the CGRP- and PACAP38-induced migraine response. In study I and II we investigated the role of familial predisposition (family load) and number of risk conferring gene variants on migraine attacks induced by CGRP or PA-CAP38. In study III, we investigated biochemical changes of CGRP, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), S100B and TNF-alpha in the blood after PACAP38. Finally in study IV, we studied whether CGRP or PACAP38 may induce PS. Study I and II demonstrated that PACAP38 and CGRP induce migraine attacks in 63% and 72% of the patients, respectively. Moreover, we showed that patients with high family load or a high number of migraine associated gene variants did not report more migraine attacks after CGRP or PACAP38 than those with no familial predisposition or few gene variants. Study III showed that PACAP38 infusion caused changes in plasma concentrations for VIP and S100B, but not CGRP and TNF-alpha, suggesting activation of parasympathetic nerve endings. Study IV showed absence of PS after CGRP and lack of statistical difference in PS between patients who reported and not reported attacks after PACAP38 suggesting peripheral mechanisms of

  1. CGRP and Migraine: Could PACAP Play a Role Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eric A.; Russo, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder that affects about 12% of the population. In the past decade, the role of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine has been firmly established by clinical studies. CGRP administration can trigger migraines, and CGRP receptor antagonists ameliorate migraine. In this review, we will describe multifunctional activities of CGRP that could potentially contribute to migraine. These include roles in light aversion, neurogenic inflammation, peripheral and central sensitization of nociceptive pathways, cortical spreading depression, and regulation of nitric oxide production. Yet clearly there will be many other contributing genes that could act in concert with CGRP. One candidate is pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), which shares some of the same actions as CGRP, including the ability to induce migraine in migraineurs and light aversive behavior in rodents. Interestingly, both CGRP and PACAP act on receptors that share an accessory subunit called receptor activity modifying protein-1 (RAMP1). Thus, comparisons between the actions of these two migraine-inducing neuropeptides, CGRP and PACAP, may provide new insights into migraine pathophysiology. PMID:24210136

  2. PACAP38/PAC1 signaling induces bone marrow-derived cells homing to ischemic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen-Huan; Chiu, Lian; Lee, Hsu-Tung; Chiang, Chun-Wei; Liu, Shih-Ping; Hsu, Yung-Hsiang; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsu, Chung Y; Hsieh, Chia-Hung; Shyu, Woei-Cherng

    2015-04-01

    Understanding stem cell homing, which is governed by environmental signals from the surrounding niche, is important for developing effective stem cell-based repair strategies. The molecular mechanism by which the brain under ischemic stress recruits bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the vascular niche remains poorly characterized. Here we report that hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activation upregulates pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide 38 (PACAP38), which in turn activates PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1) under hypoxia in vitro and cerebral ischemia in vivo. BMDCs homing to endothelial cells in the ischemic brain are mediated by HIF-1α activation of the PACAP38-PAC1 signaling cascade followed by upregulation of cellular prion protein and α6-integrin to enhance the ability of BMDCs to bind laminin in the vascular niche. Exogenous PACAP38 confers a similar effect in facilitating BMDCs homing into the ischemic brain, resulting in reduction of ischemic brain injury. These findings suggest a novel HIF-1α-activated PACAP38-PAC1 signaling process in initiating BMDCs homing into the ischemic brain for reducing brain injury and enhancing functional recovery after ischemic stroke. © 2015 The Authors. STEM CELLS Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  3. [Transgenic mice overexpressing PACAP in pancreatic beta-cells: acute and chronic effects on insulin and glucose homeostasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimoto, Shuhei; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Shintani, Norihito; Baba, Akemichi

    2004-04-01

    PACAP belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon superfamily, which also includes glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP). PACAP shares an insulinotropic property with the latter two peptides; for instance, it stimulates insulin secretion from islets in a glucose-dependent manner at femtomolar concentrations. However, the pathophysiological significance of PACAP in diabetes remains largely unknown, for several reasons, including a lack of low-molecular weight PACAP ligands and a lack of suitable animal models. As an approach to understanding PACAP's pancreatic function in vivo, we have recently generated transgenic mice overexpressing PACAP in islet beta cells under the control of human insulin promoter (Tg mice). As a consequence, it has been demonstrated that in addition to stimulating insulin secretion, PACAP has long-term effects on pancreatic endocrine cells, including proliferation of beta cells during streptozotocin-induced diabetes development as well as aging. These observations provide additional information to support the possibility that drugs associated with PACAP-signaling pathways might be of therapeutic value for the treatment of diabetes. In this review, we briefly summarize these previous studies using Tg mice and also focus on the physiological and pathophysiological roles mediated by PACAP during diabetes development.

  4. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide promotes eccrine gland sweat secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, S; Watanabe, J; Ohtaki, H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sweat secretion is the major function of eccrine sweat glands; when this process is disturbed (paridrosis), serious skin problems can arise. To elucidate the causes of paridrosis, an improved understanding of the regulation, mechanisms and factors underlying sweat production is requir...

  5. The functional recombinant first extracellular (EC1) domain of PACAP receptor PAC1 normal form (PAC1-EC1(N)) recognizes selective ligands and stimulates the proliferation of PAC1-CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Li, Juan; Wang, Jingjing; Liu, Xiaofei; Huang, Lin; Ding, Yong; Chen, Jiansu

    2010-08-09

    PAC1 is a pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) preferring receptor, which is abundant in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PAC1 belongs to the class B family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The N-terminal first extracellular (EC1) domain of PAC1 is responsible for ligand recognition and binding. In this study, the recombinant EC1 domain of the PAC1 normal (N) form (amino acids 21-155) with 6His tag at the C-terminus (named PAC1-EC1(N)) was first expressed in an Escherichia coli strain and purified by an Ni-NTA affinity column. About 6-8mg of recombinant PAC1-EC1(N) protein with purity above 95% was produced from 1L of bacterial culture. Mass spectrum and western blot were used to identify the recombinant PAC1-EC1(N). Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence (ITF) assays showed that the purified PAC1-EC1(N) protein was able to recognize and bind to the PAC1 selective agonist maxadilan, the antagonist M65 and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). Maxadilan and M65 had higher affinities for PAC1-EC1(N) than VIP. The results of MTT assays showed that PAC1-EC1(N) stimulated the viability of PAC-CHO cells but blocked the effects of maxadilan on the proliferation of CHO cells expressing PAC1 (PAC1-CHO), indicating that the functional soluble PAC1-EC1(N) may act as a regulator for the activation of PAC1. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide stimulates neurite growth in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A; Kimball, B; Romanchuk, G; Mulholland, M W

    1995-01-01

    The ability of PACAP-38 to stimulate morphological development was studied using rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. PACAP-38 produced concentration-dependent increases in percentage of cells exhibiting neurite extension. Similar increases were produced by forskolin (28 +/- 2% at 96 h) and 8-bromo cAMP (30 +/- 2%). Vasoactive intestinal peptide and alpha-calcitonin gene-related peptide were without effect. PACAP-38 produced significant increases in PC12 cell cAMP content and inositol phosphate turnover. Intracellular [Ca2+] increased from 169 +/- 14 nM to 560 +/- 58 nM in response to 1 microM PACAP-38. PACAP-stimulated neurite outgrowth was abolished by RpcAMPS, an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent kinases but was unaffected by the protein kinase C antagonist H7.

  7. Platelet adenylyl cyclase activity as a biochemical trait marker for predisposition to alcoholism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratsma, J.E.; Gunning, W.B.; Leurs, R.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a reduced G(s)-protein stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in the brain and blood cells of alcoholics. We investigated this phenomenon in platelets of children of alcoholics (COA), i.e., of children at high risk for the acquisition of alcoholism and (as yet) not

  8. Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Hansen, Rikke Dyhr

    2017-01-01

    Background Intravenous infusion of adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) provokes migraine-like attacks in 65-70% of migraine sufferers. Whether aggregation of migraine in first-degree relatives contributes to this discrepancy in PACAP38-induced response is unknown. We hypothesize...

  9. VIP/PACAP receptors in cerebral arteries of rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdling, André; Sheykhzade, Majid; Maddahi, Aida

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to describe the effects of two putative VIP/PACAP receptor antagonists and the distribution of the receptor protein in rat brain vessels. METHODS: The vascular effects of VIP, PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 were investigated in segments of rat middle cerebral artery (MCA) by pressurized arteriography......, and in a wire myograph. The antagonistic responses to PACAP6-38 and PG99-465 were evaluated. In addition, the receptor subtypes for VIP and PACAP (VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1)) were visualized in the rat middle cerebral artery by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. RESULTS: In the perfusion model...

  10. Identification of Adenyl Cyclase Activity in a Disease Resistance Protein in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Hussein, Rana

    2012-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide, cAMP, is an important signaling molecule in animals and plants. However, in plants the enzymes that synthesize this second messenger, adenyl cyclases (ACs), remain elusive. Given the physiological importance of cAMP in signaling, particularly in response to biotic and abiotic stresses, it is thus important to identify and characterize ACs in higher plants. Using computational approaches, a disease resistance protein from Arabidopsis thaliana, At3g04220 was found to have an AC catalytic center motif. In an attempt to prove that this candidate has adenyl cyclases activity in vitro, the coding sequence of the putative AC catalytic domain of this protein was cloned and expressed in E. coli and the recombinant protein was purified. The nucleotide cyclase activity of the recombinant protein was examined using cyclic nucleotide enzyme immunoassays. In parallel, the expression of At3g04220 was measured in leaves under three different stress conditions in order to determine under which conditions the disease resistance protein could function. Results show that the purified recombinant protein has Mn2+ dependent AC activity in vitro, and the expression analysis supports a role for At3g04220 and cAMP in plant defense.

  11. Adenylate Cyclase Activity Not Found in Soybean Hypocotyl and Onion Meristem 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunghans, Wayne N.; Morré, D. James

    1977-01-01

    Tissue, homogenates, and purified cell fractions prepared from hypocotyls of a dicot, soybean (Glycine max), and meristematic tissue of a monocot, onion (Allium cepa), were examined critically for evidence of adenylate cyclase activity. Three assay methods were used: chemical analysis, isotope dilution analysis, and enzyme cytochemistry. In both crude extracts or whole tissue, as well as purified membranes, with or without auxin, no adenylate cyclase was detected by any of the three methods. For plasma membranes, the specific activity was less than 1/40 or 1/25,000 that of rat liver plasma membranes, depending on the assay procedure, i.e. below the limits of detection. Using comparable methods, we could detect neither cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate nor the phosphodiesterase responsible for its degradation in either purified membranes or homogenates. The results suggest that hormone responses in plants are not generally mediated by a mechanism involving the obligate production of cyclic adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate by a plasma membrane associated adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:16660026

  12. Dural mast cell degranulation is a putative mechanism for headache induced by PACAP-38

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Michael; Pedersen, Martin Holst Friborg; Olesen, Jes

    2012-01-01

    but not VIP cause degranulation of mast cells in peritoneum and in dura mater. METHODS: The degranulatory effects of PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and VIP were investigated by measuring the amount of N-acetyl-β-hexosaminidase released from isolated peritoneal mast cells and from dura mater attached to the skull...... of the rat in vitro. In peritoneal mast cells N-truncated fragments of PACAP-38 (PACAP(6–38), PACAP(16–38) and PACAP(28–38)) were also studied. To investigate transduction pathways involved in mast cell degranulation induced by PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and VIP, the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122...... and the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ 22536 were used. RESULTS: The peptides induced degranulation of isolated peritoneal mast cells of the rat with the following order of potency: PACAP-38 = PACAP(6–38) = PACAP(16–38) » PACAP-27 = VIP = PACAP(28–38). In the dura mater we found that 10–5 M PACAP-38...

  13. Current status of PACAP as a regulator of insulin secretion in pancreatic islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, T; Sakurada, M; Nakata, M; Ihida, K; Yaekura, K; Shioda, S; Kikuchi, M

    1996-12-26

    PACAP-27 and PACAP-38 as low as 10(-13) M stimulate insulin release from rat islets in a glucose-dependent manner. PACAP also glucose dependently increases cAMP and [Ca2+]i in rat islet beta cells. The [Ca2+]i and insulin secretory responses to PACAP exhibit a similar concentration-response relationship, exhibiting a peak at 10(-13) M. When the [Ca2+]i response is abolished by nitrendipine, a blocker of L-type Ca2+ channels, the insulin response is also inhibited. Insulinotropic peptides glucagon, GLP-1, and VIP also increase [Ca2+]i in beta cells, but only in the nanomolar concentration range. PACAP is 4 logs more potent that VIP, a peptide that exhibits 68% amino acid homology and shares the type II PACAP receptor with PACAP. Immunoreactivity for the type I PACAP receptor is demonstrated in rat islets. Furthermore, PACAP immunoreactivity is demonstrated in nerve fibers and islets in rat pancreas. Based on these findings, we can draw the following conclusions: (1) PACAP is localized in pancreatic nerve fibers and islets; (2) PACAP in the subpicomolar range stimulates insulin release from islets; (3) the stimulation of insulin release is mediated by the cAMP-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i in beta cells; (4) all the PACAP effects are glucose-dependent; (5) PACAP is the most potent insulinotropic hormone known, and (6) the type I PACAP receptor appears to mediate the action of PACAP in the subpicomolar range. Finally, we hypothesize that PACAP is a pancreatic peptide of both neural and islet origin and functions as an intrinsic potentiator of glucose-induced insulin secretion in pancreatic islets (FIG 6).

  14. Forskolin- and dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1987-05-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if dietary lipids can induce changes in the adenylate cyclase system in rat heart. Three groups of male young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks diets containing 10% corn oil (I), 8% coconut oil + 2% corn oil (II) or 10% menhaden oil (III). Adenylate cyclase activity (basal, fluoride-, isoproterenol-, and forskolin-stimulated) was higher in heart homogenates of rats in group III than in the other two groups. Concentration of the (/sup 3/H)-forskolin binding sites in the cardiac membranes were significantly higher in rats fed menhaden oil. The values (pmol/mg protein) were 4.8 +/- 0.2 (I), 4.5 +/- 0.7 (II) and 8.4 +/- 0.5 (III). There was no significant difference in the affinity of the forskolin binding sites among the 3 dietary groups. When measured at different concentrations of forskolin, the adenylate cyclase activity in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil was higher than in the other 2 groups. Concentrations of the (/sup 3/H)DHA binding sites were slightly higher but their affinity was lower in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The results suggest that diets containing fish oil increase the concentration of the forskolin binding sites and may also affect the characteristics of the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor in rat heart.

  15. Crystal Structure of the PAC1R Extracellular Domain Unifies a Consensus Fold for Hormone Recognition by Class B G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Shiva; Pioszak, Augen; Zhang, Chenghai; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Xu, H. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD) bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0638 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0638 ref|NP_999201.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor precursor... AltName: Full=Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type II receptor; Short=PACAP type II rece...ptor; AltName: Full=PACAP-R-2; Flags: Precursor gb|AAA93390.1| vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor [Sus scrofa] NP_999201.1 0.0 78% ...

  17. Striatal dopamine receptors and adenylyl cyclase activity in a rat model of alcohol addiction: effects of ethanol and lisuride treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, T; Wolf, U; Wolffgramm, J

    1995-12-01

    In this report a novel animal model of spontaneous development of alcohol and drug addiction was used. Addiction to ethanol was induced in male Wistar rats (free choice between ethanol solutions and water for 11 mo). After 36 wk of alcohol deprivation these rats (series A) had ingested 3.4 +/- 0.4 g ethanol/kg/day. Age-matched, "controlled" alcohol consumers (series C: free choice for 8 wk) had ingested only 1.6 +/- 0.4 g/kg/day (P < .001). Two additional series of addicted (AL) and controlled alcohol-consuming rats (CL) received lisuride (90 micrograms/kg/day) for 8 wk concomitantly with the self-administered ethanol and again during the last week before death. Ethanol intake was increased by lisuride treatment in both groups (AL: 4.1 +/- 0.3 g/kg/day; CL: 2.7 +/- 0.4 g/kg/day; P < .05). Four months before death the alcohol was withdrawn. After this period of abstinence the in vitro dose-response curves for striatal dopamine D-1 receptor-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity were determined (with eight concentrations of dopamine between 50 nM and 30 microM). Both lisuride-treated (AL) and untreated ethanol-addicted rats (A) displayed a significant (P < .01) increase in the effective concentration required to induce 50% of the response (EC50) as compared with controlled drinkers (C: 720 +/- 150 nM; A: 1820 +/- 390 nM; CL: 590 +/- 110 nM; AL: 1050 +/- 160 nM). Lisuride treatment increased forskolin- (10 microM) stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity and the Bmax of high-affinity [3H]DA binding to the D-1 site.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Is there appetite after GLP-1 and PACAP?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christophe, J

    1998-01-01

    ...], is there a place for GLP-1 and PACAP? GLP-1 receptors present in ARC, PVN, VMN, and SON are the target for both central and blood-borne GLP-1 in those hypothalamic neurons endowed with GLUT-2 and glucokinase...

  19. The in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 and mRNA expression of their receptors in rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boni, L. J.; Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Olesen, Jes

    2009-01-01

    ) and PAC(1) receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-27, PACAP-38, the selective VPAC(1) agonist ([Lys15, Arg16, Leu27]-VIP(1-7)-GRF(8-27)) and a PAC(1) agonist, maxadilan on rat middle meningeal artery (MMA) diameter using the closed cranial window...... model. Selective antagonists were used for further characterization of the responses. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments were also conducted to determine expression of mRNA of PACAP receptors in the MMA. The results showed that VIP, PACAP-38, PACAP-27 and the VPAC(1) specific...... agonist evoked significant dilations with the rank order of potency; VIP = PACAP-38 > PACAP-27 = [Lys15, Arg16, Leu27]-VIP(1-7)-GRF(8-27). Significant inhibition of dilation was only observed for the VPAC(1) antagonist PG97-269 on PACAP-38-induced dilation of MMA. The VPAC(2) antagonist PG99-465 and PAC(1...

  20. Novel serotonin receptors in Fasciola. Characterization by studies on adenylate cyclase activation and [3H]LSD binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNall, S J; Mansour, T E

    1984-09-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1] in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica have been characterized by adenylate cyclase activation studies and by direct binding studies using [3H]-d-lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) as a radioligand. Inhibition of 5-HT stimulation of adenylate cyclase by a series of 5-HT antagonists revealed a potency order of LSD = 2-bromo-LSD greater than methiothepin greater than metergoline = cyproheptadine greater than methysergide greater than spiroperidol. [3H]LSD binding to a cell-free fluke particle preparation was rapid, stereospecific, and proportional to protein concentration. Scatchard analysis indicated multiple binding sites which, when resolved into two components, gave for the high affinity site an apparent dissociation constant of 25 nM and a receptor concentration of 160 fmoles/mg protein. The ability of a series of compounds to compete for [3H]LSD binding sites correlated closely with their ability to inhibit 5-HT stimulation of adenylate cyclase. [3H]LSD binding sites were most concentrated in the anterior region of the fluke which was consistent with the higher levels of 5-HT activated adenylate cyclase found in this region. GTP and 5'-guanylyl imidophosphate, a poorly hydrolyzable GTP analog, decreased the affinity of the agonist 5-HT for the binding sites but had little effect on the affinity of the antagonist 2-bromo-LSD. Calcium at concentrations above 300 microM significantly reduced both [3H]LSD binding and 5-HT activation of adenylate cyclase. The results indicate that [3H]LSD can be used to label the 5-HT receptors coupled to adenylate cyclase activity. The pharmacological specificity and other characteristics of the fluke receptors appear to differ from the properties of reported mammalian 5-HT receptors. As a result, serotonin receptors in the fluke represent sites that may be amenable to selective manipulation by new chemotherapeutic agents

  1. PACAP: A master regulator of neuroendocrine stress circuits and the cellular stress response

    OpenAIRE

    Stroth, Nikolas; Holighaus, Yvonne; Ait-Ali, Djida; Eiden, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide PACAP is an informational molecule released from stress-transducing neurons. It exerts post-synaptic effects required to complete hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) and hypothalamo-splanchnico-adrenomedullary (HSA) circuits activated by psychogenic and metabolic stressors. PACAP-responsive (in cell culture models) and PACAP-dependent (in vivo) transcriptomic responses in the adrenal gland, hypothalamus, and pituitary upon activation of these circuits have been identif...

  2. Meta-analysis of microarray-derived data from PACAP-deficient adrenal gland in vivo and PACAP-treated chromaffin cells identifies distinct classes of PACAP-regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Babru; Gerdin, Matthew J; Huddleston, David; Hsu, Chang-Mei; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Stroth, Nikolas; Hamelink, Carol; Eiden, Lee E

    2007-09-01

    Initial PACAP-regulated transcriptomes of PACAP-treated cultured chromaffin cells, and the adrenal gland of wild-type versus PACAP-deficient mice, have been assembled using microarray analysis. These were compared to previously acquired PACAP-regulated transcriptome sets from PC12 cells and mouse central nervous system, using the same microarray platform. The Ingenuity Pathways Knowledge Base was then employed to group regulated transcripts into common first and second messenger regulatory clusters. The purpose of our meta-analysis was to identify sets of genes regulated distinctly or in common by the neurotransmitter/neurotrophin PACAP in specific physiological contexts. Results suggest that PACAP participates in both the basal differentiated expression, and the induction upon physiological stimulation, of distinct sets of transcripts in neuronal and endocrine cells. PACAP in both developmental and acute regulatory paradigms acts on target genes also regulated by either TNFalpha or TGFbeta, two first messengers acting on transcription mainly through NFkappaB and Smads, respectively.

  3. Conformational changes in guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 induced by Ca2+ and N-terminal fatty acid acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Bereta, Grzegorz; Miyagi, Masaru; Wang, Benlian; Chance, Mark R; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-13

    Neuronal Ca(2+) sensors (NCS) are high-affinity Ca(2+)-binding proteins critical for regulating a vast range of physiological processes. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are members of the NCS family responsible for activating retinal guanylate cyclases (GCs) at low Ca(2+) concentrations, triggering synthesis of cGMP and recovery of photoreceptor cells to the dark-adapted state. Here we use amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange and radiolytic labeling, and molecular dynamics simulations to study conformational changes induced by Ca(2+) and modulated by the N-terminal myristoyl group. Our data on the conformational dynamics of GCAP1 in solution suggest that Ca(2+) stabilizes the protein but induces relatively small changes in the domain structure; however, loss of Ca(+2) mediates a significant global relaxation and movement of N- and C-terminal domains. This model and the previously described "calcium-myristoyl switch" proposed for recoverin indicate significant diversity in conformational changes among these highly homologous NCS proteins with distinct functions.

  4. Modulation of adenylate cyclase activity by a cytosolic factor following chronic opiate exposure in neuroblastoma x glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M T; Law, P Y; Loh, H H

    1983-01-01

    A soluble cytosolic factor from neuroblastoma x glioma NG108-15 hybrid cells stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in isolated membrane preparations. This cytosolic component is heat stable, pronase insensitive, has a molecular weight less than 350 daltons and an absorbance peak at 260 nm. The stimulation is immediate, independent of Ca++ and exhibits a sigmoidal concentration dependency curve. The cytosolic factor stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in etorphine treated cells (100 nM etorphine, 16 hrs) to a greater extent than in control cells. In addition, cytosolic factor derived from etorphine treated cells, as compared to control cells, displayed an increased capacity to stimulate adenylate cyclase. It is suggested that the observed cytosolic factor may be adenosine and that cells chronically treated with an opiate exhibit an increase in both concentration and sensitivity to this agent.

  5. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2002-01-01

    Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP, also called glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are peptide hormones from the gut that enhance nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion (the 'incretin' effect). Judging from experiments in mice with targeted deletions...

  6. Overexpression of guanylate cyclase activating protein 2 in rod photoreceptors in vivo leads to morphological changes at the synaptic ribbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia López-del Hoyo

    Full Text Available Guanylate cyclase activating proteins are EF-hand containing proteins that confer calcium sensitivity to retinal guanylate cyclase at the outer segment discs of photoreceptor cells. By making the rate of cGMP synthesis dependent on the free intracellular calcium levels set by illumination, GCAPs play a fundamental role in the recovery of the light response and light adaptation. The main isoforms GCAP1 and GCAP2 also localize to the synaptic terminal, where their function is not known. Based on the reported interaction of GCAP2 with Ribeye, the major component of synaptic ribbons, it was proposed that GCAP2 could mediate the synaptic ribbon dynamic changes that happen in response to light. We here present a thorough ultrastructural analysis of rod synaptic terminals in loss-of-function (GCAP1/GCAP2 double knockout and gain-of-function (transgenic overexpression mouse models of GCAP2. Rod synaptic ribbons in GCAPs-/- mice did not differ from wildtype ribbons when mice were raised in constant darkness, indicating that GCAPs are not required for ribbon early assembly or maturation. Transgenic overexpression of GCAP2 in rods led to a shortening of synaptic ribbons, and to a higher than normal percentage of club-shaped and spherical ribbon morphologies. Restoration of GCAP2 expression in the GCAPs-/- background (GCAP2 expression in the absence of endogenous GCAP1 had the striking result of shortening ribbon length to a much higher degree than overexpression of GCAP2 in the wildtype background, as well as reducing the thickness of the outer plexiform layer without affecting the number of rod photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that preservation of the GCAP1 to GCAP2 relative levels is relevant for maintaining the integrity of the synaptic terminal. Our demonstration of GCAP2 immunolocalization at synaptic ribbons at the ultrastructural level would support a role of GCAPs at mediating the effect of light on morphological remodeling changes of

  7. PKA, novel PKC isoforms, and ERK is mediating PACAP auto-regulation via PAC1R in human neuroblastoma NB-1 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Birgitte; Falktoft, Birgitte; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2016-01-01

    RNA expression was found after stimulation with PACAP for 3 h. PACAP auto-regulation was found to be mediated by activation of PACAP specific PAC1Rs as PACAP had > 100-fold higher efficacy than VIP, and the PAC1R selective agonist Maxadilan potently induced PACAP gene expression. Experiments with pharmacological...... by activation of PAC1R, and that the signalling is different from the PAC1R signalling mediating induction of VIP in the same cells. PACAP auto-regulation depends on parallel activation of PKA, novel PKC isoforms, and ERK, while EGR1 does not seem to be part of the PACAP auto-regulation....

  8. Investigation of carbachol and PACAP38 in a human model of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Henrik Winther

    2011-01-01

    and VIP in migraine and head pain. In study I-III we investigated acetylcholine, via the analogue carbachol, and PACAP38 in a human model of migraine. In study IV we studied if PACAP38 and VIP might induce central sensitization, neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation in a cutaneous model...... in migraine patients as well as sustained dilatation of cephalic vessels. In study IV VIP and PACAP38 evoked skin pain, central sensitization, neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation, but VIP showed to be more potent than PACAP38 in inducing neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation...... that neurogenic inflammation and mast cell degranulation are unlikely to cause PACAP38 induced migraine. The present thesis contributes to our knowledge on migraine pathophysiology and suggests PAC1 receptor antagonism as a new target for migraine treatment....

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-0362 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-0362 sp|P35000|VIPR2_RAT RecName: Full=Vasoactive intestinal polypepti...de receptor 2; Short=VIP-R-2; AltName: Full=Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type III rece...ptor; Short=PACAP type III receptor; AltName: Full=PACAP-R-3; Flags: Precursor emb|CAA81104.1| VIP2 receptor for va...soactive intestinal peptide (VIP) [Rattus norvegicus] gb|EDL89072.1| vasoa

  10. The in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 and mRNA expression of their receptors in rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boni, L.J.; Ploug, Kenneth Beri; Olesen, Jes

    2009-01-01

    ) and PAC(1) receptors. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effect of VIP, PACAP-27, PACAP-38, the selective VPAC(1) agonist ([Lys15, Arg16, Leu27]-VIP(1-7)-GRF(8-27)) and a PAC(1) agonist, maxadilan on rat middle meningeal artery (MMA) diameter using the closed cranial window...... in the treatment of migraine headache...

  11. Agnathan VIP, PACAP and their receptors: ancestral origins of today's highly diversified forms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Y L Ng

    Full Text Available VIP and PACAP are pleiotropic peptides belonging to the secretin superfamily of brain-gut peptides and interact specifically with three receptors (VPAC(1, PAC(1 and VPAC(2 from the class II B G protein-coupled receptor family. There is immense interest regarding their molecular evolution which is often described closely alongside gene and/or genome duplications. Despite the wide array of information available in various vertebrates and one invertebrate the tunicate, their evolutionary origins remain unresolved. Through searches of genome databases and molecular cloning techniques, the first lamprey VIP/PACAP ligands and VPAC receptors are identified from the Japanese lamprey. In addition, two VPAC receptors (VPACa/b are identified from inshore hagfish and ligands predicted for sea lamprey. Phylogenetic analyses group these molecules into their respective PHI/VIP, PRP/PACAP and VPAC receptor families and show they resemble ancestral forms. Japanese lamprey VIP/PACAP peptides synthesized were tested with the hagfish VPAC receptors. hfVPACa transduces signal via both adenylyl cylase and phospholipase C pathways, whilst hfVPACb was only able to transduce through the calcium pathway. In contrast to the widespread distribution of VIP/PACAP ligands and receptors in many species, the agnathan PACAP and VPAC receptors were found almost exclusively in the brain. In situ hybridisation further showed their abundance throughout the brain. The range of VIP/PACAP ligands and receptors found are highly useful, providing a glimpse into the evolutionary events both at the structural and functional levels. Though representative of ancestral forms, the VIP/PACAP ligands in particular have retained high sequence conservation indicating the importance of their functions even early in vertebrate evolution. During these nascent stages, only two VPAC receptors are likely responsible for eliciting functions before evolving later into specific subtypes post-Agnatha. We

  12. PAC₁ receptors mediate positive chronotropic responses to PACAP-27 and VIP in isolated mouse atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Donald B; Girard, Beatrice M; Hoover, Jeffrey L; Parsons, Rodney L

    2013-08-05

    PACAP and VIP have prominent effects on cardiac function in several species, but little is known about their influence on the murine heart. Accordingly, we evaluated the expression of PACAP/VIP receptors in mouse heart and the response of isolated atria to peptide agonists. Quantitative PCR demonstrated that PAC₁, VPAC₁, and VPAC₂ receptor mRNAs are present throughout the mouse heart. Expression of all three receptor transcripts was low, PAC₁ being the lowest. No regional differences in expression were detected for individual receptor mRNAs after normalization to L32. Pharmacological effects of PACAP-27, VIP, and the selective PAC₁ agonist maxadilan were evaluated in isolated, spontaneously beating atria from C57BL/6 mice of either sex. Incremental additions of PACAP-27 at 1 min intervals caused a concentration-dependent tachycardia with a logEC₅₀=-9.08 ± 0.15 M (n=7) and a maximum of 96.3 ± 5.9% above baseline heart rate. VIP and maxadilan also caused tachycardia but their potencies were about two orders of magnitude less. Increasing the dosing interval to 5 min caused a leftward shift of the concentration-response curve to maxadilan but no changes in the curves for PACAP-27 or VIP. Under this condition, neither the potency nor the efficacy of maxadilan differed from those of PACAP-27. Neither PACAP-27 nor maxadilan caused tachyphylaxis, and maximal responses to maxadilan were maintained for at least 2 h. We conclude that all three VIP/PACAP family receptors are expressed by mouse cardiac tissue, but only PAC₁ receptors mediate positive chronotropic responses to PACAP-27 and VIP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacological characterization and expression of VIP and PACAP receptors in isolated cranial arteries of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Michael; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    and PACAP-38) were investigated versus selective antagonists in segments of rat middle cerebral arteries (MCA), basilar arteries (BA) and middle meningeal arteries (MMA) using myographs. The luminal and abluminal effects of VIP were studied using perfusion myograph. mRNA expression of the relevant receptors...... (VPAC(1), VPAC(2) and PAC(1)) was examined by in situ hybridization. There was no significant difference in relaxant potency of the peptides in the MCA. In BA the relaxant potency was VIP>PACAP-27=PACAP-38. Relaxant responses were either absent or very weak in MMA. VIP was found to be somewhat more...

  14. (/sup 3/H)forskolin- and (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding sites and adenylate cyclase activity in heart of rats fed diets containing different oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S.Q.; Ren, Y.F.; Alam, B.S.

    1988-03-01

    The characteristics of the cardiac adenylate cyclase system were studied in rats fed diets containing fish oil (menhaden oil) and other oils. Adenylate cyclase activity generally was higher in cardiac homogenates and membranes of rats fed diet containing 10% menhaden oil than in the other oils. The increase in enzyme activity, especially in forskolin-stimulated activity, was associated with an increase in the concentration of the (/sup 3/H) forskolin-binding sites in cardiac membranes of rats fed menhaden oil. The beta-adrenergic receptor concentration was not significantly altered although the affinity for (/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol-binding was lower in membranes of rats fed menhaden oil than those fed the other oils. omega-3 fatty acids from menhaden oil were incorporated into the cardiac membrane phospholipids. The results suggest that the observed increase in myocardial adenylate cyclase activity of rats fed menhaden oil may be due to an increase in the number of the catalytic subunits of the enzyme or due to a greater availability of the forskolin-binding sites.

  15. Light-Triggerable Liposomes for Enhanced Endolysosomal Escape and Gene Silencing in PC12 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjie Chen; Wei Deng; Goldys, Ewa M.

    2017-01-01

    Liposomes are an effective gene and/or drug delivery system, widely used in biomedical applications including gene therapy and chemotherapy. Here, we designed a photo-responsive liposome (lipVP) loaded with a photosensitizer verteporfin (VP). This photosensitizer is clinically approved for photodynamic therapy (PDT). LipVP was employed as a DNA carrier for pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) receptor 1 (PAC1R) gene knockdown in PC12 cells. This has been done by incorpora...

  16. Mosaic HIV envelope immunogenic polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korber, Bette T. M.; Gnanakaran, S.; Perkins, Simon; Sodroski, Joseph; Haynes, Barton

    2018-01-02

    Disclosed herein are mosaic HIV envelope (Env) polypeptides that can elicit an immune response to HIV (such as cytotoxic T cell (CTL), helper T cell, and/or humoral responses). Also disclosed are sets of the disclosed mosaic Env polypeptides, which include two or more (for example, three) of the polypeptides. Also disclosed herein are methods for treating or inhibiting HIV in a subject including administering one or more of the disclosed immunogenic polypeptides or compositions to a subject infected with HIV or at risk of HIV infection. In some embodiments, the methods include inducing an immune response to HIV in a subject comprising administering to the subject at least one (such as two, three, or more) of the immunogenic polypeptides or at least one (such as two, three, or more) nucleic acids encoding at least one of the immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein.

  17. Human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus type II is a metabolic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. The disease is associated with occurence of insoluble, fibrillar, protein aggregates in islets of Langerhans in the pancreas - islet amyloid. The main constituent of these protein fibers is the human islet...... amyloid polypeptide, which has a propensity to form oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates consisting of stable beta-sheets. These aggregates are toxic to the pancreatic cells. In-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of islet amyloid formation is an important step towards better understanding of the etiology...... of diabetes type II, while revealing the structure(s) of islet amyloid fibrils is necessary for potential design of therapeutic agents....

  18. The effect of intravenous PACAP38 on cerebral hemodynamics in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Steffen; Sitarz, John Thomas; Petersen, Kenneth Ahrend

    2007-01-01

    PACAP38 is an endogenous peptide located in trigeminal perivascular nerve fibers in the brain. It reduces neuronal loss and infarct size in animal stroke models and has been proposed a candidate substance for human clinical studies of stroke. The effect on systemic hemodynamics and regional......CBF was measured with SPECT and (133)Xe inhalation and mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery was measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. End tidal partial pressure of CO(2) (P(et)CO(2)) and vital parameters were recorded throughout the 2 hour study period. PACAP38 decreased rCBF in all...

  19. Conformational changes in guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1 (GCAP1) induced by Ca2+ and N-terminal fatty acid acylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Tivadar; Bereta, Grzegorz; Miyagi, Masaru; Wang, Benlian; Chance, Mark R.; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal Ca2+ sensors (NCS) are high affinity Ca2+-binding proteins critical for regulating a vast range of physiological processes. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are members of the NCS family responsible for activating retinal guanylate cyclases (GCs) at low Ca2+ concentrations, triggering synthesis of cGMP and recovery of photoreceptor cells to the dark-adapted state. Here we use amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange and radiolytic labeling, and molecular dynamics simulations to study conformational changes induced by Ca2+ and modulated by the N-terminal myristoyl group. Our data on the conformational dynamics of GCAP1 in solution suggest that Ca2+ stabilizes the protein but induces relatively small changes in the domain structure; however, loss of Ca+2 mediates a significant global relaxation and movement of N- and C-terminal domains. This model and the previously described “calcium-myristoyl switch” proposed for recoverin indicate significant diversity in conformational changes among these highly homologous NCS proteins with distinct functions. PMID:20152158

  20. Stabilizing function for myristoyl group revealed by the crystal structure of a neuronal calcium sensor, guanylate cyclase-activating protein 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ricardo; Bereta, Grzegorz; Golczak, Marcin; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Sousa, Marcelo Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) are Ca(2+)-binding proteins myristoylated at the N terminus that regulate guanylate cyclases in photoreceptor cells and belong to the family of neuronal calcium sensors (NCS). Many NCS proteins display a recoverin-like "calcium-myristoyl switch" whereby the myristoyl group, buried inside the protein in the Ca(2+)-free state, becomes fully exposed upon Ca(2+) binding. Here we present a 2.0 A resolution crystal structure of myristoylated GCAP1 with Ca(2+) bound. The acyl group is buried inside Ca(2+)-bound GCAP1. This is in sharp contrast to Ca(2+)-bound recoverin, where the myristoyl group is solvent exposed. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence that the acyl group in GCAP1 remains buried in the Ca(2+)-free state and does not undergo switching. A pronounced kink in the C-terminal helix and the presence of the myristoyl group allow clustering of sequence elements crucial for GCAP1 activity.

  1. VIP and PACAP display different vasodilatory effects in rabbit coronary and cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tórur; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2003-01-01

    . Both peptides produced dose-dependent vasodilatory responses in all vessels investigated. While the effects of PACAP were identical in cerebral and coronary arterial segments, the effects of VIP displayed significant differences (E(max), pI(2), Hill-slope). Treatment with sex steroids induced...

  2. Change in brain network connectivity during PACAP38-induced migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Magon, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    , and visual cortices) and decreased (right cerebellum and left frontal lobe) connectivity with DMN. We found no resting-state network changes after VIP (n = 15). CONCLUSIONS: PACAP38-induced migraine attack is associated with altered connectivity of several large-scale functional networks of the brain....

  3. Hydrogenase polypeptide and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Michael W.W.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Jenney, JR, Francis E.; Sun, Junsong

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are polypeptides having hydrogenase activity. The polypeptide may be multimeric, and may have hydrogenase activity of at least 0.05 micromoles H.sub.2 produced min.sup.-1 mg protein.sup.-1. Also provided herein are polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, genetically modified microbes that include polynucleotides encoding one or more subunits of the multimeric polypeptide, and methods for making and using the polypeptides.

  4. Galanin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harling, H; Messell, T; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1991-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum. The rele......By immunohistochemistry and double staining technique, almost complete coexistence of galanin-like immunoreactivity (GAL-LI) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity (VIP-LI) was demonstrated in submucosal ganglionic cells and mucosal nerve fibers of the porcine ileum...

  5. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Vedtofte, Louise; Holst, Jens Juul

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the glucose dependency of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) effects on insulin and glucagon release in 10 healthy male subjects ([means ± SEM] aged 23 ± 1 years, BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2, and HbA1c 5.5 ± 0.1%). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Saline or physiological doses...

  6. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion. They are called incretin hormones because of their ability to enhance insulin secretion. However...

  7. Pharmacological characterization and expression of VIP and PACAP receptors in isolated cranial arteries of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baun, Michael; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    and PACAP-38) were investigated versus selective antagonists in segments of rat middle cerebral arteries (MCA), basilar arteries (BA) and middle meningeal arteries (MMA) using myographs. The luminal and abluminal effects of VIP were studied using perfusion myograph. mRNA expression of the relevant receptors...... potent in BA than in the MCA. Maxadilan, a selective PAC(1)-receptor agonist, showed no relaxant effect in either vessel. The VPAC(2)-antagonist PG 99-465 alone proved ineffective in the MCA, while it had a weak effect on BA. The VPAC(1)-antagonist PG 97-269 inhibited relaxation induced by both VIP...... and the PACAPs in cerebral vessels. In combination, the two antagonists demonstrated better effect than either alone. VIP applied luminally via perfusion myograph caused no dilatation, indicating lack of endothelial involvement. In situ hybridization demonstrated the presence of mRNA for all three receptors...

  8. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers.

  9. Signal transduction of PACAP and GLP-1 in pancreatic beta cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, C A; Holz, G G; Habener, J F

    1996-12-26

    PACAP and GLP-1 depolarize pancreatic beta cells and stimulate insulin secretion in the presence of glucose. Depolarization occurs through at least two distinct mechanisms: (1) closure of ATP-sensitive K+ channels, and (2) activation of nonselective cation channels (NSCCs). Under physiological conditions the NSCCs carry a predominantly Na(+)-dependent current. The current may also have a Ca2+ component, but this remains to be determined. Acting together, these two signaling systems reinforce each other and serve to promote membrane depolarization, a rise of [Ca2+]i, and exocytosis of insulin-containing secretory granules. The NSCCs in beta cells are dually regulated by intracellular cAMP and [Ca2+]i. In view of this dual regulation, it appears likely that NSCC channel activation results from signaling events occurring not only at the plasma membrane (gating of channels by cAMP; protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation of channels) but also at intracellular sites (mobilization of calcium stores by an as yet to be determined process). It is noteworthy that activation of NSCCs has also been reported following stimulation of beta-cells with maitotoxin, or after depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores. Therefore, the possibility arises that PACAP, GLP-1, and maitotoxin all act on the same types of ion channels in these cells, and that these channels are sensitive to alterations in the content of intracellular calcium. FIGURE 6 summarizes our current knowledge concerning the properties of the PACAP and GLP-1 signaling systems as they pertain to the regulation of NSCCs and intracellular calcium homeostasis in the beta cell. Given that PACAP and GLP-1 are proven to be exceptionally potent insulin secretagogues, it is of considerable interest to determine their usefulness as blood glucose-lowering agents. Initial evaluations of the therapeutic effectiveness of GLP-1 indicate a role for this peptide in the treatment of NIDDM, and also possibly insulin-dependent diabetes

  10. Treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with metformin restores the ability of insulin to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity and demonstrates that insulin does not exert this action through the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawler, D; Milligan, G; Houslay, M D

    1988-01-01

    Insulin caused the inhibition of glucagon-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in liver plasma membranes, but failed to inhibit this activity in liver membranes from rats made diabetic by treatment with either alloxan or streptozotocin. Treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats with insulin, to normalize their blood glucose concentrations, restored this action of insulin. Rats treated with the biguanide drug metformin exhibited a decreased content of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gi in liver plasma membranes assessed both structurally, by using a specific polyclonal antibody (AS7), and functionally. Treatment of normal rats with metformin did not alter insulin's ability to inhibit adenylate cyclase in liver plasma membranes; however, metformin treatment of streptozotocin-diabetic rats completely restored this inhibitory action of insulin. Liver plasma membranes from streptozotocin-diabetic animals which either had or had not been treated with metformin had contents of Gi which were less than 10% of those seen in control animals. We conclude that: (i) insulin does not inhibit adenylate cyclase activity through the inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein Gi; (ii) streptozotocin- and alloxan-induced diabetes elicit a selective insulin-resistant state; and (iii) metformin can exert a post-receptor effect, at the level of the liver plasma membrane, which restores the ability of insulin to inhibit adenylate cyclase. PMID:3124829

  11. PACAP interacts with PAC1 receptors to induce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) expression and activity in schwann cell-like cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures.

  12. PACAP interacts with PAC1 receptors to induce tissue plasminogen activator (tPA expression and activity in schwann cell-like cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Castorina

    Full Text Available Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures.

  13. Polypeptide having swollenin activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elizabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; Vlasie, Monica D; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2015-11-04

    The invention relates to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 73% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 73% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  14. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel Bring

    2016-01-01

    The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion. They are called incretin hormones because of their ability to enhance insulin secretion. However, i...... glucose to prevent hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the studies position GIP as a bifunctional blood glucose stabilising hormone that glucose-dependently regulates insulin and glucagon responses in humans.......The hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the intestinal mucosa in response to nutrient ingestion. They are called incretin hormones because of their ability to enhance insulin secretion. However...... the blood glucose levels. In Study 3, we also used stable glucose isotopes to estimate the endogenous glucose production and assessed symptoms and cognitive function during hypoglycaemia. The results from the three studies indicate that GIP has effects on insulin and glucagon responses highly dependent upon...

