WorldWideScience

Sample records for cyanobacterial system presentation

  1. Cyanobacterial hydrogenases and biohydrogen: present status and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, P.; Tamagnini, P.

    2000-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) is an environmentally clean energy-carrier that may be a valuable alternative to the limited fossil fuel resources of today. For photobiological H 2 production, photosynthetic cyanobacteria are among the ideal candidates since they have the simplest nutritional requirements: they can grow in air (N 2 and CO 2 ), water (electrons and reductant), and mineral salts with light (solar energy) as the only source of energy. In N 2 -fixing cyanobacteria, H 2 is mainly produced by nitrogenases, but its partial consumption is quickly catalyzed by a unidirectional uptake hydrogenase. In addition, a bidirectional (reversible) enzyme may also oxidize some of the molecular hydrogen. The same enzyme will, under certain conditions, evolve H 2 Filamentous cyanobacteria have been used in bioreactors for the photobiological conversion of water to hydrogen. However, the conversion efficiencies achieved are low because the net H 2 production is the result of H 2 evolution via a nitrogenase and H 2 consumption mainly via an uptake hydrogenase. Consequently, the improvements of the conversion efficiencies are achieved e.g. through the optimization of the conditions for H 2 evolution by nitrogenase, through the production of mutants deficient in H 2 uptake activity and by an increased H 2 -evolution by a bidirectional enzyme. Symbiotic cells are of fundamental interest since they in situ 'function as a bioreactor', High metabolism, transfer of metabolite(s) from symbiont to host but almost no growth. In the present communication we will present the general knowledge about hydrogen metabolism/hydrogenases in filamentous cyanobacteria focusing on recent advances using molecular techniques, outline strategies for improving the capacity of H 2 -production by filamentous strains, and stress the importance of international cooperations and networks. (author)

  2. Review of 130 years of research on cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems in Serbia presented in a Serbian Cyanobacterial Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Svirčev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of toxic cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems in the territory of the Republic of Serbia was surveyed over a period of several decades. Increasing attention is being paid to some negative consequences that may be caused by these microorganisms. Information from available literary sources regarding the distribution and frequency of cyanobacteria and their toxins over a period of 130 years, together with the effects on humans and wildlife in aquatic ecosystems, were gathered and incorporated into a Serbian Cyanobacterial Database created for the CYANOCOST Action. This database encompasses information on 65 aquatic ecosystems, including rivers, lakes, ponds, canals, irrigation reservoirs, reservoirs used for drinking water supply and reservoirs used for other purposes. Cyanobacterial blooms were found in almost 80% of the investigated aquatic ecosystems. The analysis of the research showed the presence of more than 70 species, including blooms of 24 species from 13 genera. Five species of cyanobacteria: Microcystis aeruginosa, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Planktothrix agardhii, Microcystis flos-aquae and Planktothrix rubescens frequently formed blooms in the investigated waterbodies and cyanotoxins were also detected in some of them, which had certain negative effects. Here, we present an overview of data contained in the Serbian Cyanobacterial Database, concerning cyanobacterial distribution, cyanotoxin production and associated biological effects in different types of water bodies from the Republic of Serbia. Also, recent important and major cases of cyanobacterial blooming in reservoirs used for drinking water supply: at Vrutci and Ćelije, the Aleksandrovac irrigation reservoir, the Ponjavica River and Lake Palić, including systematic research on the Lake Ludoš and few fishponds are further described. It can be concluded that cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins are omnipresent in different water bodies throughout the Republic of Serbia

  3. Hydrogen from Water in a Novel Recombinant Cyanobacterial System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyman, Philip D [J. Craig Venter Institute; Smith, Hamillton O.

    2014-12-03

    Photobiological processes are attractive routes to renewable H2 production. With the input of solar energy, photosynthetic microbes such as cyanobacteria and green algae carry out oxygenic photosynthesis, using sunlight energy to extract protons and high energy electrons from water. These protons and high energy electrons can be fed to a hydrogenase system yielding H2. However, most hydrogen-evolving hydrogenases are inhibited by O2, which is an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. The rate of H2 production is thus limited. Certain photosynthetic bacteria are reported to have an O2-tolerant evolving hydrogenase, yet these microbes do not split water, and require other more expensive feedstocks. To overcome these difficulties, the goal of this work has been to construct novel microbial hybrids by genetically transferring O2-tolerant hydrogenases from other bacteria into a class of photosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria. These hybrid organisms will use the photosynthetic machinery of the cyanobacterial hosts to perform the water-oxidation reaction with the input of solar energy, and couple the resulting protons and high energy electrons to the O2-tolerant bacterial hydrogenase, all within the same microbe (Fig. 1). The ultimate goal of this work has been to overcome the sensitivity of the hydrogenase enzyme to O2 and address one of the key technological hurdles to cost-effective photobiological H2 production which currently limits the production of hydrogen in algal systems. In pursuit of this goal, work on this project has successfully completed many subtasks leading to a greatly increased understanding of the complicated [NiFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. At the beginning of this project, [NiFe] hydrogenases had never been successfully moved across wide species barriers and had never been heterologously expressed in cyanobacteria. Furthermore, the idea that whole, functional genes could be extracted from complicated, mixed-sequence meta-genomes was not

  4. Removal of cyanobacterial bloom from a biopond-wetland system and the associated response of zoobenthic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang

    2010-06-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial bloom in water bodies frequently occurs due to eutrophication, leading to the excessive growth of cyanobacteria which in turn may lead to a decrease in biodiversity. A biopond-wetland system to control cyanobacterial bloom and stabilize or even increase biodiversity is proposed and applied in a pond, Kunming, western China where cyanobacterial blooms frequently break out. The biopond-wetland system examined includes three main parts: filter-feeding fish, replanted pond macrophytes, and a terminal artificial wetland. When the hydraulic load of the biopond-wetland system was 500m(3)/d on non-rainy days, the system successfully decreased the level of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a). The declining levels of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and ammonia in the water after establishing the biopond-wetland system also coincided with the disappearance of the cyanobacterial bloom. In the second summer, when the biopond-wetland system was in a relatively steady-state condition, the overall average nutrient removal efficiencies were as follows, Chl-a (83%), TN (57%), TP (70%) and ammonia (66%), while in the second winter, the overall average removal efficiencies were Chl-a (66%), TN (40%), TP (53%) and ammonia (49%). Simpson's diversity index of zoobenthos indicated that the system increased the zoobenthic diversity and improved the growth conditions of the zoobenthos habitat. The results demonstrated that the biopond-wetland system could control cyanobacterial blooms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Final Technical Report - Use of Systems Biology Approaches to Develop Advanced Biofuel-Synthesizing Cyanobacterial Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakrasi, Himadri [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The overall objective of this project was to use a systems biology approach to evaluate the potentials of a number of cyanobacterial strains for photobiological production of advanced biofuels and/or their chemical precursors. Cyanobacteria are oxygen evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes. Among them, certain unicellular species such as Cyanothece can also fix N2, a process that is exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. To accommodate such incompatible processes in a single cell, Cyanothece produces oxygen during the day, and creates an O2-limited intracellular environment during the night to perform O2-sensitive processes such as N2-fixation. Thus, Cyanothece cells are natural bioreactors for the storage of captured solar energy with subsequent utilization at a different time during a diurnal cycle. Our studies include the identification of a novel, fast-growing, mixotrophic, transformable cyanobacterium. This strain has been sequenced and will be made available to the community. In addition, we have developed genome-scale models for a family of cyanobacteria to assess their metabolic repertoire. Furthermore, we developed a method for rapid construction of metabolic models using multiple annotation sources and a metabolic model of a related organism. This method will allow rapid annotation and screening of potential phenotypes based on the newly available genome sequences of many organisms.

  6. Structural studies of cyanobacterial PSII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Fonseca, Paula Cristina Alves

    2001-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is the photosynthetic transmembrane protein-pigment complex which utilises light energy to drive the splitting of water and release of oxygen, a unique reaction in biological systems. The determination of the structure of PSII at high resolution is required in order to understand its mechanisms of reaction. For this reason, methods have been developed to purify highly active PSII complexes from the thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongate These complexes have been studied by high resolution electron microscopy, using both single particle analysis and electron crystallography. A 30A three-dimensional map of the cyanobacterial PSII complex was obtained by single particle analysis. The comparison of this map with structural data from the spinach PSII core dimer revealed that both complexes share similar overall size and shape. These data also allowed a discussion on the organisation and positioning of the extrinsic lumenal proteins within the cyanobacterial PSII complex. A Synechococcus elongatus PSII projection map, at a resolution of 20A, was determined by image processing of two-dimensional crystals formed by the in vitro reconstitution method. This was the first projection map obtained by electron crystallography of a cyanobacterial highly active PSII complex, with all the extrinsic subunits retained. The analysis of this map and its comparison with a 10A three-dimensional map recently obtained from the spinach PSII core dimer revealed a similar organisation of the main transmembrane subunits. Moreover, at the level of resolution of the present data it is possible to identify differences which can be related to the content and organisation of the small subunits forming the PSII complex from both organisms. Cytochrome b559, an important but incompletely understood PSII subunit, was purified and subjected to crystallisation trials in order to aid the interpretation of intermediate resolution PSII structural data. Small crystals were

  7. Voice integrated presentation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, N. S.

    1984-06-01

    An audiographic telephone conferencing system between a plurality of parties or users either directly connected or through a piece of apparatus known as a meet me bridge over voice grade telephone lines. Each user has a programmed personal computer which controls a programmable or smart modem, cassette recorder/player, and speakerphone. A protocol is implemented by the software, i.e., the computer program, in each of the computers which puts its respective modem in a listening mode to monitor the phone line at all times. The computer is further programmed and includes a memory for storing and transmitting graphics presently on hand to other user(s) via the modem during a teleconference or alternatively receive graphics from another user, or it can switch to an external graphics program to make new or modify existing graphic images. However, one is unable to speak on the telephone line while a graphic is being transmitted during a teleconference due to the fact that voice alternates with graphic transmissions.

  8. Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •We examined time-dependent metabolic changes in C. demersum exposed to anatoxin-a. •Biotransformation and antioxidative defense mechanisms responded positively to anatoxin-a. •Decline in chlorophylls contents was detected in company with irreversible plant growth inhibition during exposure to anatoxin-a. •Anatoxin-a exhibits phytotoxic allelopathy by provoking oxidative stress. •Macrophytes may have interactions with anatoxin-a in aquatic environments. -- Abstract: Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 μg/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8 h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H 2 O 2 , which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of

  9. Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Mi-Hee; Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: stephan.pflugmacher@tu-berlin.de

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •We examined time-dependent metabolic changes in C. demersum exposed to anatoxin-a. •Biotransformation and antioxidative defense mechanisms responded positively to anatoxin-a. •Decline in chlorophylls contents was detected in company with irreversible plant growth inhibition during exposure to anatoxin-a. •Anatoxin-a exhibits phytotoxic allelopathy by provoking oxidative stress. •Macrophytes may have interactions with anatoxin-a in aquatic environments. -- Abstract: Recently, aquatic macrophytes have been considered as promising tools for eco-friendly water management with a low running cost. However, only little information is available thus far regarding the metabolic capacity of macrophytes for coping with cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins) in the aquatic environment. Cyanotoxins have become emerging contaminants of great concern due to the high proliferation of cyanobacteria (cyanobacterial bloom) accelerated by eutrophication and climate change. Anatoxin-a, one of the common and major cyanotoxins, is suggested as a high priority water pollutant for regulatory consideration owing to its notoriously rapid mode of action as a neurotoxin. In this study, the time-course metabolic regulation of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) was investigated during exposure to anatoxin-a at an environmentally relevant concentration (15 μg/L). Biotransformation and antioxidative systems in C. demersum responded positively to anatoxin-a through the promoted synthesis of most of the involved enzymes within 8 h. Maximum enzyme activities were exhibited after 24 or 48 h of exposure to anatoxin-a. However, an apparent decline in enzyme activities was also observed at longer exposure duration (168 and 336 h) in company with high steady-state levels of cell internal H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which showed its highest level after 48 h. Meanwhile, irreversible inhibitory influence on chlorophyll content (vitality) was noticed, whereas the ratio of

  10. Presentation on systems cluster research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, George W.

    1989-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation presents an overview of systems cluster research performed by the Center for Space Construction. The goals of the research are to develop concepts, insights, and models for space construction and to develop systems engineering/analysis curricula for training future aerospace engineers. The following topics are covered: CSC systems analysis/systems engineering (SIMCON) model, CSC systems cluster schedule, system life-cycle, model optimization techniques, publications, cooperative efforts, and sponsored research.

  11. Dynamics of a cyanobacterial bloom in a hypereutrophic reservoir ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blooming and non-blooming periods between 2004 and 2006 in a hypereutrophic reservoir, where cyanobacterial blooms have previously been reported to be permanent, presented an opportunity to characterise factors that may favour cyanobacterial dominance. As a bloom developed in May 2004, a shift to dominance by ...

  12. Cyanobacterial chassis engineering for enhancing production of biofuels and chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xinyan; Sun, Tao; Pei, Guangsheng; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-04-01

    To reduce dependence on fossil fuels and curb greenhouse effect, cyanobacteria have emerged as an important chassis candidate for producing biofuels and chemicals due to their capability to directly utilize sunlight and CO2 as the sole energy and carbon sources, respectively. Recent progresses in developing and applying various synthetic biology tools have led to the successful constructions of novel pathways of several dozen green fuels and chemicals utilizing cyanobacterial chassis. Meanwhile, it is increasingly recognized that in order to enhance productivity of the synthetic cyanobacterial systems, optimizing and engineering more robust and high-efficient cyanobacterial chassis should not be omitted. In recent years, numerous research studies have been conducted to enhance production of green fuels and chemicals through cyanobacterial chassis modifications involving photosynthesis, CO2 uptake and fixation, products exporting, tolerance, and cellular regulation. In this article, we critically reviewed recent progresses and universal strategies in cyanobacterial chassis engineering to make it more robust and effective for bio-chemicals production.

  13. Hydrogen production by the engineered cyanobacterial strain Nostoc PCC 7120 ΔhupW examined in a flat panel photobioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Marcus; Heidorn, Thorsten; Lindblad, Peter

    2015-12-10

    Nitrogenase based hydrogen production was examined in a ΔhupW strain of the filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120, i.e., cells lacking the last step in the maturation system of the large subunit of the uptake hydrogenase and as a consequence with a non-functional uptake hydrogenase. The cells were grown in a developed flat panel photobioreactor system with 3.0L culture volume either aerobically (air) or anaerobically (Ar or 80% N2/20% Ar) and illuminated with a mixture of red and white LED. Aerobic growth of the ΔhupW strain of Nostoc PCC 7120 at 44μmolar photons m(-2)s(-1) PAR gave the highest hydrogen production of 0.7mL H2 L(-1)h(-1), 0.53mmol H2 mg chlorophyll a(-1)h(-1), and a light energy conversion efficiency of 1.2%. Anaerobic growth using 100% argon showed a maximal hydrogen production of 1.7mLL(-1)h(-1), 0.85mmol per mg chlorophyll a(-1) h(-1), and a light energy conversion efficiency of 2.7%. Altering between argon/N2 (20/80) and 100% argon phases resulted in a maximal hydrogen production at hour 128 (100% argon phase) with 6.2mL H2L(-1)h(-1), 0.71mL H2 mg chlorophyll a(-1)h(-1), and a light energy efficiency conversion of 4.0%. The highest buildup of hydrogen gas observed was 6.89% H2 (100% argon phase) of the total photobioreactor system with a maximal production of 4.85mL H2 L(-1)h(-1). The present study clearly demonstrates the potential to use purpose design cyanobacteria in developed flat panel photobioreactor systems for the direct production of the solar fuel hydrogen. Further improvements in the strain used, environmental conditions employed, and growth, production and collection systems used, are needed before a sustainable and economical cyanobacterial based hydrogen production can be realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The integration of nutrients, cyanobacterial biomass and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is an integrated evaluation of cyanobacterial growth and toxin production, from a reservoir through drinking water treatment - where biomass and toxin removal are achieved. Data is generated by a variety of methods: online instrumentation for chlorophyll, dissolved oxygen, temperature and pH; enzyme linked immune substrate (ELISA) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) methods for toxin analysis; microscopic methods for species identification; quantitative PCR methods for species identification; and bench-scale engineering studies for removal of toxins and biomass through drinking water treatment. This presentation is an integrated evaluation of cyanobacterial growth and toxin production, from a reservoir through drinking water treatment. The content will be useful for EPA regional office staff, state primacy personnel, state and local health personnel, drinking water treatment managers and consulting engineers.

  15. Cyanobacterial Toxin Degrading Bacteria: Who Are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Ar. Kormas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in nature and are both beneficial and detrimental to humans. Benefits include being food supplements and producing bioactive compounds, like antimicrobial and anticancer substances, while their detrimental effects are evident by toxin production, causing major ecological problems at the ecosystem level. To date, there are several ways to degrade or transform these toxins by chemical methods, while the biodegradation of these compounds is understudied. In this paper, we present a meta-analysis of the currently available 16S rRNA and mlrA (microcystinase genes diversity of isolates known to degrade cyanobacterial toxins. The available data revealed that these bacteria belong primarily to the Proteobacteria, with several strains from the sphingomonads, and one from each of the Methylobacillus and Paucibacter genera. Other strains belonged to the genera Arthrobacter, Bacillus, and Lactobacillus. By combining the ecological knowledge on the distribution, abundance, and ecophysiology of the bacteria that cooccur with toxic cyanobacterial blooms and newly developed molecular approaches, it is possible not only to discover more strains with cyanobacterial toxin degradation abilities, but also to reveal the genes associated with the degradation of these toxins.

  16. Remote sensing of the cyanobacterial pigment phycocyanin in turbid inland water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simis, S.G.H.; Peters, S.W.M.; Gons, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The pigment phycocyanin (PC) is a marker for cyanobacterial presence in eutrophic inland water. We present a reflectance band–ratio algorithm for retrieval of cyanobacterial PC. The model conforms to the band settings of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The parameters of the algorithm

  17. Health Risk Assessment for Cyanobacterial Toxins in Seafood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Humpage

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae are abundant in fresh, brackish and marine waters worldwide. When toxins produced by cyanobacteria are present in the aquatic environment, seafood harvested from these waters may present a health hazard to consumers. Toxicity hazards from seafood have been internationally recognised when the source is from marine algae (dinoflagellates and diatoms, but to date few risk assessments for cyanobacterial toxins in seafood have been presented. This paper estimates risk from seafood contaminated by cyanobacterial toxins, and provides guidelines for safe human consumption.

  18. Multilocus and SSU rRNA gene phylogenetic analyses of available cyanobacterial genomes, and their relation to the current taxonomic system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 811, č. 1 (2018), s. 19-34 ISSN 0018-8158 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11912S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : 16S rRNA * Cyanobacterial orders * Multilocus phylogeny Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  19. Monitoring tools and early warning system for harmful cyanobacterial blooms: Río Uruguay and Río de la Plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Kruk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Potentially hazardous cyanobacterial blooming constitutes one of the most widespread problems experienced by aquatic systems worldwide. However, there are not any monitoring methods sensitive enough to be directly applicable to predict and manage blooming events. In order to fulfill this goal, both ecological and genetic concepts were combined to generate cyanobacteria monitoring tools. Two approaches were used: grouping organisms into functional groups and utilizing molecular analysis (real time quantitative PCR as indicators of the presence of genes that encode the expression of cyanotoxins (mcy. Six bi-monthly sampling campaigns were performed to evaluate the suitability of these tools (2013-2014 at six locations composed of two sites each one, ranging downstream from Salto Grande, at the River Uruguay, to Punta del Este, at the Estuary River Plate. A remarkable gradient was observed in the meteorological, physical and chemical variables, as well as higher abundances in planktonic organisms both in Salto Grande and in Punta del Este. The most abundant population of toxic species in the whole gradient were found in Salto, and in particular those belonging to the Microcystis aeruginosa complex (MAC. The most relevant environmental variables to determine the gradient and the variation in biological variables were: salinity, temperature, wind and turbidity. The results of the new indicators (presence of MAC in the plankton net and mcy genes were in agreement with the traditional ones (v.g. chlorophyll-a demonstrating being much more sensitive in cases of the most severe blooming events than in the low abundance situations. The conjunction of results was applied to the construction of a monitoring and early warning system protocol.

  20. Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterial secondary metabolites a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, C.; Pflugmacher, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are one of the most diverse groups of gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes. Many of them are able to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites. These cyanobacterial toxins can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). Cyanobacterial blooms are hazardous due to this production of secondary metabolites and endotoxins, which could be toxic to animals and plants. Many of the freshwater cyanobacterial blooms include species of the toxigenic genera Microcystis, Anabaena, or Plankthotrix. These compounds differ in mechanisms of uptake, affected organs, and molecular mode of action. In this review, the main focus is the aquatic environment and the effects of these toxins to the organisms living there. Some basic toxic mechanisms will be discussed in comparison to the mammalian system

  1. Cyanobacterial mats and stromatolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.; Whitton, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are often the key organisms comprising microbial mats. They form dense micrometer-scale communities in which the full plethora of microbial metabolism can be present. Such mats are therefore excellent model systems and because of their analogy with Precambrian stromatolites they are

  2. The composition of the global and feature specific cyanobacterial core-genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eSimm

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes important for many ecosystems with a high potential for biotechnological usage e.g. in the production of bioactive molecules. Either asks for a deep understanding of the functionality of cyanobacteria and their interaction with the environment. This in part can be inferred from the analysis of their genomes or proteomes. Today, many cyanobacterial genomes have been sequenced and annotated. This information can be used to identify biological pathways present in all cyanobacteria as proteins involved in such processes are encoded by a so called core-genome. However, beside identification of fundamental processes, genes specific for certain cyanobacterial features can be identified by a holistic genome analysis as well. We identified 559 genes that define the core-genome of 58 analyzed cyanobacteria, as well as 3 genes likely to be signature genes for thermophilic and 57 genes likely to be signature genes for heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria. To get insights into cyanobacterial systems for the interaction with the environment we also inspected the diversity of the outer membrane proteome with focus on β-barrel proteins. We observed that most of the transporting outer membrane β-barrel proteins are not globally conserved in the cyanobacterial phylum. In turn, the occurrence of β-barrel proteins shows high strain specificity. The core set of outer membrane proteins globally conserved in cyanobacteria comprises three proteins only, namely the outer membrane β-barrel assembly protein Omp85, the lipid A transfer protein LptD and an OprB-type porin. Thus, we conclude that cyanobacteria have developed individual strategies for the interaction with the environment, while other intracellular processes like the regulation of the protein homeostasis are globally conserved.

  3. Absence of the glutamine-synthetase-linked methylammonium (ammonium)-transport system in the cyanobiont of Cycas-cyanobacterial symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, A N; Lindblad, P; Bergman, B

    1986-11-01

    Using the ammonium analogue (14)CH3NH 3 (+) , ammonium transport was studied in the cyanobiont cells freshly isolated from the root nodules of Cycas revoluta. An L-methionine-DL-sulphoximine (MSX)-insensitive ammonium-transport system, which was dependent on membrane potential (ΔΨ), was found in the cyanobiont. However, the cyanobiont was incapable of metabolizing exogenous (14)CH3NH 3 (+) or NH 4 (+) because of the absence of another ammonium-transport system responsible for the uptake of ammonium for assimilation via glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2). Such a modification seems to be the result of symbiosis because the free-living cultured isolate, Anabaena cycadeae, has been shown to possess both the ammonium-transport systems.

  4. Evaluation of phytotoxicity and ecotoxicity potentials of a cyanobacterial extract containing microcystins under realistic environmental concentrations and in a soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Sylvain; Mougin, Christian; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Crouzet, Olivier; Bru, David; Nélieu, Sylvie; Bouaïcha, Noureddine

    2015-06-01

    The impact of a crude extract of Microcystis aeruginosa (PCC7820) containing 14 microcystin variants was investigated on seeds germination and radicles development of four agricultural plants: two tomato varieties Solanum lycopersicum (MicroTom and Saint-Pierre), the wheat Triticum aestivum and the lettuce Lactuca sativa. In addition, the effect of 14 d-exposure to irrigation water containing realistic concentrations of microcystins (0-0.1 mg eq. microcystin-LRL(-1)) on the tomato MicroTom seedling growth was further evaluated on roots and aerial part biomasses. Impacts on soil bacterial parameters, as such extracellular enzymatic activities, nitrification activity and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms were also investigated. In germination-test, the cyanobacterial extract inhibited only the germination of the wheat seeds, with an EC50 of 11 mg eq. microcystin-LRL(-1); which is 13 times lower than that of the cadmium chloride (EC50 of 145 mg L(-1)). Moreover, the cyanobacterial extract containing low concentrations of microcystins increased the growth of primary roots; however, high concentrations decreased it for all plants except for the wheat. In the soil-plant approach, only aerial part biomass of the tomato MicroTom was enhanced significantly. In addition, only soil nitrification potential and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial abundances were consistently impacted. A significant positive correlation (r=0.56) was found between the increase of nitrification potential and abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. This work suggested, that exposure to a cyanobacterial extract containing realistic environmental microcystins concentrations could affect seed germination, depending plant species. It was also highlighted, for the first time, disturbances in soil bacteria functioning, evidences on soil nitrification process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) Systems (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassani, V.

    2000-06-18

    This presentation discusses the development and deployment of Modular Solar Electric Power (MSEP) systems, the feasibility of application of existing binary power cycles to solar trough technology, and identification of next action items.

  6. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Acute Adrenal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    hereby report such a case of SLE presenting as acute adrenal insufficiency. ... Kidney function tests, Liver function tests, serum calcium, and ... renal involvement. Patient was successfully managed with steroids and improved clinically. Keywords: Addison's disease, Autoimmune diseases, Systemic lupus erythematosus.

  7. Marine geophysical data management and presentation system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    The Geophysical Data Management and Presentation System (GPDMPS) constitutes an integral part of the large Geological Oceanographic Database (GODBASE) which is under development at the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC...

  8. Central nervous system tuberculomata presenting as internuclear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculoma can have variable presentation depending upon the site and number of tuberculomata. We are reporting a rare case of a 15 years old girl who presented to our hospital with binocular diplopia on right gaze. Clinical examination revealed left sided internuclear ophthalmoplegia ...

  9. Cyanobacterial evolution during the Precambrian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Wacey, David

    2016-07-01

    Life on Earth has existed for at least 3.5 billion years. Yet, relatively little is known of its evolution during the first two billion years, due to the scarceness and generally poor preservation of fossilized biological material. Cyanobacteria, formerly known as blue green algae were among the first crown Eubacteria to evolve and for more than 2.5 billion years they have strongly influenced Earth's biosphere. Being the only organism where oxygenic photosynthesis has originated, they have oxygenated Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere, triggered the evolution of plants -being ancestral to chloroplasts- and enabled the evolution of complex life based on aerobic respiration. Having such a strong impact on early life, one might expect that the evolutionary success of this group may also have triggered further biosphere changes during early Earth history. However, very little is known about the early evolution of this phylum and ongoing debates about cyanobacterial fossils, biomarkers and molecular clock analyses highlight the difficulties in this field of research. Although phylogenomic analyses have provided promising glimpses into the early evolution of cyanobacteria, estimated divergence ages are often very uncertain, because of vague and insufficient tree-calibrations. Results of molecular clock analyses are intrinsically tied to these prior calibration points, hence improving calibrations will enable more precise divergence time estimations. Here we provide a review of previously described Precambrian microfossils, biomarkers and geochemical markers that inform upon the early evolution of cyanobacteria. Future research in micropalaeontology will require novel analyses and imaging techniques to improve taxonomic affiliation of many Precambrian microfossils. Consequently, a better understanding of early cyanobacterial evolution will not only allow for a more specific calibration of cyanobacterial and eubacterial phylogenies, but also provide new dates for the tree

  10. Clinical presentation in patients with systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvarino, R.; Rebella, M.; Alonso, J.; Cairoli, E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: systemic sclerosis is an autoimmune disease characterized by endothelial damage, and skin, vessel and internal organ fibrosis and inflammation. There are differences in terms of frequency, severity and prognosis for the different ethnic groups, what reinforces the importance of the study in each geographical region with the purpose of enabling early diagnosis of its incipient symptoms.Methods: we conducted a descriptive and retrospective study form March 2006 through March 2008, including patients with a final diagnosis of systemic sclerosis, who are treated at the Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Unit at the Clinicas Hospital. Results: 31 women were included in the study, average follow-up of patients was 39.2 months, and average age at the time of diagnosis was 47.6 years. Eleven patients (35,5) presented diffuse disease and 20 (64.5) of them evidenced limited disease. Thirty patients presented Raynaud's phenomenon. In 92 of cases capilaroscopy showed a sclerodermiform pattern. In terms of the respiratory system, we found interstitial pathology in 25 of cases, pulmonary arterial hypertension in 22.2 and are restrictive pattern in respiratory function studies in 35.5. Also, 67.7 presented digestive manifestations and 9.6 developed sclerodermic renal crisis. We found anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) in 29 out of 31 patients (93,5) patients; 16 presented anticentromere antibodies and five anti-topoisomerasa-I antibodies. The four patients (12.9)who died during follow-up presented common elements such as diffuse sclerosis, digital ulcers and severe respiratory compromise. Conclusions: the clinical and immune characteristics found in our study were similar to those described in other series. Should there be no specific treatment, it is essential to perform regular assessment of visceral impact in order to control and delay complications which result in high morbimortality rates. (author) [es

  11. Cyanobacterial Biofuels: Strategies and Developments on Network and Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanchui, Amornpan; Raethong, Nachon; Prommeenate, Peerada; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Meechai, Asawin

    Cyanobacteria, the phototrophic microorganisms, have attracted much attention recently as a promising source for environmentally sustainable biofuels production. However, barriers for commercial markets of cyanobacteria-based biofuels concern the economic feasibility. Miscellaneous strategies for improving the production performance of cyanobacteria have thus been developed. Among these, the simple ad hoc strategies resulting in failure to optimize fully cell growth coupled with desired product yield are explored. With the advancement of genomics and systems biology, a new paradigm toward systems metabolic engineering has been recognized. In particular, a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction and modeling is a crucial systems-based tool for whole-cell-wide investigation and prediction. In this review, the cyanobacterial genome-scale metabolic models, which offer a system-level understanding of cyanobacterial metabolism, are described. The main process of metabolic network reconstruction and modeling of cyanobacteria are summarized. Strategies and developments on genome-scale network and modeling through the systems metabolic engineering approach are advanced and employed for efficient cyanobacterial-based biofuels production.

  12. Harmful Cyanobacterial Material Production in the North Han River (South Korea): Genetic Potential and Temperature-Dependent Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Keonhee; Park, Chaehong; Yoon, Youngdae; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2018-03-03

    Cyanobacteria synthesize various harmful materials, including off-flavor substances and toxins, that are regarded as potential socio-economic and environmental hazards in freshwater systems, however, their production is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated the potential and properties of harmful materials produced by cyanobacteria, depending on temperature, and undertook a phylogenetic analysis of cyanobacteria present in the North Han River (South Korea). Production potentials were evaluated using gene-specific probes, and the harmful material production properties of strains showing positive potentials were further characterized at different temperatures in the range 15 to 30 °C. We identified six cyanobacterial strains based on 16S rDNA analysis: two morphological types (coiled and straight type) of Dolichospermum circinale, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Oscillatoria limosa, Planktothricoides raciborskii, Pseudanabaena mucicola , and Microcystis aeruginosa . We confirmed that cyanobacterial strains showing harmful material production potential produced the corresponding harmful material, and their production properties varied with temperature. Total harmful material production was maximal at 20~25 °C, a temperature range optimal for cell growth. However, harmful material productivity was highest at 15 °C. These results indicate that the expression of genes related to synthesis of harmful materials can vary depending on environmental conditions, resulting in variable harmful material production, even within the same cyanobacterial strains.

  13. Cyanobacterial biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Iara M P; Atsumi, Shota

    2012-11-30

    The development of new technologies for production of alternative fuel became necessary to circumvent finite petroleum resources, associate rising costs, and environmental concerns due to rising fossil fuel CO₂ emissions. Several alternatives have been proposed to develop a sustainable industrial society and reduce greenhouse emissions. The idea of biological conversion of CO₂ to fuel and chemicals is receiving increased attention. In particular, the direct conversion of CO₂ with solar energy to biofuel by photosynthetic microorganisms such as microalgae and cyanobacteria has several advantages compared to traditional biofuel production from plant biomass. Photosynthetic microorganisms have higher growth rates compared with plants, and the production systems can be based on non-arable land. The advancement of synthetic biology and genetic manipulation has permitted engineering of cyanobacteria to produce non-natural chemicals typically not produced by these organisms in nature. This review addresses recent publications that utilize different approaches involving engineering cyanobacteria for production of high value chemicals including biofuels. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Influence of Cyanobacterial Bloom on Freshwater Biocoenosis. Use of Bioassays for Cyanobacterial Microcystins Toxicity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontek Marlena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The issues presented in this study concern a very important problem of the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in surface water used for water supply purposes. The objective of this study was to analyze the occurrence of cyanotoxic risk in the catchment area of the Obrzyca River (including Sławskie lake which is the beginning of the river, which is a source of drinking water for the inhabitants of Zielona Góra. In order to evaluate toxicity of cyanobacterial bloom it was conducted toxicological testing using aquatic invertebrates (Daphnia magna, Dugesia tigrina and heterotrophic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test samples were collected from May to October, 2012. The most toxic was a sample collected from Lake Sławskie on 20th October when cyanobacteria bloom with a predominance of Microcystis aeruginosa occurred and the amount of microcystins was the largest. The methanol extract of the sample was toxic only above a concentration of 6·103 mg·dm-3. The lethal concentration (48-h LC 50 for Daphnia magna was 3.09·103 and for Dugesia tigrina (240-h LC 50 1.51·103 mg·dm-3 of microcystins (MC-LR, MC-YR and MC-RR. The same extract stimulated growth of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis cells.

  15. Biological Systems for Hydrogen Photoproduction (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghirardi, M. L.

    2012-05-01

    This presentation summarizes NREL biological systems for hydrogen photoproduction work for the DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 14-18, 2012. General goal is develop photobiological systems for large-scale, low cost and efficient H{sub 2} production from water (barriers AH, AI and AJ). Specific tasks are: (1) Address the O{sub 2} sensitivity of hydrogenases that prevent continuity of H{sub 2} photoproduction under aerobic, high solar-to-hydrogen (STH) light conversion efficiency conditions; and (2) Utilize a limited STH H{sub 2}-producing method (sulfur deprivation) as a platform to address or test other factors limiting commercial algal H{sub 2} photoproduction, including low rates due to biochemical and engineering mechanisms.

  16. Contrasting the Genetic Patterns of Microbial Communities in Soda Lakes with and without Cyanobacterial Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P. D. Andreote

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Soda lakes have high levels of sodium carbonates and are characterized by salinity and elevated pH. These ecosystems are found across Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, North, Central, and South America. Particularly in Brazil, the Pantanal region has a series of hundreds of shallow soda lakes (ca. 600 potentially colonized by a diverse haloalkaliphilic microbial community. Biological information of these systems is still elusive, in particular data on the description of the main taxa involved in the biogeochemical cycling of life-important elements. Here, we used metagenomic sequencing to contrast the composition and functional patterns of the microbial communities of two distinct soda lakes from the sub-region Nhecolândia, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. These two lakes differ by permanent cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Verde, green-water lake and by no record of cyanobacterial blooms (Salina Preta, black-water lake. The dominant bacterial species in the Salina Verde bloom was Anabaenopsis elenkinii. This cyanobacterium altered local abiotic parameters such as pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen and consequently the overall structure of the microbial community. In Salina Preta, the microbial community had a more structured taxonomic profile. Therefore, the distribution of metabolic functions in Salina Preta community encompassed a large number of taxa, whereas, in Salina Verde, the functional potential was restrained across a specific set of taxa. Distinct signatures in the abundance of genes associated with the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were found. Interestingly, genes linked to arsenic resistance metabolism were present at higher abundance in Salina Verde and they were associated with the cyanobacterial bloom. Collectively, this study advances fundamental knowledge on the composition and genetic potential of microbial communities inhabiting tropical soda lakes.

  17. Engineering Cyanobacterial Cell Morphology for Enhanced Recovery and Processing of Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Adam; Chandler, Jenna; MacCready, Joshua S; Huang, Jingcheng; Osteryoung, Katherine W; Ducat, Daniel C

    2017-05-01

    Cyanobacteria are emerging as alternative crop species for the production of fuels, chemicals, and biomass. Yet, the success of these microbes depends on the development of cost-effective technologies that permit scaled cultivation and cell harvesting. Here, we investigate the feasibility of engineering cell morphology to improve biomass recovery and decrease energetic costs associated with lysing cyanobacterial cells. Specifically, we modify the levels of Min system proteins in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. The Min system has established functions in controlling cell division by regulating the assembly of FtsZ, a tubulin-like protein required for defining the bacterial division plane. We show that altering the expression of two FtsZ-regulatory proteins, MinC and Cdv3, enables control over cell morphology by disrupting FtsZ localization and cell division without preventing continued cell growth. By varying the expression of these proteins, we can tune the lengths of cyanobacterial cells across a broad dynamic range, anywhere from an ∼20% increased length (relative to the wild type) to near-millimeter lengths. Highly elongated cells exhibit increased rates of sedimentation under low centrifugal forces or by gravity-assisted settling. Furthermore, hyperelongated cells are also more susceptible to lysis through the application of mild physical stress. Collectively, these results demonstrate a novel approach toward decreasing harvesting and processing costs associated with mass cyanobacterial cultivation by altering morphology at the cellular level. IMPORTANCE We show that the cell length of a model cyanobacterial species can be programmed by rationally manipulating the expression of protein factors that suppress cell division. In some instances, we can increase the size of these cells to near-millimeter lengths with this approach. The resulting elongated cells have favorable properties with regard to cell harvesting and lysis. Furthermore, cells treated in this

  18. Cyanobacterial Oxygenic Photosynthesis is Protected by Flavodiiron Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagut Allahverdiyeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavodiiron proteins (FDPs, also called flavoproteins, Flvs are modular enzymes widely present in Bacteria and Archaea. The evolution of cyanobacteria and oxygenic photosynthesis occurred in concert with the modulation of typical bacterial FDPs. Present cyanobacterial FDPs are composed of three domains, the β-lactamase-like, flavodoxin-like and flavin-reductase like domains. Cyanobacterial FDPs function as hetero- and homodimers and are involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. Whilst Flv2 and Flv4 proteins are limited to specific cyanobacterial species (β-cyanobacteria and function in photoprotection of Photosystem II, Flv1 and Flv3 proteins, functioning in the “Mehler-like” reaction and safeguarding Photosystem I under fluctuating light conditions, occur in nearly all cyanobacteria and additionally in green algae, mosses and lycophytes. Filamentous cyanobacteria have additional FDPs in heterocyst cells, ensuring a microaerobic environment for the function of the nitrogenase enzyme under the light. Here, the evolution, occurrence and functional mechanisms of various FDPs in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are discussed.

  19. Cyanobacterial nitrogenases: phylogenetic diversity, regulation and functional predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Esteves-Ferreira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyanobacteria is a remarkable group of prokaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms, with several genera capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen (N2 and presenting a wide range of morphologies. Although the nitrogenase complex is not present in all cyanobacterial taxa, it is spread across several cyanobacterial strains. The nitrogenase complex has also a high theoretical potential for biofuel production, since H2 is a by-product produced during N2 fixation. In this review we discuss the significance of a relatively wide variety of cell morphologies and metabolic strategies that allow spatial and temporal separation of N2 fixation from photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on 16S rRNA and nifD gene sequences shed light on the evolutionary history of the two genes. Our results demonstrated that (i sequences of genes involved in nitrogen fixation (nifD from several morphologically distinct strains of cyanobacteria are grouped in similarity with their morphology classification and phylogeny, and (ii nifD genes from heterocytous strains share a common ancestor. By using this data we also discuss the evolutionary importance of processes such as horizontal gene transfer and genetic duplication for nitrogenase evolution and diversification. Finally, we discuss the importance of H2 synthesis in cyanobacteria, as well as strategies and challenges to improve cyanobacterial H2 production.

  20. A novel earth observation based ecological indicator for cyanobacterial blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Saku; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Attila, Jenni; Junttila, Sofia; Alasalmi, Hanna; Hällfors, Heidi; Kervinen, Mikko; Koponen, Sampsa

    2018-02-01

    Cyanobacteria form spectacular mass occurrences almost annually in the Baltic Sea. These harmful algal blooms are the most visible consequences of marine eutrophication, driven by a surplus of nutrients from anthropogenic sources and internal processes of the ecosystem. We present a novel Cyanobacterial Bloom Indicator (CyaBI) targeted for the ecosystem assessment of eutrophication in marine areas. The method measures the current cyanobacterial bloom situation (an average condition of recent 5 years) and compares this to the estimated target level for 'good environmental status' (GES). The current status is derived with an index combining indicative bloom event variables. As such we used seasonal information from the duration, volume and severity of algal blooms derived from earth observation (EO) data. The target level for GES was set by using a remote sensing based data set named Fraction with Cyanobacterial Accumulations (FCA; Kahru & Elmgren, 2014) covering years 1979-2014. Here a shift-detection algorithm for time series was applied to detect time-periods in the FCA data where the level of blooms remained low several consecutive years. The average conditions from these time periods were transformed into respective CyaBI target values to represent target level for GES. The indicator is shown to pass the three critical factors set for marine indicator development, namely it measures the current status accurately, the target setting can be scientifically proven and it can be connected to the ecosystem management goal. An advantage of the CyaBI method is that it's not restricted to the data used in the development work, but can be complemented, or fully applied, by using different types of data sources providing information on cyanobacterial accumulations.