  15. Impact of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor Deficiency on the Neurochemical and Behavioral Effects of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress in Male C57BL/6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Tomris; Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Adrian M.; Weihe, Eberhard; Thistlethwaite, Ian; Eiden, Lee E.

    2016-01-01

    Acute restraint stress (ARS) for 3 hours causes CORT elevation in venous blood, which is accompanied by Fos up-regulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male C57BL/6 mice. CORT elevation by ARS is attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but unaffected in PAC1-deficient mice. Correspondingly, Fos up-regulation by ARS is greatly attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but much less so in PAC1-deficient animals. We noted that both PACAP- and PAC1-deficiency greatly attenuate CORT elevation after ARS when CORT measurements are performed on trunk blood following euthanasia by abrupt cervical separation: this latter observation is of critical importance in assessing the role of PACAP neurotransmission in ARS, based on previous reports in which serum CORT was sampled from trunk blood. Seven days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces non-habituating CORT elevation, and weight loss consequent to hypophagia, in wild-type male C57BL/6 mice. Both CORT elevation and weight loss following seven day CRS are severely blunted in PACAP-deficient mice, but only slightly in PAC1 deficient mice. However, longer periods of daily restraint (14–21 days) resulted in sustained weight loss and elevated CORT in wild-type mice, and these effects of long-term chronic stress were attenuated or abolished in both PACAP- and PAC1-deficient mice. We conclude that while a PACAP receptor in addition to PAC1 may mediate some of the PACAP-dependent central effects of acute restraint stress and short-term (restraint stress on the HPA axis, the PAC1 receptor plays a prominent role in mediating PACAP-dependent HPA axis activation, and hypophagia, during long-term (>7 days) chronic restraint stress. PMID:25853791

  16. Ordered biological nanostructures formed from chaperonin polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D. (Inventor); McMillan, R. Andrew (Inventor); Kagawa, Hiromi (Inventor); Paavola, Chad D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The following application relates to nanotemplates, nanostructures, nanoarrays and nanodevices formed from wild-type and mutated chaperonin polypeptides, methods of producing such compositions, methods of using such compositions and particular chaperonin polypeptides that can be utilized in producing such compositions.

  17. Polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2017-11-21

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellobiohydrolase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj

    2018-02-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-05-02

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having catalase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu; Tang, Lan

    2017-09-26

    Provided are isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. Also provided are nucleic acid constructs, vectors and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. PACAP-38 but not VIP induces release of CGRP from trigeminal nucleus caudalis via a receptor distinct from the PAC1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Baun, Michael; Amrutkar, Dipak V

    2014-01-01

    by immunohistochemistry in TG and TNC. mRNA expression studies of VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1-receptors were performed by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: PACAP-38 administered in increasing concentrations caused a concentration-dependent CGRP-release in the TNC, but not in TG. VIP was without effect in both tissues examined. The PAC1...... receptor agonist maxadilan had no effect on CGRP release and the PAC1 antagonist M65 did not inhibit PACAP-38 induced CGRP release. PACAP-38 or VIP did not affect NOS activity in homogenates of TG and TNC. Quantitative PCR demonstrated the presence of VPAC1, VPAC2 and PAC1 receptors in TG and TNC...... is not caused via activation of PAC1, VPAC1 or VPAC2 receptors. PACAP has no effect on NOS activity in TG or TNC. In TG PACAP was found in neuronal cells and in satellite glial cells. It co-localized with CGRP and nNOS in the neuronal cells. In TNC PACAP was co-localized with CGRP but not with nNOS....

  2. A family of microbial lysine transporter polypeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    modifications that confer reduced lysine metabolism and/or enhanced lysine synthesis as compared to the parent cell from which said genetically modified cell was derived. The invention further provides a method for producing lysine using the genetically modified microbial cell. The invention further provides...... a novel family of lysine transporter polypeptides; and the use of said polypeptide to enhance production of extracellular lysine in a microbial cell....

  3. Crystal Structure of the PAC1R Extracellular Domain Unifies a Consensus Fold for Hormone Recognition by Class B G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shiva; Pioszak, Augen; Zhang, Chenghai; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel); (NU Singapore)

    2012-02-21

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD) bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism of hormone binding. However, the mechanism of how PACAP binds to its receptor remains controversial as an NMR structure of the PAC1R ECD/PACAP complex reveals a different topology of the ECD and a distinct mode of ligand recognition. Here we report a 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of the PAC1R ECD, which adopts the same fold as commonly observed for other members of Class B GPCR. Binding studies and cell-based assays with alanine-scanned peptides and mutated receptor support a model that PAC1R uses the same conserved fold of Class B GPCR ECD for PACAP binding, thus unifying the consensus mechanism of hormone binding for this family of receptors.

  4. Crystal structure of the PAC1R extracellular domain unifies a consensus fold for hormone recognition by class B G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiva; Pioszak, Augen; Zhang, Chenghai; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Xu, H Eric

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD) bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism of hormone binding. However, the mechanism of how PACAP binds to its receptor remains controversial as an NMR structure of the PAC1R ECD/PACAP complex reveals a different topology of the ECD and a distinct mode of ligand recognition. Here we report a 1.9 Å crystal structure of the PAC1R ECD, which adopts the same fold as commonly observed for other members of Class B GPCR. Binding studies and cell-based assays with alanine-scanned peptides and mutated receptor support a model that PAC1R uses the same conserved fold of Class B GPCR ECD for PACAP binding, thus unifying the consensus mechanism of hormone binding for this family of receptors.

  5. Crystal structure of the PAC1R extracellular domain unifies a consensus fold for hormone recognition by class B G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR. Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism of hormone binding. However, the mechanism of how PACAP binds to its receptor remains controversial as an NMR structure of the PAC1R ECD/PACAP complex reveals a different topology of the ECD and a distinct mode of ligand recognition. Here we report a 1.9 Å crystal structure of the PAC1R ECD, which adopts the same fold as commonly observed for other members of Class B GPCR. Binding studies and cell-based assays with alanine-scanned peptides and mutated receptor support a model that PAC1R uses the same conserved fold of Class B GPCR ECD for PACAP binding, thus unifying the consensus mechanism of hormone binding for this family of receptors.

  6. Polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Lan; Duan, Junxin; Zhang, Yu

    2017-08-22

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having laccase activity and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Mice lacking the PACAP type I receptor have impaired photic entrainment and negative masking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Jens; Brabet, Philippe; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2008-01-01

    , we extended previous studies in mice lacking the PAC1 receptor (PAC1 KO) by examining their phase response to single light pulses using Aschoff type II regime, their ability to entrain to non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles and large phase shifts of the LD cycle (jet lag), as well as their negative...... phase delays, which was prominent at low light intensities. The data obtained at late night indicated that PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling is less important during the phase-advancing part of the phase-response curve. Finally, the PAC1 KO mice showed impaired negative masking behavior at low light......The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a retinofugal neuronal pathway which, in mammals, mediates nonimage-forming vision to various areas in the brain involved in circadian timing, masking behavior, and regulation of the pupillary light reflex. The RHT costores the two neurotransmitters glutamate...

  8. Carbohydrate degrading polypeptide and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagt, Cornelis Maria Jacobus; Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Roubos, Johannes Andries; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2015-10-20

    The invention relates to a polypeptide having carbohydrate material degrading activity which comprises the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1 or SEQ ID NO: 4, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional protein and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  9. Potential energy surface of alanine polypeptide chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2006-01-01

    for the folding of such peptide molecules and proteins). The potential energy surfaces have been calculated ab initio within the framework of the density functional theory taking into account all electrons in the system. The probabilities of transitions between various stable conformations of polypeptide...... molecules are evaluated. The results are compared to the data obtained by molecular dynamics simulations and to the available experimental data. The influence of the secondary structure of the polypeptide chain on its conformational properties with respect to rotations has been studied. It is shown that......, in a chain of six amino acid (Ala) residues, the secondary structure type (helix or sheet conformation) influences the stable isomer states of the polypeptide....

  10. PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in light regulated behavior and physiology: Studies in single and double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Hannibal

    Full Text Available The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system. We compared circadian rhythms in mice equipped with running wheels or implanted radio-transmitter measuring core body temperature kept in a full photoperiod ((FPP(12:12 h light dark-cycles (LD and skeleton photo periods (SPP at high and low light intensity. Furthermore, we examined the expression of PAC1- and VPAC2 receptors in the SCN of the different genotypes in combination with visualization of PACAP and VIP and determined whether compensatory changes in peptide and/or receptor expression in the reciprocal knockouts (KO (PAC1 and VPAC2 had occurred. Our data demonstrate that in although being closely related at both ligand and receptor structure/sequence, PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling are independent of VIP/VPAC2 receptor signaling and vice versa. Furthermore, lack of either of the receptors does not result in compensatory changes at neither the physiological or anatomical level. PACAP/PAC1 signaling is important for light regulated behavior, VIP/VPAC2signaling for stable clock function and both signaling pathways may play a role in shaping diurnality versus nocturnality.

  11. Ca 2+ signaling by plant Arabidopsis thaliana Pep peptides depends on AtPepR1, a receptor with guanylyl cyclase activity, and cGMP-activated Ca 2+ channels

    KAUST Repository

    Qia, Zhi

    2010-11-18

    A family of peptide signaling molecules (AtPeps) and their plasma membrane receptor AtPepR1 are known to act in pathogendefense signaling cascades in plants. Little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms that link these signaling peptides and their receptor, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, to downstream pathogen-defense responses. We identify some cellular activities of these molecules that provide the context for a model for their action in signaling cascades. AtPeps activate plasma membrane inwardly conducting Ca 2+ permeable channels in mesophyll cells, resulting in cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. This activity is dependent on their receptor as well as a cyclic nucleotide-gated channel (CNGC2). We also show that the leucine-rich repeat receptor- like kinase receptor AtPepR1 has guanylyl cyclase activity, generating cGMP from GTP, and that cGMP can activate CNGC2- dependent cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. AtPep-dependent expression of pathogen-defense genes (PDF1.2, MPK3, and WRKY33) is mediated by the Ca 2+ signaling pathway associated with AtPep peptides and their receptor. The work presented here indicates that extracellular AtPeps, which can act as danger-associated molecular patterns, signal by interaction with their receptor, AtPepR1, a plasma membrane protein that can generate cGMP. Downstream from AtPep and AtPepR1 in a signaling cascade, the cGMP-activated channel CNGC2 is involved in AtPep- and AtPepR1-dependent inward Ca 2+ conductance and resulting cytosolic Ca 2+ elevation. The signaling cascade initiated by AtPeps leads to expression of pathogen- defense genes in a Ca 2+-dependent manner.

  12. Polypeptide electrophoretic pattern of Matricaria chamomilla and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to study the effects of salinity and Fe-deficiency on electrophoresis pattern of polypeptides in two chamomile genera (Matricaria chamomilla and Anthemis nobilis), a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized block design with three replications, in 2010. The experimental factors were two ...

  13. (Diabegard ® ), a Polypeptide Isolated from the Seeds of Momordica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Report of Six Clinical Cases of Lowered Blood Cholesterol Profile Associated with Supplementation with Polypeptide K (Diabegard ® ), a Polypeptide Isolated from the Seeds of Momordica charantia Linn.

  14. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorr, Kirk; Kramer, Randall

    2017-08-08

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  15. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Tang, Lan

    2018-01-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  16. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  17. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc

    2014-01-14

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase, or beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  18. Polynucleotides encoding polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth

    2010-03-02

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  19. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc D; Patkar, Shamkant; Ding, Hanshu

    2013-11-12

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Paul; Golightly, Elizabeth

    2012-11-27

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  1. Polypeptides having endoglucanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Shagasi, Tarana

    2017-05-30

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having endoglucanase activity, catalytic domains, cellulose binding domains and polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides, catalytic domains or cellulose binding domains. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides, catalytic domains or cellulose binding domains.

  2. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and nucleic acids encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul; Zaretsky, Elizabeth; Re, Edward; Vlasenko, Elena; McFarland, Keith; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods for producing and using the polypeptides.

  3. Polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Lan; Liu, Ye; Duan, Junxin; Wu, Wenping; Kramer, Randall

    2017-09-19

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  4. Polypeptides having xylanase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Rey, Michael

    2017-09-26

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having xylanase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PVAM-01-1527 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PVAM-01-1527 ref|NP_031433.3| adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 recep...tor 1 isoform 1 [Mus musculus] sp|P70205|PACR_MOUSE RecName: Full=Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating pol...9.1| pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor [Mus musculus] g...b|EDK98731.1| adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 receptor 1 [Mus musculus] NP_031433.3 0.0 71% ...

  6. Characterization and distribution of GHRH, PACAP, TRH, SST and IGF1 mRNAs in the green iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Mendoza, José; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Urban-Sosa, Valeria; Carranza, Martha; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The somatotropic axis (SA) regulates numerous aspects of vertebrate physiology such as development, growth, and metabolism and has influence on several tissues including neural, immune, reproductive and gastric tract. Growth hormone (GH) is a key component of SA, it is synthesized and released mainly by pituitary somatotrophs, although now it is known that virtually all tissues can express GH, which, in addition to its well-described endocrine roles, also has autocrine/paracrine/intracrine actions. In the pituitary, GH expression is regulated by several hypothalamic neuropeptides including GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST. GH, in turn, regulates IGF1 synthesis in several target tissues, adding complexity to the system since GH effects can be exerted either directly or mediated by IGF1. In reptiles, little is known about the SA components and their functional interactions. The aim of this work was to characterize the mRNAs of the principal SA components in the green iguana and to develop the tools that allow the study of the structural and functional evolution of this system in reptiles. By employing RT-PCR and RACE, the cDNAs encoding for GHRH, PACAP, TRH, SST and IGF1 were amplified and sequenced. Results showed that these cDNAs coded for the corresponding protein precursors of 154, 170, 243, 113, and 131 amino acids, respectively. Of these, GHRH, PACAP, SST and IGF1 precursors exhibited a high structural conservation with respect to its counterparts in other vertebrates. On the other hand, iguana's TRH precursor showed 7 functional copies of mature TRH (pyr-QHP-NH2), as compared to 4 and 6 copies of TRH in avian and mammalian proTRH sequences, respectively. It was found that in addition to its primary production site (brain for GHRH, PACAP, TRH and SST, and liver for IGF1), they were also expressed in other peripheral tissues, i.e. testes and ovaries expressed all the studied mRNAs, whereas TRH and IGF1 mRNAs were observed ubiquitously in all tissues considered. These

  7. POLYPEPTIDE AND POLYSACCHARIDE PROCESSING IN HYPERTHERMOPHILIC MICROORGANISMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY, ROBERT M.

    2008-12-22

    This project focused on the microbial physiology and biochemistry of heterotrophic hyperthermophiles with respect to mechanisms by which these organisms process polypeptides and polysaccharides under normal and stressed conditions. Emphasis is on two model organisms, for which completed genome sequences are available: Pyrococcus furiosus (growth Topt of 98°C), an archaeon, and Thermotoga maritima (growth Topt of 80°C), a bacterium. Both organisms are obligately anaerobic heterotrophs that reduce sulfur facultatively. Whole genome cDNA spotted microarrays were used to follow transcriptional response to a variety of environmental conditions in order to identify genes encoding proteins involved in the acquisition, synthesis, processing and utilization of polypeptides and polysaccharides. This project provided new insights into the physiological aspects of hyperthermophiles as these relate to microbial biochemistry and biological function in high temperature habitats. The capacity of these microorganisms to produce biohydrogen from renewable feedstocks makes them important for future efforts to develop biofuels.

  8. Analysis of PAC1 receptor gene variants in Caucasian and African American infants dying of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Karlene T; Rodikova, Ekaterina; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Rand, Casey M; Marazita, Mary L; Cooper, Margaret E; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth M; Bech-Hansen, N Torben; Wilson, Richard J A

    2013-12-01

    Stress peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), has been implicated in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The aim of this exploratory study was to determine whether variants in the gene encoding the PACAP-specific receptor, PAC1, are associated with SIDS in Caucasian and African American infants. Polymerase chain reaction and Sanger DNA sequencing was used to compare variants in the 5'-untranslated region, exons and intron-exon boundaries of the PAC1 gene in 96 SIDS cases and 96 race- and gender-matched controls. The intron 3 variant, A/G: rs758995 (variant 'h'), and the intron 6 variant, C/T: rs10081254 (variant 'n'), were significantly associated with SIDS in Caucasians and African Americans, respectively (p < 0.05). Also associated with SIDS were interactions between the variants rs2302475 (variant 'i') in PAC1 and rs8192597 and rs2856966 in PACAP among Caucasians (p < 0.02) and rs2267734 (variant 'q') in PAC1 and rs1893154 in PACAP among African Americans (p < 0.01). However, none of these differences survived post hoc analysis. Overall, this study does not support a strong association between variants in the PAC1 gene and SIDS; however, a number of potential associations between race-specific variants and SIDS were identified that warrant targeted investigations in future studies. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multiple polypeptide forms observed in two-dimensional gels of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) polypeptides are generated during the separation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berven, Frode S; Karlsen, Odd A; Murrell, J Colin; Jensen, Harald B

    2003-02-01

    We have examined two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel maps of polypeptides from the Gram-negative bacterium Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and found the same widespread trains of spots as often reported in 2-DE gels of polypeptides of other Gram-negative bacteria. Some of the trains of polypeptides, both from the outer membrane and soluble protein fraction, were shown to be generated during the separation procedure of 2-DE, and not by covalent post-translational modifications. The trains were found to be regenerated when rerunning individual polypeptide spots. The polypeptides analysed giving this type of trains were all found to be classified as stable polypeptides according to the instability index of Guruprasad et al. (Protein Eng. 1990, 4, 155-161). The phenomenon most likely reflects conformational equilibria of polypeptides arising from the experimental conditions used, and is a clear drawback of the standard 2-DE procedure, making the gel picture unnecessarily complex to analyse.

  10. Polypeptide having acetyl xylan esterase activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2015-10-20

    The invention relates to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 82% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 82% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  11. Polypeptide having beta-glucosidase activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; De Jong, Rene Marcel; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2016-09-13

    The invention relates to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  12. Polypeptide having beta-glucosidase activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; De Jong, Rene Marcel; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2015-09-01

    The invention relates to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 70% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 70% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  13. Characterization of a Crosslinked Elastomeric-Protein Inspired Polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Brigida; Bracalello, Angelo; Pepe, Antonietta

    2016-08-01

    Materials inspired by natural proteins have a great appeal in tissue engineering for their biocompatibility and similarity to extracellular matrix (ECM). Chimeric polypeptides inspired by elastomeric proteins such as silk, elastin, and collagen are of outstanding interest in the field. A recombinant polypeptide constituted of three different blocks, each of them having sequences derived from elastin, resilin, and collagen proteins, was demonstrated to be a good candidate as biomaterial for its self-assembling characteristics and biocompatibility. Herein, taking advantage of the primary amine functionalities present in the linear polypeptide, we crosslinked it with 1,6-hexamethylene-diisocyanate (HMDI). The characterization of the obtained polypeptide was realized by CD spectroscopy, AFM, and SEM microscopies. The obtained results, although not conclusive, demonstrate that the crosslinked polypeptide gave rise to porous networks, thin nanowires, and films not observable for the linear polypeptide. Chirality 28:606-611, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Endogenous pancreatic polypeptide in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Schwartz, Tania; Bülow, J B

    1986-01-01

    The plasma concentration of pancreatic polypeptide (PP-like immunoreactivity) was measured in different vascular beds in order to determine regional kinetics of endogenous PP in fasting, supine subjects with normal or moderately decreased kidney function. Patients with kidney disease (n = 10) had...... concentration (r = 0.70, P less than 0.01). Hepatic venous PP was significantly higher than systemic PP in both controls and patients with kidney disease (P less than 0.001, n = 15). The values were positively correlated (r = 0.98, P less than 0.001; slope = 1.37 +/- 0.05, P less than 0.001), indicating...

  15. Phase transitions in polypeptides: analysis of energy fluctuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2009-01-01

    The helix random coil transition in alanine, valine, and leucine polypeptides consisting of 30 amino acids is studied in vacuo using the Langevin molecular dynamics approach. The influence of side chain radicals on internal energy and heat capacity of the polypeptides is discussed. The heat...... capacity of these polypeptides is calculated as a function of temperature using two different methods, namely, as the derivative of the energy with respect to temperature, and on the basis of energy fluctuations in the system. The convergence of the fluctuations based approach is analyzed as a function...... of simulation time. This study provides a comparison of methods for the description of structural transitions in polypeptides....

  16. Regulation of Appetite, Body Composition, and Metabolic Hormones by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, John P; Larauche, Muriel; Flores, Martin; Luong, Leon; Norris, Joshua; Oh, Suwan; Liang, Li-Jung; Waschek, James; Pisegna, Joseph R; Germano, Patrizia M

    2015-06-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of vertebrates such as goldfishes, chicken and rodents. Additional studies are necessary to analyze the role of endogenous VIP on the regulation of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, body mass composition and energy balance. The aim of the study was to elucidate the physiological pathways by which VIP regulates appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, metabolic hormones, and body mass composition. VIP deficient (VIP -/-) and age-matched wild-type (WT) littermates were weekly monitored from 5 to 22 weeks of age using a whole body composition EchoMRI analyzer. Food intake and feeding behavior were analyzed using the BioDAQ automated monitoring system. Plasma levels of metabolic hormones including active-ghrelin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), adiponectin, and insulin were measured in fasting as well as in postprandial conditions. The genetic lack of VIP led to a significant reduction of body weight and fat mass and to an increase of lean mass as the mice aged. Additionally, VIP-/- mice had a disrupted pattern of circadian feeding behavior resulting in an abolished regular nocturnal/diurnal feeding. These changes were associated with an altered secretion of adiponectin, GLP-1, leptin, PYY and insulin in VIP-/- mice. Our data demonstrates that endogenous VIP is involved in the control of appetite/satiety, feeding behavior, body mass composition and in the secretion of six different key regulatory metabolic hormones. VIP plays a key role in the regulation of body phenotype by significantly enhancing body weight and fat

  17. Doxycycline exerted neuroprotective activity by enhancing the activation of neuropeptide GPCR PAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rongjie; Zheng, Lijun; Cui, Yue; Zhang, Huahua; Ye, Heng

    2016-04-01

    Doxycycline has significant neuroprotective effect with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity. We found for the first time that doxycycline specially promoted the proliferation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells with high expression of neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) preferring G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), PACAP receptor 1(PAC1) and induced the internalization of PAC1 tagged with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) indicating doxycycline interacted with PAC1. The homology modeling of PAC1 and molecular docking of doxycycline with PAC1 showed the theoretical binding of doxycycline to PAC1 at the site where PACAP(30-37) recognized. The competition binding assay and PAC1 site-specific mutation of Asp116, which formed two hydrogen bonds with Dox, confirmed the binding of doxycycline to PAC1 imitating PACAP(30-37). Doxycycline (100 ng/mL) significantly promoted the proliferative activities of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and oligopeptide HSDGIF responsible for the activation of PAC1 in PAC1-CHO cells, indicating that doxycycline facilitated the binding and the activation of PAC1 imitating PACAP(28-38). In Neuro2a cells with endogenous expression of PAC1 and its ligands, doxycycline not only promoted the proliferation of Neuro2a cells but also protected the cells from scopolamine induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by cAMP-PKA signal pathway inhibitor H-89, PAC1 shRNA or PACAP antagonist PACAP(6-38). The in vivo study showed long-term treatment with doxycycline (100ug/kg) had significant effect against scopolamine induced amnesia, and the synergetic anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effect of doxycycline with VIP was more efficient than doxycycline alone or VIP alone, indicating doxycycline enhanced the activation of PAC1 in vivo effectively. Furthermore, doxycycline analogue minocycline also had similar theoretically binding site on PAC1 to doxycycline and displayed corresponding

  18. Block co-polypeptide and hydrogels made thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de F.A.; Werten, M.W.T.; Moers, A.P.H.A.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Eggink, G.

    2009-01-01

    Disclosed is a block co-polypeptide comprising at least two blocks T and at least one block S, with blocks T and S alternating, wherein each T independently denotes a Trimerizing Block being a polypeptide block capable of forming a thermoreversible collagen-like triple helix structure, and

  19. [Immune polypeptides activity in bee hemolymph].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokół, R

    1999-01-01

    The honeybee developed through evolution efficient inborn and acquired immune mechanisms which allow it to function in the enviromment. In the inborn immunity phagocytosis is classified to the oldest defensive mechanisms which relies on catching and destruction of the pathogens by the plastmocytes and granulocytes in the hemolymph and lysozymes - the most important components of the natural humoral immunity. Acquired immunity covers, above all, polypeptides and immune proteins e. g. apidaecin and abbacin. Apidaecins represent one of the most important anti-bacterial elements of acquired immunity. Apidaecins arise from fat bodies appearing soon after bacterial infection, also protect the insect from envirommental pathogens. Abaccin acts mainly on Gram positive bacteria. Its characteristic quality is delayed action in camparision to apidaecins, synergy with bee hemolymph anti-bacterial factors as well as assistance in anti-bacterial defense.

  20. Protein Encapsulation via Polypeptide Complex Coacervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, Katie A.; Priftis, Dimitrios; Perry, Sarah L.; Yip, Jeremy; Byun, William Y.; Tirrell, Matthew

    2014-10-21

    Proteins have gained increasing success as therapeutic agents; however, challenges exist in effective and efficient delivery. In this work, we present a simple and versatile method for encapsulating proteins via complex coacervation with oppositely charged polypeptides, poly(L-lysine) (PLys) and poly(D/L-glutamic acid) (PGlu). A model protein system, bovine serum albumin (BSA), was incorporated efficiently into coacervate droplets via electrostatic interaction up to a maximum loading of one BSA per PLys/PGlu pair and could be released under conditions of decreasing pH. Additionally, encapsulation within complex coacervates did not alter the secondary structure of the protein. Lastly the complex coacervate system was shown to be biocompatible and interact well with cells in vitro. A simple, modular system for encapsulation such as the one presented here may be useful in a range of drug delivery applications.

  1. Fibrillar dimer formation of islet amyloid polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Chi-cheng [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); de Pablo, Juan J. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-05-08

    Amyloid deposits of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), a 37-residue hormone co-produced with insulin, have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. Residues 20 – 29 of hIAPP have been proposed to constitute the amyloidogenic core for the aggregation process, yet the segment is mostly unstructured in the mature fibril, according to solid-state NMR data. Here we use molecular simulations combined with bias-exchange metadynamics to characterize the conformational free energies of hIAPP fibrillar dimer and its derivative, pramlintide. We show that residues 20 – 29 are involved in an intermediate that exhibits transient β-sheets, consistent with recent experimental and simulation results. By comparing the aggregation of hIAPP and pramlintide, we illustrate the effects of proline residues on inhibition of the dimerization of IAPP. The mechanistic insights presented here could be useful for development of therapeutic inhibitors of hIAPP amyloid formation.

  2. Smart systems related to polypeptide sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Franco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing interest for the application of polypeptide-based smart systems in the biomedical field has developed due to the advantages given by the peptidic sequence. This is due to characteristics of these systems, which include: biocompatibility, potential control of degradation, capability to provide a rich repertoire of biologically specific interactions, feasibility to self-assemble, possibility to combine different functionalities, and capability to give an environmentally responsive behavior. Recently, applications concerning the development of these systems are receiving greater attention since a targeted and programmable release of drugs (e.g. anti-cancer agents can be achieved. Block copolymers are discussed due to their capability to render differently assembled architectures. Hybrid systems based on silica nanoparticles are also discussed. In both cases, the selected systems must be able to undergo fast changes in properties like solubility, shape, and dissociation or swelling capabilities. This review is structured in different chapters which explain the most recent advances on smart systems depending on the stimuli to which they are sensitive. Amphiphilic block copolymers based on polyanionic or polycationic peptides are, for example, typically employed for obtaining pH-responsive systems. Elastin-like polypeptides are usually used as thermoresponsive polymers, but performance can be increased by using techniques which utilize layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembly. This approach offers a great potential to create multilayered systems, including nanocapsules, with different functionality. Recent strategies developed to get redox-, magnetic-, ultrasound-, enzyme-, light- and electric-responsive systems are extensively discussed. Finally, some indications concerning the possibilities of multi-responsive systems are discussed.

  3. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter

    2013-11-19

    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  4. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter

    2013-02-05

    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2]cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  5. DREAM mediates cAMP-dependent, Ca2+-induced stimulation of GFAP gene expression and regulates cortical astrogliogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebolla, Beatriz; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio; Perea, Gertrudis; Araque, Alfonso; Vallejo, Mario

    2008-06-25

    In the developing mouse brain, once the generation of neurons is mostly completed during the prenatal period, precisely coordinated signals act on competent neural precursors to direct their differentiation into astrocytes, which occurs mostly after birth. Among these signals, those provided by neurotrophic cytokines and bone morphogenetic proteins appear to have a key role in triggering the neurogenic to gliogenic switch and in regulating astrocyte numbers. In addition, we have reported previously that the neurotrophic peptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is able to promote astrocyte differentiation of cortical precursors via activation of a cAMP-dependent pathway. Signals acting on progenitor cells of the developing cortex to generate astrocytes activate glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene expression, but the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate this activation are unclear. Here, we identify the previously known transcriptional repressor downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM) as an activator of GFAP gene expression. We found that DREAM occupies specific sites on the GFAP promoter before and after differentiation is initiated by exposure of cortical progenitor cells to PACAP. PACAP raises intracellular calcium concentration via a mechanism that requires cAMP, and DREAM-mediated transactivation of the GFAP gene requires the integrity of calcium-binding domains. Cortical progenitor cells from dream(-/-) mice fail to express GFAP in response to PACAP. Moreover, the neonatal cortex of dream(-/-) mice exhibits a reduced number of astrocytes and increased number of neurons. These results identify the PACAP-cAMP-Ca(2+)-DREAM cascade as a new pathway to activate GFAP gene expression during astrocyte differentiation.

  6. Islet Amyloid Polypeptide: Structure, Function, and Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Akter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hormone islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP, or amylin plays a role in glucose homeostasis but aggregates to form islet amyloid in type-2 diabetes. Islet amyloid formation contributes to β-cell dysfunction and death in the disease and to the failure of islet transplants. Recent work suggests a role for IAPP aggregation in cardiovascular complications of type-2 diabetes and hints at a possible role in type-1 diabetes. The mechanisms of IAPP amyloid formation in vivo or in vitro are not understood and the mechanisms of IAPP induced β-cell death are not fully defined. Activation of the inflammasome, defects in autophagy, ER stress, generation of reactive oxygen species, membrane disruption, and receptor mediated mechanisms have all been proposed to play a role. Open questions in the field include the relative importance of the various mechanisms of β-cell death, the relevance of reductionist biophysical studies to the situation in vivo, the molecular mechanism of amyloid formation in vitro and in vivo, the factors which trigger amyloid formation in type-2 diabetes, the potential role of IAPP in type-1 diabetes, the development of clinically relevant inhibitors of islet amyloidosis toxicity, and the design of soluble, bioactive variants of IAPP for use as adjuncts to insulin therapy.

  7. Biomedical applications of polypeptide multilayer nanofilms and microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Jai Simha S.

    The past few years have witnessed considerable growth in synthetic polymer chemistry and physics, biomaterials science, and nano-scale engineering. Research on polypeptide multilayer films, coatings, and microcapsules is located at the intersection of these areas and are promising materials for applications in medicine, biotechnology, environmental science. Most envisioned applications of polypeptide multilayers have a biomedical bent. This dissertation on polypeptide multilayer film applications covers key points of polypeptides as materials, means of polymer production, film preparation, film characterization methods, and key points of current research in basic science. Both commercial and designed peptides have been used to fabricate films for in-vitro applications such as antimicrobial coatings and cell culture coatings and also microcapsules for drug delivery applications. Other areas of product development include artificial red blood cells, anisotropic coatings, enantioselective membranes, and artificial viruses.

  8. Polypeptide-guided assembly of conducting polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Mahiar; Wigenius, Jens; Tai, Feng-I.; Björk, Per; Aili, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    A strategy for fabrication of electroactive nanocomposites with nanoscale organization, based on self-assembly, is reported. Gold nanoparticles are assembled by a polypeptide folding-dependent bridging. The polypeptides are further utilized to recruit and associate with a water soluble conducting polymer. The polymer is homogenously incorporated into the nanocomposite, forming conducting pathways which make the composite material highly conducting.A strategy for fabrication of electroactive nanocomposites with nanoscale organization, based on self-assembly, is reported. Gold nanoparticles are assembled by a polypeptide folding-dependent bridging. The polypeptides are further utilized to recruit and associate with a water soluble conducting polymer. The polymer is homogenously incorporated into the nanocomposite, forming conducting pathways which make the composite material highly conducting. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Structure of PEDOT-S, DLS data and experimental details. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00299b

  9. Cell-Penetrating Ability of Peptide Hormones: Key Role of Glycosaminoglycans Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Tchoumi Neree

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the potential usage of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs for the intracellular delivery of various molecules has prompted the identification of novel peptidic identities. However, cytotoxic effects and unpredicted immunological responses have often limited the use of various CPP sequences in the clinic. To overcome these issues, the usage of endogenous peptides appears as an appropriate alternative approach. The hormone pituitary adenylate-cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38 has been recently identified as a novel and very efficient CPP. This 38-residue polycationic peptide is a member of the secretin/glucagon/growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH superfamily, with which PACAP38 shares high structural and conformational homologies. In this study, we evaluated the cell-penetrating ability of cationic peptide hormones in the context of the expression of cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs. Our results indicated that among all peptides evaluated, PACAP38 was unique for its potent efficiency of cellular uptake. Interestingly, the abilities of the peptides to reach the intracellular space did not correlate with their binding affinities to sulfated GAGs, but rather to their capacity to clustered heparin in vitro. This study demonstrates that the uptake efficiency of a given cationic CPP does not necessarily correlate with its affinity to sulfated GAGs and that its ability to cluster GAGs should be considered for the identification of novel peptidic sequences with potent cellular penetrating properties.

  10. Penile erection: possible role for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a neurotransmitter.

    OpenAIRE

    Ottesen, B; Wagner, G.; Virag, R; Fahrenkrug, J.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were measured in blood drawn from the cavernous spaces of corpus cavernosum of the human penis during tumescence and erection, and the effect of injecting the polypeptide into the cavernous spaces was studied. A significant release of the polypeptide was shown during tumescence and erection. Injection of exogenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide induced erection. These findings support the concept of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as a ...

  11. Altered ionic currents and amelioration by IGF-1 and PACAP in motoneuron-derived cells modelling SBMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Garduño, Aura M; Juárez-Hernández, Leon J; Polanco, María J; Tosatto, Laura; Michelatti, Daniela; Arosio, Daniele; Basso, Manuela; Pennuto, Maria; Musio, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), also known as Kennedy's disease, is a motor neuron disease caused by the expansion of a polymorphic CAG tandem repeat encoding a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. SBMA is triggered by the binding of mutant AR to its natural ligands, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). To investigate the neuronal alterations of motor neuron cell models of SBMA, we applied patch-clamp methods to verify how polyQ expansions in the AR alter cell ionic currents. We used mouse motoneuron-derived MN-1 cells expressing normal AR (MN24Q) and mutant AR (MN100Q treated cells with vehicle EtOH and DHT). We observed a reduction of the current flux mainly at depolarizing potentials in the DHT-treated cells, while the dissection of macroscopic currents showed single different cationic currents belonging to voltage-gated channels. Also, we treated the cells with IGF-1 and PACAP, which have previously been shown to protect MN-1 cells from the toxicity of mutant AR, and we found an amelioration of the altered currents. Our results suggest that the electrophysiological correlate of SBMA is a suitable reference point for the identification of disease symptoms and for future therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface active complexes formed between keratin polypeptides and ionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fang; Lu, Zhiming; Tucker, Ian; Hosking, Sarah; Petkov, Jordan; Lu, Jian R

    2016-12-15

    Keratins are a group of important proteins in skin and hair and as biomaterials they can provide desirable properties such as strength, biocompatibility, and moisture regaining and retaining. The aim of this work is to develop water-soluble keratin polypeptides from sheep wool and then explore how their surface adsorption behaves with and without surfactants. Successful preparation of keratin samples was demonstrated by identification of the key components from gel electrophoresis and the reproducible production of gram scale samples with and without SDS (sodium dodecylsulphate) during wool fibre dissolution. SDS micelles could reduce the formation of disulphide bonds between keratins during extraction, reducing inter-molecular crosslinking and improving keratin polypeptide solubility. However, Zeta potential measurements of the two polypeptide batches demonstrated almost identical pH dependent surface charge distributions with isoelectric points around pH 3.5, showing complete removal of SDS during purification by dialysis. In spite of different solubility from the two batches of keratin samples prepared, very similar adsorption and aggregation behavior was revealed from surface tension measurements and dynamic light scattering. Mixing of keratin polypeptides with SDS and C12TAB (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide) led to the formation of keratin-surfactant complexes that were substantially more effective at reducing surface tension than the polypeptides alone, showing great promise in the delivery of keratin polypeptides via the surface active complexes. Neutron reflection measurements revealed the coexistence of surfactant and keratin polypeptides at the interface, thus providing the structural support to the observed surface tension changes associated with the formation of the surface active complexes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Anna Iversen; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2010-01-01

    The retinal ganglion cell layer of the eye comprises a subtype of cells characterized by their intrinsic photosensitivity and expression of melanopsin (ipRGCs). These cells regulate a variety of non-image-forming (NIF) functions such as light entrainment of circadian rhythms, acute suppression......-localized in their projections in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the intergeniculate leaflet, and the olivary pretectal nucleus. We conclude that there is evidence to support the use of glutamate and PACAP as neurotransmitters in NIF photoperception by rat ipRGCs, and that these neurotransmitters are co-stored and probably...

  14. Structural Polypeptides of the Granulosis Virus of Plodia interpunctella†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweeten, Kathleen A.; Bulla, Lee A.; Consigli, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques were developed for the isolation and purification of three structural components of Plodia interpunctella granulosis virus: granulin, enveloped nucleocapsids, and nucleocapsids. The polypeptide composition and distribution of protein in each viral component were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate discontinuous and gradient polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. Enveloped nucleocapsids consisted of 15 structural proteins ranging in molecular weight from 12,600 to 97,300. Five of these proteins, having approximate molecular weights of 17,800, 39,700, 42,400, 48,200, and 97,300, were identified as envelope proteins by surface radioiodination of the enveloped nucleocapsids. Present in purified nucleocapsids were eight polypeptides. The predominant proteins in this structural component had molecular weights of 12,500 and 31,000. Whereas no evidence of polypeptide glycosylation was obtained, six of the viral proteins were observed to be phosphorylated. Images PMID:16789191

  15. Separation, antitumor activities, and encapsulation of polypeptide from Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Xuewu

    2013-01-01

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa is a unicellular green algae and has been a popular foodstuff worldwide. However, no reports on the antitumor peptides from such a microalgae are available in the literature. In this study, using low-temperature high-pressure extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, ion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography, we separated a polypeptide that exhibited inhibitory activity on human liver cancer HepG2 cells, and named the polypeptide CPAP (C. pyrenoidosa antitumor polypeptide). Furthermore, the micro- and nanoencapsulation of CPAP were investigated by using two methods: complex coacervation and ionotropic gelation. The in vitro release tests revealed that CPAP was well preserved against gastric enzymatic degradation after micro/nanoencapsulation and the slowly controlled release in the intestine could be potentially achieved. These results suggest that CPAP may be a useful ingredient in food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Research progress of active polypeptides of Cordyceps militaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guangyu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is recognized at home and abroad that Cordyceps militaris is a fungus that can be edible and used for medicinal application, and also a common cordyceps taishanensis that is widely distributed and with very high medicinal value in China. Active Cordyceps militaris polypeptide has shown several highlights in its absorption mechanism, such as directly absorbed without the need for digestion, and absorbed quickly and completely, and more and more international researchers are attaching great importance to it. Physiological and pharmacological activities of Cordyceps militaris polypeptide are mainly to activate related enzyme systems, promote intermediary metabolisms or control the DNA transcription and translation, simultaneously activate the reticuloendothelial system and macrophage, promote the transformation of lymphocytes, and as a nonspecific immune enhancer and regulator, activate the immune competent cells, especially lymphocytes, lymphokines, mononuclear macrophage system and NK cells, thereby attacking the target cells to play an antitumor role, and also exerting its anti-aging, anticoagulant, hypolipidemic to enhance the immunity, improve the liver function and delay the aging. In this paper, the immunity improvement, anticancer, antioxidation and antimicrobial activities of active polypeptides from Cordyceps militaris are reviewed, in order to provide a solid theoretical help for the further development and application of active polypeptides of Cordyceps militaris.

  17. On the theory of phase transitions in polypeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix random coil transition in polypeptides. This process is considered as a first-order-like phase transition. The developed theory is free of model parameters and is based solely on fundamental physical...

  18. Chronic, programmed polypeptide delivery from an implanted, multireservoir microchip device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, James H; Lipka, Sara; Baldwin, Samuel; Sheppard, Norman F; Maloney, John M; Coppeta, Jonathan; Yomtov, Barry; Staples, Mark A; Santini, John T

    2006-04-01

    Implanted drug delivery systems are being increasingly used to realize the therapeutic potential of peptides and proteins. Here we describe the controlled pulsatile release of the polypeptide leuprolide from microchip implants over 6 months in dogs. Each microchip contains an array of discrete reservoirs from which dose delivery can be controlled by telemetry.

  19. Inhibition of gastric inhibitory polypeptide signaling prevents obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyawaki, Kazumasa; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ban, Nobuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Secretion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), a duodenal hormone, is primarily induced by absorption of ingested fat. Here we describe a novel pathway of obesity promotion via GIP. Wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited both hypersecretion of GIP and extreme visceral and subcutaneous fat...

  20. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The insulinotropic gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric acid secretion and was proposed to possess "enterogastrone" activity. GIP effects on gastric emptying have not yet been studied. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23.9 +/- 3.3 yr, body mass...

  1. Kinetics of network formation by telechelic polypeptides with trimeric nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrzeszewska, P.J.; Wolf, de F.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the kinetics of transient network formation by monodisperse telechelic polypeptides with collagen-like end blocks and a random coil middle block. Upon cooling, the end blocks associate reversibly into triple helices, leading to gels with well-defined, trimeric crosslinks. Formation of

  2. Regulation of Appetite, Body Composition, and Metabolic Hormones by Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, JP; LARAUCHE, M.; Flores, M; Luong, L.; Norris, J.; Oh, S.(Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States of America); Liang, LJ; Waschek, J; Pisegna, JR; Germano, PM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid neuropeptide that belongs to the secretin-glucagon superfamily of peptides and has 68 % homology with PACAP. VIP is abundantly expressed in the central and peripheral nervous system and in the gastrointestinal tract, where it exercises several physiological functions. Previously, it has been reported that VIP regulates feeding behavior centrally in different species of ve...

  3. Distribution and chemical coding of sensory neurons innervating the skin of the porcine hindlimb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Anna; Mikołajczyk, Anita; Adamiak, Zbigniew; Majewski, Mariusz

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the origin and chemical phenotyping of neurons involved in skin innervation of the porcine hind leg. The dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) of the lumbar (L4-L6) and sacral (S1-S3) spinal nerves were visualized using the fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB). The morphometric analysis of FB-positive (FB+)neurons showed that in the L4, L5, S1 and S2 DRGs, the small-sized perikarya constituted the major population, whereas in the L6 and S3 DRGs the medium-sized cells made up the major population. In all these ganglia, large-sized FB+ perikarya constituted only a small percentage of all FB+ neurons. Immunohistochemistry revealed that small- and medium-sized FB+ perikarya contained sensory markers such as: substance P (SP), calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and galanin (GAL); as well as various other factors such as somatostatin (SOM), calbindin-D28k (CB), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Meanwhile large-sized FB+ perikarya usually expressed SP, CGRP or PACAP. In the lumbar DRGs, some large cells also contained SOM and CB. Double-labeling immunohistochemistry showed that SP-positive neurons co-expressed CGRP, GAL or PACAP; while PACAP-positive cells co-expressed GAL or nNOS. Neurons stained for SOM were also immunoreactive for CB or GAL, while neurons stained for nNOS were also immunoreactive for GAL. In conclusion, the present data has indicated that the distribution and chemical phenotyping of the porcine skin-projecting neurons are different within DRGs of the lumbar (forming a femoral nerve) and sacral (forming a sciatic nerve) spinal nerves. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  5. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-05-06

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  6. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morant, Marc Dominique

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  7. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding the same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kimberly; Harris, Paul

    2013-12-17

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  8. Compositions and methods for making selenocysteine containing polypeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soll, Dieter; Aldag, Caroline; Hohn, Michael

    2016-10-11

    Non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec and methods of using them for recombinant expression of proteins engineered to include one or more selenocysteine residues are disclosed. The non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec can be used for recombinant manufacture of selenocysteine containing polypeptides encoded by mRNA without the requirement of an SECIS element. In some embodiments, selenocysteine containing polypeptides are manufactured by co-expressing a non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec a recombinant expression system, such as E. coli, with SerRS, EF-Tu, SelA, or PSTK and SepSecS, and an mRNA with at least one codon that recognizes the anticodon of the non-naturally occurring tRNA.sup.Sec.