  1. Cyanobacterial Farming for Environment Friendly Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Innovations and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jainendra Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable supply of food and energy without posing any threat to environment is the current demand of our society in view of continuous increase in global human population and depletion of natural resources of energy. Cyanobacteria have recently emerged as potential candidates who can fulfill abovementioned needs due to their ability to efficiently harvest solar energy and convert it into biomass by simple utilization of CO2, water and nutrients. During conversion of radiant energy into chemical energy, these biological systems produce oxygen as a by-product. Cyanobacterial biomass can be used for the production of food, energy, biofertilizers, secondary metabolites of nutritional, cosmetics, and medicinal importance. Therefore, cyanobacterial farming is proposed as environment friendly sustainable agricultural practice which can produce biomass of very high value. Additionally, cyanobacterial farming helps in decreasing the level of greenhouse gas, i.e., CO2, and it can be also used for removing various contaminants from wastewater and soil. However, utilization of cyanobacteria for resolving the abovementioned problems is subjected to economic viability. In this review, we provide details on different aspects of cyanobacterial system that can help in developing sustainable agricultural practices. We also describe different large-scale cultivation systems for cyanobacterial farming and discuss their merits and demerits in terms of economic profitability.

  2. Present SLAC accelerator computer control system features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, V.; Johnson, R.

    1981-02-01

    The current functional organization and state of software development of the computer control system of the Stanford Linear Accelerator is described. Included is a discussion of the distribution of functions throughout the system, the local controller features, and currently implemented features of the touch panel portion of the system. The functional use of our triplex of PDP11-34 computers sharing common memory is described. Also included is a description of the use of pseudopanel tables as data tables for closed loop control functions

  3. The LHCb Trigger System: Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Johannes; LHCb Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz to 1MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a CPU farm, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. The major bottleneck in LHCb's trigger efficiencies for hadronic heavy flavour decays is the hardware trigger. The LHCb experiment plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018. In this upgrade, a purely software based trigger system is being developed, which will have to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. Both the current trigger system and its planned upgrade are discussed in these proceedings.

  4. TMX magnet system, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, R.L.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Leavitt, G.A.; Waugh, A.F.; Chargin, A.K.; Calderon, M.O.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic field design and the mechanical design of the TMX magnet system were previously reported by Chen and Hinkle. This paper is a summary of the work that has been accomplished in the two years since then

  5. TMX magnet system, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, R.L.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Leavitt, G.A.; Waugh, A.F.; Chargin, A.K.; Calderon, M.O.

    1979-11-30

    The magnetic field design and the mechanical design of the TMX magnet system were previously reported by Chen and Hinkle. This paper is a summary of the work that has been accomplished in the two years since then.

  6. Close Link Between Harmful Cyanobacterial Dominance and Associated Bacterioplankton in a Tropical Eutrophic Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iame A. Guedes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria tend to become the dominant phytoplankton component in eutrophic freshwater environments during warmer seasons. However, general observations of cyanobacterial adaptive advantages in these circumstances are insufficient to explain the prevalence of one species over another in a bloom period, which may be related to particular strategies and interactions with other components of the plankton community. In this study, we present an integrative view of a mixed cyanobacterial bloom occurring during a warm, rainy period in a tropical hydropower reservoir. We used high-throughput sequencing to follow temporal shifts in the dominance of cyanobacterial genera and shifts in the associated heterotrophic bacteria community. The bloom occurred during late spring-summer and included two distinct periods. The first period corresponded to Microcystis aeruginosa complex (MAC dominance with a contribution from Dolichospermum circinale; this pattern coincided with high water retention time and low transparency. The second period corresponded to Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Synechococcus spp. dominance, and the reservoir presented lower water retention time and higher water transparency. The major bacterial phyla were primarily Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Planctomycetes. Temporal shifts in the dominance of cyanobacterial genera were not only associated with physical features of the water but also with shifts in the associated heterotrophic bacteria. The MAC bloom was associated with a high abundance of Bacteroidetes, particularly Cytophagales. In the second bloom period, Planctomycetes increased in relative abundance, five Planctomycetes OTUs were positively correlated with Synechococcus or C. raciborskii OTUs. Our results suggest specific interactions of the main cyanobacterial genera with certain groups of the heterotrophic bacterial community. Thus, considering biotic

  7. Comparative summer dynamics of surface cyanobacterial communities in two connected lakes from the west of Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzet, N., E-mail: touzet.nicolas@itsligo.ie [Centre for Environmental Research, Innovation and Sustainability, School of Science, Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo (Ireland); McCarthy, D.; Gill, A.; Fleming, G.T.A. [Microbiology, School of Natural Sciences, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2016-05-15

    The eutrophication of lakes is typically associated with high biomass proliferations of potentially toxic cyanobacteria. At a regional level, the sustainable management of water resources necessitates an approach that recognises the interconnectivity of multiple water systems within river catchments. This study examined the dynamics in summer diversity of planktonic cyanobacterial communities and microcystin toxin concentrations in two inter-connected lakes from the west of Ireland prone to nutrient enrichment. DGGE analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons of genotype-I cyanobacteria (typically spherical) showed changes in the communities of both Lough Corrib and Ballyquirke Lough throughout the summer, and identified cyanobacterial genotypes both unique and shared to both lakes. Microcystin concentrations, estimated via the protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay, were greater in August than in July and June in both lakes. This was concomitant to the increased occurrence of Microcystis as evidenced by DGGE band excision and subsequent sequencing and BLAST analysis. RFLP analysis of PCR amplified mcy-A/E genes clustered together the August samples of both lakes, highlighting a potential change in microcystin producers across the two lakes. Finally, the multiple factor analysis of the combined environmental data set for the two lakes highlighted the expected pattern opposing greater water temperature and chlorophyll concentration against macronutrient concentrations, but also indicated a negative relationship between microcystin concentration and cyanobacterial diversity, possibly underlining allelopathic interactions. Despite some element of connectivity, the dissimilarity in the composition of the cyanobacterial assemblages and the timing of community change in the two lakes likely were a reflexion of niche differences determined by meteorologically-forced variation in physico-chemical parameters in the two water bodies. - Highlights: • DGGE highlighted

  8. Aerosolization of cyanobacterial cells across ecosystem boundaries in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout-Haney, J.; Heindel, R. C.; Virginia, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    Cyanobacteria play a major ecological role in polar freshwaters, occurring predominately as small single cells in the water column, i.e., picocyanobacteria, or large multicellular colonies and mats that reside on the lake bottom. Cyanobacteria are also present in terrestrial polar habitats, including within soils, soil crusts, rocks, and glacial ice. Despite their predominance in polar ecosystems, the extent to which cyanobacteria move between terrestrial and aquatic landscape units remains poorly understood. In polar deserts such as the McMurdo Dry Valleys, aeolian processes influence terrestrial landscape morphology and drive the transport of sediments and other particles. Water surfaces can also act as a source of aerosolized particles, such as the production of sea spray aerosols through wave breaking in marine environments. However, aerosolization from freshwater bodies has been far less studied, especially in polar regions. We conducted a field-study to examine the transport of aerosolized cyanobacterial cells from ponds and soils in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. We used highly portable aerosol collection devices fitted with GF/F filters combusted at 500°C (0.3 µm) to collect small particles, such as picocyanobacteria (0.2 - 2 µm), from near-shore water and adjacent soil. We used epifluorescence microscopy to quantify aerosolized cells, with excitation filters for chlorophyll a (435 nm) and phycobilin pigments (572 nm), to distinguish cyanobacterial cells. We detected aerosolized picocyanobacterial cells from all ponds and soils sampled, indicating that these cells may be quite mobile and transported across ecosystem boundaries. We observed cyanobacterial cells individually, clustered, and associated with other organic material, suggesting multiple modes of cell transport. Further, we investigated the potential for aerosolization of toxin-producing cyanobacterial taxa (or unbound cyanotoxins), and the ecological and ecosystem-scale implications of

  9. Cyanobacterial crust induction using two non-previously tested cyanobacterial inoculants: crusting capability and role of EPSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Gianmarco; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The use of cyanobacteria as soil improvers and bio-conditioners (a technique often referred to as algalization) has been studied for decades. Several studies proved that cyanobacteria are feasible eco-friendly candidates to trigger soil fertilization and enrichment from agricultural to arid and hyper-arid systems. This approach can be successful to achieve stabilization and rehabilitation of degraded environments. Much of the effectiveness of algalization is due to the productivity and the characteristics of extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) which, among their features, embed soil particles and promote the development of a first stable organo-mineral layer (cyanobacterial crusts). In natural settings, cyanobacterial crust induction represents a first step of a succession that may lead to the formation of mature biological soil crusts (Lan et al., 2014). The aim of this research was to investigate the crusting capabilities, and the characteristics of excreted EPSs by two newly tested non-heterocystous cyanobacterial inoculants, in microcosm experiments carried out using oligothrophic sand collected from sand dunes in Negev Desert, Israel. The cyanobacteria tested were Schizothrix AMPL1601, originally isolated from biocrusts collected in Hobq Desert, Inner Mongolia (China) and Leptolyngbia ohadii, originally isolated from biocrusts collected in Negev Desert, Israel. Inoculated microcosms were maintained at 30 °C in a growth chamber under continuous illumination and minimal water availability. Under such stressing conditions, and for a three-months incubation time, the growth and the colonization of the strains in the microcosms were monitored. At the same time, EPSs production and their chemical and macromolecular characteristics were determined by applying a methodology optimized for the purpose. Notably, EPSs were analyzed in two operationally-defined fractions, one more dispersed in the crust matrix (loosely bound EPSs, LB-EPSs) and one more condensed and

  10. An Automatic Monitoring System for High-Frequency Measuring and Real-Time Management of Cyanobacterial Blooms in Urban Water Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Tran Khac

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban lakes mitigate the negative impacts on the hydrological cycle and improve the quality of life in cities. Worldwide, the concern increases for the protection and management of urban water bodies. Since the physical-chemical and biological conditions of a small aquatic ecosystem can vary rapidly over time, traditional low frequency measurement approaches (weekly or monthly sampling limits the knowledge and the transfer of research outcomes to management decision-making. In this context, this paper presents an automatic monitoring system including a full-scale experimental site and a data transfer platform for high-frequency observations (every 5 min in a small and shallow urban lake (Lake Champs-sur-Marne, Paris, France, 10.3 ha. Lake stratification and mixing periods can be clearly observed, these periods are compared with the dynamic patterns of chlorophyll-a, phycocyanin, dissolved oxygen and pH. The results indicate that the phytoplankton growth corresponds with dissolved oxygen cycles. However, thermal stratification cannot totally explain the entire dynamic patterns of different physical-chemical and ecological variables. Besides, the cyanobacteria is one of the dominating groups of phytoplankton blooms during the lake stratification periods (8 August–29 September 2016. During the cooling mixed period (29 September–19 October 2016, the high concentration of chlorophyll-a is mainly caused by the other phytoplankton species, such as diatoms. Perspectives are discussed in order to apply this observation system for real-time management of water bodies and lakes.

  11. Enhancing soybean photosynthetic CO2 assimilation using a cyanobacterial membrane protein, ictB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean C3 photosynthesis can suffer a severe loss in efficiency due to photorespiration and the lack of a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) such as those present in other plant species or cyanobacteria. Transgenic soybean (Glycine max cv. Thorne) plants constitutively expressing cyanobacterial i...

  12. Catchment-fed cyanobacterial blooms in brownified temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senar, O.; Creed, I. F.

    2017-12-01

    One of the most significant impacts of global atmospheric change is the alteration of hydrological regimes and the associated disruption of hydrological connectivity within watersheds. We show how changes in the frequency, magnitude, and duration of hydrological connectivity and disconnectivity is compromising the capacity of forest soils to store organic carbon, and increasing its export to both aquatic and atmospheric systems. Increases in dissolved organic matter (DOM) loads from forested landscapes to aquatic systems and the shift of the DOM pool to a more refractory mixture of organic compounds, a process known as brownification, alters the physical and chemical characteristics of lake environments. Furthermore, by characterizing the stages of brownification (from low to high concentrations of refractory DOM), we show a shift in the limiting factors for phytoplankton growth from macronutrients (nitrogen -N- and phosphorus -P) to micronutrients (iron -Fe) and light availability. This shift is driven by the low concentrations of DOM supplying N and P in early stages of brownification, to the strong Fe-binding capacity of refractory DOM in brownified lakes. As lakes undergo brownification, cyanobacteria adapted to scavenge Fe from DOM-Fe complexes have a competitive advantage leading to the formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Our findings provide evidence that brownification is a driving force leading to cyanobacterial blooms in lakes on forested landscapes, with expected cascading consequences to lake food webs.

  13. Decrease of NH4+-N by bacterioplankton accelerated the removal of cyanobacterial blooms in aerated aquatic ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Xie, Ping; Ma, Zhimei; Wang, Qing; Fan, Huihui; Shen, Hong

    2013-11-01

    We used aerated systems to assess the influence of the bacterioplankton community on cyanobacterial blooms in algae/post-bloom of Lake Taihu, China. Bacterioplankton community diversity was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. Chemical analysis and nitrogen dynamic changes illustrated that NH4+-N was nitrified to NO2--N and NO3--N by bacterioplankton. Finally, NH4+-N was exhausted and NO3--N was denitrified to NO2--N, while the accumulation of NO2--N indicated that bacterioplankton with completely aerobic denitrification ability were lacking in the water samples collected from Lake Taihu. We suggested that adding completely aerobic denitrification bacteria (to denitrify NO2--N to N2) would improve the water quality. PCR-DGGE and sequencing results showed that more than1/3 of the bacterial species were associated with the removal of nitrogen, and Acidovorax temperans was the dominant one. PCR-DGGE, variation of nitrogen, removal efficiencies of chlorophyll-a and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that the bacterioplanktonsignificantly influenced the physiological and biochemical changes of cyanobacteria. Additionally, the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means revealed there was no obvious harm to the microecosystem from aeration. The present study demonstrated that bacterioplankton can play crucial roles in aerated ecosystems, which could control the impact of cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophicated fresh water systems.

  14. Modern cyanobacterial analogs of paleozoic stromatoporoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazacutemierczak, J; Kempe, S

    1990-11-30

    Recent and subfossil calcareous structures resembling cystose and subclathrate Paleozoic stromatoporoids have been discovered in a sea-linked, stratified, alkaline crater lake on Satonda Island, Indonesia. The structures are produced by mats of coccoid cyanobacteria growing along the lakeshore from the water surface down to the O(2)-H(2)S interface located at a depth of 22.8 meters. Calcification of the mats is controlled by seasonal changes in calcium carbonate supersaturation in the epilimnion. The internally complex structures are a product of two different calcification processes: (i) periodic in vivo calcification of the surficial cyanobacterial layers by low-Mg calcite, and (ii) early postmortem calcification of the cyanobacterial aggregates below the mat surface by microbially precipitated aragonite. The finding supports the idea that Paleozoic stromatoporoids represent fossilized cyanobacteria (stromatolites). It also implies that the stromatoporoid-generating epicontinental seas during the early Paleozoic may have been more alkaline and had a higher carbonate mineral supersaturation than modern seawater.

  15. Proteomic approaches in research of cyanobacterial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battchikova, Natalia; Angeleri, Martina; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-10-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is carried out by a fabulous pigment-protein machinery that is amazingly complicated in structure and function. Many different approaches have been undertaken to characterize the most important aspects of photosynthesis, and proteomics has become the essential component in this research. Here we describe various methods which have been used in proteomic research of cyanobacteria, and demonstrate how proteomics is implemented into on-going studies of photosynthesis in cyanobacterial cells.

  16. A Novel approach for monitoring cyanobacterial blooms using an ensemble based system from MODIS imagery downscaled to 250 metres spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alem, A.; Chokmani, K.; Laurion, I.; El-Adlouni, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    In reason of inland freshwaters sensitivity to Harmful algae blooms (HAB) development and the limits coverage of standards monitoring programs, remote sensing data have become increasingly used for monitoring HAB extension. Usually, HAB monitoring using remote sensing data is based on empirical and semi-empirical models. Development of such models requires a great number of continuous in situ measurements to reach an acceptable accuracy. However, Ministries and water management organizations often use two thresholds, established by the World Health Organization, to determine water quality. Consequently, the available data are ordinal «semi-qualitative» and they are mostly unexploited. Use of such databases with remote sensing data and statistical classification algorithms can produce hazard management maps linked to the presence of cyanobacteria. Unlike standard classification algorithms, which are generally unstable, classifiers based on ensemble systems are more general and stable. In the present study, an ensemble based classifier was developed and compared to a standard classification method called CART (Classification and Regression Tree) in a context of HAB monitoring in freshwaters using MODIS images downscaled to 250 spatial resolution and ordinal in situ data. Calibration and validation data on cyanobacteria densities were collected by the Ministère du Développement durable, de l'Environnement et de la Lutte contre les changements climatiques on 22 waters bodies between 2000 and 2010. These data comprise three density classes: waters poorly ( 100,000 cells mL-1) loaded in cyanobacteria. Results were very interesting and highlighted that inland waters exhibit different spectral response allowing them to be classified into the three above classes for water quality monitoring. On the other, even if the accuracy (Kappa-index = 0.86) of the proposed approach is relatively lower than that of the CART algorithm (Kappa-index = 0.87), but its robustness is

  17. Cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA transfer and their impact on genetic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Stucken

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria display a large diversity of cellular forms ranging from unicellular to complex multicellular filaments or aggregates. Species in the group present a wide range of metabolic characteristics including the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, resistance to extreme environments, production of hydrogen, secondary metabolites and exopolysaccharides. These characteristics led to the growing interest in cyanobacteria across the fields of ecology, evolution, cell biology and biotechnology. The number of available cyanobacterial genome sequences has increased considerably in recent years, with more than 140 fully sequenced genomes to date. Genetic engineering of cyanobacteria is widely applied to the model unicellular strains Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. However the establishment of transformation protocols in many other cyanobacterial strains is challenging. One obstacle to the development of these novel model organisms is that many species have doubling times of 48 h or more, much longer than the bacterial models E. coli or B. subtilis. Furthermore, cyanobacterial defense mechanisms against foreign DNA pose a physical and biochemical barrier to DNA insertion in most strains. Here we review the various barriers to DNA uptake in the context of lateral gene transfer among microbes and the various mechanisms for DNA acquisition within the prokaryotic domain. Understanding the cyanobacterial defense mechanisms is expected to assist in the development and establishment of novel transformation protocols that are specifically suitable for this group.

  18. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The presented materials consist of presentations of international workshop which held in Warsaw from 4 to 5 October 2007. Main subject of the meeting was progress in manufacturing as well as research program development for neutron detector which is planned to be placed at GANIL laboratory and will be used in nuclear spectroscopy research

  19. present

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the 1969/70 academic calendar. English became the medium of instruction from Standard 5 into university education and was made a compulsory subject of study throughout the education system ...... assumptions led to the abandonment of the use of vernaculars in class. Our study also established that the exercise is ...

  20. Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in a shallow eutrophic lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, G.; Kamst-van Agterveld, M.P.; Van der Werff-Staverman, I.; Hagen, F.; Hoogveld, H.L.; Gons, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the diversity of pelagic cyanobacteria in Lake Loosdrecht, the Netherlands, through recovery and analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences from lake samples and cyanobacterial isolates. We used an adapted protocol for specific amplification of cyanobacterial rDNA for

  1. Eutrophic urban ponds suffer from cyanobacterial blooms: Dutch examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waajen, Guido W. A. M.; Faassen, Elisabeth J.; Lurling, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Ponds play an important role in urban areas. However, cyanobacterial blooms counteract the societal need for a good water quality and pose serious health risks for citizens and pets. To provide insight into the extent and possible causes of cyanobacterial problems in urban ponds, we conducted a

  2. First report of cyanobacterial diversity and microcystins in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cyanobacterial diversity of Sidi Boughaba, a Moroccan coastal lagoon and Ramsar site, was evaluated and its potentially toxic species were isolated and characterised. This study was the first time that cyanobacterial diversity and cyanotoxin production have been characterised in a Moroccan coastal lagoon. Samples ...

  3. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The PARIS meeting held in Cracow, Poland from 14 to 15 May 2007. The main subjects discussed during this meeting were the status of international project dedicated to gamma spectroscopy research. The scientific research program includes investigations of giant dipole resonance, probe of hot nuclei induced in heavy reactions, Jacobi shape transitions, isospin mixing and nuclear multifragmentation. The mentioned programme needs Rand D development such as new scintillations materials as lanthanum chlorides and bromides as well as new photo detection sensors as avalanche photodiodes - such subjects are also subjects of discussion. Additionally results of computerized simulations of scintillation detectors properties by means of GEANT- 4 code are presented

  4. Effects of global climate change on chlorophyll-a concentrations in a tropical aquatic system during a cyanobacterial bloom: a microcosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirielle Euripa Pádua de Moura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have investigated the impact of climate change on aquatic environments, and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration is a quick and reliable variable for monitoring such changes. This study evaluated the impact of rainfall frequency as a diluting agent and the effect of increased temperature on Chl-a concentrations in eutrophic environments during a bloom of cyanobacteria. This was based on the hypothesis that the concentration of Chl-a will be higher in treatments in which the rainfall frequency is not homogeneous and that warmer temperatures predicted due to climate change should favor higher concentrations of Chl-a. The experiment was designed to investigate three factors: temperature, precipitation and time. Temperature was tested with two treatment levels (22°C and the future temperature of 25°C. Precipitation was tested with four treatments (no precipitation, a homogeneous precipitation pattern, and two types of concentrated precipitation patterns. Experiments were run for 15 days, and Chl-a concentration was measured every five days in each of the temperature and precipitation treatments. The water used in the microcosms was collected from a eutrophic lake located in Central Brazil during a bloom of filamentous cyanobacteria (Geilterinema amphibium. Chl-a levels were high in all treatments. The higher temperature treatment showed increased Chl-a concentration (F=10.343; P=0.002; however, the extreme precipitation events did not significantly influence Chl-a concentrations (F=1.198; P=0.326. Therefore, the study demonstrates that future climatic conditions (projected to 2100, such as elevated temperatures, may affect the primary productivity of aquatic environments in tropical aquatic systems.

  5. Late Archean mineralised cyanobacterial mats and their modern analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, J.; Altermann, W.; Kremer, B.; Kempe, S.; Eriksson, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    ,c) reminiscent of common sheaths (glycocalix), typical for coccoidal colonial (pseudoparenchymatous) entophysalidacean or pleurocapsalean cyanobacteria (Fig. 2d-f). The remains of the coccoid sheaths and capsules are visible as a system of rimmed subglobular or irregularly polygonal pits separated from adjacent pits by 2-3 μm thick walls. Microprobe analyses show that the interiors of the pits are composed of almost pure calcium carbonate whereas the rims and walls of calcium carbonate with high admixture of silicates (mostly Al-Fe clay-like silicates) and dolomite. High magnification images of rims and walls confirm the microprobe data indicating authigenic character of the minerals forming both the carbonate infilling the pits interiors (CaCO3) and their rims and walls (CaCO3 + Al-Fe silicates + dolomite). EPSC Abstracts, Vol. 3, EPSC2008-A-00493, 2008 European Planetary Science Congress, Author(s) 2008 It seems that carbonates were the first mineral phase filling the spaces remained after the plasmolysis of the cyanobacterial cell contents, whereas the formation of silicates within the exopolysaccharides forming the bulk of the sheaths and capsules was a later diagenetic process. Microprobe analyses of mineralised modern coccoid cyanobacterial mats forming tower-like structures in the highly alkaline Lake Van, Turkey [3,4] display a set of elements indicative for the presence of authigenic carbonate and silicate minerals which are almost identical with that occurring in the studied Neoarchean samples. Also the optical and SEM images of polished and etched platelets of permineralised Lake Van microbialites are strikingly similar (Fig. 2d-f). Similarly as in modern cyanobacterial and other microbial mats, the process of early post mortem mineralisation, in the case of the Nauga Formation, was most probably associated with the action of heterotrophic bacteria upon the dead cyanobacterial biomass. Heterotrophic bacteria occupying EPS layers of living and dead cyanobacterial

  6. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  7. Case Report: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus is a complex autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement with varied presentation. Autoimmune adrenal disease, on the other hand, can be associated with other autoimmune diseases. Adrenal insufficiency as a presenting feature of Systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare occurrence.

  8. Past, Present and Future of Linac 2 Vacuum System

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E

    2011-01-01

    This note aims to review the past, present, and future operation of CERN's Linac 2 vacuum system. The machine vacuum system layout with its major components is summarized. Operational problems arising in 2006 yielded to a leak test campaign of the whole machine, which detected a new, major leak on tank 3. Details about the mitigation of this leak are described as well as additional diagnostics installed during shutdown 2006/07. The pressure evolution of the most critical vacuum sector is analyzed. A statistics of vacuum system faults observed since 2000 is presented and compared with other systems. Finally, a perspective for the vacuum system operation until 2017/18 is outlined.

  9. The plasticity of cyanobacterial carbon metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Cano, Melissa; Wang, Bo; Douchi, Damien; Yu, Jianping

    2017-12-01

    This opinion article aims to raise awareness of a fundamental issue which governs sustainable production of biofuels and bio-chemicals from photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Discussed is the plasticity of carbon metabolism, by which the cyanobacterial cells flexibly distribute intracellular carbon fluxes towards target products and adapt to environmental/genetic alterations. This intrinsic feature in cyanobacterial metabolism is being understood through recent identification of new biochemical reactions and engineering on low-throughput pathways. We focus our discussion on new insights into the nature of metabolic plasticity in cyanobacteria and its impact on hydrocarbons (e.g. ethylene and isoprene) production. We discuss approaches that need to be developed to rationally rewire photosynthetic carbon fluxes throughout primary metabolism. We outline open questions about the regulatory mechanisms of the metabolic network that remain to be answered, which might shed light on photosynthetic carbon metabolism and help optimize design principles in order to improve the production of fuels and chemicals in cyanobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 76 FR 32241 - Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors AGENCY... providing notice of adjusted present value factors applicable to retirees under the Civil Service Retirement... nonappropriated fund instrumentalities. This notice is necessary to conform the present value factors to changes...

  11. 75 FR 35093 - Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Civil Service Retirement System; Present Value Factors AGENCY... providing notice of adjusted present value factors applicable to retirees under the Civil Service Retirement... present value factors to changes in demographic factors adopted by the Board of Actuaries of the Civil...

  12. 75 FR 35096 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Factors AGENCY... providing notice of adjusted present value factors applicable to retirees who elect to provide survivor.... This notice is necessary to conform the present value factors to changes in demographic factors adopted...

  13. 76 FR 32243 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Factors AGENCY... providing notice of adjusted present value factors applicable to retirees who elect to provide survivor.... This notice is necessary to conform the present value factors to changes in the economic assumptions...

  14. Test Rig Design and Presentation for a Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    The design and development of a hydraulic yaw system for multi MWturbines is presented and the concept explained. As part of the development of the new concept a full scale test rig for a 5 MW wind turbine has been designed and constructed. The test rig is presented along with its unique design...... an introduction with the current state of the art and problem description, followed by a system description, where the system is designed and dimensioned. Based on the design, results from the test rig are presented and analyzed. Finally a conclusion summing up the design, model and test results is given....

  15. Static and Animated Presentations in Learning Dynamic Mechanical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Schneider, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated how learners comprehend the functioning of a three-pulley system from a presentation on a computer screen. In the first experiment (N = 62) we tested the effect of static vs. animated presentations on comprehension. In the second experiment (N = 45), we tested the effect of user-control of an animated…

  16. [Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as Stevens-Johnson syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellakhal, S; Ben Kaab, B; Teyeb, Z; Souissi, A; Derbel, F; Douggui, M-H

    2015-09-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are life-threatening dermatological conditions. Their most common cause is medication. However, in a small proportion of patients these dermatological conditions could be the first presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus. We now describe a 34-year-old patient who presented with manifestations of Stevens-Johnson as a first feature of systemic lupus erythematosus. Systemic lupus erythematosus reveled by Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been infrequently reviewed in the previous literature. This diagnosis should be considered when cutaneous adverse drug reactions occur without clear drug causality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of environmental parameters and cyanobacterial blooms on phytoplankton dynamics of a Portuguese temperate lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Figueiredo, Daniela R.; P. S. Reboleira, Ana Sofia; Antunes, Sara C.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms in freshwaters is of great concern due to the ability of many cyanobacteria to produce cyanotoxins. In the present work, the eutrophied Vela Lake (Central Portugal), used for recreational purposes and as a water source for agriculture...... (particularly phosphorus). Diatoms were dominant during winter months (inferior temperatures and higher nutrients availability) followed by green algae in early spring and then cyanobacteria from late spring until early autumn (less nutrient availability and higher temperatures). A massive cyanobacterial bloom...... for the phytoplanktonic assemblage during the study period was increased in about 7% achieving a total of 61.0%, indicating a correlation that may be due to the known competitive advantage and/or allelopathy of the bloom-forming cyanobacteria towards microalgae....

  18. Emerging health issues of cyanobacterial blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Manganelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes emerging issue related to cyanobacterial dynamics and toxicity and human health risks. Data show an increasing cyanobacteria expansion and dominance in many environments. However there are still few information on the toxic species fitness, or on the effects of specific drivers on toxin production. Open research fields are related to new exposure scenario (cyanotoxins in water used for haemodialysis and in food supplements; to new patterns of co-exposure between cyanotoxins and algal toxins and/or anthropogenic chemicals; to dynamics affecting toxicity and production of different cyanotoxin variants under environmental stress; to the accumulation of cyanotoxins in the food web. In addition, many data gaps exist in the characterization of the toxicological profiles, especially about long term effects.

  19. Nutrient control of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stal, L.J.; Staal, M.J.; Villbrandt, M.

    1999-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea were investigated with respect to growth Limitation and nitrogen fixation. The community was composed predominantly of Synechococcus spp., and large, heterocystous, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon spp, and Nodularia spp.), that usually formed

  20. Cyanobacterial bloom detection based on coherence between ferrybox observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groetsch, P.M.M.; Simis, S.G.H.; Eleveld, M.A.; Peters, S.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial bloom detection from flow-through optical sensors on ships-of-opportunity ('ferryboxes') is challenging in periods of strong stratification and due to varying cell physiology and phytoplankton community composition. Wavelet coherence analysis between ferrybox parameters (chlorophyll-

  1. Cyanobacterial Occurrence and Diversity in Seagrass Meadows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oscillatoria, Lyngbya and Spirulina were the dominant cyanobacterial genera. Cyanobacterial coverage was higher in Mjimwema (31–100%) than in Ocean Road (0–60%). The levels of nutrients in tidal pool waters at Ocean Road ranged from 0.45–1.03 μmol NO3 -N/l, 0.19–0.27 μmol NO2 -N/l and 0.03–0.09 μmol PO4 ...

  2. Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharides and human health – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cyanobacterial lipopolysaccharide/s (LPS are frequently cited in the cyanobacteria literature as toxins responsible for a variety of heath effects in humans, from skin rashes to gastrointestinal, respiratory and allergic reactions. The attribution of toxic properties to cyanobacterial LPS dates from the 1970s, when it was thought that lipid A, the toxic moiety of LPS, was structurally and functionally conserved across all Gram-negative bacteria. However, more recent research has shown that this is not the case, and lipid A structures are now known to be very different, expressing properties ranging from LPS agonists, through weak endotoxicity to LPS antagonists. Although cyanobacterial LPS is widely cited as a putative toxin, most of the small number of formal research reports describe cyanobacterial LPS as weakly toxic compared to LPS from the Enterobacteriaceae. We systematically reviewed the literature on cyanobacterial LPS, and also examined the much lager body of literature relating to heterotrophic bacterial LPS and the atypical lipid A structures of some photosynthetic bacteria. While the literature on the biological activity of heterotrophic bacterial LPS is overwhelmingly large and therefore difficult to review for the purposes of exclusion, we were unable to find a convincing body of evidence to suggest that heterotrophic bacterial LPS, in the absence of other virulence factors, is responsible for acute gastrointestinal, dermatological or allergic reactions via natural exposure routes in humans. There is a danger that initial speculation about cyanobacterial LPS may evolve into orthodoxy without basis in research findings. No cyanobacterial lipid A structures have been described and published to date, so a recommendation is made that cyanobacteriologists should not continue to attribute such a diverse range of clinical symptoms to cyanobacterial LPS without research confirmation.

  3. Present status of the JT-60 control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.

    1992-01-01

    The present status of the control system for a large fusion device of the JT-60 upgrade tokamak is reported including its original design concept, the progress of the system in the past five-year operation and modification for the upgrade. The control system has the features of hierarchical structure, computer control, adoption of CAMAC interfaces and protective interlock by both software and hard-wired systems. Plant monitoring and control are performed by an efficient data communication via CAMAC highways. Sequential discharge control of is executed by a combination of computers and a timing system. A plasma feedback control system with fast 32-bit microprocessors and a man/machine interface with modern workstations have been newly developed for the operation of the JT-60 upgrade. (author)

  4. Macrophage Activation Syndrome as Initial Presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Say-Tin Yeap

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS is known to be a severe and potentially life-threatening complication of rheumatic disorder, especially systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. It is very rare for MAS to be an initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Here, we report a 14-year-old girl in whom MAS developed as an initial presentation of SLE. With early diagnosis and administration of cyclosporine A, she had a fair outcome. Further testing showed positive anti-dsDNA about 8 months later.

  5. Effective Presentation Speech Support System for Representing Emphasis-Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kojiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A research presentation integrates slides and speech. If these two aspects do not represent the same intention, the presentation will probably fail to effectively explain the presenter’s intention. This paper focuses on the representation of the critical contents in a presentation. In an effective speech, the speaker adds more intonation and stress to emphasize the importance of the slide contents. Audiences recognize that important contents are those that are explained in a stronger voice or that are said after a short pause. However, in ineffective speeches, such voice effects do not always correspond to the important contents that are indicated by slides. On slides, the important contents are represented by levels of text indentation and size, color, and animation. This research develops a presentation speech support system that estimates important contents from slides and voices that might be recognized by audiences and extracts numerical differences. In addition, the system provides comments and feedback to improve speeches.

  6. CIED infection with either pocket or systemic infection presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Møller-Hansen, Michael; Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    -up no relapses and two cases of new infections were noted (2.8%). CONCLUSIONS: CIED infection with systemic or pocket infection was difficult to distinguish in clinical presentation and outcome. Complete device removal and antibiotic treatment of long duration was safe and without relapses....... infection during the period from 2005 to 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. CIED infections were categorized as systemic or pocket infections. Treatment included complete removal of the device, followed by antibiotic treatment of six weeks. RESULTS: Seventy-one device removals due to infection (32 systemic...

  7. Observations of volatile organic compounds over the North Atlantic Ocean: relationships to dominant cyanobacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarthout, R.; Rossell, R.; Sive, B. C.; Zhou, Y.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.; Cox, D.

    2017-12-01

    Marine cyanobacteria are abundant primary producers that can have a major influence on the oceanic biogeochemical cycles. In particular, the prominent cyanobacterial genera Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and Trichodesmium can impact the air-sea flux of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including reactive compounds, such as isoprene, that control the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and climate-relevant compounds, such as dimethyl sulfide. These groups of cyanobacteria have been estimated to increase in abundance by up to 29% by the end of the century as a result of rising sea surface temperatures and dissolved carbon dioxide concentrations. Given their current and predicted future abundance, understanding the role of different cyanobacterial populations on VOC emissions from the ocean is critical in understanding the future oxidative capacity of the remote atmosphere and climate feedback cycles. During the May 2017 Phosphorus, Hydrocarbons, and Transcriptomics cruise aboard the R/V Neil Armstrong, 160 whole air canister samples were collected along a transect through the North Atlantic from Woods Hole, MA to Bermuda and back with 24-hour stops at nine stations encompassing different nutrient regimes and cyanobacterial populations. At each station, a diurnal time series of samples was collected and higher frequency sampling was conducted during transits of the north wall. Canister samples were analyzed on a five-detector gas chromatography system for over 80 individual VOCs including biogenics, aromatics, chlorinated and brominated compounds, and sulfur containing compounds. Trends in reactive and climate-relevant VOCs will be discussed as a function of the predominant cyanobacterial populations at each sample location. These data provide increased information on the spatial and diurnal variability of trace gases associated with these globally important photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

  8. Tropical cyanobacterial blooms: a review of prevalence, problem taxa, toxins and influencing environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine A.D. Mowe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic cyanobacterial blooms are a major issue in freshwater systems in many countries. The potentially toxic species and their ecological causes are likely to be different in tropical zones from those in temperate water bodies; however, studies on tropical toxic cyanobacterial blooms are sporadic and currently there is no global synthesis. In this review, we examined published information on tropical cyanobacterial bloom occurrence and toxin production to investigate patterns in their growth and distribution. Microcystis was the most frequently occurring bloom genus throughout tropical Asia, Africa and Central America, while Cylindrospermopsis and Anabaena blooms occurred in various locations in tropical Australia, America and Africa. Microcystis blooms were more prevalent during the wet season while Cylindrospermopsis blooms were more prevalent during the dry period. Microcystin was the most encountered toxin throughout the tropics. A meta-analysis of tropical cyanobacterial blooms showed that Microcystis blooms were more associated with higher total nitrogen concentrations, while Cylindrospermopsis blooms were more associated with higher maximum temperatures. Meta-analysis also showed a positive linear relationship between levels of microcystin and N:P (nitrate:phosphate ratio. Tropical African Microcystis blooms were found to have the lowest microcystin levels in relation to biomass and N:P (nitrate:phosphate compared to tropical Asian, Australian and American blooms. There was also no significant correlation between microcystin concentration and cell concentration for tropical African blooms as opposed to tropical Asian and American blooms. Our review illustrates that some cyanobacteria and toxins are more prevalent in tropical areas. While some tropical countries have considerable information regarding toxic blooms, others have few or no reported studies. 

  9. Correlation of cyanobacterial harmful bloom monitoring parameters: A case study on western Lake Erie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Zamankhan Malayeri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of cyanobacterial harmful blooms (CHBs in water has caused serious concern to environmental and health authorities because of their potential to produce and release lethal biological toxins. Among many toxins, microcystins (MCs are of particular interest. There have been significant efforts to observe the harmful algal bloom events and cyanotoxin levels, including: (i manual field sampling followed by lab analysis to directly measure MCs, (ii remote sensing based on satellite image analysis to estimate cyanobacterial index (CI, and (iii in-situ sensing of proxy parameters to cyanobacterial blooms such as phycocyanin. This study compared the observation systems in western Lake Erie to find any potential correlations among these CHB monitoring parameters based on the Pearson Product-Moment equation. We found the relationships among the parameters to be site-specific and so we compared geographical, ecological, meteorological, and analytical factors specific to the locations to explain the observed correlations and variations. The CHB observing parameters (MCs, CI, and phycocyanin were generally well correlated because they inherently represented the same phenomenon. In particular, we found the measured biological toxin concentration (MCs to be strongly correlated with the cyanobacterial bloom activity (CI estimated by satellite image analysis. The phycocyanin concentration also had a strong correlation with CI, implying that measuring an easy-to-detect proxy parameter in-situ and in real-time is effective for monitoring CHBs. The results support the notion that key environmental management parameters such as CHB toxicity can be inferred from remotely-sensed ocean color through proxy variables such as CI.

  10. EXCEPTIONALLY RARE VARIANTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM ANOMALIES - ROENTGEN PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade R. Babić

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the radiological study of the urinary system anomalies are presented on the material consisting of 8,568 urographies done from 1990 to 2001 at the Institute for Radiology, Niš. The paper shows exceptionally rare anomalies of the urinary system: a horse-shoe shaped kidney with pyelocaliceal systems in its arms and isthmus, heterolateral ectopia of the kidney with fusion, abdominal-medial ectopia of the kidney with ventral malrotation and cup hyperplasia, hypoplastic cup, triple pyeolcaliceal system, M. Lenarduzzi and blind-ending of the Y-shaped urethra. The author concludes that, for the sake of performing every day professional work, it is necessary to possess detailed knowledge of the rarest urinary system anomalies.

  11. Communication-based positioning systems: past, present and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guanyi; Wan Qingtao; Gan Tong

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews positioning systems in the context of communication systems. First, the basic positioning technique is described for location based service (LBS) in mobile communication systems. Then the high integrity global positioning system (iGPS) is introduced in terms of aspects of what it is and how the low Earth orbit (LEO) Iridium telecommunication satellites enhance the global positioning system (GPS). Emphasis is on the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) which is mainly based on commercial geostationary (GEO) communication satellites, including decommissioned GEO and inclined geosynchronous communication satellites. Characterized by its low cost, high flexibility, wide-area coverage and ample frequency resources, a distinctive feature of CAPS is that its navigation messages are generated on the ground, then uploaded to and forwarded by the communication satellites. Fundamental principles and key technologies applied in the construction of CAPS are presented in detail from the CAPS validation phase to its experimental system setup. A prospective view of CAPS has concluded it to be a seamless, high accuracy, large capacity navigation and communication system which can be achieved by expanding it world wide and enhancing it with LEO satellites and mobile base stations. Hence, this system is a potential candidate for the next generation of radio navigation after GPS. (invited reviews)

  12. Analysis of Microcystins in Cyanobacterial Blooms from Freshwater Bodies in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Turner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial blooms in freshwater bodies in England are currently monitored reactively, with samples containing more than 20,000 cells/mL of potentially toxin-producing species by light microscopy resulting in action by the water body owner. Whilst significantly reducing the risk of microcystin exposure, there is little data describing the levels of these toxins present in cyanobacterial blooms. This study focused on the quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of microcystins in freshwater samples, collected across England during 2016 and found to contain potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria. More than 50% of samples contained quantifiable concentrations of microcystins, with approximately 13% exceeding the WHO medium health threshold of 20 μg/L. Toxic samples were confirmed over a nine-month period, with a clear increase in toxins during late summer, but with no apparent geographical patterns. No statistical relationships were found between total toxin concentrations and environmental parameters. Complex toxin profiles were determined and profile clusters were unrelated to cyanobacterial species, although a dominance of MC-RR was determined in water samples from sites associated with lower rainfall. 100% of samples with toxins above the 20 μg/L limit contained cell densities above 20,000 cells/mL or cyanobacterial scum, showing the current regime is suitable for public health. Conversely, with only 18% of cell density threshold samples having total microcystins above 20 μg/L, there is the potential for reactive water closures to unnecessarily impact upon the socio-economics of the local population. In the future, routine analysis of bloom samples by LC-MS/MS would provide a beneficial confirmatory approach to the current microscopic assessment, aiding both public health and the needs of water users and industry.

  13. Systemic sclerosis presenting as CREST syndrome: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case report. A 31 years old female patient from senafe with remote history of systemic sclerosis and recurrent hospital admissions presented to the ED of Orotta hospital with shortness of breath and altered mental status. She had generalized body weakness, and dry cough associated with chest pain. She also complained.

  14. A Microcomputer-Based Interactive Presentation Development System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Dennis R.; Dominick, Wayne D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research and development projects sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that address microcomputer-based support for instructional activities at the University of Southwestern Louisiana. Highlights include a graphics project, local area networks, and the Interactive Presentation Development System, which is…

  15. Macro-System Model Project #AN011 (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. F.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M.

    2010-06-08

    A review of the Macro-System Model for hydrogen production pathways analysis, including objectives, accomplishments, collaborations, and future work. Presented at the 2010 U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010, in Washington, DC.

  16. System to determine present elements in oily samples; Sistema para determinar elementos presentes en muestras oleosas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza G, Y

    2004-11-01

    In the Chemistry Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations of Mexico, dedicated to analyze samples of oleaginous material and of another origin, to determine the elements of the periodic table present in the samples, through the Neutron activation analysis technique (NAA). This technique has been developed to determine majority elements in any solid, aqueous, industrial and environmental sample, which consists basically on to irradiate a sample with neutrons coming from the TRIGA Mark III reactor and to carry out the analysis to obtain those gamma spectra that it emits, for finally to process the information, the quantification of the analysis it is carried out in a manual way, which requires to carry out a great quantity of calculations. The main objective of this project is the development of a software that allows to carry out the quantitative analysis of the NAA for the multielemental determination of samples in an automatic way. To fulfill the objective of this project it has been divided in four chapters: In the first chapter it is shortly presented the history on radioactivity and basic concepts that will allow us penetrate better to this work. In the second chapter the NAA is explained which is used in the sample analysis, the description of the process to be carried out, its are mentioned the characteristics of the used devices and an example of the process is illustrated. In the third chapter it is described the development of the algorithm and the selection of the programming language. The fourth chapter it is shown the structure of the system, the general form of operation, the execution of processes and the obtention of results. Later on the launched results are presented in the development of the present project. (Author)

  17. The current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the "prokaryotic" and the "botanical" code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Aharon; Ventura, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Cyanobacterial taxonomy developed in the botanical world because Cyanobacteria/Cyanophyta have traditionally been identified as algae. However, they possess a prokaryotic cell structure, and phylogenetically they belong to the Bacteria. This caused nomenclature problems as the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; the "Botanical Code") differ from those of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP; the "Prokaryotic Code"). While the ICN recognises names validly published under the ICNP, Article 45(1) of the ICN has not yet been reciprocated in the ICNP. Different solutions have been proposed to solve the current problems. In 2012 a Special Committee on the harmonisation of the nomenclature of Cyanobacteria was appointed, but its activity has been minimal. Two opposing proposals to regulate cyanobacterial nomenclature were recently submitted, one calling for deletion of the cyanobacteria from the groups of organisms whose nomenclature is regulated by the ICNP, the second to consistently apply the rules of the ICNP to all cyanobacteria. Following a general overview of the current status of cyanobacterial nomenclature under the two codes we present five case studies of genera for which nomenclatural aspects have been discussed in recent years: Microcystis, Planktothrix, Halothece, Gloeobacter and Nostoc.

  18. Present status of the TJ-II remote participation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion., Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jesus.vega@ciemat.es; Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion., Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion., Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion., Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ochando, M. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion., Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ascasibar, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion., Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mollinedo, A. [CIEMAT. Computing Center, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Munoz, J. [CIEMAT. Computing Center, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, A. [CIEMAT. Computing Center, Avda. Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Dpto. Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Campus Sur. Ctra. Valencia, km 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Barrera, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Dpto. Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Campus Sur. Ctra. Valencia, km 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, S. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid. Dpto. Sistemas Electronicos y de Control, Campus Sur. Ctra. Valencia, km 7, 28031 Madrid (Spain); Castro, R. [Red.es-RedIRIS, Edificio Bronce, Plaza Manuel Gomez Moreno, s/n, 28020 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, D. [Red.es-RedIRIS, Edificio Bronce, Plaza Manuel Gomez Moreno, s/n, 28020 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-15

    The TJ-II remote participation system (RPS) was designed to extend to Internet the working capabilities provided in the TJ-II local environment, i.e., tracking the TJ-II operation, monitoring/programming data acquisition and control systems, and accessing databases. The TJ-II RPS was based on web and Java technologies because of their open character, security properties and technological maturity. A web server acts as a communication front-end between remote participants and local TJ-II elements. From the server side, web services are provided by means of resources supplied by JSP pages. The client part makes use of web browsers and ad hoc Java applications. The operation requires the use of a distributed authentication and authorization system. This development employs the PAPI System. At present, approximately 1000 digitisation channels can be managed from the TJ-II RPS. Furthermore, processing software based on a 4GL language (LabView) can be downloaded to multiprocessor data acquisition systems. Also, 15 diagnostic control systems, databases and the operation logbook are available from the RPS. The system even allows for the physicist in charge of operation to be in a remote location. Four Spanish universities make use of the TJ-II remote participation system capabilities for joint collaborations: these are the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) and Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna (UPC)

  19. Present status of the TJ-II remote participation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, J.; Sanchez, E.; Lopez, A.; Portas, A.; Ochando, M.; Ascasibar, E.; Mollinedo, A.; Munoz, J.; Sanchez, A.; Ruiz, M.; Barrera, E.; Lopez, S.; Castro, R.; Lopez, D.

    2005-01-01

    The TJ-II remote participation system (RPS) was designed to extend to Internet the working capabilities provided in the TJ-II local environment, i.e., tracking the TJ-II operation, monitoring/programming data acquisition and control systems, and accessing databases. The TJ-II RPS was based on web and Java technologies because of their open character, security properties and technological maturity. A web server acts as a communication front-end between remote participants and local TJ-II elements. From the server side, web services are provided by means of resources supplied by JSP pages. The client part makes use of web browsers and ad hoc Java applications. The operation requires the use of a distributed authentication and authorization system. This development employs the PAPI System. At present, approximately 1000 digitisation channels can be managed from the TJ-II RPS. Furthermore, processing software based on a 4GL language (LabView) can be downloaded to multiprocessor data acquisition systems. Also, 15 diagnostic control systems, databases and the operation logbook are available from the RPS. The system even allows for the physicist in charge of operation to be in a remote location. Four Spanish universities make use of the TJ-II remote participation system capabilities for joint collaborations: these are the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED), Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) and Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna (UPC)

  20. Central nervous system lymphoma: magnetic resonance imaging features at presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Schwingel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper aimed at studying presentations of the central nervous system (CNS lymphoma using structural images obtained by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: The MRI features at presentation of 15 patients diagnosed with CNS lymphoma in a university hospital, between January 1999 and March 2011, were analyzed by frequency and cross tabulation. RESULTS: All patients had supratentorial lesions; and four had infra- and supratentorial lesions. The signal intensity on T1 and T2 weighted images was predominantly hypo- or isointense. In the T2 weighted images, single lesions were associated with a hypointense signal component. Six patients presented necrosis, all of them showed perilesional abnormal white matter, nine had meningeal involvement, and five had subependymal spread. Subependymal spread and meningeal involvement tended to occur in younger patients. CONCLUSION: Presentations of lymphoma are very pleomorphic, but some of them should point to this diagnostic possibility.

  1. Disseminated tuberculosis masquerading as a presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Justin C-H; Fong, Warren; Wijaya, Limin; Leung, Ying Y

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection is the endemic in Asia-Pacific region. Miliary TB is a disseminated form which may present similarly as autoimmune conditions. Here we describe a 17-year-old girl who had miliary TB with manifestations mimicking new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) including oral ulcers, serositis, cytopenia, proteinuria and raised autoantibody titers. Complex associations between SLE and TB are highlighted. High index of clinical suspicion for TB infection is needed upon presentations resembling immune diseases like SLE. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Eutrophication and Warming Boost Cyanobacterial Biomass and Microcystins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miquel Lürling

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication and warming are key drivers of cyanobacterial blooms, but their combined effects on microcystin (MC concentrations are less studied. We tested the hypothesis that warming promotes cyanobacterial abundance in a natural plankton community and that eutrophication enhances cyanobacterial biomass and MC concentrations. We incubated natural seston from a eutrophic pond under normal, high, and extreme temperatures (i.e., 20, 25, and 30 °C with and without additional nutrients added (eutrophication mimicking a pulse as could be expected from projected summer storms under climate change. Eutrophication increased algal- and cyanobacterial biomass by 26 and 8 times, respectively, and led to 24 times higher MC concentrations. This effect was augmented with higher temperatures leading to 45 times higher MC concentrations at 25 °C, with 11 times more cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a and 25 times more eukaryote algal chlorophyll-a. At 30 °C, MC concentrations were 42 times higher, with cyanobacterial chlorophyll-a being 17 times and eukaryote algal chlorophyll-a being 24 times higher. In contrast, warming alone did not yield more cyanobacteria or MCs, because the in situ community had already depleted the available nutrient pool. MC per potential MC producing cell declined at higher temperatures under nutrient enrichments, which was confirmed by a controlled experiment with two laboratory strains of Microcystis aeruginosa. Nevertheless, MC concentrations were much higher at the increased temperature and nutrient treatment than under warming alone due to strongly promoted biomass, lifting N-imitation and promotion of potential MC producers like Microcystis. This study exemplifies the vulnerability of eutrophic urban waters to predicted future summer climate change effects that might aggravate cyanobacterial nuisance.

  3. Toroidal Continuously Variable Transmission Systems: Terminology and Present Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YILDIZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of continuously variable transmission systems in many different areas such as aerospace, robotics, machinery and automotive industries as an alternative to conventional speed changers with constant ratio becomes widely.Especially in the automotive industry, these systems have been used increasingly, since they enable that internal combustion engines in vehicles run at optimal speeds, and consequently provide considerable fuel savings and therefore lower emission values and also they provide powerful acceleration and quiet working. CVT systems have several constructive variants such as belted, chained, balled, toroidal etc. In this paper, toroidal CVT systems based on elastohydrodynamic principles are concerned with, and fundamental works of last two decades in this field are reviewed. However, the relevant terminology and dynamics along with the control of these systems are briefly treated for better understanding of the literature mentioned. Attention is drawn to the lack of some significant issues in present research works, and potential future works are pointed out. This paper, to the authors’ knowledge, will be the first review on toroidal CVT systems in Turkish literature

  4. An overview of the interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB): advancing the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudnell, H Kenneth; Dortch, Quay; Zenick, Harold

    2008-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the spatial and temporal incidence of harmful algal blooms is increasing, posing potential risks to human health and ecosystem sustainability. Currently there are no US Federal guidelines, Water Quality Criteria and Standards, or regulations concerning the management of harmful algal blooms. Algal blooms in freshwater are predominantly cyanobacteria, some of which produce highly potent cyanotoxins. The US Congress mandated a Scientific Assessment of Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms in the 2004 reauthorization of the Harmful Algal Blooms and Hypoxia Research and Control Act. To further the scientific understanding of freshwater harmful algal blooms, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established an interagency committee to organize the Interagency, International Symposium on Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (ISOC-HAB). A theoretical framework to define scientific issues and a systems approach to implement the assessment and management of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms were developed as organizing themes for the symposium. Seven major topic areas and 23 subtopics were addressed in Workgroups and platform sessions during the symposium. The primary charge given to platform presenters was to describe the state of the science in the subtopic areas, whereas the Workgroups were charged with identifying research that could be accomplished in the short- and long-term to reduce scientific uncertainties. The proceedings of the symposium, published in this monograph, are intended to inform policy determinations and the mandated Scientific Assessment by describing the scientific knowledge and areas of uncertainty concerning freshwater harmful algal blooms.

  5. Present status of the JNC Tono Geoscience Center AMS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Shigeru; Abe, Masahito; Watanabe, Masato; Nakai, Suguru; Touyama, Hisayo; Xu, Sheng

    2004-08-01

    The present status of the JNC Tono Geoscience Center AMS system (TGC-AMS) and the recent developments for 14C and 10Be are summarized. The preparation system for 14C has been modified to enable the preparation of small samples. The precision for 14C measurements with samples having a carbon mass >0.3 mg was normally within 0.5%. For the 10Be analysis, the detector of the AMS system has been improved by mounting a nitrogen absorber together with Havar windows in order to suppress 10B isobars. The efficient separation of 10B from 10Be was demonstrated by comparing the rest energy spectra of a 10Be standard and a mutually 10Be-free sample material.

  6. Present status of the JNC Tono Geoscience Center AMS system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Shigeru E-mail: shigeru@tono.jnc.go.jp; Abe, Masahito; Watanabe, Masato; Nakai, Suguru; Touyama, Hisayo; Xu Sheng

    2004-08-01

    The present status of the JNC Tono Geoscience Center AMS system (TGC-AMS) and the recent developments for {sup 14}C and {sup 10}Be are summarized. The preparation system for {sup 14}C has been modified to enable the preparation of small samples. The precision for {sup 14}C measurements with samples having a carbon mass >0.3 mg was normally within 0.5%. For the {sup 10}Be analysis, the detector of the AMS system has been improved by mounting a nitrogen absorber together with Havar windows in order to suppress {sup 10}B isobars. The efficient separation of {sup 10}B from {sup 10}Be was demonstrated by comparing the rest energy spectra of a {sup 10}Be standard and a mutually {sup 10}Be-free sample material.

  7. Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerschlag, Neil; Davis, David A; Mondo, Kiyo; Seely, Matthew S; Murch, Susan J; Glover, William Broc; Divoll, Timothy; Evers, David C; Mash, Deborah C

    2016-08-16

    Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg), because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds.

  8. Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin BMAA and Mercury in Sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Hammerschlag

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sharks have greater risk for bioaccumulation of marine toxins and mercury (Hg, because they are long-lived predators. Shark fins and cartilage also contain β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA, a ubiquitous cyanobacterial toxin linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Today, a significant number of shark species have found their way onto the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Many species of large sharks are threatened with extinction due in part to the growing high demand for shark fin soup and, to a lesser extent, for shark meat and cartilage products. Recent studies suggest that the consumption of shark parts may be a route to human exposure of marine toxins. Here, we investigated BMAA and Hg concentrations in fins and muscles sampled in ten species of sharks from the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. BMAA was detected in all shark species with only seven of the 55 samples analyzed testing below the limit of detection of the assay. Hg concentrations measured in fins and muscle samples from the 10 species ranged from 0.05 to 13.23 ng/mg. These analytical test results suggest restricting human consumption of shark meat and fins due to the high frequency and co-occurrence of two synergistic environmental neurotoxic compounds.

  9. Molecular Diffusion through Cyanobacterial Septal Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Nieves-Morión

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which intercellular molecular exchange takes place. During the differentiation of N2-fixing heterocysts, regulators are transferred between cells. In the diazotrophic filament, vegetative cells that fix CO2 through oxygenic photosynthesis provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Intercellular molecular transfer has been traced with fluorescent markers, including calcein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and the sucrose analogue esculin, which are observed to move down their concentration gradient. In this work, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP assays in the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to measure the temperature dependence of intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers. We find that the transfer rate constants are directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This indicates that the “septal junctions” (formerly known as “microplasmodesmata” linking the cells in the filament allow molecular exchange by simple diffusion, without any activated intermediate state. This constitutes a novel mechanism for molecular transfer across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, in addition to previously characterized mechanisms for active transport and facilitated diffusion. Cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to the gap junctions of metazoans.

  10. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins in both recreational waters and drinking source waters. Successful cyanoHAB assessment by satellites may provide a first-line of defense indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, assessment methods were developed to determine the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB occurrence frequency at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imager (OLCI) launched in 2016. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, there were 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 hectare in the 48 U.S. states. Results from this evaluation show that 5.6 % of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single pixel resolution and 0.7 % of waterbodies were resolvable when a 3x3 pixel array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data was also spatially joined to US public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single pixel resolution resolved 57% of PWSI and a 3x3 pixel array resolved 33% of

  11. Laser scanning graphic system for multimedia podium presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadhok, Jagmohan S.; Belur, Raghu R.; Strganac, Thomas W.; Junkins, John L.

    1997-07-01

    The present paper introduces new electro-optical sensing technology for electronic blackboard and related passive stereo measurement applications. The electronic blackboard enables real-time digitization of hand-written and hand-drawn information using a totally passive writing surface and writing instrument. Two resonant laser scanners sweep out a plane, the angular position of the two beams (at the instants that the beams are interrupted by the laser beams of a hand- held stylus such as a felt tip marker) are detected. These data are used to digitize coordinates along hand-drawn lines with high precision (approximately 1 part in 25,000) and digitization rates (approximately 160 Hz). The data input surface dimensions vary from small to large (permitting digitization on wall-sized writing surfaces as large as 2 meters by 6 meters) thus enabling a new family of applications. In particular, we discuss a novel application of this laser digitizing system to the automation of class or conference room presentations, and the authors describe a newly developed multimedia podium for classroom presentations. Other applications exist in emerging multi-media systems, manufacturing and robotics, large area digitizing for the drafting market, and automated note taking for the education market.

  12. Cardiac tamponade as an initial presentation for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, William; Frohwein, Thomas; Ong, Kenneth

    2017-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease which follows a relapsing and remitting course that can manifest in any organ system. While classic manifestations consist of arthralgia, myalgia, frank arthritis, a malar rash and renal failure to name a few, cardiac tamponade, however, is a far less common and far more dangerous presentation. We highlight the case of a 61year-old male with complaints of acute onset shortness of breath and generalized body aches associated with a fever and chills in the ER. A bedside echocardiogram revealed a significant pericardial effusion concerning for pericardial tamponade. An emergent pericardiocentesis performed drained 800mL of serosanguinous fluid. While denying a history of any rash, photosensitivity, oral ulcers, or seizures, his physical examination did reveal metacarpal phalangeal joint swelling along with noted pulsus paradoxus of 15-200mmHg. Subsequent lab work revealed ANA titer of 1:630 and anti-DS DNA antibody level of 256IU/mL consistent with SLE. This case highlights cardiac tamponade as a rare but life-threatening presentation for SLE and raises the need to keep it in the differential when assessing patients presenting with pertinent exam findings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Monitoring osseointegration and developing intelligent systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvino, Liming W.

    2017-05-01

    Effective monitoring of structural and biological systems is an extremely important research area that enables technology development for future intelligent devices, platforms, and systems. This presentation provides an overview of research efforts funded by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) to establish structural health monitoring (SHM) methodologies in the human domain. Basic science efforts are needed to utilize SHM sensing, data analysis, modeling, and algorithms to obtain the relevant physiological and biological information for human-specific health and performance conditions. This overview of current research efforts is based on the Monitoring Osseointegrated Prosthesis (MOIP) program. MOIP develops implantable and intelligent prosthetics that are directly anchored to the bone of residual limbs. Through real-time monitoring, sensing, and responding to osseointegration of bones and implants as well as interface conditions and environment, our research program aims to obtain individualized actionable information for implant failure identification, load estimation, infection mitigation and treatment, as well as healing assessment. Looking ahead to achieve ultimate goals of SHM, we seek to expand our research areas to cover monitoring human, biological and engineered systems, as well as human-machine interfaces. Examples of such include 1) brainwave monitoring and neurological control, 2) detecting and evaluating brain injuries, 3) monitoring and maximizing human-technological object teaming, and 4) closed-loop setups in which actions can be triggered automatically based on sensors, actuators, and data signatures. Finally, some ongoing and future collaborations across different disciplines for the development of knowledge automation and intelligent systems will be discussed.

  14. An allele of the crm gene blocks cyanobacterial circadian rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Joseph S; Bordowitz, Juliana R; Bree, Anna C; Golden, Susan S

    2013-08-20

    The SasA-RpaA two-component system constitutes a key output pathway of the cyanobacterial Kai circadian oscillator. To date, rhythm of phycobilisome associated (rpaA) is the only gene other than kaiA, kaiB, and kaiC, which encode the oscillator itself, whose mutation causes completely arrhythmic gene expression. Here we report a unique transposon insertion allele in a small ORF located immediately upstream of rpaA in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 termed crm (for circadian rhythmicity modulator), which results in arrhythmic promoter activity but does not affect steady-state levels of RpaA. The crm ORF complements the defect when expressed in trans, but only if it can be translated, suggesting that crm encodes a small protein. The crm1 insertion allele phenotypes are distinct from those of an rpaA null; crm1 mutants are able to grow in a light:dark cycle and have no detectable oscillations of KaiC phosphorylation, whereas low-amplitude KaiC phosphorylation rhythms persist in the absence of RpaA. Levels of phosphorylated RpaA in vivo measured over time are significantly altered compared with WT in the crm1 mutant as well as in the absence of KaiC. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Crm polypeptide modulates a circadian-specific activity of RpaA.

  15. Lake level fluctuations boost toxic cyanobacterial "oligotrophic blooms".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Callieri

    Full Text Available Global warming has been shown to strongly influence inland water systems, producing noticeable increases in water temperatures. Rising temperatures, especially when combined with widespread nutrient pollution, directly favour the growth of toxic cyanobacteria. Climate changes have also altered natural water level fluctuations increasing the probability of extreme events as dry periods followed by heavy rains. The massive appearance of Dolichospermum lemmermannii ( = planktonic Anabaena, a toxic species absent from the pelagic zone of the subalpine oligotrophic Lake Maggiore before 2005, could be a consequence of the unusual fluctuations of lake level in recent years. We hypothesized that these fluctuations may favour the cyanobacterium as result of nutrient pulses from the biofilms formed in the littoral zone when the lake level is high. To help verify this, we exposed artificial substrates in the lake, and evaluated their nutrient enrichment and release after desiccation, together with measurements of fluctuations in lake level, precipitation and D. lemmermannii population. The highest percentage of P release and the lowest C:P molar ratio of released nutrients coincided with the summer appearance of the D. lemmermannii bloom. The P pulse indicates that fluctuations in level counteract nutrient limitation in this lake and it is suggested that this may apply more widely to other oligotrophic lakes. In view of the predicted increase in water level fluctuations due to climate change, it is important to try to minimize such fluctuations in order to mitigate the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms.

  16. Tailoring cyanobacterial cell factory for improved industrial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Guodong; Lu, Xuefeng

    2018-01-10

    Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. In actual outdoor conditions, active cell growth and product synthesis is restricted to narrow light exposure windows of the day-night cycles and is threatened by diverse physical, chemical, and biological environmental stresses. For biomass harvesting and bioproduct recovery, energy and cost consuming processing and equipment is required, which further decreases the economic and environmental competitiveness of the entire process. To facilitate scaled photosynthetic biomanufacturing, lots of efforts have been made to engineer cyanobacterial cell properties required by robust & continual cultivation and convenient & efficient recovery. In this review, we specifically summarized recently reported engineering strategies on optimizing industrial properties of cyanobacterial cells. Through systematically re-editing the metabolism, morphology, mutualism interaction of cyanobacterial chassis cells, the adaptabilities and compatibilities of the cyanobacterial cell factories to the industrial process could be significantly improved. Cell growth and product synthesis of the tailored cyanobacterial cells could be expanded and maintained at night and in stressful environments, while convenient biomass harvesting could also be expected. For developing more feasible cyanobacterial photosynthetic biomanufacturing in large scale, we here propose the importance of tailoring industrial properties of cyanobacteria and outline the directions that should be exploited in the future. Copyright © 2018

  17. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB): Screening, Optimization and Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sabbir; Fatma, Tasneem

    2016-01-01

    In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics) is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous) were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells) was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells), whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I)] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source), 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc.) of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young's modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58%) of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to petrochemical plastic.

  18. System to determine present elements in oily samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza G, Y.

    2004-11-01

    In the Chemistry Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations of Mexico, dedicated to analyze samples of oleaginous material and of another origin, to determine the elements of the periodic table present in the samples, through the Neutron activation analysis technique (NAA). This technique has been developed to determine majority elements in any solid, aqueous, industrial and environmental sample, which consists basically on to irradiate a sample with neutrons coming from the TRIGA Mark III reactor and to carry out the analysis to obtain those gamma spectra that it emits, for finally to process the information, the quantification of the analysis it is carried out in a manual way, which requires to carry out a great quantity of calculations. The main objective of this project is the development of a software that allows to carry out the quantitative analysis of the NAA for the multielemental determination of samples in an automatic way. To fulfill the objective of this project it has been divided in four chapters: In the first chapter it is shortly presented the history on radioactivity and basic concepts that will allow us penetrate better to this work. In the second chapter the NAA is explained which is used in the sample analysis, the description of the process to be carried out, its are mentioned the characteristics of the used devices and an example of the process is illustrated. In the third chapter it is described the development of the algorithm and the selection of the programming language. The fourth chapter it is shown the structure of the system, the general form of operation, the execution of processes and the obtention of results. Later on the launched results are presented in the development of the present project. (Author)

  19. Systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoette, Trisha Marie

    2012-03-01

    Throughout history, as new chemical threats arose, strategies for the defense against chemical attacks have also evolved. As a part of an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, a systems analysis of past, present, and future chemical terrorism scenarios was performed to understand how the chemical threats and attack strategies change over time. For the analysis, the difficulty in executing chemical attack was evaluated within a framework of three major scenario elements. First, historical examples of chemical terrorism were examined to determine how the use of chemical threats, versus other weapons, contributed to the successful execution of the attack. Using the same framework, the future of chemical terrorism was assessed with respect to the impact of globalization and new technologies. Finally, the efficacy of the current defenses against contemporary chemical terrorism was considered briefly. The results of this analysis justify the need for continued diligence in chemical defense.

  20. Present and prospective role of bioenergy in regional energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandra, T.V.; Joshi, N.V.; Subramanian, D.K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Center for Ecological Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2000-12-01

    Bioenergy is the energy released from the reaction of organic carbon material with oxygen. The organic material derived from plants and animals is also referred to as biomass. Biomass is a flexible feedstock capable of conversion into solid, liquid and gaseous fuels by chemical and biological processes. These intermediate biofuels (such as methane gas, ethanol, charcoal) can be substituted for fossil based fuels. Wood and charcoal are important as household fuels and for small scale industries such as brick making, cashew processing etc. The scarcity of biofuels has far reaching implications on the environment. Hence, expansion of bioenergy systems could be influential in bettering both the socioeconomic condition and the environment of the region. This paper examines the present role of biomass in the region's (Uttara Kannada District, Karnataka State, India) energy supply and calculates the potential for future biomass provision and scope for conversion to both modern and traditional fuels. Based on the detailed investigation of biomass resource availability and demand, we can categorise the Uttara Kannada District into two zones (a) Biomass surplus zone consisting of Taluks mainly from hilly area (b) Biomass deficit zone, consisting of thickly populated coastal Taluks such as Bhatkal, Kumta, Ankola, Honnavar and Karwar. Fuel wood is mainly used for cooking and horticulture residues from coconut, arecanut trees are used for water heating purposes. Most of the households in this region still use traditional stoves where efficiency is less than 10%. The present inefficient fuel consumption could be brought down by the usage of fuel efficient stoves (a saving of the order of 27%). Availability of animal residues for biogas generation in Sirsi, Siddapur, Yellapur Taluks gives a viable alternative for cooking, lighting fuel and a useful fertiliser. However to support the present livestock population, fodder from agricultural residues is insufficient in these

  1. Radio frequency systems for present and future accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raka, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Rf systems are described for the FNAL Main Ring and Tevatron Ring, CERN SPS and LEP, and HERA proton acceleration system, CERN PS e + e/sup minus/ acceleration system, and CERN EPA monochromatic cavity. Low impedance rf systems in CERN ISR, the Brookhaven CBA, and SSC are also discussed

  2. Health Risk Assessment of Cyanobacterial (Blue-green Algal Toxins in Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R. Humpage

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial toxins have caused human poisoning in the Americas, Europe and Australia. There is accumulating evidence that they are present in treated drinking water supplies when cyanobacterial blooms occur in source waters. With increased population pressure and depleted groundwater reserves, surface water is becoming more used as a raw water source, both from rivers and lakes/reservoirs. Additional nutrients in water which arise from sewage discharge, agricultural run-off or storm water result in overabundance of cyanobacteria, described as a ‘water bloom’. The majority of cyanobacterial water-blooms are of toxic species, producing a diversity of toxins. The most important toxins presenting a risk to the human population are the neurotoxic alkaloids (anatoxins and paralytic shellfish poisons, the cyclic peptide hepatotoxins (microcystins and the cytotoxic alkaloids (cylindrospermopsins. At the present time the only cyanobacteral toxin family that have been internationally assessed for health risk by the WHO are the microcystins, which cause acute liver injury and are active tumour promoters. Based on sub-chronic studies in rodents and pigs, a provisional Guideline Level for drinking water of 1μg/L of microcystin-LR has been determined. This has been adopted in legislation in countries in Europe, South America and Australasia. This may be revised in the light of future teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. The other cyanobacterial toxin which has been proposed for detailed health risk assessment is cylindrospermopsin, a cytotoxic compound which has marked genotoxicity, probable mutagenicity, and is a potential carcinogen. This toxin has caused human poisoning from drinking water, and occurs in water supplies in the USA, Europe, Asia, Australia and South America. An initial health risk assessment is presented with a proposed drinking water Guideline Level of 1μg/L. There is a

  3. Systemic capillary leak syndrome presenting as recurrent shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzios, Christos; Gauvin, France; Egerszegi, E Patricia; Tapiero, Bruce; Buteau, Chantal; Rivard, Georges Etienne; Ovetchkine, Philippe

    2006-07-01

    To report a case of systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) in a child. Case report. Pediatric intensive care unit. A 6-yr-old girl was admitted twice to the pediatric intensive care unit, at a 10-month interval, in severe shock with important edema. The patient presented with acute symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and syncope in the hour preceding the shock. During both episodes necessary management included aggressive intravenous fluid rehydration, mechanical ventilation, and use of inotropes/vasopressors. Suspicion of a lower limb fasciitis necessitated surgical exploration, but pathology reports were negative on both occasions revealing only subcutaneous tissue edema. The patient recovered within 24 hrs on both episodes. Investigation ruled out cardiogenic shock and septic shock due to bacterial etiology. On the first episode, a nasopharyngeal aspirate was positive for influenza A (H3N2) by both viral immunofluorescence and culture. The presumed diagnosis was toxic shock syndrome associated with influenza virus. On the second episode, all bacterial and virology cultures remained negative. Hypovolemic shock was suspected, but there was no history of dehydration, bleeding, or gastrointestinal losses (persistent vomiting or diarrhea). Noninfectious causes of hypovolemic shock with edema were ruled out, leading us to believe that she suffered from SCLS. Although well described in the adult literature, there have been few reports of SCLS in pediatric patients. SCLS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent hypovolemic shock without identifiable cause. The only therapeutic intervention is to obtain vascular access when initial manifestations occur and give aggressive fluid reanimation.

  4. Cyanobacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB: Screening, Optimization and Characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabbir Ansari

    Full Text Available In modern life petroleum-based plastic has become indispensable due to its frequent use as an easily available and a low cost packaging and moulding material. However, its rapidly growing use is causing aquatic and terrestrial pollution. Under these circumstances, research and development for biodegradable plastic (bioplastics is inevitable. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, a type of microbial polyester that accumulates as a carbon/energy storage material in various microorganisms can be a good alternative. In this study, 23 cyanobacterial strains (15 heterocystous and 8 non-heterocystous were screened for PHB production. The highest PHB (6.44% w/w of dry cells was detected in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 and the lowest in Spirulina platensis NCCU-S5 (0.51% w/w of dry cells, whereas no PHB was found in Cylindrospermum sp., Oscillatoria sp. and Plectonema sp. Presence of PHB granules in Nostoc muscorum NCCU- 442 was confirmed microscopically with Sudan black B and Nile red A staining. Pretreatment of biomass with methanol: acetone: water: dimethylformamide [40: 40: 18: 2 (MAD-I] with 2 h magnetic bar stirring followed by 30 h continuous chloroform soxhlet extraction acted as optimal extraction conditions. Optimized physicochemical conditions viz. 7.5 pH, 30°C temperature, 10:14 h light:dark periods with 0.4% glucose (as additional carbon source, 1.0 gl-1 sodium chloride and phosphorus deficiency yielded 26.37% PHB on 7th day instead of 21st day. Using FTIR, 1H NMR and GC-MS, extracted polymer was identified as PHB. Thermal properties (melting temperature, decomposition temperatures etc. of the extracted polymer were determined by TGA and DSC. Further, the polymer showed good tensile strength and young's modulus with a low extension to break ratio comparable to petrochemical plastic. Biodegradability potential tested as weight loss percentage showed efficient degradation (24.58% of PHB within 60 days by mixed microbial culture in comparison to

  5. Eutrophication: Present reality and future challenges for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1980-08-01

    Van Ginkel and Conradie, 2001) occur in bloom-forming condition. Production of cyanobacterial toxins in 5 South African hypertrophic systems is several orders of magnitude higher than figures reported for northern hemisphere ...

  6. Fatty Acid Composition of Six Freshwater Wild Cyanobacterial Species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Dor, I.; Prell, Aleš; Dembitský, V. M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2003), s. 71-75 ISSN 0015-5632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cyanobacterial spcies * freshwater wild Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.857, year: 2003

  7. Engineering a cyanobacterial cell factory for production of lactic acid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angermayr, S.A.; Paszota, M.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic engineering of microorganisms has become a versatile tool to facilitate production of bulk chemicals, fuels, etc. Accordingly, CO(2) has been exploited via cyanobacterial metabolism as a sustainable carbon source of biofuel and bioplastic precursors. Here we extended these observations by

  8. Cyanobacterial Occurrence and Diversity in Seagrass Meadows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutrient levels were significantly higher at Ocean Road than at Mjimwema (P = 0.001 for nitrate and P = 0.025 for phosphate). There was no significant difference in nitrite levels between the study sites (P = 0.83). The low cyanobacterial diversity and coverage in Ocean Road is related to the high levels of nutrients and ...

  9. Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Cylindrospermopsin (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared the Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystins (LR, RR, YR and LA) as a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contamina...

  10. Exploring cyanobacterial genomes for natural product biosynthesis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Melinda L; D'Agostino, Paul M; Al-Sinawi, Bakir; Neilan, Brett A; Moffitt, Michelle C

    2015-06-01

    Cyanobacteria produce a vast array of natural products, some of which are toxic to human health, while others possess potential pharmaceutical activities. Genome mining enables the identification and characterisation of natural product gene clusters; however, the current number of cyanobacterial genomes remains low compared to other phyla. There has been a recent effort to rectify this issue by increasing the number of sequenced cyanobacterial genomes. This has enabled the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters for structurally diverse metabolites, including non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, ribosomal peptides, UV-absorbing compounds, alkaloids, terpenes and fatty acids. While some of the identified biosynthetic gene clusters correlate with known metabolites, genome mining also highlights the number and diversity of clusters for which the product is unknown (referred to as orphan gene clusters). A number of bioinformatic tools have recently been developed in order to predict the products of orphan gene clusters; however, in some cases the complexity of the cyanobacterial pathways makes the prediction problematic. This can be overcome by the use of mass spectrometry-guided natural product genome mining, or heterologous expression. Application of these techniques to cyanobacterial natural product gene clusters will be explored. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Mitigating cyanobacterial blooms: how effective are 'effective microorganisms'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Tolman, Y.; Euwe, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 'Effective Microorganisms (EM)' on the growth of cyanobacteria, and their ability to terminate cyanobacterial blooms. The EM was tested in the form of 'mudballs' or 'Bokashi-balls', and as a suspension (EM-A) in laboratory experiments. No growth inhibition was

  12. Effects of cyanobacterial biomass on the Japanese quail

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skočovská, B.; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Adamovský, Ondřej; Bandouchová, H.; Horáková, J.; Knotková, Z.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Pašková, Veronika; Pikula, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2007), s. 793-803 ISSN 0041-0101 Grant - others:-(CZ) 1M6798593901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Cyanobacterial water bloom * Avian toxicity tests * Microcystins Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.246, year: 2007

  13. Response of cyanobacterial mats to nutrient and salinity changes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rejmánková, E.; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2005), s. 87-107 ISSN 0304-3770. [INTECOL International Wetlands Conference /7./. Utrecht, 25.07.2004-30.7.2004] Grant - others:NSF(US) 0089211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : cyanobacterial mats * Belize * P-N impact Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.344, year: 2005

  14. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-08

    Jul 8, 2014 ... irradiance by cyanobacterial mats in two ice-covered Antarctic lakes with contrasting light climates. J. Phycol. 37 5–15. Howard-Williams C, Pridmore RD, Downes MT and Vincent WF. 1989 Microbial biomass, photosynthesis and chlorophyll a re- lated pigments in the ponds of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarc ...

  15. Limnology and cyanobacterial diversity of high altitude lakes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Limnological data of four high altitude lakes from the cold desert region of Himachal Pradesh, India, has been correlated with cyanobacterial diversity. Physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of the studied lakes revealed that Sissu Lake is mesotrophic while Chandra Tal, Suraj Tal and Deepak Tal are ...

  16. An overview of cyanobacterial research and management in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-10

    Feb 10, 2009 ... Keywords: cyanobacteria, eutrophication, reservoirs, South Africa. Introduction. South Africa has a proud history of contributing to the global understanding of cyanobacteria, cyanobacterial toxins and the ecological associations of these organisms in eutrophic waters. In particular, research conducted ...

  17. Carotenoids are essential for the assembly of cyanobacterial photosynthetic complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tóth, T. N.; Chukhutsina, V.; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Kis, M.; Lenart, Z.; Garab, G.; Kovács, L.; Gombos, Z.; van Amerongen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1847, č. 10 (2015), s. 1153-1165 ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055; GA MŠk LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Carotenoid deficiency * Cyanobacterial photosynthesis * Phycobilisome Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2015

  18. Present status of control system at the SRRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, G.J.; Chen, J.; Chen, C.J.; Wang, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    The modern control technique was used to design and set up a control system for the synchrotron radiation facilities at the synchrotron radiation research center (SRRC). This control system will be finally to operate the dedicated machine to provide the 1.3 GeV synchrotron radiation light. The control system will control and monitor the components of storage ring, beam transport and injector system. The concept of the philosophy is to design a unique, simple structure and object-oriented graphic display control system. The SRRC control system has the major features such as two level architecture, high speed local area network with high level protocol, high speed microprocessor based VME crate, object-oriented high performance control console and graphic display. The computer hardware system was set up and tested. The software in top level computers which include database server, network server, upload program, data access program, alarm checking and display, as well as graphics user interface (GUI) program were developed and tested. The operational system and device driver on the field level controller were implemented. The overall performance of the SRRC control system were tested and evaluation. The preliminary results showed that SRRC control system is simple, flexible, expandable and upgradable open system to control and monitor devices on the small scale synchrotron radiation facility. (author)

  19. Detection of phosphatase activity in aquatic and terrestrial cyanobacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Olivera B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria, as highly adaptable microorganisms, are characterized by an ability to survive in different environmental conditions, in which a significant role belongs to their enzymes. Phosphatases are enzymes produced by algae in relatively large quantities in response to a low orthophosphate concentration and their activity is significantly correlated with their primary production. The activity of these enzymes was investigated in 11 cyanobacterial strains in order to determine enzyme synthesis depending on taxonomic and ecological group of cyanobacteria. The study was conducted with 4 terrestrial cyanobacterial strains, which belong to Nostoc and Anabaena genera, and 7 filamentous water cyanobacteria of Nostoc, Oscillatoria, Phormidium and Microcystis genera. The obtained results showed that the activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases strongly depended on cyanobacterial strain and the environment from which the strain originated. Higher activity of alkaline phosphatases, ranging from 3.64 to 85.14 μmolpNP/s/dm3, was recorded in terrestrial strains compared to the studied water strains (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. The activity of acid phosphatases was higher in most tested water strains (1.67-6.28 μmolpNP/s/dm3 compared to the activity of alkaline phosphatases (1.11-5.96 μmolpNP/s/dm3. Comparing enzyme activity of nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, it was found that most nitrogen fixing strains had a higher activity of alkaline phosphatases. The data obtained in this work indicate that activity of phosphatases is a strain specific property. The results further suggest that synthesis and activity of phosphatases depended on eco-physiological characteristics of the examined cyanobacterial strains. This can be of great importance for the further study of enzymes and mechanisms of their activity as a part of cyanobacterial survival strategy in environments with extreme conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  20. Effects of Light Stress on Extracellular Cycling in a Cyanobacterial Biofilm Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, R.; Mayali, X.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Weber, P. K.; Thelen, M.; Bebout, B.; Lipton, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Cyanobacterial carbon excretion is crucial to carbon cycling in many microbial communities, but the nature and bioavailability of the carbon excreted is dependent on physiological function, which is often unknown. Cyanobacteria are the dominant primary producers in hypersaline mats and there is large reservoir of carbon in the extracellular matrix, but the nature and flux is understudied. In a previous study, we examined the macromolecular composition of the matrix of microbial mats from Elkhorn Slough in Monterey Bay, California and a unicyanobacterial culture, ESFC-1, isolated from the those mats, and found evidence for cyanobacterial degradation and re-uptake of extracellular organic matter. In this work, we further explore mechanisms of this degradation and re-uptake by examining effects of light using a combination of high-resolution imaging mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and metaproteomics of extracellular proteins. Based on these findings, we propose that mat Cyanobacteria store and recycle organic material from the mat extracellular matrix. Cyanobacteria can account for 70-90% of the biomass in the upper phototrophic layer of the mats, so their re-uptake of organic carbon and nitrogen has the potential to re-define organic matter availability in these systems. This work has implications for cyanobacterial adaptation to dynamic environments like microbial mats, where uptake of carbon and nitrogen in variable forms may be necessary to persist. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research Genomic Science program under FWP SCW1039. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  1. CaCO3 Precipitation in Multilayered Cyanobacterial Mats: Clues to Explain the Alternation of Micrite and Sparite Layers in Calcareous Stromatolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Kaźmierczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine cyanobacterial mats were cultured on coastal sediments (Nivå Bay, Øresund, Denmark for over three years in a closed system. Carbonate particles formed in two different modes in the mat: (i through precipitation of submicrometer-sized grains of Mg calcite within the mucilage near the base of living cyanobacterial layers, and (ii through precipitation of a variety of mixed Mg calcite/aragonite morphs in layers of degraded cyanobacteria dominated by purple sulfur bacteria. The d13C values were about 2‰ heavier in carbonates from the living cyanobacterial zones as compared to those generated in the purple bacterial zones. Saturation indices calculated with respect to calcite, aragonite, and dolomite inside the mats showed extremely high values across the mat profile. Such high values were caused by high pH and high carbonate alkalinity generated within the mats in conjunction with increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium that were presumably stored in sheaths and extracellular polymer substances (EPS of the living cyanobacteria and liberated during their post-mortem degradation. The generated CaCO3 morphs were highly similar to morphs reported from heterotrophic bacterial cultures, and from bacterially decomposed cyanobacterial biomass emplaced in Ca-rich media. They are also similar to CaCO3 morphs precipitated from purely inorganic solutions. No metabolically (enzymatically controlled formation of particular CaCO3 morphs by heterotrophic bacteria was observed in the studied mats. The apparent alternation of in vivo and post-mortem generated calcareous layers in the studied cyanobacterial mats may explain the alternation of fine-grained (micritic and coarse-grained (sparitic laminae observed in modern and fossil calcareous cyanobacterial microbialites as the result of a probably similar multilayered mat organization.