  9. Vaccinia virus encodes a polypeptide with DNA ligase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, S M; Smith, G L

    1989-11-25

    Vaccinia virus gene SalF 15R potentially encodes a polypeptide of 63 kD which shares 30% amino acid identity with S. pombe and S. cerevisiae DNA ligases. DNA ligase proteins can be identified by incubation with alpha-(32P)ATP, resulting in the formation of a covalent DNA ligase-AMP adduct, an intermediate in the enzyme reaction. A novel radio-labelled polypeptide of approximately 61 kD appears in extracts from vaccinia virus infected cells after incubation with alpha-(32P)ATP. This protein is present throughout infection and is a DNA ligase as the radioactivity is discharged in the presence of either DNA substrate or pyrophosphate. DNA ligase assays show an increase in enzyme activity in cell extracts after vaccinia virus infection. A rabbit antiserum, raised against a bacterial fusion protein of beta-galactosidase and a portion of SalF 15R, immune-precipitates polypeptides of 61 and 54 kD from extracts of vaccinia virus-infected cells. This antiserum also immune-precipitates the novel DNA ligase-AMP adduct, thus proving that the observed DNA ligase is encoded by SalF 15R.

  10. Generation of polypeptide-templated gold nanoparticles using ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Candace Rae; Pushpavanam, Karthik; Nair, Divya Geetha; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Sutiyoso, Caesario; Kodibagkar, Vikram D; Sapareto, Stephen; Chang, John; Rege, Kaushal

    2013-08-13

    Ionizing radiation, including γ rays and X-rays, are high-energy electromagnetic radiation with diverse applications in nuclear energy, astrophysics, and medicine. In this work, we describe the use of ionizing radiation and cysteine-containing elastin-like polypeptides (C(n)ELPs, where n = 2 or 12 cysteines in the polypeptide sequence) for the generation of gold nanoparticles. In the presence of C(n)ELPs, ionizing radiation doses higher than 175 Gy resulted in the formation of maroon-colored gold nanoparticle dispersions, with maximal absorbance at 520 nm, from colorless metal salts. Visible color changes were not observed in any of the control systems, indicating that ionizing radiation, gold salt solution, and C(n)ELPs were all required for nanoparticle formation. The hydrodynamic diameters of nanoparticles, determined using dynamic light scattering, were in the range of 80-150 nm, while TEM imaging indicated the formation of gold cores 10-20 nm in diameter. Interestingly, C2ELPs formed 1-2 nm diameter gold nanoparticles in the absence of radiation. Our results describe a facile method of nanoparticle formation in which nanoparticle size can be tailored based on radiation dose and C(n)ELP type. Further improvements in these polypeptide-based systems can lead to colorimetric detection of ionizing radiation in a variety of applications.

  11. Postnatal Migration of Cerebellar Interneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Galas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its continuing development after birth, the cerebellum represents a unique model for studying the postnatal orchestration of interneuron migration. The combination of fluorescent labeling and ex/in vivo imaging revealed a cellular highway network within cerebellar cortical layers (the external granular layer, the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer, and the internal granular layer. During the first two postnatal weeks, saltatory movements, transient stop phases, cell-cell interaction/contact, and degradation of the extracellular matrix mark out the route of cerebellar interneurons, notably granule cells and basket/stellate cells, to their final location. In addition, cortical-layer specific regulatory factors such as neuropeptides (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, somatostatin or proteins (tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1 have been shown to inhibit or stimulate the migratory process of interneurons. These factors show further complexity because somatostatin, PACAP, or tPA have opposite or no effect on interneuron migration depending on which layer or cell type they act upon. External factors originating from environmental conditions (light stimuli, pollutants, nutrients or drug of abuse (alcohol also alter normal cell migration, leading to cerebellar disorders.

  12. Light-Triggerable Liposomes for Enhanced Endolysosomal Escape and Gene Silencing in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjie Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Liposomes are an effective gene and/or drug delivery system, widely used in biomedical applications including gene therapy and chemotherapy. Here, we designed a photo-responsive liposome (lipVP loaded with a photosensitizer verteporfin (VP. This photosensitizer is clinically approved for photodynamic therapy (PDT. LipVP was employed as a DNA carrier for pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP receptor 1 (PAC1R gene knockdown in PC12 cells. This has been done by incorporating PAC1R antisense oligonucleotides inside the lipVP cavity. Cells that have taken up the lipVP were exposed to light from a UV light source. As a result of this exposure, reactive oxygen species (ROS were generated from VP, destabilizing the endolysosomal membranes and enhancing the liposomal release of antisense DNA into the cytoplasm. Endolysosomal escape of DNA was documented at different time points based on quantitative analysis of colocalization between fluorescently labeled DNA and endosomes and lysosomes. The released antisense oligonucleotides were found to silence PAC1R mRNA. The efficiency of this photo-induced gene silencing was demonstrated by a 74% ± 5% decrease in PAC1R fluorescence intensity. Following the light-induced DNA transfer into cells, cell differentiation with exposure to two kinds of PACAP peptides was observed to determine the cell phenotypic change after PAC1R gene knockdown.

  13. Diazepam enhances production of diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI), a negative saliva secretion regulator, localized in rat salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukagoshi, Eri; Kawaguchi, Mitsuru; Shinomiya, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Masanobu; Kawano, Toshihiko; Okubo, Migiwa; Sawaki, Kohei

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and central-type benzodiazepine receptor (CBR) in salivary gland play a role in the inhibitory regulation of salivary secretion in rodents. Diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI), an endogenous ligand for PBR, produces neurosteroids, which modulate CBR activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of repetitive administration of diazepam (DZP) on salivary secretion and expression of DBI mRNA and peptide. Moreover, mRNA expression of PBR and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a transcriptional regulator for DBI promoter, was evaluated after repetitive administration of DZP. Repetitive administration, but not single administration, of 0.4 mg/kg DZP caused inhibition of salivary secretion and enhanced expression of DBI, PACAP, and PBR mRNA in rat salivary gland, with an increase in production of DBI peptide. These results suggest that repetitive administration of DZP stimulates DBI production, which may result in an increase in the suppressive effect of DZP on salivary secretion.

  14. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  15. Polypeptide having or assisting in carbohydrate material degrading activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2016-02-16

    The invention relates to a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 76% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 76% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  16. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L

    1997-01-01

    transplantation and in the case of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The study population consisted of primarily Caucasian adults representative of a general population living around Copenhagen. Serum pancreatic polypeptide was measured in random serum samples from fasting persons (n = 623), aged 25-64 y, using...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  17. Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to bring together and to correlate the wide variety of experimental studies that provide information on the reaction products and reaction mechanisms involved in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides and proteins (including chromosomal proteins) in both aqueous and solid-state systems. The comparative radiation chemistry of these systems is developed in terms of specific reactions of the peptide main-chain and the aliphatic, aromatic-unsaturated and sulfur-containing side-chains. Information obtained with the various experimental techniques of product analysis, competition kinetics, spin-trapping, pulse radiolysis and ESR spectroscopy is included. 147 refs.

  18. Immunohistochemical localization of pancreatic spasmolytic polypeptide (PSP) in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Thim, L

    1992-01-01

    Pancreatic spasmolytic polypeptide (PSP) is a peptide that is isolated from the porcine pancreas and that affects intestinal motility and growth of intestinal tumour cells in vitro. The peptide was recently demonstrated to be present in large amounts in pancreatic juice. The cellular origin......, PSP immunoreactivity was seen in some of the cells in the epithelium of the crypts of Lieberkühn. A peptide chromatographically identical to highly purified PSP was identified in pancreas and stomach extracts. Thus epithelial cells in all parts of the stomach and small intestine contribute...

  19. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide inhibits bone resorption in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Anne; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In humans, the pronounced postprandial reduction in bone resorption (decreasing bone resorption markers by around 50%) has been suggested to be caused by gut hormones. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a peptide hormone secreted postprandially from the small......-minute glucose clamps with co-infusion of GIP (4 pmol/kg/min for 15 min, followed by 2 pmol/kg/min for 45 min) or placebo. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of degradation products of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), a bone resorption marker. RESULTS regarding effects...

  20. Well-defined (co)polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Wei

    2016-03-18

    A novel metal-free strategy, using hydrogen-bonding catalytic ring opening polymerization of acetylene-functionalized N-carboxy anhydrites of α-amino acids, was developed for the synthesis of well-defined polypeptides bearing pendant alkyne groups. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize novel alkyne-functionalized homopolypeptides (A) and copolypeptides, such as AB diblock (B: non-functionalized), ABA triblock and star-AB diblock, as well as linear and star random copolypeptides, precursors of a plethora complex macromolecular architectures by click chemistry.

  1. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Johansen, Katja Salomon

    2017-05-30

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and an organic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  2. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2017-09-05

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  3. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-10-04

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a bicyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  4. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Matthew; Xu, Feng; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-07-19

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a dioxy compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  5. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a quinone compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  6. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew; Quinlan, Jason

    2016-08-02

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a heterocyclic compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  7. Photoregulation of permeability across a membrane from a graft copolymer containing a photoresponsive polypeptide branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Masato; Watanabe, Jun; Inoue, Shohei (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-07-04

    The first example of the photoregulation of the permeability across a membrane containing a polypeptide by photoinduced conformational change of the polypeptide chains without any concomitant change in electrostatic repulsion along the polypeptide chain was achieved. A new polyvinyl/polypeptide graft copolymer composed of a photoresponsive copolypeptide branch from {beta}-p-phenylazobenyl L-aspartate and {beta}-benzyl L-aspartate attached to a poly(butyl methacrylate) backbone was synthesized and the membrane was prepared. The permeation rate of mandelic acid across the membrane immersed in trimethyl phosphate (TMP) was raised by about six times with UV irradiation and was suppressed on irradiation with visible light.

  8. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and other preprovasoactive intestinal polypeptide-derived peptides in the female and male genital tract: localization, biosynthesis, and functional and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Fahrenkrug, J

    1995-01-01

    in the control of erection. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide has been suggested as a causative factor in some diseases of the genital organs (e.g., it may play a pathophysiologic role in male impotence and the peptide is currently used in the treatment of this condition). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide may...... be important for control of the low resistance in the fetomaternal vascular bed and is therefore a putative factor involved in the development of preeclampsia. The therapeutic potential of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and future agonists and antagonists will be revealed by ongoing and forthcoming studies....

  9. G-protein-coupled receptors and islet function-implications for treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzell, Maria Sörhede; Ahrén, Bo

    2007-12-01

    Islet function is regulated by a number of different signals. A main signal is generated by glucose, which stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion. The glucose effects are modulated by many factors, including hormones, neurotransmitters and nutrients. Several of these factors signal through guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCR). Examples of islet GPCR are GPR40 and GPR119, which are GPCR with fatty acids as ligands, the receptors for the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), the receptors for the islet hormones glucagon and somatostatin, the receptors for the classical neurotransmittors acetylcholine (ACh; M(3) muscarinic receptors) and noradrenaline (beta(2)- and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors) and for the neuropeptides pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP; PAC(1) and VPAC(2) receptors), cholecystokinin (CCK(A) receptors) and neuropeptide Y (NPY Y1 receptors). Other islet GPCR are the cannabinoid receptor (CB(1) receptors), the vasopressin receptors (V1(B) receptors) and the purinergic receptors (P(2Y) receptors). The islet GPCR couple mainly to adenylate cyclase and to phospholipase C (PLC). Since important pharmacological strategies for treatment of type 2 diabetes are stimulation of insulin secretion and inhibition of glucagon secretion, islet GPCR are potential drug targets. This review summarizes knowledge on islet GPCR.

  10. Competition between surface adsorption and folding of fibril-forming polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, R.; Kleijn, J.M.; Abeln, S.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of polypeptides into fibrillar structures can be initiated by planar surfaces that interact favorably with certain residues. Using a coarse-grained model, we systematically studied the folding and adsorption behavior of a beta-roll forming polypeptide. We find that there are two

  11. Competition between surface adsorption and folding of fibril-forming polypeptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, R.; Kleijn, J.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Bolhuis, P.G.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly of polypeptides into fibrillar structures can be initiated by planar surfaces that interact favorably with certain residues. Using a coarse-grained model, we systematically studied the folding and adsorption behavior of a ß -roll forming polypeptide. We find that there are two

  12. Islet amyloid polypeptide: Identification and chromosomal localization of the human gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosselman, S.; Höppener, J.W.M.; Zandberg, J.; Mansfeld, A.D.M. van; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.; Lips, C.J.M.; Jansz, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    Abstract Islet or insulinoma amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is a 37 amino acid polypeptide isolated from pancreatic amyloid. Here, we describe the isolation and partial characterization of the human gene encoding IAPP. The DNA sequence predicts that IAPP is excised from a larger precursor protein and

  13. Biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule: characterization of polypeptide C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybroe, O; Albrechtsen, M; Dahlin, J

    1985-01-01

    The biosynthesis of the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) was studied in primary cultures of rat cerebral glial cells, cerebellar granule neurons, and skeletal muscle cells. The three cell types produced different N-CAM polypeptide patterns. Glial cells synthesized a 135,000 Mr polypeptide B...

  14. Recombinant production of periodic polypeptides : introducing structural order in polymeric materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, Jurgen Marinus

    2006-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes the recombinant production of periodic beta-sheet, silk-like polypeptides in Escherichia coli. Polypeptides with the repetitive sequence [(AG)3EG]n (n = 10 - 50; A = alanine, G = glycine and E = glutamic acid) were prepared with a yield of approximately 20 mg per liter of

  15. Ring-Opening Polymerization of N-Carboxyanhydrides for Preparation of Polypeptides and Polypeptide-Based Hybrid Materials with Various Molecular Architectures

    KAUST Repository

    Pahovnik, David

    2015-09-01

    Different synthetic approaches utilizing ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides for preparation of polypeptide and polypeptide-based hybrid materials with various molecular architectures are described. An overview of polymerization mechanisms using conventional (various amines) as well as some recently developed initiators (hexamethyldisilazane, N-heterocyclic persistent carbenes, etc.) is presented, and their benefits and drawbacks for preparation of polypeptides with well-defined chain lengths and chain-end functionality are discussed. Recent examples from literature are used to illustrate different possibilities for synthesis of pure polypeptide materials with different molecular architectures bearing various functional groups, which are introduced either by modification of amino acids, before they are transformed into corresponding Ncarboxyanhydrides, or by post-polymerization modifications using protective groups and/or orthogonal functional groups. Different approaches for preparation of polypeptide-based hybrid materials are discussed as well using examples from recent literature. Syntheses of simple block copolymers or copolymers with more complex molecular architectures (graft and star copolymers) as well as modifications of nanoparticles and other surfaces with polypeptides are described.

  16. Silica Polypeptide Composite Particles as Responsive Materials for Jamming Transition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Alyssa; Russo, Paul

    Silica polypeptide composite particles consisting of an inorganic, colloidal silica core and an organic polypeptide shell can be used as model systems for studying biological and physical particle interactions. The polypeptide shell can undergo secondary conformational transitions between an alpha helix and random coil conformation, which results in a stimuli responsive material. Jamming of responsive materials has mainly used stimuli responsive polymers such as PNIPAM but these particles can undergo similar changes by switching the polypeptide conformation. Preliminary jamming studies of the polypeptide composite particles, using fluorescence photobleaching recovery, can be conducted to determine how responsive polymers effect the jamming phase transition of soft colloidal materials. National Science Foundation under Grant No 1505105 (DMR).

  17. Epitope tagging for tracking elastin-like polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Shin R; Trabbic-Carlson, Kimberly A; Nettles, Dana L; Lim, Dong W; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Setton, Lori A

    2006-03-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a class of biocompatible, non-immunogenic and crosslinkable biomaterials that offer promise for use as an injectable scaffold for cartilage repair. In this study, an oligohistidine (His(6)) epitope tag was incorporated at the N-terminus of an ELP using recombinant DNA techniques to permit tracking without compromising on material biocompatibility. His(6)-tagged ELPs were successfully detected by Western blot analysis and quantified by ELISAs following digestion with trypsin. The mass of His(6) tagged ELP fragments freed from a crosslinked ELP hydrogel after digestion with trypsin correlated highly with hydrogel weight loss, providing evidence of the tag's capability to enable tracking of enzymatic degradation of the ELP hydrogel. The His(6) tag also facilitated recognition of crosslinked ELPs from background staining of articular cartilage. These results suggest that the His(6) epitope tag has the potential to track ELP scaffold loss independently of newly formed tissue mass for evaluating matrix remodeling in vivo.

  18. Elastin-like polypeptide based nanoparticles: design rationale toward nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ferdinanda C M; Buddingh, Bastiaan C; van Eldijk, Mark B; van Hest, Jan C M

    2015-01-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are characterized by a high sequence control, temperature responsiveness and biocompatibility, which make them highly interesting as smart materials for application in nanomedicine. In particular the construction of ELP-based nanoparticles has recently become a focal point of attention in materials research. This review will give an overview of the ELP-based nanoparticles that have been developed until now and their underlying design principles. First a short introduction on ELPs and their stimulus-responsive behavior will be given. This characteristic has been applied for the development of ELP-based block copolymers that can self-assemble into nanoparticles. Both the fully ELP-based as well as several ELP hybrid materials that have been reported to form nanoparticles will be discussed, which is followed by a concise description of the promising biomedical applications reported for this class of materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  20. Controlling Interfacial Adhesion of Self-Assembled Polypeptide Fibrils for Novel Nanoelectromechanical System (NEMS Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kossow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relative adhesion of two genetically engineered polypeptides termed as H6-(YEHKx21-H6 and C6-(YEHKX21-H6 has been investigated following growth and self-assembly on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG, SiO2, Ni, and Au substrates to study covalent surface attachment via histidine (H and cysteine (C groups incorporated in the polypeptides. Both polypeptides formed predominantly bilayer fibrils upon deposition, in agreement with previous studies. The relative adhesion of polypeptide fibrils to the substrate, as well as intra-fibril cohesion, was examined via a forced-scanning method employing contact mode atomic force microscopy (AFM. H6-(YEHKx21-H6 polypeptide fibrils were observed to detach from Ni, Au, SiO2, and HOPG substrates at normal tip forces of 106 ± 10 nN, 21 ± 3 nN, 22 ± 3 nN, and 3 ± 1 nN, respectively. C6-(YEHKx21-H6 polypeptide fibrils were seen to detach from Au substrates at a normal spring force of 90 ± 10 nN. It is concluded that the H6-(YEHKx21-H6 and C6-(YEHKx21-H6 polypeptide fibrils are covalently attached to, respectively, Ni and Au substrates, which has important implications for the use of these materials for NEMS fabrication. The structural stability of deposited polypeptide fibrils was also evaluated by using normal tip forces less than those required for fibril detachment. H6-(YEHKx21-H6 polypeptide fibrils on Ni substrates were the most structurally stable compared to C6-(YEHKx21-H6 polypeptide fibrils on Au substrates. Controlled delayering of bilayer fibrils was also detected for sub-detachment normal forces.

  1. Postulated vasoactive neuropeptide immunopathology affecting the blood–brain/blood–spinal barrier in certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions: A role for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Staines1,2, Ekua W Brenu2, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik21Queensland Health, Gold Coast Population Health Unit, Southport, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Science and Medicine, Population Health and Neuroimmunology Unit, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur in a number of neurological fatigue-related conditions including multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson’s disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS. These conditions have been attributed variably to neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative processes. While autoimmune pathology, at least in part, has long been suspected in these conditions proof has been elusive. Autoimmune pathomechanisms affecting the blood–brain barrier (BBB or blood–spinal barrier (BSB may predispose the BBB/BSB to ‘leakiness’ and be a precursor to additional autoimmune events resulting in neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. The aim of the paper is to postulate immunopathology of the cerebrospinal perivascular compartment involving certain vasoactive neuropeptides, specifically pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP, in the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric fatigue-related conditions such as MS, ALS, PD, and CFS. Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as PACAP and VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, and immune and nociception modulators. PACAP and VIP are widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS and have key roles in CNS blood vessels including maintaining functional integrity of the BBB and BSB. Autoimmunity affecting these VNs would likely have a detrimental effect on BBB and BSB functioning arguably predisposing to further pathological processes. Virchow–Robin spaces (VRS are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS which

  2. Ectomycorrhizins - symbiosis-specific or artitactual polypeptides from ectomycorrhizas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenberger, M; Hampp, R

    1992-08-01

    Fungal mycelium of the fly agaric (Amanita muscaria [L. ex Fr.] Hooker), and inoculated or noninoculated seedlings of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) were grown aseptically under controlled conditions. In order to detect symbiosis-specific polypeptides ('ectomycorrhizins', see Hubert and Martin, 1988, New Phytol. 110, 339-346) the protein patterns of (i) fungal mycelium, (ii) mycorrhizal, and (iii) non-mycorrhizal root tips were compared by means of one- and twodimensional electrophoresis on a microscale. Because of the sensitivity of these micromethods (50 and 200 ng of protein, respectively), single mycorrhizal root tips and even the minute quantities of extramatrical mycelium growing between the roots of inoculated plants could be analysed. Differences in the protein patterns of root tips could be shown within the root system of an individual plant (mycorrhizal as well as non-mycorrhizal). In addition, the protein pattern of fungal mycelium grown on a complex medium (malt extract and casein hydrolysate) differed from that of extramatrical mycelium collected from the mycorrhiza culture (pure mineral medium). Such differences in protein patterns are obviously due to the composition of the media and/or different developmental stages. Consequently, conventional analyses which use extracts of a large number of root tips, are not suitable for differentiating between these effects and symbiosis-specific differences in protein patterns. In order to detect ectomycorrhizins, it is suggested that roots and mycelium from individual, inoculated plants should be analysed. This approach eliminates the influence of differing media, and at the same time allows a correct discrimination between developmental and symbiosisspecific changes. In our gels we could only detect changes in spot intensity but could not detect any ectomycorrhizins or the phenomenon of polypeptide 'cleansing', which both characterize the Eucalyptus-Pisolithus symbiosis (Martin and Hubert, 1991

  3. Processes for the production of hydroxycinnamic acids using polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the field of biotechnology as it applies to the production of hydroxycinnamic acids using polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity. More particularly, the present invention pertains to polypeptides having tyrosine ammonia lyase activity and high...... substrate specificity towards tyrosine, which makes them particularly suitable in the production of p-coumaric acid and other hydroxycinnamic acids. The present invention thus provides processes for the production of p-coumaric acid and other hydroxycinnamic acids employing these polypeptides as well...

  4. The Research on the Impact of Maca Polypeptide on Sport Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of maca polypeptide on sport fatigue, this paper selected 40 male mice, and they were randomly divided into group A, B, C and D. group A, B and C were fed food with different concentrations of maca polypeptide, and group D was control group. After two weeks of feeding, measured physiological indexes of mice, including blood glucose, urea nitrogen and creatinine. At last gived the experimental results, as well as the analysis. Experimental results show that maca polypeptide can improve the ability of anti-fatigue mice, and in a certain concentration range, the higher the concentration, the better the resistance to fatigue.

  5. Intestinal mucosa is a target tissue for pancreatic polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, W.R.; Kramer, J.L.; Frank, B.H.; Gingerich, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    Studies were carried out to identify mammalian tissues capable of specifically binding mammalian pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Bovine PP (bPP) radiolabeled with /sup 125/I was purified by HPLC to yield (/sup 125/I)iodo-(Tyr-27) bPP. The label was injected into three pairs of fasted littermate dogs and allowed to circulate for 5 min. One of the dogs was a control which received an excess of unlabeled porcine PP to provide competition for receptor binding. Unbound bPP was removed by perfusion with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate and the tissue fixed in situ with Karnovsky's fixative. Tissue samples from various organs were removed, weighed, and counted. The entire gastrointestinal tract demonstrated high levels of /sup 125/I after injection of the labeled peptide. The duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon were the only tissues to exhibit specific binding of bPP. These tissues (mucosal and muscle layers) from experimental animals exhibited 31-76% higher binding than the corresponding tissues from the control animals. Sections of the gastrointestinal tract were scraped to separate the mucosal layer from the underlying muscle layer. The mucosal layer of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum exhibited 145-162% increases in binding compared to the control animals. The muscle layer of these tissues demonstrated no significant increase. These findings demonstrate that mucosal layer of the small intestine is a target tissue for mammalian PP.

  6. Trapping succinimides in aged polypeptides by chemical reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, D A; McFadden, P N

    1994-01-01

    Cyclization of aspartic acid and asparagine to succinimides is thought to be a common spontaneous aging reaction in proteins, but the instability of the succinimide ring has made it difficult to directly measure this structure. Chemical reduction has now been tested as a means of trapping succinimides as stable derivatives, homoserine and isohomoserine. Two succinimide-containing compounds were tested in this manner. First, polysuccinimide was reduced by sodium borohydride to a derivative that contained homoserine and isohomoserine in amounts that were consistent with the content of succinimide determined independently by quantitative hydrolysis. The identity of isohomoserine was confirmed by its resistance to degradation by L-amino acid oxidase, and through its synthesis by an alternate route involving borane reduction of asparagine. Second, in a test of this approach on a peptide mixture with only a trace-content of succinimide, isohomoserine and homoserine were formed as reduction products in amounts equivalent to the trace content of succinimide in the mixture. Detection of the products of the chemical reduction of polypeptides is therefore diagnostic of succinimides, and can be successfully applied at the trace sensitivity necessary for studies of naturally aging proteins. A related study of the reduction of aspartyl and beta-aspartyl residues to, respectively, homoserine and isohomoserine, is described in the accompanying manuscript (Carter and McFadden, 1994).

  7. HUMAN PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE IN A PHOSPHOLIPID BASED MICELLAR FORMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amrita; Onyuksel, Hayat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has important glucoregulatory functions and thereby holds significance in the treatment of diabetes and obesity. However, short plasma half-life and aggregation propensity of PP in aqueous solution, limits its therapeutic application. To address these issues, we prepared and characterized a formulation of PP in sterically stabilized micelles (SSM) that protects and stabilizes PP in its active conformation. Methods PP-SSM was prepared by incubating PP with SSM dispersion in buffer. Peptide-micelle association and freeze-drying efficacy of the formulation was characterized in phosphate buffers with or without sodium chloride using dynamic light scattering, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism. The degradation kinetics of PP-SSM in presence of proteolytic enzyme was determined using HPLC and bioactivity of the formulation was evaluated by in vitro cAMP inhibition. Results PP self-associated with SSM and this interaction was influenced by presence/absence of sodium chloride in the buffer. The formulation was effectively lyophilized, demonstrating feasibility for its long-term storage. The stability of peptide against proteolytic degradation was significantly improved and PP in SSM retained its bioactivity in vitro. Conclusions Self-association of PP with phospholipid micelles addressed the delivery issues of the peptide. This PP nanomedicine should be further developed for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22399387

  8. Activity of the antimicrobial polypeptide piscidin 2 against fish ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorni, A; Ullal, A; Heinisch, G; Noga, E J

    2008-06-01

    Abstract The antiparasitic effects of piscidin 2, an antimicrobial polypeptide (AMPP) first isolated from mast cells of hybrid striped bass, were tested against three protistan ectoparasites of marine fish (the ciliates Cryptocaryon irritans and Trichodina sp., and the dinoflagellate Amyloodinium ocellatum) and one ciliate ectoparasite of freshwater fish (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis). I. multifiliis was the most susceptible parasite, with all theronts killed at 6.3 microg mL(-1) piscidin 2. The most resistant parasite was Trichodina, where a few cells were killed at 12.5 microg mL(-1), but several were still alive even at 100 microg mL(-1). C. irritans was of intermediate sensitivity, with some theronts killed at 12.5 microg mL(-1) and all killed at 25 microg mL(-1). High parasite density apparently exhausted the piscidin 2 before it could attain its maximal effect, but surviving parasites were often visibly damaged. The lower efficacy of piscidin 2 against marine parasites compared with the freshwater ciliate might be related to the inhibitory effects of high sea water cation levels. The tissue concentration of piscidins estimated in healthy hybrid striped bass gill (40 microg mL(-1)) suggests that piscidin 2 is lethal to the parasites tested at physiological concentrations and is thus an important component of innate defence in fish expressing this type of AMPP.

  9. Bovine pancreatic polypeptide as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, G.Z.; Lu, L.; Qian, J.; Xue, B.G.

    1987-03-01

    In dispersed acini from rat pancreas, it was found that bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) and its C-fragment hexapeptide amide (PP-6), at concentrations of 0.1 and 30 ..mu..M, respectively, could significantly inhibit amylase secretion stimulated by carbachol, and this inhibition by BPP was dose dependent. /sup 45/Ca outflux induced by carbachol was also inhibited by BPP or PP-6, but they had no effect on cholecystokinin octapeptide- (CCK-8) or A23187-stimulated /sup 45/Ca outflux. BPP was also capable of displacing the specific binding of (/sup 3/H)-quinuclidinyl benzilate to its receptors, and it possessed a higher affinity (K/sub i/35nM) than carbachol (K/sub i/ 1.8 ..mu..M) in binding with M-receptors. It is concluded from this study that BPP acts as an antagonist of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in rat pancreatic acini. In addition, BPP inhibited the potentiation of amylase secretion caused by the combination of carbachol plus secretin or vasoactive intestinal peptide. This may be a possible explanation of the inhibitory effect of BPP on secretin-induced pancreatic enzyme secretion shown in vivo, since pancreatic enzyme secretion stimulated by secretin under experimental conditions may be the result of potentiation of enzyme release produced by the peptide in combination with a cholinergic stimulant.

  10. Polypeptide Multilayer Self-Assembly Studied by Ellipsometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Craig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A polypeptide nanofilm made by layer-by-layer (LbL self-assembly was built on a surface that mimics nonwoven, a material commonly used in wound dressings. Poly-L-lysine (PLL and poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA are the building blocks of the nanofilm, which is intended as an enzymatically degradable lid for release of bactericides to chronic wounds. Chronic wounds often carry infection originating from bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and a release system triggered by the degree of infection is of interest. The dry nanofilm was studied with ellipsometry. The thickness of the nanofilm was 60% less in its dry state than in its wet state. The measurements showed that a primer was not necessary to build a stable nanofilm, which is practically important in our case because a nondegradable primer is highly unwanted in a wound care dressing. Added V8 (glutamyl endopeptidase enzymes only showed adsorption on the nanofilm at room temperature, indicating that the PLL/PLGA “lid” may remain intact until the dressing has been filled with wound exudate at the elevated temperature typical of that of the wound.

  11. Polypeptide multilayer self-assembly studied by ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Marina; Holmberg, Krister; Le Ru, Eric; Etchegoin, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    A polypeptide nanofilm made by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly was built on a surface that mimics nonwoven, a material commonly used in wound dressings. Poly-L-lysine (PLL) and poly-L-glutamic acid (PLGA) are the building blocks of the nanofilm, which is intended as an enzymatically degradable lid for release of bactericides to chronic wounds. Chronic wounds often carry infection originating from bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and a release system triggered by the degree of infection is of interest. The dry nanofilm was studied with ellipsometry. The thickness of the nanofilm was 60% less in its dry state than in its wet state. The measurements showed that a primer was not necessary to build a stable nanofilm, which is practically important in our case because a nondegradable primer is highly unwanted in a wound care dressing. Added V8 (glutamyl endopeptidase) enzymes only showed adsorption on the nanofilm at room temperature, indicating that the PLL/PLGA "lid" may remain intact until the dressing has been filled with wound exudate at the elevated temperature typical of that of the wound.

  12. Aspects of structural landscape of human islet amyloid polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianfeng, E-mail: hjf@bit.edu.cn; Dai, Jin, E-mail: daijing491@gmail.com [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Jing, E-mail: jinglichina@139.com [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Research, Yangtze River Pharmaceutical Group Beijing Haiyan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing 102206 (China); Peng, Xubiao, E-mail: xubiaopeng@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Niemi, Antti J., E-mail: Antti.Niemi@physics.uu.se [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS UMR 6083, Fédération Denis Poisson, Université de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, F37200 Tours (France)

    2015-01-28

    The human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) co-operates with insulin to maintain glycemic balance. It also constitutes the amyloid plaques that aggregate in the pancreas of type-II diabetic patients. We have performed extensive in silico investigations to analyse the structural landscape of monomeric hIAPP, which is presumed to be intrinsically disordered. For this, we construct from first principles a highly predictive energy function that describes a monomeric hIAPP observed in a nuclear magnetic resonance experiment, as a local energy minimum. We subject our theoretical model of hIAPP to repeated heating and cooling simulations, back and forth between a high temperature regime where the conformation resembles a random walker and a low temperature limit where no thermal motions prevail. We find that the final low temperature conformations display a high level of degeneracy, in a manner which is fully in line with the presumed intrinsically disordered character of hIAPP. In particular, we identify an isolated family of α-helical conformations that might cause the transition to amyloidosis, by nucleation.

  13. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide inhibits bone resorption in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Anne; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette

    2014-11-01

    In humans, the pronounced postprandial reduction in bone resorption (decreasing bone resorption markers by around 50%) has been suggested to be caused by gut hormones. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a peptide hormone secreted postprandially from the small intestine. The hormone is known as an incretin hormone, but preclinical studies have suggested that it may also influence bone metabolism, showing both antiresorptive and anabolic effects as reflected by changes in biomechanical measures, microarchitecture, and activity of the bone cells in response to GIP stimulation. Its role in human bone homeostasis, however, is unknown. To examine the effect of GIP administration on bone resorption in humans. Plasma samples were obtained from 10 healthy subjects during four conditions: euglycemic (5 mmol/L) and hyperglycemic (12 mmol/L) 90-minute glucose clamps with co-infusion of GIP (4 pmol/kg/min for 15 min, followed by 2 pmol/kg/min for 45 min) or placebo. The samples were analyzed for concentrations of degradation products of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), a bone resorption marker. RESULTS regarding effects on pancreatic hormone secretion have been published. During euglycemia, the decremental area under the curve in CTX was significantly (P basal values. We conclude that GIP reduces bone resorption in humans, interacting with a possible effect of hyperglycemia.

  14. Zwitterionic states in gas-phase polypeptide ions revealed by 157-nm ultra-violet photodissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Silivra, Oleg A; Zubarev, Roman A

    2006-01-01

    within polypeptide clusters. Collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of decarboxylated cations localizes the position of deprotonation. Fragment abundances can be used for the semiquantitative assessment of the branching ratio of deprotonation among different acidic sites, however, the mechanism...

  15. Simultaneous Polymerization and Polypeptide Particle Production via Reactive Spray-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavas, Lidija; Odelius, Karin; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2016-09-12

    A method for producing polypeptide particles via in situ polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides during spray-drying has been developed. This method was enabled by the development of a fast and robust synthetic pathway to polypeptides using 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) as an initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of N-carboxyanhydrides. The polymerizations finished within 5 s and proved to be very tolerant toward impurities such as amino acid salts and water. The formed particles were prepared by mixing the monomer, N-carboxyanhydride of l-glutamic acid benzyl ester (NCAGlu) and the initiator (DBU) during the atomization process in the spray-dryer and were spherical with a size of ∼1 μm. This method combines two steps; making it a straightforward process that facilitates the production of polypeptide particles. Hence, it furthers the use of spray-drying and polypeptide particles in the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. Variants of polypeptides having cellulolytic enhancing activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Matt; Wogulis, Mark

    2017-11-14

    The present invention relates to polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity variants. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  17. Glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: new advances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Holst, Jens Juul

    2010-01-01

    This article highlights recent advances in our understanding of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) physiology and their various sites of action beyond the incretin effect....

  18. Secreted production of an elastin-like polypeptide by Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Schipperus, R.; Teeuwen, R.L.M.; M.W.T. Werten; Eggink, G; de, Wolf

    2009-01-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are biocompatible designer polypeptides with inverse temperature transition behavior in solution. They have a wide variety of possible applications and a potential medical importance. Currently, production of ELPs is done at lab scale in Escherichia coli shake flask cultures. With a view to future large scale production, we demonstrate secreted production of ELPs in methanol-induced fed-batch cultures of Pichia pastoris and purification directly from the cultu...

  19. Rubella virion polypeptides. Characterization by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and peptide mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho-Terry, L.; Cohen, A. (University Coll. Hospital Medical School, London (UK))

    1982-01-01

    Four polypeptides with molecular weights of 55K, 47K, 45K, and 33K have been resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immune precipitated rubella virus. The 47K and 45K components have similar peptide maps but different isoelectric points so that the same polypeptide may exist in more than one charged form. The 55K and 45K components have similar isoelectric points but different peptide maps showing that similarity of isoelectric point is not evidence of identity.

  20. Correlation between ovarian growth, vitellogenin titer, and yolk polypeptide pattern in the haemolymph of Calliphora vicina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ilona Kryspin; Jensen, P. V.

    1982-01-01

    During the first egg maturation cycle ofCalliphora vicina changes in the vitellogenin titer and yolk polypeptide pattern of the haemolymph are correlated with the intensity of follicular growth, and the rate of yolk deposition.......During the first egg maturation cycle ofCalliphora vicina changes in the vitellogenin titer and yolk polypeptide pattern of the haemolymph are correlated with the intensity of follicular growth, and the rate of yolk deposition....

  1. Metal ion-dependent, reversible, protein filament formation by designed beta-roll polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Robert L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A right-handed, calcium-dependent β-roll structure found in secreted proteases and repeat-in-toxin proteins was used as a template for the design of minimal, soluble, monomeric polypeptides that would fold in the presence of Ca2+. Two polypeptides were synthesised to contain two and four metal-binding sites, respectively, and exploit stacked tryptophan pairs to stabilise the fold and report on the conformational state of the polypeptide. Results Initial analysis of the two polypeptides in the presence of calcium suggested the polypeptides were disordered. The addition of lanthanum to these peptides caused aggregation. Upon further study by right angle light scattering and electron microscopy, the aggregates were identified as ordered protein filaments that required lanthanum to polymerize. These filaments could be disassembled by the addition of a chelating agent. A simple head-to-tail model is proposed for filament formation that explains the metal ion-dependency. The model is supported by the capping of one of the polypeptides with biotin, which disrupts filament formation and provides the ability to control the average length of the filaments. Conclusion Metal ion-dependent, reversible protein filament formation is demonstrated for two designed polypeptides. The polypeptides form filaments that are approximately 3 nm in diameter and several hundred nm in length. They are not amyloid-like in nature as demonstrated by their behaviour in the presence of congo red and thioflavin T. A capping strategy allows for the control of filament length and for potential applications including the "decoration" of a protein filament with various functional moieties.

  2. Peptidergic and non-peptidergic innervation and vasomotor responses of human lenticulostriate and posterior cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen-Olesen, Inger; Gulbenkian, Sergio; Engel, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    -hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the relaxant responses induced by acetylcholine (ACh), VIP and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide-27 (PACAP) as well as CGRP and SP were compared in vitro. In conclusion, there was no major difference in innervation pattern or vasomotor sensitivity (pEC50 and pIC50 values...

  3. Proline-rich polypeptides in Alzheimer's disease and neurodegenerative disorders -- therapeutic potential or a mirage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkevich, A; Bosker, F; Korf, J; Yenkoyan, K; Vahradyan, H; Aghajanov, M

    2007-10-01

    The development of effective and safe drugs for a growing Alzheimer disease population is an increasing need at present. Both experimental and clinical evidence support a beneficial effect of proline-rich polypeptides in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease. Experimental data have shown that proline-rich polypeptides isolated from bovine neurohypophisis possess neuroprotective and neuromodulatory properties in mice with aluminum neurotoxicosis or neuronal damage caused by venoms and toxins. Proline-rich polypeptides from ovine colostrums, so called Colostrinin, have been shown to produce cognitive improvement in an experimental model and in patients with Alzheimer disease. However, the precise mechanism underlying the neuroprotective action of proline-rich polypeptides is not very well established. Moreover, studies pointing at a neuroprotective effect of proline-rich polypeptides from bovine neurohypophisis in humans have not been reported thus far. The authors conclude that more detailed information on the mode of action of proline-rich polypeptides is needed as well as confirmation of their efficacy in broad clinical trials before this approach can really show its potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  4. Influence of the synthetic polypeptide c25-mms6 on cobalt ferrite nanoparticle formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Annalena; Frese, Katrin; Wißbrock, Marco; Eckstädt, Katrin; Ennen, Inga; Hetaba, Walid; Löffler, Stefan; Regtmeier, Anna; Thomas, Patrick; Sewald, Norbert; Schattschneider, Peter; Hütten, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Nanoparticle syntheses utilizing biomimetic approaches have advanced in recent years. Polypeptides, with their ability to influence inorganic crystal growth, are a topic of great interest. Their effect on the particle formation has not been completely understood yet. Here we report a bioinspired synthesis of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles carried out in vitro under mild conditions using a short, synthetic polypeptide c25-mms6. The influence of c25-mms6 on the nanoparticle formation was investigated by comparing the particles synthesized with the polypeptide to particles synthesized under equivalent conditions without c25-mms6. A separation into D small,av = 10 nm small, superparamagnetic spheres and D big,av = 48 nm disc-like single-domain particles was observed. Non-stoichiometric cobalt ferrite particles with a shape-dependent stoichiometry were produced in the polypeptide-free synthesis. Stoichiometric D small,av = 10 nm CoFe2O4 spheres and D big,av = 60-70 nm Co2FeO4 ferromagnetic discs were obtained in the polypeptide-enhanced synthesis. The results indicate that the polypeptide acts as a catalyst during the multistep biomineralization process and allows the formation of stoichiometric phases which cannot be synthesized at room temperature using conventional bottom-up syntheses.

  5. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Gladkikh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI. These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6 secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO generation.

  6. New Kunitz-Type HCRG Polypeptides from the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladkikh, Irina; Monastyrnaya, Margarita; Zelepuga, Elena; Sintsova, Oksana; Tabakmakher, Valentin; Gnedenko, Oksana; Ivanov, Alexis; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Kozlovskaya, Emma

    2015-09-24

    Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation.

  7. [Determination of Ca2+ content in human enamel by electroprobe after polypeptide tooth paste usage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Wei-guo

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the capability of polypeptide tooth paste for remineralization of human enamel. 8 enamel slabs,which were taken from extracted tooth for orthodontics reason, were immersed in artificial cariogenic solution for 0.5h. Then,the slabs were treated by tooth paste with polypeptide and tooth paste without polypeptide for 5 min. After tooth paste were washed away by warm water, the slabs were immersed in artificial saliva. The experiment were carried out twice per day for 15 days. Two slabs were taken from test group(treated by tooth paste with polypeptide) and control group (treated by tooth paste without polypeptide) on the twelfth day and fifteenth day, respectively. The Ca(2+) content in enamel slabs were determined by electroprobe and analyzed by image process. The content of Ca(2+) in test group was higher than that in control group significantly. The polypeptide tooth paste has certain capability of inhibiting demineralization for human enamel.

  8. Endoproteolysis of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 (7-36) amide by ectopeptidases in RINm5F cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupe-Sodmann, K; Göke, R; Göke, B; Thole, H H; Zimmermann, B; Voigt, K; McGregor, G P

    1997-01-01

    This study concerns whether the pancreatic beta cell expresses cell-surface ectopeptidases that are capable of proteolysis of peptide hormones and neuropeptides that modify glucose-dependent insulin release. These biochemical investigations of the RINm5F cell line found that these cells express ectopeptidases. We have characterized the limited endoproteolysis of GLP-1 (7-36) amide that occurs in the presence of RINm5F plasma membranes. The products and the sensitivity to specific peptidase inhibitors of the proteolysis is characteristic of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) 24.11. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), amylin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and exendin-4 also undergo proteolysis in the presence of RIN cell membranes. NEP 24.11-activity in RIN cell membranes was confirmed using a specific fluorogenic assay, by histochemistry, and by comparison with the recombinant enzyme with respect to the kinetics of proteolysis of GLP-1 (7-36) amide and of a fluorogenic substrate. Specific fluorogenic assays revealed the presence of aminopeptidase N and the absence of aminopeptidase A and of dipeptidylpeptidase IV.