  2. Present status of control system for the RCNP ring cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Hosono, K.

    1994-01-01

    The computer control system of the RCNP Ring Cyclotron was used for operation since 1991. In the initial stage we had many troubles for the software as well as hardware. In 1992, we modified the system configuration and overcame the problems which observed during the actual operation. Summary of the control system is shown and typical troubles are summarized with our means of settling. (author)

  3. An elementary presentation of the PS ''beam control'' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.

    1973-01-01

    The PS synchrotron control system is explained in general terms, covering the topics of frequency control, beam transfer, damping, stability, conservation of longitudinal emittance, and second order problems

  4. A natural view of microbial biodiversity within hot spring cyanobacterial mat communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D. M.; Ferris, M. J.; Nold, S. C.; Bateson, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes a decade of research in which we have used molecular methods, in conjunction with more traditional approaches, to study hot spring cyanobacterial mats as models for understanding principles of microbial community ecology. Molecular methods reveal that the composition of these communities is grossly oversimplified by microscopic and cultivation methods. For example, none of 31 unique 16S rRNA sequences detected in the Octopus Spring mat, Yellowstone National Park, matches that of any prokaryote previously cultivated from geothermal systems; 11 are contributed by genetically diverse cyanobacteria, even though a single cyanobacterial species was suspected based on morphologic and culture analysis. By studying the basis for the incongruity between culture and molecular samplings of community composition, we are beginning to cultivate isolates whose 16S rRNA sequences are readily detected. By placing the genetic diversity detected in context with the well-defined natural environmental gradients typical of hot spring mat systems, the relationship between gene and species diversity is clarified and ecological patterns of species occurrence emerge. By combining these ecological patterns with the evolutionary patterns inherently revealed by phylogenetic analysis of gene sequence data, we find that it may be possible to understand microbial biodiversity within these systems by using principles similar to those developed by evolutionary ecologists to understand biodiversity of larger species. We hope that such an approach guides microbial ecologists to a more realistic and predictive understanding of microbial species occurrence and responsiveness in both natural and disturbed habitats.

  5. Guillain barre syndrome as initial presentation of systemic lupus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ involvement including the peripheral nervous system. Guillan- Barrè syndrome (GBS) has an established association with SLE as one of its neurologic manifestations. However, GBS as an initial manifestation of ...

  6. case reports atypical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... SUMMARY. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, auto- immune multi-system disorder. About seventy to nine- ty percent of all cases of SLE occur in women. Alt- hough the disease is common in black young women residing in Europe and North America, it is reputed to be a very rare diagnosis ...

  7. Atypical presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus in a west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, autoimmune multi-system disorder. About seventy to ninety percent of all cases of SLE occur in women. Although the disease is common in black young women residing in Europe and North America, it is reputed to be a very rare diagnosis in West Africa. A case of atypical ...

  8. Effective Presentation Speech Support System for Representing Emphasis-Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoko Kojiri; Takaya Kaji

    2015-01-01

    A research presentation integrates slides and speech. If these two aspects do not represent the same intention, the presentation will probably fail to effectively explain the presenter’s intention. This paper focuses on the representation of the critical contents in a presentation. In an effective speech, the speaker adds more intonation and stress to emphasize the importance of the slide contents. Audiences recognize that important contents are those that are explained in a stronger voice or...

  9. The systems biology of MHC class II antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Major histocompatibility class II molecules (MHC class II) are one of the key regulators of adaptive immunity because of their specific expression by professional antigen presenting cells (APC). They present peptides derived from endocytosed material to T helper lymphocytes. Consequently, MHC class

  10. The cyanobacterial endosymbiont of the unicellular algae Rhopalodia gibba shows reductive genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lockhart Peter J

    2008-01-01

    association is the first example of an obligate cyanobacterial symbiosis involving nitrogen fixation for which genomic data are available. It represents a new model system to study molecular adaptations of genome evolution that accompany a switch from free-living to intracellular existence.

  11. Biological N2O fixation in the Eastern South Pacific Ocean and marine cyanobacterial cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Farías

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O in the global radiative balance and atmospheric ozone chemistry, its sources and sinks within the Earth's system are still poorly understood. In the ocean, N2O is produced by microbiological processes such as nitrification and partial denitrification, which account for about a third of global emissions. Conversely, complete denitrification (the dissimilative reduction of N2O to N2 under suboxic/anoxic conditions is the only known pathway accountable for N2O consumption in the ocean. In this work, it is demonstrated that the biological assimilation of N2O could be a significant pathway capable of directly transforming this gas into particulate organic nitrogen (PON. N2O is shown to be biologically fixed within the subtropical and tropical waters of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, under a wide range of oceanographic conditions and at rates ranging from 2 pmol N L(-1 d(- to 14.8 nmol N L(-1 d(-1 (mean ± SE of 0.522 ± 1.06 nmol N L(-1 d(-1, n = 93. Additional assays revealed that cultured cyanobacterial strains of Trichodesmium (H-9 and IMS 101, and Crocosphaera (W-8501 have the capacity to directly fix N2O under laboratory conditions; suggesting that marine photoautotrophic diazotrophs could be using N2O as a substrate. This metabolic capacity however was absent in Synechococcus (RCC 1029. The findings presented here indicate that assimilative N2O fixation takes place under extreme environmental conditions (i.e., light, nutrient, oxygen where both autotrophic (including cyanobacteria and heterotrophic microbes appear to be involved. This process could provide a globally significant sink for atmospheric N2O which in turn affects the oceanic N2O inventory and may also represent a yet unexplored global oceanic source of fixed N.

  12. Experimental additions of aluminum sulfate and ammonium nitrate to in situ mesocosms to reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ted D.; Wilhelm, Frank M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitrogen additions to increase the total nitrogen:total phosphorus (TN:TP) ratio may reduce cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentration in reservoirs. In systems where TP is >100 μg/L, however, nitrogen additions to increase the TN:TP ratio could cause ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms. Reducing phosphorus via aluminum sulfate (alum) may be needed prior to nitrogen additions aimed at increasing the TN:TP ratio. We experimentally tested this sequential management approach in large in situ mesocosms (70.7 m3) to examine effects on cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration. Because alum removes nutrients and most seston from the water column, alum treatment reduced both TN and TP, leaving post-treatment TN:TP ratios similar to pre-treatment ratios. Cyanobacterial biovolume was reduced after alum addition, but the percent composition (i.e., relative) cyanobacterial abundance remained unchanged. A single ammonium nitrate (nitrogen) addition increased the TN:TP ratio 7-fold. After the TN:TP ratio was >50 (by weight), cyanobacterial biovolume and abundance were reduced, and chrysophyte and cryptophyte biovolume and abundance increased compared to the alum treatment. Microcystin was not detectable until the TN:TP ratio was <50. Although both treatments reduced cyanobacteria, only the nitrogen treatment seemed to stimulate energy flow from primary producers to zooplankton, which suggests that combining alum and nitrogen treatments may be a viable in-lake management strategy to reduce cyanobacteria and possibly microcystin concentrations in high-phosphorus systems. Additional studies are needed to define best management practices before combined alum and nitrogen additions are implemented as a reservoir management strategy.

  13. Present Status of HTGR Utilization System Development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    Efforts are to be continuously devoted to establish and upgrade HTGR technology in the world. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has conducted the R and D of HTGRs since the 1960's in Japan, focusing on mainly the construction of High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) which is an HTGR with a maximum helium gas temperature of 950 o C at the reactor outlet and HTGR utilization systems. The HTTR achieved first criticality on November 10, 1998 and will restart from January in 2001. In the R and D program of HTGR utilization systems, JAERI has conducted hydrogen production systems with HTGR to demonstrate the applicability of nuclear heat for extensive energy demands besides the electric power generation. JAERI has developed a hydrogen production system by steam reforming process of natural gas using nuclear heat supplied from the HTTR. Prior to the demonstration test of HTTR hydrogen production system, a 1/30-scale out-of-pile test facility is under construction for safety review and detailed design of the system. The out-of-pile test facility will be started in 2001 and will be continued about 4 years. The hydrogen permeation and corrosion tests have been carried out since 1997. Check and review for the demonstration program in the HTTR hydrogen production system will be made in 2001. Then the HTTR hydrogen production system is scheduled to be constructed from 2003 and demonstratively operated from around 2006. In parallel with the R and D of the HTTR hydrogen production system, hydrogen production method by thermochemical water splitting, so-called IS process, has been studied in JAERI. The IS process is placed as one of future candidates of the heat utilization systems of the HTTR following the steam reforming system. Continuous and stoichiometric production of hydrogen and oxygen for 48 hours was successfully achieved with a laboratory-scale apparatus mainly made of glass. Following this achievement, the study has been continued with a larger

  14. Rapid reactivation of cyanobacterial photosynthesis and migration upon rehydration of desiccated marine microbial mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun eChennu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Desiccated cyanobacterial mats are the dominant biological feature in the Earth's arid zones. While the response of desiccated cyanobacteria to rehydration is well documented for terrestrial systems, information about the response in marine systems is lacking. We used high temporal resolution hyperspectral imaging, liquid chromatography, pulse-amplitude fluorometry, oxygen microsensors and confocal laser microscopy to study this response in a desiccated microbial mat from Exmouth Gulf, Australia. During the initial 15 minutes after rehydration chlorophyll a concentrations increased 2-5 fold and cyanobacterial photosynthesis was re-established. Although the mechanism behind this rapid increase of chlorophyll a remains unknown, we hypothesize that it involves resynthesis from a precursor stored in desiccated cyanobacteria. The subsequent phase (15 min – 48 h involved migration of the reactivated cyanobacteria towards the mat surface, which led, together with a gradual increase in chlorophyll a, to a further increase in photosynthesis. We conclude that the response involving an increase in chlorophyll a and recovery of photosynthetic activity within minutes after rehydration is common for cyanobacteria from desiccated mats of both terrestrial and aquatic origin. However the response of upward migration and its triggering factor appears to be mat-specific and likely linked to other factors.

  15. Diel variation in gene expression of the CO2-concentrating mechanism during a harmful cyanobacterial bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eSandrini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dense phytoplankton blooms in eutrophic waters often experience large daily fluctuations in environmental conditions. We investigated how this diel variation affects in situ gene expression of the CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM and other selected genes of the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. Photosynthetic activity of the cyanobacterial bloom depleted the dissolved CO2 concentration, raised pH to 10, and caused large diel fluctuations in the bicarbonate and O2 concentration. The Microcystis population consisted of three Ci uptake genotypes that differed in the presence of the low-affinity and high-affinity bicarbonate uptake genes bicA and sbtA. Expression of the bicarbonate uptake genes bicA, sbtA and cmpA (encoding a subunit of the high-affinity bicarbonate uptake system BCT1, the CCM transcriptional regulator gene ccmR and the photoprotection gene flv4 increased at first daylight and was negatively correlated with the bicarbonate concentration. In contrast, genes of the two CO2 uptake systems were constitutively expressed, whereas expression of the RuBisCO chaperone gene rbcX, the carboxysome gene ccmM, and the photoprotection gene isiA was highest at night and down-regulated during daytime. In total, our results show that the harmful cyanobacterium Microcystis is very responsive to the large diel variations in carbon and light availability often encountered in dense cyanobacterial blooms.

  16. Rapid Reactivation of Cyanobacterial Photosynthesis and Migration upon Rehydration of Desiccated Marine Microbial Mats

    KAUST Repository

    Chennu, Arjun

    2015-12-24

    Desiccated cyanobacterial mats are the dominant biological feature in the Earth’s arid zones. While the response of desiccated cyanobacteria to rehydration is well-documented for terrestrial systems, information about the response in marine systems is lacking. We used high temporal resolution hyperspectral imaging, liquid chromatography, pulse-amplitude fluorometry, oxygen microsensors, and confocal laser microscopy to study this response in a desiccated microbial mat from Exmouth Gulf, Australia. During the initial 15 min after rehydration chlorophyll a concentrations increased 2–5 fold and cyanobacterial photosynthesis was re-established. Although the mechanism behind this rapid increase of chlorophyll a remains unknown, we hypothesize that it involves resynthesis from a precursor stored in desiccated cyanobacteria. The subsequent phase (15 min–48 h) involved migration of the reactivated cyanobacteria toward the mat surface, which led, together with a gradual increase in chlorophyll a, to a further increase in photosynthesis. We conclude that the response involving an increase in chlorophyll a and recovery of photosynthetic activity within minutes after rehydration is common for cyanobacteria from desiccated mats of both terrestrial and marine origin. However, the response of upward migration and its triggering factor appear to be mat-specific and likely linked to other factors.

  17. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  18. Systems Biology and P4 Medicine: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leroy Hood

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Studying complex biological systems in a holistic rather than a “one gene or one protein” at a time approach requires the concerted effort of scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The Institute for Systems Biology (ISB has seamlessly integrated these disparate fields to create a cross-disciplinary platform and culture in which “biology drives technology drives computation.” To achieve this platform/culture, it has been necessary for cross-disciplinary ISB scientists to learn one another’s languages and work together effectively in teams. The focus of this “systems” approach on disease has led to a discipline denoted systems medicine. The advent of technological breakthroughs in the fields of genomics, proteomics, and, indeed, the other “omics” is catalyzing striking advances in systems medicine that have and are transforming diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Systems medicine has united genomics and genetics through family genomics to more readily identify disease genes. It has made blood a window into health and disease. It is leading to the stratification of diseases (division into discrete subtypes for proper impedance match against drugs and the stratification of patients into subgroups that respond to environmental challenges in a similar manner (e.g. response to drugs, response to toxins, etc.. The convergence of patient-activated social networks, big data and their analytics, and systems medicine has led to a P4 medicine that is predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory. Medicine will focus on each individual. It will become proactive in nature. It will increasingly focus on wellness rather than disease. For example, in 10 years each patient will be surrounded by a virtual cloud of billions of data points, and we will have the tools to reduce this enormous data dimensionality into simple hypotheses about how to optimize wellness and avoid disease for each individual. P4 medicine will be able to

  19. Systemic sclerosis presenting as CREST syndrome: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multisystem disorder of unknown etiology, characterized by diffuse fibrosis; degenerative changes; and vascular abnormalities in the skin (scleroderma), articular structures, and internal organs especially the esophagus, GI tract, lung, heart, and kidney. We report the case of a 31 years ...

  20. Two patients with osteoporosis : initial presentation of systemic mastocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donker, Marjolein L.; Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Jaspers, Wim J. M.; Verhage, Albert H.

    In two patients with osteoporosis, systemic mastocytosis ultimately turned out to be the underlying disease. Both patients had a history of anaphylactic reactions caused by wasp stings but did not have any skin or other symptoms. This observation reflects the need for careful history taking and

  1. Primary central nervous system lymphoma presenting as multiple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 31-year-old man presented with seizures and cerebellar symptoms on a background of weight loss and lethargy. He was found to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and following radiological imaging, was commenced on treatment for presumed cerebral toxoplasmosis. Due to a lack of response, both ...

  2. Present status of metrology of electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.

  3. Lupus cystitis: An unusual presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus cystitis is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE and occurs in association with gastrointestinal symptoms. This rare disorder has been reported mainly from Japan. We report a 20 year old female who diagnosed as having SLE associated with paralytic ileus and chronic interstitial cystitis. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and azathioprine led to amelioration of manifestations. Later she developed lupus nephritis which was treated with mycophenolate mofetil.

  4. Lupus cystitis: An unusual presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Jana, S.; Roy, M. K.; Chatterjee, A.; Sarkar, A.; Mazumdar, S.; Mukherjee, P.; Mukhopadhyay, J.

    2014-01-01

    Lupus cystitis is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and occurs in association with gastrointestinal symptoms. This rare disorder has been reported mainly from Japan. We report a 20 year old female who diagnosed as having SLE associated with paralytic ileus and chronic interstitial cystitis. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and azathioprine led to amelioration of manifestations. Later she develop...

  5. Lupus cystitis: An unusual presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S; Jana, S; Roy, M K; Chatterjee, A; Sarkar, A; Mazumdar, S; Mukherjee, P; Mukhopadhyay, J

    2014-09-01

    Lupus cystitis is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and occurs in association with gastrointestinal symptoms. This rare disorder has been reported mainly from Japan. We report a 20 year old female who diagnosed as having SLE associated with paralytic ileus and chronic interstitial cystitis. Treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and azathioprine led to amelioration of manifestations. Later she developed lupus nephritis which was treated with mycophenolate mofetil.

  6. Bilaterally Diffuse Lacrimal Gland Involvement: Initial Presentation of Systemic Sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Bingöl Kızıltunç

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Orbital involvement in systemic sarcoidosis is a rare condition. We report a case of orbital sarcoidosis with bilaterally huge lacrimal gland involvement as the initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. A 20-year-old woman admitted the ophthalmology department with progressive bilateral upper eyelid swelling for 6 months. The only pathologic finding was the presence of bilateral, symmetrical, solid, lobular masses at the lateral upper eyelids at the location of lacrimal glands. On systemic examination, bilateral parotid and submandibular glands appeared swollen. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbit revealed bilateral symmetrical diffuse enlargement of the lacrimal glands with maximum and minimum thickness of 11 mm and 7 mm, respectively. The biopsy findings were compatible with sarcoidosis. Although lacrimal gland involvement has been reported in different studies, we for the first time report an unusual case with bilateral diffuse huge lacrimal gland involvement. Normal lacrimal gland thickness is approximately 4-5 mm in magnetic resonance imaging, while our case had bilateral diffuse enlargement of lacrimal glands, which showed maximum and minimum thickness of 11 mm and 7 mm, respectively. Although orbital involvement is uncommon in sarcoidosis, it should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of orbital masses.

  7. Cyanobacterial toxins: modes of actions, fate in aquatic and soil ecosystems, phytotoxicity and bioaccumulation in agricultural crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbel, Sylvain; Mougin, Christian; Bouaïcha, Noureddine

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in surface waters is often accompanied by the production of a variety of cyanotoxins. These toxins are designed to target in humans and animals specific organs on which they act: hepatotoxins (liver), neurotoxins (nervous system), cytotoxic alkaloids, and dermatotoxins (skin), but they often have important side effects too. When introduced into the soil ecosystem by spray irrigation of crops they may affect the same molecular pathways in plants having identical or similar target organs, tissues, cells or biomolecules. There are also several indications that terrestrial plants, including food crop plants, can bioaccumulate cyanotoxins and present, therefore, potential health hazards for human and animals. The number of publications concerned with phytotoxic effects of cyanotoxins on agricultural plants has increased recently. In this review, we first examine different cyanotoxins and their modes of actions in humans and mammals and occurrence of target biomolecules in vegetable organisms. Then we present environmental concentrations of cyanotoxins in freshwaters and their fate in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Finally, we highlight bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins in plants used for feed and food and its consequences on animals and human health. Overall, our review shows that the information on the effects of cyanotoxins on non-target organisms in the terrestrial environment is particularly scarce, and that there are still serious gaps in the knowledge about the fate in the soil ecosystems and phytotoxicity of these toxins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Presentation of geological date in Geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Blišťan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The thematic maps, spatial models and 3D simulations are the frequent form of presentation of geological data in GIS. Thematic maps and spatial models should represent quantitative and qualitative dates from a terrain measurement and laboratory study in an appropriate form. Point, line and shape marks use for presentation of qualitative dates in a practice.On the creation of thematic maps, various models and computer simulations work together. Team of researchers and engineers of different special oriented (geologist, land surveyors, builder, ecology, programmer work together on the creation of thematics maps, various models and computer simulation. It is important, that all the methodical directions and principles were observed by the creation of GIS because accrued GIS can be in the practice not use.

  9. Cyanobacterial crusts linked to soil productivity under different grazing management practices in Northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alchin, Bruce; Williams, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semi-arid Australia, the central role of healthy soil ecosystems in broad-acre grazing lands may be attributed to the widespread presence of cyanobacterial crusts. In terms of soil nutrient cycling and stability their role is particularly crucial in a climate dominated by annual dry seasons and variable wet seasons. In this study, we aimed to measure the contribution of cyanobacteria to soil nutrient cycling under contrasting levels of disturbance associated with grazing management. Field sampling was carried out on six paired sites (twelve properties) located across an east-west 3,000 km transect that covered different rangeland types on grazing properties in northern Australia (Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia). At each location paired sites were established and two different management systems were assessed, cell-paddock rotations (25-400 ha) and continuous grazing (200-2,000 ha). Cyanobacterial soil crusts were recorded from all of the twelve sites and cyanobacteria with the capacity to fix nitrogen were found at ten of the twelve sites. The overall diversity of cyanobacteria varied from three to ten species under any type of grazing system. As field work was conducted in the dry season, it is likely that the diversity may be greater in the wet season than the initial data may indicate. The average cyanobacterial soil crust cover across soil surfaces, between grass tussocks, during the dry season was estimated to be 50.9% and, 42.6% in the early wet season. This reflected longer established crust cover (dry season) versus newly established crusts. There was a high level of variability in the biomass of cyanobacteria however; the grazing system did not have any marked effect on the biomass for any one rangeland type. The grazing system differences did not appear to significantly influence the diversity at any location except on a floodplain in the Pilbara (WA). Biological nitrogen fixation by cyanobacteria was recorded at all

  10. NGDC Marine Geophysical Data Systems: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, G. F.; Divins, D. L.; Metzger, D. R.; Campagnoli, J. G.

    2001-12-01

    For the past quarter century, the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) has disseminated marine geophysical data previously submitted to the national archive which NGDC maintains for the scientific community. Beginning in 1977, with a conference of users to establish an exchange format, GEODAS(GEOphysical DAta System) has been a tool for describing, distributing, and exchanging marine geophysical data. In the last decade CD-ROM technology permitted distribution of entire databases along with GEODAS software. Described in Sharman, et al., Surveying and Land Information Systems, 58,3(1998)pp.141-146, GEODAS is an integrated, home-grown system developed to address a particular class of data in the absence of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) solutions. GEODAS has evolved to index the location and quality of multibeam data as well as providing a 1-minute, vertical beam derivative for those who did not wish to deal with the full array of data. NGDC's Coastal Relief Model (CRM) and Global Relief (ETOPO2) are also delivered with the GEODAS software as the primary management tool. The CRM represents a new evolution of NGDC data practice, delivering a gridded data product derived from, rather than, the primary data. Customer-demand for data easily imported into increasingly popular Geographic Information Systems(GIS) drove this change. Our delivery of the CRM includes "canned" graphic images with a web-structured CD-ROM delivery accessed by Web browsers, thus allowing COTS solutions for multi-platform access. GEODAS software permits resampling, joining, and otherwise reformatting the data for export. Future developments include two proposals to deliver high volume data sets (e.g. multibeam, and acoustic imagery/side scan) and data in a spatially enabled format via the Web. Both will begin using COTS solutions that accommodate the needs of a specialized MGG community and their data. Future directions include increasing use of COTS packages, when applicable, to manage and

  11. Glioblastoma in the limbic system presenting as sustained central hypopnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Mashiko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 71-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital after experiencing an epigastric sensation followed by unconsciousness. On arrival, the patient showed impaired consciousness without convulsive movement, cyanosis and shallow breathing, arterial O2 desaturation, and increased PCO2. Artificial respiration improved CO2 accumulation and consciousness, but interruption of artificial respiration returned the patient to her former state. Computed tomography of the head showed a mass around the left corpus callosum. The patient's hypopnea followed by unconsciousness suggested sustained nonconvulsive epilepsy manifesting in central hypopnea and subsequent unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis. Intravenous (IV anticonvulsants promptly improved the respiratory condition, and the patient started to regain consciousness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion involving the bilateral limbic systems. To our knowledge, limbic seizure manifesting with hypopnea causing unconsciousness due to CO2 narcosis has not previously been reported, despite evidence of a strong relationship between the limbic and respiratory systems. The current case suggests that sustained limbic seizure can manifest as hypopnea. Since emergency EEG can be difficult to perform, IV anticonvulsant treatment is an appropriate diagnostic therapy.

  12. The cyanobacterial metabolite nocuolin a is a natural oxadiazine that triggers apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Voráčová

    Full Text Available Oxadiazines are heterocyclic compounds containing N-N-O or N-N-C-O system within a six membered ring. These structures have been up to now exclusively prepared via organic synthesis. Here, we report the discovery of a natural oxadiazine nocuolin A (NoA that has a unique structure based on 1,2,3-oxadiazine. We have identified this compound in three independent cyanobacterial strains of genera Nostoc, Nodularia, and Anabaena and recognized the putative gene clusters for NoA biosynthesis in their genomes. Its structure was characterized using a combination of NMR, HRMS and FTIR methods. The compound was first isolated as a positive hit during screening for apoptotic inducers in crude cyanobacterial extracts. We demonstrated that NoA-induced cell death has attributes of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, NoA exhibits a potent anti-proliferative activity (0.7-4.5 μM against several human cancer lines, with p53-mutated cell lines being even more sensitive. Since cancers bearing p53 mutations are resistant to several conventional anti-cancer drugs, NoA may offer a new scaffold for the development of drugs that have the potential to target tumor cells independent of their p53 status. As no analogous type of compound was previously described in the nature, NoA establishes a novel class of bioactive secondary metabolites.

  13. The production of cyanobacterial carbon under nitrogen-limited cultivation and its potential for nitrate removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yingying; Li, Panpan; Chen, Guiqin; Peng, Lin; Chen, Xuechu

    2018-01-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) represent a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. A beneficial use for these harmful microorganisms would be a promising resolution of this urgent issue. This study applied a simple method, nitrogen limitation, to cultivate cyanobacteria aimed at producing cyanobacterial carbon for denitrification. Under nitrogen-limited conditions, the common cyanobacterium, Microcystis, efficiently used nitrate, and had a higher intracellular C/N ratio. More importantly, organic carbons easily leached from its dry powder; these leachates were biodegradable and contained a larger amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and carbohydrates, but a smaller amount of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and proteins. When applied to an anoxic system with a sediment-water interface, a significant increase of the specific NO X - -N removal rate was observed that was 14.2 times greater than that of the control. This study first suggests that nitrogen-limited cultivation is an efficient way to induce organic and carbohydrate accumulation in cyanobacteria, as well as a high C/N ratio, and that these cyanobacteria can act as a promising carbon source for denitrification. The results indicate that application as a carbon source is not only a new way to utilize cyanobacteria, but it also contributes to nitrogen removal in aquatic ecosystems, further limiting the proliferation of CyanoHABs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeger, Stefan J.; Hitzfeld, Bettina C.; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    Toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in surface waters used as drinking water resources. The toxicity of one group of these toxins, the microcystins, and their presence in surface waters used for drinking water production has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a provisional guideline value of 1.0 μg microcystin (MC)-LR/l drinking water. To verify the efficiency of two different water treatment systems with respect to reduction of cyanobacterial toxins, the concentrations of MC in water samples from surface waters and their associated water treatment plants in Switzerland and Germany were investigated. Toxin concentrations in samples from drinking water treatment plants ranged from below 1.0 μg MC-LR equiv./l to more than 8.0 μg/l in raw water and were distinctly below 1.0 μg/l after treatment. In addition, data to the worldwide occurrence of cyanobacteria in raw and final water of water works and the corresponding guidelines for cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water worldwide are summarized

  15. The cyanobacterial metabolite nocuolin a is a natural oxadiazine that triggers apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voráčová, Kateřina; Hájek, Jan; Mareš, Jan; Urajová, Petra; Kuzma, Marek; Cheel, José; Villunger, Andreas; Kapuscik, Alexandra; Bally, Marcel; Novák, Petr; Kabeláč, Martin; Krumschnabel, Gerhard; Lukeš, Martin; Voloshko, Ludmila; Kopecký, Jiří; Hrouzek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Oxadiazines are heterocyclic compounds containing N-N-O or N-N-C-O system within a six membered ring. These structures have been up to now exclusively prepared via organic synthesis. Here, we report the discovery of a natural oxadiazine nocuolin A (NoA) that has a unique structure based on 1,2,3-oxadiazine. We have identified this compound in three independent cyanobacterial strains of genera Nostoc, Nodularia, and Anabaena and recognized the putative gene clusters for NoA biosynthesis in their genomes. Its structure was characterized using a combination of NMR, HRMS and FTIR methods. The compound was first isolated as a positive hit during screening for apoptotic inducers in crude cyanobacterial extracts. We demonstrated that NoA-induced cell death has attributes of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, NoA exhibits a potent anti-proliferative activity (0.7-4.5 μM) against several human cancer lines, with p53-mutated cell lines being even more sensitive. Since cancers bearing p53 mutations are resistant to several conventional anti-cancer drugs, NoA may offer a new scaffold for the development of drugs that have the potential to target tumor cells independent of their p53 status. As no analogous type of compound was previously described in the nature, NoA establishes a novel class of bioactive secondary metabolites.

  16. A single phosphorus treatment doubles growth of cyanobacterial lichen transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Bruce; Caldwell, Bruce A

    2009-02-01

    Lichens are reputedly slow growing and become unhealthy or die in response to supplements of the usual limiting resources, such as water and nitrogen. We found, however, that the tripartite cyanobacterial lichen Lobaria pulmonaria doubled in annual biomass growth after a single 20-minute immersion in a phosphorus solution (K2HPO4), as compared to controls receiving no supplemental phosphorus. This stimulation of cyanolichens by phosphorus has direct relevance to community and population ecology of lichens, including improving models of lichen performance in relation to air quality, improving forest management practices affecting old-growth associated cyanolichens, and understanding the distribution and abundance of cyanolichens on the landscape. Phosphorus may be as important a stimulant to cyanobacterial-rich lichen communities as it is to cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems.

  17. Cyanobacterial chemotaxis to extracts of host and nonhost plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Malin; Rasmussen, Ulla; Bergman, Birgitta

    2006-03-01

    Chemotaxis may be important when forming cyanobacterial symbioses. However, knowledge of cyanobacterial attraction towards plants and factors affecting chemotaxis is limited. Chemo-attraction was observed in Nostoc strains 8964:3 and PCC 73102 towards exudate or crushed extract of the natural hosts Gunnera manicata, Cycas revoluta and Blasia pusilla, and the nonhost plants Trifolium repens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. As all tested plant extracts generated chemotaxis, the possibility to attract cyanobacteria may be widespread in plants. Chemotaxis was reduced by increased temperature and darkness and was stimulated by phosphorous and iron starvation and elevated salt concentration. Sugars (arabinose, galactose, and glucose) had a positive effect on chemotaxis, whereas flavonoids (chrysin and naringenin) and amino acids (methionine, glycine, serine, phenylalanine, glutamine, and lysine) had no effect.

  18. Typology of secondary cyanobacterial metabolites from minimum spanning tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyot, M; Doré, J C; Devillers, J

    2004-04-01

    Recently, two main events have spurred a rapid increase in cyanobacteria chemical, toxicological, and ecological research. The first deals with the interest in isolating compounds from these organisms as source of active products with potential therapeutic applications. The second pertains the crucial problem of harmful cyanobacterial blooms in the aquatic environments. In this context, 594 secondary metabolites belonging to more than 30 genera of cyanobacteria were retrieved from literature. In order to perform their typology, they were first associated with 87 different molecular archetypes and two orphan classes. These 89 groups of molecular structures were then confronted to minimum spanning tree analysis. Attempts were made to graphically derive chemotaxonomical relationships. The interest of QSAR models for estimating the potential pharmacological interest of the cyanobacterial secondary metabolites was also discussed.

  19. Assessment of Chemical and Physico-Chemical Properties of Cyanobacterial Lipids for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heizir F. De Castro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Five non-toxin producing cyanobacterial isolates from the genera Synechococcus, Trichormus, Microcystis, Leptolyngbya and Chlorogloea were examined in terms of quantity and quality as lipid feedstock for biofuel production. Under the conditions used in this study, the biomass productivity ranged from 3.7 to 52.7 mg·L−1·day−1 in relation to dry biomass, while the lipid productivity varied between 0.8 and 14.2 mg·L−1·day−1. All cyanobacterial strains evaluated yielded lipids with similar fatty acid composition to those present in the seed oils successfully used for biodiesel synthesis. However, by combining biomass and lipid productivity parameters, the greatest potential was found for Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, M. aeruginosa NPCD-1 and Trichormus sp. CENA77. The chosen lipid samples were further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, viscosity and thermogravimetry and used as lipid feedstock for biodiesel synthesis by heterogeneous catalysis.

  20. Treatment of Cyanobacterial (Microcystin Toxicosis Using Oral Cholestyramine: Case Report of a Dog from Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Murray

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A two and a half year old spayed female Miniature Australian Shepherd presented to a Montana veterinary clinic with acute onset of anorexia, vomiting and depression. Two days prior, the dog was exposed to an algal bloom in a community lake. Within h, the animal became lethargic and anorexic, and progressed to severe depression and vomiting. A complete blood count and serum chemistry panel suggested acute hepatitis, and a severe coagulopathy was noted clinically. Feces from the affected dog were positive for the cyanobacterial biotoxin, microcystin-LA (217 ppb. The dog was hospitalized for eight days. Supportive therapy consisted of fluids, mucosal protectants, vitamins, antibiotics, and nutritional supplements. On day five of hospitalization, a bile acid sequestrant, cholestyramine, was administered orally. Rapid clinical improvement was noted within 48 h of initiating oral cholestyramine therapy. At 17 days post-exposure the dog was clinically normal, and remained clinically normal at re-check, one year post-exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report of successful treatment of canine cyanobacterial (microcystin toxicosis. Untreated microcystin intoxication is commonly fatal, and can result in significant liver damage in surviving animals. The clinical success of this case suggests that oral administration of cholestyramine, in combination with supportive therapy, could significantly reduce hospitalization time, cost-of-care and mortality for microcystin-poisoned animals

  1. Ecology, Diversity and Comparative Genomics of Oceanic Cyanobacterial Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102 (ZP_00107423). 170 Chisholm Supplementary Figure 5 Agrobacterium tumefaciens Brucella melitensis • Sinorhizobium meliloti 9...phosphatase of Synechococcus PCC 7942 and related cyanobacterial genes. Accession numbers as follows: Brucella melitensis (NP_541633.1), Agrobacterium...can result in a rapid succession of phi PM2, was isolated off the coast of Chile in microbial species (Thingstad and Lignell, 1997; the 1960s (Espejo

  2. MODIS observations of cyanobacterial risks in a eutrophic lake: Implications for long-term safety evaluation in drinking-water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hongtao; Tao, Min; Loiselle, Steven Arthur; Zhao, Wei; Cao, Zhigang; Ma, Ronghua; Tang, Xiaoxian

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence and related risks from cyanobacterial blooms have increased world-wide over the past 40 years. Information on the abundance and distribution of cyanobacteria is fundamental to support risk assessment and management activities. In the present study, an approach based on Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis was used to estimate the concentrations of chlorophyll a (Chla) and the cyanobacterial biomarker pigment phycocyanin (PC) using data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in Lake Chaohu (China's fifth largest freshwater lake). The approach was developed and tested using fourteen years (2000-2014) of MODIS images, which showed significant spatial and temporal variability of the PC:Chla ratio, an indicator of cyanobacterial dominance. The results had unbiased RMS uncertainties of importance of nutrient and climate conditions for this dominance. Low TN:TP ratios (Water Quality Decision Matrix (WQDM) was designed to assist authorities in the identification of possible intake areas, as well as specific months when higher frequency monitoring and more intense water treatment would be required if the location of the present intake area remained the same. Remote sensing cyanobacterial risk mapping provides a new tool for reservoir and lake management programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Presentation of pain in patients suffering from systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic sclerosis (SSc is a chronic autoimmune disease with very heterogeneous clinical manifestations. There are not many studies which directly research the pain experienced by patients with SSc. Aim: Evaluation of pain in patients with verified systemic sclerosis; making comparison in the two subsets of SSc (diffuse and limited and in the anti-centromere antibodies (ACA and anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies (ATA detected in patients. Material and methods: The study group included 42 patients with SSc. The research was conducted at the Institute of Rheumatology in Belgrade. Each patient was asked to complete the questionnaire, which included the questions about frequency, location and intensity of the pain. Two statistical methodologies were used in the data analysis: descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: Most of the patients (93% confirmed they had some kind of pain . Arthralgia was the most common pain symptom (78,6%, 29 (69% suffered from pain during Raynaud phenomenon, the back pain was found in 20 (47,6%, a headache in 13 (31%, the chest pain in 10 (23,8%, odynophagia in 9 (21,4% and in 8 (19% patients painful digital ulcers. The pain from digital ulcers was rated as the most intensive with the average value of 8,5/10. The patients with diffuse subset of SSc had a higher average intensity score of arthralgia (7,6, compared to those with limited SSc (5,5. The statistically significant difference in the frequency and intensity of the pain in the patients with anti-topoisomerase-I antibodies and the patients with anti-centromere antibodies was not found. Conclusion: Most of the patients suffer from some kind of pain. The most common pain was arthralgia, and the most intensive one was from digital ulcers, although it was the rarest. The pain frequency and intensity were not significantly different in patients with anti-topoisomerase-I and anti-centromere antibodies. There was a statisticaly significant difference in the

  4. High density collinear holographic data storage system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiaodi; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Arai, Ryo; Ikeda, Junichi; Inoue, Mitsuteru; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Ke; Liu, Jinpeng; Huang, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Collinear holography has been good candidate for a volumetric recording technology of holographic data storage system (HDSS), because of there are not only large storage capacities, high transfer rates, but also the unique configuration, in which the information and reference beams are modulated co-axially by the same spatial light modulator, as a new read/write method for HDSS are very promising. The optical pickup can be designed as small as DVDs, and can be placed on one side of the recording media (disc). In the disc structure, the preformatted reflective layer is used for the focus/tracking servo and reading address information, and a dichroic mirror layer is used for detecting holographic recording information without interfering with the preformatted information. A 2-dimensional digital page data format is used and the shift-multiplexing method is employed to increase recording density. As servo technologies are being introduced to control the objective lens to be maintained precisely to the disc in the recording and reconstructing process, a vibration isolator is no longer necessary. In this paper, we introduced the principle of the collinear holography and its media structure of disc. Some results of experimental and theoretical studies suggest that it is a very effective method. We also discussed some methods to increase the recording density and data transfer rates of collinear holography using phase modulated page data format.

  5. Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia Mantzouki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins. Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains.