  9. Binary polypeptide system for permanent and oriented protein immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailes Julian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many techniques in molecular biology, clinical diagnostics and biotechnology rely on binary affinity tags. The existing tags are based on either small molecules (e.g., biotin/streptavidin or glutathione/GST or peptide tags (FLAG, Myc, HA, Strep-tag and His-tag. Among these, the biotin-streptavidin system is most popular due to the nearly irreversible interaction of biotin with the tetrameric protein, streptavidin. The major drawback of the stable biotin-streptavidin system, however, is that neither of the two tags can be added to a protein of interest via recombinant means (except for the Strep-tag case leading to the requirement for chemical coupling. Results Here we report a new immobilization system which utilizes two monomeric polypeptides which self-assemble to produce non-covalent yet nearly irreversible complex which is stable in strong detergents, chaotropic agents, as well as in acids and alkali. Our system is based on the core region of the tetra-helical bundle known as the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor complex. This irreversible protein attachment system (IPAS uses either a shortened syntaxin helix and fused SNAP25-synaptobrevin or a fused syntaxin-synaptobrevin and SNAP25 allowing a two-component system suitable for recombinant protein tagging, capture and immobilization. We also show that IPAS is suitable for use with traditional beads and chromatography, planar surfaces and Biacore, gold nanoparticles and for protein-protein interaction in solution. Conclusions IPAS offers an alternative to chemical cross-linking, streptavidin-biotin system and to traditional peptide affinity tags and can be used for a wide range of applications in nanotechnology and molecular sciences.

  10. Binary polypeptide system for permanent and oriented protein immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Enrico; Darios, Frédéric; Zhang, Fan; Niranjan, Dhevahi; Bailes, Julian; Soloviev, Mikhail; Davletov, Bazbek

    2010-05-12

    Many techniques in molecular biology, clinical diagnostics and biotechnology rely on binary affinity tags. The existing tags are based on either small molecules (e.g., biotin/streptavidin or glutathione/GST) or peptide tags (FLAG, Myc, HA, Strep-tag and His-tag). Among these, the biotin-streptavidin system is most popular due to the nearly irreversible interaction of biotin with the tetrameric protein, streptavidin. The major drawback of the stable biotin-streptavidin system, however, is that neither of the two tags can be added to a protein of interest via recombinant means (except for the Strep-tag case) leading to the requirement for chemical coupling. Here we report a new immobilization system which utilizes two monomeric polypeptides which self-assemble to produce non-covalent yet nearly irreversible complex which is stable in strong detergents, chaotropic agents, as well as in acids and alkali. Our system is based on the core region of the tetra-helical bundle known as the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) complex. This irreversible protein attachment system (IPAS) uses either a shortened syntaxin helix and fused SNAP25-synaptobrevin or a fused syntaxin-synaptobrevin and SNAP25 allowing a two-component system suitable for recombinant protein tagging, capture and immobilization. We also show that IPAS is suitable for use with traditional beads and chromatography, planar surfaces and Biacore, gold nanoparticles and for protein-protein interaction in solution. IPAS offers an alternative to chemical cross-linking, streptavidin-biotin system and to traditional peptide affinity tags and can be used for a wide range of applications in nanotechnology and molecular sciences.

  11. Side-chain-controlled self-assembly of polystyrene-polypeptide miktoarm star copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Junnila, Susanna

    2012-03-27

    We show how the self-assembly of miktoarm star copolymers can be controlled by modifying the side chains of their polypeptide arms, using A 2B and A 2B 2 type polymer/polypeptide hybrids (macromolecular chimeras). Initially synthesized PS 2PBLL and PS 2PBLL 2 (PS, polystyrene; PBLL, poly(ε-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-l-lysine) ) miktoarms were first deprotected to PS 2PLLHCl and PS 2PLLHCl 2 miktoarms (PLLHCl, poly(l-lysine hydrochloride)) and then complexed ionically with sodium dodecyl sulfonate (DS) to give the supramolecular complexes PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2. The solid-state self-assemblies of these six miktoarm systems were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, WAXS). The side chains of the polypeptide arms were observed to have a large effect on the solubility, polypeptide conformation, and self-assembly of the miktoarms. Three main categories were observed: (i) lamellar self-assemblies at the block copolymer length scale with packed layers of α-helices in PS 2PBLL and PS 2PBLL 2; (ii) charge-clustered polypeptide micelles with less-defined conformations in a nonordered lattice within a PS matrix in PS 2PLLHCl and PS 2PLLHCl 2; (iii) lamellar polypeptide-surfactant self-assemblies with β-sheet conformation in PS 2PLL(DS) and PS 2(PLL(DS)) 2 which dominate over the formation of block copolymer scale structures. Differences between the 3- and 4-arm systems illustrate how packing frustration between the coil-like PS arms and rigid polypeptide conformations can be relieved by the right number of arms, leading to differences in the extent of order. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. mTORC1 and muscle regeneration are regulated by the LINC00961-encoded SPAR polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akinobu; Pasut, Alessandra; Matsumoto, Masaki; Yamashita, Riu; Fung, Jacqueline; Monteleone, Emanuele; Saghatelian, Alan; Nakayama, Keiichi I; Clohessy, John G; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2017-01-12

    Although long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein-coding transcripts by definition, recent studies have shown that a fraction of putative small open reading frames within lncRNAs are translated. However, the biological significance of these hidden polypeptides is still unclear. Here we identify and functionally characterize a novel polypeptide encoded by the lncRNA LINC00961. This polypeptide is conserved between human and mouse, is localized to the late endosome/lysosome and interacts with the lysosomal v-ATPase to negatively regulate mTORC1 activation. This regulation of mTORC1 is specific to activation of mTORC1 by amino acid stimulation, rather than by growth factors. Hence, we termed this polypeptide 'small regulatory polypeptide of amino acid response' (SPAR). We show that the SPAR-encoding lncRNA is highly expressed in a subset of tissues and use CRISPR/Cas9 engineering to develop a SPAR-polypeptide-specific knockout mouse while maintaining expression of the host lncRNA. We find that the SPAR-encoding lncRNA is downregulated in skeletal muscle upon acute injury, and using this in vivo model we establish that SPAR downregulation enables efficient activation of mTORC1 and promotes muscle regeneration. Our data provide a mechanism by which mTORC1 activation may be finely regulated in a tissue-specific manner in response to injury, and a paradigm by which lncRNAs encoding small polypeptides can modulate general biological pathways and processes to facilitate tissue-specific requirements, consistent with their restricted and highly regulated expression profile.

  13. Principles Governing the Self Assembly of Polypeptide Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahome, Newton

    Self assembling systems on the nanometer scale afford the advantage of being able to control submicron level events. In this study, we focus on the self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticles (SAPN). The SAPN scaffold is made up of oligomerizing domains that align along the principle rotational axes of icosahedral symmetry. By aligning them along these axes, a particle with spherical geometry can be achieved. This particle can be utilized as a vaccine, as a drug delivery vehicle, or as a biomedical imaging device. This research will try to answer why the SAPN self-assembles into distinct molecular weight ranges while mostly maintaining a spherical morphology. The first means will be theoretical and computational, where we will utilize a mathematical formalism to find out how the packing of SAPN's monomeric units can occur within symmetric space. Then molecular dynamics will be run within this symmetric space to test the per amino acid residue susceptibility of SAPN towards becoming polymorphic in nature. Means for examining the aggregation propensity of SAPN will be also be tested. Specifically, the relationship of different sequences of SAPN with pH will be elucidated. Co-assembly of SAPN to reduce the surface density of an aggregation prone epitope will be tested. Also, aggregation reduction consisting of the exchange of an anionic denaturant with a positively charged suppressor in order to mitigate a priori peptide association and misfolding, will also be attempted. SAPN has been shown to be an immunogenic platform for the presentation of pathogen derived antigens. We will attempt to show the efficacy of presenting an antigen from HIV-1 which is structurally restrained to best match the native conformation on the virus. Immunological studies will be performed to test the effect of this approach, as well testing the antigenicity of the nanoparticle in the absence of adjuvant. Finally, the antigen presenting nanoparticles will undergo formulation testing, to measure

  14. Recent advances in amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides and synthetic polypeptides: chemistry, self-assembly and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hua; Wang, Jing; Song, Ziyuan; Yin, Lichen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Tang, Haoyu; Tu, Chunlai; Lin, Yao; Cheng, Jianjun

    2014-01-07

    Polypeptides are fascinating materials with unique properties for various biological materials. We highlight here recent advances in amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) and synthetic polypeptides from the aspects of chemistry, self-assembly and biological applications. New synthetic methodologies, mechanistic studies and optimization of polymerization conditions for the preparation of well-defined novel polypeptides are comprehensively reviewed and evaluated. Functional polypeptides, mostly prepared from novel NCA monomers, with ultra-stable helical conformation, stimuli-sensitive properties, or glycoprotein mimetics are summarized. We also highlight a number of interesting self-assembled structures of polypeptides in solid state and solution, with particular emphasis on those structures other than amphiphilic self-assembly. The biological applications of polypeptides in drug and gene delivery are also reviewed. Future directions and perspectives are discussed in the conclusion.

  15. Competition between surface adsorption and folding of fibril-forming polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Ran; Kleijn, J Mieke; Abeln, Sanne; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Bolhuis, Peter G

    2015-02-01

    Self-assembly of polypeptides into fibrillar structures can be initiated by planar surfaces that interact favorably with certain residues. Using a coarse-grained model, we systematically studied the folding and adsorption behavior of a β-roll forming polypeptide. We find that there are two different folding pathways depending on the temperature: (i) at low temperature, the polypeptide folds in solution into a β-roll before adsorbing onto the attractive surface; (ii) at higher temperature, the polypeptide first adsorbs in a disordered state and folds while on the surface. The folding temperature increases with increasing attraction as the folded β-roll is stabilized by the surface. Surprisingly, further increasing the attraction lowers the folding temperature again, as strong attraction also stabilizes the adsorbed disordered state, which competes with folding of the polypeptide. Our results suggest that to enhance the folding, one should use a weakly attractive surface. They also explain the recent experimental observation of the nonmonotonic effect of charge on the fibril formation on an oppositely charged surface [C. Charbonneau et al., ACS Nano 8, 2328 (2014)].

  16. Ultrastructural and biochemical detection of biotin and biotinylated polypeptides in Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos P.R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotinylation is proposed for the identification of surface proteins in Schistosoma mansoni using the streptavidin-HRP conjugate for the detection of labeled polypeptides. However, control samples also showed several endogenous biotinylated polypeptides. In an attempt to determine the possibility of nonspecific binding between the streptavidin-HRP conjugate and polypeptides from S. mansoni, the conjugate was blocked with biotinamidecaproate-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (BcapNHS before biotin-streptavidin blotting. No bands were detected on the nitrocellulose sheet, demonstrating the specific recognition of biotin by the streptavidin present in the conjugate. Whole cercariae and cercarial bodies and tails showed several endogenous biotinylated polypeptides. The biotin concentration was 13 µg/190,000 cercariae. Adult worms presented less endogenous biotinylated polypeptides than cercariae. These results may be due to changes in the environment from aerobic to anaerobic conditions when cercarial bodies (schistosomula are transformed into adult worms and a decrease in CO2 production may occur. Cercariae, cercarial bodies and adult male worms were examined by transmission electron microscopy employing an avidin-colloidal gold conjugate for the detection of endogenous biotin. Gold particles were distributed mainly on the muscle fibers, but dispersed granules were observed in the tegument, mitochondria and cytosol. The discovery of endogenous biotin in S. mansoni should be investigated in order to clarify the function of this vitamin in the parasite

  17. Fabrication of genetically engineered polypeptide@quantum dots hybrid nanogels for targeted imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Yao, Ming-Hao; Zhao, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Jin, Rui-Mei; Zhao, Yuan-Di; Liu, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Nanogels have been widely used as multifunctional drug delivery carriers because of high water content, biocompatibility, and high loading capability. We designed and biosynthesized two triblock artificial polypeptides PC10A and PC10ARGD as vehicles for encapsulating hydrophobic materials. These polypeptides can form nanogels by self-assembly when the concentration is below 2% ( w/ v). The physical properties of nanogels, including size, surface potential, and targeting domain, are able to be tuned. Hydrophobic materials from molecular size to nano-size can be loaded into the polypeptide nanogels to form hybrid nanogels. Hydrophobic quantum dots CdSe@ZnS below 10 nM were loaded into the polypeptide nanogels by ultrasonic treatment. Encapsulation endows hydrophobic QDs with good tunability of size, water solubility, stability, targeting, and biocompatibility. PC10ARGD nanogels and PC10ARGD@QDs hybrid nanogels showed excellent biocompatibility, which the cellular viabilities of HeLa and MCF-7 cells treated with 1% PC10ARGD nanogels and PC10ARGD@QDs hybrid nanogels contained 20 nM QDs were above 90 and 80%, respectively. PC10ARGD@QDs hybrid nanogels with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid motif present efficient receptor-mediated endocytosis in α v β 3 overexpressing HeLa cells but not in the control MCF-7 cells as analyzed by confocal microscopy. These results demonstrate that such polypeptide nanogels as nanocarriers are expected to have great potential applications in biomedicine.

  18. Analysis of urine composition in type Ⅱ diabetic mice after intervention therapy using holothurian polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Xu, Jiajie; Su, Xiurong

    2017-07-01

    Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF) obtained from sea cucumber with commercial enzyme were studied on the hpyerglycemic and renal protective effects on db/db rats using urine metabolomics. Compared with the control group the polypeptides from the two species could significantly reduce the urine glucose and urea. We also tried to address the compositions of highly expressed urinary proteins using a proteomics approach. They were serum albumins, AMBP proteins, negative trypsin, elastase and urinary protein, GAPDH, a receptor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR), and Ig kappa chain C region. We used the electronic nose to quickly detect changes in the volatile substances in mice urine after holothurian polypeptides fed, and the results show it can identify the difference between treatment groups with the control group without overlapping. The protein express mechanism of holothurian polypeptides treating diabetes was discussed, and we suggested these two peptides with the hypoglycemic and renal protective activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  19. Investigation of Gelatin Polypeptides of Jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum for Their Antioxidant Activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Liang Zhuang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Jellyfish gelatin was hydrolyzed by different proteases to obtain antioxidative polypeptides. The gelatin hydrolysate obtained by progressive hydrolysis using trypsin and Properase E exhibited the highest hydrolysis degree and antioxidant activity. Three series of gelatin polypeptides (SCP1, SCP2 and SCP3 were obtained by ultrafiltrating the gelatin hydrolysate through molecular mass cut-off membranes of 10, 6 and 2 kDa, respectively. Amino acid composition analysis showed that SCP3 had the highest total hydrophobic amino acid content. The in vitro antioxidant tests demonstrated that SCP2 had the strongest hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities and metal chelating ability, while SCP3 showed the highest reducing power, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion system and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity. The results support the feasibility of jellyfish gelatin as a natural antioxidant polypeptide provider, and enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration could be potent future processing technologies to utilize the abundant jellyfish resource.

  20. Effect of proteolytic enzymes and polypeptides on the antacid activity of almagate and other antacids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneyto, J E; Fábregas, J L

    1984-01-01

    The acid neutralizing capacity of almagate (hydrated aluminium-magnesium hydroxycarbonate, Al2Mg6(OH)14(CO3)2 X 4H2O, Almax), magaldrate and an aluminium-magnesium hydroxide cogel was measured in the presence of different concentrations of pepsin or peptone. The crystalline antacids, almagate and magaldrate, when tested in the absence of polypeptides were less active acid neutralizing agents than the aluminium-magnesium hydroxide cogel but in the presence of the polypeptides they were considerably more active, especially in respect of time of neutralization. In the presence of pepsin, almagate was considerably more active than in the absence of this enzyme, whereas magaldrate suffered little change in activity and the dried aluminium-magnesium cogel was less active. The results demonstrate the importance of measuring acid neutralizing capacity in presence of naturally occurring polypeptides.

  1. pepKalc - scalable and comprehensive calculation of electrostatic interactions in random coil polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiola, Kamil; Scheek, Ruud M; van der Meulen, Pieter; Mulder, Frans A A

    2018-01-22

    Polypeptide sequence length is the single dominant factor hampering the effectiveness of currently available software tools for de novo calculation of amino acid-specific protonation constants in disordered polypeptides. We have developed pepKalc, a robust simulation software for the comprehensive evaluation of protein electrostatics in unfolded states. Our software completely removes the limitations of the previously reported Monte-Carlo approaches in the computation of protein electrostatics by using a hybrid approach that effectively combines exact and mean-field calculations to rapidly obtain accurate results. Paired with a modern architecture GPU, pepKalc is capable of evaluating protonation behavior for an arbitrary-size polypeptide in a sub-second time regime. http://protein-nmr.org and https://github.com/PeptoneInc/pepkalc. Kamil Tamiola, kamil@peptone.io; Frans A.A. Mulder, fmulder@chem.au.dk.

  2. The Generation of Dehydroalanine Residues in Protonated Polypeptides: Ion/Ion Reactions for Introducing Selective Cleavages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhou; Bu, Jiexun; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2017-09-01

    We examine a gas-phase approach for converting a subset of amino acid residues in polypeptide cations to dehydroalanine (Dha). Subsequent activation of the modified polypeptide ions gives rise to specific cleavage N-terminal to the Dha residue. This process allows for the incorporation of selective cleavages in the structural characterization of polypeptide ions. An ion/ion reaction within the mass spectrometer between a multiply protonated polypeptide and the sulfate radical anion introduces a radical site into the multiply protonated polypeptide reactant. Subsequent collisional activation of the polypeptide radical cation gives rise to radical side chain loss from one of several particular amino acid side chains (e.g., leucine, asparagine, lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid) to yield a Dha residue. The Dha residues facilitate preferential backbone cleavages to produce signature c- and z-ions, demonstrated with cations derived from melittin, mechano growth factor (MGF), and ubiquitin. The efficiencies for radical side chain loss and for subsequent generation of specific c- and z-ions have been examined as functions of precursor ion charge state and activation conditions using cations of ubiquitin as a model for a small protein. It is noted that these efficiencies are not strongly dependent on ion trap collisional activation conditions but are sensitive to precursor ion charge state. Moderate to low charge states show the greatest overall yields for the specific Dha cleavages, whereas small molecule losses (e.g., water/ammonia) dominate at the lowest charge states and proton catalyzed amide bond cleavages that give rise to b- and y-ions tend to dominate at high charge states. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Hordein polypeptide patterns in relation to malting quality in Brazilian barley varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echart-Almeida Cinara

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there is evidence that malting quality is related to the storage protein (hordein fraction, in the present work the hordein polypeptide patterns from 13 barley (Hordeum vulgare L. varieties of different malting quality were analysed in order to explore the feasibility of using hordein electrophoresis to assist in the selection of malting barleys. The formation of clusters separating the varieties with higher malting quality from the others with lower quality suggests that there is a relationship between the general hordein polypeptide pattern and malting quality in the varieties analysed. By the Sperman's correlation test three hordein bands correlated negatively with malting quality in the germplasm studied.

  4. Lectin Domains of Polypeptide GalNAc Transferases Exhibit Glycopeptide Binding Specificity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johannes W; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine T-B G

    2011-01-01

    UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide a-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of up to 20 transferases that initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The transferases are structurally composed of catalytic and lectin domains. Two modes have been identified for the selection of glycosylat......UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide a-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of up to 20 transferases that initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The transferases are structurally composed of catalytic and lectin domains. Two modes have been identified for the selection...

  5. Effect of ganglionic blockade on endogenous circulating pancreatic polypeptide, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, substance P, neurotensin and noradrenaline in healthy controls and long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Pedersen, J H

    1986-01-01

    Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), substance P (SP), neurotensin (NT) and noradrenaline (NA) were measured in eight healthy subjects and 12 long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy, before and after intravenous...

  6. Distribution and immunohistochemical characteristics of cocaine- and amphetamineregulated transcript-positive nerve elements in the pelvic ganglia of the female pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharko-Siembida, A; Matysek, M; Szalak, R; Radlińska, A; Obszańska, K; Arciszewski, M B

    2017-03-28

    Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are widely expressed not only in the brain but also in numerous endocrine/neuroendocrine cells as well as in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The present study investigated the distribution patterns of CART-like immunoreactivity in the pelvic plexus (PP) of the female pig. The co-expression of CART with principal neurotransmitter markers: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin (5-HT) or biologically active neuropeptides: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP), calbindin was analyzed using double immunohistochemical stainings. Amongst neurons immunopositive to Hu C/D panneuronal marker as many as 4.1 ± 1.2% in right and 4.4 ± 1.6% in left pelvic ganglia were found to express CART. The vast majority of CART-IR ganglionic neurons were predominantly small in size and were evenly scattered throughout particular ganglia. Immunoreactivity to CART was also detected in numerous nerve terminals (which frequently formed pericellular formations around CART-negative perikarya) as well as in numerous nerve fibres within nerve branches interconnecting the unilateral pelvic ganglia. Immunohistochemistry revealed that virtually all CART-IR neurons were cholinergic in nature and CART-IR basket-like formations frequently encircled TH-positive/CART-negative perikarya. None of CART-IR ganglionic neurons showed immunoreactivity to SP, PACAP, 5-HT or calbindin. CART-IR nerve fibres ran in a close vicinity to serotonin-containing cells or faintly labelled SP-expressing neurons. On the other hand, PACAP-IR, SP-IR (but not 5-HT-positive) nerve terminals were found to run in close proximity to CART-IR neurons. Our results indicate that: 1) CART present in PP may influence the activity of pelvic ganglionic neurons/SIF cells, 2) PP should be considered as a potential source of CART-like supply to pelvic viscera and 3) functional interactions between

  7. The interdomain flexible linker of the polypeptide GalNAc transferases dictates their long-range glycosylation preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rivas, Matilde De Las; Lira-Navarrete, Erandi; Daniel, Earnest James Paul

    2017-01-01

    The polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts), that initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation, consist of a catalytic and a lectin domain connected by a flexible linker. In addition to recognizing polypeptide sequence, the GalNAc-Ts exhibit unique long-range N- A nd/or C-terminal prior glycosylation ...

  8. TOPOFOLD, the designed modular biomolecular folds: polypeptide-based molecular origami nanostructures following the footsteps of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočar, Vid; Božič Abram, Sabina; Doles, Tibor; Bašić, Nino; Gradišar, Helena; Pisanski, Tomaž; Jerala, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Biopolymers, the essential components of life, are able to form many complex nanostructures, and proteins in particular are the material of choice for most cellular processes. Owing to numerous cooperative interactions, rational design of new protein folds remains extremely challenging. An alternative strategy is to design topofolds-nanostructures built from polypeptide arrays of interacting modules that define their topology. Over the course of the last several decades DNA has successfully been repurposed from its native role of information storage to a smart nanomaterial used for nanostructure self-assembly of almost any shape, which is largely because of its programmable nature. Unfortunately, polypeptides do not possess the straightforward complementarity as do nucleic acids. However, a modular approach can nevertheless be used to assemble polypeptide nanostructures, as was recently demonstrated on a single-chain polypeptide tetrahedron. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the field of topological polypeptide folds. It starts with a brief overview of the field of structural DNA and RNA nanotechnology, from which it draws parallels and possible directions of development for the emerging field of polypeptide-based nanotechnology. The principles of topofold strategy and unique properties of such polypeptide nanostructures in comparison to native protein folds are discussed. Reasons for the apparent absence of such folds in nature are also examined. Physicochemical versatility of amino acid residues and cost-effective production makes polypeptides an attractive platform for designed functional bionanomaterials. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Molecular weight distribution of soluble polypeptides from the 'Parma county ham' before, during and after maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, E; Bracchi, P G; Chizzolini, R

    1977-04-01

    SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis has been employed to study the molecular weight distribution of soluble polypeptides from the 'Parma county ham', a salted pork product. Limited proteolysis was observed, but this was mainly confined to the sarcoplasmic proteins. The results are discussed in the light of previous studies on the same type of products. Copyright © 1977. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Biosynthesis and characterization of typical fibroin crystalline polypeptides of silkworm Bombyx mori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jiannan, E-mail: wangjn@suda.edu.cn [College of Material Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Yan Shuqin [College of Material Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Lu Changde [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Bai Lun [College of Material Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China)

    2009-05-05

    We aimed to investigate the self-organization/self-assembly mechanisms of silkworm fibroin-based material. In the present study, for the first time, we designed and multimerized four DNA 'monomer' sequences from structurally simple fibroin crystalline peptides or analog, [GAGAGX] (X = A, S, Y and V) to encode polypeptides [GAGAGX]{sub 16} (eGA, eGS, eGY and eGV) using a 'head-to-tail' construction strategy. Multimers were cloned into pGEX-KG and fusion proteins GST-[GAGAGX]{sub 16} (KGA, KGS, KGY and KGV) were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli. These fusion proteins were isolated and purified by GST affinity chromatography and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using antibody reactive to GST. The polypeptides were cleavaged from GST fusion proteins by digesting with thrombin enzyme. The composition of the four polypeptides was confirmed by composition analysis of amino acids, and their abilities to form {beta}-sheet structure were determined by ThT fluorescence spectral analysis. The content of {beta}-sheet among the four polypeptides followed the order: eGS > eGV > eGY > eGA.

  11. Proline-rich polypeptides in Alzheimer's disease and neurodegenerative disorders - Therapeutic potential or a mirage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gladkevich, A.; Bosker, F.; Korf, J.; Yenkoyan, K.; Vahradyan, H.; Aghajanov, M.

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective and safe drugs for a growing Alzheimer disease population is an increasing need at present. Both experimental and clinical evidence support a beneficial effect of proline-rich polypeptides in a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of polypeptide-Co3O4 nano-conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bithi; Reaz, Mahmud; Mamun, Md Abdullah-Al; Wanekaya, Adam; Delong, Robert; Gholap, Haribhua; Ghosh, Kartik; Missouri State University Team; Kansas State University Collaboration

    Nanoconjugates, composites of inorganic nanomaterials and biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, establish sequences of a wide varieties nano-bio boundaries. The formation of these boundaries strongly depends on complex bio physicochemical reactions. Polypeptide nanostructures exhibit a unique type of self-assembled bio-material having many interesting properties and applications. Nanoparticles of Co3O4 exhibit ferromagnetism at room temperature. In this work, we are investigating structural and magnetic properties of polypeptide-Co33O4 nano-conjugates. Polypeptide nanotubes were made using Phenylalanine, diphenyl hexafluoride isopropanol, and deionized water using sol-gel method. The peptide tubes were hybridized with Co3O4 through the reduction of Co ions from CoCl2 aqueous solution and the heat treatment. SEM images show that polypeptide nanotubes are nicely decorated with inorganic nanoparticles. EDX data indicate conjugation between peptide nanotubes and Co3O4. To characterize the metallic oxide phase and the interface more prominently, nano-bio composites were probed using XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and magnetic measurement. This research work is supported by National Cancer Institute (1R15 CA139390-01).

  13. Antipeptide antibodies that can distinguish specific subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Henry, R. L.; Takemoto, L. J.; Guikema, J. A.; Wong, P. P.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the beta and gamma subunit polypeptides of glutamine synthetase from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root nodules are very similar. However, there are small regions within the sequences that are significantly different between the two polypeptides. The sequences between amino acids 2 and 9 and between 264 and 274 are examples. Three peptides (gamma 2-9, gamma 264-274, and beta 264-274) corresponding to these sequences were synthesized. Antibodies against these peptides were raised in rabbits and purified with corresponding peptide-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of bean nodule proteins demonstrated that the anti-beta 264-274 antibodies reacted specifically with the beta polypeptide and the anti-gamma 264-274 and anti-gamma 2-9 antibodies reacted specifically with the gamma polypeptide of the native and denatured glutamine synthetase. These results showed the feasibility of using synthetic peptides in developing antibodies that are capable of distinguishing proteins with similar primary structures.

  14. Effects on DPPH inhibition of egg-white protein polypeptides treated by pulsed electric field technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Jia; Liu, Bolong; Lin, Songyi; Zhao, Ping; Liu, Jingbo; Jones, Gregory; Huang, Hsiang-Chi

    2013-05-01

    Egg-white protein polypeptides are potentially used as a functional ingredient in food products. In this study, the effects on DPPH inhibition of egg-white protein polypeptides ranging from 10 to 30 kDa treated by pulsed electric field (PEF) technology were investigated. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition (%) was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of polypeptides. In order to develop and optimize a pulsed electric field (PEF) mathematical model for improving the antioxidant activity, we have investigated three variables, including concentration (6, 8 and 10 mg mL(-1)), electric field intensity (10, 20 and 30 kV cm(-1)) and pulse frequency (2000, 2350 and 2700 Hz) and subsequently optimized them by response surface methodology (RSM). The concentration (8 mg mL(-1)), electric field intensity (10 kV cm(-1)) and pulse frequency (2000 Hz) were found to be the optimal conditions under which the DPPH inhibition increased 28.44%, compared to the sample without PEF treatment. Both near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyze the change of functional groups. The results showed that PEF technology could improve the antioxidant activity of antioxidant polypeptides from egg-white protein under the optimized conditions. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. TISSUE POLYPEPTIDE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN - A DISCRIMINATIVE PARAMETER BETWEEN PROSTATE-CANCER AND BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MARRINK, J; OOSTEROM, R; BONFRER, HMG; SCHRODER, FH; MENSINK, HJA

    1993-01-01

    The serum concentration of the cell proliferation marker TPS (tissue polypeptide-specific antigen) was compared with the tumour marker PSA (prostate specific antigen). PSA was found elevated in 50% of the benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients, in 88% of the patients with active prostate cancer

  16. Self-assemble nanoparticles based on polypeptides containing C-terminal luminescent Pt-cysteine complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlakh, E. G.; Grachova, E. V.; Zhukovsky, D. D.; Hubina, A. V.; Mikhailova, A. S.; Shakirova, J. R.; Sharoyko, V. V.; Tunik, S. P.; Tennikova, T. B.

    2017-02-01

    The growing attention to the luminescent nanocarriers is strongly stimulated by their potential application as drug delivery systems and by the necessity to monitor their distribution in cells and tissues. In this communication we report on the synthesis of amphiphilic polypeptides bearing C-terminal phosphorescent label together with preparation of nanoparticles using the polypeptides obtained. The approach suggested is based on a unique and highly technological process where the new phosphorescent Pt-cysteine complex serves as initiator of the ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides to obtain the polypeptides bearing intact the platinum chromophore covalently bound to the polymer chain. It was established that the luminescent label retains unchanged its emission characteristics not only in the polypeptides but also in more complicated nanoaggregates such as the polymer derived amphiphilic block-copolymers and self-assembled nanoparticles. The phosphorescent nanoparticles display no cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity in the tested range of concentrations and easily internalize into living cells that makes possible in vivo cell visualization, including prospective application in time resolved imaging and drug delivery monitoring.

  17. Expression of polypeptide GalNAc-transferases in stratified epithelia and squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandel, U; Hassan, H; Therkildsen, M H

    1999-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation is initiated by a large family of UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide N -acetyl-galactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-transferases). Individual GalNAc-transferases appear to have different functions and Northern analysis indicates that they are differently expressed in different organ...

  18. A surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detecting a dioxin precursor using a gold binding polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soh, N; Tokuda, T.; Watanabe, T.

    2003-01-01

    ,4-dichlorophenol) antibody using a gold binding polypeptide (GBP) and protein G. The SPR response based on the antigen–antibody reaction in a flow system was measured by injecting a 2,4-dichlorophenol sample solution into the flow system in which the SPR sensor was located. In a direct immunoassay system using...

  19. Revisiting the human polypeptide GalNAc-T1 and T13 paralogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festari, María Florencia; Trajtenberg, Felipe; Berois, Nora

    2017-01-01

    Polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (GalNAc-Ts) constitute a family of 20 human glycosyltransferases (comprising 9 subfamilies), which initiate mucin-type O-glycosylation. The O-glycoproteome is thought to be differentially regulated via the different substrate specificities and expression patterns...

  20. CA 15-3, Ceruloplasmin and tissue polypeptide specific antigen as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the value of CA 15-3, ceruloplasmin and tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS) panel in the monitoring of breast cancer. Subjects: Serum concentrations of CA 15-3, ceruloplasmin and TPS were measured in 90 women: Fifteen controls, sixteen patients with benign breast disease (BBD), thirty one ...

  1. Preparation of anti-mucin polypeptide antisera to study mucin biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tytgat, K. M.; Klomp, L. W.; Bovelander, F. J.; Opdam, F. J.; van der Wurff, A.; Einerhand, A. W.; Büller, H. A.; Strous, G. J.; Dekker, J.

    1995-01-01

    Mucins are very heavily O-glycosylated glycoproteins. For in depth studies on the cell biological aspects of mucins, anti-polypeptide antibodies are essential. We therefore developed a method for the preparation and screening of polyclonal antisera against mucin peptide epitopes. Mucins from five

  2. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Augments Glucagon Responses to Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel; Calanna, Salvatore; Sparre-Ulrich, Alexander H

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is glucagonotropic, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is glucagonostatic. We studied the effects of GIP and GLP-1 on glucagon responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Ten male subjects with T1DM...

  3. Probing polypeptide GalNAc-transferase isoform substrate specificities by in vitro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Yun; Joshi, Hiren J; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc)-type (mucin-type) O-glycosylation is an abundant and highly diverse modification of proteins. This type of O-glycosylation is initiated in the Golgi by a large family of up to 20 homologous polypeptide GalNAc-T isoenzymes that transfer GalNAc to Ser, Thr...

  4. On the role of glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide in postprandial metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Tangaa, Winnie; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the role of glucose-dependent insulintropic polypeptide (GIP) in the regulation of gastric emptying (GE), appetite, energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), plasma levels of triglycerides (TAG), and free fatty acids (FFA) in humans. First, 20 healthy males received intravenous...

  5. Ectomycorrhizin Synthesis and Polypeptide Changes during the Early Stage of Eucalypt Mycorrhiza Development 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Costa, Guy; Martin, Francis

    1991-01-01

    In functioning eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, biochemical alterations are accompanied by a differential accumulation of polypeptides including the synthesis of symbiosis-related proteins (JL Hilbert, Martin FM [1988] New Phytol 110: 339-346). In the present study, protein biosynthesis in the early stages of ectomycorrhiza formation on Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata Kirkp. was examined using compatible and incompatible isolates of the basidiomycete Pisolithus tinctorius (Coker & Couch). Changes in polypeptide composition were observed within hours following contact of the compatible mycelium with the roots, well before the differentiation of typical symbiotic tissues. At this stage, at least seven symbiosis-related proteins (ectomycorrhizins) accumulated in root tissues. In vivo incorporation of [35S]methionine by ectomycorrhizas followed by electrophoresis of the labeled proteins revealed that most of these differences in polypeptide concentrations, including the ectomycorrhizin accumulation, are the result of differential protein biosynthesis rather than posttranslational modifications of the polypeptides. The initial development of eucalypt ectomycorrhizas, therefore, coincides with the synthesis of symbiosis-related proteins and the data presented here provide essential evidence to ascribe a functional developmental role to these proteins. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:16668539

  6. Polyspecific organic anion transporting polypeptides mediate hepatic uptake of amphipathic type II organic cations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfoort, J.E; Hagenbuch, B; Fattinger, K.E; Muller, M; Groothuis, Geny; Meijer, D.K F; Meier, P.J

    1999-01-01

    Hepatic uptake of albumin-bound amphipathic organic cations has been suggested to be mediated by multispecific bile salt and organic anion transport systems. Therefore, we investigated whether the recently cloned rat organic anion transporting polypeptides 1 and 2 as well as the human organic anion

  7. Noncanonical Self-Assembly of Highly Asymmetric Genetically Encoded Polypeptide Amphiphiles into Cylindrical Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are a class of biopolymers consisting of the pentameric repeat (VPGαG)n based on the sequence of mammalian tropoelastin that display a thermally induced soluble-to-insoluble phase transition in aqueous solution. We have discovered a remarkably simple approach to driving the spontaneous self-assembly of high molecular weight ELPs into nanostructures by genetically fusing a short 1.5 kDa (XGy)z assembly domain to one end of the ELP. Classical theories of self-assembly based on the geometric mass balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymers suggest that these highly asymmetric polypeptides should form spherical micelles. Surprisingly, when sufficiently hydrophobic amino acids (X) are presented in a periodic sequence such as (FGG)8 or (YG)8, these highly asymmetric polypeptides self-assemble into cylindrical micelles whose length can be tuned by the sequence of the morphogenic tag. These nanostructures were characterized by light scattering, tunable resistive pulse sensing, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and thermal turbidimetry, as well as by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). These short assembly domains provide a facile strategy to control the size, shape, and stability of stimuli responsive polypeptide nanostructures. PMID:25268037

  8. Initial characterization of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, B; Bradsher, J; Franke, J; Hartmann, E; Wiedmann, M; Prehn, S; Wiedmann, B

    1999-03-30

    The three subunits of the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (alpha, beta1, beta3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are encoded by three genes (EGD2, EGD1, BTT1). We found the complex bound to ribosomes via the beta-subunits in a salt-sensitive manner, in close proximity to nascent polypeptides. Estimation of the molecular weight of the complex of wild-type cells and cells lacking one or two subunits revealed that the composition of the complex is variable and that as yet unknown proteins might be included. Regardless of the variability, a certain balance of the subunits has to be maintained: the deletion of one subunit causes downregulation of the remaining subunits at physiological growth temperature. Cells lacking both beta-subunits are unable to grow at 37 degrees C, most likely due to a toxic effect of the alpha-subunit. Based on in vitro experiments, it has been proposed that the function of mammalian nascent-polypeptide associated complexes (NAC) is to prevent inappropriate targeting of non-secretory nascent polypeptides. In vivo, however, the lack of NAC does not cause secretion of signal-less invertase in yeast. This result and the lack of a drastic phenotype of cells missing one, two or three subunits at optimal conditions (28 degrees C, YPD-medium) suggest either the existence of a substitute for NAC or that cells tolerate or 'repair' the damage caused by the absence of NAC.

  9. Residue specific effects of human islet polypeptide amyloid on self-assembly and on cell toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khemtemourian, L.P.; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Foufelle, Fabienne; Killian, J Antoinette

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized histopathologically by the presence of fibrillary amyloid deposits in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), the 37-residue pancreatic hormone, is the major constituent of these amyloid deposits. The propensity of IAPP

  10. Localization of murine mammary tumor virus polypeptides on the surface of tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westenbrink, F.; Koornstra, W.; Creemers, P.

    1979-01-01

    Antisera raised in rabbits against purified components gp52, p28 and p12 of murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) were first characterized by means of immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis and radioimmunoassay. No significant crossreactivity could be detected. The 3 polypeptides were detected by means

  11. /sup 1/H NMR studied of cardiostimulant polypeptides from sea anemones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gooley, P.R.

    1985-01-01

    Sea anemones contain a series of homologous polypeptides which are potent cardiac stimulants. They exert their effect by binding to the Na/sup +/ channel of excitable membranes and delaying its closure. Although their physiological and pharmacological properties have been extensively studied, little is known about their conformations. The aim of the work described in this thesis is to characterize the solution conformation of several of these polypeptides, viz. ATXI and II from Anemonia sulcata and AP-A from Anthopleura xanthogrammica, by using high resolution /sup 1/H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy at 300 MHz. Resonances are assigned to amino acid types by a variety of techniques, including pH dependence and two-dimensional homonuclear correlated spectroscopy (COSY). The assignments reveal extensive conformational heterogeneity in AP-A and ATXII, but not in ATXI. The heterogeneity, manifested in the splitting of a number of resonances, is explained in terms of cis-trans isomerism of the peptide bond preceding Pro-41. Information on the secondary and tertiary structures of these polypeptides has been obtained from NOE data. The polypeptides undergo a conformational change at low pH reflecting pK/sub a/ values of 1.7/2.5, 3.0 and 1.9/2.3 for AP-A, ATXI and ATXII, respectively.

  12. Searching for the physiological role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Windeløv, Johanne Agerlin; Boer, Geke Aline

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) was established as a gut hormone more than 40 years ago, and there is good experimental support for its role as an incretin hormone although deletion of the GIP receptor or the GIP cells or GIP receptor mutations have only minor effects on glucos...

  13. Pancreatic polypeptide is involved in the regulation of body weight in pima Indian male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koska, Juraj; DelParigi, Angelo; de Courten, Barbora

    2004-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether lo...

  14. Adhesive polypeptides of Staphylococcus aureus identified using a novel secretion library technique in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Liisa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial adhesive proteins, called adhesins, are frequently the decisive factor in initiation of a bacterial infection. Characterization of such molecules is crucial for the understanding of bacterial pathogenesis, design of vaccines and development of antibacterial drugs. Because adhesins are frequently difficult to express, their characterization has often been hampered. Alternative expression methods developed for the analysis of adhesins, e.g. surface display techniques, suffer from various drawbacks and reports on high-level extracellular secretion of heterologous proteins in Gram-negative bacteria are scarce. These expression techniques are currently a field of active research. The purpose of the current study was to construct a convenient, new technique for identification of unknown bacterial adhesive polypeptides directly from the growth medium of the Escherichia coli host and to identify novel proteinaceous adhesins of the model organism Staphylococcus aureus. Results Randomly fragmented chromosomal DNA of S. aureus was cloned into a unique restriction site of our expression vector, which facilitates secretion of foreign FLAG-tagged polypeptides into the growth medium of E. coli ΔfliCΔfliD, to generate a library of 1663 clones expressing FLAG-tagged polypeptides. Sequence and bioinformatics analyses showed that in our example, the library covered approximately 32% of the S. aureus proteome. Polypeptides from the growth medium of the library clones were screened for binding to a selection of S. aureus target molecules and adhesive fragments of known staphylococcal adhesins (e.g coagulase and fibronectin-binding protein A as well as polypeptides of novel function (e.g. a universal stress protein and phosphoribosylamino-imidazole carboxylase ATPase subunit were detected. The results were further validated using purified His-tagged recombinant proteins of the corresponding fragments in enzyme-linked immunoassay and

  15. Biosynthesis and characterization of a non-repetitive polypeptide derived from silk fibroin heavy chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gaoqiang; Wu, Mingyang; Yi, Honggen; Wang, Jiannan, E-mail: wangjn@suda.edu.cn

    2016-02-01

    Silk fibroin heavy chain is the major protein component of Bombyx mori silk fibroin and is composed of 12 repetitive and 11 non-repetitive regions, with the non-repetitive domain consisting of a hydrophilic polypeptide chain. In order to determine the biomedical function of the non-repetitive domain or potentially use it to modify hydrophobic biomaterials, high-purity isolation is necessary. Previously, we cloned and extended a gene motif (f(1)) encoding the non-repetitive domain. Here, this motif and its multimers are inserted into a glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged fusion-protein expression vector. Motif f(1) and multimers f(4) and f(8) were expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 cells following isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside induction, purified by GST-affinity chromatography, and single bands of purified fusion proteins GST-F(1), GST-F(4), and GST-F(8), were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Target polypeptides F(1), F(4), and F(8), were cleaved clearly from the GST-fusion tag following thrombin digestion. Mass spectrometry results indicate that the molecular weights associated with fusion proteins GST-F(1), GST-F(4), and GST-F(8) are 31.5, 43.8, and 59.0 kDa, respectively, and with the cleaved polypeptides F(1), F(4), and F(8) are 4.8, 16.8, and 32.8 kDa, respectively. The F(1), F(4), and F(8) polypeptide chains are negatively charged with isoelectric points (pI) of 3.3, 3.2, and 3.0, respectively. The molecular weight and pI values of the polypeptide chains are consistent with the predicted values and the amino acid compositions similar to predicted sequences. FTIR and CD results show the molecular conformation of F(1) was mainly random coil, and more stable α-helix structure formed in longer molecular chain. - Highlights: • A non-repetitive domain and its multimers of silk fibroin were expressed by E. coli. • The corresponding target polypeptides F(1), F(4) and F(8) were cleaved clearly. • Their

  16. Manipulating the membrane penetration mechanism of helical polypeptides via aromatic modification for efficient gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Song, Ziyuan; Yang, Jiandong; Liu, Yang; Li, Fangfang; Cheng, Jianjun; Yin, Lichen

    2017-08-01

    The delivery performance of non-viral gene vectors is greatly related to their intracellular kinetics. Cationic helical polypeptides with potent membrane penetration properties and gene transfection efficiencies have been recently developed by us. However, they suffer from severe drawbacks in terms of their membrane penetration mechanisms that mainly include endocytosis and pore formation. The endocytosis mechanism leads to endosomal entrapment of gene cargos, while the charge- and helicity-induced pore formation causes appreciable cytotoxicity at high concentrations. With the attempt to overcome such critical challenges, we incorporated aromatic motifs into the design of helical polypeptides to enhance their membrane activities and more importantly, to manipulate their membrane penetration mechanisms. The aromatically modified polypeptides exhibited higher cellular internalization level than the unmodified analogue by up to 2.5 folds. Such improvement is possibly because aromatic domains promoted the polypeptides to penetrate cell membranes via direct transduction, a non-endocytosis and non-pore formation mechanism. As such, gene cargos were more efficiently delivered into cells by bypassing endocytosis and subsequently avoiding endosomal entrapment, and the material toxicity associated with excessive pore formation was also reduced. The top-performing aromatic polypeptide containing naphthyl side chains at the incorporated content of 20mol% revealed notably higher transfection efficiencies than commercial reagents in melanoma cells in vitro (by 11.7 folds) and in vivo (by 9.1 folds), and thus found potential utilities toward topical gene delivery for cancer therapy. Cationic helical polypeptides, as efficient gene delivery materials, suffer from severe drawbacks in terms of their membrane penetration mechanisms. The main cell penetration mechanisms involved are endocytosis and pore formation. However, the endocytosis mechanism has the limitation of endosomal

  17. Zonadhesin D3-polypeptides vary among species but are similar in Equus species capable of interbreeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Steve; Brady, Heidi A; Breazeale, Kelly R; Bi, Ming; Thompson, Leslie D; Bruemmer, Jason E; Bailey, Laura B; Hardy, Daniel M

    2010-02-01

    Zonadhesin is a rapidly evolving protein in the sperm acrosome that confers species specificity to sperm-zona pellucida adhesion. Though structural variation in zonadhesin likely contributes to its species-specific function, the protein has not previously been characterized in organisms capable of interbreeding. Here we compared properties of zonadhesin in several animals, including the horse (Equus caballus), donkey (E. asinus), and Grevy's zebra (E. grevyi) to determine if variation in zonadhesin correlates with ability of gametes to cross-fertilize. Zonadhesin localized to the apical acrosomes of spermatozoa from all three Equus species, similar to its localization in other animals. Likewise, in horse and donkey testis, zonadhesin was detected only in germ cells, first in the acrosomal granule of round spermatids and then in the developing acrosomes of elongating spermatids. Among non-Equus species, D3-domain polypeptides of mature, processed zonadhesin varied markedly in size and detergent solubility. However, zonadhesin D3-domain polypeptides in horse, donkey, and zebra spermatozoa exhibited identical electrophoretic mobility and detergent solubility. Equus zonadhesin D3-polypeptides (p110/p80 doublet) were most similar in size to porcine and bovine zonadhesin D3-polypeptides (p105). Sequence comparisons revealed that the horse zonadhesin precursor's domain content and arrangement are similar to those of zonadhesin from other large animals. Partial sequences of horse and donkey zonadhesin were much more similar to each other (>99% identity) than they were to orthologous sequences of human, pig, rabbit, and mouse zonadhesin (52%-72% identity). We conclude that conservation of zonadhesin D3-polypeptide properties correlates with ability of Equus species to interbreed.

  18. Persistence of duplicated PAC1 receptors in the teleost, Sparus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Melody S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Duplicated genes are common in vertebrate genomes. Their persistence is assumed to be either a consequence of gain of novel function (neofunctionalisation or partitioning of the function of the ancestral molecule (sub-functionalisation. Surprisingly few studies have evaluated the extent of such modifications despite the numerous duplicated receptor and ligand genes identified in vertebrate genomes to date. In order to study the importance of function in the maintenance of duplicated genes, sea bream (Sparus auratus PAC1 receptors, sequence homologues of the mammalian receptor specific for PACAP (Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, were studied. These receptors belong to family 2 GPCRs and most of their members are duplicated in teleosts although the reason why both persist in the genome is unknown. Results: Duplicate sea bream PACAP receptor genes (sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, members of family 2 GPCRs, were isolated and share 77% amino acid sequence identity. RT-PCR with specific primers for each gene revealed that they have a differential tissue distribution which overlaps with the distribution of the single mammalian receptor. Furthermore, in common with mammals, the teleost genes undergo alternative splicing and a PAC1Ahop1 isoform has been characterised. Duplicated orthologous receptors have also been identified in other teleost genomes and their distribution profile suggests that function may be species specific. Functional analysis of the paralogue sbPAC1s in Cos7 cells revealed that they are strongly stimulated in the presence of mammalian PACAP27 and PACAP38 and far less with VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide. The sbPAC1 receptors are equally stimulated (LOGEC50 values for maximal cAMP production in the presence of PACAP27 (-8.74 ± 0.29 M and -9.15 ± 0.21 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0.05 and PACAP38 (-8.54 ± 0.18 M and -8.92 ± 0.24 M, respectively for sbPAC1A and sbPAC1B, P > 0

  19. Polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and polynucleotides encoding same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morant, Marc

    2017-02-07

    The present invention relates to isolated polypeptides having beta-glucosidase activity, beta-xylosidase activity, or beta-glucosidase and beta-xylosidase activity and isolated polynucleotides encoding the polypeptides. The invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides as well as methods of producing and using the polypeptides.

  20. Chemical Coding of Sensory Neurons Supplying the Hip Joint Capsule in the Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, A; Sienkiewicz, W; Chrószcz, A; Janeczek, M; Kaleczyc, J

    2017-04-01

    Immunohistochemical properties of nerve fibres supplying the joint capsule were previously described in many mammalian species, but the localization of sensory neurons supplying this structure was studied only in laboratory animals, the rat and rabbit. However, there is no comprehensive data on the chemical coding of sensory neurons projecting to the hip joint capsule (HJC). The aim of this study was to establish immunohistochemical properties of sensory neurons supplying HJC in the sheep. The study was carried out on 10 sheep, weighing about 30-40 kg. The animals were injected with a retrograde neural tracer Fast Blue (FB) into HJC. Sections of the spinal ganglia (SpG) with FB-positive (FB+) neurons were stained using antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) substance P (SP), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP), nitric oxide synthase (n-NOS), neuropeptide Y (NPY), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), Leu-5-enkephalin (Leu-Enk), galanin (GAL) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VACHT). The vast majority of FB+ neurons supplying HJC was found in the ganglia from the 5th lumbar to the 2nd sacral. Immunohistochemistry revealed that most of these neurons were immunoreactive to CGRP or SP (80.7 ± 8.0% or 56.4 ± 4.8%, respectively) and many of them stained for PACAP or GAL (52.9 ± 2.9% or 50.6 ± 19.7%, respectively). Other populations of FB+ neurons were those immunoreactive to n-NOS (37.8 ± 9.7%), NPY (34.6 ± 6.7%), VIP (28.7 ± 4.8%), Leu-Enk (27.1 ± 14.6) and VACHT (16.7 ± 9.6). © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Maxadilan Prevents Apoptosis in iPS Cells and Shows No Effects on the Pluripotent State or Karyotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyi; Yu, Rongjie; Yang, Jiayin; Liu, Xiaofei; Tan, Meihua; Li, HongYang; Chen, Jiansu

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. Maxadilan, a 61-amino acid vasodilatory peptide, specifically activates the PACAP type I receptor (PAC1). Although PAC1 has been identified in embryonic stem cells, little is known about its presence or effects in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PAC1 in human iPS cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. To study the physiological effects mediated by PAC1, we evaluated the role of maxadilan in preventing apoptotic cell death induced by ultraviolet C (UVC). After exposure to UVC, the iPS cells showed a marked reduction in cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by WST-8 analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The addition of 30 nM of maxadilan dramatically increased iPS cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan were correlated to the downregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Concomitantly, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and in vitro differentiation results showed that maxadilan did not affect the pluripotent state of iPS cells. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that maxadilan did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that PAC1 is present in iPS cells and that maxadilan effectively protects iPS cells against UVC-induced apoptotic cell death while not affecting the pluripotent state or karyotype. PMID:22457805

  2. Synthesis of atrial natriuretic polypeptide in human failing hearts. Evidence for altered processing of atrial natriuretic polypeptide precursor and augmented synthesis of beta-human ANP.

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, A; Nakao, K; Morii, N; Yamada, T; Itoh, H; Shiono, S; Saito, Y; Mukoyama, M; Arai, H; Nishimura, K

    1988-01-01

    To elucidate the synthesis of atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP) in the failing heart, 20 human right auricles obtained at cardiovascular surgery were studied. The concentration of alpha-human ANP-like immunoreactivity (alpha-hANP-LI) in human right auricles ranged from 13.8 to 593.5 micrograms/g, and the tissue alpha-hANP-LI concentration in severe congestive heart failure (CHF) (New York Heart Association [NYHA] functional class III and class IV) (235.4 +/- 57.2 micrograms/g) was much hig...

  3. An excitatory paraventricular nucleus to AgRP neuron circuit that drives hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashes, Michael J; Shah, Bhavik P; Madara, Joseph C; Olson, David P; Strochlic, David E; Garfield, Alastair S; Vong, Linh; Pei, Hongjuan; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko; Uchida, Naoshige; Liberles, Stephen D; Lowell, Bradford B

    2014-03-13

    Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is important in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric-state-dependent synaptic plasticity. Despite the important role of excitatory input, its source(s) has been unknown. Here, through the use of Cre-recombinase-enabled, cell-specific neuron mapping techniques in mice, we have discovered strong excitatory drive that, unexpectedly, emanates from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, specifically from subsets of neurons expressing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP, also known as ADCYAP1). Chemogenetic stimulation of these afferent neurons in sated mice markedly activates AgRP neurons and induces intense feeding. Conversely, acute inhibition in mice with caloric-deficiency-induced hunger decreases feeding. Discovery of these afferent neurons capable of triggering hunger advances understanding of how this intense motivational state is regulated.

  4. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  5. Aqueous fraction of Beta vulgaris ameliorates hyperglycemia in diabetic mice due to enhanced glucose stimulated insulin secretion, mediated by acetylcholine and GLP-1, and elevated glucose uptake via increased membrane bound GLUT4 transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Kabir, Ashraf; Samad, Mehdi Bin; Ahmed, Arif; Jahan, Mohammad Rajib; Akhter, Farjana; Tasnim, Jinat; Hasan, S M Nageeb; Sayfe, Sania Sarker; Hannan, J M A

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the probable mechanisms of anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris. Aqueous fraction of B. Vulgaris extract was the only active fraction (50mg/kg). Plasma insulin level was found to be the highest at 30 mins after B. Vulgaris administration at a dose of 200mg/kg. B. Vulgaris treated mice were also assayed for plasma Acetylcholine, Glucagon Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1), Gastric Inhibitory Peptide (GIP), Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide (PACAP), Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Pancreatic Polypeptides (PP), and Somatostatin, along with the corresponding insulin levels. Plasma Acetylcholine and GLP-1 significantly increased in B. Vulgaris treated animals and were further studied. Pharmacological enhancers, inhibitors, and antagonists of Acetylcholine and GLP-1 were also administered to the test animals, and corresponding insulin levels were measured. These studies confirmed the role of acetylcholine and GLP-1 in enhanced insulin secretion (ptransporters were quantified and the subsequent glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis were assayed. We showed that levels of membrane bound GLUT4 transporters, glucose-6-phosphate in skeletal myocytes, activity of glycogen synthase, and level of glycogen deposited in the skeletal muscles all increased (pglucose uptake in the skeletal muscles and subsequent glycogen synthesis may also play a part in the anti-hyperglycemic activity of B. Vulgaris.

  6. Thermodynamic Approach to Enhanced Dispersion and Physical Properties in a Carbon Nanotube/Polypeptide Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Conrad S.; Wise, Kristopher E.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lillehei, Peter T.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Park, Cheol

    2009-01-01

    A high molecular weight synthetic polypeptide has been designed which exhibits favorable interactions with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The enthalpic and entropic penalties of mixing between these two molecules are reduced due to the polypeptide's aromatic sidechains and helical secondary structure, respectively. These enhanced interactions result in a well dispersed SWCNT/Poly (L-Leucine-ran-L-Phenylalanine) nanocomposite with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties using only shear mixing and sonication. At 0.5 wt% loading of SWCNT filler, the nanocomposite exhibits simultaneous increases in the Young's modulus, failure strain, and toughness of 8%, 120%, and 144%, respectively. At one kHz, the same nanotube loading level also enhances the dielectric constant from 2.95 to 22.81, while increasing the conductivity by four orders of magnitude.

  7. Elastin-like polypeptides: Therapeutic applications for an emerging class of nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despanie, Jordan; Dhandhukia, Jugal P; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F; MacKay, J Andrew

    2016-10-28

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) constitute a genetically engineered class of 'protein polymers' derived from human tropoelastin. They exhibit a reversible phase separation whereby samples remain soluble below a transition temperature (Tt) but form amorphous coacervates above Tt. Their phase behavior has many possible applications in purification, sensing, activation, and nanoassembly. As humanized polypeptides, they are non-immunogenic, substrates for proteolytic biodegradation, and can be decorated with pharmacologically active peptides, proteins, and small molecules. Recombinant synthesis additionally allows precise control over ELP architecture and molecular weight, resulting in protein polymers with uniform physicochemical properties suited to the design of multifunctional biologics. As such, ELPs have been employed for various uses including as anti-cancer agents, ocular drug delivery vehicles, and protein trafficking modulators. This review aims to offer the reader a catalogue of ELPs, their various applications, and potential for commercialization across a broad spectrum of fields. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The Role of the 14–20 Domain of the Islet Amyloid Polypeptide in Amyloid Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Gilead

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of amyloid formation by the islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP has been intensively studied since its identification in the late 1980s. The IAPP(20–29 region is considered to be the central amyloidogenic module of the polypeptide. This assumption is mainly based on the amyloidogenic properties of the region and on the large sequence diversity within this region between the human and mouse IAPP, as the mouse IAPP does not form amyloids. A few years ago, another region within IAPP was identified that seems to be at least as important as IAPP(20–29 in facilitation of molecular recognition that leads to amyloid formation. Here, we reinforce our and others' previous findings by analyzing supporting evidence from the recent literature. Moreover, we provide new proofs to our hypothesis by comparing between the amyloidogenic properties of the two regions derived from the IAPP of cats, which is also known to form amyloid fibrils.

  9. A simple biochemical method in the search for bioactive polypeptides in a sea anemone (Anemonia sulcata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Bruhn, T; Aneiros, A; Wachter, E; Béress, L

    1996-01-01

    The sea anemone Anemonia sulcata is a well-known natural source of supply of biologically active polypeptides. So far, five toxins, ATX I, II, III, IV and AS V, several polyvalent protease inhibitors, an elastase inhibitor, two blood pressure-depressive polypeptides and very recently peptides that inhibit competitively the binding of 125I-dendrotoxin to rat brain membranes and block the voltage-sensitive K+ channels, have been isolated from it. The sea anemone toxins (especially toxin II of A. sulcata, ATX II) are very important tools in neurophysiological and pharmacological research, and their structure-function relationship has been investigated. Because of the great scientific value of the sea anemone toxins a simplification of their purification procedure was elaborated.

  10. Specific photoaffinity labeling of two plasma membrane polypeptides with an azido auxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G. R.; Rayle, D. L.; Jones, A. M.; Lomax, T. L.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) hypocotyl tissue by aqueous phase partitioning and assessed for homogeneity by the use of membrane-specific enzyme assays. The highly pure (ca. 95%) plasma membrane vesicles maintained a pH differential across the membrane and accumulated a tritiated azido analogue of 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5-azido-[7-3H]IAA ([3H]N3IAA), in a manner similar to the accumulation of [3H]IAA. The association of the [3H]N3IAA with membrane vesicles was saturable and subject to competition by IAA and auxin analogues. Auxin-binding proteins were photoaffinity labeled by addition of [3H]N3IAA to plasma membrane vesicles prior to exposure to UV light (15 sec; 300 nm) and detected by subsequent NaDodSO4/PAGE and fluorography. When the reaction temperature was lowered to -196 degrees C, high-specific-activity labeling of a 40-kDa and a 42-kDa polypeptide was observed. Triton X-100 (0.1%) increased the specific activity of labeling and reduced the background, which suggests that the labeled polypeptides are intrinsic membrane proteins. The labeled polypeptides are of low abundance, as expected for auxin receptors. Further, the addition of IAA and auxin analogues to the photoaffinity reaction mixture resulted in reduced labeling that was qualitatively similar to their effects on the accumulation of radiolabeled IAA in membrane vesicles. Collectively, these results suggest that the radiolabeled polypeptides are auxin receptors. The covalent nature of the label should facilitate purification and further characterization of the receptors.

  11. Carbohydrate digestion and release of pancreatic polypeptide in health and diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Layer, P; Go, V L; DiMagno, E P

    1989-01-01

    The effects of meal volume and luminal digestion of carbohydrates on the release of pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) were investigated in eight healthy subjects and in six patients who had non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. On one occasion each subject ingested a placebo with 200 ml water and a starch (50 g) pudding meal (400 ml) 30 minutes later. On another occasion an amylase inhibitor that retards intraluminal starch digestion was given with the water and starch. In normal subjects, wate...

  12. Metallacrowns as products of the aqueous medium self-assembly of histidinehydroxamic acid-containing polypeptides.

    OpenAIRE

    Cal, M.; Kotynia, A.; Jaremko, L.; Jaremko, M.; Lisowski, M.; Cebo, M.; Brasun, J.; Stefanowicz, P.

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly is a widely studied, spontaneous, and reversible phenomenon leading to the formation of the ordered structures by non-covalent specific interactions among starting molecules. In this work, a new template for the self-assembly of polypeptides based on peptides containing the C-terminal histidinehydroxamic acid moiety and Cu2+ ions is characterized. Two peptide (tripeptide and pentadecapeptide) hydroxamic acid systems were synthesized and their interactions with Cu2+ ions were inv...

  13. Wall-associated kinase-like polypeptide mediates nutritional status perception and response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhenbiao; Karr, Stephen

    2014-02-11

    The disclosure relates to methods for modulating plant growth and organogenesis using dominant-negative receptor-like kinases. The disclosure further provides a method for increasing plant yield relative to corresponding wild type plants comprising modulating the expression in a plant of a nucleic acid encoding a Wall-Associated Kinase-like 14 polypeptide or a homolog thereof, and selecting for plants having increased yield or growth on a nutrient deficient substrate.

  14. Mussel-Inspired Thermoresponsive Polypeptide-Pluronic Copolymers for Versatile Surgical Adhesives and Hemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dedai; Wang, Hongsen; Li, Ting'e; Li, Yunfei; Dou, Fajuan; Sun, Shaobo; Guo, Hongyun; Liao, Shiqi; Yang, Zhiwang; Wei, Qiangbing; Lei, Ziqiang

    2017-05-24

    Inspired by marine mussel adhesive proteins, polymers with catechol side groups have been extensively explored in industrial and academic research. Here, Pluronic L-31 alcoholate ions were used as the initiator to prepare a series of polypeptide-Pluronic-polypeptide triblock copolymers via ring-opening polymerization of l-DOPA-N-carboxyanhydride (DOPA-NCA), l-arginine-NCA (Arg-NCA), l-cysteine-NCA (Cys-NCA), and ε-N-acryloyl lysine-NCA (Ac-Lys-NCA). These copolymers demonstrated good biodegradability, biocompatibility, and thermoresponsive properties. Adhesion tests using porcine skin and bone as adherends demonstrated lap-shear adhesion strengths up to 106 kPa and tensile adhesion strengths up to 675 kPa. The antibleeding activity and tissue adhesive ability were evaluated using a rat model. These polypeptide-Pluronic copolymer glues showed superior hemostatic properties and superior effects in wound healing and osteotomy gaps. Complete healing of skin incisions and remodeling of osteotomy gaps were observed in all rats after 14 and 60 days, respectively. These copolymers have potential uses as tissue adhesives, antibleeding, and tissue engineering materials.

  15. A Solid Phase Vibrational Circular Dichroism Study of Polypeptide-Surfactant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie

    2015-12-01

    We studied the interaction of poly-l-lysine (PLL) and poly-l-arginine (PLAG) with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant and the interaction of poly-l-glutamic acid (PLGA) and poly-l-aspartic acid (PLAA) with tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) surfactant using vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy in the region of C-H stretching vibration and in the Amide I region both in solution and in mulls. A chirality transfer from polypeptides to achiral surfactants was observed in the C-H stretching region, where measurements in solution were impossible. This observation was enabled by a special sample treatment technique using lyophilization and the preparation of mulls. This technique demonstrated itself as an interesting and beneficial tool for VCD measurements. In addition, we observed that SDS changed the secondary structure of PLL to the β-sheet and of PLAG to the α-helix. TTAB disrupted the PLGA and PLAA structure. These results were obtained in the mull but were confirmed by the VCD spectra measured in solution and by electronic circular dichroism. The chirality transfer from the polypeptides to SDS was caused by polypeptides ordered into a specific conformation during the interaction, while in the TTBA system it was induced primarily by the chirality of the amino acid residues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Poliovirus proteinase 2A induces cleavage of eucaryotic initiation factor 4F polypeptide p220.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräusslich, H G; Nicklin, M J; Toyoda, H; Etchison, D; Wimmer, E

    1987-01-01

    Poliovirus infection of HeLa cells induces rapid shutoff of host protein synthesis, whereas translation of poliovirus RNA is not inhibited. It is presumed that shutoff is the result of proteolytic cleavage of component p220 of eucaryotic initiation factor 4F. To study whether poliovirus proteinase 2A is involved in this cleavage, we translated synthetic RNAs that contained the coding region for poliovirus-specific polypeptides P1 and 2A in vitro and assayed for cleavage of p220. We report here that cleavage of p220 occurred in all cases when active proteinase 2A was translated and that disruption of the coding sequence of 2A by linker insertion or deletion prevented processing of p220 in vitro. Activity of 2A was determined by its ability to cleave at the P1-P2 site of a segment of the poliovirus polyprotein. We also constructed a plasmid in which the 3'-most 500 nucleotides of the nontranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus were linked to the coding sequence for poliovirus polypeptide 2A. Translation of the RNA transcript of this clone was very efficient and yielded a fusion protein that included 2A; this polypeptide also induced cleavage of p220. In vitro translation in the presence of antibodies against 2A specifically inhibited processing of p220, whereas incubation of in vitro translation products with antibodies against 2A after translation was completed did not prevent proteolysis of p220. Images PMID:3039165

  17. Anticancer activity of proapoptotic peptides is highly improved by thermal targeting using elastin-like polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moktan, Shama; Raucher, Drazen

    2012-09-01

    Inducing apoptosis in cancer cells is an effective strategy for cancer therapy. The cationic α-helix forming KLAKLAKKLAKLAK peptide (KLAK) has been known to induce apoptosis by disrupting the mitochondria. In the present study, we have designed a thermally targeted KLAK peptide by genetically engineering the KLAK sequence to the carboxy terminus of the heat responsive biopolymer elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). The cellular internalization of ELP-KLAK was made possible by engineering a cell penetrating peptide sequence (SynB1) to the amino terminus of ELP. The SynB1-ELP1-KLAK fusion polypeptide was cytotoxic against both estrogen receptor positive and negative human breast cancer cell lines. The potency of SynB1-ELP1-KLAK was further enhanced when mild hyperthermia was added to the treatment. In response to hyperthermia, SynB1-ELP1-KLAK selectively triggered apoptosis, which was associated with disruption of the mitochondria. The thermally responsive SynB1-ELP-KLAK polypeptide can have improved tumor targeting by the application of mild hyperthermia. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic properties of ELP can prevent degradation of KLAK in vivo, and the use of SynB1 can mediate tumor cell uptake, thereby augmenting the effect of KLAK.

  18. Compositions comprising a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, Jason; Xu, Feng; Sweeney, Matthew

    2016-05-31

    The present invention relates to compositions comprising: a polypeptide having cellulolytic enhancing activity and a nitrogen-containing compound. The present invention also relates to methods of using the compositions.

  19. Cloning and expression of two human p70 S6 kinase polypeptides differing only at their amino termini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grove, J.R.; Banerjee, P.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Price, D.J.; Avruch, J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Coffer, P.J.; Woodgett, J.R. (Ludwig Inst. for Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom))

    1991-11-01

    Two classes of human cDNA encoding the insulin/mitogen-activated p70 S6 kinase have been isolated; the two classes differ only in the 5{prime} region, such that the longer polypeptide consists of 525 amino acids, of which the last 502 longer residues are identical in sequence to the entire polypeptide encoded by the second cDNA. Both p70 S6 kinase polypeptides predicted by these cDNAs are present in p70 S6 kinase purified from rat liver, and each is thus expressed in vivo. Moreover, both polypeptides are expressed from a single mRNA transcribed from the (longer) p70 S6 kinase {alpha}I cDNA through the utilization of different translational start sites. Transient expression of p70 {alpha}I and {alpha}II S6 kinase cDNA in COA cells results in a 2.5- to 4-fold increase in overall S6 kinase activity. Transfection with the {alpha}II cDNA yields only the smaller set of bands, while transfection with the {alpha}I cDNA generates both sets of bands. Mutation of Met-24 in the {alpha}I cDNA to Leu or Thr suppresses synthesis of the {alpha}II polypeptides. Only the p70 {alpha}I and {alpha}II polypeptides of slowest mobility on SDS-PAGE comigrate with the 70-and 90-kDa proteins observed in purified rat liver S6 kinase. The recombinant p70 S6 kinase undergoes multiple phosphorylation and partial activation in COS cells. Acquisition of S6 protein kinase catalytic function, however, is apparently restricted to the most extensively phosphorylated recombinant polypeptides.

  20. Fabricating and Characterizing Physical Properties of Electrospun Polypeptide-based Nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Dhan Bahadur

    This dissertation has aimed to fabricate polypeptide based biomaterial and characterize physical properties. Electrospinning is used as a tool for the sample fabrication. Project focused on determining the feasibility of electrospinning of certain synthetic polypeptides and certain elastin-like peptides from aqueous feedstocks and to characterize physical properties of polymer aqueous solution, cast film and spun fibers and fiber mats. The research involves peptide design, polymer electrospinning, fibers crosslinking, determining the extent of crosslinking, fibers protease degradation study, fibers stability and self-organization analysis, structure and composition determination by various spectroscopy and microscopy techniques and characterization of mechanical properties of individual suspended fibers. Fiber mats of a synthetic cationic polypeptide poly(L-ornithine) (PLO) and an anionic co-polypeptide of L-glutamic acid and L-tyrosine (PLEY) of defined composition have been produced by electrospinning. Fibers were obtained from polymer aqueous solution at concentrations of 20-45% (w/v) in PLO and at concentrations of 20-60% (w/v) in PLEY. Applied voltage and spinneret-collector distance were also found to influence polymer spinnability and fibers morphology. Oriented fibers were obtained by parallel electrodes geometry. Fiber diameter and morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). PLO fibers exposed on glutaraldehyde (GTA) vapor rendered fiber mats water-insoluble. A common chemical reagent, carbodiimide was used to crosslink PLEY fibers. Fiber solubility in aqueous solution varied as a function of crosslinking time and crosslinker concentration. Crosslink density has been quantified by a visible-wavelength dye-based method. Degradation of crosslinked fibers by different proteases has been demonstrated. Investigation of crosslinked PLEY fibers has provided insight into the mechanisms of stability at different

  1. Heme iron polypeptide for the management of anaemia of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dull, R B; Davis, E

    2015-08-01

    Anaemia is a common clinical finding among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with significant morbidity and healthcare costs. Iron deficiency is an important contributing factor, and adequate iron supplementation is essential to optimize the management of anaemia of CKD. Oral iron is convenient and inexpensive but is poorly absorbed and associated with gastrointestinal distress. Intravenous iron overcomes these limitations but is more expensive, requires additional clinical visits for administration and is associated with serious adverse events. Oral heme iron polypeptide (HIP) is a newer dosage form that has been reported to have higher bioavailability and fewer side effects when compared with non-heme iron in healthy subjects, but data in patients with CKD are limited. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of HIP for the management of CKD. Searches for PubMed (1947-2015) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-2015) were conducted using the following terms: heme iron, heme iron polypeptide, oral iron, anaemia and chronic kidney disease. The bibliography of each relevant article was evaluated for additional studies. Articles were selected for review if they were published in the English language and were randomized controlled trials evaluating the bioavailability, tolerability or efficacy of oral HIP in human subjects with CKD. This search yielded three clinical studies. The safety and efficacy of HIP was evaluated in a total of 161 subjects with anaemia and various stages of CKD. HIP was consistently associated with lower ferritin values when compared with traditional iron supplementation. With few exceptions, the effect of HIP on haemoglobin, haematocrit, transferrin saturation and recombinant human erythropoietin dose, and adverse effects appeared similar to intravenous and oral non-heme iron supplementation. The cost of HIP is substantially more than non-heme iron and comparable to

  2. ABSINTH: a new continuum solvation model for simulations of polypeptides in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitalis, Andreas; Pappu, Rohit V

    2009-04-15

    A new implicit solvation model for use in Monte Carlo simulations of polypeptides is introduced. The model is termed ABSINTH for self-Assembly of Biomolecules Studied by an Implicit, Novel, and Tunable Hamiltonian. It is designed primarily for simulating conformational equilibria and oligomerization reactions of intrinsically disordered proteins in aqueous solutions. The paradigm for ABSINTH is conceptually similar to the EEF1 model of Lazaridis and Karplus (Proteins 1999, 35, 133). In ABSINTH, the transfer of a polypeptide solute from the gas phase into a continuum solvent is the sum of a direct mean field interaction (DMFI), and a term to model the screening of polar interactions. Polypeptide solutes are decomposed into a set of distinct solvation groups. The DMFI is a sum of contributions from each of the solvation groups, which are analogs of model compounds. Continuum-mediated screening of electrostatic interactions is achieved using a framework similar to the one used for the DMFI. Promising results are shown for a set of test cases. These include the calculation of NMR coupling constants for short peptides, the assessment of the thermal stability of two small proteins, reversible folding of both an alpha-helix and a beta-hairpin forming peptide, and the polymeric properties of intrinsically disordered polyglutamine peptides of varying lengths. The tests reveal that the computational expense for simulations with the ABSINTH implicit solvation model increase by a factor that is in the range of 2.5-5.0 with respect to gas-phase calculations. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Solvent Properties of Water in Aqueous Solutions of Elastin-Like Polypeptide

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Luisa A.; James T. Cole; Christian Reichardt; Holland, Nolan B.; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y.

    2015-01-01

    The phase-transition temperatures of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) with the (GVGVP)40 sequence and solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond donor acidity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity in its aqueous solutions were quantified in the absence and presence of different salts (Na2SO4, NaCl, NaClO4, and NaSCN) and various osmolytes (sucrose, sorbitol, trehalose, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)). All osmolytes decreased the ELP phase-transition temperature, whereas NaCl and Na2S...

  4. Gene delivery of therapeutic polypeptides into brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Moos, Torben

    cells (BCECs) and their intermingling tight junctions. Polypeptides like brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), erythropoietin (EPO), and FGL peptide (part of Neuronal adhesion molecule (NCAM)) are acknowledged for their neuroprotective and neurogenerative effects. Generally, however...... has been to investigate the usage of BCEC as factories for recombinant protein production. A non-viral gene carrier was prepared from pullulan-spermine conjugated with plasmid DNA (Thomsen et al., 2011). In vitro transfection of Rat Brain Endothelial Cells (RBE4) and Human Brain Microvascular......, Moos T. Gene delivery by pullulan derivatives in brain capillary endothelial cells for protein secretion. J Control Release. 2011 Jan 18....

  5. THE PREPARATION, PURIFICATION, AND AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF A POLYPEPTIDE RENIN SUBSTRATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeggs, Leonard T.; Kahn, Joseph R.; Lentz, Kenneth; Shumway, Norman P.

    1957-01-01

    A purified preparation of a polypeptide renin substrate prepared by tryptic degradation of the protein renin substrate has been analyzed by the fluorodinitrobenzene method and after degradation with renin, carboxypeptidase, and phenylisothiocyanate, has been found to possess the amino acid sequence; asp-arg-val-tyr-ileu-his-pro-phe-his-leu-leu-val-tyr-ser. The first 10 of these amino acids constitutes hypertensin I which is released by cleavage of the leucyl-leucine bond by renin. The remaining 4 amino acids, leu, val, tyr, ser, apparently link hypertensin I to the protein renin substrate. PMID:13463253

  6. Secretion of goblet cell serine proteinase, ingobsin, is stimulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and acetylcholine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1987-01-01

    Ingobsin is localized to the intestinal goblet cells in the rat and in man. In the present study, we investigated the effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and acetylcholine on the secretion of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum. Intravenous infusion of VIP or acetylcholine increased...... the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion, while the concentration in the duodenum was unchanged. Simultaneous infusion of VIP and acetylcholine increased the concentration of ingobsin in duodenal secretion and decreased the concentration of ingobsin in the duodenum. This study demonstrates that secretion...... of ingobsin from the proximal duodenum is exocrine and can be stimulated by VIP and acetylcholine....

  7. Secretion of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, Salvatore; Christensen, Mikkel; Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic control subjects during oral glucose or meal tests. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Eligible trials were identified by The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, and Web......c on GIP responses and showed a positive influence of BMI on GIP responses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with type 2 diabetes are characterized by preserved GIP secretion in response to oral glucose and meal tests. They also suggest that high BMI is associated with increased GIP...... responses but increasing age and HbA1c are associated with reduced GIP secretion....

  8. Long-acting lipidated analogue of human pancreatic polypeptide is slowly released into circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Elling, Christian E; Madsen, Andreas N

    2011-01-01

    The main disadvantages of peptide pharmaceuticals are their rapid degradation and excretion, their low hydrophilicity, and low shelf lifes. These bottlenecks can be circumvented by acylation with fatty acids (lipidation) or polyethylene glycol (PEGylation). Here, we describe the modification...... of a human pancreatic polypeptide analogue specific for the human (h)Y(2) and hY(4) receptor with PEGs of different size and palmitic acid. Receptor specificity was demonstrated by competitive binding studies. Modifications had only a small influence on binding affinities and no influence on secondary...

  9. Differential synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase polypeptides in stressed yeast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherié, H; Bataille, N; Fitch, I T; Perrot, M; Tuite, M F

    1995-01-15

    Three unlinked genes, TDH1, TDH2 and TDH3, encode the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (triose-phosphate dehydrogenase; TDH) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that the synthesis of the three encoded TDH polypeptides (TDHa, TDHb and TDHc, respectively) is not co-ordinately regulated and that TDHa is only synthesised as cells enter stationary phase, due to glucose starvation, or in heat-shocked cells. Furthermore, the synthesis of TDHb, but not TDHc, is strongly repressed by a heat shock. Hence, the TDHa enzyme may play a cellular role, distinct from glycolysis, that is required by stressed cells.

  10. Immunochemical identity of peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase with the peroxisome-proliferation -associated 80,000 mol wt polypeptide in rat liver

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, MK; Qreshi, SA; Hollenberg, PF; Reddy, JK

    1981-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators, which induce proliferation of hepatic peroxisomes, have been shown previously to cause a marked increase in an 80,000 mol wt polypeptide predominantly in the light mitochondrial and microsomal fractions of liver of rodents. We now present evidence to show that this hepatic peroxisome-proliferation-associated polypeptide, referred to as polypeptide PPA-80, is immunochemically identical with the multifunctional peroxisome protein displaying heat-labile enoyl-CoA hydrat...

  11. Hydrogen sulfide plays a key role in the inhibitory neurotransmission to the pig intravesical ureter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vítor S; Ribeiro, Ana S F; Martínez, Pilar; López-Oliva, María Elvira; Barahona, María Victoria; Orensanz, Luis M; Martínez-Sáenz, Ana; Recio, Paz; Benedito, Sara; Bustamante, Salvador; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores; Hernández, Medardo

    2014-01-01

    According to previous observations nitric oxide (NO), as well as an unknown nature mediator are involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission to the intravesical ureter. This study investigates the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) role in the neurogenic relaxation of the pig intravesical ureter. We have performed western blot and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of the H2S synthesis enzymes cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), measurement of enzymatic production of H2S and myographic studies for isometric force recording. Immunohistochemical assays showed a high CSE expression in the intravesical ureter muscular layer, as well as a strong CSE-immunoreactivity within nerve fibres distributed along smooth muscle bundles. CBS expression, however, was not consistently observed. On ureteral strips precontracted with thromboxane A2 analogue U46619, electrical field stimulation (EFS) and the H2S donor P-(4-methoxyphenyl)-P-4-morpholinylphosphinodithioic acid (GYY4137) evoked frequency- and concentration-dependent relaxations. CSE inhibition with DL-propargylglycine (PPG) reduced EFS-elicited responses and a combined blockade of both CSE and NO synthase (NOS) with, respectively, PPG and NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), greatly reduced such relaxations. Endogenous H2S production rate was reduced by PPG, rescued by addition of GYY4137 and was not changed by L-NOARG. EFS and GYY4137 relaxations were also reduced by capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA) desensitization with capsaicin and blockade of ATP-dependent K+ (KATP) channels, transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), vasoactive intestinal peptide/pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (VIP/PACAP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors with glibenclamide, HC030031, AMG9810, PACAP6-38 and CGRP8-37, respectively. These results suggest that H2S, synthesized by CSE, is involved in the inhibitory neurotransmission to

  12. The identification of specific Rhesus-polypeptide-blood-group-ABH-active-glycoprotein complexes in the human red-cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Green, C

    1987-06-15

    1. RhD,c and E immune complexes isolated from 3H- and 125I-surface-radiolabelled and unlabelled intact human red cells were analysed by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. Apparent Mr values of 31,900 for RhD polypeptide and 33,100 for Rhc,E polypeptide were obtained under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. Glycosylation of RhD,c and E polypeptides was not detected. 3. RhD,c and E immune complexes also contain a glycoprotein component. RhD glycoprotein (apparent Mr 45,000-100,000) is distinct from Rhc,E glycoprotein(s) (apparent Mr 35,000-65,000). Rh (Rhesus) glycoprotein carbohydrate moieties are susceptible to endo-beta-galactosidase digestion and carry blood-group-ABH determinants. This suggests the presence of polylactosaminoglycan-type structures. 4. Rh glycoproteins are not present in Rh immune complexes as a result of non-specific adsorption of membrane glycoproteins during the membrane-solubilization phase of immune-complex isolation because RhD immune complexes isolated from a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of Acde/cde and OcDE/cDE red cells do not contain blood-group-A-active glycoprotein. 5. Blood-group-A immune complexes isolated from group-A red cells of the appropriate Rh phenotypes contain the 31,900- and 33,100-apparent-Mr Rh polypeptides. 6. It was concluded from the above evidence that non-covalent Rh-glycoprotein-Rh-polypeptide complexes exist in the native red-cell membrane. 7. The 31,900- and 33,100-apparent-Mr Rh polypeptides are absent from blood-group-A immune complexes isolated from regulator type Rhnull cells (donor A.L.), but are replaced by a 33,800-apparent-Mr Rhnull-specific polypeptide (Rhnull polypeptide). It is suggested that Rhnull polypeptide is an aberrant product of the Rh gene complex.

  13. The polypeptide biophysics of proline/alanine-rich sequences (PAS): Recombinant biopolymers with PEG-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breibeck, Joscha; Skerra, Arne

    2017-10-27

    PAS polypeptides comprise long repetitive sequences of the small L-amino acids proline, alanine and/or serine that were developed to expand the hydrodynamic volume of conjugated pharmaceuticals and prolong their plasma half-life by retarding kidney filtration. Here, we have characterized the polymer properties both of the free polypeptides and in fusion with the biopharmaceutical IL-1Ra. Data from size exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering, circular dichroism spectroscopy and quantification of hydrodynamic and polar properties demonstrate that the biosynthetic PAS polypeptides exhibit random coil behavior in aqueous solution astonishingly similar to the chemical polymer poly-ethylene glycol (PEG). The solvent-exposed PAS peptide groups, in the absence of secondary structure, account for strong hydrophilicity, with negligible contribution by the Ser side chains. Notably, PAS polypeptides exceed PEG of comparable molecular mass in hydrophilicity and hydrodynamic volume while exhibiting lower viscosity. Their uniform monodisperse composition as genetically encoded polymers and their biological nature, offering biodegradability, render PAS polypeptides a promising PEG mimetic for biopharmaceutical applications. © 2017 The Authors Biopolymers Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Schistosoma mansoni polypeptides immunogenic in mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.P.; Strand, M.

    1987-10-01

    We compared the humoral immune response of mice protected against Schistosoma mansoni by vaccination with radiation-attenuated cercariae to that of patently infected mice, and we identified antigens that elicit a greater, or unique, immune response in the vaccinated mice. These comparisons were based upon radioimmunoprecipitations and immunodepletion of (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled schistosomular and adult worm polypeptides, followed by one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel analyses. The humoral responses of patently infected mice and of mice vaccinated once were remarkably similar and were directed against schistosome glycoproteins ranging in molecular size from greater than 300 to less than 10 kDa. Exposing mice to a second vaccination resulted in a marked change in the immune response, to one predominantly directed toward high molecular size glycoproteins. Sequential immunodepletion techniques identified five schistosomular and seven adult worm antigens that showed a greater or unique immunogenicity in vaccinated mice as compared with patently infected mice. These adult worm antigens were purified by preparative sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and used to prepare a polyclonal antiserum, anti-irradiated vaccine. This antiserum bound to the surface of live newly transformed and lung-stage schistosomula, as assessed by immunofluorescence assays, and was reactive with a number of /sup 125/I-labeled schistosomular surface polypeptides, including a doublet of 150 kDa that was also recognized by sera of vaccinated mice but not by sera of patently infected mice.

  15. Virion polypeptide heterogeneity among virulent and avirulent strains of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, R; Rosato, R R; Eddy, G A

    1981-01-01

    Comparative analysis of structural virion polypeptides of 24 selected EEE virus strains, representing North and South American types, was performed by one-dimensional discontinuous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The structural proteins of different EEE virus isolates, resolved by this method, exhibited mol.wts. values in the range of 57-60 X 10(3) for (E-1), 51-54 X 10(3) for (E-2) and 35-38 X 10(3) daltons for the core (NP) nucleocapsid. The exception was the South American human lethal virus, TRVL-89287 strain, which was shown to possess only a single envelope glycoprotein. The high molecular weight envelope (E-1) glycoprotein species was absent or co-migrated adjacent to the smaller envelope (E-2) glycoprotein. Results indicated similarities in the core (NP) proteins, however greater variability in the envelope (E-/ and/or E-2) glycoproteins. Based on these variations seven distinct profiles could be observed among the EEE virus strain studied. The classification based on the patterns of structural polypeptides obtained by SDS-PAGE of these strains does not correlate well with any other previously reported in vitro characteristics (antigenic subtypes, HTP elution profiles) nor with the in vivo virulence markers.

  16. Peptides, polypeptides and peptide-polymer hybrids as nucleic acid carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marya

    2017-10-24

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), and protein transduction domains (PTDs) of viruses and other natural proteins serve as a template for the development of efficient peptide based gene delivery vectors. PTDs are sequences of acidic or basic amphipathic amino acids, with superior membrane trespassing efficacies. Gene delivery vectors derived from these natural, cationic and cationic amphipathic peptides, however, offer little flexibility in tailoring the physicochemical properties of single chain peptide based systems. Owing to significant advances in the field of peptide chemistry, synthetic mimics of natural peptides are often prepared and have been evaluated for their gene expression, as a function of amino acid functionalities, architecture and net cationic content of peptide chains. Moreover, chimeric single polypeptide chains are prepared by a combination of multiple small natural or synthetic peptides, which imparts distinct physiological properties to peptide based gene delivery therapeutics. In order to obtain multivalency and improve the gene delivery efficacies of low molecular weight cationic peptides, bioactive peptides are often incorporated into a polymeric architecture to obtain novel 'polymer-peptide hybrids' with improved gene delivery efficacies. Peptide modified polymers prepared by physical or chemical modifications exhibit enhanced endosomal escape, stimuli responsive degradation and targeting efficacies, as a function of physicochemical and biological activities of peptides attached onto a polymeric scaffold. The focus of this review is to provide comprehensive and step-wise progress in major natural and synthetic peptides, chimeric polypeptides, and peptide-polymer hybrids for nucleic acid delivery applications.

  17. A novel class of ectomycorrhiza-regulated cell wall polypeptides in Pisolithus tinctorius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, P; Voiblet, C; Tagu, D; de Carvalho, D; Nehls, U; De Bellis, R; Balestrini, R; Bauw, G; Bonfante, P; Martin, F

    1999-10-01

    Development of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis leads to the aggregation of fungal hyphae to form the mantle. To identify cell surface proteins involved in this developmental step, changes in the biosynthesis of fungal cell wall proteins were examined in Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizas by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Enhanced synthesis of several immunologically related fungal 31- and 32-kDa polypeptides, so-called symbiosis-regulated acidic polypeptides (SRAPs), was observed. Peptide sequences of SRAP32d were obtained after trypsin digestion. These peptides were found in the predicted sequence of six closely related fungal cDNAs coding for ectomycorrhiza up-regulated transcripts. The PtSRAP32 cDNAs represented about 10% of the differentially expressed cDNAs in ectomycorrhiza and are predicted to encode alanine-rich proteins of 28.2 kDa. There are no sequence homologies between SRAPs and previously identified proteins, but they contain the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif found in cell-adhesion proteins. SRAPs were observed on the hyphal surface by immunoelectron microscopy. They were also found in the host cell wall when P. tinctorius attached to the root surface. RNA blot analysis showed that the steady-state level of PtSRAP32 transcripts exhibited a drastic up-regulation when fungal hyphae form the mantle. These results suggest that SRAPs may form part of a cell-cell adhesion system needed for aggregation of hyphae in ectomycorrhizas.