  6. Systemic methotrexate therapy for psoriasis: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, S; Mahajan, R

    2013-08-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) has remained the backbone of the treatment for moderate to severe psoriasis ever since its first use nearly half a century ago. Over the years, its high efficacy, low cost, relative ease of administration and usefulness in concomitant psoriatic arthritis have contributed in making MTX the drug of choice in managing severe psoriasis. Although the majority of patients achieve remission of disease activity with MTX, a significant proportion may experience mild and transient adverse effects. From time to time, various guidelines on the use of MTX have correctly and adequately stressed the need for strict monitoring of haematological and hepatic adverse events. Over the years, the safe total cumulative dose of MTX (above which the risk of developing liver fibrosis is significantly increased) has been raised. Simultaneously, there has been an increased emphasis on developing noninvasive tests such as scanning and serum biomarker assays for detecting early liver fibrosis, in order to obviate the need for liver biopsy. However, the recent discovery and subsequent proliferating use of biological response modifiers has gradually shifted the focus away from MTX, despite it still being the most commonly prescribed drug for psoriasis worldwide. The aim of this review is to present a detailed account of MTX therapy and its use in psoriasis, along with its current relevance in disease management in the evolving era of biological drugs. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Skin condition measurement by using multispectral imaging system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Geunho; Kim, Sungchul; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2017-02-01

    There are a number of commercially available low level light therapy (LLLT) devices in a market, and face whitening or wrinkle reduction is one of targets in LLLT. The facial improvement could be known simply by visual observation of face, but it cannot provide either quantitative data or recognize a subtle change. Clinical diagnostic instruments such as mexameter can provide a quantitative data, but it costs too high for home users. Therefore, we designed a low cost multi-spectral imaging device by adding additional LEDs (470nm, 640nm, white LED, 905nm) to a commercial USB microscope which has two LEDs (395nm, 940nm) as light sources. Among various LLLT skin treatments, we focused on getting melanin and wrinkle information. For melanin index measurements, multi-spectral images of nevus were acquired and melanin index values from color image (conventional method) and from multi-spectral images were compared. The results showed that multi-spectral analysis of melanin index can visualize nevus with a different depth and concentration. A cross section of wrinkle on skin resembles a wedge which can be a source of high frequency components when the skin image is Fourier transformed into a spatial frequency domain map. In that case, the entropy value of the spatial frequency map can represent the frequency distribution which is related with the amount and thickness of wrinkle. Entropy values from multi-spectral images can potentially separate the percentage of thin and shallow wrinkle from thick and deep wrinkle. From the results, we found that this low cost multi-spectral imaging system could be beneficial for home users of LLLT by providing the treatment efficacy in a quantitative way.

  8. Evans syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical presentation and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costallat, Guilherme Lavras; Appenzeller, Simone; Costallat, Lilian Tereza Lavras

    2012-07-01

    To review the clinical, laboratory and outcome features of Evans syndrome (ES) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. We reviewed the charts of 953 SLE patients followed up regularly at our service. ES was defined as the presence of hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia concomitantly or sequentially. Clinical and laboratory manifestations occurring during the disease course, as well as concomitant diseases and survival was carefully reviewed. We identified ES in 26 of 953 (2.7%) SLE patients. Twenty-three were women with mean age at SLE diagnosis of 25.7 years. Four (15%) patients had disease onset before the age of 16. In the majority of patients (92%), immune thrombocytopenia and AIHA appeared simultaneously at the beginning of SLE. Active features of SLE were a frequent finding concomitant to ES, especially arthritis (77%), malar rash (61.5%), photosensitivity (57.6%), oral ulcers (34.6%), nephritis (73%), serositis (54%), neuropsychiatric (19%) and pulmonary (15%) manifestations. In addition to this multisystemic disease, 34.6% of our patients had an association with another autoimmune disease such as antiphospholipid syndrome. Recurrence of ES was observed in only four (15%) patients. After follow-up time of 8.72 years, 19 patients (73%) were in remission and seven (27%) patients died. ES is a rare manifestation in SLE, occurring in patients with severe multisystemic SLE manifestations. Treatment strategies frequently used in SLE contribute to longer disease remission and less frequent exacerbation than observed in the general population with ES. Copyright © 2011 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Remote sensing as a tool for monitoring water quality parameters for Mediterranean Lakes of European Union water framework directive (WFD) and as a system of surveillance of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms (SCyanoHABs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, José Antonio Domínguez; Alonso, Covadonga Alonso; García, Ana Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Remote sensing has been used from the 1980s to study inland water quality. However, it was not until the beginning of the twenty-first century that CHRIS (an experimental multi-angle sensor with good spectral and spatial resolutions) and MERIS (with good temporal and spectral resolutions) started to acquire imagery with very good resolutions, which allowed to develop a reliable imagery acquisition system so as to consider remote sensing as an inland water management tool. This paper presents the methodology developed, from the field data acquisition with which to build a freshwater spectral library and the study of different atmospheric correction systems for CHRIS mode 2 and MERIS images, to the development of algorithms to determine chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin concentrations and bloom sites. All these algorithms allow determining water eutrophic and ecological states, apart from generating surveillance maps of toxic cyanobacteria with the main objective of Assessment of the Water Quality as it was used for Monitoring Ecological Water Quality in smallest Mediterranean Reservoirs integrated in the Intercalibration Exercise of European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD). We keep on using it to monitor the Ecological Quality Ratio (EQR) in Spain inland water.

  10. Calcium carbonate precipitation in cyanobacterial mats from sandy tidal flats of the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, B.; Kazmierczak, J.; Stal, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Precipitated calcium carbonate was found in annual cyanobacterial mats developing on the beaches of the North Sea barrier island Schiermonnikoog (the Netherlands). A variety of different calcium carbonate morphs were found in the cyanobacterial mucous secretions and identified by light- and scanning

  11. Cyanobacterial community diversity in the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Lin Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial community diversity in the sediment of the Pearl River Estuary in China was evaluated in this study by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE during the wet and dry seasons. Nucleotide sequences obtained from DGGE bands were classified into five cyanobacterial clusters, including Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Chroococcus, Prochlorales and Tolypothrix. Synechococcus was identified as the dominant cyanobacterial group in the sediment samples; its distribution varied from the inner estuary to the outer estuary, with a wide range of salinity adaptation. Observed patterns of cyanobacterial communities changed markedly between sampling sites and seasons, suggesting that most cyanobacteria were not delivered via fresh water. Canonical correspondence analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between environmental variables and bacterial community structures during the dry season. The results suggested that the cyanobacterial community was significantly influenced by pH, salinity, PO4-P and NO3-N in sediments.

  12. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paerl, Hans W., E-mail: hpaerl@email.unc.edu; Hall, Nathan S.; Calandrino, Elizabeth S.

    2011-04-15

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N{sub 2}) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N{sub 2} fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. - Research Highlights: {yields} Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) increasingly threaten global water supplies. {yields} Human (nutrient) and climate (hydrology, temperature) changes synergistically promote CyanoHABs. {yields

  13. Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paerl, Hans W.; Hall, Nathan S.; Calandrino, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    Harmful (toxic, food web altering, hypoxia generating) cyanobacterial algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are proliferating world-wide due to anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, and they represent a serious threat to the use and sustainability of our freshwater resources. Traditionally, phosphorus (P) input reductions have been prescribed to control CyanoHABs, because P limitation is widespread and some CyanoHABs can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N 2 ) to satisfy their nitrogen (N) requirements. However, eutrophying systems are increasingly plagued with non N 2 fixing CyanoHABs that are N and P co-limited or even N limited. In many of these systems N loads are increasing faster than P loads. Therefore N and P input constraints are likely needed for long-term CyanoHAB control in such systems. Climatic changes, specifically warming, increased vertical stratification, salinization, and intensification of storms and droughts play additional, interactive roles in modulating CyanoHAB frequency, intensity, geographic distribution and duration. In addition to having to consider reductions in N and P inputs, water quality managers are in dire need of effective tools to break the synergy between nutrient loading and hydrologic regimes made more favorable for CyanoHABs by climate change. The more promising of these tools make affected waters less hospitable for CyanoHABs by 1) altering the hydrology to enhance vertical mixing and/or flushing and 2) decreasing nutrient fluxes from organic rich sediments by physically removing the sediments or capping sediments with clay. Effective future CyanoHAB management approaches must incorporate both N and P loading dynamics within the context of altered thermal and hydrologic regimes associated with climate change. - Research Highlights: → Toxic cyanobacterial blooms (CyanoHABs) increasingly threaten global water supplies. → Human (nutrient) and climate (hydrology, temperature) changes synergistically promote CyanoHABs. → CyanoHAB control

  14. Variable Cyanobacterial Toxin and Metabolite  Profiles across Six Eutrophic Lakes of Differing  Physiochemical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas J. Beversdorf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Future sustainability of freshwater resources is seriously threatened due to the presence of harmful cyanobacterial blooms, and yet, the number, extent, and distribution of most cyanobacterial toxins—including “emerging” toxins and other bioactive compounds—are poorly understood. We measured 15 cyanobacterial compounds—including four microcystins (MC, saxitoxin (SXT, cylindrospermopsin (CYL, anatoxin-a (ATX and homo-anatoxin-a (hATX, two anabaenopeptins (Apt, three cyanopeptolins (Cpt, microginin (Mgn, and nodularin (NOD—in six freshwater lakes that regularly experience noxious cHABs. MC, a human liver toxin, was present in all six lakes and was detected in 80% of all samples. Similarly, Apt, Cpt, and Mgn were detected in all lakes in roughly 86%, 50%, and 35% of all samples, respectively. Despite being a notable brackish water toxin, NOD was detected in the two shallowest lakes—Wingra (4.3 m and Koshkonong (2.1 m. All compounds were highly variable temporally, and spatially. Metabolite profiles were significantly different between lakes suggesting lake characteristics influenced the cyanobacterial community and/or metabolite production. Understanding how cyanobacterial toxins are distributed across eutrophic lakes may shed light onto the ecological function of these metabolites, provide valuable information for their remediation and removal, and aid in the protection of public health.

  15. Impacts of microcystin, a cyanobacterial toxin, on laboratory rodents in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ziková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacterial water blooms became a global problem/issue because beside a dramatic deterioration of water quality parameters they also produce cyanobacterial toxins being harmful for animals and humans. Cyanotoxins especially the most prominent one, microcystin-LR (MC-LR, are of major concern and they have been reported to cause even death of mammals following ingestion or ingurgitation due to hepatotoxic modes of action. The aim of the recent study is to summarize briefly the impacts of microcystin on laboratory rodents, mice and rats, being used as models for other mammals including human beings. Most experimental approaches used intraperitoneal rather than oral and intratracheal application of microcystins, especially MC-LR, being the most efficient way to induce adverse impacts on different target organs. However, no matter how the exposure of rodents was performed, microcystins induced severe harmful impacts on the different target organs, preferentially the liver, for instances hemorrhages and apoptosis in liver, liver tumours, adverse effects on gut, kidney, testis and epididymis including spermatogenesis, on lung, on serum parameters and on progeny. In addition to these histological findings, microcystin was found to affect specifically biochemical parameters of target organs such as enzymes e.g. GST, CAT, GR, GPX, SOD, AST, ALT, γ-GT, protein phosphatases, SDH, SoDH and LDH or stress proteins such as HSP-70 and further parameters such as hepatic sulfhydryl content, GSH depletion, total bilirubin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine. Gene array analyses revealed that microcystin affects genes related to actin organization, cell cycle, apoptosis, cellular redox potential, cell signalling, albumin metabolism, glucose homeostasis pathway and organic anion transport polypeptide system. In combination with a further proteomics approach the proteomic analyses indicate that liver apoptosis induced by microcystin can be induced by two pathways: the

  16. Use of Ion-Channel Modulating Agents to Study Cyanobacterial Na+ - K+ Fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomati Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe an experimental design aimed to investigate changes in total cellular levels of Na+ and K+ ions in cultures of freshwater filamentous cyanobacteria. Ion concentrations were measured in whole cells by flame photometry. Cellular Na+ levels increased exponentially with rising alkalinity, with K+ levels being maximal for optimal growth pH (~8. At standardized pH conditions, the increase in cellular Na+, as induced by NaCl at 10 mM, was coupled by the two sodium channel-modulating agents lidocaine hydrochloride at 1 &mgr;M and veratridine at 100 &mgr;M. Both the channel-blockers amiloride (1 mM and saxitoxin (1 &mgr;M, decreased cell-bound Na+ and K+ levels. Results presented demonstrate the robustness of well-defined channel blockers and channel-activators in the study of cyanobacterial Na+- K+ fluxes.

  17. Optimizing cyanobacterial product synthesis: Meeting the challenges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zavřel, Tomáš; Červený, Jan; Knoop, H.; Steuer, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2016), s. 490-496 ISSN 2165-5979 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015055; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17367S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : MIMS * biotechnology * biofuels * biotechnology * cyanobacteria * ethylene * genome-scale models (GSM) * photobioreactors * systems biology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.691, year: 2016

  18. Cyanobacterial bloom in the world largest freshwater lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsaraev, Zorigto; Melnikova, Anna; Ivanov, Vasiliy; Komova, Anastasia; Teslyuk, Anton

    2018-02-01

    Lake Baikal is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and holds 20% of the world’s freshwater reserves. On July 26, 2016, a cyanobacterial bloom of a green colour a few kilometers in size with a bad odor was discovered by local people in the Barguzinsky Bay on the eastern shore of Lake Baikal. Our study showed very high concentration of chlorophyll a (41.7 g/m3) in the sample of bloom. We found that the bloom was dominated by a nitrogen-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria of the genus Dolichospermum. The mass accumulation of cyanobacteria in the lake water with an extremely high chlorophyll a concentration can be explained by a combination of several factors: the discharge of biologicaly-available nutrients, including phosphorus, into the water of Lake Baikal; low wind speed and weak water mixing; buoyant cyanobacterial cells on the lake surface, which drifted towards the eastern coast, where the maximum concentration of chlorophyll a was recorded. In the center of the Barguzinsky Bay and in the open part of Lake Baikal, according to satellite data, the chlorophyll a concentration is several orders of magnitude lower than at the shoreline.

  19. The history of cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finni, T; Kononen, K; Olsonen, R; Wallström, K

    2001-08-01

    Long-term information on possible changes in cyanobacterial blooms in the Baltic Sea, formed mainly by Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp., was sought in published records in historical (years 1887-1938) and modern (years 1974-1998) phytoplankton data sets. Old and new sampling methods and fixatives were tested to improve the comparison of data that had been collected and analyzed in different ways. A hundred years ago, plankton was mainly of interest as a source of fish food; eutrophication problems were only locally reported from the coast, mainly in southern haffs and the receiving waters of larger cities. There were few recordings of open-sea blooms before World War II. Abundances of Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon sp. were low in the old material, and 137 summer samples from 1887-1938 showed no peak abundance. High abundances are common in the new material, and the range of the numbers of both taxa has increased markedly relative to the old material. Since the 1960s, cyanobacterial blooms have been common in the open sea in both the Baltic proper and the Gulf of Finland, indicating high availability of nutrients.

  20. Metagenomic Study of Iron Homeostasis in Iron Depositing Hot Spring Cyanobacterial Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Franklin H.; Tringe, S. G.; Klatt, C. G.; Bryant, D. A.; Sarkisova, S. A.; Guevara, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is not clear how an iron-rich thermal hydrosphere could be hospitable to cyanobacteria, since reduced iron appears to stimulate oxidative stress in all domains of life and particularly in oxygenic phototrophs. Therefore, metagenomic study of cyanobacterial community in iron-depositing hot springs may help elucidate how oxygenic prokaryotes can withstand the extremely high concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by interaction between environmental Fe2+ and O2. Method: Anchor proteins from various species of cyanobacteria and some anoxygenic phototrophs were selected on the basis of their hypothetical role in Fe homeostasis and the suppression of oxidative stress and were BLASTed against the metagenomes of iron-depositing Chocolate Pots and freshwater Mushroom hot springs. Results: BLASTing proteins hypothesized to be involved in Fe homeostasis against the microbiomes from the two springs revealed that iron-depositing hot spring has a greater abundance of defensive proteins such as bacterioferritin comigratory protein (Bcp) and DNA-binding Ferritin like protein (Dps) than a fresh-water hot spring. One may speculate that the abundance of Bcp and Dps in an iron-depositing hot spring is connected to the need to suppress oxidative stress in bacteria inhabiting environments with high Fe2+ concnetration. In both springs, Bcp and Dps are concentrated within the cyanobacterial fractions of the microbial community (regardless of abundance). Fe3+ siderophore transport (from the transport system permease protein query) may be less essential to the microbial community of CP because of the high [Fe]. Conclusion: Further research is needed to confirm that these proteins are unique to photoautotrophs such as those living in iron-depositing hot spring.

  1. Large red cyanobacterial mats (Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont in the shallow sublittoral of the southern Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Balazy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the first observation of large red cyanobacterial mats in the southern Baltic Sea. The mats (up to 2.5 m in diameter were observed by SCUBA divers at 7.7 m depth on loamy sediments in the Gulf of Gdańsk in mid-November 2013. The main structure of the mat was formed by cyanobacteria Spirulina subsalsa Oersted ex Gomont; a number of other cyanobacteria, diatoms and nematode species were also present. After a few days in the laboratory, the red trichomes of S. subsalsa started to turn blue-green in colour, suggesting the strong chromatic acclimation abilities of this species.

  2. Cyanobacterial Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferases functionalize carrier proteins of diverse biosynthetic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yi; Lee, Nicholas K; Cozad, Monica A; Kearney, Sara E; Luesch, Hendrik; Ding, Yousong

    2017-09-19

    Cyanobacteria produce structurally and functionally diverse polyketides, nonribosomal peptides and their hybrids. Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are essential to the production of these compounds via functionalizing carrier proteins (CPs) of biosynthetic megaenzymes. However, cyanobacterial Sfp-type PPTases remain poorly characterized, posing a significant barrier to the exploitation of cyanobacteria for biotechnological and biomedical applications. Herein, we describe the detailed characterization of multiple cyanobacterial Sfp-type PPTases that were rationally selected. Biochemical characterization of these enzymes along with the prototypic enzyme Sfp from Bacillus subtilis demonstrated their varying specificities toward 11 recombinant CPs of different types of biosynthetic pathways from cyanobacterial and Streptomyces strains. Kinetic analysis further indicated that PPTases possess the higher binding affinity and catalytic efficiency toward their cognate CPs in comparison with noncognate substrates. Moreover, when chromosomally replacing the native PPTase gene of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, two selected cyanobacterial PPTases and Sfp supported the growth of resulted mutants. Cell lysates of the cyanobacterial mutants further functionalized recombinant CP substrates. Collectively, these studies reveal the versatile catalysis of selected cyanobacterial PPTases and provide new tools to synthesize cyanobacterial natural products using in vitro and in vivo synthetic biology approaches.

  3. Spatial patterns and links between microbial community composition and function in cyanobacterial mats

    KAUST Repository

    Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad

    2014-08-06

    We imaged reflectance and variable fluorescence in 25 cyanobacterial mats from four distant sites around the globe to assess, at different scales of resolution, spatial variabilities in the physiological parameters characterizing their photosynthetic capacity, including the absorptivity by chlorophyll a (Achl), maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Ymax), and light acclimation irradiance (Ik). Generally, these parameters significantly varied within individual mats on a sub-millimeter scale, with about 2-fold higher variability in the vertical than in the horizontal direction. The average vertical profiles of Ymax and Ik decreased with depth in the mat, while Achl exhibited a sub-surface maximum. The within-mat variability was comparable to, but often larger than, the between-sites variability, whereas the within-site variabilities (i.e., between samples from the same site) were generally lowest. When compared based on averaged values of their photosynthetic parameters, mats clustered according to their site of origin. Similar clustering was found when the community composition of the mats\\' cyanobacterial layers were compared by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), indicating a significant link between the microbial community composition and function. Although this link is likely the result of community adaptation to the prevailing site-specific environmental conditions, our present data is insufficient to identify the main factors determining these patterns. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the spatial variability in the photosynthetic capacity and light acclimation of benthic phototrophic microbial communities is at least as large on a sub-millimeter scale as it is on a global scale, and suggests that this pattern of variability scaling is similar for the microbial community composition. © 2014 Al-Najjar, Ramette, Kühl, Hamza, Klatt and Polerecky.

  4. Cyanobacterial effects in Lake Ludoš, Serbia - Is preservation of a degraded aquatic ecosystem justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokodi, Nada; Drobac, Damjana; Meriluoto, Jussi; Lujić, Jelena; Marinović, Zoran; Važić, Tamara; Nybom, Sonja; Simeunović, Jelica; Dulić, Tamara; Lazić, Gospava; Petrović, Tamaš; Vuković-Gačić, Branka; Sunjog, Karolina; Kolarević, Stoimir; Kračun-Kolarević, Margareta; Subakov-Simić, Gordana; Miljanović, Branko; Codd, Geoffrey A; Svirčev, Zorica

    2018-04-20

    Cyanobacteria are present in many aquatic ecosystems in Serbia. Lake Ludoš, a wetland area of international significance and an important habitat for waterbirds, has become the subject of intense research interest because of practically continuous blooming of cyanobacteria. Analyses of water samples indicated a deterioration of ecological condition and water quality, and the presence of toxin-producing cyanobacteria (the most abundant Limnothrix redekei, Pseudanabaena limnetica, Planktothrix agardhii and Microcystis spp.). Furthermore, microcystins were detected in plants and animals from the lake: in macrophyte rhizomes (Phragmites communis, Typha latifolia and Nymphaea elegans), and in the muscle, intestines, kidneys, gonads and gills of fish (Carassius gibelio). Moreover, histopathological deleterious effects (liver, kidney, gills and intestines) and DNA damage (liver and gills) were observed in fish. A potential treatment for the reduction of cyanobacterial populations employing hydrogen peroxide was tested during this study. The treatment was not effective in laboratory tests although further in-lake trials are needed to make final conclusions about the applicability of the method. Based on our observations of the cyanobacterial populations and cyanotoxins in the water, as well as other aquatic organisms and, a survey of historical data on Lake Ludoš, it can be concluded that the lake is continuously in a poor ecological state. Conservation of the lake in order to protect the waterbirds (without urgent control of eutrophication) actually endangers them and the rest of the biota in this wetland habitat, and possibly other ecosystems. Thus, urgent measures for restoration are required, so that the preservation of this Ramsar site would be meaningful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Architecture Analysis of Evolving Complex Systems of Systems: Technical Presentation [and Executive Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindvall, Mikael; Godfrey, Sally; Ackermann, Chris; Ray, Arnab; Yonkwa, Lyly; Ganesan, Dharma; Stratton, William C.; Sibol, Deane E.

    2008-01-01

    Analyze, Visualize, and Evaluate structure and behavior using static and dynamic information, individual systems as well as systems of systems. Next steps: Refine software tool support; Apply to other systems; and Apply earlier in system life cycle.

  6. Siderophores: The special ingredient to cyanobacterial blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue; Creed, Irena; Trick, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater lakes provide a number of significant ecological services including clean drinking water, habitat for aquatic biota, and economic benefits. The provision of these ecological services, as well as the health of these aquatic systems, is threatened by the excessive growth of algae, specifically, cyanobacteria. Historically, blooms have been linked to eutrophication but recent occurrences indicate that there are less dramatic changes that induce these blooms. Iron is an essential micronutrient required for specific essential metabolic pathways; however, the amount of biologically available iron in naturally occurring lake ranges from saturation to much lower than cell transport affinities. To assist in the modulation of iron availabilities, cyanobacteria in culture produce low molecular weight compounds that function in an iron binding and acquisition system; nevertheless, this has yet to be confirmed in naturally occurring lakes. This project explored the relationship of P, N and in particular, Fe, in the promotion of cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms in 30 natural freshwater lakes located in and around the Elk Island National Park, Alberta. It is hypothesized that cyanobacteria produce and utilize iron chelators called siderophores in low Fe and nitrogen (N) conditions, creating a competitive advantage over other algae in freshwater lakes. Lakes were selected to represent a range of iron availability to explore the nutrient composition of lakes that propagated cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) compared to lakes that did not. Lake water was analyzed for nutrients, microbial composition, siderophore concentration, and toxin concentration. Modifications were made to optimize the Czaky and Arnow tests for hydroxamate- and catecholate-type siderophores, respectively, for field conditions. Preliminary results indicate the presence of iron-binding ligands (0.11-2.34 mg/L) in freshwater lakes characterized by widely ranging Fe regimes (0.04-2.74 mg

  7. Systems Engineering Management and the Relationship of Systems Engineering to Project Management and Software Engineering (presentation)

    OpenAIRE

    Boehm, Barry; Conrow, Ed; Madachy, Ray; Nidiffer, Ken; Roedler, Garry

    2010-01-01

    Prepared for the 13th Annual NDIA Systems Engineering Conference October 28, 2010, “Achieving Acquisition Excellence Via Effective Systems Engineering”. Panel: Systems Engineering Management and the Relationship of Systems Engineering to Project Management and Software Engineering

  8. Some Like it High! Phylogenetic Diversity of High-Elevation Cyanobacterial Community from Biological Soil Crusts of Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapková, Kateřina; Hauer, Tomáš; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The environment of high-altitudinal cold deserts of Western Himalaya is characterized by extensive development of biological soil crusts, with cyanobacteria as dominant component. The knowledge of their taxonomic composition and dependency on soil chemistry and elevation is still fragmentary. We studied the abundance and the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae in soil crusts along altitudinal gradients (4600-5900 m) at two sites in the dry mountains of Ladakh (SW Tibetan Plateau and Eastern Karakoram), using both microscopic and molecular approaches. The effects of environmental factors (altitude, mountain range, and soil physico-chemical parameters) on the composition and biovolume of phototrophs were tested by multivariate redundancy analysis and variance partitioning. Both phylogenetic diversity and composition of morphotypes were similar between Karakorum and Tibetan Plateau. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed strains belonging to at least five genera. Besides clusters of common soil genera, e.g., Microcoleus, Nodosilinea, or Nostoc, two distinct clades of simple trichal taxa were newly discovered. The most abundant cyanobacterial orders were Oscillatoriales and Nostacales, whose biovolume increased with increasing elevation, while that of Chroococales decreased. Cyanobacterial species richness was low in that only 15 morphotypes were detected. The environmental factors accounted for 52 % of the total variability in microbial data, 38.7 % of which was explained solely by soil chemical properties, 14.5 % by altitude, and 8.4 % by mountain range. The elevation, soil phosphate, and magnesium were the most important predictors of soil phototrophic communities in both mountain ranges despite their different bedrocks and origin. The present investigation represents a first record on phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacterial community of biological soil crusts from Western Himalayas and first record

  9. Cyanobacterial calcification in modern microbialites at the submicrometer scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Couradeau

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for microfossils in the geological record has been a long-term challenge. Part of the problem comes from the difficulty of identifying such microfossils unambiguously, since they can be morphologically confused with abiotic biomorphs. One route to improve our ability to correctly identify microfossils involves studying fossilization processes affecting bacteria in modern settings. We studied the initial stages of fossilization of cyanobacterial cells in modern microbialites from Lake Alchichica (Mexico, a Mg-rich hyperalkaline crater lake (pH 8.9 hosting currently growing stromatolites composed of aragonite [CaCO3] and hydromagnesite [Mg5(CO34(OH2 · 4(H2O]. Most of the biomass associated with the microbialites is composed of cyanobacteria. Scanning electron microscopy analyses coupled with confocal laser scanning microscopy observations were conducted to co-localize cyanobacterial cells and associated minerals. These observations showed that cyanobacterial cells affiliated with the order Pleurocapsales become specifically encrusted within aragonite with an apparent preservation of cell morphology. Encrustation gradients from non-encrusted to totally encrusted cells spanning distances of a few hundred micrometers were observed. Cells exhibiting increased levels of encrustation along this gradient were studied down to the nm scale using a combination of focused ion beam (FIB milling, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM at the C, O and N K-edges. Two different types of aragonite crystals were observed: one type was composed of needle-shaped nano-crystals growing outward from the cell body with a crystallographic orientation perpendicular to the cell wall, and another type was composed of larger crystals that progressively filled the cell interior. Exopolymeric substances (EPS, initially co-localized with the cells, decreased in concentration and dispersed away from the cells while

  10. Chlorination and ozonation differentially reduced the microcystin content and tumour promoting activity of a complex cyanobacterial extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Sovadinova

    2017-05-01

    assess the efficacy of water treatment systems in removing toxins, and more specifically demonstrates that ozone was more effective at reducing the toxic potential of cyanobacterial-contaminated water.

  11. Front end embedded microprocessors in the JET computer-based control system, past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steed, C.A.; VanderBeken, H.; Browne, M.L.; Fullard, K.; Reed, K.; Tilley, M.; Schmidt, V.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the use of Front End Microprocessors in the JET Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) is presented. The present expansion in their use from 2 or 3 in 1983 to 27 now, is covered along with the reasoning behind their present usage. Finally, their future planned use in the area of remote handling is discussed and the authors present views on the use of front end processing in future large distributed control systems are presented

  12. Importance of climate change-physical forcing on the increase of cyanobacterial blooms in a small, stratified lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Planas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The community structure of planktonic cyanobacteria was studied in a dimictic lake in which recurrent summer surface algal blooms have frequently occurred since the beginning of this millennium. In eutrophic-hypereutrophic lakes, epilimnetic cyanobacterial blooms are promoted by increased ambient temperatures and water column thermal stability, which favour the vertical migration of buoyancy-regulating cyanobacteria. Here we propose that intensified external energy (wind that alters thermocline stability could explain the occurence of heavy blooms in the surface of lakes with low external nutrient loading. Specifically, we hypothesized that: i in small stratified lakes with low external nutrient sources, cyanobacterial growth primarily occurs near the lake bottom, where phosphorus is more abundant and light is available; ii we additionally hypothesized that turbulence induced by strong winds increases the amplitude and energy of metalimnetic internal waves and entrains meta- and hypolimnetic water,  rich in nutrients and cyanobacteria, into the epilimnion. The study was done in a small lake (45 Ha, maximum and mean depth 7.2 m and 4.3 m, respectively with mean epilimnetic dissolved phosphorus concentrations ≈ 4 μg L-1 and chlorophyll α ≈ 8 μg L-1.  Vertical temperature profiles during the open season were continuously registered using thermistors.  Weekly vertical profiles of light transmission, phytoplankton distribution and water chemistry were also taken. On one occasion, these variables were measured throughout a continuous 24 h cycle. Results demonstrated that summer cyanobacterial blooms were dominated by Plankthotrix spp., which began their cycle in late spring at the bottom of the lake, and grew to form dense metalimnetic biomass peaks. Time series analysis of isotherms and the Lake number indicated that internal metalimnetic waves (seiches were present through the summer. During the diel sampling cycle, we found that medium to

  13. Brasilonema lichenoides sp. nov. and Chroococcidiopsis lichenoides sp. nov. (Cyanobacteria): two novel cyanobacterial constituents isolated from a tripartite lichen of headstones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Chelsea D; Hašler, Petr; Dvořák, Petr; Poulíčková, Aloisie; Casamatta, Dale A

    2018-04-01

    Cyanolichens are an assemblage of fungi and cyanobacteria from diverse, cosmopolitan habitats. Typically composed of a single species of cyanobacterium, with or without another eukaryotic alga, here we present two novel cyanobionts isolated from an undescribed tripartite lichen. This endolithic lichen was isolated from a granite cemetery tombstone from Jacksonville, FL, and contains two potentially nitrogen-fixing cyanobionts. Employing a total evidence approach, we characterized the cyanobionts using molecular (the 16S rDNA and ITS gene region), morphological, and ecological data. Phylogenetic analyses revealed two novel taxa: Brasilonema lichenoides and Chroococcidiopsis lichenoides, both of which fell within well-supported clades. To our knowledge, this represents the first instance of a tripartite lichen with two cyanobacterial and no eukaryotic members. These types of lichens may well represent an unexplored reservoir of cyanobacterial diversity. The specific epithets are proposed under the provisions of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. © 2018 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Efficient assimilation of cyanobacterial nitrogen by water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongjie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Minhui; Wang, Yan; Wen, Xuezheng; Yan, Shaohua; Zhang, Yingying; Liu, Haiqin

    2017-10-01

    A 15 N labeling technique was used to study nitrogen transfer from cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to water hyacinth. 15 N atom abundance in M. aeruginosa peaked (15.52%) after cultivation in 15 N-labeled medium for 3weeks. Over 87% of algal nitrogen was transferred into water hyacinth after the 4-week co-cultivation period. The nitrogen quickly super-accumulated in the water hyacinth roots, and the labeled nitrogen was re-distributed to different organs (i.e., roots, stalks, and leaves). This study provides a new strategy for further research on cyanobacterial bloom control, nitrogen migration, and nitrogen cycle in eutrophic waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation paradox in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N (N 2 ) to ammonia (NH 3 ), is a microbially mediated process by which "new" N is supplied to N-deficient water bodies. Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence, they are able to circumvent N limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in photosynthesis, they are faced with a paradoxical situation, where one critically important (for supporting growth) biochemical process is inhibited by another. N 2 -fixing cyanobacterial taxa have developed an array of biochemical, morphological, and ecological adaptations to minimize the "oxygen problem"; however, none of these allows N 2 fixation to function at a high enough efficiency so that it can supply N needs at the ecosystem scale, where N losses via denitrification, burial, and advection often exceed the inputs of "new" N by N 2 fixation. As a result, most marine and freshwater ecosystems exhibit chronic N limitation of primary production. Under conditions of perpetual N limitation, external inputs of N from human sources (agricultural, urban, and industrial) play a central role in determining ecosystem fertility and, in the case of N overenrichment, excessive primary production or eutrophication. This points to the importance of controlling external N inputs (in addition to traditional phosphorus controls) as a means of ensuring acceptable water quality and safe water supplies. Nitrogen fixation, the enzymatic conversion of atmospheric N 2 to ammonia (NH 3 ) is a  microbially-mediated process by which "new" nitrogen is supplied to N-deficient water bodies.  Certain bloom-forming cyanobacterial species are capable of conducting N 2 fixation; hence they are able to circumvent nitrogen limitation in these waters. However, this anaerobic process is highly sensitive to oxygen, and since cyanobacteria produce oxygen in

  16. Cyanobacterium sp. host cell and vector for production of chemical compounds in Cyanobacterial cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piven, Irina; Friedrich, Alexandra; Duhring, Ulf; Uliczka, Frank; Baier, Kerstin; Inaba, Masami; Shi, Tuo; Wang, Kui; Enke, Heike; Kramer, Dan

    2016-04-19

    A cyanobacterial host cell, Cyanobacterium sp., that harbors at least one recombinant gene for the production of a chemical compounds is provided, as well as vectors derived from an endogenous plasmid isolated from the cell.

  17. Sodium chloride accumulation in glycophyte plants with cyanobacterial symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas George Allan; Sancho, Leopoldo G; Pintado, Ana; Saco, Dolores; Martín, Soledad; Arróniz-Crespo, María; Angel Casermeiro, Miguel; de la Cruz Caravaca, Maria Teresa; Cameron, Steven; Rozzi, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    The majority of plant species are glycophytes and are not salt-tolerant and maintain low sodium levels within their tissues; if . high tissue sodium concentrations do occur, it is in response to elevated environmental salt levels. Here we report an apparently novel and taxonomically diverse grouping of plants that continuously maintain high tissue sodium contents and share the rare feature of possessing symbiotic cyanobacteria. Leaves of Gunnera magellanica in Tierra del Fuego always had sodium contents (dry weight basis) of around 4.26 g kg -1 , about 20 times greater than measured in other higher plants in the community (0.29 g kg -1 ). Potassium and chloride levels were also elevated. This was not a response to soil sodium and chloride levels as these were low at all sites. High sodium contents were also confirmed in G. magellanica from several other sites in Tierra del Fuego, in plants taken to, and cultivated in Madrid for 2 years at low soil salt conditions, and also in other free living or cultivated species of Gunnera from the UK and New Zealand. Gunnera species are the only angiosperms that possess cyanobacterial symbionts so we analysed other plants that have this rather rare symbiosis, all being glycophytes. Samples of Azolla , a floating aquatic fern, from Europe and New Zealand all had even higher sodium levels than Gunnera . Roots of the gymnosperm Cycas revoluta had lower sodium contents (2.52 ± 0.34 g kg -1 ) but still higher than the non-symbiotic glycophytes. The overaccumulation of salt even when it is at low levels in the environment appears to be linked to the possession of a cyanobacterial symbiosis although the actual functional basis is unclear.

  18. Empirical Model for Phycocyanin Concentration Estimation as an Indicator of Cyanobacterial Bloom in the Optically Complex Coastal Waters of the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Woźniak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Commonly used parameters to assess cyanobacteria blooms are chlorophyll a concentration and cyanobacterial cell counts. Chlorophyll a is contained in all phytoplankton groups and therefore it is not a good estimator when only detection of cyanobacteria is desired. Moreover, laboratory determination of cyanobacterial cell counts is difficult and it requires a well-trained specialist. Instead of that, cyanobacterial blooms can be assessed using phycocyanin, a marker pigment for cyanobacteria, which shows a strong correlation with the biomass of cyanobacteria. The objective of this research is to develop a simple, remote sensing reflectance-based spectral band ratio model for the estimation of phycocyanin concentration, optimized for the waters of the Baltic Sea. The study was performed using hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance data and reference pigment concentration obtained in the optically complex coastal waters of the Baltic Sea, where cyanobacteria bloom occur regularly every summer, often causing severe damages. The presented two-band model shows good estimation results, with root-mean-square error (RMSE 0.26 and determination coefficient (R2 0.73. Moreover, no correlation with chlorophyll a concentration is observed, which makes it accurate in predicting cyanobacterial abundance in the presence of other chlorophyll-containing phytoplankton groups as well as for the waters with high colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM concentration. The developed model was also adapted to spectral bands of the recently launched Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Color Imager (OLCI radiometer, and the estimation accuracy was comparable (RMSE = 0.28 and R2 = 0.69. The presented model allows frequent, large-scale monitoring of cyanobacteria biomass and it can be an effective tool for the monitoring and management of coastal regions.

  19. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  20. The failure-combination method: presentation and application to a simple set of systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.

    1982-01-01

    The breakdown-combinations method is a method for analysing systems reliability and safety, initially developed in aeronautics. This method is presented in this paper and then applied, as an example, to a simple set of systems [fr

  1. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Matthew; /Auburn U.

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  2. 76 FR 55213 - Technical Amendments to Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Conversion Factors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Conversion Factors for Spouses of Deceased Separated Employees... to read as follows: Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 843--Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier...

  3. Functional profiling of cyanobacterial genomes and its role in ecological adaptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Prabha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the availability of complete genome sequences of many cyanobacterial species, it is becoming feasible to study the broad prospective of the environmental adaptation and the overall changes at transcriptional and translational level in these organisms. In the evolutionary phase, niche-specific competitive forces have resulted in specific features of the cyanobacterial genomes. In this study, functional composition of the 84 different cyanobacterial genomes and their adaptations to different environments was examined by identifying the genomic composition for specific cellular processes, which reflect their genomic functional profile and ecological adaptation. It was identified that among cyanobacterial genomes, metabolic genes have major share over other categories and differentiation of genomic functional profile was observed for the species inhabiting different habitats. The cyanobacteria of freshwater and other habitats accumulate large number of poorly characterized genes. Strain specific functions were also reported in many cyanobacterial members, of which an important feature was the occurrence of phage-related sequences. From this study, it can be speculated that habitat is one of the major factors in giving the shape of functional composition of cyanobacterial genomes towards their ecological adaptations.

  4. Nitrogen forms influence microcystin concentration and composition via changes in cyanobacterial community structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Eve Monchamp

    Full Text Available The eutrophication of freshwaters is a global health concern as lakes with excess nutrients are often subject to toxic cyanobacterial blooms. Although phosphorus is considered the main element regulating cyanobacterial biomass, nitrogen (N concentration and more specifically the availability of different N forms may influence the overall toxicity of blooms. In this study of three eutrophic lakes prone to cyanobacterial blooms, we examined the effects of nitrogen species and concentrations and other environmental factors in influencing cyanobacterial community structure, microcystin (MC concentrations and MC congener composition. The identification of specific MC congeners was of particular interest as they vary widely in toxicity. Different nitrogen forms appeared to influence cyanobacterial community structure leading to corresponding effects on MC concentrations and composition. Total MC concentrations across the lakes were largely explained by a combination of abiotic factors: dissolved organic nitrogen, water temperature and ammonium, but Microcystis spp. biomass was overall the best predictor of MC concentrations. Environmental factors did not appear to affect MC congener composition directly but there were significant associations between specific MC congeners and particular species. Based on redundancy analyses (RDA, the relative biomass of Microcystis aeruginosa was associated with MC-RR, M. wesenbergii with MC-LA and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae with MC-YR. The latter two species are not generally considered capable of MC production. Total nitrogen, water temperature, ammonium and dissolved organic nitrogen influenced the cyanobacterial community structure, which in turn resulted in differences in the dominant MC congener and the overall toxicity.

  5. Cyanobacterial Diversity in Biological Soil Crusts along a Precipitation Gradient, Northwest Negev Desert, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Henneberg, Manja; Felde, Vincent J M N L; Drahorad, Sylvie L; Berkowicz, Simon M; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Kaplan, Aaron

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria occur worldwide but play an important role in the formation and primary activity of biological soil crusts (BSCs) in arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The cyanobacterial diversity in BSCs of the northwest Negev desert of Israel was surveyed at three fixed sampling stations situated along a precipitation gradient in the years 2010 to 2012. The three stations also are characterized by marked differences in soil features such as soil carbon, nitrogen, or electrical conductivity. The cyanobacterial biodiversity was analyzed by sequencing inserts of clone libraries harboring partial 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained with cyanobacteria-specific primers. Filamentous, non-diazotrophic strains (subsection III), particularly Microcoleus-like, dominated the cyanobacterial community (30% proportion) in all years. Specific cyanobacterial groups showed increased (e.g., Chroococcidiopsis, Leptolyngbya, and Nostoc strains) or decreased (e.g., unicellular strains belonging to the subsection I and Scytonema strains) abundances with declining water availability at the most arid, southern station, whereas many cyanobacterial strains were frequently found in the soils of all three stations. The cyanobacterial diversity at the three sampling stations appears dependent on the available precipitation, whereas the differences in soil chemistry were of lower importance.