  18. Temperature-dependent morphology of hybrid nanoflowers from elastin-like polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Ghosh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report a method for creating hybrid organic-inorganic “nanoflowers” using calcium or copper ions as the inorganic component and a recombinantly expressed elastin-like polypeptide (ELP as the organic component. Polypeptides provide binding sites for the dynamic coordination with metal ions, and then such noncovalent complexes become nucleation sites for primary crystals of metal phosphates. We have shown that the interaction between the stimuli-responsive ELP and Ca2+ or Cu2+, in the presence of phosphate, leads to the growth of micrometer-sized particles featuring nanoscale patterns shaped like flower petals. The morphology of these flower-like composite structures is dependent upon the temperature of growth and has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The composition of nanoflowers has also been analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature-dependent morphologies of these hybrid nanostructures, which arise from the controllable phase transition of ELPs, hold potential for morphological control of biomaterials in emerging applications such as tissue engineering and biocatalysis.

  19. Elastin-like polypeptides: the power of design for smart cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Cell encapsulation technology is still a challenging issue. Innovative methodologies such as additive manufacturing, and alternative bioprocesses, such as cell therapeutic delivery, where cell encapsulation is a key tool are rapidly gaining importance for their potential in regenerative medicine. Responsive materials such as elastin-based recombinant expression products have features that are particularly attractive for cell encapsulation. They can be designed and tailored to meet desired requirements. Thus, they represent promising candidates for the development of new concept-based materials that can be employed in this field. Areas covered: An overview of the design and employment of elastin-like polypeptides for cell encapsulation is given to outline the state of the art. Special attention is paid to the design of the macromolecule employed as well as to the method of matrix formation and the biological system involved. Expert opinion: As a result of recent progress in regenerative medicine there is a compelling need for materials that provide specific properties and demonstrate defined functional features. Rationally designed materials that may adapt according to applied external stimuli and that are responsive to biological systems, such as elastin-like polypeptides, belong to this class of smart material. A run through the components described to date represents a good starting point for further advancement in this area. Employment of these components in cell encapsulation application will promote its advance toward 'smart cell encapsulation technology'.

  20. Trimethylamine-N-oxide's effect on polypeptide solvation at high pressure: a molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Rahul; Paul, Sandip

    2013-08-01

    The solvation characteristics of a 15-residue polypeptide and also the structure of the solution in the presence and absence of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), one of the strongest known protein stabilizers among the natural osmolytes both at low and high pressures, are investigated under high pressure conditions by employing the molecular dynamics simulation technique. The goal is to provide a molecular level understanding of how TMAO protects proteins at elevated pressures. Two different conformations of the polypeptide are used: helix and extended. Analysis of peptide hydration characteristics reveals that the pressure-induced enhancement of hydration number is higher for the extended state as compared to the helix. TMAO shows an opposite effect and causes more dehydration of the extended state. The total number of atomic sites that solvate peptide residues increases in the presence of TMAO, whereas the number of hydrogen bonds formed by peptide with solution species reduces due to the inability of TMAO to donate its hydrogen to peptide hydrogen bonding sites. In solution, both hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding sites of TMAO are found to be well solvated by water molecules and solvation of TMAO enhances water structure and reduces the number of nearest identical neighbors for water. Pressure and TMAO are seen to have counteracting effects on water structural properties. Implications of these results for counteracting mechanism of TMAO are discussed.

  1. Analysis of Urine Composition in Type II Diabetic Mice after Intervention Therapy Using Holothurian Polypeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysates and peptide fractions (PF obtained from sea cucumber with commercial enzyme were studied on the hyperglycemic and renal protective effects on db/db rats using urine metabolomics. Compared with the control group the polypeptides from the two species could significantly reduce the urine glucose and urea. We also tried to address the compositions of highly expressed urinary proteins using a proteomics approach. They were serum albumins, AMBP proteins, negative trypsin, elastase, and urinary protein, GAPDH, a receptor of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPAR, and Ig kappa chain C region. We used the electronic nose to quickly detect changes in the volatile substances in mice urine after holothurian polypeptides (HPP fed, and the results show it can identify the difference between treatment groups with the control group without overlapping. The protein express mechanism of HPP treating diabetes was discussed, and we suggested these two peptides with the hypoglycemic and renal protective activity might be utilized as nutraceuticals.

  2. Optimized PEF treatment for antioxidant polypeptides with MW 10-30 kDa and preliminary analysis of structure change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wang, Jia; Zhao, Ping; Lin, Songyi; Liu, Bolong; Liu, Jingbo; Jones, Gregory; Huang, Hsiang-Chi

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant polypeptides of molecular weight (MW) ranging from 10 to 30 kDa were produced from egg-white protein powder by enzyme hydrolysis and ultrafiltration (UF). Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) value (mmol Fe(2+)/g) was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. One-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) tests and Box-Behnken design (BBD) of response surface methodology (RSM) were used to investigate the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment parameters on antioxidant activity of polypeptides. The optimal conditions were as follows: concentration 8 mg/mL, electric field intensity 10 kV/cm, and pulse frequency 2000 Hz, under which, the FRAP value increased 44.23%, compared to the antioxidant activity of the polypeptides without PEF treatment. Both near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) were used to analyze the change of functional groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation on the inhibition mechanism of peptide-based inhibitor of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) to islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP22-28 ) oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangyan; Wang, Qianqian; Ren, Mengdan; Zhang, Ai; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

    2017-07-01

    Aggregation of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes. The modified NFGAIL with double N-methylated at Gly24 and Ile26 has the property of soluble, non-amyloidogenic, non-cytotoxic, and the ability of inhibiting amyloid formation and cytotoxicity of IAPP. To discover the inhibition mechanism of this peptide inhibitor and provide useful information to design more potential peptide inhibitors, molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent were performed. The simulation results reveal that Gly24 and Ile26 are of importance in IAPP aggregation, and N-methylation at these two key residues will disrupt the stability of formed oligomer and prevent the conformation transition of free monomer near the oligomer template. The origin of the N-methylated peptide inhibitor inhibiting IAPP aggregation is that it can keep good binding with IAPP template by stable hydrogen bonding interaction. Furthermore, it cannot induce the conformational transition of free monomer by preventing the hydrogen bond interaction between free monomer and boundary peptide. The structural environment can largely affect the stacking of free monomers to the template. Our study sheds light on the inhibition mechanism of peptide inhibitor at molecular level and may provide guidance for the future design and discovery of new peptide inhibitors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Hormones and receptors in fish: do duplicates matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch, Graeme J; Wu, Sheng; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2009-03-01

    Modern fish are the result of major changes in evolution including three possible duplications of the whole genome. Retained duplicate genes are often involved with metabolism, transcription, neurogenic processes and development. Here we examine the consequences of the most recent (350 mya) teleost-specific duplication in five fishes (zebrafish, fugu, medaka, stickleback and rainbow trout) in regard to duplicate copies of hormones and receptors in the secretin superfamily. This subset of genes was selected as the superfamily is limited to ten hormones and their receptors and includes some important members: glucagon, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP). We used reports from the literature and an extensive database search of the fish genomes to evaluate the status of the superfamily and its duplicate genes. We found that all five fish species have an almost complete set of orthologs with the human superfamily of hormones, although they lack secretin and its receptor. Receptor orthologs are present in zebrafish, fugu, medaka, stickleback and to a lesser extent in salmonids. Zebrafish retain duplicate copies for seven hormones and five receptors. Duplicated genes in fugu, medaka, stickleback and salmonids are also present, based mainly on genome annotation or mRNA transcription. Separate chromosome locations and synteny support zebrafish duplicates as the result of large-scale duplications. Novel changes in fish include the modification of a duplicate glucagon receptor to a GLP-1 receptor and, unlike humans, the presence of bioactive and specific PHI and GHRH-like peptide receptors. We conclude that fish duplicates in the secretin superfamily are a rich, mostly unexplored area for endocrine research.

  5. Prohormone convertase 1/3 is essential for processing of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Poulsen, Marie-Louise H; Holst, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    The physiology of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and their role in type 2 diabetes currently attract great interest. Recently we reported an essential role for prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 in the cleavage of intesti......The physiology of the incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and their role in type 2 diabetes currently attract great interest. Recently we reported an essential role for prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 in the cleavage...

  6. Self-assembling Polypeptide Nanoparticles: Design, Synthesis, Biophysical Characterization and Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Pereira Falcao Pimentel, Tais de

    Inspired by the architecture of icosahedral viruses, self-assembling polypeptide nanoparticles (SAPN) with icosahedral symmetry were developed. The building block for the SAPN was a single polypeptide chain. Similarly, the capsid of quite a few small viruses are built from one single peptide chain. The polypeptide chain of the SAPN consists of a pentameric coiled-coil domain at the N-terminus joined by a short linker segment to a trimeric coiled-coil domain at the C-terminus. Here we have studied factors governing self-assembly of the SAPN such as linker constitution and trimer length. The interdomain linker 2i88 afforded the most homogenous nanoparticles as verified by TEM and DLS. Furthermore, AUC and STEM analyses suggest that the nanoparticles formed using the linker 2i88 have a T=3-like architecture confirming computer modeling predictions. As for trimer length, we have shown that it is possible to synthesize SAPN with a trimer that is as short as only 17 amino acids. Given that the N-terminus and C-terminus of the SAPN can be extended to include epitopes and give rise to a repetitive antigen display system, vaccine applications of the SAPN were also investigated here. We grafted parts of the SARS virus' spike protein onto our SAPN to repetitively display this B-cell epitope. Biophysical characterization showed that single nanoparticles of the expected size range were formed. Immunization experiments in mice at University of Colorado Denver revealed that the antibodies elicited were conformation-specific. Moreover, the antibodies significantly inhibited SARS virus infection of Vero E6 cells. SAPN were also functionalized at the C-terminus with a B-cell epitope from the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and at the N-terminus with CTL epitopes from CSP. The trimeric coiled-coil domains of these malaria SAPN were modified to include a HTL epitope. Even will all these modifications, self-assembly occurred as confirmed by

  7. Loss of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 and reduced O-glycosylation in colon carcinoma cells selected for hepatic metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Kanoh, Akira

    2010-01-01

    O-glycosylation of mucin is initiated by the attachment of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) to serine or threonine residues in mucin core polypeptides by UDPGalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAc-Ts). It is not well understood how GalNAc attachment is regulated by multip...

  8. Hepatic Uptake of Conjugated Bile Acids Is Mediated by Both Sodium Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide and Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides and Modulated by Intestinal Sensing of Plasma Bile Acid Levels in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijepcevic, Davor; Roscam Abbing, Reinout L. P.; Katafuchi, Takeshi; Blank, Antje; Donkers, Joanne M.; van Hoppe, Stéphanie; de Waart, Dirk R.; Tolenaars, Dagmar; van der Meer, Jonathan H. M.; Wildenberg, Manon; Beuers, Ulrich; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Schinkel, Alfred H.; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.

    2017-01-01

    The Na1-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP/ SLC10A1) is believed to be pivotal for hepatic uptake of conjugated bile acids. However, plasma bile acid levels are normal in a subset of NTCP knockout mice and in mice treated with myrcludex B, a specific NTCP inhibitor. Here, we elucidated

  9. Thermal Synthesis of Polypeptides from N-Butyloxycarbonyl Oligopeptides Containing Aspartyl Residue at C-Terminus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toratane Munegumi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal reactions of amino acids have been investigated for pure organic synthesis, materials preparation in industry, and prebiotic chemistry. N-t-Butyloxycarbonyl aspartic acid (Boc-Asp releases 2-butene and carbon dioxide upon heating without solvents. The resulting mixture of the free molten aspartic acid was dehydrated to give peptide bonds. This study describes the thermal reactions of N-t-butyloxycarbonyl peptides (Boc-Gly-L-Asp, Boc-L-Ala-L-Asp, Boc-L-Val-L-Asp, and Boc-Gly-Gly-L-Asp having an aspartic residue at the carboxyl terminus. The peptides were deprotected upon heating at a constant temperature between 110 and 170°C for 1 to 24 h to afford polypeptides in which the average molecular weight reached 7800.

  10. Litomosoides carinii microfilarial sheaths: partial amino acid sequences of several major polypeptide constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, M; Hirzmann, J; Hobom, G; Linder, D; Lottspeich, F; Schott, H H; Conraths, F J; Zahner, H; Stirm, S

    1994-09-01

    Isolated sheaths from Litomosoides carinii microfilariae were disintegrated by reduction with dithiothreitol and were 14C-carboxymethylated. Five major sheath proteins thus solubilized were purified by size exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase HPLC (rpHPLC). Proteolytic fragments of complete sheaths and of the single sheath proteins were isolated by rpHPLC and were N-terminally sequenced. A library of 27 partial sheath polypeptide sequences was thus established, 21 of which could be assigned to three L. carinii sheath structural genes (shp1,2, and 3/3a) isolated on the basis of this and of previous amino acid sequence information. The remaining peptides document the presence of at least one additional major sheath constituent.

  11. Iodine-123 MIBG imaging in a generalized pancreatic polypeptide-gastrin-serotonin secreting tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, G.; Vanden Houte, K.; Segers, O.; Bossuyt, A.

    1988-05-01

    The usefulness of radio-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a specific radiopharmaceutical agent for scintigraphic imaging and treatment of phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma, has been extended to the location of carcinoid tumors. Scintigraphic evaluation with I-123 MIBG in a patient with a histologically proven endocrine tumor (apudoma) of unknown origin with liver and bone metastases is reported. Elevated plasma hormone levels of gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide, and serotonin were found. Tumoral content of these hormones was immunocytochemically confirmed on liver biopsy. I-123 MIBG uptake could be seen in those areas of the liver with deficient lesions in the Tc-99m colloid image with a maximal uptake in a large mass at the level of the left liver lobe. No abnormal uptake could be observed at any other level, which was in contrast with autopsy findings of generalized metastatic disease.

  12. Islet amyloid polypeptide and insulin expression are controlled differently in primary and transformed islet cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, O D; Michelsen, Bo Thomas; Westermark, P

    1991-01-01

    The pancreatic beta-cell is a major site of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) biosynthesis, and the peptide is coreleased with insulin. We have analyzed the expression of IAPP (mRNA and protein) in various cell types in normal and transformed murine islet cell cultures by Northern blot analyses...... of these cells. IAPP mRNA was confined to the beta-cell phenotype when analyzing the phenotypically stable in vivo tumor lines, MSL-G2-IN (insulinoma) and MSL-G-AN (glucagonoma), and the transgenic mouse islet cell lines, beta-Tc and alpha-Tc. However, IAPP and insulin expression were completely uncoupled...... and immunocytochemistry. IAPP is primarily coexpressed with insulin in the beta-cell of GH-promoted primary rat islet cell cultures. Additionally, a small population of non-beta-cells exhibited a prominent IAPP expression, and double staining experiments showed colocalization with glucagon or somatostatin in some...

  13. Comparative assessment of the polypeptide profiles from lateral and primary roots of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberg, J.; Odom, W. R.; Guikema, J. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    In Phaseolus vulgaris, primary roots show gravitational sensitivity soon after emerging from the seed. In contrast, lateral roots are agravitropic during early development, and become gravitropic after several cm growth. Primary and lateral root tissues were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, coupled with western blotting techniques, to compare proteins which may contribute to the acquisition of gravitational sensitivity. Root tips and zones of cell elongation were compared for each root type, using immunological probes for calmodulin, alpha-actin, alpha-tubulin, and proteins of the plastid envelope. Lateral roots contained qualitatively less calmodulin, and showed a slightly different pattern of actin-related epitope proteins, than did primary root tissues, suggesting that polypeptide differences may contribute to the gravitational sensitivity which these root types express.

  14. Recombinant production and purification of short hydrophobic Elastin-like polypeptides with low transition temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataille, Laure; Dieryck, Wilfrid; Hocquellet, Agnès; Cabanne, Charlotte; Bathany, Katell; Lecommandoux, Sébastien; Garbay, Bertrand; Garanger, Elisabeth

    2016-05-01

    Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are biodegradable polymers with interesting physico-chemical properties for biomedical and biotechnological applications. We report herein the recombinant expression of three hydrophobic ELPs (VPGIG)n with variable lengths (n = 20, 40, 60) and sub-ambient transition temperatures. These ELPs were purified from the cytoplasmic soluble fraction of Escherichia coli by inverse transition cycling, and their exact molecular weight was confirmed by various mass spectrometry techniques. Transition temperatures of ELP20, ELP40, and ELP60 were measured at 18.6 °C, 12.4 °C and 11.7 °C, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. l-Cystine-Crosslinked Polypeptide Nanogel as a Reduction-Responsive Excipient for Prostate Cancer Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smart polymer nanogel-assisted drug delivery systems have attracted more and more attention in cancer chemotherapy because of their well-defined morphologies and pleiotropic functions in recent years. In this work, an l-cystine-crosslinked reduction-responsive polypeptide nanogel of methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(l-phenylalanine-co-l-cystine (mPEG-P(LP-co-LC was employed as a smart excipient for RM-1 prostate cancer (PCa chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (DOX, as a regular chemotherapy drug, was embedded in the nanogel. The loading nanogel marked as NG/DOX was shown to exhibit glutathione (GSH-induced swelling and GSH-accelerated DOX release. Subsequently, NG/DOX showed efficient cellular uptake and proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, NG/DOX presented enhanced antitumor efficacy and security in an RM-1 PCa-grafted mouse model in vivo, indicating its great potential for clinical treatment.

  16. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in cirrhosis: arteriovenous extraction in different vascular beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Staun-Olsen, P; Fahrenkrug, J

    1980-01-01

    The concentration of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) was determined in peripheral venous plasma from 136 patients with liver cirrhosis without gastrointestinal bleeding or coma and from 112 controls. In eight patients (cirrhosis, six; fibrosis, one; steatosis, one) arteriovenous extraction...... or release of VIP was measured during catheterization at four locations: brain, lower limb, intestine-liver, and kidney. The mean concentration of VIP in peripheral venous plasma from patients with cirrhosis was 9.4 pmol/l (median, 7.0; range, 0-86), which was significantly higher than that of the controls...... is significantly elevated in peripheral plasma from patients with cirrhosis, probably due to porto-systemic shunting and/or compromised hepatic elimination. Hepatic elimination is still likely to account for the inactivation of most of the VIP escaping from the neurosynapses throughout the body in patients...

  17. Metallacrowns as products of the aqueous medium self-assembly of histidinehydroxamic acid-containing polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Marta; Kotynia, Aleksandra; Jaremko, Łukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Lisowski, Marek; Cebo, Małgorzata; Brasuń, Justyna; Stefanowicz, Piotr

    2015-06-28

    Self-assembly is a widely studied, spontaneous, and reversible phenomenon leading to the formation of the ordered structures by non-covalent specific interactions among starting molecules. In this work, a new template for the self-assembly of polypeptides based on peptides containing the C-terminal histidinehydroxamic acid moiety and Cu(2+) ions is characterized. Two peptide (tripeptide and pentadecapeptide) hydroxamic acid systems were synthesized and their interactions with Cu(2+) ions were investigated, revealing a high stability of the supramolecular assemblies formed. The supramolecular metallacrown-based L4Cu5 complexes exist at physiological pH in the presence of Cu(2+) ions as is evidenced from the spectroscopic methods, ESI mass spectrometry, and physicochemical techniques.

  18. Blue copper proteins as a model for investigating electron transfer processes within polypeptide matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1994-01-01

    Intramolecular long-range electron transfer (ET) processes have been investigated in two types of blue copper proteins; the single-copper protein, azurin and the multi-copper oxidase, ascorbate oxidase. These have several advantages for investigating the parameters that control the above reactions...... resolution. (3) These proteins have no other cofactors except for the copper ions, thus the role of the polypeptide matrix can be addressed in a more straightforward manner. In azurins, the ET from the cystine (3-26) radical-ion produced by pulse-radiolytic reduction of this single disulfide bridge...... the relation between this enzyme's distinct functional states and the internal ET rates. We conclude that in both types of proteins, the investigated LRET proceed primarily along covalent pathways, thus providing suitable systems where the parameters controlling the efficiency of these processes can be pursued....

  19. An engineered polypeptide around nano-sized manganese-calcium oxide: copying plants for water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Sarvi, Bahram; Haghighi, Behzad

    2015-09-14

    Synthesis of new efficient catalysts inspired by Nature is a key goal in the production of clean fuel. Different compounds based on manganese oxide have been investigated in order to find their water-oxidation activity. Herein, we introduce a novel engineered polypeptide containing tyrosine around nano-sized manganese-calcium oxide, which was shown to be a highly active catalyst toward water oxidation at low overpotential (240 mV), with high turnover frequency of 1.5 × 10(-2) s(-1) at pH = 6.3 in the Mn(III)/Mn(IV) oxidation range. The compound is a novel structural and efficient functional model for the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II. A new proposed clever strategy used by Nature in water oxidation is also discussed. The new model of the water-oxidizing complex opens a new perspective for synthesis of efficient water-oxidation catalysts.

  20. Islet amyloid polypeptide and high hydrostatic pressure: towards an understanding of the fibrillization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, D. H. J.; Smirnovas, V.; Winter, R.

    2008-07-01

    Type II Diabetes Mellitus is a disease which is characterized by peripheral insulin resistance coupled with a progressive loss of insulin secretion that is associated with a decrease in pancreatic islet β-cell mass and the deposition of amyloid in the extracellular matrix of β-cells, which lead to islet cell death. The principal component of the islet amyloid is a pancreatic hormone called islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). High-pressure coupled with FT-IR, CD, ThT fluorescence spectroscopic and AFM studies were carried out to reveal information on the aggregation pathway as well as the aggregate structure of IAPP. Our data indicate that IAPP pre-formed fibrils exhibit a strong polymorphism with heterogeneous structures very sensitive to high hydrostatic pressure, indicating a high percentage of ionic and hydrophobic interactions being responsible for the stability the IAPP fibrils.

  1. The 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide is a DnaK-like protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkelund, Svend; Lundemose, AG; Christiansen, Gunna

    1990-01-01

    The gene coding for the 75-kilodalton cytoplasmic Chlamydia trachomatis L2 polypeptide has been cloned in Escherichia coli, and the nucleotide sequence has been determined. The cloned DNA fragment contained the coding region as well as the putative promoter. The deduced amino acid sequence of the 1......,980-base-pair open reading frame revealed 94% homology with a 75-kilodalton protein from C. trachomatis serovar D and 57% homology with the DnaK proteins of E. coli and of Bacillus megaterium, while amino acid homology with human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) was 42%. The promoter region was identified...... by computer search and by primer extension of mRNA synthesized in recombinant E. coli. The promoter region which differed from the putative promoter region in serovar D was shown to be a mixed promoter type in which the -10 region showed a regular TATA box configuration while the -35 region showed high...

  2. Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide (GIP) Inhibits Bone Resorption Independently of Insulin and Glycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mikkel B; Lund, Asger; Calanna, Salvatore

    2018-01-01

    Context: The gut hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) causes postprandial insulin release and inhibits bone resorption assessed by carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX). Objective: To study if GIP affects bone homeostasis biomarkers independently of insulin release...... and glycemic level. Design: Randomized, double-blinded, crossover study with 5 study days. Patients: Ten male C-peptide-negative patients with type 1 diabetes. Interventions: On 3 matched days with "low glycemia" (plasma glucose in the interval 3 to 7 mmol/L for 120 minutes), we administered intravenous (IV...... of endogenous insulin secretion and during both elevated and low plasma glucose, but have no effect on P1NP or PTH after 90 minutes....

  3. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor antagonists as anti-diabetic agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasbjerg, Lærke Smidt; Gabe, Maria Buur Nordskov; Hartmann, Bolette

    2018-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an intestinal hormone with a broad range of physiological actions. In the postprandial state, the hormone stimulates insulin secretion and during eu- and hypoglycemia, it stimulates glucagon secretion. In addition, GIP increases triacylglycerol...... peptide, was shown to block the GIPR in humans and decrease GIP-induced insulin secretion as well as adipose tissue blood flow and TAG uptake. So far, there are no studies with a GIPR antagonist in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but because the elevations in fasting plasma glucagon and paradoxical...... postprandial glucagon excursions, seen in patients with T2D, are aggravated by GIP, a GIPR antagonist could partly alleviate this and possibly improve the fasting and postprandial glycemia. Since the majority of patients with T2D are overweight, inhibition of GIP-induced fat deposition may be beneficial...

  4. Use of principal component analysis for differentiation of gelatine sources based on polypeptide molecular weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Azira, T; Che Man, Y B; Raja Mohd Hafidz, R N; Aina, M A; Amin, I

    2014-05-15

    The study was aimed to differentiate between porcine and bovine gelatines in adulterated samples by utilising sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) combined with principal component analysis (PCA). The distinct polypeptide patterns of 6 porcine type A and 6 bovine type B gelatines at molecular weight ranged from 50 to 220 kDa were studied. Experimental samples of raw gelatine were prepared by adding porcine gelatine in a proportion ranging from 5% to 50% (v/v) to bovine gelatine and vice versa. The method used was able to detect 5% porcine gelatine added to the bovine gelatine. There were no differences in the electrophoretic profiles of the jelly samples when the proteins were extracted with an acetone precipitation method. The simple approach employing SDS-PAGE and PCA reported in this paper may provide a useful tool for food authenticity issues concerning gelatine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Engineering Elastin-Like Polypeptide-Poly(ethylene glycol) Multiblock Physical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Andreia; Olsen, Bradley D; Machado, Ana Vera

    2018-01-02

    Hybrids of protein biopolymers and synthetic polymers are a promising new class of soft materials, as the advantages of each component can be complementary. A recombinant elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) was conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) by macromolecular coupling in solution to form multiblock ELP-PEG copolymers. The hydrated copolymer preserved the thermoresponsive properties from the ELP block and formed hydrogels with different transition temperatures depending on salt concentration. Small angle scattering indicates that the copolymer hydrogels form sphere-like aggregates with a "fuzzy" interface, while the films form a fractal network of nanoscale aggregates. The use of solutions with different salt concentrations to prepare the hydrogels was found to influence the transition temperature, the mechanical properties, and the size of the nanoscale structure of the hydrogel without changing the secondary structure of the ELP. The salt variation and the addition of a plasticizer also affected the nanoscale structure and the mechanical characteristics of the films.

  6. Immunohistochemical localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide on rat endocrine pancreas: coexistence in rat islet cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YH Huang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We used immunofluorescence double staining method to investigate the cellular localization of glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP in rat pancreatic islets. The results showed that both A-cells (glucagon-secreting cells and PP-cells (PPsecreting cells were located in the periphery of the islets. However, A-cells and PP-cells had a different regional distribution. Most of A-cells were located in the splenic lobe but a few of them were in the duodenal lobe of the pancreas. In contrast, the majority of PP-cells were found in the duodenal lobe and a few of them were in the splenic lobe of the pancreas. Furthermore, we found that 67.74% A-cells had PP immunoreactivity, 70.92% PP-cells contained glucagon immunoreactivity with immunofluorescence double staining. Our data support the concept of a common precursor stem cell for pancreatic hormone-producing cells.

  7. Impaired pancreatic polypeptide response to a meal in type 1 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Carstensen, H; List, S

    1993-01-01

    The pancreatic polypeptide (PP) response to a mixed meal was investigated in seven insulin-dependent diabetics without measurable signs of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, and in seven healthy subjects. Since acute changes in metabolic regulation might influence the meal-induced PP response...... is independent of short-term changes in metabolic control. Since the response was attenuated in the insulin-dependent diabetic patients, who had no otherwise measurable signs of neuropathy, the PP response to a meal could be a sensitive indicator of dysfunction of the reflex arc controlling PP secretion...... in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Alternatively, the reduction in PP secretion in these patients reflects dysfunction of the PP secreting cells of the pancreas. Iv injection of cholecystokinin-8 elicited a small but significant increase in PP concentrations, while iv secretin did not increase PP...

  8. Breakout character of islet amyloid polypeptide hydrophobic mutations at the onset of type-2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigori, Rafael B.

    2014-11-01

    Toxic fibrillar aggregates of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) appear as the physical outcome of a peptidic phase transition signaling the onset of type-2 diabetes mellitus in different mammalian species. In particular, experimentally verified mutations on the amyloidogenic segment 20-29 in humans, cats, and rats are highly correlated with the molecular aggregation propensities. Through a microcanonical analysis of the aggregation of IAPP20 -29 isoforms, we show that a minimalist one-bead hydrophobic-polar continuum model for protein interactions properly quantifies those propensities from free-energy barriers. Our results highlight the central role of sequence-dependent hydrophobic mutations on hot spots for stabilization, and thus for the engineering, of such biological peptides.

  9. Sequence-specific sup 1 H NMR assignments and solution structure of bovine pancreatic polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang Li; Dobson, C.M. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)); Sutcliffe, M.J. (Leicester Univ. (United Kingdom)); Schwartz, T.W. (Lab. for Molecular Endocrinology, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    1992-02-04

    Sequence-specific {sup 1}H NMR assignments for the 36 residue bovine pancreatic polypeptide (bPP) have been completed. The secondary and tertiary structure of bPP in solution has been determined from experimental NMR data. It is shown that bPP has a very well-defined C-terminal {alpha}-helix involving residues 15-32. Although regular secondary structure cannot be clearly defined in the N-terminal region, residues 15-32. Although regular secondary structure cannot be clearly defined in the N-terminal region, residues 4-8 maintain a rather ordered conformation in solution. This is attributed primarily to the hydrophobic interaction between this region and the C-terminal helix. The two segments of the structure are joined by a turn which is poorly defined. The four end residues both at the N-terminus and the C-terminus are highly disordered in solution. The overall fold of the bPP molecule is very closely similar to that found in the crystal structure of avian pancreatic polypeptide (aPP). The RMS deviation for backbone atoms of residues 4-8 and 15-32 between the bPP mean structure and the aPP crystal structure is 0.65 {angstrom}, although there is only 39% identity of the residues. Furthermore, the average conformations of some (mostly from the {alpha}-helix) side chains of bPP in solution are closely similar to those of aPP in the crystal structure. A large number of side chains of bPP, however, show significant conformational averaging in solution.

  10. Anti-inflammatory role of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Miyabe, Megumi; Nishikawa, Toru; Miyajima, Shin-Ichi; Adachi, Kei; Mizutani, Makoto; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Mitani, Akio; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Naruse, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    The involvement of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) on inflammation was explored in atherosclerosis and adipose tissue. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, and is considered one of the diabetic complications. In the present study, to examine the effect of GIP on periodontitis, we induced experimental periodontitis in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor-knockout mice (GIPRKO). We also investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of GIP in a culture system. Experimental periodontitis was induced by ligature wire in GIPRKO and C57BL/C mice. Two weeks after the ligature, immunohistological evaluation and inflammatory messenger ribonucleic acid expression in the gingiva was examined. To elucidate the role of GIP in inflammation, the effects of GIP on lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expressions in THP-1 cells were evaluated. Periodontitis increased inflammatory cell infiltration, macrophage accumulation and tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide synthase gene expressions in the gingiva. Periodontitis in GIPRKO showed a marked increase of inflammatory cells in the gingivomucosal tissue. Mac-1-positive macrophages and the inflammatory gene expressions were significantly increased in periodontitis in GIPRKO compared with C57BL/C mice periodontitis. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed that GIP receptors were expressed in residual and infiltrated Mac-1-positive macrophages. The in vitro study showed that GIP suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide synthase gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of GIP on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene expressions was at least partially through cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein kinase A pathway. These results suggest the beneficial effects of GIP on periodontal disease. In diabetic patients, GIP is expected to have a direct anti-inflammatory effect on periodontitis in addition to its

  11. Morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide at air–water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sungchul; Ahn, Sungmin; Cheng, Jie [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Dae-Hong [Department of Chemical Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-741 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jinho, E-mail: jhyun@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biosystems and Biomaterials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Food and Bioconvergence, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921, Republic of Korea. (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • It is the first report on the interfacial properties of ELP monolayers formed at the air–water interface. • ELP monolayers could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. • The compressive behavior of thermo-sensitive ELP monolayers was imaged. • The SERS spectra showed a change in the ELP secondary structure at different preparation conditions. - Abstract: The morphological variation of stimuli-responsive polypeptide molecules at the air–water interface as a function of temperature and compression was described. The surface pressure–area (π–A) isotherms of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) monolayer were obtained under variable external conditions, and Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited onto a mica substrate for characterization. As the compression of the ELP monolayer increased, the surface pressure increased gradually, indicating that the ELP monolayer could be prepared with high stability at the air–water interface. The temperature in the subphase of the ELP monolayer was critical in the preparation of LB monolayers. The change in temperature induced a shift in the π–A isotherms as well as a change in ELP secondary structures. Surprisingly, the compression of the ELP monolayer influenced the ELP secondary structure due to the reduction in the phase transition temperature with decreasing temperature. The change in the ELP secondary structure formed at the air–water interface was investigated by surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Moreover, the morphology of the ELP monolayer was subsequently imaged using atomic force microscopy. The temperature responsive behavior resulted in changes in surface morphology from relatively flat structures to rugged labyrinth structures, which suggested conformational changes in the ELP monolayers.

  12. Moonlighting kinases with guanylate cyclase activity can tune regulatory signal networks

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.

    2012-02-01

    Guanylate cyclase (GC) catalyzes the formation of cGMP and it is only recently that such enzymes have been characterized in plants. One family of plant GCs contains the GC catalytic center encapsulated within the intracellular kinase domain of leucine rich repeat receptor like kinases such as the phytosulfokine and brassinosteroid receptors. In vitro studies show that both the kinase and GC domain have catalytic activity indicating that these kinase-GCs are examples of moonlighting proteins with dual catalytic function. The natural ligands for both receptors increase intracellular cGMP levels in isolated mesophyll protoplast assays suggesting that the GC activity is functionally relevant. cGMP production may have an autoregulatory role on receptor kinase activity and/or contribute to downstream cell expansion responses. We postulate that the receptors are members of a novel class of receptor kinases that contain functional moonlighting GC domains essential for complex signaling roles.

  13. Adenylate-cyclase activity in platelets of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Marazziti, S Baroni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available D Marazziti, S Baroni, L Palego, I Masala, G Consoli, M Catena Dell’Osso, G Giannaccini, A LucacchiniDipartimento di Psichiatria, Neurobiologia, Farmacologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: Although the main biological hypothesis on the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is centered on the serotonin system, indications are available that other neurotransmitters, and even second messengers, particularly the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP signaling, may be involved, though effective data are few. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the basal and isoprenaline (ISO-stimulated velocity of adenylate-cyclase (AC in human platelet membranes of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects. The results showed that the basal and ISO-stimulated AC activity, as well as the dose-response curves of ISO by using agonist concentrations ranging between 0.1 nM and 10 µM, were not different in the two groups. However, OCD patients showed lower EC50 and higher Emax values than healthy subjects. These findings suggest the presence of supersensitive β-adrenergic receptors in platelets of OCD patients.Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, norepinephrine, second messengers, adenylate-cyclase, platelets, isoprenaline, β-adrenergic receptors

  14. Isolated dorsal root ganglion neurones inhibit receptor-dependent adenylyl cyclase activity in associated glial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, KY; Yeung, BHS; Wong, YH; Wise, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hyper-nociceptive PGE2 EP4 receptors and prostacyclin (IP) receptors are present in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurones and glial cells in culture. The present study has investigated the cell-specific expression of two other Gs-protein coupled hyper-nociceptive receptor systems: β-adrenoceptors and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors in isolated DRG cells and has examined the influence of neurone–glial cell interactions in regulating adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity. Experimental Approach Agonist-stimulated AC activity was determined in mixed DRG cell cultures from adult rats and compared with activity in DRG neurone-enriched cell cultures and pure DRG glial cell cultures. Key Results Pharmacological analysis showed the presence of Gs-coupled β2-adrenoceptors and CGRP receptors, but not β1-adrenoceptors, in all three DRG cell preparations. Agonist-stimulated AC activity was weakest in DRG neurone-enriched cell cultures. DRG neurones inhibited IP receptor-stimulated glial cell AC activity by a process dependent on both cell–cell contact and neurone-derived soluble factors, but this is unlikely to involve purine or glutamine receptor activation. Conclusions and Implications Gs-coupled hyper-nociceptive receptors are readily expressed on DRG glial cells in isolated cell cultures and the activity of CGRP, EP4 and IP receptors, but not β2-adrenoceptors, in glial cells is inhibited by DRG neurones. Studies using isolated DRG cells should be aware that hyper-nociceptive ligands may stimulate receptors on glial cells in addition to neurones, and that variable numbers of neurones and glial cells will influence absolute measures of AC activity and affect downstream functional responses. PMID:22924655

  15. In Vitro Assessment of Guanylyl Cyclase Activity of Plant Receptor Kinases

    KAUST Repository

    Raji, Misjudeen

    2017-05-31

    Cyclic nucleotides such as 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are increasingly recognized as key signaling molecules in plants, and a growing number of plant mononucleotide cyclases, both adenylate cyclases (ACs) and guanylate cyclases (GCs), have been reported. Catalytically active cytosolic GC domains have been shown to be part of many plant receptor kinases and hence directly linked to plant signaling and downstream cellular responses. Here we detail, firstly, methods to identify and express essential functional GC domains of receptor kinases, and secondly, we describe mass spectrometric methods to quantify cGMP generated by recombinant GCs from receptor kinases in vitro.

  16. Adenyl cyclase activator forskolin protects against Huntington's disease-like neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Mehan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term suppression of succinate dehydrogenase by selective inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid has been used in rodents to model Huntington's disease where mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damages are primary pathological hallmarks for neuronal damage. Improvements in learning and memory abilities, recovery of energy levels, and reduction of excitotoxicity damage can be achieved through activation of Adenyl cyclase enzyme by a specific phytochemical forskolin. In this study, intraperitoneal administration of 10 mg/kg 3-nitropropionic acid for 15 days in rats notably reduced body weight, worsened motor cocordination (grip strength, beam crossing task, locomotor activity, resulted in learning and memory deficits, greatly increased acetylcholinesterase, lactate dehydrogenase, nitrite, and malondialdehyde levels, obviously decreased adenosine triphosphate, succinate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels in the striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Intragastric administration of forskolin at 10, 20, 30 mg/kg dose-dependently reversed these behavioral, biochemical and pathological changes caused by 3-nitropropionic acid. These results suggest that forskolin exhibits neuroprotective effects on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced Huntington's disease-like neurodegeneration.

  17. Balance between S-nitrosylation and denitrosylation modulates myoblast proliferation independently of soluble guanylyl cyclase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Aline M S; Ancillotti, Maryana T C; Rangel, Luciana P; Fontenele, Marcio; Figueiredo-Freitas, Cicero; Possidonio, Ana C; Soares, Carolina P; Sorenson, Martha M; Mermelstein, Claudia; Nogueira, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) contributes to myogenesis by regulating the transition between myoblast proliferation and fusion through cGMP signaling. NO can form S-nitrosothiols (RSNO), which control signaling pathways in many different cell types. However, neither the role of RSNO content nor its regulation by the denitrosylase activity of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) during myogenesis is understood. Here, we used primary cultures of chick embryonic skeletal muscle cells to investigate whether changes in intracellular RSNO alter proliferation and fusion of myoblasts in the presence and absence of cGMP. Cultures were grown to fuse most of the myoblasts into myotubes, with and without S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO), 8-Br-cGMP, DETA-NO, or inhibitors for NO synthase (NOS), GSNOR, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), or a combination of these, followed by analysis of GSNOR activity, protein expression, RSNO, cGMP, and cell morphology. Although the activity of GSNOR increased progressively over 72 h, inhibiting GSNOR (by GSNOR inhibitor - GSNORi - or by knocking down GSNOR with siRNA) produced an increase in RSNO and in the number of myoblasts and fibroblasts, accompanied by a decrease in myoblast fusion index. This was also detected with CysNO supplementation. Enhanced myoblast number was proportional to GSNOR inhibition. Effects of the GSNORi and GSNOR knockdown were blunted by NOS inhibition, suggesting their dependence on NO synthesis. Interestingly, GSNORi and GSNOR knockdown reversed the attenuated proliferation obtained with sGC inhibition in myoblasts, but not in fibroblasts. Hence myoblast proliferation is enhanced by increasing RSNO, and regulated by GSNOR activity, independently of cGMP production and signaling. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a developmentally regulated 22 kDa polypeptide from tobacco leaf plasma membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantet, P; Masson, F; Domergue, O; MarquisMention, M; Bauw, G; Inze, D; Rossignol, M; delaServe, BT

    1996-01-01

    A polypeptide doublet (P18-P19, ca 22 kDa, pI 4.5) has been shown to accumulate in tobacco leaf plasma membrane in a development-dependent way, under constant environmental conditions. P18 and P19 were purified by 2D-PAGE and microsequenced. Microsequences revealed only small differences between the

  19. The EhADH112 recombinant polypeptide inhibits cell destruction and liver abscess formation by Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, Carolina; Orozco, Esther; Sánchez, Tomás; García-Pérez, Rosa María; Hernández-Hernández, Fidel; Rodríguez, Mario A

    2004-04-01

    The Entamoeba histolytica EhCPADH complex, formed by a cysteine proteinase (EhCP112) and an adhesin (EhADH112), is involved in adherence, phagocytosis and cytolysis. This makes this complex an attractive candidate as a vaccine against amoebiasis. Here, we produced the recombinant polypeptide EhADH243, which includes the adherence epitope detected by a monoclonal antibody against the EhCPADH complex. EhADH243 was purified, and the effect of the polypeptide on in vitro and in vivo virulence was studied. Antibodies against EhADH243 reacted with the EhCPADH complex and with the recombinant polypeptide. EhADH243 and antibodies against this polypeptide inhibited adherence, phagocytosis and destruction of cell monolayers by live trophozoites, but had little effect on cell monolayer destruction by trophozoite extracts. EhADH243 recognized a 97 kDa protein in the MDCK membrane fraction that could be a putative receptor for E. histolytica trophozoites. Hamsters immunized with EhADH243 developed humoral response against EhCPADH, and animals were partially protected from amoebic liver abscess.

  20. In vivo guided vascular regeneration with a non-porous elastin-like polypeptide hydrogel tubular scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahara, Atsushi; Kiick, Kristi L; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we demonstrate a new approach for small-caliber vascular reconstruction using a non-porous elastin-like polypeptide hydrogel tubular scaffold, based on the concept of guided vascular regeneration (GVR). The scaffolds are composed of elastin-like polypeptide, (Val-Pro-Gly-Ile-Gly)n , for compliance matching and antithrombogenicity and an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif for connective tissue regeneration. When the polypeptide was mixed with an aqueous solution of β-[Tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphino]propionic acid at 37°C, the polypeptide hydrogel was rapidly formed. The elastic modulus of the hydrogel was 4.4 kPa. The hydrogel tubular scaffold was formed in a mold and reinforced with poly(lactic acid) nanofibers. When tubular scaffolds with an inner diameter of 1 mm and length of 5 mm were implanted into rat abdominal aortae, connective tissue grew along the scaffold luminal surface from the flanking native tissues, resulting in new blood vessel tissue with a thickness of 200 μm in 1 month. In contrast, rats implanted with control scaffolds without the RGD motif died. These results indicate that the non-porous hydrogel tubular scaffold containing the RGD motif effectively induced rapid tissue regeneration and that GVR is a promising strategy for the regeneration of small-diameter blood vessels. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1746-1755, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Build-a-Polypeptide: A Hands-On Worksheet to Enhance Student Learning in an Introductory Biology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Hall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many introductory biology students have a weak (or nonexistent chemistry background. Due to this apparent knowledge gap, many students struggle to understand the process of polypeptide formation via dehydration synthesis as well as the interactions between individual polypeptide chains. This inability to reason about how individual amino acids interact with one another prevents students from making the cognitive leap from primary to secondary structure. In turn, students do not fully understand how even higher levels of organizations (i.e., tertiary and quaternary interactions form the final three-dimensional configurations of proteins.  We designed Build-a-Polypeptide in an attempt to help fill the part of the knowledge gap.  In this activity, students physically represent the process of polypeptide synthesis and R group interactions using a paper model. Essentially, this is a simple cut and paste project that allows students to build a beginner's (i.e., highly truncated and simplified model of protein folding. Previous research has shown that physical modeling can aid student understanding of complex topics (1,2.  With that in mind, we developed this interactive activity to improve student understanding of protein synthesis and structure formation. This activity requires no laboratory equipment and can be completed within one (50 minute class. Our worksheets were designed for use in introductory college-level biology courses, but could easily be adapted for high school or AP biology classes.

  2. Polymer-Block-Polypeptides and Polymer-Conjugated Hybrid Materials as Stimuli-Responsive Nanocarriers for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Johnson V; Johnson, Renjith P; Heo, Min Seon; Moon, Byeong Kyu; Byeon, Seong Jin; Kim, Il

    2015-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive nanocarriers are a class of soft materials that includes natural polymers, synthetic polymers, and polypeptides. Recently, modern synthesis tools such as atom transfer radical polymerization, reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization, nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization, ring-opening polymerization of α-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides, and various "click" chemistry strategies were simultaneously employed for the design and synthesis of nanosized drug delivery vehicles. Importantly, the research focused on the improvement of the nanocarrier targetability and the site-specific, triggered release of therapeutics with high drug loading efficiency and minimal drug leakage during the delivery to specific targets. In this context, nanocarriers responsive to common stimuli such as pH, temperature, redox potential, light, etc. have been widely used for the controlled delivery of therapeutics to pathological sites. Currently, different synthesis and self-assembly strategies improved the drug loading efficacy and targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to the desired site. In particular, polypeptide-containing hybrid materials have been developed for the controlled delivery of therapeutic agents. Therefore, stimuli-sensitive synthetic polypeptide-based materials have been extensively investigated in recent years. This review focuses on recent advances in the development of polymer-block-polypeptides and polymer-conjugated hybrid materials that have been designed and evaluated for various stimuli-responsive drug and gene delivery applications.

  3. A role for pancreatic polypeptide in the regulation of gastric emptying and short-term metabolic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Näslund, E; Grybäck, P

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Previous studies using pancreatic polypeptide (PP) infusions in humans have failed to show an effect on gastric emptying, glucose metabolism, and insulin secretion. This might be due to the use of nonhuman sequences of the peptide. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use...

  4. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is associated with lower LDL but unhealthy fat distribution, independent of insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cathrine Laustrup; Vistisen, Dorte; Færch, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) may increase lipid clearance by stimulating lipid uptake. However, as GIP promotes release of insulin by the pancreas, and insulin is anti-lipolytic, the effect may be indirect. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we examined the association between...

  5. Morphometric analysis of vasopressin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide neurons in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus: influence of microwave treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J. N.; Hofman, M. A.; Swaab, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The vasopressin (VP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing neurons in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were morphometrically determined with or without microwave (MW) treatment. Both an enlarged volume and an increased number of neurons were found in the VP and VIP subnucleus

  6. Response of pancreatic polypeptide to hypoglycaemia in insulin-dependent diabetics with and without residual beta-cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, T; Madsbad, S; Hilsted, J

    1983-01-01

    To investigate a possible association between the beta-cells and the cells secreting pancreatic polypeptide (PP), the response of PP to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia was investigated in seven insulin-dependent diabetics with and seven without residual beta-cell function, all without signs...

  7. An acetylation site in lectin domain modulates the biological activity of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlocowski, Natacha; Lorenz, Virginia; Bennett, Eric Paul

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Polypeptide GalNAc-transferases (ppGalNAc-Ts) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the initiation of mucin-type O-glycosylation. All ppGalNAc-T family members contain a common (QXW)3 motif which is present in R-type lectin group. Acetylation site K521 is part of the QKW motif of ß...

  8. HPLC of the Polypeptides in a Hydrolyzate of Egg-White Lysozyme. An Experiment for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, W. S., III; Burns, L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple high-performance liquid chromatography experiment for undergraduate biochemistry laboratories. The experiment illustrates the separation of polypeptides by a step gradient elution using a single pump instrument with no gradient attachments. Discusses instrumentation, analysis, a sample preparation, and results. (CW)

  9. The rate of intestinal glucose absorption is correlated with plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachters-Hagedoorn, Renate E.; Priebe, Marion G.; Heimweg, Janneke A. J.; Heiner, A. Marius; Englyst, Klaus N.; Holst, Jens. J.; Stellaard, Frans; Vonk, Roel J.

    Glucagon-like pepticle-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both play a role in the control of glucose homeostasis, and GIP is implicated in the regulation of energy storage. The capacity of carbohydrates to induce secretion of these incretin hormones could be one of the

  10. Role of sog polypeptides specified by plasmid ColIb-P9 and their transfer between conjugating bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merryweather, A; Rees, C E; Smith, N M; Wilkins, B M

    1986-11-01

    The sog gene of the conjugative plasmid ColIb-P9 specifies two sequence-related polypeptides with the N-terminal third of the larger product having DNA primase activity. To resolve the function of the C-terminal portion of the polypeptides, we constructed a ColIb mutant containing a Tn5 insertion in the 3' region of sog. The mutation truncated sog gene products without inactivating DNA primase and rendered the plasmid defective in conjugation. Tests for the presence of conjugative pili, for complementation by a sog+ recombinant, and for mobilization of small origin of transfer (oriT) recombinant plasmids indicated that the mutant ColIb allows conjugative aggregation of cells but it is defective in DNA transfer at some stage subsequent to its initiation at oriT. Physical evidence is given that normal sog polypeptides are among a group of proteins transferred selectively from the donor to the recipient cell by a conjugation-specific process. No transfer of the mutant sog proteins was detected. It is proposed that the C-terminal region of sog polypeptides facilitates transfer of single-stranded ColIb DNA between conjugating cells following initiation of transfer at the oriT site, and that in this role the proteins are transmitted to the recipient cell.

  11. Impaired uptake of conjugated bile acids and hepatitis b virus pres1-binding in na(+) -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijepcevic, Davor; Kaufman, Christina; Wichers, Catharina G. K.; Gilglioni, Eduardo H.; Lempp, Florian A.; Duijst, Suzanne; de Waart, Dirk R.; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Mier, Walter; Stieger, Bruno; Beuers, Ulrich; Urban, Stephan; van de Graaf, Stan F. J.

    2015-01-01

    The Na(+) -taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) mediates uptake of conjugated bile acids (BAs) and is localized at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes. It has recently been recognized as the receptor mediating hepatocyte-specific entry of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus.

  12. Genetic Associations of Type 2 Diabetes with Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Processing and Degrading Pathways in Asian Populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, Vincent Kwok Lim; Ma, Ronald Ching Wan; Lee, Heung Man; Hu, Cheng; Park, Kyong Soo; Furuta, Hiroto; Wang, Ying; Tam, Claudia Ha Ting; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Daniel Peng-Keat; Liu, Jianjun; Wong, Tien-Yin; Tai, E. Shyong; Morris, Andrew P.; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Woo, Jean; Leung, Ping Chung; Kong, Alice Pik Shan; Ozaki, Risa; Jia, Wei Ping; Lee, Hong Kyu; Nanjo, Kishio; Xu, Gang; Ng, Maggie Chor Yin; So, Wing-Yee; Chan, Juliana Chung Ngor; Ostaptchouk, Jana; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex disease characterized by beta cell dysfunctions. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is highly conserved and co-secreted with insulin with over 40% of autopsy cases of T2D showing islet amyloid formation due to IAPP aggregation. Dysregulation in IAPP processing,

  13. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide may enhance fatty acid re-esterification in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) has been implicated in lipid metabolism in animals. In humans, however, there is no clear evidence of GIP effecting lipid metabolism. The present experiments were performed in order to elucidate the effects of GIP on regional adipose tissue metab...

  14. Assignment of the human organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) gene to chromosome 12p12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kullak-Ublick, G. A.; Beuers, U.; Meier, P. J.; Domdey, H.; Paumgartner, G.

    1996-01-01

    The organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) of human liver mediates the basolateral hepatocellular uptake of numerous cholephilic anions and steroidal compounds. The aim of this study was to clone the human OATP gene and to map its chromosomal localization by fluorescence in situ

  15. Insulin activates a 70-kDa S6 kinase through serine/threonine-specific phosphorylation of the enzyme polypeptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, D.J.; Gunsalus, J.R.; Avruch, J. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    The dominant insulin-stimulated ribosomal protein S6 kinase activity was purified to near homogeneity from insulin-treated {sup 32}P-labeled rat H4 hepatoma cells and found to copurify with a 70-kDa {sup 32}P-labeled polypeptide. The dominant S6 kinase purified from livers of cycloheximide-treated rats is also a 70-kDa polypeptide. Antiserum raised against rat liver S6 kinase specifically immunoprecipitates the purified {sup 32}P-labeled H4 hepatoma insulin-stimulated S6 kinase. Immune complexes prepared from the cytosol of {sup 32}P-labeled H4 cells contain several {sup 32}P-labeled polypeptides. Insulin treatment increases the {sup 32}P content of the immunoprecipitated 70-kDa S6 kinase polypeptide 3- to 4-fold over basal levels. Tryptic peptide maps indicate that the insulin-stimulated S6 kinase purified from {sup 32}P-labeled H4 cells is phosphorylated at multiple sites distinct from those which participate in autophosphorylation in vitro. The S6 kinases purified from liver of cycloheximide-treated rat and H4 hepatoma insulin-stimulated enzyme are each completely deactivated by incubation with protein phosphatase type 2A in both autophosphorylating and 40S S6 phosphorylating activities. Thus insulin activates the 70-kDa S6 kinase by promoting phosphorylation of specific serine/threonine residues on the enzyme polypeptide, probably through activating an as-yet-unidentified serine/threonine protein kinase distinct from microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase.

  16. Zonadhesin D3-Polypeptides Vary among Species but Are Similar in Equus Species Capable of Interbreeding1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Steve; Brady, Heidi A.; Breazeale, Kelly R.; Bi, Ming; Thompson, Leslie D.; Bruemmer, Jason E.; Bailey, Laura B.; Hardy, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Zonadhesin is a rapidly evolving protein in the sperm acrosome that confers species specificity to sperm-zona pellucida adhesion. Though structural variation in zonadhesin likely contributes to its species-specific function, the protein has not previously been characterized in organisms capable of interbreeding. Here we compared properties of zonadhesin in several animals, including the horse (Equus caballus), donkey (E. asinus), and Grevy's zebra (E. grevyi) to determine if variation in zonadhesin correlates with ability of gametes to cross-fertilize. Zonadhesin localized to the apical acrosomes of spermatozoa from all three Equus species, similar to its localization in other animals. Likewise, in horse and donkey testis, zonadhesin was detected only in germ cells, first in the acrosomal granule of round spermatids and then in the developing acrosomes of elongating spermatids. Among non-Equus species, D3-domain polypeptides of mature, processed zonadhesin varied markedly in size and detergent solubility. However, zonadhesin D3-domain polypeptides in horse, donkey, and zebra spermatozoa exhibited identical electrophoretic mobility and detergent solubility. Equus zonadhesin D3-polypeptides (p110/p80 doublet) were most similar in size to porcine and bovine zonadhesin D3-polypeptides (p105). Sequence comparisons revealed that the horse zonadhesin precursor's domain content and arrangement are similar to those of zonadhesin from other large animals. Partial sequences of horse and donkey zonadhesin were much more similar to each other (>99% identity) than they were to orthologous sequences of human, pig, rabbit, and mouse zonadhesin (52%–72% identity). We conclude that conservation of zonadhesin D3-polypeptide properties correlates with ability of Equus species to interbreed. PMID:19794156

  17. Quantitative assessments of the distinct contributions of polypeptide backbone amides versus side chain groups to chain expansion via chemical denaturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holehouse, Alex S; Garai, Kanchan; Lyle, Nicholas; Vitalis, Andreas; Pappu, Rohit V

    2015-03-04

    In aqueous solutions with high concentrations of chemical denaturants such as urea and guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) proteins expand to populate heterogeneous conformational ensembles. These denaturing environments are thought to be good solvents for generic protein sequences because properties of conformational distributions align with those of canonical random coils. Previous studies showed that water is a poor solvent for polypeptide backbones, and therefore, backbones form collapsed globular structures in aqueous solvents. Here, we ask if polypeptide backbones can intrinsically undergo the requisite chain expansion in aqueous solutions with high concentrations of urea and GdmCl. We answer this question using a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We find that the degree of backbone expansion is minimal in aqueous solutions with high concentrations of denaturants. Instead, polypeptide backbones sample conformations that are denaturant-specific mixtures of coils and globules, with a persistent preference for globules. Therefore, typical denaturing environments cannot be classified as good solvents for polypeptide backbones. How then do generic protein sequences expand in denaturing environments? To answer this question, we investigated the effects of side chains using simulations of two archetypal sequences with amino acid compositions that are mixtures of charged, hydrophobic, and polar groups. We find that side chains lower the effective concentration of backbone amides in water leading to an intrinsic expansion of polypeptide backbones in the absence of denaturants. Additional dilution of the effective concentration of backbone amides is achieved through preferential interactions with denaturants. These effects lead to conformational statistics in denaturing environments that are congruent with those of canonical random coils. Our results highlight the role of side chain-mediated interactions as determinants

  18. Identification of a low molecular weight polypeptide of pregnant bovine uterine origin (LMW-UDF): influence on coagulation system in vitro. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, M T; Suzuki, M; Pantazis, C G

    1987-04-01

    Acidified extracts of pregnant bovine uterus were found to contain a heparin-affinity polypeptide(s). The eluted peak was assayed in the Chandler loop method for whole blood and fibrin thrombus generation. Significant differences in the mean weight and size of whole blood thrombi (243.5 +/- 50 mg and 3.5 cm +/- 0.6 cm) occurred with 1 microgram of purified polypeptide when compared to control samples containing albumin (47.87 +/- .30 g and 0.8 cm +/- 0.3 cm). This activity was detected by the Chandler loop method with 100 ng to 10 micrograms of protein when analyzed in a dose-response fashion. When tested for fibrin thrombus formation this activity persisted. Experiments with 125I fibrinogen revealed no net increase or decrease of uptake into whole blood thrombi when purified polypeptide was added. The heparin-affinity polypeptide(s) possessed a molecular weight of approximately 6-4 kDa when examined by SDS-PAGE. We have therefore designated this polypeptide as low molecular weight-uterine derived factor (LMW-UDF).

  19. Two polypeptides from Dendroaspis angusticeps venom selectively inhibit the binding of central muscarinic cholinergic receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerusalinsky, D; Cerveñasky, C; Peña, C; Raskovsky, S; Dajas, F

    1992-02-01

    Two new polypeptides were isolated and purified from the venom of the snake Dendroaspis angusticeps, which also contains other neuroactive peptides such as Dendrotoxins and Fasciculins. The amino acid composition of the peptides was determined and the first 10 amino acids from the MTX2 N-terminal fragment were sequenced. The so-called muscarinic toxins (MTX1 and MTX2) have been shown to inhibit the specific binding of [3H]QNB (0.15 nM), [3H]PZ (2.5 nM) and [3H]oxoM (2 nM) to bovine cerebral cortex membranes by 60, 88 and 82% respectively. In contrast, they caused only a 30% blockade of the [3H]QNB specific binding to similar membrane preparations from the brainstem. The Hill number for the [3H]PZ binding inhibition by the putative muscarinic toxin MTX2 was 0.95 suggesting homogeneity in the behaviour of the sites involved. The data from [3H]oxoM binding gave a Hill number of 0.83. The decreases in the specific binding involved increases in KD for the three different ligands (8-fold for [3H]QNB, 4-fold for [3H]PZ and 3.5-fold for [3H]oxoM) without significant changes in Bmax, except for a slight decrease in the [3H]oxoM binding sites (-19%); such results suggest that there may be a competitive inhibition between the MTXs and these ligands. The Ki for MTX2/[3H]PZ was 22.58 +/- 3.52 nM; for MTX2/[3H]oxoM, 144.9 +/- 21.07 nM and for MTX2/[3H]QNB, 134.98 +/- 18.35 nM. The labelling of MTX2 with 125I allowed direct demonstration of specific and saturable binding to bovine cerebral cortex synaptosomal membranes. In conclusion, the results reported in this study strongly support the hypotheses that the two polypeptides isolated from D. angusticeps venom selectively inhibit specific ligand binding to central muscarinic receptors, in a competitive manner at least for the antagonist [3H]PZ and that the MTX2 specifically binds to a central site that is suggested to be a muscarinic receptor of the M1 subtype.

  20. A paclitaxel-loaded recombinant polypeptide nanoparticle outperforms Abraxane in multiple murine cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Bellucci, Joseph J.; Weitzhandler, Isaac; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Spasojevic, Ivan; Li, Xinghai; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Chi, Jen-Tsan Ashley; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2015-08-01

    Packaging clinically relevant hydrophobic drugs into a self-assembled nanoparticle can improve their aqueous solubility, plasma half-life, tumour-specific uptake and therapeutic potential. To this end, here we conjugated paclitaxel (PTX) to recombinant chimeric polypeptides (CPs) that spontaneously self-assemble into ~60 nm near-monodisperse nanoparticles that increased the systemic exposure of PTX by sevenfold compared with free drug and twofold compared with the Food and Drug Administration-approved taxane nanoformulation (Abraxane). The tumour uptake of the CP-PTX nanoparticle was fivefold greater than free drug and twofold greater than Abraxane. In a murine cancer model of human triple-negative breast cancer and prostate cancer, CP-PTX induced near-complete tumour regression after a single dose in both tumour models, whereas at the same dose, no mice treated with Abraxane survived for >80 days (breast) and 60 days (prostate), respectively. These results show that a molecularly engineered nanoparticle with precisely engineered design features outperforms Abraxane, the current gold standard for PTX delivery.

  1. Engineering a recyclable elastin-like polypeptide capturing scaffold for non-chromatographic protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Chen, Wilfred

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported a non-chromatographic protein purification method exploiting the highly specific interaction between the dockerin and cohesin domains from Clostridium thermocellum and the reversible aggregation property of elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) to provide fast and cost-effective protein purification. However, the bound dockerin-intein tag cannot be completely dissociated from the ELP-cohesin capturing scaffold due to the high binding affinity, resulting in a single-use approach. In order to further reduce the purification cost by recycling the ELP capturing scaffold, a truncated dockerin domain with the calcium-coordinating function partially impaired was employed. We demonstrated that the truncated dockerin domain was sufficient to function as an effective affinity tag, and the target protein was purified directly from cell extracts in a single binding step followed by intein cleavage. The efficient EDTA-mediated dissociation of the bound dockerin-intein tag from the ELP-cohesin capturing scaffold was realized, and the regenerated ELP capturing scaffold was reused in another purification cycle without any decrease in the purification efficiency. This recyclable non-chromatographic based affinity method provides an attractive approach for efficient and cost-effective protein purification. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. pH-responsive zwitterionic polypeptide as a platform for anti-tumor drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Han, Jiaming; Zhang, Xinchen; Yang, Yue; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Yanming; Wu, Guolin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a doxorubicin delivery system is reported based on a pH-responsive zwitterionic polypeptide derivative. To improve the anti-protein-fouling capacity, the poly(amino acid) was modified by grafting short-chain zwitterions via aminolysis reaction of polysuccinimide with l-lysine. As a result, both positively and negatively charged moieties were introduced onto the same side chain in a simultaneous fashion, providing a nano-scale homogenous mixture of balanced charges. The zwitterionic side chains serve as hydrophilic segments in the copolymer and feature excellent resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption. Doxorubicin was chemically grafted onto the poly(amino acid) moiety through acid-labile hydrazone linkages, providing removable hydrophobic segments and driving the polymer self-assembly. Free doxorubicin could be encapsulated into the self-assembled micelles via hydrophobic interactions and molecular π-π stacking. The results obtained show that the drug loaded nanoparticles exhibit excellent stabilities in protein solutions at pH=7.4 and significantly enhanced drug release characteristics under acidic conditions. The cytotoxicity characteristics of the zwitterionic copolymer and drug-loaded nanoparticles at different pH values were investigated in vitro and feature an excellent biocompatibility and anti-cancer activity, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lamina Associated Polypeptide 1 (LAP1 Interactome and Its Functional Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B. Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1 is a type II transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane encoded by the human gene TOR1AIP1. LAP1 is involved in maintaining the nuclear envelope structure and appears be involved in the positioning of lamins and chromatin. To date, LAP1’s precise function has not been fully elucidated but analysis of its interacting proteins will permit unraveling putative associations to specific cellular pathways and cellular processes. By assessing public databases it was possible to identify the LAP1 interactome, and this was curated. In total, 41 interactions were identified. Several functionally relevant proteins, such as TRF2, TERF2IP, RIF1, ATM, MAD2L1 and MAD2L1BP were identified and these support the putative functions proposed for LAP1. Furthermore, by making use of the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis tool and submitting the LAP1 interactors, the top two canonical pathways were “Telomerase signalling” and “Telomere Extension by Telomerase” and the top functions “Cell Morphology”, “Cellular Assembly and Organization” and “DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair”. Once again, putative LAP1 functions are reinforced but novel functions are emerging.

  4. Solvent Properties of Water in Aqueous Solutions of Elastin-Like Polypeptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa A. Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The phase-transition temperatures of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP with the (GVGVP40 sequence and solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond donor acidity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity in its aqueous solutions were quantified in the absence and presence of different salts (Na2SO4, NaCl, NaClO4, and NaSCN and various osmolytes (sucrose, sorbitol, trehalose, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO. All osmolytes decreased the ELP phase-transition temperature, whereas NaCl and Na2SO4 decreased, and NaSCN and NaClO4 increased it. The determined phase-transition temperatures may be described as a linear combination of the solvent’s dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen-bond donor acidity. The linear relationship established for the phase-transition temperature in the presence of salts differs quantitatively from that in the presence of osmolytes, in agreement with different (direct and indirect mechanisms of the influence of salts and osmolytes on the ELP phase-transition temperature.

  5. Solvent Properties of Water in Aqueous Solutions of Elastin-Like Polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Luisa A; Cole, James T; Reichardt, Christian; Holland, Nolan B; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-06-12

    The phase-transition temperatures of an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) with the (GVGVP)40 sequence and solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen-bond donor acidity, and hydrogen-bond acceptor basicity in its aqueous solutions were quantified in the absence and presence of different salts (Na2SO4, NaCl, NaClO4, and NaSCN) and various osmolytes (sucrose, sorbitol, trehalose, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)). All osmolytes decreased the ELP phase-transition temperature, whereas NaCl and Na2SO4 decreased, and NaSCN and NaClO4 increased it. The determined phase-transition temperatures may be described as a linear combination of the solvent's dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen-bond donor acidity. The linear relationship established for the phase-transition temperature in the presence of salts differs quantitatively from that in the presence of osmolytes, in agreement with different (direct and indirect) mechanisms of the influence of salts and osmolytes on the ELP phase-transition temperature.

  6. Nucleotide sequence of the 5'nontranslated and virion polypeptides regions of coxsackievirus B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S; Tsutsumi, R; Sato, S

    1999-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of coxsackievirus B6 (CVB6) has been determined, and the nucleotides encoding the 5' nontranslated region (5' NTR) and virion polypeptides (VP4, 2, 3 and 1) were compared with other serotype CVBs. An Unweighted Pair-Group Method Analysis (UPGMA) of phylogenetic trees indicated that the 5' NTR of CVB6 locates on an independent branch from the other CVBs. The tree based on the amino acid sequences showed that CVB6 has close correlation with CVB4 in the VP4 and VP2 regions, with CVB1 and CVB5 in the VP3 region, and with CVB5 in the VP1 region. Amino acid sequences of variable regions within the VP2, VP3, and VP1 of CVB6 were unique among CVBs. Thus, by comparison of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these variable regions, CVB6 can be easily distinguished from other serotypes. In addition, serine, instead of glycine, was found to locate at the amino-terminus of the VP1 region of CVB6, indicating that CVB6 has a unique cleavage site (i.e., glutamine/serine instead of glutamine/glycine) for proteinase 3C of Picornaviridae.

  7. Effects of tactile and electrical stimuli upon release of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the mammalian penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, A F; Kendrick, K M; Blank, M A; Bloom, S R

    1984-02-01

    Plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the corpora cavernosa penis and dorsal penile veins greatly exceeded those measured in the limb or caudal veins during anaesthesia in various mammals (Bennett's wallaby, Barbary sheep, cheetah, puma, sooty mangabey, pigtail macaque and chimpanzee). Tactile stimulation of the penis immediately before or during collection of blood samples resulted in an increase. In the wallaby, VIP levels (mean +/- S.E.M.) in blood samples collected from the flaccid penis in the absence of tactile stimulation were very low (0.6 +/- 0.5 pmol/l). A 36-fold increase in VIP occurred after manual extension of the flaccid penis (24.8 +/- 3.2 pmol/l) or during manually stimulated erections (25.1 +/- 1.7 pmol/l). Electrical stimulation of erection produced no significant increase in VIP levels (2.3 +/- 0.9 pmol/l) unless accompanied by tactile stimulation (17.5 +/- 1.4 pmol/l). These studies provide the first demonstration that sensory feedback from the penis plays an important role in regulating vasoactive intestinal polypeptidergic activity. Since VIP is a potent vasodilator its release due to tactile stimuli during copulation may play a role in the maintenance of penile erection.

  8. Circulating endogenous vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in patients with uraemia and liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Staun-Olsen, P; Borg Mogensen, N

    1986-01-01

    and patients with cirrhosis both the liver and kidneys are involved in the biodegradation of VIP. The elevated level of circulating VIP in uraemic patients may in part be due to decreased renal and hepatic biodegradation but increased neuronal release of VIP, especially in the splanchnic system, may also......The concentration of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in peripheral venous plasma was median 6.0 pmol l-1 (range 0-20) in 112 normal subjects. In fifty-three patients with decreased kidney function plasma VIP was significantly increased (median 15.0 pmol l-1, range 0.5-70, P less than 0.......0001) and positively correlated to serum creatinine concentration (r = 0.51, P less than 0.001). In 133 patients with liver cirrhosis peripheral venous VIP was slightly elevated (median 7.0 pmol l-1 range 0-86, P less than 0.01). Samples obtained during a central venous catheterization showed significant renal...

  9. Interaction between amyloid beta peptide and an aggregation blocker peptide mimicking islet amyloid polypeptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Rezaei-Ghaleh

    Full Text Available Assembly of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ into cytotoxic oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates is believed to be a major pathologic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD and interfering with Aβ aggregation is an important strategy in the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Prior studies have shown that the double N-methylated analogue of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP IAPP-GI, which is a conformationally constrained IAPP analogue mimicking a non-amyloidogenic IAPP conformation, is capable of blocking cytotoxic self-assembly of Aβ. Here we investigate the interaction of IAPP-GI with Aβ40 and Aβ42 using NMR spectroscopy. The most pronounced NMR chemical shift changes were observed for residues 13-20, while residues 7-9, 15-16 as well as the C-terminal half of Aβ--that is both regions of the Aβ sequence that are converted into β-strands in amyloid fibrils--were less accessible to solvent in the presence of IAPP-GI. At the same time, interaction of IAPP-GI with Aβ resulted in a concentration-dependent co-aggregation of Aβ and IAPP-GI that was enhanced for the more aggregation prone Aβ42 peptide. On the basis of the reduced toxicity of the Aβ peptide in the presence of IAPP-GI, our data are consistent with the suggestion that IAPP-GI redirects Aβ into nontoxic "off-pathway" aggregates.

  10. β-Hairpin of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Bound to an Aggregation Inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirecka, Ewa A; Feuerstein, Sophie; Gremer, Lothar; Schröder, Gunnar F; Stoldt, Matthias; Willbold, Dieter; Hoyer, Wolfgang

    2016-09-19

    In type 2 diabetes, the formation of islet amyloid consisting of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is associated with reduction in β-cell mass and contributes to the failure of islet cell transplantation. Rational design of inhibitors of IAPP amyloid formation has therapeutic potential, but is hampered by the lack of structural information on inhibitor complexes of the conformationally flexible, aggregation-prone IAPP. Here we characterize a β-hairpin conformation of IAPP in complex with the engineered binding protein β-wrapin HI18. The β-strands correspond to two amyloidogenic motifs, 12-LANFLVH-18 and 22-NFGAILS-28, which are connected by a turn established around Ser-20. Besides backbone hydrogen bonding, the IAPP:HI18 interaction surface is dominated by non-polar contacts involving hydrophobic side chains of the IAPP β-strands. Apart from monomers, HI18 binds oligomers and fibrils and inhibits IAPP aggregation and toxicity at low substoichiometric concentrations. The IAPP β-hairpin can serve as a molecular recognition motif enabling control of IAPP aggregation.

  11. Production of polypeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces parvulus and its antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakasham Reddy Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly potent secondary metabolite producing actinomycetes strain is isolated from marine soil sediments of Visakhapatnam sea coast, Bay of Bengal. Over all ten strains are isolated from the collected soil sediments. Among the ten actinomycetes strains the broad spectrum strain RSPSN2 was selected for molecular characterization, antibiotic production and its purification. The nucleotide sequence of the 1 rRNA gene (1261 base pairs of the most potent strain evidenced a 96% similarity with Streptomyces parvulus 1044 strain, Streptomyces parvulus NBRC 13193 and Streptomyces parvulus BY-F. From the taxonomic features, the actinomycetes isolate RSPSN2 matches with Streptomyces parvulus in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Thus, it was given the suggested name Streptomyces parvulus RSPSN2. The active metabolite was extracted using ethyl acetate (1:3, v/v at pH 7.0. The separation of active ingredient and its purification was performed by using both thin layer chromatography (TLC and column chromatography (CC techniques. Spectrometric studies such as UV-visible, FTIR, and NMR and mass were performed. The antibacterial activity of pure compound was performed by cup plate method against some pathogenic bacteria including of streptomycin resistant bacteria like (Pseudomonas mirabilis. Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus cereus. In conclusion, the collected data emphasized the fact that a polypeptide antibiotic (Actinomycin D was produced by Streptomyces parvulus RSPSN2.

  12. Mechanical & cell culture properties of elastin-like polypeptide, collagen, bioglass, and carbon nanosphere composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tyler S; Sbravati, Nathanael D; Janorkar, Amol V

    2013-10-01

    Collagen, the most commonly used extra-cellular matrix protein for tissue engineering applications, displays poor mechanical properties. Here, we report on the preparation and characterization of novel multi-component composite systems that incorporate a genetically engineered, biocompatible polymer (elastin-like polypeptide, ELP), biodegradable ceramic (45S5 bioglass), carbon nanosphere chains (CNSC), and minimal amount (~25% w/w) of collagen. We hypothesized that incorporation of bioglass and CNSC would improve mechanical properties of the composites. Our results showed that the tensile strength and elastic modulus nearly doubled after addition of the bioglass and CNSC compared to the control ELP-collagen hydrogels. Further, MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts were cultured within the composite hydrogels and a thorough biochemical and morphological characterization was performed. Live/dead assay confirmed high cell viability (>95%) for all hydrogels by day 21 of culture. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin (OCN) production assessed the pre-osteoblast differentiation. Normalized ALP activity was highest for the cells cultured within ELP-bioglass-collagen hydrogels, while normalized OCN production was equivalent for all hydrogels. Alizarin red staining confirmed the mineral deposition by the cells within all hydrogels. Thus, the multi-component composite hydrogels displayed improved mechanical and cell culture properties and may be suitable scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering.

  13. Pancreatic polypeptide: Identification of target tissues and investigation of possible physiologic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetzline, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP) is a 36 amino acid peptide with hormonal properties but whose physiologic function remains unknown. In order to determine the function of this peptide we investigated potential target tissues using an in vivo radioreceptor assay. In vitro high concentrations of unlabeled hormone competitively inhibit low concentrations of labeled hormone from binding to receptors. Our in vivo studies indicate that, in the presence of concentrated unlabeled peptide, labeled PP distributes between the plasma and interstitial fluid. When saline rather than excess unlabeled PP is injected, the labeled peptide appears to distribute in a volume exceeding the combined plasma and interstitial fluid volume of tissue. The distribution volume which exceeds the anatomic extracellular volume and which is not present with excess unlabeled peptide, is the receptor compartment. With this assay we demonstrated in the rat specific and displaceable PP binding to the ductus choledochus, duodenum, ileum, and adrenal gland. In vitro rat adrenal cell membranes showed specific I-125 labeled PP binding. Specific binding also occurred in bovine cortical and medullary membranes.

  14. Role of pancreatic polypeptide in the regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiratori, Keiko; Lee, K.Y.; Chang, Tamin; Jo, Y.H.; Coy, D.H.; Chey, W.Y. (Genesee Hospital, Rochester, NY (USA) Tulane Univ. School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1988-11-01

    The effect of intravenous infusion of synthetic human pancreatic polypeptide (HPP) or a rabbit anti-PP serum on pancreatic exocrine secretion was studied in 10 dogs with gastric and Thomas duodenal cannulas. The infusion of HPP, achieved a plasma PP concentration that mimicked the peak plasma concentration of PP in both interdigestive and postprandial states. This dose of HPP significantly inhibited pancreatic secretion in the interdigestive state. By contrast, immunoneutralization of circulating PP by a rabbit anti-PP serum resulted in significant increases in both interdigestive and postprandial pancreatic secretion, including water, bicarbonate, and protein. The increase in the pancreatic secretion paralleled a decrease in circulating PP level, which lasted for as long as 5 days. Furthermore, the anti-PP serum blocked the inhibitory action of exogenous HPP on pancreatic exocrine secretion. The present study indicates that endogenous PP plays a significant role in the regulation of the pancreatic exocrine secretion in both interdigestive and digestive states. Thus the authors conclude that PP is another hormone regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion in dogs.

  15. Decreased REM sleep and altered circadian sleep regulation in mice lacking vasoactive intestinal polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wang-Ping; Li, Jia-Da; Colwell, Christopher S; Zhou, Qun-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been implicated in sleep regulation as a promoter of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Previous work has shown that the amount of time spent in REM sleep is increased by intracerebroventricular administration of VIP, and reduced by treatment with VIP antagonists or antibodies against VIP. A variety of evidence suggests that VIP is critical for normal expression of circadian rhythmicity of diverse physiological and behavioral parameters. In the present study, we investigated the role of this peptide in sleep regulation using VIP-deficient (VIP-/-) mice. EEG/EMG sleep-wake patterns were recorded in VIP-/- mice and their wild-type littermate controls under normal light-dark (LD), constant darkness (DD) and sleep deprivation conditions. VIP-/- mice exhibited reduced REM sleep time over the 24-h cycle while total daily amounts of NREM sleep and wakefulness were not altered significantly. The reduced REM sleep time in VIP-/- mice occurred entirely during the day due to a reduction in the duration, but not the frequency, of REM sleep bouts. In response to sleep deprivation, compensatory rebounds in NREM sleep and REM sleep were also attenuated in VIP-/- mice. Finally, the loss of VIP altered the temporal distribution of sleep in that the VIP -/- mice exhibited smaller amplitude rhythms in total sleep, NREM sleep, and REM sleep under both LD and DD. These results indicate that VIP regulates the duration of REM sleep, sleep homeostatic mechanisms as well as the temporal patterning of sleep.

  16. Bifunctional Elastin-like Polypeptide Nanoparticles Bind Rapamycin and Integrins and Suppress Tumor Growth in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhandhukia, Jugal P; Shi, Pu; Peddi, Santosh; Li, Zhe; Aluri, Suhaas; Ju, Yaping; Brill, Dab; Wang, Wan; Janib, Siti M; Lin, Yi-An; Liu, Shuanglong; Cui, Honggang; MacKay, J Andrew

    2017-11-15

    Recombinant protein-polymer scaffolds such as elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) offer drug-delivery opportunities including biocompatibility, monodispersity, and multifunctionality. We recently reported that the fusion of FK-506 binding protein 12 (FKBP) to an ELP nanoparticle (FSI) increases rapamycin (Rapa) solubility, suppresses tumor growth in breast cancer xenografts, and reduces side effects observed with free-drug controls. This new report significantly advances this carrier strategy by demonstrating the coassembly of two different ELP diblock copolymers containing drug-loading and tumor-targeting domains. A new ELP nanoparticle (ISR) was synthesized that includes the canonical integrin-targeting ligand (Arg-Gly-Asp, RGD). FSI and ISR mixed in a 1:1 molar ratio coassemble into bifunctional nanoparticles containing both the FKBP domain for Rapa loading and the RGD ligand for integrin binding. Coassembled nanoparticles were evaluated for bifunctionality by performing in vitro cell-binding and drug-retention assays and in vivo MDA-MB-468 breast tumor regression and tumor-accumulation studies. The bifunctional nanoparticle demonstrated superior cell target binding and similar drug retention to FSI; however, it enhanced the formulation potency, such that tumor growth was suppressed at a 3-fold lower dose compared to an untargeted FSI-Rapa control. This data suggests that ELP-mediated scaffolds are useful tools for generating multifunctional nanomedicines with potential activity in cancer.

  17. Heterogeneity in mouse spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia lineages identifies markers of metaplastic progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Victoria G; Sousa, Josane F; LaFleur, Bonnie J; Nam, Ki Taek; Weis, Jared A; Finke, Paul E; Ameen, Nadia A; Fox, James G; Goldenring, James R

    2013-09-01

    Spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) develops as a preneoplastic lesion in the stomachs of mice and humans after parietal cell loss. To identify the commonalities and differences between phenotypic SPEM lineages, SPEM were studied from three different mouse models of parietal cell loss: with chronic inflammation with Helicobacter felis infection; with acute inflammation with L635 treatment; and without inflammation following DMP-777 treatment. RNA transcripts from laser capture microdissected normal chief cells and SPEM lineages were compared using gene microarray. Alterations in transcripts were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. Clusterin and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) were selected for immunohistochemical analysis in all mouse models as well as in human SPEM, intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. Transcript expression patterns demonstrated differences among the phenotypic SPEM models. Clusterin expression was significantly upregulated in all three mouse SPEM models as well as in human SPEM. The highest clusterin expression in human gastric cancers correlated with poor survival. Conversely, CFTR expression was upregulated only in SPEM with inflammation in mice. In humans, intestinal metaplasia, but not SPEM, expressed CFTR. While markers such as clusterin are expressed in all phenotypic SPEM lineages, distinct patterns of upregulated genes including CFTR are present in murine metaplasia associated with inflammation, indicative of progression of metaplasia towards a more intestinalised metaplastic phenotype.

  18. Cell proliferation and migration are modulated by Cdk-1-phosphorylated endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Schwarz

    Full Text Available Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II is a secreted protein with well-established anti-angiogenic activities. Intracellular EMAP II expression is increased during fetal development at epithelial/mesenchymal boundaries and in pathophysiologic fibroproliferative cells of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, and scar fibroblast tissue following myocardial ischemia. Precise function and regulation of intracellular EMAP II, however, has not been explored to date.Here we show that high intracellular EMAP II suppresses cellular proliferation by slowing progression through the G2M cell cycle transition in epithelium and fibroblast. Furthermore, EMAP II binds to and is phosphorylated by Cdk1, and exhibits nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning, with only nuclear EMAP II being phosphorylated. We observed that extracellular secreted EMAP II induces endothelial cell apoptosis, where as excess intracellular EMAP II facilitates epithelial and fibroblast cells migration.Our findings suggest that EMAP II has specific intracellular effects, and that this intracellular function appears to antagonize its extracellular anti-angiogenic effects during fetal development and pulmonary disease progression.

  19. Probing an artificial polypeptide receptor library using a series of novel histamine H3 receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Andrzej; Daszykowski, Michal; Kaminski, Zbigniew; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Kuder, Kamil; Fraczyk, Justyna; Kolesinska, Beata; Ciosek, Patrycja; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2014-02-01

    An artificial polypeptide receptor (APR) library was created by using the self-organization of N-lipidated peptides attached to cellulose via m-aminophenylamino-1,3,5-triazine. The response of the library was probed using a series of novel H3 receptor ligands. Since no guidelines on how to design an APRs selective vs certain receptor types exist, a diverse set of amino acids (Ala, Trp, Pro, Glu, His, Lys and Ser) were used and coupled with one of three gating fatty acids (palmitic, ricinoleic or capric). A competitive adsorption-desorption of an appropriate reporter dye was used for the indirect visualization of the interactions of guests with particular receptors. The resulted library response to individual inhibitors was then arranged in a matrix, preprocessed and analyzed using the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) method. The most important conclusion obtained from the PCA analysis is that the library differentiates the probed compounds according to the lipophilicity of the gating unit. The PC3 with a dominant absolute contribution of the receptors containing Glu allowed for the best separation of the ligands with respect to their activity. This conclusion is in agreement with the fact that Glu 206 is a genuine ligand counterpart in the natural histamine receptor.

  20. Strongyloides stercoralis diagnostic polypeptides for human strongyloidiasis and their proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Insawang, Tonkla; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-10-01

    Human strongyloidiasis is a deleterious gastrointestinal disease mainly caused by Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminthiasis that is distributed around the globe. Although definitive diagnosis is carried out through the detection of parasite objects in human stool samples, the development of reliable immunological assays is an important alternative approach for supportive diagnosis. We characterized the two sensitive and specific bands of S. stercoralis filariform larvae that reacted with human strongyloidiasis sera based on immunoblot analysis. Serum samples obtained from strongyloidiasis patients showed a sensitivity of 90 and 80 % at the approximate molecular mass of 26 and 29-kDa polypeptide bands, respectively. The reactive specificity of the 26-kDa band was 76.5 % while for the 29-kDa band was 92.2 %. Proteomic analysis identified the 26-kDa band protein was 14-3-3 protein zeta, while the 29-kDa band protein was ADP/ATP translocase 4. The results provided a basic framework for further studies regarding the potential of the S. stercoralis recombinant antigen to become a leading to diagnostic tool.

  1. Platelet inhibition and endothelial cell adhesion on elastin-like polypeptide surface modified materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blit, Patrick H; McClung, W Glenn; Brash, John L; Woodhouse, Kimberly A; Santerre, J Paul

    2011-09-01

    Platelet adhesion and activation are important early markers of biomaterial blood compatibility, while surfaces that promote enhanced endothelial cell adhesion and eNOS expression are strategic targets for long term vascular graft applications. Materials surface modified with fluorinated surface modifiers, containing peptides inspired from elastin cross-linking domains, have been used for the cross-linking of elastin-like polypeptide 4 (ELP4) macromolecules onto polyurethane surfaces. In the present study, ELP4 modified polyurethanes were evaluated in vitro to assess platelet adhesion, microparticle formation and bulk platelet activation following blood-material interactions. Reduced platelet adhesion and bulk platelet activation were observed following contact between reconstituted human blood and the ELP4 materials, relative to the uncoated base polyurethane controls. ELP4 modified materials also promoted endothelial cell adhesion and retention over a period of one week and showed that the endothelial cells exhibited an organized actin cytoskeleton and enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression relative to the control surfaces. These results indicate that polyurethane elastomers modified with ELP4 covalently bound to fluorinated surface modifiers provide a promising approach for endowing synthetic elastomers with both reduced blood platelet activation properties and enhanced endothelial cell adhesion for potential use in vascular graft applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes of vasoactive polypeptides during postoperative hypertensive crisis in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Wang, Xue-feng; Wang, Chao; Luan, Wen-zhong

    2007-12-05

    Hypertensive crisis could be found after operation in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH). The aim of this study was to explore the changes and the roles of some vasoactive polypeptides during postoperative hypertensive crisis in patients with HICH. A total of 31 patients, who were admitted for craniotomy, were enrolled into this study. After the operation, the patients were divided into three groups. Group I consisted of 9 patients with postoperative hypertensive crisis, and group II was composed of 13 patients without postoperative hypertensive crisis. Nine patients, who denied history of hypertension or HICH, were set as group III. The levels of some vasoactivators in the three groups were measured before and after the operation. The differences in the results among the groups were analyzed using the ANOVA. The data collected before and after the operation in the group I was compared by Wilcoxon test. The concentration of endothelin in group I was significantly higher than that in group III (P 0.05). Postoperative hypertensive crisis may be due to the increased thromboxane A2 and relatively inadequate prostacyclin, especially 6-keto-PGF1a. The increased level of endothelin and intraoperative stimulation also play a certain role in the development of postoperative hypertensive crisis.

  3. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the guinea pig. A mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triepel, J; Metz, J; Munroe, D; London, S; Sweriduk, S; Forssmann, W G

    1987-07-01

    The distribution of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive (VIP-IR) neurons in the lower medulla oblongata and the spinal cord has been analyzed in guinea pigs. This study includes results obtained by colchicine treatment and transection experiments. In the spinal cord, numerous VIP-IR varicosities were observed in the substantia gelatinosa of the columna dorsalis; some were also found in the substantia intermedia and the columna anterior. The spinal VIP-IR nerve fibers were mainly of intraspinal origin and oriented segmentally. VIP-IR nuclei in the spinal cord extended dorsally into corresponding regions of the caudal medulla oblongata, namely from the substantia intermedia medialis and lateralis into the vagus-solitarius complex and from the nucleus spinalis lateralis into the area of the nucleus reticularis lateralis. Additional VIP-IR perikarya were observed in the pars caudalis of the nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini. The VIP-IR nuclei within the caudal medulla oblongata probably form a continuous system with those localized within the spinal cord. They may be involved functionally in the modulation of cardiovascular and respiratory regulation in the guinea pig.

  4. EFFECTIVE RELEASE OF A BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBIOTIC FROM ELASTIN-LIKE POLYPEPTIDE-COLLAGEN COMPOSITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tiffany R.; Marquart, Mary E.; Janorkar, Amol V.