  6. Sporadic distribution and distinctive variations of cylindrospermopsin genes in cyanobacterial strains and environmental samples from Chinese freshwater bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongguang; Xiao, Peng; Yu, Gongliang; Shao, Jihai; Liu, Deming; Azevedo, Sandra M F O; Li, Renhui

    2014-09-01

    Increasing reports of cylindrospermopsins (CYNs) in freshwater ecosystems have promoted the demand for identifying all of the potential CYN-producing cyanobacterial species. The present study explored the phylogenetic distribution and evolution of cyr genes in cyanobacterial strains and water samples from China. Four Cylindrospermopsis strains and two Raphidiopsis strains were confirmed to produce CYNs. Mutant cyrI and cyrK genes were observed in these strains. Cloned cyr gene sequences from eight water bodies were clustered with cyr genes from Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis (C/R group) in the phylogenetic trees with high similarities (99%). Four cyrI sequence types and three cyrJ sequence types were observed to have different sequence insertions and repeats. Phylogenetic analysis of the rpoC1 sequences of the C/R group revealed four conserved clades, namely, clade I, clade II, clade III, and clade V. High sequence similarities (>97%) in each clade and a divergent clade IV were observed. Therefore, CYN producers were sporadically distributed in congeneric and paraphyletic C/R group species in Chinese freshwater ecosystems. In the evolution of cyr genes, intragenomic translocations and intergenomic transfer between local Cylindrospermopsis and Raphidiopsis were emphasized and probably mediated by transposases. This research confirms the existence of CYN-producing Cylindrospermopsis in China and reveals the distinctive variations of cyr genes. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. A toxic cyanobacterial bloom in an urban coastal lake, Rio Grande do Sul state, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Retz de Carvalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Reports of cyanobacterial blooms developing worldwide have considerably increased, and, in most cases, the predominant toxins are microcystins. The present study reports a cyanobacterial bloom in Lake Violão, Torres, Rio Grande do Sul State, in January 2005. Samples collected on January 13, 2005, were submitted to taxonomical, toxicological, and chemical studies. The taxonomical analysis showed many different species of cyanobacteria, and that Microcystis protocystis and Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense were dominant. Besides these, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis were also present. The toxicity of the bloom was confirmed through intraperitoneal tests in mice, and chemical analyses of bloom extracts showed that the major substance was anabaenopeptin F, followed by anabaenopeptin B, microcystin-LR, and microcystin-RR.O número de relatos de ocorrências de florações de cianobactérias em todo o mundo vem aumentando consideravelmente e na maioria desses episódios, as toxinas dominantes são as microcistinas. O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de floração na Lagoa do Violão, município de Torres, RS, em janeiro de 2005. As amostras coletadas em 13/01/2005 foram submetidas a estudos taxonômicos, toxicológicos e químicos. O exame microscópico do fitoplancton mostrou a dominância das espécies Microcystis protocystis e Sphaerocavum cf. brasiliense; foram observadas, também, Microcystis panniformis, Anabaena oumiana,Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii e Anabaenopsis elenkinii f. circularis. A toxicidade da floração foi confirmada através de ensaio intraperitonial em camundongos e a análise química de extratos obtidos da biomassa liofilizada mostrou que a substância majoritária era a anabaenopeptina F, seguida por anabaenopeptina B, microcistina-LR e microcistina-RR.

  8. Short-lived Now-extinct Nuclides Present in the Early Solar System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Short-lived Now-extinct Nuclides Present in the Early Solar System. Radio- Half-life Daughter Reference Initial Ratio Nuclide (Ma) Nuclide Nuclide [w.r.t. Ref.

  9. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone prevalence data. BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects information about...

  10. Stakeholder Workshop Presentations: EPA Greenhouse Gas Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    View the summary and presentations from the November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  11. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) Age-Adjusted Prevalence Data (2011 to present)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2011 to present. BRFSS combined land line and cell phone age-adjusted prevalence data. The BRFSS is a continuous, state-based surveillance system that collects...

  12. Effect of Different Growth Conditions on Certain Biochemical Parameters of Different Cyanobacterial Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammouda, O. E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Variation in the traditional growth medium conditions to enhance the production of lipids, carbohydrates, protein and the free amino acids content of three cyanobacterial species. Methodology and Results: Three species of cyanobacteria (Anabaena laxa, Anabaena fertilissima and Nostoc muscorum were collected from the culture collection of Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute, Agriculture Research Center, Giza, Egypt, to investigate their biochemical composition under different growth conditions, using BG110 (nitrogen free as growth medium. These conditions were represented by control medium, static glucose medium with (1%, w/v, aerated medium (aerated by bubbling technique depending on CO2 normally existed in air with a concentration of 0.03%, molasses medium (0.7%, v/v and aerated medium enriched with glucose (1%, w/v. Lipid content, total carbohydrates, soluble proteins and free amino acids were determined at the previous conditions. Glucose at 0.7% (w/v was the most favorable for lipid production in A. laxa, where it exhibited the highest lipid content (427 μg/g fresh wt.. Increasing molasses concentration up to 0.7% (v/v produced an increase in lipid contents of the tested cyanobacterial strains. The highest lipid content of both N. muscorum (366.2 μg/g fresh wt. and A. laxa (357.4 μg/g fresh wt. were recorded at molasses concentrations of 0.1 and 0.7% (v/v, respectively. A. laxa expressed high significant values for both proteins (31.6 μg/mL and free amino acids (40.5 mg/g dry wt. after 6 days of incubation period under aerated enriched glucose condition (1%, w/v. Also, at the same growth conditions, A. fertilissima exhibited high significant values for carbohydrates at 4th day (876.8 mg/g dry wt.. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Aerated enriched glucose medium (1%, w/v was the best growth medium condition used in the present study.

  13. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies.

  14. Fungal parasitism: life cycle, dynamics and impact on cyanobacterial blooms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Gerphagnon

    Full Text Available Many species of phytoplankton are susceptible to parasitism by fungi from the phylum Chytridiomycota (i.e. chytrids. However, few studies have reported the effects of fungal parasites on filamentous cyanobacterial blooms. To investigate the missing components of bloom ecosystems, we examined an entire field bloom of the cyanobacterium Anabaena macrospora for evidence of chytrid infection in a productive freshwater lake, using a high resolution sampling strategy. A. macrospora was infected by two species of the genus Rhizosiphon which have similar life cycles but differed in their infective regimes depending on the cellular niches offered by their host. R. crassum infected both vegetative cells and akinetes while R. akinetum infected only akinetes. A tentative reconstruction of the developmental stages suggested that the life cycle of R. crassum was completed in about 3 days. The infection affected 6% of total cells (and 4% of akinètes, spread over a maximum of 17% of the filaments of cyanobacteria, in which 60% of the cells could be parasitized. Furthermore, chytrids may reduce the length of filaments of Anabaena macrospora significantly by "mechanistic fragmentation" following infection. All these results suggest that chytrid parasitism is one of the driving factors involved in the decline of a cyanobacteria blooms, by direct mortality of parasitized cells and indirectly by the mechanistic fragmentation, which could weaken the resistance of A. macrospora to grazing.

  15. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying cyanoHABs in multiple water bodies and across geo-political boundaries. An assessment method was developed using MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) imagery to quantify cyanoHAB surface area extent, transferable to different spatial areas, in Florida, Ohio, and California for the test period of 2008 to 2012. Temporal assessment was used to evaluate changes in satellite resolvable inland waterbodies for each state of interest. To further assess cyanoHAB risk within the states, the World Health Organization’s (WHO) recreational guidance level thresholds were used to categorize surface area of cyanoHABs into three risk categories: low, moderate, and high-risk bloom area. Results showed that in Florida, the area of cyanoHABs increased largely due to observed increases in high-risk bloom area. California exhibited a slight decrease in cyanoHAB extent, primarily attributed to decreases in Northern California. In Ohio (excluding Lake Erie), little change in cyanoHAB surface area was observed. This study uses satellite remote sensing to quantify changes in inland cyanoHAB surface area across numerous water bodies within an entire state. The temporal assessment method developed here

  16. Insights into the Cyanobacterial Deg/HtrA Proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia eCheregi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are the main machinery for all living processes in a cell; they provide structural elements, regulate biochemical reactions as enzymes, and are the interface to the outside as receptors and transporters. Like any other machinery proteins have to be assembled correctly and need maintenance after damage, e.g. caused by changes in environmental conditions, genetic mutations, and limitations in the availability of cofactors. Proteases and chaperones help in repair, assembly, and folding of damaged and misfolded protein complexes cost-effective, with low energy investment compared with neo-synthesis. Despite their importance for viability, the specific biological role of most proteases in vivo is largely unknown. Deg/HtrA proteases, a family of serine-type ATP-independent proteases, have been shown in higher plants to be involved in the degradation of the Photosystem II reaction center protein D1. The objective of this review is to highlight the structure and function of their cyanobacterial orthologues. Homology modeling was used to find specific features of the Deg/HtrA proteases of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Based on the available data concerning their location and their physiological substrates we conclude that these Deg proteases not only have important housekeeping and chaperone functions within the cell, but also are needed for remodeling the cell exterior.

  17. Present status and future development of the European Community rapid information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, G.

    1990-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl reactor accident it was rapidly appreciated that, in addition to upgrading national radiological monitoring systems, action was required to facilitate international communication of the results obtained. The first such system was established by the Vienna Convention, drawn up under the auspices of the IAEA, which came into force in September, 1986. Subsequently the EC Council of Ministers decided in December, 1987, to set up a Community system which in many ways parallels that established by the Convention but differs significantly in certain aspects concerning its legal basis, initiation criteria, data provisions and communications requirements. The present paper describes the present status of the Community system and foreseeable future developments. It is a matter of policy that, to avoid unnecessary complications, this system should be, to the maximum extent practicable, fully compatible with that established by the Convention. Where appropriate, therefore, reference is also made to the latter system

  18. Texosome-based drug delivery system for cancer therapy: from past to present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Halabian, Raheleh; Amin, Mohsen; Imani Fooladi, Abbas Ali

    2015-01-01

    Rising worldwide cancer incidence and resistance to current anti-cancer drugs necessitate the need for new pharmaceutical compounds and drug delivery system. Malfunction of the immune system, particularly in the tumor microenvironment, causes tumor growth and enhances tumor progression. Thus, cancer immunotherapy can be an appropriate approach to provoke the systemic immune system to combat tumor expansion. Texosomes, which are endogenous nanovesicles released by all tumor cells, contribute to cell-cell communication and modify the phenotypic features of recipient cells due to the texosomes’ ability to transport biological components. For this reason, texosome-based delivery system can be a valuable strategy for therapeutic purposes. To improve the pharmaceutical behavior of this system and to facilitate its use in medical applications, biotechnology approaches and mimetic techniques have been utilized. In this review, we present the development history of texosome-based delivery systems and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each system

  19. Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Cyanobacterial Strains Isolated from Hot Springs in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Sherwani1

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, cyanobacterial microbial mats from five hot springs in Oman, namely Al Kasfah Rustaq, Al Thwara Nakhl, Al–Ali Hammam, Gala and Bowsher, were characterized using direct microscopy. Nine monoclonal cyanobacterial cultures were obtained and their extracts in butanol, dichloromethane (DCM and hexane were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Direct microscopy revealed the presence of 12 different unicellular and filamentous morphotypes, with different distribution in the various mats. Temperature seems to be one of the most important parameters that accounts for the differences in cyanobacterial composition of the mats. Cells of the nine isolates and their aqueous supernatants were subsequently extracted with butanol, DCM and hexane. Dried extracts were tested against nine bacterial (i.e. gram +ve Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and gram –ve, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella choleraesuis, S. enterica, Psuedomonas aeruginosa, Providencia stuartii, and  Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and two fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium sp.. All isolates exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities, which depended mainly on the type of cyanobacterial culture, type of solvent used and the pathogen tested. The highest antibacterial activity was observed in Phormidium species, and butanol was found to be the most appropriate solvent to extract bioactivity from these cyanobacterial species. The results of this study suggest that thermal springs in Oman harbor diverse types of cyanobacteria, which may constitute an important source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds. Further investigation is needed to purify these compounds and find their chemical compositions and modes of action.

  20. Maps of sharpness: a methodology to present results of quality control for mammographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Henrique Jesus Quintino de; Marques, Marcio Alexandre; Frere, Annie France; Schiable, Homero; Marques, Paulo M. Azevedo; Irita, Ricardo Toshiyuki

    1996-01-01

    A new method for evaluating radiologic imaging systems quality is presented. This method intends to relate the numeric results from quality control procedures to the magnitude of shadow and penumbra in the image from given objects. This evaluation is based on a computer simulation and it can be performed for any system and any object placed in any location of the radiation field

  1. ANAPHYLACTOID SHOCK FOLLOWING HYMENOPTERA STING AS A PRESENTING SYMPTOM OF SYSTEMIC MASTOCYTOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORS, JW; VANDOORMAAL, JJ; DEMONCHY, JGR

    Systemic mastocytosis is a rare and chronic disorder characterized by a pathologically increased number of mast cells in various tissues and overproduction of mast cell mediators. From a group of 1 5 patients (I 0 females, 5 males) with systemic mastocytosis five female patients presented with a

  2. MOSAICA: A Web-2.0 Based System for the Preservation and Presentation of Cultural Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Miri; Herscoviz, Orit; Kaberman, Zvia; Dori, Yehudit J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of how to present cultural heritage resources in a way that attracts potential users is becoming important in our ever-changing world. This paper describes MOSAICA system--a web 2.0-based toolbox, dedicated for the preservation and presentation of cultural heritage. This paper also describes an evaluation study that examined MOSAICA…

  3. Android application and REST server system for quasar spectrum presentation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Pietralik, K.; Hryniewicz, K.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a system consisting of a mobile application and RESTful architecture server intended for the analysis and presentation of quasars' spectrum. It also depicts the quasar's characteristics and significance to the scientific community, the source for acquiring astronomical objects' spectral data, used software solutions as well as presents the aspect of Cloud Computing and various possible deployment configurations.

  4. Methods for the selective detection of alkyne-presenting molecules and related compositions and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Carlos A.; Vu, Alexander K.

    2017-10-17

    Provided herein are methods for selectively detecting an alkyne-presenting molecule in a sample and related detection reagents, compositions, methods and systems. The methods include contacting a detection reagent with the sample for a time and under a condition to allow binding of the detection reagent to the one or more alkyne-presenting molecules possibly present in the matrix to the detection reagent. The detection reagent includes an organic label moiety presenting an azide group. The binding of the azide group to the alkyne-presenting molecules results in emission of a signal from the organic label moiety.

  5. The FODA-TDMA satellite access scheme - Presentation, study of the system, and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina

    1991-12-01

    A description is given of FODA-TDMA, a satellite access scheme designed for mixed traffic. The study of the system is presented and the choice of some parameters is justified. A simplified analytic solution is found, describing the steady-state behavior of the system. Some results of the simulation tests for an already existing hardware environment are also presented for the channel speeds of 2 and 8 Mb/s, considering both the stationary and the transient cases. The results of the experimentation at 2 Mb/s on the satellite Eutelsat-F2 are also presented and compared with the results of the simulation.

  6. Self-organization in Complex Systems The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics : International Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Pelster, Axel

    2016-01-01

    This proceedings volume contains talks and poster presentations from the International Symposium "Self-Organization in Complex Systems: The Past, Present, and Future of Synergetics", which took place at Hanse-Wissenschaftskolleg, an Institute of Advanced Studies, in Delmenhorst, Germany, during the period November 13 - 16, 2012. The Symposium was organized in honour of Hermann Haken, who celebrated his 85th birthday in 2012. With his fundamental theory of Synergetics he had laid the mathematical-physical basis for describing and analyzing self-organization processes in a diversity of fields of research. The quest for common and universal principles of self-organization in complex systems was clearly covered by the wide range of interdisciplinary topics reported during the Symposium. These extended from complexity in classical systems and quantum systems over self-organisation in neuroscience even to the physics of finance. Moreover, by combining a historical view with a present status report the Symposium con...

  7. Carbon and Oxygen Budgets of Hypersaline Cyanobacterial Mats: Effects of Tidal Cycle and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesMarais, David J.; Bebout, Brad M.; Carpenter, Steven; Discipulo, Mykell; Turk, Kendra

    2003-01-01

    The hierarchical organization of microbial ecosystems determines the rates of processes that shape Earth#s environment, define the stage upon which major evolutionary events occurred, and create biosignatures in sediments and atmospheres. In cyanobacterial mats, oxygenic photosynthesis provides energy, organic substrates and oxygen to the ecosystem. Incident light changes with depth in the mat, both in intensity and spectral composition, and counteracting gradients of oxygen and sulfide shape the chemical microenvironment. A combination of benefits and hazards of light, oxygen and sulfide promotes the allocation of the various essential mat processes between light and dark periods and to various depths in the mat. Microbiota produce hydrogen, small organic acids, and nitrogen and sulfur species. Such compounds fuel a flow of energy and electrons in these ecosystems and thus shape interactions between groups of microorganisms. Coordinated observations of population distribution, abundance, and activity for an entire community are making fundamental questions in ecology accessible. These questions address those factors that sustain the remarkable diversity of microorganisms that are now being revealed by molecular techniques. These questions also target the processes that shape the various kinds of biosignatures that we will seek, both in ancient rocks from Earth and Mars, and in atmospheres of distant planets beyond our Solar System.

  8. A Multiscale Mapping Assessment of Lake Champlain Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Torbick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lake Champlain has bays undergoing chronic cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms that pose a public health threat. Monitoring and assessment tools need to be developed to support risk decision making and to gain a thorough understanding of bloom scales and intensities. In this research application, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI, Rapid Eye, and Proba Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS images were obtained while a corresponding field campaign collected in situ measurements of water quality. Models including empirical band ratio regressions were applied to map chlorophylla and phycocyanin concentrations; all sensors performed well with R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE ranging from 0.76 to 0.88 and 0.42 to 1.51, respectively. The outcomes showed spatial patterns across the lake with problematic bays having phycocyanin concentrations >25 μg/L. An alert status metric tuned to the current monitoring protocol was generated using modeled water quality to illustrate how the remote sensing tools can inform a public health monitoring system. Among the sensors utilized in this study, Landsat 8 OLI holds the most promise for providing exposure information across a wide area given the resolutions, systematic observation strategy and free cost.

  9. Cyanobacterial Toxins as Allelochemicals with Potential Applications as Algaecides, Herbicides and Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando G. Noriega

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria (“blue-green algae” from marine and freshwater habitats are known to produce a diverse array of toxic or otherwise bioactive metabolites. However, the functional role of the vast majority of these compounds, particularly in terms of the physiology and ecology of the cyanobacteria that produce them, remains largely unknown. A limited number of studies have suggested that some of the compounds may have ecological roles as allelochemicals, specifically including compounds that may inhibit competing sympatric macrophytes, algae and microbes. These allelochemicals may also play a role in defense against potential predators and grazers, particularly aquatic invertebrates and their larvae. This review will discuss the existing evidence for the allelochemical roles of cyanobacterial toxins, as well as the potential for development and application of these compounds as algaecides, herbicides and insecticides, and specifically present relevant results from investigations into toxins of cyanobacteria from the Florida Everglades and associated waterways.

  10. Interaction specificity between the chaperone and proteolytic components of the cyanobacterial Clp protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryggvesson, Anders; Ståhlberg, Frida M; Mogk, Axel; Zeth, Kornelius; Clarke, Adrian K

    2012-09-01

    The Clp protease is conserved among eubacteria and most eukaryotes, and uses ATP to drive protein substrate unfolding and translocation into a chamber of sequestered proteolytic active sites. In plant chloroplasts and cyanobacteria, the essential constitutive Clp protease consists of the Hsp100/ClpC chaperone partnering a proteolytic core of catalytic ClpP and noncatalytic ClpR subunits. In the present study, we have examined putative determinants conferring the highly specific association between ClpC and the ClpP3/R core from the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. Two conserved sequences in the N-terminus of ClpR (tyrosine and proline motifs) and one in the N-terminus of ClpP3 (MPIG motif) were identified as being crucial for the ClpC-ClpP3/R association. These N-terminal domains also influence the stability of the ClpP3/R core complex itself. A unique C-terminal sequence was also found in plant and cyanobacterial ClpC orthologues just downstream of the P-loop region previously shown in Escherichia coli to be important for Hsp100 association to ClpP. This R motif in Synechococcus ClpC confers specificity for the ClpP3/R core and prevents association with E. coli ClpP; its removal from ClpC reverses this core specificity.

  11. Beyond the Barcoo--probable human tropical cyanobacterial poisoning in outback Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, J

    To determine the cause of a disease known variously as "Barcoo fever, Barcoo spews, Barcoo sickness", or simply "the Barcoo", once prevalent in outback northern and central Australia. Comparison of the recorded symptoms with those of known infectious diseases and gastrointestinal illness; consideration of the epidemiology, including times and places of occurrence and the population affected. The disease had features of a toxic rather than an infectious illness and had the characteristics of poisoning by toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). In particular the symptoms were similar to those shown to be due to the hepatotoxin of the tropical cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska). Poisoning by cyanobacterial toxins was once widespread in outback northern Australia and toxic cyanobacteria must still be present in many areas. Although not reported and probably not diagnosed as such, the disease still occurs in mild form. Widespread illness does not occur but individuals still experience symptoms similar to those described a century ago. Precautions are necessary to prevent algal contamination or proliferation in domestic or communal water supplies.

  12. A novel remote sensing algorithm to quantify phycocyanin in cyanobacterial algal blooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, S; Mishra, D R

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel three-band algorithm (PC 3 ) to retrieve phycocyanin (PC) pigment concentration in cyanobacteria laden inland waters. The water sample and remote sensing reflectance data used for PC 3 calibration and validation were acquired from highly turbid productive catfish aquaculture ponds. Since the characteristic PC absorption feature at 620 nm is contaminated with residual chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) absorption, we propose a coefficient (ψ) for isolating the PC absorption component at 620 nm. Results show that inclusion of the model coefficient relating Chl-a absorption at 620 nm–665 nm enables PC 3 to compensate for the confounding effect of Chl-a at the PC absorption band and considerably increases the accuracy of the PC prediction algorithm. In the current dataset, PC 3 produced the lowest mean relative error of prediction among all PC algorithms considered in this research. Moreover, PC 3 eliminates the nonlinear sensitivity issue of PC algorithms particularly at high PC range (>100 μg L −1 ). Therefore, introduction of PC 3 will have an immediate positive impact on studies monitoring inland and coastal cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms. (letter)

  13. Multi-mission space science data processing systems - Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William H.

    1990-01-01

    Packetized telemetry that is consistent with the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) has been baselined for future NASA missions such as Space Station Freedom. Some experiences from past and present multimission systems are examined, including current experiences in implementing a CCSDS standard packetized data processing system, relative to the effectiveness of the multimission approach in lowering life cycle cost and the complexity of meeting new mission needs. It is shown that the continued effort toward standardization of telemetry and processing support will permit the development of multimission systems needed to meet the increased requirements of future NASA missions.

  14. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under the impact of different phytoameliorants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovik, I. E.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Khasanova, R. F.; Shalygina, R. R.

    2016-04-01

    General ecological and taxonomic characteristics of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under different ameliorative plants (phytoameliorants) were studied in the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan. A comparative analysis of the taxa of studied cenoses in the soils under leguminous herbs and grasses was performed. The phytoameliorative effect of different herbs and their relationships with cyanobacterial-algal cenoses were examined. Overall, 134 cyanoprokaryotic and algal species belonging to 70 genera, 36 families, 15 orders, and 9 classes were identified. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses included the divisions of Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyta. Representatives of Ch-, X-, CF-, and P-forms were the leading ecobiomorphs in the studied cenoses.

  15. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD method for an iris recognition system (iPAD using a near infrared light (NIR camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED. Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM. Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  16. Cyanobacterial composition and spatial distribution based on pyrosequencing data in the Gurbantunggut Desert, Northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingchang; Li, Renhui; Xiao, Peng; Su, Yangui; Zhang, Yuanming

    2016-03-01

    Cyanobacteria are the primary colonizers and form a dominant component of soil photosynthetic communities in biological soil crusts. They are crucial in improving soil environments, namely accumulating soil carbon and nitrogen. Many classical studies have examined cyanobacterial diversity in desert crusts, but relatively few comprehensive molecular surveys have been conducted. We used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to investigate cyanobacterial composition and distribution on regional scales in the Gurbantunggut Desert. The relationship between cyanobacterial distribution and environmental factors was also explored. A total of 24,973 cyanobacteria partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained, and 507OTUs were selected, as most OTUs had very few reads. Among these, 347 OTU sequences were of cyanobacteria origin, belonging to Oscillatoriales, Nostocales, Chroococcales, and uncultured cyanobacterium clone, respectively. Microcoleus vaginatus, Chroococcidiopsis spp. and M. steenstrupii were the dominant species in most areas of the Gurbantunggut Desert. Compared with other desert, the Gurbantunggut Desert differed in the prominence of Chroococcidiopsis spp. and lack of Pseudanabaenales. Species composition and abundance of cyanobacteria also showed distinct variations. Soil texture, precipitation, and nutrients and salt levels affected cyanobacterial distribution. Increased precipitation was helpful in improving cyanobacterial diversity. A higher content of coarse sand promoted the colonization and growth of Oscillatoriales and some phylotypes of Chroococcales. The fine-textured soil with higher nutrients and salts supported more varied populations of cyanobacteria, namely some heterocystous cyanobacteria. The results suggested that the Gurbantunggut Desert was rich in cyanobacteria and that precipitation was a primary regulating factor for cyanobacterial composition on a regional scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Tumor-Like Presentation of Primary Angiitis of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boysson, Hubert; Boulouis, Grégoire; Dequatre, Nelly; Godard, Sophie; Néel, Antoine; Arquizan, Caroline; Detante, Olivier; Bloch-Queyrat, Coralie; Zuber, Mathieu; Touzé, Emmanuel; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille; Guillevin, Loïc; Naggara, Olivier; Pagnoux, Christian

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of patients with tumor-like presentation of primary angiitis of the central nervous system. We retrospectively analyzed 10 patients enrolled in the French primary angiitis of the central nervous system cohort, who initially presented tumor-like brain lesions and compared them with other patients within the cohort. The 10 patients with tumor-like presentation in the cohort were younger and had more seizures at diagnosis than the other 75 patients (median of 37 [30-48] years versus 46 [18-79] years; P=0.008; 9 [90%] with seizures versus 22 [29%], Pcentral nervous system represent a subgroup characterized with mainly small-sized vessel disease that requires histological confirmation because vascular imaging is often normal. Although relapses are not uncommon, global outcomes are good under treatment with glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Current status of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: Application of organic and inorganic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taguchi Hiroaki

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many studies are currently investigating the development of safe and effective vaccines to prevent various infectious diseases. Multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems have been developed to avoid the adverse effects associated with conventional vaccines (i.e., live-attenuated, killed or inactivated pathogens, carrier proteins and cytotoxic adjuvants. Recently, two main approaches have been used to develop multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems: (1 the addition of functional components, e.g., T-cell epitopes, cell-penetrating peptides, and lipophilic moieties; and (2 synthetic approaches using size-defined nanomaterials, e.g., self-assembling peptides, non-peptidic dendrimers, and gold nanoparticles, as antigen-displaying platforms. This review summarizes the recent experimental studies directed to the development of multiple antigen-presenting peptide vaccine systems.

  19. Spatial patterns of cyanobacterial mat growth on sand ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, G.; Klepac-Ceraj, V.; Perron, J. T.; Bosak, T.

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats produce organic matter, cycle nutrients, bind pollutants and stabilize sediment in sandy marine environments. Here, we investigate the influence of bedforms and wave motion on the growth rate, composition and spatial variability of microbial mats by growing cyanobacterial mats on a rippled bed of carbonate sand in a wave tank. The tank was forced with an oscillatory flow with velocities below the threshold for sediment motion yet able to induce a porewater flow within the sediment. Different spatial patterns developed in mats depending on the initial biochemistry of the water medium. When growing in a medium rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and micronutrients, mats grew faster on ripple troughs than on ripple crests. After two months, mats covered the bed surface uniformly, and the microbial communities on the crests and in the troughs had similar compositions. Differences in bed shear stress and nutrient availability between crests and troughs were not able to explain the faster growth in the troughs. We hypothesize that this growth pattern is due to a "strainer" effect, i.e. the suspended bacteria from the inoculum were preferentially delivered to troughs by the wave-induced porewater flow. In the experiments initiated in a medium previously used up by a microbial mat and thus depleted in nutrients, mats grew preferentially on the ripple crests. This spatial pattern persisted for nearly two years, and the microbial composition on troughs and crests was different. We attribute this pattern to the upwelling of porewater in the crests, which increased the delivery of nutrients from sediment to the cyanobacteria on the bed surface. Thus, the macroscopic patterns formed by photosynthetic microbial mats on sand ripples may be used to infer whether mats are nutrient-limited and whether they are recently colonized or older than a month.

  20. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss as a presenting feature of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawki, Sylvain; Aouizerate, Jessie; Trad, Selim; Prinseau, Jacques; Hanslik, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is an unusual presenting clinical feature of systemic lupus erythematosus. Case report: We report the case of a young woman who was admitted to hospital for sudden sensorineural hearing loss and hemophagocytic syndrome which was attributed to systemic lupus erythematosus on the basis of specific renal involvement, thrombocytopenia, and consistent autoantibodies. Favorable outcome was obtained on high-dose corticosteroids, and the hearing fully recovered. Discussion: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in systemic lupus erythematosus is seemingly more frequently associated with severe systemic involvement and antiphospholipid antibodies may be present. Although management remains empirical, the high risk of permanent hearing impairment seems to justify emergency treatment with high-dose corticosteroids. When the clinical and laboratory criteria of antiphospholipid syndrome are met, antiplatelets agents or anticoagulation therapy shall be considered. PMID:27603334

  1. Characterizing volumetric discontinuities present in NPP heat exchangers with EASY: an eddy current data analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alencar, Donizete A.; Silva Junior, Silverio F.

    2011-01-01

    Eddy current is a very important NDT inspection method widely used to perform integrity evaluation of tubes installed in heat exchangers. For nuclear power plants, a classical example is the remote inspection of steam generators and condensers, as well as other ordinary auxiliary equipment. Data evaluation can be performed by means of precise phase and amplitude measurements of complex impedance signals, represented as Lissajous figures plotted on the screen of the inspection systems. This paper presents the software EASY, a computer assisted analysis system developed at CDTN to help the characterization of volumetric discontinuities present in heat exchangers tubes. Data to be analyzed are obtained from commercial eddy current equipment data file, such as ECT MAD8D. Main advantage of that system is its portability and easy use, since it can be executed in ordinary PC, under Microsoft Windows operating system. (author)

  2. Cost-volume-profit and net present value analysis of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R A

    1998-08-01

    The adoption of any information system should be justified by an economic analysis demonstrating that its projected benefits outweigh its projected costs. Analysis differ, however, on which methods to employ for such a justification. Accountants prefer cost-volume-profit analysis, and economists prefer net present value analysis. The article explains the strengths and weaknesses of each method and shows how they can be used together so that well-informed investments in information systems can be made.

  3. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections. 2014 Edition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; James, T.; Weaver, S.; Darghouth, N.; Fu, R.; Davidson, C.; Booth, S.; Wiser, R.

    2014-09-01

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the third edition from this series.

  4. A case of systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as bilateral avascular necrosis of femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikari, Madura; Gunawardane, Aloka; Illangantilaka, Sachithra; Atukorale, Himantha; Rubasinghe, Jeevanie

    2016-08-05

    Avascular necrosis occur as a result of diverse etiology. Chronic inflammatory conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus considered as a recognize cause. Many cases were reported in systemic lupus erythematosus after treating with corticosteroids. We report a case of a corticosteroid naïve patient presented as bilateral avascular necrosis of femoral head and later progressed to a case of systemic lupus erythematosus. A 26 year old lady presented with right sided hip pain and diagnosed as avascular necrosis of the femoral head. After 6 months she presented a similar pain in left hip, which revealed avascular necrosis of left femoral head as well. A probable cause for her clinical presentation could not be found after extensive clinical and laboratory evaluation. Patient reported high erythrocyte sedimentation rate persistently, and over the next few years progressed as a case of systemic lupus erythematosus. Above case illustrated avascular necrosis could be an early musculoskeletal manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus even in the absence of corticosteroid administration.

  5. Oil-Free Shaft Support System Rotordynamics: Past, Present, and Future Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in Oil-Free technologies have enabled new high-speed rotor systems and turbomachinery. Such technologies can include compliant-surface gas bearings, magnetic bearings, and advanced solid lubricants and tribo-materials. This presentation briefly reviews critical technology developments and the current state-of-the-art, emerging Oil-Free rotor systems and discusses obstacles preventing more widespread use. Key examples of "best practices" for deploying Oil-Free technologies will be presented and remaining major technical questions surrounding Oil-Free technologies will be brought forward.

  6. Moving beyond the presentation layer content and context in the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) system

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Joan S

    2013-01-01

    Can the Dewey Decimal System meet the needs of the rapidly changing information environment?Moving Beyond the Presentation Layer explores the Dewey Decimal System from a variety of perspectives, each of which peels away a bit of the ?presentation layer??the familiar linear notational sequence-to reveal the content and context offered by the DDS. Library professionals from around the word examine how the content and context offered by the DDS can evolve to meet the needs of the changing information environment, with a special focus on the impact of the Internet on current and future

  7. Statistical Meta-Analysis of Presentation Attacks for Secure Multibiometric Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggio, Battista; Fumera, Giorgio; Marcialis, Gian Luca; Roli, Fabio

    2017-03-01

    Prior work has shown that multibiometric systems are vulnerable to presentation attacks, assuming that their matching score distribution is identical to that of genuine users, without fabricating any fake trait. We have recently shown that this assumption is not representative of current fingerprint and face presentation attacks, leading one to overestimate the vulnerability of multibiometric systems, and to design less effective fusion rules. In this paper, we overcome these limitations by proposing a statistical meta-model of face and fingerprint presentation attacks that characterizes a wider family of fake score distributions, including distributions of known and, potentially, unknown attacks. This allows us to perform a thorough security evaluation of multibiometric systems against presentation attacks, quantifying how their vulnerability may vary also under attacks that are different from those considered during design, through an uncertainty analysis. We empirically show that our approach can reliably predict the performance of multibiometric systems even under never-before-seen face and fingerprint presentation attacks, and that the secure fusion rules designed using our approach can exhibit an improved trade-off between the performance in the absence and in the presence of attack. We finally argue that our method can be extended to other biometrics besides faces and fingerprints.

  8. Operational present status and reliability analysis of the upgraded EAST cryogenic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z. W.; Y Zhang, Q.; Lu, X. F.; Hu, L. B.; Zhu, P.

    2017-12-01

    Since the first commissioning in 2005, the cryogenic system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) has been cooled down and warmed up for thirteen experimental campaigns. In order to promote the refrigeration efficiencies and reliability, the EAST cryogenic system was upgraded gradually with new helium screw compressors and new dynamic gas bearing helium turbine expanders with eddy current brake to improve the original poor mechanical and operational performance from 2012 to 2015. Then the totally upgraded cryogenic system was put into operation in the eleventh cool-down experiment, and has been operated for the latest several experimental campaigns. The upgraded system has successfully coped with various normal operational modes during cool-down and 4.5 K steady-state operation under pulsed heat load from the tokamak as well as the abnormal fault modes including turbines protection stop. In this paper, the upgraded EAST cryogenic system including its functional analysis and new cryogenic control networks will be presented in detail. Also, its operational present status in the latest cool-down experiments will be presented and the system reliability will be analyzed, which shows a high reliability and low fault rate after upgrade. In the end, some future necessary work to meet the higher reliability requirement for future uninterrupted long-term experimental operation will also be proposed.

  9. Diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus in an unusual presentation: what a primary care physician should know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Bimalendu

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease affecting millions of people worldwide. It can affect any organ systems of the body. However, all systems may not be involved initially rather than they may be affected gradually, sometimes over years. Diagnosis depends on characteristic clinical features and laboratory test results. Some features such as skin rash, joint symptoms and oral ulcers are common in SLE. But initial presentation of many patients is unusual because either they do not have these common features of the disease or the presentation mimics other illnesses. As a result, delayed diagnosis and misdiagnosis are common. Therefore, high index of initial suspicion of SLE is critical. In clinical practice, SLE should be suspected in any patient presenting with an unexplained disease process involving two or more organ systems. To make a diagnosis in an unusual presentation, thorough clinical evaluation with details history of both present and past illnesses as well as laboratory tests for SLE should be performed. Usually primary-care physicians first evaluate SLE patients; but there is no single article, where all the information on when to suspect SLE in an unusual presentation, is available in an integrated form. In this article, a list of conditions, when SLE should be suspected in an unusual presentation, has been given and some relatively common areas with diagnostic challenges of SLE have been briefly described. To prepare this manuscript, most articles have been identified through 'Pubmed' search using keywords-atypical/ unusual presentation of SLE, case reports on SLE, gastrointestinal manifestations of SLE, neuropsychiatric SLE, diagnostic challenges with SLE, etc. Selected most articles are from currently medline-indexed journals.

  10. Structure and data presentation in the data acquisition system for the SFINKS device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kul'man, N.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to create a convenient system to describe the data structure coming from the data acquisition electronics. A language to describe the data structure to accordance with the setup detectors which allows one to make changes in the processing system with the changes of the setup configuration has been proposed. The inner presentation is realized in the form of trees in the ZBOOK system, widely used in high energy physics. Events are treated according to the description and are in the ZBOOK banks. The data are written on the tape in the computer-independent EP-format

  11. The Mirror Fusion Test Facility cryogenic system: Performance, management approach, and present equipment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Chronis, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is a 14-kW, 4.35-K helium refrigeration system that proved to be highly successful and cost-effective. All operating objectives were met, while remaining within a few percent of initial cost and schedule plans. The management approach used in MFTF allowed decisions to be made quickly and effectively, and it helped keep costs down. Manpower levels, extent and type of industrial participation, key aspects of subcontractor specifications, and subcontractor interactions are reviewed, as well as highlights of the system tests, operation, and present equipment status. Organizations planning large, high-technology systems may benefit from this experience with the MFTF cryogenic system

  12. The failure combination method: presentation, application to a simple collection of systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, M.; Villemeur, A.

    1981-11-01

    The main advantages of this particular method for analyzing the reliability and safety of systems, the method of failure combinations, are presented. This is an inductive method of analysis; it makes it possible to pursue the Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) until overall failures are obtained. In this manner, through an inductive approach all the combinations of failure modes leading to abnormal functioning of systems are obtained. It also makes it possible to carry out the overall study of complex systems in interaction and the systematic inventory of abnormal functioning of these systems, as from the failure modes of the components and their combinations. It can be used as from the design stages of systems and is an excellent dialogue tool between the various specialists concerned in problems of safety, operation and reliability [fr

  13. A review on past and present development on the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosro, M. Z. M.; Samad, A. A. A.; Mohamad, N.; Goh, W. I.; Tambichik, M. A.; Iman, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    Massive migration and increasing population in Malaysia has contributed to the increasing demand of quality and affordable housing. Over the past 50 years, the Malaysian housing industry has seen the growth of using conventional construction system such as reinforced concrete frame structures and bricks. The conventional system, as agreed by many researchers, causes delays and other disadvantages in some of the construction projects. Thus, the utilization of interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system is needed to address these issues. This system has been identified as an alternative and sustainable building system for the construction industry in Malaysia which the PUTRA block system is the latest example of the ILHB developed. The system offers various advantages in terms of speed and cost in construction, strength, environmentally friendly and aesthetic qualities. Despite these advantages, this system has not been practically applied and develop in Malaysia. Therefore, this paper aims to review the past and present development of the interlocking loadbearing hollow block (ILHB) system that available locally and globally.

  14. Implementing Adaptability in the Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Rutledge (Lloyd); L. Hardman (Lynda); J.R. van Ossenbruggen (Jacco); D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses the implementation of adaptability in environments that are based on the Standard Reference Model for Intelligent Multimedia Presentation Systems. This adaptability is explored in the context of style sheets, which are represented in such formats as DSSSL. The use of

  15. Strategic Planning and Decision Analysis: Presentation of the COSIMA Software System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This paper presents a composite decision support system, COSIMA, programmed in MS Excel. COSIMA provides assistance to the decision maker as concerns complex decisions and strategic planning. The COSIMA software is designed as interconnected modules which make it possible to conduct Cost...

  16. Status of the present ATLAS RPC system and overview towards HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The RPC system covers the barrel region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in the pseudo-rapidity range of |eta|<1.05 with six independent detector layers, and solely provides the L1 trigger signal and the track coordinate in the non-bending plane of the muon candidates. The system has been designed to operate up to the nominal LHC luminosity (1e34cm-2s-1) which has been already exceeded thanks to the excellent performance of the collider. The experience in operating the present RPC system, up to the maximum instantaneous luminosity of 2.05 x 1e34 cm-2 s-1 reached in 2017, is reported. The performance of the system, in the severe background and pileup conditions of the last data taking period, is presented together with the improved tools implemented in order to have an effective monitoring of the detector status. The plans to successfully operate the present system during the HL-LHC phase are also introduced.

  17. Presenting a Multi-level Superstructure Optimization Approach for Mechatronic System Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Bech, Michael Møller

    2010-01-01

    Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control) and descr......Synergism and integration in the design process is what sets apart a Mechatronic System from a traditional, multidisciplinary system. However the typical design approach has been to divide the design problem into sub problems for each technology area (mechanics, electronics and control......) and describe the interface between the technologies, whereas the lack of well-established, systematic engineering methods to form the basic set-off in analysis and design of complete mechatronic systems has been obvious. The focus of the current paper is therefore to present an integrated design approach...... for mechatronic system design, utilizing a multi-level superstructure optimization based approach. Finally two design examples are presented and the possibilities and limitations of the approach are outlined....