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of hydrogels that possess an effective antibiotic release profile and better mechanical properties compared to the traditionally used collagen hydrogels has the potential to minimize post-surgical infections and support wound healing. Towards this goal, we prepared elastin-like polypeptide (ELP)-collagen composite hydrogels that displayed a significantly higher elastic modulus compared to the collagen hydrogels. We then characterized the release behavior of the collagen and ELP-collagen hydrogels loaded with varying dosages (1 – 5% w/w) of a commonly used broad spectrum antibiotic, doxycycline hyclate. Both collagen and ELP-collagen hydrogels showed a gradual time dependent doxycycline release over a period of 5 days. The ELP-collagen hydrogels, in general, showed a slower release of the doxycycline compared to the collagen hydrogels. The released doxycycline was found to be effective against four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus sanguinis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in a dose dependent manner. Combined with their improved mechanical properties, the gradual and effective drug release from the biocompatible ELP-collagen hydrogels shown here may be beneficial for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. PMID:24825292

  5. Cytotoxic helix-rich oligomer formation by melittin and pancreatic polypeptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep K Singh

    Full Text Available Conversion of amyloid fibrils by many peptides/proteins involves cytotoxic helix-rich oligomers. However, their toxicity and biophysical studies remain largely unknown due to their highly dynamic nature. To address this, we chose two helical peptides (melittin, Mel and pancreatic polypeptide, PP and studied their aggregation and toxicity. Mel converted its random coil structure to oligomeric helical structure upon binding to heparin; however, PP remained as helix after oligomerization. Interestingly, similar to Parkinson's associated α-synuclein (AS oligomers, Mel and PP also showed tinctorial properties, higher hydrophobic surface exposure, cellular toxicity and membrane pore formation after oligomerization in the presence of heparin. We suggest that helix-rich oligomers with exposed hydrophobic surface are highly cytotoxic to cells irrespective of their disease association. Moreover as Mel and PP (in the presence of heparin instantly self-assemble into stable helix-rich amyloidogenic oligomers; they could be represented as models for understanding the biophysical and cytotoxic properties of helix-rich intermediates in detail.

  6. Polypeptide friction and adhesion on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces: a molecular dynamics case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serr, Andreas; Horinek, Dominik; Netz, Roland R

    2008-09-17

    Using all-atomistic MD simulations including explicit water, the mobility and adhesion of a mildly hydrophobic single polypeptide chain adsorbed on hydrophobic and hydrophilic diamond surfaces is investigated by application of lateral and vertical pulling forces. Forced motion on the hydrophilic surface exhibits stick-slip due to breaking and reformation of hydrogen bonds; in contrast, on the hydrophobic surface, the motion is smooth. By carefully tuning the driving force magnitude, the linear-response regime is reached on a hydrophobic surface and equilibrium values for mobility and adhesive strength are obtained. On the hydrophilic surface, on the other hand, slow hydrogen-bond kinetics prevents equilibration and only upper bounds for adhesion force and mobility can be estimated. Whereas the desorption force is rather comparable on the two surfaces and differs at most by a factor of 2, the mobility on the hydrophilic surface is at least 30-fold reduced compared to the hydrophobic one. A simple model based on a single particle diffusing in a corrugated potential landscape suggests that cooperativity is rather limited and that the small mobility on a hydrophilic surface can be rationalized in terms of incoherently moving monomers. The experimentally well-known peptide mobility in bulk water is quantitatively reproduced in our simulations, which serves as a sensitive test on our methodology employed.

  7. Niclosamide-conjugated polypeptide nanoparticles inhibit Wnt signaling and colon cancer growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Jayanta; Ren, Xiu-Rong; Mook, Robert A; Wang, Jiangbo; Spasojevic, Ivan; Premont, Richard T; Li, Xinghai; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Chen, Wei

    2017-08-31

    Abnormal Wnt activity is a major mechanism responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Previously, we reported that the anthelmintic drug Niclosamide (NIC) inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and suppresses colon cancer cell growth. Although the pharmacokinetic properties of NIC are appropriate for use as an anthelmintic agent, its low solubility, low bioavailability and low systemic exposure limit its usefulness in treating systemic diseases. To overcome these limitations, we conjugated NIC to recombinant chimeric polypeptides (CPs), and the CP-NIC conjugate spontaneously self-assembled into sub-100 nm near-monodisperse nanoparticles. CP-NIC nanoparticles delivered intravenously act as a pro-drug of NIC to dramatically increase exposure of NIC compared to dosing with free NIC. CP-NIC improved anti-tumor activity compared to NIC in a xenograft model of human colon cancer. Because NIC has multiple biological activities, CP-NIC could be used for treatment of multiple diseases, including cancer, bacterial and viral infection, type II diabetes, NASH and NAFLD.

  8. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II disrupts alveolar epithelial type II to type I cell transdifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distal alveolar morphogenesis is marked by differentiation of alveolar type (AT-II to AT-I cells that give rise to the primary site of gas exchange, the alveolar/vascular interface. Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II, an endogenous protein with anti-angiogenic properties, profoundly disrupts distal lung neovascularization and alveolar formation during lung morphogenesis, and is robustly expressed in the dysplastic alveolar regions of infants with Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Determination as to whether EMAP II has a direct or indirect affect on ATII→ATI trans-differentiation has not been explored. Method In a controlled nonvascular environment, an in vitro model of ATII→ATI cell trans-differentiation was utilized to demonstrate the contribution that one vascular mediator has on distal epithelial cell differentiation. Results Here, we show that EMAP II significantly blocked ATII→ATI cell transdifferentiation by increasing cellular apoptosis and inhibiting expression of ATI markers. Moreover, EMAP II-treated ATII cells displayed myofibroblast characteristics, including elevated cellular proliferation, increased actin cytoskeleton stress fibers and Rho-GTPase activity, and increased nuclear:cytoplasmic volume. However, EMAP II-treated cells did not express the myofibroblast markers desmin or αSMA. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that EMAP II interferes with ATII → ATI transdifferentiation resulting in a proliferating non-myofibroblast cell. These data identify the transdifferentiating alveolar cell as a possible target for EMAP II's induction of alveolar dysplasia.

  9. Active immunization against vasoactive intestinal polypeptide decreases neuronal recruitment and inhibits reproduction in zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistoropsky, Yulia; Heiblum, Rachel; Smorodinsky, Nechama-Ina; Barnea, Anat

    2016-08-15

    Neurogenesis and neuronal recruitment occur in adult brains of many vertebrates, and the hypothesis is that these phenomena contribute to the brain plasticity that enables organisms to adjust to environmental changes. In mammals, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is known to have many neuroprotective properties, but in the avian brain, although widely distributed, its role in neuronal recruitment is not yet understood. In the present study we actively immunized adult zebra finches against VIP conjugated to KLH and compared neuronal recruitment in their brains, with brains of control birds, which were immunized against KLH. We looked at two forebrain regions: the nidopallium caudale (NC), which plays a role in vocal communication, and the hippocampus (HC), which is involved in the processing of spatial information. Our data demonstrate that active immunization against VIP reduces neuronal recruitment, inhibits reproduction, and induces molting, with no change in plasma prolactin levels. Thus, our observations suggest that VIP has a direct positive role in neuronal recruitment and reproduction in birds. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2516-2528, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Active immunization with glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide vaccine influences brain function and behaviour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J-Q; Wang, Y; Lin, N; Guo, Y-J; Sun, S-H; Zou, D-J

    2010-07-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is involved in the aetiology of obesity induced by overnutrition, and blocking GIP activity may be valuable to anti-obesity treatment. However, GIP and GIP receptor are closely related to various brain functions which have caused very little data to be published concerning this cerebral functionality after blocking GIP activity. Here, we showed that active vaccination of mature rats with GIP immunoconjugates [GIP-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH)] was associated with changes in body weight. Furthermore, we also observed significant changes in brain function and behaviour. Data indicated that GIP-KLH-immunized rats showed decreased spontaneous activity in the open field test, decreased cerebral glucose utilization assessed by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), and increased apoptosis and proliferation of hippocampal granule cells marked by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) or proliferating cell nuclear antigen method. In conclusion, we have shown that vaccine-induced antibodies inhibited GIP activity in vivo and led to significant changes in brain function and behaviour, which underscore the need to address any potential problems GIP-targeted immunotherapy may involve in further research.

  11. Aqueous two-phase system formation kinetics for elastin-like polypeptides of varying chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjie; Trabbic-Carlson, Kimberly; Albertorio, Fernando; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Cremer, Paul S

    2006-07-01

    The kinetics of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formation for elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) with defined chemical composition and chain length was investigated by dark field microscopy in an on-chip format with a linear temperature gradient. Scattering intensities from peptide solutions in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were recorded as a function of temperature and time, simultaneously. It was found that the formation of the ATPS for three ELPs of different molecular weights (36 075, 59 422, and 129 856 Da) in the absence of SDS followed a coalescence mechanism, and the rate constant and activation energy were independent of chain length. With the introduction of SDS into the ELP solutions, the rate constants were attenuated more strongly with increasing chain length. Moreover, the coalescence process in the presence of SDS showed non-Arrhenius kinetics as a function of temperature. For the two shorter ELPs, ATPS formation occurred via coalescence at all SDS concentrations and temperatures investigated. On the other hand, the coalescence process was greatly suppressed for the longest ELP at elevated temperatures and higher SDS concentrations. Under these circumstances, ATPS formation was forced to proceed via a mixed Ostwald ripening and coalescence mechanism.

  12. Maternally Sequestered Therapeutic Polypeptides – A New Approach for the Management of Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eGeorge

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The last several decades have seen intensive research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the symptoms of preeclampsia. While the underlying cause of preeclampsia is believed to be defective placental development and resulting placental ischemia, it is only recently that the links between the ischemic placenta and maternal symptomatic manifestation have been elucidated. Several different pathways have been implicated in the development of the disorder; most notably production of the anti-angiogenic protein sFlt-1, induction of auto-immunity and inflammation, and production of reactive oxygen species. While the molecular mechanisms are becoming clearer, translating that knowledge into effective therapeutics has proven elusive. Here we describe a number of peptide based therapies we have developed to target theses pathways, and which are currently being tested in preclinical models. These therapeutics are based on a synthetic polymeric carrier elastin-like polypeptide (ELP, which can be synthesized in various sequences and sizes to stabilize the therapeutic peptide and avoid crossing the placental interface. This prevents fetal exposure and potential developmental effects. The therapeutics designed will target known pathogenic pathways, and the ELP carrier could prove to be a versatile delivery system for administration of a variety of therapeutics during pregnancy.

  13. Islet Amyloid Polypeptide Is a Target Antigen for Diabetogenic CD4+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, Thomas; Baker, Rocky L.; Reisdorph, Nichole; Reisdorph, Richard; Powell, Roger L.; Armstrong, Michael; Barbour, Gene; Bradley, Brenda; Haskins, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate autoantigens in β-cells, we have used a panel of pathogenic T-cell clones that were derived from the NOD mouse. Our particular focus in this study was on the identification of the target antigen for the highly diabetogenic T-cell clone BDC-5.2.9. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To purify β-cell antigens, we applied sequential size exclusion chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to membrane preparations of β-cell tumors. The presence of antigen was monitored by measuring the interferon-γ production of BDC-5.2.9 in response to chromatographic fractions in the presence of NOD antigen-presenting cells. Peak antigenic fractions were analyzed by ion-trap mass spectrometry, and candidate proteins were further investigated through peptide analysis and, where possible, testing of islet tissue from gene knockout mice. RESULTS Mass-spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in antigen-containing fractions. Confirmation of IAPP as the antigen target was demonstrated by the inability of islets from IAPP-deficient mice to stimulate BDC-5.2.9 in vitro and in vivo and by the existence of an IAPP-derived peptide that strongly stimulates BCD-5.2.9. CONCLUSIONS IAPP is the target antigen for the diabetogenic CD4 T-cell clone BDC-5.2.9. PMID:21734016

  14. Polypeptide-Nanoparticle Interactions and Corona Formation Investigated by Monte Carlo Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Carnal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biomacromolecule activity is usually related to its ability to keep a specific structure. However, in solution, many parameters (pH, ionic strength and external compounds (polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles can modify biomacromolecule structure as well as acid/base properties, thus resulting in a loss of activity and denaturation. In this paper, the impact of neutral and charged nanoparticles (NPs is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations on polypeptide (PP chains with primary structure based on bovine serum albumin. The influence of pH, salt valency, and NP surface charge density is systematically studied. It is found that the PP is extended at extreme pH, when no complex formation is observed, and folded at physiological pH. PP adsorption around oppositely-charged NPs strongly limits chain structural changes and modifies its acid/base properties. At physiological pH, the complex formation occurs only with positively-charged NPs. The presence of salts, in particular those with trivalent cations, introduces additional electrostatic interactions, resulting in a mitigation of the impact of negative NPs. Thus, the corona structure is less dense with locally-desorbed segments. On the contrary, very limited impact of salt cation valency is observed when NPs are positive, due to the absence of competitive effects between multivalent cations and NP.

  15. Myc-oncogene inactivating effect by proline rich polypeptide (PRP-1) in chondrosarcoma JJ012 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galoian, Karina; Scully, Sean; Galoyan, Armen

    2009-02-01

    Proline rich polypeptide (PRP-1) produced by NPV and NSO cells is released into the general circulation and exerts its effect on the activity of immunocompetent and neuronal cells. PRP-1 is a unique regulator of hematopoiesis, stimulator of bone-marrow hematogenesis. Taking into consideration our preliminary data on antitumor and unique diverse biological properties of PRP-1 previously described by Galoyan et al., we proceeded with investigation of the PRP-1 effect on chondrosarcoma, the second most common malignancy in bone, which tends to be locally invasive and then metastatic. Currently it does not have any effective treatment and does not respond either to radiation or chemotherapy, leaving surgical resection as the only option. Our experimental results of PRP-1 action on human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cells demonstrated inactivation, abolishment of Myc oncogene activity usually upregulated in chondrosarcoma cells and other malignancies. The fact that addition of PRP-1 caused drastic inactivation of Myc-luc response element to the control level in human chondrosarcoma JJ012 cell line prompts to investigate further this neuropeptides powerful antioncogenic potential, opening up possibilities to consider PRP-1 as a potential therapeutic tool for chondrosarcoma treatment.

  16. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide: from pathophysiology to therapeutic opportunities in obesity-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschetta, E; Hvalryg, M; Musso, G

    2011-10-01

    Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a hormone secreted from the intestinal K-cells with established insulin-releasing actions. However, the GIP receptor is widely distributed in peripheral organs, including the adipose tissue, gut, bone and brain, where GIP modulates energy intake, cell metabolism and proliferation, and lipid and glucose metabolism, eventually promoting lipid and glucose storage. In diabetes and obesity, the incretin effect of GIP is blunted, while the extrapancreatic tissues keep a normal sensitivity to this hormone. As GIP levels are normal or elevated in obesity and diabetes, mounting evidence from chemical or genetic GIP deletion in animal models of obesity-related diabetes suggests that GIP may have a pro-obesogenic action and that a strategy antagonizing GIP action may be beneficial in these conditions, clearing triglyceride deposits from adipose tissue, liver and muscle, and restoring normal insulin sensitivity. Emerging evidence also suggests that the metabolic benefits of bypass surgery are mediated, at least in part, by surgical removal of GIP-secreting K-cells in the upper small intestine. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  17. Methylated mono- and di(ethylene glycol)-functionalized beta-sheet forming polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J; Deming, T J

    2001-01-01

    We have synthesized methylated mono- and di(ethylene glycol)-functionalized polymers of L-serine and L-cysteine that adopt beta-sheet conformations in the solid state: poly(O-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-L-serine), poly(1); poly(O-(2-(methoxy)ethyl)-L-serine), poly(2); and poly(S-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)carbonyl-L-cysteine), poly(3). Of these three polymers, only poly(1) was found to be highly soluble in water independent of pH. Circular dichroism analysis of poly(1) in water or trifluoroethanol at 25 degrees C revealed that it is in a random conformation, which was unperturbed by changes in pH, buffer, or temperature. However, addition of methanol or acetonitrile to aqueous solutions of poly(1) resulted in a transition to the beta-sheet conformation, as found in the solid state. The polymers were synthesized by transition metal catalyzed polymerization of amino acid-N-carboxyanhydrides, prepared from the functionalized amino acids and represent a new class of readily processable beta-sheet forming polypeptides.

  18. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide directly induces glucose transport in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; Nelson, Emery M; Dyck, David J; Wright, David C; Holloway, Graham P

    2015-08-01

    Several gastrointestinal proteins have been identified to have insulinotropic effects, including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); however, the direct effects of incretins on skeletal muscle glucose transport remain largely unknown. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the role of GIP on skeletal muscle glucose transport and insulin signaling in rats. Relative to a glucose challenge, a mixed glucose+lipid oral challenge increased circulating GIP concentrations, skeletal muscle Akt phosphorylation, and improved glucose clearance by ∼35% (P muscle preparation, GIP directly stimulated glucose transport and increased GLUT4 accumulation on the plasma membrane in the absence of insulin. Moreover, the ability of GIP to stimulate glucose transport was mitigated by the addition of the PI 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin, suggesting that signaling through PI3K is required for these responses. We also provide evidence that the combined stimulatory effects of GIP and insulin on soleus muscle glucose transport are additive. However, the specific GIP receptor antagonist (Pro(3))GIP did not attenuate GIP-stimulated glucose transport, suggesting that GIP is not signaling through its classical receptor. Together, the current data provide evidence that GIP regulates skeletal muscle glucose transport; however, the exact signaling mechanism(s) remain unknown. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Recent Developments of Engineered Translational Machineries for the Incorporation of Non-Canonical Amino Acids into Polypeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaka, Naohiro; Iwane, Yoshihiko; Geiermann, Anna-Skrollan; Goto, Yuki; Suga, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Genetic code expansion and reprogramming methodologies allow us to incorporate non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) bearing various functional groups, such as fluorescent groups, bioorthogonal functional groups, and post-translational modifications, into a desired position or multiple positions in polypeptides both in vitro and in vivo. In order to efficiently incorporate a wide range of ncAAs, several methodologies have been developed, such as orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase (AARS)–tRNA pairs, aminoacylation ribozymes, frame-shift suppression of quadruplet codons, and engineered ribosomes. More recently, it has been reported that an engineered translation system specifically utilizes an artificially built genetic code and functions orthogonally to naturally occurring counterpart. In this review we summarize recent advances in the field of ribosomal polypeptide synthesis containing ncAAs. PMID:25803109

  20. Induction of insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide production in pancreatic islet glucagonoma cells by insulin promoter factor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, P; Jensen, J; Andersen, F G

    1996-01-01

    ) 371, 606-609]. In adults, IPF1 expression is restricted to the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans. We report here that IPF1 induces expression of a subset of beta-cell-specific genes (insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide) when ectopically expressed in clones of transformed pancreatic islet alpha...... in both alpha- and beta-cells. We conclude that IPF1 is a potent transcriptional activator of endogenous insulin genes in non-beta islet cells, which suggests an important role of IPF1 in beta-cell maturation.......-cells. In contrast, expression of IPF1 in rat embryo fibroblasts factor failed to induce insulin and islet amyloid polypeptide expression. This is most likely due to the lack of at least one other essential insulin gene transcription factor, the basic helix-loop-helix protein Beta 2/NeuroD, which is expressed...

  1. UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Identification and separation of two distinct transferase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T; White, T; Wandall, H H

    1995-01-01

    Using a defined acceptor substrate peptide as an affinity chromatography ligand we have developed a purification scheme for a unique human polypeptide, UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-transferase) (White, T., Bennett, E.P., Takio, K., Sørensen, T., Bonding, N......., and Clausen, H. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 24156-24165). Here we report detailed studies of the acceptor substrate specificity of GalNAc-transferase purified by this scheme as well as the Gal-NAc-transferase activity, which, upon repeated affinity chromatography, evaded purification by this affinity ligand....... Using a panel of acceptor peptides, a qualitative difference in specificity between these separated transferase activities in four rat organs and two human organs also revealed qualitative differences in specificity. The results support the existence of multiple Gal-NAc-transferase activities...

  2. Cellulose-binding polypeptides from Cellulomonas fimi: endoglucanase D (CenD), a family A beta-1,4-glucanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, A; Gilkes, N R; Kilburn, D G; Miller, R C; Warren, R A

    1993-01-01

    Five cellulose-binding polypeptides were detected in Cellulomonas fimi culture supernatants. Two of them are CenA and CenB, endo-beta-1,4-glucanases which have been characterized previously; the other three were previously uncharacterized polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of 120, 95, and 75 kDa. The 75-kDa cellulose-binding protein was designated endoglucanase D (CenD). The cenD gene was cloned and sequenced. It encodes a polypeptide of 747 amino acids. Mature CenD is 708 amino acids long and has a predicted molecular mass of 74,982 Da. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence of CenD shows that the enzyme comprises four domains which are separated by short linker polypeptides: an N-terminal catalytic domain of 405 amino acids, two repeated sequences of 95 amino acids each, and a C-terminal domain of 105 amino acids which is > 50% identical to the sequences of cellulose-binding domains in Cex, CenA, and CenB from C. fimi. Amino acid sequence comparison placed the catalytic domain of CenD in family A, subtype 1, of beta-1,4-glycanases. The repeated sequences are more than 40% identical to the sequences of three repeats in CenB and are related to the repeats of fibronectin type III. CenD hydrolyzed the beta-1,4-glucosidic bond with retention of anomeric configuration. The activities of CenD towards various cellulosic substrates were quite different from those of CenA and CenB. Images PMID:8458833

  3. Transgenic Rescue of Adipocyte Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Expression Restores High Fat Diet-induced Body Weight Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass......, but it does not support a direct and independent role for the adipocyte or beta-cell GIPr in promoting adipogenesis....

  4. Expression and biological activity of two recombinant polypeptides related to subunit 1 of the interferon-a receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yoon

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal production of interferon alpha (IFN-a has been found in certain autoimmune diseases and can be also observed after prolonged therapy with IFN-a. IFN-a can contribute to the pathogenesis of allograft rejection in bone marrow transplants. Therefore, the development of IFN-a inhibitors as a soluble receptor protein may be valuable for the therapeutic control of these diseases. We have expressed two polypeptides encoding amino acids 93-260 (P1 and 261-410 (P2 of the extracellular domain of subunit 1 of the interferon-a receptor (IFNAR 1-EC in E. coli. The activities of the recombinant polypeptides and of their respective antibodies were evaluated using antiproliferative and antiviral assays. Expression of P1 and P2 polypeptides was achieved by transformation of cloned plasmid pRSET A into E. coli BL21(DE3pLysS and by IPTG induction. P1 and P2 were purified by serial sonication steps and by gel filtration chromatography with 8 M urea and refolded by dialysis. Under reducing SDS-PAGE conditions, the molecular weight of P1 and P2 was 22 and 17 kDa, respectively. Polyclonal anti-P1 and anti-P2 antibodies were produced in mice. P1 and P2 and their respective polyclonal antibodies were able to block the antiproliferative activity of 6.25 nM IFN-aB on Daudi cells, but did not block IFN-aB activity at higher concentrations (>6.25 nM. On the other hand, the polypeptides and their respective antibodies did not inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-aB on Hep 2/c cells challenged with encephalomyocarditis virus.

  5. Spermine stimulation of a nuclear NII kinase from pea plumules and its role in the phosphorylation of a nuclear polypeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, N.; Schell, M. B.; Roux, S. J.

    1987-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that spermine stimulates the phosphorylation of a 47 kilodalton nuclear polypeptide from pea plumules (N Datta, LK Hardison, SJ Roux 1986 Plant Physiol 82: 681-684). In this paper we report that spermine stimulates the activity of a cyclic AMP independent casein kinase, partially purified from a chromatin fraction of pea plumule nuclei. This effect of spermine was substrate specific; i.e. with casein as substrate, spermine stimulated the kinase activity, and with phosvitin as substrate, spermine completely inhibited the activity. The stimulation by spermine of the casein kinase was, in part, due to the lowering of the Mg2+ requirement of the kinase. Heparin could partially inhibit this casein kinase activity and spermine completely overcame this inhibition. By further purification of the casein kinase extract on high performance liquid chromatography, we fractionated it into an NI and an NII kinase. Spermine stimulated the NII kinase by 5- to 6-fold but had no effect on the NI kinase. Using [gamma-32P]GTP, we have shown that spermine promotes the phosphorylation of the 47 kilodalton polypeptide(s) in isolated nuclei, at least in part by stimulating an NII kinase.

  6. Induction, immunochemical identity and immunofluorescence localization of an 80000-molecular-weight peroxisome-proliferation-associated polypeptide (polypeptide PPA-80) and peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase of mouse liver and renal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Narendra D.; Reddy, M. Kumudavalli; Mangkornkanok-Mark, Mai; Reddy, Janardan K.

    1981-01-01

    The hypolipidaemic drugs methyl clofenapate, BR-931, Wy-14643 and procetofen induced a marked proliferation of peroxisomes in the parenchymal cells of liver and the proximal-convoluted-tubular epithelium of mouse kidney. The proliferation of peroxisomes was associated with 6–12-fold increase in the peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidizing capacity of the mouse liver. Enhanced activity of the peroxisomal palmitoyl-CoA oxidation system was also found in the renal-cortical homogenates of hypolipidaemic-drug-treated mice. The activity of enoyl-CoA hydratase in the mouse liver increased 30–50-fold and in the kidney cortex 3–5-fold with hypolipidaemic-drug-induced peroxisome proliferation in these tissues, and over 95% of this induced activity was found to be heat-labile peroxisomal enzyme in both organs. Sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoretic analysis of large-particle and microsomal fractions obtained from the liver and kidney cortex of mice treated with hypolipidaemic peroxisome proliferators demonstrated a substantial increase in the quantity of an 80000-mol.wt. peroxisome-proliferation-associated polypeptide (polypeptide PPA-80). The heat-labile peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase was purified from the livers of mice treated with the hypolipidaemic drug methyl clofenapate; the antibodies raised against this electrophoretically homogeneous protein yielded a single immunoprecipitin band with purified mouse liver enoyl-CoA hydratase and with liver and kidney cortical extracts of normal and hypolipidaemic-drug-treated mice. These anti-(mouse liver enoyl-CoA hydratase) antibodies also cross-reacted with purified rat liver enoyl-CoA hydratase and with the polypeptide PPA-80 obtained from rat and mouse liver. Immunofluorescence studies with anti-(polypeptide PPA-80) and anti-(peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase) provided visual evidence for the localization and induction of polypeptide PPA-80 and peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase in the liver and kidney

  7. A Bio-Inspired Two-Layer Sensing Structure of Polypeptide and Multiple-Walled Carbon Nanotube to Sense Small Molecular Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chun; Su, Tseng-Hsiung; Ho, Cheng-Long; Yang, Shang-Ren; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Kuo, Han-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired, two-layer, multiple-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polypeptide composite sensing device. The MWCNT serves as a responsive and conductive layer, and the nonselective polypeptide (40 mer) coating the top of the MWCNT acts as a filter into which small molecular gases pass. Instead of using selective peptides to sense specific odorants, we propose using nonselective, peptide-based sensors to monitor various types of volatile organic compounds. In this study, depending on gas interaction and molecular sizes, the randomly selected polypeptide enabled the recognition of certain polar volatile chemical vapors, such as amines, and the improved discernment of low-concentration gases. The results of our investigation demonstrated that the polypeptide-coated sensors can detect ammonia at a level of several hundred ppm and barely responded to triethylamine. PMID:25751078

  8. A Bio-Inspired Two-Layer Sensing Structure of Polypeptide and Multiple-Walled Carbon Nanotube to Sense Small Molecular Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired, two-layer, multiple-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT-polypeptide composite sensing device. The MWCNT serves as a responsive and conductive layer, and the nonselective polypeptide (40 mer coating the top of the MWCNT acts as a filter into which small molecular gases pass. Instead of using selective peptides to sense specific odorants, we propose using nonselective, peptide-based sensors to monitor various types of volatile organic compounds. In this study, depending on gas interaction and molecular sizes, the randomly selected polypeptide enabled the recognition of certain polar volatile chemical vapors, such as amines, and the improved discernment of low-concentration gases. The results of our investigation demonstrated that the polypeptide-coated sensors can detect ammonia at a level of several hundred ppm and barely responded to triethylamine.

  9. Fructose induces glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon‐like peptide‐1 and insulin secretion: Role of adenosine triphosphate‐sensitive K+ channels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seino, Yusuke; Ogata, Hidetada; Maekawa, Ryuya; Izumoto, Takako; Iida, Atsushi; Harada, Norio; Miki, Takashi; Seino, Susumu; Inagaki, Nobuya; Tsunekawa, Shin; Oiso, Yutaka; Hamada, Yoji

    2015-01-01

    ...‐cells that secrete glucose‐dependent insulinotropic polypeptide ( GIP ) and glucagon‐like peptide‐1 ( GLP ‐1), respectively. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the K ATP channel in fructose...

  10. Murine and human antibodies to native DNA that cross-react with the A and D SnRNP polypeptides cause direct injury of cultured kidney cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koren, E; Koscec, M; Wolfson-Reichlin, M; Ebling, FM; Tsao, B; Hahn, BH; Reichlin, M

    1995-01-01

    .... Murine monoclonal and human affinity-purified Abs to native DNA (anti- nDNA) that cross-react with the A and D SnRNP polypeptides were analyzed for direct injurious effects against cultured pig kidney (PK15...

  11. Immunochemical identity of peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase with the peroxisome-proliferation -associated 80,000 mol wt polypeptide in rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, MK; Qreshi, SA; Hollenberg, PF; Reddy, JK

    1981-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators, which induce proliferation of hepatic peroxisomes, have been shown previously to cause a marked increase in an 80,000 mol wt polypeptide predominantly in the light mitochondrial and microsomal fractions of liver of rodents. We now present evidence to show that this hepatic peroxisome-proliferation-associated polypeptide, referred to as polypeptide PPA-80, is immunochemically identical with the multifunctional peroxisome protein displaying heat-labile enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. This conclusion is based on the following observations: (a) the purified polypeptide PPA-80 and the heat- labile enoyl-CoA hydratase from livers of rats treated with the peroxisome proliferators Wy-14,643 {[4-chloro-6(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio]acetic acid} exhibit identical minimum molecular weights of approximately 80,000 on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; (b) these two proteins are immunochemically identical on the basis of ouchterlony double diffusion, immunotitration, rocket immunoelectrophoresis, and crossed immunoelectrophoresis analysis; and (c) the immunoprecipitates formed by antibodies to polypeptide PPA-80 when dissociated on a sephadex G-200 column yield enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. Whether the polypeptide PPA-80 exhibits the activity of other enzyme(s) of the peroxisomal β-oxidation system such as fatty acyl-CoA oxidase activity or displays immunochemical identity with such enzymes remains to be determined. The availability of antibodies to polypeptide PPA-80 and enoyl-CoA hydratase facilitated immunofluorescent and immunocytochemical localization of the polypeptide PPA- 80 and enoyl-CoA hydratase in the rat liver. The indirect immunofluorescent studies with these antibodies provided direct visual evidence for the marked induction of polypeptide PPA-80 and enoyl-CoA hydratase in the livers of rats treated with Wy-14,643. The present studies also provide immunocytochemical evidence for the localization of polypeptide PPA- 80 and the

  12. Phase-specific polypeptides and poly(A) sup + RNAs during the cell cycle in synchronous cultures of Catharanthus roseus cells

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    Kodama, Hiroaki; Komamine, Atsushi (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)); Kawakami, Naoto; Watanabe, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1989-03-01

    This study shows an overall analysis of gene expression during the cell cycle in synchronous suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus cells. First, the cellular cytoplasmic proteins were fractionated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and visualized by staining with silver. Seventeen polypeptides showed qualitative or quantitative changes during the cell cycle. Second, the rates of synthesis of cytoplasmic proteins were also investigated by autoradiography by labeling cells with ({sup 35}S)methionine at each phase of the cell cycle. The rates of synthesis of 13 polypeptides were found to vary during the cell cycle. The silver-stained electrophoretic pattern of proteins in the G{sub 2} phase in particular showed characteristic changes in levels of polypeptides, while the rates of synthesis of polypeptides synthesized during the G{sub 2} phase did not show such phase-specific changes. This result suggest that posttranslational processing of polypeptides occurs during or prior to the G{sub 2} phase. In the G{sub 1} and S phases and during cytokinesis, several other polypeptides were specifically synthesized. Finally, the variation of mRNAs was analyzed from the autoradiograms of in vitro translation products of poly(A){sup +} RNA isolated at each phase. Three poly(A){sup +} RNAs increased in amount from the G{sub 1} to the S phase and one poly(A){sup +} RNA increased preferentially from the G{sub 2} phase to cytokinesis.

  13. Chemical synthesis of a polypeptide backbone derived from the primary sequence of the cancer protein NY-ESO-1 enabled by kinetically controlled ligation and pseudoprolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul W R; Brimble, Margaret A

    2015-03-01

    The cancer protein NY-ESO-1 has been shown to be one of the most promising vaccine candidates although little is known about its cellular function. Using a chemical protein strategy, the 180 amino acid polypeptide, tagged with an arginine solubilizing tail, was assembled in a convergent manner from four unprotected peptide α-thioester peptide building blocks and one cysteinyl polypeptide, which were in turn prepared by Boc and Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) respectively. To facilitate the assembly by ligation chemistries, non-native cysteines were introduced as chemical handles into the polypeptide fragments; pseudoproline dipeptides and microwave assisted Fmoc SPPS were crucial techniques to prepare the challenging hydrophobic C-terminal fragment. Three sequential kinetically controlled ligations, which exploited the reactivity between peptide arylthioesters and peptide alkylthioesters, were then used in order to assemble the more tractable N-terminal region of NY-ESO-1. The ensuing 147 residue polypeptide thioester then underwent successful final native chemical ligation with the very hydrophobic C-terminal polypeptide bearing an N-terminal cysteine affording the 186 residue polypeptide as an advanced intermediate en route to the native NY-ESO-1 protein. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. INFLUENCE OF HUMIC NATURE SUBSTANCES (LG ON THE POLYPEPTIDE POLYMORPHISMS OF SOME GLYCINE MAX L. SORTS WITH DIFFERENT RESISTANCE TO DROUGHT

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    Ana BIRSAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The content and quality of proteins are genetically determined characters. Individual complex of soybean proteins determines the economic values of the species. In order to identify the particularities of plant response to humic compounds, the polypeptide spectrum of soybean proteins extracted from seeds of two varieties with different drought resistant was analysed. The comparative analysis of protein spectra of extracted proteins from beans of the control plants highlighted the presence of common polypeptides to both studied sorts, and the presence of specific polypeptides for each genotype with a varying amount share appreciated through colorant intensity and band dimension. Protein spectra included polypeptide bands with molecular mass comprised between 106 and 20 kDa. Notable qualitative differences between polypeptide pattern of genotype with medium resistance to drought (Horboveanca and those resistant (S4-04 were detected at the polypeptide level with Mr 104, 60, 43 kDa, present in resistant genotype and absent in medium resistant. Under our previous research was established that treatment of seeds with humic compound (LG significantly increase productivity of soybean plants growing under field conditions, which determined substantial changes in the protein content and enhance grain biomass. From the reported data we conclude that the chemical compounds such as humic compounds may influence production potential of soybean and resulted substantial changes in the protein complex of the plant.

  15. Interactions driving the collapse of islet amyloid polypeptide: Implications for amyloid aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Stephanie M.

    Human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP), also known as amylin, is a 37-residue intrinsically disordered hormone involved in glucose regulation and gastric emptying. The aggregation of hIAPP into amyloid fibrils is believed to play a causal role in type 2 diabetes. To date, not much is known about the monomeric state of hIAPP or how it undergoes an irreversible transformation from disordered peptide to insoluble aggregate. IAPP contains a highly conserved disulfide bond that restricts hIAPP(1-8) into a short ring-like structure: N_loop. Removal or chemical reduction of N_loop not only prevents cell response upon binding to the CGRP receptor, but also alters the mass per length distribution of hIAPP fibers and the kinetics of fibril formation. The mechanism by which N_loop affects hIAPP aggregation is not yet understood, but is important for rationalizing kinetics and developing potential inhibitors. By measuring end-to-end contact formation rates, Vaiana et al. showed that N_loop induces collapsed states in IAPP monomers, implying attractive interactions between N_loop and other regions of the disordered polypeptide chain . We show that in addition to being involved in intra-protein interactions, the N_loop is involved in inter-protein interactions, which lead to the formation of extremely long and stable beta-turn fibers. These non-amyloid fibers are present in the 10 muM concentration range, under the same solution conditions in which hIAPP forms amyloid fibers. We discuss the effect of peptide cyclization on both intra- and inter-protein interactions, and its possible implications for aggregation. Our findings indicate a potential role of N_loop-N_loop interactions in hIAPP aggregation, which has not previously been explored. Though our findings suggest that N_loop plays an important role in the pathway of amyloid formation, other naturally occurring IAPP variants that contain this structural feature are incapable of forming amyloids. For example, hIAPP readily

  16. Protein kinase C affects the internalization and recycling of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mei; Hong, Weifang; Ni, Chunxu; Huang, Jiujiu; Zhou, Chao

    2015-10-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides are members of the solute carrier (SLC) family and key determinants for the transmembrane transport of a wide variety of compounds. OATP1B1 is predominantly expressed at the basolateral membrane of human hepatocytes and play an important role in drug clearance from the body. It has been demonstrated to be responsible for the hepatic uptake of various drugs. Computer-based hydropathy analysis predicted several putative phosphorylation sites at the amino and carboxyl termini and at intracellular loop 3 of OATP family members. Therefore, their transport functions may be regulated by phosphorylation. Previous studies have demonstrated that uptake function of OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 is regulated by protein kinase C (PKC). In the present study, we treated HEK293 cells stably expressing OATP1B1 with different PKC modulators and measured their transport activity for prototypic substrate estrone-3-sulfate. It was found that OATP1B1 uptake function was reduced upon PKC activation. Further studies indicated that PKC may affect OATP1B1 activity through regulation of the cell surface protein level. Moreover, we found out that PKC activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) not only affects the internalization of OATP1B1 but its recycling as well. Immunocytochemistry analysis revealed that internalized OATP1B1 co-localized with early and recycling endosomal markers and the co-localization of OATP1B1 with recycling endosome is dependent on PKC activation. Taken together, our present study demonstrated that PKC regulates the function of OATP1B1 by affecting internalization and recycling of the transporter protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the role of insect hemolymph polypeptides: Galleria mellonella anionic peptide 2 and lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa-Jasiłek, Aneta; Zdybicka-Barabas, Agnieszka; Stączek, Sylwia; Wydrych, Jerzy; Mak, Paweł; Jakubowicz, Teresa; Cytryńska, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    The lysozymes are well known antimicrobial polypeptides exhibiting antibacterial and antifungal activities. Their antibacterial potential is related to muramidase activity and non-enzymatic activity resembling the mode of action of cationic defense peptides. However, the mechanisms responsible for fungistatic and/or fungicidal activity of lysozyme are still not clear. In the present study, the anti-Candida albicans activity of Galleria mellonella lysozyme and anionic peptide 2 (AP2), defense factors constitutively present in the hemolymph, was examined. The lysozyme inhibited C. albicans growth in a dose-dependent manner. The decrease in the C. albicans survival rate caused by the lysozyme was accompanied by a considerable reduction of the fungus metabolic activity, as revealed by LIVE/DEAD staining. In contrast, although AP2 reduced C. albicans metabolic activity, it did not influence its survival rate. Our results suggest fungicidal action of G. mellonella lysozyme and fungistatic activity of AP2 toward C. albicans cells. In the presence of AP2, the anti-C. albicans activity of G. mellonella lysozyme increased. Moreover, when the fungus was incubated with both defense factors, true hyphae were observed besides pseudohyphae and yeast-like C. albicans cells. Atomic force microscopy analysis of the cells exposed to the lysozyme and/or AP2 revealed alterations in the cell surface topography and properties in comparison with the control cells. The results indicate synergistic action of G. mellonella AP2 and lysozyme toward C. albicans. The presence of both factors in the hemolymph of naive larvae suggests their important role in the early stages of immune response against fungi in G. mellonella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of denaturants on the dynamics of loop formation in polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscaglia, Marco; Lapidus, Lisa J; Eaton, William A; Hofrichter, James

    2006-07-01

    Quenching of the triplet state of tryptophan by close contact with cysteine has been used to measure the reaction-limited and diffusion-limited rates of loop formation in disordered polypeptides having the sequence cys-(ala-gly-gln)j-trp (j=1-9). The decrease in the length-dependence of the reaction-limited rate for short chains in aqueous buffer, previously attributed to chain stiffness, is not observed at high concentrations of chemical denaturant (6 M GdmCl and 8 M urea), showing that denaturants increase chain flexibility. For long chains, both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited rates are significantly smaller in denaturant and exhibit a steeper length dependence. The results can be explained using end-to-end distributions from a wormlike chain model in which excluded volume interactions are incorporated by associating a 0.4-0.5 nm diameter hard sphere with the end of each virtual peptide bond. Fitting the data with this model shows that the denaturants reduce the persistence length from approximately 0.6 nm to approximately 0.4 nm, only slightly greater than the length of a peptide bond. The same model also describes the reported length dependence for the radii of gyration of chemically denatured proteins containing 50-400 residues. The end-to-end diffusion coefficients obtained from the diffusion-limited rates are smaller than the sum of the monomer diffusion coefficients and exhibit significant temperature dependence, suggesting that diffusion is slowed by internal friction arising from barriers to backbone conformational changes.

  19. Macrophages Promote Progression of Spasmolytic Polypeptide-Expressing Metaplasia Following Acute Loss of Parietal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christine P.; Weis, Victoria G.; Nam, Ki Taek; Sousa, Josane F.; Fingleton, Barbara; Goldenring, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Loss of parietal cells causes the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM), through transdifferentiation of chief cells. In the presence of inflammation, SPEM can advance into a more proliferative metaplasia with increased expression of intestine-specific transcripts. We used L635 to induce acute SPEM with inflammation in mice and investigated the roles of inflammatory cells in the development of SPEM. Methods To study the adaptive immune system, Rag1 knockout (Rag1KO), interferon g-deficient (IFNgKO), and wild type (control) mice received L635 for 3 days. To study the innate immune system, macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Neutrophils were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against Ly6G 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Pathology and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine depletion efficiency, metaplasia, and proliferation. To characterize SPEM in each model, gastric tissues were collected and levels of Cftr, Dmbt1, and Gpx2 mRNAs were measured. Markers of macrophage polarization were used to identify subpopulations of macrophages recruited to the gastric mucosa. Results Administration of L635 to Rag1KO, IFNgKO, and neutrophil-depleted mice led to development of proliferative SPEM and upregulation of intestine-specific transcripts in SPEM cells, similar to controls. However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, and expression of intestine-specific transcripts, compared with control mice given L635. In mice given L635, as well as patients with intestinal metaplasia, M2 macrophages were the primary inflammatory component. Conclusion Results from studies of mouse models and human metaplastic tissues indicate that M2 macrophages promote the advancement of SPEM in the presence of inflammation. PMID:24534633

  20. Macrophages promote progression of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia after acute loss of parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Christine P; Weis, Victoria G; Nam, Ki Taek; Sousa, Josane F; Fingleton, Barbara; Goldenring, James R

    2014-06-01

    Loss of parietal cells causes the development of spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia (SPEM) through transdifferentiation of chief cells. In the presence of inflammation, SPEM can advance into a more proliferative metaplasia with increased expression of intestine-specific transcripts. We used L635 to induce acute SPEM with inflammation in mice and investigated the roles of inflammatory cells in the development of SPEM. To study the adaptive immune system, Rag1 knockout, interferon-γ-deficient, and wild-type (control) mice received L635 for 3 days. To study the innate immune system, macrophages were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of clodronate liposomes 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Neutrophils were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of an antibody against Ly6G 2 days before and throughout L635 administration. Pathology and immunohistochemical analyses were used to determine depletion efficiency, metaplasia, and proliferation. To characterize SPEM in each model, gastric tissues were collected and levels of Cftr, Dmbt1, and Gpx2 mRNAs were measured. Markers of macrophage polarization were used to identify subpopulations of macrophages recruited to the gastric mucosa. Administration of L635 to Rag1 knockout, interferon-γ-deficient, and neutrophil-depleted mice led to development of proliferative SPEM and up-regulation of intestine-specific transcripts in SPEM cells, similar to controls. However, macrophage-depleted mice given L635 showed significant reductions in numbers of SPEM cells, SPEM cell proliferation, and expression of intestine-specific transcripts, compared with control mice given L635. In mice given L635, as well as patients with intestinal metaplasia, M2 macrophages were the primary inflammatory component. Results from studies of mouse models and human metaplastic tissues indicate that M2 macrophages promote the advancement of SPEM in the presence of inflammation. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by