  18. Resistance of cyanobacterial fouling on architectural paint films to cleaning by water jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Marcia Aiko; Loh, Kai; John, Vanderley Moacir; Gaylarde, Christine Claire

    2012-04-01

    Mortar panels painted with three different white acrylic coatings were exposed to the environment in urban (São Paulo) and rural (Pirassununga) sites in Brazil for 7 years. After this time, all panels were almost equally discoloured, and paint detachment was observed to only a small degree. The biofilms were composed mainly of cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi, principal genera being Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis of the cyanobacteria, and Cladosporium and Alternaria of the fungi. Two of the three paints in Pirassununga became covered by a pink film that contained red-encapsulated Gloeocapsa and clay particles. The third, an 800% elastomeric matt formulation, became discoloured with a grey, only slightly pink, film, although the same cyanobacteria were present. The levels of paint detachments from all films in both locations were low, with rating range of 0-1 of a maximum 5 (100% detachment). After high-pressure water jetting, paint detachments increased at both locations, up to 2 in Pirassununga and 3 in São Paulo. Discoloration decreased; L*A*B* analysis of surface discoloration showed that ΔE (alteration in colour from the original paint film) changed from 28-39 before cleaning to 13-16 afterwards. The pink coloration was not entirely removed from Pirassununga samples, suggesting that cyanobacterial cells are difficult to detach, and microscopic analysis of the biofilms confirmed that Gloeocapsa was still present as the principal contaminant on all surfaces, with Chroococcidiopsis being present as the second most common. Almost no fungi were detected after water jet application.

  19. Importance of the mooring system using in marine radioecology, present and planned studies in our country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, O.; Belivermis, M.; Cotuk, Y.; Topcuoglu, S.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the most important biomonitor organism is Mediterranean mussel species (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in handled monitoring studies in the marine radioecology content. This bio indicator species is also important both of the national and international monitoring programs. In this sense, Mediterranean and Black Sea mussel monitoring project was carried out with participating many countries which they have bank to Mediterranean and Black Sea by supported CIESM (Commission Internationale pour l'Expolaration Scientiphique de la mer Mediterranee) during the period of 2002-2004. All scientific data collected in a data bank. Furthermore, some new techniques were created for sampling and preparation of samples in monitoring of radionuclides and chemical pollutants by this project. On the other hand, the advantages of active bio monitoring compare to the passive bio monitoring were presented by discussed significance of mooring system.The mussel transplantation is carried out using of mooring systems for two goals. First one of them, available pollutants are to monitor in the absence of the mussel species in the stations by mussel transplantation in those stations. The other one of them, mussels which they are in same length and physiological state are to transplant the mooring systems and to monitor pollutants in mussel living and intended stations. In our country, the first mussel transplantation with established the mooring system was performed at the Oeluedeniz, Antalya, Tasucu, Botas and Arsuz stations. Active monitoring results of the works for radionuclide concentrations were given in this presented paper as well as passive monitoring findings were compared with the results obtained from Black Sea and Marmara Sea stations. Besides, it was presented the aim and content of mooring system that we planned to establish in the Golden Horn in this presentation.

  20. Atypical systemic leishmaniasis to be considered in the differential of patients presenting with depressed immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuha Nuwayri-Salti

    Full Text Available Systemic leishmaniasis has been known to present with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and wasting. Beside this classical form, a sub-clinical form has been identified. It is described with either one or two of the above symptoms missing; other findings have been reported instead, such as lymphadenopathy and anemia. In this report, we reveal a third unsuspected form which we are referring to as "atypical".Patients suspected to be immune-deficient were referred to our immunology specialized laboratory to study some aspects of their immune functions (not normally covered in the general laboratory. Multiple specialized tests were performed, including microscopic examinations using appropriate stains, and mainly cultures of biopsies on several types of specialized media. 19·4% of 160 patients were found to have close to normal laboratory profiles, but exhibited dysfunctional macrophages laden with Leishmania parasites.Findings such as the ones we obtained allowed us to uncover the presence of patients with an atypical form of systemic leishmaniasis. It presents with symptoms masquarading a condition in which the immune system is non functional. This predisposes patients to recurrent secondary infections resulting in clinical pictures with a great variety of signs and symptoms. These findings alerted us to the fact that systemic leishmaniasis presents with a much wider spectrum of signs and symptoms than so far suspected and is far more common than diagnosed to date. Furthermore, among these 31 patients was a number of adults. This proved that in our area systemic leishmaniasis is surely not limited to the pediatric age group. Our recommendation is to entertain the diagnosis of atypical systemic leishmaniasis in any patient with an unexplained depressed immunity state and in whom no obvious immunologic defect can be identified.

  1. Simplified life-cycle analysis of PV systems in buildings: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankl, P.; Masini, A.; Gamberale, M.; Toccaceli, D.

    1998-01-01

    The integration of photovoltaic (PV) systems in buildings shows several advantages compared to conventional PV power plants. The main objectives of the present study are the quantitative evaluation of the benefits of building-integrated PV systems over their entire life-cycle and the identification of best solutions to maximise their energy efficiency and CO 2 mitigation potential. In order to achieve these objectives, a simplified life-cycle analysis (LCA) has been carried out. Firstly, a number of existing applications have been studied. Secondly, a parametric analysis of possible improvements in the balance-of-system (BOS) has been developed. Finally, the two steps have been combined with the analysis of crystalline silicon technologies. Results are reported in terms of several indicators: energy pay-back time, CO 2 yield and specific CO 2 emissions. The Indicators show that the integration of PV systems in buildings clearly increases the environmental benefits of present PV technology. These benefits will further increase with future PV technologies. Future optimised PV roof-integrated systems are expected to have an energy pay-back time of around 1-5 years (1 year with heat recovery) and to save during their lifetime more than 20 times the amount of CO 2 emitted during their manufacturing (34 times with heat recovery). (Author)

  2. Past, present, and future design of urban drainage systems with focus on Danish experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    Climate change will influence the water cycle substantially, and extreme precipitation will become more frequent in many regions in the years to come. How should this fact be incorporated into design of urban drainage systems, if at all? And how important is climate change compared to other changes...... over time? Based on an analysis of the underlying key drivers of changes that are expected to affect urban drainage systems the current problems and their predicted development over time are presented. One key issue is management of risk and uncertainties and therefore a framework for design...

  3. Generalized equation for calculation of fractional recoveries and presentation of data for solvent extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawajfeh, M. K.; Al-Matar, A.

    2000-01-01

    A generalized equation relating equilibrium data, phase ratio and fractional recovery is developed. The use of this equation reduces the presentation of these data to a single dimensionless curve independent of the system and the operating conditions. The validity of this equation is tested using experimental data for different liquid - liquid systems at various condition. a reasonable agreement between experimental results and predicated ones was obtained. The use of this equation in investigating the effect of phase ratio on the fractional recovery is illustrated. (authors). 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Spatial and temporal changes in phosphorus partitioning within a freshwater cyanobacterial mat community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Borovec, Jakub; Sirová, D.; Mošnerová, Petra; Rejmánková, E.; Vrba, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 101, 1-3 (2010), s. 323-333 ISSN 0168-2563 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QH81012 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : phosphorus partitioning * cyanobacterial mat * diurnal changes * sequential fractionation * EPS Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2010

  5. Critical review of actually available chemical compounds for prevention and management of cyanobacterial blooms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, Daniel; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 9 (2011), s. 1415-1422 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : algicide * bloom management * cyanobacterial blooms Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.206, year: 2011

  6. Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared the Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystins (LR, RR, YR and LA) as a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contamina...

  7. Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Microcystins Lr, Rr, Yr and La (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared the Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystins (LR, RR, YR and LA) as a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contamina...

  8. Organic matter degradation drives benthic cyanobacterial mat abundance on caribbean coral reefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Polerecky, Lubos; De Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised

  9. Impact of water level fluctuations on cyanobacterial blooms: Options for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.S.; Hilt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Climate change can promote harmful cyanobacteria blooms in eutrophic waters through increased droughts or flooding. In this paper, we explore how water-level fluctuations affect the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms, and based on the observations from case studies, we discuss the options and

  10. An application of cellular organic matter to coagulation of cyanobacterial cells (Merismopedia tenuissima)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barešová, Magdalena; Pivokonský, Martin; Novotná, Kateřina; Načeradská, Jana; Brányik, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, October (2017), s. 70-77 ISSN 0043-1354 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : algal cellular organic matter * coagulation * cyanobacterial cells * Merismopedia tenuissima * water treatment Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental science s (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 6.942, year: 2016

  11. Controlling internal phosphorus loading in lakes by physical methods to reduce cyanobacterial blooms: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bormans, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Jančula, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2016), s. 407-422 ISSN 1386-2588 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : internal P loading * cyanobacterial control * physical in-lake restoration methods * adverse impacts on biota Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.500, year: 2016

  12. Dynamic modelling of viral impact on cyanobacterial populations in shallow lakes: Implications of burst size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gons, H.J.; Hoogveld, H.L.; Simis, S.G.H.; Tijdens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory experiments with whole water-columns from shallow, eutrophic lakes repeatedly showed collapse of the predominant filamentous cyanobacteria. The collapse could be due to viral activity, from the evidence of electron microscopy of infected cyanobacterial cells and observed dynamics of

  13. Coagulant plus ballast technique provides a rapid mitigation of cyanobacterial nuisance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia P Noyma

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria blooms are a risk to environmental health and public safety due to the potent toxins certain cyanobacteria can produce. These nuisance organisms can be removed from water bodies by biomass flocculation and sedimentation. Here, we studied the efficacy of combinations of a low dose coagulant (poly-aluminium chloride-PAC-or chitosan with different ballast compounds (red soil, bauxite, gravel, aluminium modified zeolite and lanthanum modified bentonite to remove cyanobacterial biomass from water collected in Funil Reservoir (Brazil. We tested the effect of different cyanobacterial biomass concentrations on removal efficiency. We also examined if zeta potential was altered by treatments. Addition of low doses of PAC and chitosan (1-8 mg Al L-1 to the cyanobacterial suspensions caused flock formation, but did not settle the cyanobacteria. When those low dose coagulants were combined with ballast, effective settling in a dose-dependent way up to 99.7% removal of the flocks could be achieved without any effect on the zeta potential and thus without potential membrane damage. Removal efficacy was influenced by the cyanobacterial biomass and at higher biomass more ballast was needed to achieve good removal. The combined coagulant-ballast technique provides a promising alternative to algaecides in lakes, ponds and reservoirs.

  14. Characterization of the cyanobacterial biocenosis of a freshwater reservoir in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mugnai, M. A.; Turicchia, S.; Margheri, M. C.; Sili, C.; Gugger, M.; Tedioli, G.; Komárek, Jiří; Ventura, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 109 (2003), s. 403-419 ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research /15./. Barcelona, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : freshwater reservoir * cyanobacterial diversity * morphology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  15. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom frequency in recreational waters and drinking water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHABs) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern because of their dense biomass and the risk of expos...

  16. Development of immobilized cyanobacterial amendments for reclamation of microbiotic soil crusts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubečková, Klára; Johansen, J. R.; Warren, S. D.; Sparks, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 109 (2003), s. 341-362 ISSN 0342-1120. [Symposium of the International Association for Cyanophyte Research/15./. Barcelona, 03.09.2001-07.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : cyanobacteria * cyanobacterial amendments * desert soil Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  17. An application of cellular organic matter to coagulation of cyanobacterial cells (Merismopedia tenuissima)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barešová, Magdalena; Pivokonský, Martin; Novotná, Kateřina; Načeradská, Jana; Brányik, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 122, October (2017), s. 70-77 ISSN 0043-1354 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : algal cellular organic matter * coagulation * cyanobacterial cells * Merismopedia tenuissima * water treatment Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 6.942, year: 2016

  18. Influence of phytoplankton pigment composition on remote sensing of cyanobacterial biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simis, S.G.H.; Ruiz-Verdú, A.; Domínguez-Gómez, J.A.; Peña-Martinez, R.; Peterson, S.W.; Gons, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    An extensive field campaign was carried out for the validation of a previously published reflectance ratio-based algorithm for quantification of the cyanobacterial pigment phycocyanin (PC). The algorithm uses band settings of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) onboard ENVISAT, and

  19. Structural Dynamics of Community Gene Expression In a Freshwater Cyanobacterial Bloom Over a Day-Night Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Fernando, S.; Thompson, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a major problem in eutrophic lakes and reservoirs, negatively impacting the ecology of the water body through oxygen depletion upon bloom decay and in some cases through production of toxins. Waterborne cyanobacterial toxins pose a public health threat through drinking and recreational exposure. The frequency of harmful cyanobacterial blooms (cyanoHABs) is predicted to increase due to warming regional climates (Paerl et.al, 2011) and increases in non-point source pollution due to urban expansion (Novotny, 2011). CyanoHABs represent complex consortia of cyanobacteria that live in association with diverse assemblages of heterotrophic and anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. A better understanding of the structure, function, and interaction between members of the complex microbial communities that support the proliferation of toxigenic cyanobacteria will improve our ability to prevent and control cyanoHABs. Studies of community gene expression, or metatranscriptomics, provide a powerful approach for quantifying changes in both the taxonomic composition (structure) and activity (function) of complex microbial systems in response to dynamic environmental conditions. We have used next-generation Illumina sequencing to characterize the metatranscriptome of a tropical eutrophic drinking water reservoir dominated by the toxigenic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa over a day/night cycle. Bacterioplankton sampling was carried out at six time points over a 24 hour period to capture variability associated with changes in the balance between phototrophic and heterotrophic activity. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to ribosomal depletion followed by cDNA synthesis and sequencing, generating 493,468 to 678,064 95-101 bp post-quality control reads per sample. Hierarchical Clustering of transcriptional profiles supported sorting of samples into two clusters corresponding to "day" and "night" collection times. Annotation of reads through the MG

  20. An Efficient Scheme for Aggregation and Presentation of Network Performance in Distributed Brokering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Gunduz

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is presently being used to support increasingly complex interaction models as a result of more and more applications, services and frameworks becoming network centric. Efficient utilization of network and networkedresources is of paramount importance. Network performance gathering is a precursor to any scheme that seeks to provide adaptive routing capabilities for interactions. In this paper we present a network performance aggregation framework that is extensible and appropriate for distributed messaging systems that span multiple realms, disparate communication protocols and support different applications.

  1. Secondary superficial siderosis of the central nervous system in a patient presenting with sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmerling, M.; De Praeter, G.; Mollet, P.; Mortele, K.; Kunnen, M.; Mastenbroek, G.

    1998-01-01

    We present a 50-year-old man who was investigated for sensorineural hearing loss. On MRI of the brain superficial siderosis of the central nervous system was seen, while MRI of the spine revealed an ependymoma of the cauda equina. This case illustrates the importance of performing T2-weighted imaging of the brain and posterior fossa when sensorineural hearing loss is present. Spine imaging is mandatory when superficial siderosis of the brain is diagnosed without identification of a bleeding source in the brain. (orig.)

  2. Can environmental conditions trigger cyanobacterial surfaces and following carbonate formation: implication for biomineralization and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, C.; Dittrich, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will give an overview what kind of the factors may trigger carbonate formations at the cell surfaces under a variety of environmental conditions. As examples, we will present the results from our recent studies on formation of calcium carbonates, dolomites and bio-cements. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the Synechococcuscell envelope are recognized key players in the nucleation of carbonates in marine and freshwater environments. Yet, little is known about a nutrient contents control over the molecular composition of Synechococcus cell envelope, and consequently, biomineralization. In the first study, we investigated how a variation of the phosphorus (P) in the growth media can lead to changes in the surface reactivity of the cells and impact their ability to form carbonates. The objective of the second study is to gain insights into the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial EPS and dolomite from different sediment layers of Khor Al-Adaid sabkha (Qatar). Here, we characterized microbial mats on molecular level in respect of organic and inorganic components using in-situ 2D Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used. Additionally, 2D chemical maps of sediment layers documented spectral characterizations of minerals and organic matter of microbial origins at high spatial resolution. Finally, we will show the results from the experiments with auto-phototrophic cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa PCC73106, which habitat on the monument surfaces, towards its application for bio-concrete, a product of microbial carbonate precipitation. We studied the biomineralization in biofilm forming Gloeocapsa PCC73106 on the concrete surface as a pre-requirement for microbial carbonate precipitation. Biomineralization on the concrete surface by live cells and killed cells were compared with that under the abiotic condition. Our experiments allow us to conclude that environmental conditions play a significant role in the control of

  3. A Novel Cyanophage with a Cyanobacterial Nonbleaching Protein A Gene in the Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, E-Bin; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2012-01-01

    A cyanophage, PaV-LD, has been isolated from harmful filamentous cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii in Lake Donghu, a shallow freshwater lake in China. Here, we present the cyanophage's genomic organization and major structural proteins. The genome is a 95,299-bp-long, linear double-stranded DNA and contains 142 potential genes. BLAST searches revealed 29 proteins of known function in cyanophages, cyanobacteria, or bacteria. Thirteen major structural proteins ranging in size from 27 kDa to 172 kDa were identified by SDS-PAGE and mass-spectrometric analysis. The genome lacks major genes that are necessary to the tail structure, and the tailless PaV-LD has been confirmed by an electron microscopy comparison with other tail cyanophages and phages. Phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid proteins also reveals an independent branch of PaV-LD that is quite different from other known tail cyanophages and phages. Moreover, the unique genome carries a nonbleaching protein A (NblA) gene (open reading frame [ORF] 022L), which is present in all phycobilisome-containing organisms and mediates phycobilisome degradation. Western blot detection confirmed that 022L was expressed after PaV-LD infection in the host filamentous cyanobacterium. In addition, its appearance was companied by a significant decline of phycocyanobilin content and a color change of the cyanobacterial cells from blue-green to yellow-green. The biological function of PaV-LD nblA was further confirmed by expression in a model cyanobacterium via an integration platform, by spectroscopic analysis and electron microscopy observation. The data indicate that PaV-LD is an exceptional cyanophage of filamentous cyanobacteria, and this novel cyanophage will also provide us with a new vision of the cyanophage-host interactions. PMID:22031930

  4. Ultra-fast secure communication with complex systems in classical channels (Conference Presentation)

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzone, Valerio

    2017-04-28

    Developing secure communications is a research area of growing interest. During the past years, several cryptographic schemes have been developed, with Quantum cryptography being a promising scheme due to the use of quantum effects, which make very difficult for an eavesdropper to intercept the communication. However, practical quantum key distribution methods have encountered several limitations; current experimental realizations, in fact, fail to scale up on long distances, as well as in providing unconditional security and speed comparable to classical optical communications channels. Here we propose a new, low cost and ultra-fast cryptographic system based on a fully classical optical channel. Our cryptographic scheme exploits the complex synchronization of two different random systems (one on the side of the sender and another on the side of the receiver) to realize a “physical” one paid system. The random medium is created by an optical chip fabricated through electron beam lithography on a Silicon On Insulator (SOI) substrate. We present experiments with ps lasers and commercial fibers, showing the ultrafast distribution of a random key between two users (Alice and Bob), with absolute no possibility for a passive/active eavesdropper to intercept the communication. Remarkably, this system enables the same security of quantum cryptography, but with the use of a classical communication channel. Our system exploits a unique synchronization that exists between two different random systems, and at such is extremely versatile and can enable safe communications among different users in standards telecommunications channels.

  5. Cryptococcal Meningitis Presenting with Isolated Sixth Cranial Nerve Palsy in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Seung-Ki; Seo, Soo-Hong; Ju, Ji Hyeon; Yoon, Chong-Hyeon; Park, Soo Chul; Kim, Bum Soo; Kim, Ho-Youn

    2008-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The nonspecific neurologic findings associated with this infection delays accurate diagnosis because initial neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE are in instances indistinguishable from that of crytococcal meningitis. We report a case of cryptococcal meningitis presenting with unilateral sixth cranial nerve palsy in a male patient with SLE, which was successfully treated with antifungal agents. PMID:18303219

  6. Assessment of present and future large-scale semiconductor detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, H.G.; Haller, E.E.

    1984-11-01

    The performance of large-scale semiconductor detector systems is assessed with respect to their theoretical potential and to the practical limitations imposed by processing techniques, readout electronics and radiation damage. In addition to devices which detect reaction products directly, the analysis includes photodetectors for scintillator arrays. Beyond present technology we also examine currently evolving structures and techniques which show potential for producing practical devices in the foreseeable future

  7. Giant aneurysms of the carotid system presenting as visual field defect.

    OpenAIRE

    Peiris, J B; Ross Russell, R W

    1980-01-01

    Visual field loss was the presenting symptom in 19 patients with large intracranial aneurysms of the carotid system. Location of the aneurysm was cavernous, carotid-ophthalmic (two), supraclinoid (nine), anterior communicating (six). Other features were pain and a long history of fluctuating visual loss. Cavernous or carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms mostly caused purely uniocular field loss consistent with optic nerve compression. Supraclinoid aneurysms most often caused a lateral chiasmal syndro...

  8. Lipid Biomarkers for Methanogens in Hypersaline Cyanobacterial Mats for Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Linda L.; Embaye, Tsegereda; Summons, Roger E.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of sediments from the vicinity of active methane seeps have uncovered a particular suite of lipid biomarker patterns that characterize methane consuming archaea and their syntrophic, sulfate reducing partners. These isoprenoid biomarkers, largely identified by their anomalously light carbon isotopic signatures, have been a topic of intense research activity and are recorded in numerous methane-rich environments from Holocene to Cenozoic. This phenomenon has implications for depleted kerogens at 2.7 Ga on early Earth (Hinrichs 2002). In contrast, the lipid biosignatures of methane producing archaea are not readily identified through distinct isotopic labels and have received comparably little attention in analyses of archaea in environmental samples. Indeed, environmental analyses generally detect only free archaeal lipids, not the intact, polar molecules found in the membrane of living organisms. As part of the Ames NAI, the 'Early Microbial Ecosystem Research Group' (EMERG) is working to understand microbial processes in the hypersaline cyanobacterial mats growing in the salt evaporation ponds of the Exportadora de Sal at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The aim of this study was to develop methods by which we could identify the organisms responsible for methane generation in this environment. While the ester-bound fatty acids, hopanoids and wax esters provide a means to identify most of the bacterial components of these mats, the archaea which Ere evidently present through genomic assays and the fact of intense methane production (Hoehler et al. 200l), have not been identified through their corresponding lipid signatures. Archaeal core lipids present a number of analytical challenges. The core lipids of methanogens comprise C20, C40 and sometimes C25 isoprenoid chains, linked through ether bonds to glycerol. As well as archaeal (C20), sn-2- and sn-3-hydroxyarchaeol are associated particularly with methylotrophic methanogens. Recently, we have

  9. An unusual presentation of brucellosis, involving multiple organ systems, with low agglutinating titers: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorvash Farzin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis is a multi-system disease that may present with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. While hepatic involvement in brucellosis is not rare, it may rarely involve the kidney or display with cardiac manifestations. Central nervous system involvement in brucellosis sometimes can cause demyelinating syndromes. Here we present a case of brucella hepatitis, myocarditis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and renal failure. Case presentation A 26-year-old man presented with fever, ataxia, and dysarthria. He was a shepherd and gave a history of low grade fever, chilly sensation, cold sweating, loss of appetite, arthralgia and 10 Kg weight loss during the previous 3 months. He had a body temperature of 39°C at the time of admission. On laboratory tests he had elevated level of liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine, Creatine phosphokinase (MB, and moderate proteinuria. He also had abnormal echocardiography and brain MRI. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgG and IgM was negative. Standard tube agglutination test (STAT and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME titers were 1:80 and 1:40 respectively. Finally he was diagnosed with brucellosis by positive blood culture and the polymerase chain reaction for Brucella mellitensis. Conclusion In endemic areas clinicians should consider brucellosis in any unusual presentation involving multiple organ systems, even if serology is inconclusive. In endemic areas low STAT and 2-ME titers should be considered as an indication of brucellosis and in these cases additional testing is recommended to rule out brucellosis.

  10. Technical Meeting on Grading of the Application of Management System Requirements. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this Technical Meeting are threefold: - to share international experiences and lessons learned, as well as exchange views on best practices and strategies to overcome the difficulties encountered; - to review and discuss the draft technical report on 'Grading the Application of Management System Requirements, to allow the participants to contribute to the improvement of the document and to enrich it with practical examples; and - to strengthen the international networking of specialists in the field. The topics covered during the meeting will include: - Examples and case studies presented by participants from countries with nuclear facilities (mainly focused on NPPs, and, where appropriate, from research reactors, fuel cycle and waste management facilities) on grading the application of management system requirements and lessons learned. - Reviewing and improving the final draft of a technical report on 'Grading the Application of Management System Requirements', which will supersede the previous guidance: Grading of Quality Assurance Requirement: A Manual (Technical Reports Series No. 328)

  11. Wearable light management system for light stimulated healing of large area chronic wounds (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, David; Mayer, Jan; Fricke, Sören; Schnieper, Marc; Ferrini, Rolando

    2016-03-01

    Chronic wounds represent a significant burden to patients, health care professionals, and health care systems, affecting over 40 million patients and creating costs of approximately 40 billion € annually. We will present a medical device for photo-stimulated wound care based on a wearable large area flexible and disposable light management system consisting of a waveguide with incorporated micro- and nanometer scale optical structures for efficient light in-coupling, waveguiding and homogeneous illumination of large area wounds. The working principle of this innovative device is based on the therapeutic effects of visible light to facilitate the self-healing process of chronic wounds. On the one hand, light exposure in the red (656nm) induces growth of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in deeper layers of the skin. On the other hand, blue light (453nm) is known to have antibacterial effects predominately at the surface layers of the skin. In order to be compliant with medical requirements the system will consist of two elements: a disposable wound dressing with embedded flexible optical waveguides for the light management and illumination of the wound area, and a non-disposable compact module containing the light sources, a controller, a rechargeable battery, and a data transmission unit. In particular, we will report on the developed light management system. Finally, as a proof-of-concept, a demonstrator will be presented and its performances will be reported to demonstrate the potential of this innovative device.

  12. Contributions of meteorology to the phenology of cyanobacterial blooms: implications for future climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Duan, Hongtao; Shi, Xiaoli; Yu, Yang; Kong, Fanxiang

    2012-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are often a result of eutrophication. Recently, however, their expansion has also been found to be associated with changes in climate. To elucidate the effects of climatic variables on the expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu, China, we analyzed the relationships between climatic variables and bloom events which were retrieved by satellite images. We then assessed the contribution of each climate variable to the phenology of blooms using multiple regression models. Our study demonstrates that retrieving ecological information from satellite images is meritorious for large-scale and long-term ecological research in freshwater ecosystems. Our results show that the phenological changes of blooms at an inter-annual scale are strongly linked to climate in Taihu during the past 23 yr. Cyanobacterial blooms occur earlier and last longer with the increase of temperature, sunshine hours, and global radiation and the decrease of wind speed. Furthermore, the duration increases when the daily averages of maximum, mean, and minimum temperature each exceed 20.3 °C, 16.7 °C, and 13.7 °C, respectively. Among these factors, sunshine hours and wind speed are the primary contributors to the onset of the blooms, explaining 84.6% of their variability over the past 23 yr. These factors are also good predictors of the variability in the duration of annual blooms and determined 58.9% of the variability in this parameter. Our results indicate that when nutrients are in sufficiently high quantities to sustain the formation of cyanobacterial blooms, climatic variables become crucial in predicting cyanobacterial bloom events. Climate changes should be considered when we evaluate how much the amount of nutrients should be reduced in Taihu for lake management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lupus enteritis: An uncommon manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus as an initial presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Bodh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is an autoimmune disorder generally affects young to middle-aged women, commonly presenting as a triad of fever, rash, and joint pain but can affect multiple organs and can present in a complex fashion, varying based on the degree and severity of organ involvement. The differential for abdominal pain and diarrhea in SLE is vast and can include VIPomas, serositis, pancreatitis, intestinal vasculitis, and protein – losing enteropathy, gluten – enteropathy, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and infection. The pathology of lupus enterits thought to be immune-complex deposition and complement activation, with subsequent mucosal edema. We present a case of a woman with no history of SLE, but with a prolonged course of abdominal pain, diarrhoea and vomiting and eventual diagnoses of lupus enteritis.

  14. Simultaneous presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis in mother and son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, F; Zhang, C; Zhang, D; Wu, X; Zhu, C; Jiang, G

    2011-12-01

    The pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been attributed to complex interactions between genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. The influence of a genetic predisposition to SLE is supported by family aggregation and a high concordance rate in monozygotic twins. Here we present a rare case of simultaneous presentation of SLE and lupus nephritis in a mother and son. Both patients had nephrotic-range proteinuria, and the renal pathological classifications of the son and his mother were Class IV-G (A) and Class III (A/C), respectively, according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society (ISN/RPS) 2003 classification of lupus nephritis. Apart from the renal involvement, both patients had leucopenia and anemia, and the mother also had typical cutaneous lesions and secondary Sjögren's syndrome. This case supports the genetic role in the etiology of SLE, and displayed different clinical presentations and disease severity in familial SLE patients of different gender and age.

  15. Chikungunya Fever Presenting as a Systemic Disease with Fever. Arthritis and Rash: Our Experience in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanay, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya fever (CHIK-F) has been increasingly documented among Western travelers returning from areas with chikungunya virus transmission, which are also popular tourist sites. We present three Israeli travelers who developed fever, maculopapular rash and long-standing arthralgias while visiting northern Indian states not known to be involved in the chikungunya fever epidemic. We also present an epidemiological review of the chikungunya epidemic over the past decades. Rare systemic manifestations of this disorder, like catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) and adult-onset Still's syndrome, are discussed. The present era of international travel poses a new diagnostic and epidemiologic challenge that demands increased awareness to the possibility of an exotic tropical infectious disease.

  16. Nutrient and other environmental controls of harmful cyanobacterial blooms along the freshwater-marine continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paerl, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Nutrient and hydrologic conditions strongly influence harmful planktonic and benthic cyanobacterial bloom (CHAB) dynamics in aquatic ecosystems ranging from streams and lakes to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization, agricultural and industrial development have led to increased nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) discharge, which affect CHAB potentials of receiving waters. The amounts, proportions and chemical composition of N and P sources can influence the composition, magnitude and duration of blooms. This, in turn, has ramifications for food web dynamics (toxic or inedible CHABs), nutrient and oxygen cycling and nutrient budgets. Some CHABs are capable of N2 fixation, a process that can influence N availability and budgets. Certain invasive N2 fixing taxa (e.g., Cylindrospermopsis, Lyngbya) also effectively compete for fixed N during spring, N-enriched runoff periods, while they use N2 fixation to supplant their N needs during N-deplete summer months. Control of these taxa is strongly dependent on P supply. However, additional factors, such as molar N:P supply ratios, organic matter availability, light attenuation, freshwater discharge, flushing rates (residence time) and water column stability play interactive roles in determining CHAB composition (i.e. N2 fixing vs. non-N2 fixing taxa) and biomass. Bloom potentials of nutrient-impacted waters are sensitive to water residence (or flushing) time, temperatures (preference for > 15 degrees C), vertical mixing and turbidity. These physical forcing features can control absolute growth rates of bloom taxa. Human activities may affect "bottom up" physical-chemical modulators either directly, by controlling hydrologic, nutrient, sediment and toxic discharges, or indirectly, by influencing climate. Control and management of cyanobacterial and other phytoplankton blooms invariably includes nutrient input constraints, most often focused on N and/or P. While single nutrient input constraints may be effective in some water bodies

  17. Markets, Availability, Notice, and Technical Performance of Terahertz Systems: Historic Development, Present, and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochrein, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Although a lot of work has already been done under the older terms "far infrared" or "sub-millimeter waves", the term "terahertz" stands for a novel technique offering many potential applications. The latter term also represents a new generation of systems with the opportunity for coherent, time-resolved detection. In addition to the well-known technical opportunities, an historical examination of Internet usage, as well as the number of publications and patent applications, confirms ongoing interest in this technique. These activities' annual growth rate is between 9 % and 21 %. The geographical distribution shows the center of terahertz activities. A shift from the scientific to more application-oriented research can be observed. We present a survey among worldwide terahertz suppliers with special focus on the European region and the use of terahertz systems in the field of measurement and analytical applications. This reveals the current state of terahertz systems' commercial and geographical availability as well as their costs, target markets, and technical performance. Component cost distribution using the example of an optical pulsed time-domain terahertz system gives an impression of the prevailing cost structure. The predication regarding prospective market development, decreasing system costs and higher availability shows a convenient situation for potential users and interested customers. The causes are primarily increased competition and larger quantities in the future.

  18. Functional network macroscopes for probing past and present Earth system dynamics (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth, as viewed from a physicist's perspective, is a dynamical system of great complexity. Functional complex networks are inferred from observational data and model runs or constructed on the basis of theoretical considerations. Representing statistical interdependencies or causal interactions between objects (e.g., Earth system subdomains, processes, or local field variables), functional complex networks are conceptually well-suited for naturally addressing some of the fundamental questions of Earth system analysis concerning, among others, major dynamical patterns, teleconnections, and feedback loops in the planetary machinery, as well as critical elements such as thresholds, bottlenecks, and switches. The first part of this talk concerns complex network theory and network-based time series analysis. Regarding complex network theory, the novel contributions include consistent frameworks for analyzing the topology of (i) general networks of interacting networks and (ii) networks with vertices of heterogeneously distributed weights, as well as (iii) an analytical theory for describing spatial networks. In the realm of time series analysis, (i) recurrence network analysis is put forward as a theoretically founded, nonlinear technique for the study of single, but possibly multivariate time series. (ii) Coupled climate networks are introduced as an exploratory tool of data analysis for quantitatively characterizing the intricate statistical interdependency structure within and between several fields of time series. The second part presents applications for detecting dynamical transitions (tipping points) in time series and studying bottlenecks in the atmosphere's general circulation structure. The analysis of paleoclimate data reveals a possible influence of large-scale shifts in Plio-Pleistocene African climate variability on events in human evolution. This presentation summarizes the contents of the dissertation titled "Functional network macroscopes for

  19. Reducing audio stimulus presentation latencies across studies, laboratories, and hardware and operating system configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babjack, Destiny L; Cernicky, Brandon; Sobotka, Andrew J; Basler, Lee; Struthers, Devon; Kisic, Richard; Barone, Kimberly; Zuccolotto, Anthony P

    2015-09-01

    Using differing computer platforms and audio output devices to deliver audio stimuli often introduces (1) substantial variability across labs and (2) variable time between the intended and actual sound delivery (the sound onset latency). Fast, accurate audio onset latencies are particularly important when audio stimuli need to be delivered precisely as part of studies that depend on accurate timing (e.g., electroencephalographic, event-related potential, or multimodal studies), or in multisite studies in which standardization and strict control over the computer platforms used is not feasible. This research describes the variability introduced by using differing configurations and introduces a novel approach to minimizing audio sound latency and variability. A stimulus presentation and latency assessment approach is presented using E-Prime and Chronos (a new multifunction, USB-based data presentation and collection device). The present approach reliably delivers audio stimuli with low latencies that vary by ≤1 ms, independent of hardware and Windows operating system (OS)/driver combinations. The Chronos audio subsystem adopts a buffering, aborting, querying, and remixing approach to the delivery of audio, to achieve a consistent 1-ms sound onset latency for single-sound delivery, and precise delivery of multiple sounds that achieves standard deviations of 1/10th of a millisecond without the use of advanced scripting. Chronos's sound onset latencies are small, reliable, and consistent across systems. Testing of standard audio delivery devices and configurations highlights the need for careful attention to consistency between labs, experiments, and multiple study sites in their hardware choices, OS selections, and adoption of audio delivery systems designed to sidestep the audio latency variability issue.

  20. Compound-specific Isotope Analysis of Cyanobacterial Pure cultures and Microbial Mats: Effects of Photorespiration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, L. L.; Summons, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial mats are considered modern homologs of Precambrian stromatolites. The carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter and biomarker lipids provide clues to the depositional environments of ancient mat ecosystems. As the source of primary carbon fixation for over two billion years, an understanding of cyanobacterial lipid biosynthesis, associated isotopic discriminations, and the influence of physiological factors on growth and isotope expression is essential to help us compare modern microbial ecosystems to their ancient counterparts. Here, we report on the effects of photorespiration (PR) on the isotopic composition of cyanobacteria and biomarker lipids, and on potential PR effects associated with the composition of various microbial mats. The high light, high O2 and limiting CO2 conditions often present at the surface of microbial mats are known to support PR in cyanobacteria. The oxygenase function of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase can result in photoexcretion of glycolate and subsequent degration by heterotrophic bacteria. We have found evidence which supports an isotopic depletion (increased apparent E) scaled to O2 level associated with growth of Phormidium luridum at low CO2 concentrations (less than 0.04%). Similar to previous studies, isotopic differences between biomass and lipid biomarkers, and between lipid classes were positively correlated with overall fractionation, and should provide a means of estimating the influence of PR on overall isotopic composition of microbial mats. Several examples of microbial mats growing in the hydrothermal waters of Yellowstone National Park and the hypersaline marine evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja Sur Mexico will be compared with a view to PR as a possible explanation of the relatively heavy C-isotope composition of hypersaline mats.

  1. Resolving the contribution of the uncoupled phycobilisomes to cyanobacterial pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Alonso M; Snellenburg, Joris J; Gwizdala, Michal; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; van Stokkum, Ivo H M

    2016-01-01

    Pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry is extensively used to characterize photosynthetic organisms on the slow time-scale (1-1000 s). The saturation pulse method allows determination of the quantum yields of maximal (F(M)) and minimal fluorescence (F(0)), parameters related to the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus. Also, when the sample undergoes a certain light treatment during the measurement, the fluorescence quantum yields of the unquenched and the quenched states can be determined. In the case of cyanobacteria, however, the recorded fluorescence does not exclusively stem from the chlorophyll a in photosystem II (PSII). The phycobilins, the pigments of the cyanobacterial light-harvesting complexes, the phycobilisomes (PB), also contribute to the PAM signal, and therefore, F(0) and F(M) are no longer related to PSII only. We present a functional model that takes into account the presence of several fluorescent species whose concentrations can be resolved provided their fluorescence quantum yields are known. Data analysis of PAM measurements on in vivo cells of our model organism Synechocystis PCC6803 is discussed. Three different components are found necessary to fit the data: uncoupled PB (PB(free)), PB-PSII complexes, and free PSI. The free PSII contribution was negligible. The PB(free) contribution substantially increased in the mutants that lack the core terminal emitter subunits allophycocyanin D or allophycocyanin F. A positive correlation was found between the amount of PB(free) and the rate constants describing the binding of the activated orange carotenoid protein to PB, responsible for non-photochemical quenching.

  2. Physiological and antioxidant responses of Medicago sativa-rhizobia symbiosis to cyanobacterial toxins (Microcystins) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khalloufi, Fatima; Oufdou, Khalid; Lahrouni, Majida; Faghire, Mustapha; Peix, Alvaro; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2013-12-15

    Toxic cyanobacteria in freshwaters can induce potent harmful effects on growth and development of plants irrigated with contaminated water. In this study, the effect of cyanobacteria extract containing Microcystins (MC) on Medicago sativa-rhizobia symbiosis was investigated in order to explore plants response through biomass production, photosynthetic pigment and antioxidant enzymes analysis: Peroxidase (POD), Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and Catalase (CAT). Alfalfa plants were inoculated with two endosymbiotic rhizobial strains: RhOL1 (MC less sensitive strain) and RhOL3 (MC more sensitive strain), to evaluate the rhizobial contribution on the plant response cultured under cyanobacterial toxins stress. The two rhizobia strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti by sequence analysis of their rrs and atpD genes. The chronic exposure to MC extract showed shoot, root and nodules dry weight decrease, in both symbiosis cultures. The rate of decline in plants inoculated with RhOL3 was higher than that in symbiosis with RhOL1 mainly at 20 μg L(-1) of MC. Cyanotoxins also reduced photosynthetic pigment content and generated an oxidative stress observed at cellular level. POD, PPO and CAT activities were significantly increased in leaves, roots and nodules of alfalfa plants exposed to MC. These enzyme activities were higher in plants inoculated with RhOL3 especially when alfalfa plants were exposed to 20 μg L(-1) of MC. The present paper reports new scientific finding related to the behavior of rhizobia-M. sativa associations to MC (Microcystins) for later recommendation concerning the possible use of these symbiosis face to crops exposure to MC contaminated water irrigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Case Of Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Who Presented With Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sırma Geyik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNV is limited with central nervous system and rare vasculitis that mostly seen in middle-aged men. PCNV vasculitis is usually presented that headache, dementia, stroke and multifocal common neurological symptoms. PCNV especially involves small medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. 43 years old male patient who have been progressive forgetfulness and headache for 3 years. He applied with recurrent that before starting right focal and than sprawling whole body which generalized tonic-clonic seizures to us. During management that he was transfered to the intensive care unit due to status epilepticus (SE. Later than we found right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right babinski positivity in neurologic examination. Diffusion restriction was revealed in left MCA territory in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging(MRI. EEG showed two types abnormality that a slow background ritm and epileptiform activity. Biochemistry of blood, complete blood count, blood sedimentation rate, CRP and markers of vasculitis were found in the normal range. Cerebral anjiography revealed that irregularities in the distal vascular areas and fusiform aneurysm at the top of basilar artery. He was consulted with rheumatology and diagnosed central nervous system vasculitis with the existing findings. Biopsy couldn't be taken from the brain to verify the diagnosis. Finally, we applied treatment that pulse steroid and cyclophosphamide to patient. This case has been presented due to emphasize that PCNV rarely may play a role in the etiology of recurrent stroke and status epilepticus.

  4. Primary central nervous system lymphoma presenting as a pure third ventricular lesion: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktenoglu Tunc

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary central nervous system lymphomas are infrequently occurring lymphomas that account for only 0.3-1.5% of all intra-cranial neoplasms in patients without acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, a pure third ventricle lymphoma is extremely rare. Here, we discuss the similar radiological appearances of lesions localized in the third ventricle and the importance of accurately diagnosing primary central nervous system lymphomas for favorable treatment outcomes. Case presentation A 38-year-old Caucasian man from Turkey presented with a severe headache lasting for three months that failed to respond to any medication. Both severity and duration of the symptoms increased gradually, resulting in vomiting, nausea and gait disturbance that accompanied the headache for three weeks. Neuro-imaging studies showed a lesion located solely in the third ventricle, resulting in partial obstruction of the foramen of Monro. The pre-operative diagnosis was a colloid cyst. Following the surgical procedure, the results of pathological and immunochemical assays revealed that the pre-operative diagnosis was incorrect and that the lesion was a primary central system lymphoma. Conclusion Pure third ventricle lymphomas are extremely rare and are exceptionally localized. It is important to be aware of, and to differentiate between, other possible third ventricular lesions that may mimic the same radiological appearance. Accurate diagnosis is necessary for selecting appropriate treatment modalities.

  5. Incubator embedded cell culture imaging system (EmSight) based on Fourier ptychographic microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; Lester, Henry A.; Yang, Changhuei

    2017-02-01

    Multi-day tracking of cells in culture systems can provide valuable information in bioscience experiments. We report the development of a cell culture imaging system, named EmSight, which incorporates multiple compact Fourier ptychographic microscopes with a standard multiwell imaging plate. The system is housed in an incubator and presently incorporates six microscopes, imaging an ANSI standard 6-well plate at the same time. By using the same low magnification objective lenses (NA of 0.1) as the objective and the tube lens, the EmSight is configured as a 1:1 imaging system that, providing large field-of-view (FOV) imaging (5.7 mm × 4.3 mm) onto a low-cost CMOS imaging sensor. The EmSight improves the image resolution by capturing a series of images of the sample at varying illumination angles; the instrument reconstructs a higher-resolution image by using the iterative Fourier ptychographic algorithm. In addition to providing high-resolution brightfield and phase imaging, the EmSight is also capable of fluorescence imaging at the native resolution of the objectives. We characterized the system using a phase Siemens star target, and show four-fold improved coherent resolution (synthetic NA of 0.42) and a depth of field of 0.2 mm. To conduct live, long-term dopaminergic neuron imaging, we cultured ventral midbrain from mice driving eGFP from the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. The EmSight system tracks movements of dopaminergic neurons over a 21 day period.

  6. Present status of research on hydrogen energy and perspective of HTGR hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Akino, Norio

    2001-03-01

    A study was performed to make a clear positioning of research and development on hydrogen production systems with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) under currently promoting at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute through a grasp of the present status of hydrogen energy, focussing on its production and utilization as an energy in future. The study made clear that introduction of safe distance concept for hydrogen fire and explosion was practicable for a HTGR hydrogen production system, including hydrogen properties and need to provide regulations applying to handle hydrogen. And also generalization of hydrogen production processes showed technical issues of the HTGR system. Hydrogen with HTGR was competitive to one with fossil fired system due to evaluation of production cost. Hydrogen is expected to be used as promising fuel of fuel cell cars in future. In addition, the study indicated that there were a large amount of energy demand alternative to high efficiency power generation and fossil fuel with nuclear energy through the structure of energy demand and supply in Japan. Assuming that hydrogen with HTGR meets all demand of fuel cell cars, an estimation would show introduction of the maximum number of about 30 HTGRs with capacity of 100 MWt from 2020 to 2030. (author)

  7. Physical chemistry of catalytic reduction of nitroarenes using various nanocatalytic systems: past, present, and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Robina [University of the Punjab, Centre for Undergraduate Studies (Pakistan); Rehan, Rida; Farooqi, Zahoor H., E-mail: zhfarooqi@gmail.com; Butt, Zonarah; Ashraf, Sania [University of the Punjab, Institute of Chemistry (Pakistan)

    2016-08-15

    The catalytic reduction of nitroarenes under various catalytic systems has been widely reported in the flood of publications during last twenty years. This reaction has become a benchmark for testing catalytic activity of inorganic nanoparticles stabilized in various systems. This tutorial review presents design and classification of inorganic nanocatalysts along with their stabilizing agents used for catalytic reduction of nitroarenes. The techniques used for characterization of catalysts have been highlighted in this review. The mechanism of catalytic reduction has been described in a tutorial way. Factors affecting the rate of reduction of nitroarenes in the presence of metal nanoparticles stabilized in polyelectrolyte brushes, polyionic liquids, micelles, dendrimers, and microgels have been discussed for further development in this area.Graphical abstract.

  8. Technical Meeting on Existing and Proposed Experimental Facilities for Fast Neutron Systems. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the TM on “Existing and proposed experimental facilities for fast neutron systems” is threefold: first, it is intended for presenting and exchanging information about existing and planned experimental facilities in support of the development of innovative fast neutron systems; second, it will allow to create a catalogue of existing and planned experimental facilities currently operated/developed within national or international fast reactors programmes; third, once a clear picture of the existing experimental infrastructures is defined, new experimental facilities will be discussed and proposed, on the basis of the identified R&D needs

  9. Occult systemic lupus erythematosus with active lupus nephritis presenting as Libman-Sacks endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankajkumar Ashok Kasar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE depends on clinical evidence of renal, rheumatologic, cutaneous, and neurologic involvement, supported by serological markers. A previously healthy 14-year-old girl presented with Libman-Sacks endocarditis involving the aortic valve as the first manifestation of SLE. Even though she did not satisfy the American College of Rheumatology criteria for diagnosing SLE, she had anemia, proteinuria, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, low complement 4 (C4 levels, and strongly positive antinuclear antibody titer. A renal biopsy showed stage IV lupus nephritis. Treatment was initiated with immunosuppressants and steroids. This type of presentation may be misdiagnosed as infective endocarditis missing the underlying collagen vascular disease.

  10. Strengths and Limitations of New Approaches for Graphical Presentation of Blood Glucose Monitoring System Accuracy Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2017-11-01

    Graphical presentation of blood glucose monitoring systems' (BGMSs) accuracy typically includes difference plots (DPs). Recently, 3 new approaches were presented: radar plots (RPs), rectangle target plots (RTPs), and surveillance error grids (SEGs). BGMS data were modeled based on 3 scenarios that can be encountered in real life to highlight strengths and limitations of these approaches. Detailed assessment of BGMS data may be easier in plots with individual data points (DPs, RPs, SEGs), whereas RTPs may facilitate display of large amounts of data or comparison of BGMS. SEGs have the advantage of assessing clinical risk. The selection of a specific type depends mostly on the kind of information sought (eg, accuracy in specific concentration intervals, lot-to-lot variability, clinical risk) as there is no "absolute best" approach.

  11. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting as Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia Purpura: How Close Is Close Enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar A. Perez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP is an uncommon life-threatening disease characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia, commonly associated with infections, malignancy, drugs, and autoimmune diseases. We report a case of 19-year-old previously healthy female that presents with anemia and thrombocytopenia diagnosed with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura that was treated successfully with plasmapheresis and corticosteroids. Laboratory findings also revealed antinuclear antibodies and antibodies to double-stranded DNA. Two weeks after presentation developed inflammatory arthritis, fulfilling diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with plasma exchange and corticosteroids should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis of TTP is suspected, even if other diagnoses, including lupus, are possible. When present, the coexistence of these two etiologies can have a higher mortality than either disease alone. An underlying diagnosis of SLE should be considered in all patients presenting TTP and the study of this association may provide a better understanding of their immune-mediated pathophysiology.

  12. .A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  13. A method for examining temporal changes in cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom spatial extent using satellite remote sensing (Harmful Algae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHAB) are thought to be increasing globally over the past few decades, but relatively little quantitative information is available about the spatial extent of blooms. Satellite remote sensing provides a potential technology for identifying...

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem I

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ilknur Erdem,1 Senay Elbasan Omar,1 Ridvan Kara Ali,1 Hayati Gunes,2 Aynur Eren Topkaya2 1Department of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Namik Kemal University, Tekirdag, Turkey Objective: Infections are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE but are rare initial presentation of the disease. Therefore, in this study, we describe a case of Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis in a young woman with previously undiagnosed SLE. Case report: A 23-year-old female patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic complaining of high fever (40°C, chills, fatigue, generalized myalgia, and cough with brown sputum for 5 days. Blood cultures grew gram-positive coccus defined as S. pneumoniae using standard procedures. Antinuclear antibody was positive at a titer of 1/1,000, and anti-double-stranded DNA was positive at 984 IU/mL. She was diagnosed with SLE. Her respiratory symptoms and pleural effusion were considered to be due to pulmonary manifestation of SLE. Conclusion: The underlying immunosuppression caused by SLE could have predisposed the patient to invasive pneumococcal disease. It may also occur as a primary presenting feature, although a rare condition. Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae, sepsis, systemic lupus erythematosus

  15. Clinical presentation of a patient with cutis laxa with systemic involvement: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofolean, Doina Ecaterina; Mazilu, Laura; Stăniceanu, Florica; Mocanu, Liliana; Suceveanu, Andra Iulia; Baz, Radu Octavian; Parepa, Raluca Irinel; Suceveanu, Adrian Paul; Bondari, Simona; Bondari, Dan; Voinea, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Cutis laxa (CL) or elastolysis is a rare inherited or acquired connective tissue disorder in which the skin becomes inelastic and hangs loosely in folds (Mitra et al., 2013). The clinical presentation and the type of inheritance show considerable heterogeneity (Shehzad et al., 2010). We aimed to present the atypical case of a young male patient diagnosed at 36-year-old with CL with systemic involvement. The complex medical history, with a suspected but unconfirmed progeria at nine months, repeated lung and urinary infections, complicated inguinoscrotal hernia, prostatic hypertrophy, bilateral entropion, colorectal diverticula and heart failure, suggested a systemic genetic disease, but the absence of family history made the diagnosis of CL difficult. The skin biopsy and the characteristic features discovered during anatomopathological exam made possible the positive and differential diagnosis, creating the link between the various organ involvement and CL diagnosis. Because of the age of our patient, of normal growth and mental development, and negative family history, we suspected an autosomal dominant form of CL with early onset and severe manifestation. Of course, we cannot exclude a recessive form, due to the heterogeneity of this disease.

  16. Geographical Information System Model for Potential Mines Data Management Presentation in Kabupaten Gorontalo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roviana, D.; Tajuddin, A.; Edi, S.

    2017-03-01

    Mining potential in Indonesian is very abundant, ranging from Sabang to Marauke. Kabupaten Gorontalo is one of many places in Indonesia that have different types of minerals and natural resources that can be found in every district. The abundant of mining potential must be balanced with good management and ease of getting information by investors. The current issue is, (1) ways of presenting data/information about potential mines area is still manually (the maps that already capture from satellite image, then printed and attached to information board in the office) it caused the difficulties of getting information; (2) the high cost of maps printing; (3) the difficulties of regency leader (bupati) to obtain information for strategic decision making about mining potential. The goal of this research is to build a model of Geographical Information System that could provide data management of potential mines, so that the investors could easily get information according to their needs. To achieve that goal Research and Development method is used. The result of this research, is a model of Geographical Information System that implemented in an application to presenting data management of mines.

  17. Shock state: an unrecognized and underestimated presentation of drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmoun, Antoine; Dubois, Elsa; Perez, Pierre; Barbaud, Annick; Levy, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Some patients with drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are probably admitted in intensive care unit (ICU), but data concerning their clinical features at admission are scarce. Therefore, in the present study, we used a clinical network of French intensivists to study the clinical features and evolution of DRESS patients hospitalized in ICU. A national, retrospective, multicenter study collected DRESS cases hospitalized in ICU for DRESS from 2000 to end of 2011. All files were analyzed through the RegiSCAR scoring system as "no," "possible," "probable," or "definite" DRESS. Patients were included only if they had a probable or definite DRESS. Demographic, hemodynamic, biological, and infectious data were recorded. Twenty-one patients were included. Hospital mortality was 10 (47%) of 21, and 16 of 21 patients had on admission a shock state necessitating vasopressor agents. Echocardiographic ejection fraction in shock patients was depressed (47% ± 13%). Mechanical ventilation was required in 13 of 21 cases. Hepatic failure was observed in 11 of 21 cases, acute renal failure in 18 of 20 cases, and lactic acidosis in 12 of 20 patients. Initial bacteriology was negative in all patients. Human herpesvirus reactivations were found in five of 15 cases. In conclusion, shock without bacteriological documentation associated with multiple organ failure is the most common presentation of DRESS at admission in ICU and is associated with a higher mortality than previously described.

  18. Performance of the present ALICE Inner Tracking System and studies for the upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contin, G

    2012-01-01

    The Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE experiment is made out of six layers of silicon detectors exploiting three different technologies (pixel, drift and strip). It covers the central pseudorapidity range of |η| < 0.9 and its distance from the beam line ranges from r = 3.9 cm for the innermost pixel layer up to r = 43 cm for the outermost strip layer. The main tasks of the ITS are to reconstruct the primary and secondary vertices, to track and identify charged particles with a low pt cutoff and to improve the momentum resolution at high pt. In this talk I will present the performance of the ITS in p-p and Pb-Pb collisions in 2010, both from the hardware point of view, with a brief overview of the features of the system, and the physics achievements for what concerns the vertexing, the tracking and the particle identification. Furthermore, I will give also an outlook on a possible upgrade of the ALICE ITS which is presently being studied, in order to extend its physics performance by improving the measurements of charmed hadrons and accessing new physics items like the measurement of the beauty hadrons.

  19. The German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) - Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudloff, A.; Lauterjung, J.; Gitews Project Team (Awi, Bgr, Dlr, Gfz, Gkss, Gtz, Ifm-Geomar, Kdm, Unu-Ehs)

    2010-12-01

    The German initiative to design and construct a Tsunami Early Warning System for the Indian Ocean got underway immediately after the 26 December 2004 tsunami in the region. First seismic instruments as well as ocean monitoring sensors were already deployed a few months later between spring and autumn 2005. A significant success and important mile stone for the whole system, which incorporates seismological and GPS sensors, tide gauges, ocean surface and bottom monitoring tools, as well as a tsunami simulation system and a decision support system, was its relevance during the 12 September 2007 Bengkulu earthquake sequence off coast Southern Sumatra. On this occasion, for the first time ever, BMKG - the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climate and Geophysics launched its own tsunami alarm after 4:40 minutes. During the complete phase of installation, joint German-Indonesian academic and training workshops were held, in addition to training courses for maintenance proficiency. Moreover, capacity building and capacity development measures were carried out at different stages, starting with a PhD programme in Germany, institutional consulting at national, regional and local levels and intensive discussion and knowledge exchange with local communities and administrations in the three pilot regions, Padang (Sumatra), Cilacap (Java) and Kuta (Bali). More than five years after commencement of this pioneering initiative which included a number of official acts, meeting presentations and peer-reviewed publications, a number of measures still remain to be taken. One important step integrates the handing over of the technical system to the Indonesian government. This phase will be accompanied by a subsidiary Indonesian-German company, established through the Indonesian and German partner institutions, which will be responsible for sustainable maintenance and support during the process,. In March 2011, when the German project funding will reach an end, the actual natural

  20. Presentation and preliminary evaluation of the operational Early Warning System in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Savvidou

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cyprus Early Warning System (EWS and its validation are presented in this study. The EWS was developed within the framework of the Weather Risk Reduction in the Mediterranean project (RiskMed, the main objective of which is to warn the authorities and the public for severe weather phenomena, in order to minimise the impacts of weather related hazards. For the validation of the EWS, a comparison is made between the output of the system and the observations retrieved from 24 automatic weather stations operated by the Meteorological Service of Cyprus. From the validation, it resulted that the system underestimates the temperatures and overestimates the rain and the wind over Cyprus. These results can be attributed, firstly to the sea coverage of the study areas and secondly to the weakness of the weather model to represent topography. The EWS is a useful forecasting tool for local weather forecasters whose duties include the issue of warnings which are subsequently disseminated to the appropriate authorities acting for the safety of people and properties.

  1. Units of measurement past, present and future international system of units

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, S V

    2010-01-01

    It is for the first time that the subject of quantities and their respective units is dealt this much in detail a glimpse of units of measurements of base quantities of length, time, mass and volume is given for ancient India three and four dimensional systems of measurement units are critically examined establishment of the fact that only four base units are needed to describe a system of units the basics to arrive at the unit of a derived quantity are explained basic, derived and dimensionless quantities including quantity calculus are introduced life history of scientists concerned with measurements units are presented to be inspiring to working metrologists and students. The International System of Units including, Metre Convention Treaty and its various organs including International National of Weights and Measure are described. The realisation of base units is given in detail. Classes of derived units within the SI, units permitted for time to come, units outside SI but used in special fields of measur...

  2. Plasma effects in the formation, evolution and present configuration of the Saturnian ring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.; Mendis, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 observations of the fine structure of the Saturnian ring system demonstrate the importance of electric forces in controlling the dynamics of fine (charged) dust in the rings. A new theory ('gravito-electrodynamics') which combines the electric and the gravitational forces on these grains leads to natural explanations of a number of observed ring phenomena. If plasma processes play a significant role in the dynamics of the ring system at the present time, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that they also played an important and perhaps crucial role at cosmogonic times during the emplacement and subsequent condensation of the initial dusty plasma. It is suggested that the Saturnian ring system represents a 'time-capsule' containing vital clues about the physical processes operating during the early stages of its formation. It is shown that both its overall structure as well as its fine structure, as determined by Voyagers 1 and 2, indicate the crucial importance of plasma processes in its formation and subsequent evolution

  3. Phospholipid Syndrome and Vasculitis as a presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sila Castellón Mortera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The systemic Lupus Erythematosus is presented, generally, as a poli articular syndrome, with a long period of fever nephritico or nephrotico; other clinical ways are: neuropsychiatry, vasculitis, etc. They appeared in a progressive manner; but in rare cases as a sickness debutant. It has not being reported in Sancti Spiritus Province patients in which matches the debut of the systemic Lupus Erythematosus with the manifestations of phospholipid syndrome. A Woman with 24 years of age is hospitalized having vasculitis, articular pains, thrombose in her right foot, detecting anticoagulante lupico and possitive Rematoideo factor with periferic pattern diffused in the Inmunoelectroforesis. 5 years later was hospitalized again with poliserositis. She had a positive evolution with a dose in a month of Intacglobin and anticoagulante treatment. Two years later she was hospitalized with articular pains proving she had livedo reticular on her left knee and Raynaud phenomenon on her foot. Beta Prebeta Index and high triglycerides. Lupico anticoagulant positive again. A treatment with Intacglobin and Prednisona was given to the patient with a better clinic without being hospitalized again. There is no evidence (at 17 years of age of a sickness debut of renal dissorder. It is about a Systemic Lupus Eritematoso which debut was a vasculitis and a Phospholipid Syndrome associated.

  4. Present developments of research MeV Pelletron ion implantation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, G. A.; Daniel, R. E.; Loger, R. L.; Schroeder, J. B.

    1989-02-01

    National Electrostatics Corp. has manufactured 79 ion beam systems. 17 of these Pelletron systems were designed with MeV ion implantation capability as a primary objective. Of these system, 8 were designed specifically for production ion implantation with a maximum beam energy of 4 MeV. For research applications, ion beam masses from carbon through gold have been accelerated with a maximum observed energy of 38 MeV from a 3 MV tandem S-series Pelletron. This paper will present performance charts which describe the observed ion beam capabilities of existing 3 MV tandem Pelletrons. In addition, the performance of the new high current, four charging chain, S-Series accelerator, currently in manufacture, will be given. A new 4 MV tandem S-Series Pelletron has been proposed, its expected capabilities will be stated. The NEC electrostatics raster scanner which is in use for MeV implantation provides uniform deposition at a maximum scan angle of ± 3.0 ° for 4 MeV doubly charged ions. The output wave form at ±10 kV scanning potential will be shown.

  5. Present and future of desertification in Spain: Implementation of a surveillance system to prevent land degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valderrama, Jaime; Ibáñez, Javier; Del Barrio, Gabriel; Sanjuán, Maria E; Alcalá, Francisco J; Martínez-Vicente, Silvio; Ruiz, Alberto; Puigdefábregas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Mitigation strategies are crucial for desertification given that once degradation starts, other solutions are extremely expensive or unworkable. Prevention is key to handle this problem and solutions should be based on spotting and deactivating the stressors of the system. Following this topic, the Spanish Plan of Action to Combat Desertification (SPACD) created the basis for implementing two innovative approaches to evaluate the threat of land degradation in the country. This paper presents tools for preventing desertification in the form of a geomatic approach to enable the periodic assessments of the status and trends of land condition. Also System Dynamics modelling has been used to integrate bio-physical and socio-economic aspects of desertification to explain and analyse degradation in the main hot spots detected in Spain. The 2dRUE procedure was implemented to map the land-condition status by comparing potential land productivity according to water availability, the limiting factor in arid lands, with plant-biomass data. This assessment showed that 20% of the territory is degraded and an additional 1% is actively degrading. System Dynamics modelling was applied to study the five desertification landscapes identified by the SPACD. The risk analysis, implemented on these models, concluded that 'Herbaceous crops affected by soil erosion' is the landscape most at risk, while the Plackett-Burman sensitivity analysis used to rank the factors highlighted the supremacy of climatic factors above socioeconomic drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An uncommon presentation of an uncommon disease: relapsing polychondritis overlap with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Michelle A; Rahnama-Moghadam, Sahand; Gilson, Robert T

    2016-02-17

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare rheumatologic disorder in which recurrent episodes of inflammation result in destruction of cartilage of the ears and nose. The joints, eyes, audio-vestibular system, heart valves, respiratory tract, kidneys, and skin can also be involved. Skin involvement is most frequently linked to concomitant myelodysplastic syndrome and has rarely been associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. A 47-year-old woman presented with violaceous, indurated, tender plaques on the bilateral cartilaginous ears with sparing of the lobes, consistent with RP. Further investigations revealed positive ANA and anti-Smith antibody, oral ulcers, a photo-distributed skin eruption, and biopsy-proven lupus nephritis, leading to a second concomitant diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The diagnosis of SLE associated with RP was made and the patient was started on oral prednisone and hydroxychloroquine. This is a rare report of SLE associated with RP. It is unclear whether RP occurring in patients with SLE represents another clinical manifestation of SLE or a coexisting disease. However, a significant ANA titer in a patient with RP strongly suggests the presence of an associated autoimmune disorder. If immunologic abnormalities usually found in SLE are detected in patients with RP, it is important to monitor patients for the development of other manifestations of SLE.

  7. Detection of cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine within shellfish in the diet of an ALS patient in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Sandra Anne; Metcalf, James S; Bradley, Walter G; Cox, Paul Alan

    2014-11-01

    Cyanobacteria produce the neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), which in contaminated marine waters has been found to accumulate in shellfish. Exposure to BMAA has been associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disease. Analysis of blinded samples found BMAA to be present in neuroproteins of individuals who died from ALS and ALS/PDC, but generally not in the brains of patients who died of causes unrelated to neurodegeneration or Huntington's disease, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. We here report support for a link between a patient with ALS and chronic exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin BMAA via shellfish consumption. The patient had frequently eaten lobsters collected in Florida Bay for approximately 30 years. LC-MS/MS analysis of two lobsters which this ALS patient had placed in his freezer revealed BMAA at concentrations of 27 and 4 μg/g, respectively, as well as the presence of 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB), a BMAA isomer. Two additional lobsters recently collected from Florida Bay also contained the neurotoxins BMAA and DAB. These data suggest that invertebrates collected in water where cyanobacterial blooms are present, if consumed, may result in direct human exposure to these neurotoxic amino acids. The data support the assertion that prolonged exposure to BMAA may have played a role in the etiology of ALS in this patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with an Acute Abdomen: Successful Treatment with Steroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruka Fukatsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal pain continues to pose diagnostic challenges for emergency clinicians. A 56-year-old Japanese woman was referred to our hospital due to severe abdominal pain which presented as occasional epigastric pain five months before and intermittent abdominal pain. She had a past history of ileus twice, for both of which laparotomy was performed without an alimentary tract resection. The wall thickening with marked three-wall structure from terminal ileum to sigmoid colon was seen and bladder wall was irregularly thick and enhanced irregularly. Among the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen, autoimmune diseases were suspected, especially lupus erythematosus and Henoch-Schönlein purpura. On the second day of admission, abdominal pain worsened. The results of examinations of antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA antibody, ANCA, and the complements were not obtained at that time; however, we started 1-g steroid pulse treatment for three days with success. With the results obtained later, the patient was given a diagnosis of probable systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. The present case shows that SLE can present with acute abdomen and should be included in the wide range of the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen.

  9. Cyanobacterial populations in biological soil crusts of the northwest Negev Desert, Israel - effects of local conditions and disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Henneberg, Manja; Felde, Vincent J M N L; Berkowicz, Simon M; Raanan, Hagai; Pade, Nadin; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Kaplan, Aaron

    2016-11-02

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) fulfill numerous ecological functions in arid and semiarid areas. Cyanobacteria are important BSC organisms, which are responsible for carbon fixation, N 2 -fixation, and binding of soil via extracellular polysaccharides. The cyanobacterial populations were characterized in different sampling plots established in three experimental stations along a rainfall gradient within NW Negev Desert, Israel. Cyanobacterial crust thickness and osmolyte accumulation therein decreased in plots with lower moisture. The cyanobacterial population structure also changed in different plots. We observed an increase of subsection III cyanobacteria such as Microcoleus spp. and Leptolyngbya sp. and a decreasing proportion of strains belonging to subsections I and IV in drier areas on the rainfall gradient. This population shift was also observed in the sampling plots, which were situated at various relief positions within the sand dune experimental sites. We also characterized the cyanobacterial populations within mechanically disturbed plots. After four years, they reached between 80 and 50% of the control populations in the northern-most and southern stations, respectively. Our results suggest that the cyanobacterial population is sensitive not only to macroscale factors but may also be subject to local climate variations and that four years were insufficient for complete recovery of the cyanobacterial population. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An endocannabinoid system is present in the mouse olfactory epithelium but does not modulate olfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutch, C R; Hillard, C J; Jia, C; Hegg, C C

    2015-08-06

    Endocannabinoids modulate a diverse array of functions including progenitor cell proliferation in the central nervous system, and odorant detection and food intake in the mammalian central olfactory system and larval Xenopus laevis peripheral olfactory system. However, the presence and role of endocannabinoids in the peripheral olfactory epithelium have not been examined in mammals. We found the presence of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor protein and mRNA in the olfactory epithelium. Using either immunohistochemistry or calcium imaging we localized CB1 receptors on neurons, glia-like sustentacular cells, microvillous cells and progenitor-like basal cells. To examine the role of endocannabinoids, CB1- and CB2- receptor-deficient (CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-)) mice were used. The endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) was present at high levels in both C57BL/6 wildtype and CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice. 2-AG synthetic and degradative enzymes are expressed in wildtype mice. A small but significant decrease in basal cell and olfactory sensory neuron numbers was observed in CB1(-/-)/CB2(-/-) mice compared to wildtype mice. The decrease in olfactory sensory neurons did not translate to impairment in olfactory-mediated behaviors assessed by the buried food test and habituation/dishabituation test. Collectively, these data indicate the presence of an endocannabinoid system in the mouse olfactory epithelium. However, unlike in tadpoles, endocannabinoids do not modulate olfaction. Further investigation on the role of endocannabinoids in progenitor cell function in the olfactory epithelium is warranted. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Unusual Presentation of Pyoderma Gangrenosum Leading to Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Didan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of an atypical presentation of pyoderma gangrenosum (PG in a 26-year-old male who had a negative septic screen. The patient had a life-threatening presentation requiring an intensive care unit (ICU admission for vasopressor support. It was thought that the likely cause of circulatory collapse was an overwhelming cytokine reaction or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS secondary to extensive PG lesions rather than septic shock. The patient presented with multiple large ulcers, the largest being 4 cm in diameter on the central chest. He developed fevers and circulatory shock preceding his ICU admission. Microbiological specimens, including blood cultures and wound swabs, were negative for any growth (bacterial, fungal, and tuberculosis. No infective foci could be identified as a cause of hemodynamic instability. During admission, the patient’s condition was complicated by multi-organ dysfunction. Wound debridement extending to the deep fascia on the anterior chest, back, bilateral shoulders, and right upper thigh was deemed necessary and performed by the plastic surgery team. Histopathology showed abundant neutrophils but could not confirm an infective process. Overall, the patient made an impressive recovery with almost complete healing of all lesions following oral prednisolone alone. Based on the history and clinical and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of PG complicated by a SIRS was favored. Very few cases of neutrophilic dermatoses have been described in this way. A similar presentation has been described in a 76-year-old female with lower-leg ulcers who developed circulatory shock and required an amputation. Lesions continued to appear despite antibiotics and surgical treatment. Septic screen was negative. She was subsequently diagnosed with PG and recovered rapidly after steroid therapy.

  12. Comparison of risk scoring systems for patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Adrian J; Laine, Loren; Dalton, Harry R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the predictive accuracy and clinical utility of five risk scoring systems in the assessment of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. DESIGN: International multicentre prospective study. SETTING: Six large hospitals in Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceania....... PARTICIPANTS: 3012 consecutive patients presenting over 12 months with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of pre-endoscopy scores (admission Rockall, AIMS65, and Glasgow Blatchford) and post-endoscopy scores (full Rockall and PNED) for their ability to predict predefined...... clinical endpoints: a composite endpoint (transfusion, endoscopic treatment, interventional radiology, surgery, or 30 day mortality), endoscopic treatment, 30 day mortality, rebleeding, and length of hospital stay. Optimum score thresholds to identify low risk and high risk patients were determined...

  13. Teaching foreign languages in soviet and present-day Russia: A comparison of two systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores recent changes in standards, forms and practices of teaching foreign languages in the present-day Russia against the system that existed in the Soviet period. A combination of theoretical and empirical methods and research practices are used to demonstrate that the changes were for the best, although most of them were not results of well-balanced state policy meeting new education goals. The research suggests that the current boom in learning foreign languages in Russia is mostly due to the new political, ideological, social and economic climate in the country. The nature and extent of influence produced by external factors on the course content, goals, expected results, teaching methods and resources are further discussed.

  14. Characterization of antigen-presenting cells from the porcine respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Robles, Guadalupe; Silva-Campa, Erika; Burgara-Estrella, Alexel; Hernández, Jesús

    2015-06-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are strategically placed in all anatomic sites with high antigen exposure such as the respiratory system. The aim of this study was to evaluate phenotypic and functional properties of APCs from the lung (L-Cs), mediastinal lymph node (LN-Cs) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BAL-Cs). The APCs were first analyzed based on forward scatter and side scatter profiles and the selection of MHC-II(high)CD172a(+) cells (referred to as APCs); then the expression of CD1a, CD163, CD206, CD16 and CD11R3 was evaluated in the APCs. The results showed that CD1a, CD163 and CD206 were differentially expressed among L-Cs, LN-Cs and BAL-Cs, suggesting the phenotype MHC-II(high)CD172a(+)CD1a(low/-)CD163(low)CD206(-) for L-Cs and MHC-II(high)CD172a(+)CD1a(+)CD163(low/-)CD206(+) for LN-Cs. BAL-Cs were MHC-II(high)CD172a(+)CD1a(-)CD163(high)CD206(+/-). The functional characteristics of L-Cs and LN-Cs were different from those of BAL-Cs, confirming that L-Cs and LN-Cs resemble specialized APCs. In conclusion, we present the characterization of APCs from L-Cs, LN-Cs and BAL-Cs of the porcine respiratory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In vivo stimulus presentation to the mouse vomeronasal system: Surgery, experiment, setup, and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoles-Frenkel, Michal; Cohen, Oksana; Bansal, Rohini; Horesh, Noa; Ben-Shaul, Yoram

    2017-06-15

    Achieving controlled stimulus delivery is a major challenge in the physiological analysis of the vomeronasal system (VNS). We provide a comprehensive description of a setup allowing controlled stimulus delivery into the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of anesthetized mice. VNO suction is achieved via electrical stimulation of the sympathetic nerve trunk (SNT) using cuff electrodes, followed by flushing of the nasal cavity. Successful application of this methodology depends on several aspects including the surgical preparation, fabrication of cuff electrodes, experimental setup modifications, and the stimulus delivery and flushing. Here, we describe all these aspects in sufficient detail to allow other researchers to readily adopt it. We also present a custom written MATLAB based software with a graphical user interface that controls all aspects of the actual experiment, including trial sequencing, hardware control, and data logging. The method allows measurement of stimulus evoked sensory responses in brain regions that receive vomeronasal inputs. An experienced investigator can complete the entire surgical procedure within thirty minutes. This is the only approach that allows repeated and controlled stimulus delivery to the intact VNO, employing the natural mode of stimulus uptake. The approach is economical with respect to stimuli, requiring stimulus volumes as low as 1-2μl. This comprehensive description will allow other investigators to adapt this setup to their own experimental needs and can thus promote our physiological understanding of this fascinating chemosensory system. With minor changes it can also be adapted for other rodent species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Concise Presentation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Energy Conversion Systems Challenges and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Mwaniki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increased worldwide wind power generation, a large percentage of which is grid connected. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG wind energy conversion system (WECS has many merits and, as a result, large numbers have been installed to date. The DFIG WECS operation, under both steady state and fault conditions, is of great interest since it impacts on grid performance. This review paper presents a condensed look at the various applied solutions to the challenges of the DFIG WECS including maximum power point tracking, common mode voltages, subsynchronous resonance, losses, modulation, power quality, and faults both internal and from the grid. It also looks at approaches used to meet the increasingly stringent grid codes requirements for the DFIG WECS to not only ride through faults but also provide voltage support. These are aspects of the DFIG WECS that are critical for system operators and prospective investors and can also serve as an introduction for new entrants into this area of study.

  17. Superresolution upgrade for confocal spinning disk systems using image scanning microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Hähnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Confocal Spinning Disk Systems are widely used for 3D cell imaging because they offer the advantage of optical sectioning at high framerates and are easy to use. However, as in confocal microscopy, the imaging resolution is diffraction limited, which can be theoretically improved by a factor of 2 using the principle of Image Scanning Microscopy (ISM) [1]. ISM with a Confocal Spinning Disk setup (CSDISM) has been shown to improve contrast as well as lateral resolution (FWHM) from 201 +/- 20 nm to 130 +/- 10 nm at 488 nm excitation. A minimum total acquisition time of one second per ISM image makes this method highly suitable for 3D live cell imaging [2]. Here, we present a multicolor implementation of CSDISM for the popular Micro-Manager Open Source Microscopy platform. Since changes in the optical path are not necessary, this will allow any researcher to easily upgrade their standard Confocal Spinning Disk system at remarkable low cost ( 5000 USD) with an ISM superresolution option. [1]. Müller, C.B. and Enderlein, J. Image Scanning Microscopy. Physical Review Letters 104, (2010). [2]. Schulz, O. et al. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, 21000-5 (2013).

  18. Novel approaches to microalgal and cyanobacterial cultivation for bioenergy and biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Kirsten

    2016-04-01

    Growing demand for energy and food by the global population mandates finding water-efficient renewable resources. Microalgae/cyanobacteria have shown demonstrated capacity to contribute to global energy and food security. Yet, despite proven process technology and established net energy-effectiveness and cost-effectiveness through co-product generation, microalgal biofuels are not a reality. This review outlines novel biofilm cultivation strategies that are water-smart, the opportunity for direct energy conversion via anaerobic digestion of N2-fixing cyanobacterial biomass and integrative strategies for microalgal biodiesel and/or biocrude production via supercritical methanol-direct transesterification and hydrothermal liquefaction, respectively. Additionally, fermentation of cyanobacterial biofilms could supply bioethanol to feed wet transesterification to biodiesel conversion for on-site use in remote locations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermally altered Silurian cyanobacterial mats: a key to Earth's oldest fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmierczak, Józef; Kremer, Barbara

    2009-10-01

    Diagenetic changes in thermally altered cyanobacterial mats from early Silurian black radiolarian cherts of southwestern Poland (Bardzkie Montains, Sudetes) have been studied. These early diagenetically silicified mats are composed of variously degraded remains of benthic microbes that resemble some modern chroococcalean and pleurocapsalean cyanobacteria. Two modes of degradational processes have been recognized in the studied mats: (i) early postmortem biodegradation and (ii) late diagenetic thermal or thermobaric degradation. The latter led to partial transformation of the fossilized organic remnants of cyanobacterial sheaths and capsules, which resulted in the formation of objects morphologically distant from the original microbiota but preserved features that allow for their identification as bona fide biogenic structures. Some of these thermally generated Silurian fossils are highly similar to the controversial microfossil-like carbonaceous structures described from the Early Archean Apex Chert of Australia. This similarity opens a promising way for credible recognition of remnants of cyanobacteria and similar microbiota in other thermally metamorphosed Archean sedimentary rocks.

  20. Biochemical indices are modulated in fish exposed to cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Hlávková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work were summarized changes of biochemical markers of fish under the thumb of cyanobacterial toxins (microcystins. Among the most studied biomarkers of the influence of cyanobacterial toxins on fish belong oxidative stress parameters – glutathione S-transferase (GST, non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, lipid peroxidation (LPO, malondialdehyde (MDA, glutatione reductase (GR, parameters of blood – values of haemoglobin (Hb, haematocrit (PCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH, erythrocyte (RBC, leukocyte counts (WBC and plasma – alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, cholinesterase (CHE, total serum protein (TP, glucose (GLU, lactate (LACT, iron (Fe, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, total bilirubin (BIL, phosphorus (P and protein phosphatase activities (PP1, PP2A.

  1. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was fermented using yeast into bioethanol. Results: The cyanobacterium accumulated a total carbohydrate content of about 60% of cell dry weight when cultivated under nitrate limitation. The cyanobacterial cells were harvested by centrifugation and subjected to enzymatic...... hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that p......-1) even in the absence of any other nutrient additions to the fermentation medium. Conclusions: Cyanobacterial biomass was hydrolyzed using a simple enzymatic treatment and fermented into ethanol more rapidly and to higher concentrations than previously reported for similar approaches using...

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as hypoglycaemia with insulin receptor antibodies and insulin autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Y; Zhou, J-G; Yuan, G

    2009-04-01

    A 37-year-old man presented with sweating, confusion, palpitations, hunger and tremor of 3 months duration. The symptoms disappeared after ingestion of food. After 3 months, he suffered from irregular fever, arthritis, rash, photosensitivity, and was admitted to the hospital. His antinuclear antibody, anti-double stranded DNA antibody, anti-smith antibody and lupus erythematosus cell phenomenon were all positive. Urine analysis showed albuminuria; his 24-h urine protein was 4.7 g. During hospitalisation, the patient presented with loss of consciousness three times because of hypoglycaemia. His serum insulin level during the hypoglycaemic episode was high at 490-1080 mmol/L (normal range: 6.00-27.00 mmol/L). He had never received an insulin rejection. Both insulin autoantibody and insulin receptor antibody were positive. Investigations confirmed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with autoimmune hypoglycaemia. High-dose of corticosteroids, chloroquine and cyclophosphamide therapy had resulted in remission of hypoglycaemia associated with resolution of circulating antibodies to insulin and insulin receptor, and improvement in clinical and laboratory features of SLE.

  3. Cyanobacterial water bloom of Limnoraphis robusta in the Lago Mayor of Lake Titicaca. Can it develop?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárková, Jaroslava; Montoya, H.; Komárek, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 764, č. 1 (2016), s. 249-258 ISSN 0018-8158. [Workshop of the International Association for Phytoplankton Taxonomy and Ecology (IAP) /17./. Kastoria, 14.09.2014-21.09.2014] Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Titicaca Lake * cyanobacterial water bloom * Limnoraphis robusta * Diazocytes * Atitlán Lake * N:P ratio Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  4. Evidence of a chimeric genome in the cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is a vexing fact of life for microbial phylogeneticists. Given the substantial rates of HGT observed in modern-day bacterial chromosomes, it is envisaged that ancient prokaryotic genomes must have been similarly chimeric. But where can one find an ancient prokaryotic genome that has maintained its ancestral condition to address this issue? An excellent candidate is the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that was harnessed over a billion years ago by a heterotrophic protist, giving rise to the plastid. Genetic remnants of the endosymbiont are still preserved in plastids as a highly reduced chromosome encoding 54 – 264 genes. These data provide an ideal target to assess genome chimericism in an ancient cyanobacterial lineage. Results Here we demonstrate that the origin of the plastid-encoded gene cluster for menaquinone/phylloquinone biosynthesis in the extremophilic red algae Cyanidiales contradicts a cyanobacterial genealogy. These genes are relics of an ancestral cluster related to homologs in Chlorobi/Gammaproteobacteria that we hypothesize was established by HGT in the progenitor of plastids, thus providing a 'footprint' of genome chimericism in ancient cyanobacteria. In addition to menB, four components of the original gene cluster (menF, menD, menC, and menH are now encoded in the nuclear genome of the majority of non-Cyanidiales algae and plants as the unique tetra-gene fusion named PHYLLO. These genes are monophyletic in Plantae and chromalveolates, indicating that loci introduced by HGT into the ancestral cyanobacterium were moved over time into the host nucleus. Conclusion Our study provides unambiguous evidence for the existence of genome chimericism in ancient cyanobacteria. In addition we show genes that originated via HGT in the cyanobacterial ancestor of the plastid made their way to the host nucleus via endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT.

  5. Cyanobacterial biomass as carbohydrate and nutrient feedstock for bioethanol production by yeast fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, K Benedikt; Canella, D.; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    hydrolysis using lysozyme and two alpha-glucanases. This enzymatic hydrolysate was fermented into ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae without further treatment. All enzyme treatments and fermentations were carried out in the residual growth medium of the cyanobacteria with the only modification being that p...... cyanobacteria or microalgae. Importantly, as well as fermentable carbohydrates, the cyanobacterial hydrolysate contained additional nutrients that promoted fermentation. This hydrolysate is therefore a promising substitute for the relatively expensive nutrient additives (such as yeast extract) commonly used...

  6. SAR analysis and bioactive potentials of freshwater and terrestrial cyanobacterial compounds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, M; Maruthanayagam, V; Sundararaman, M

    2013-05-01

    Freshwater and terrestrial cyanobacteria resemble the marine forms in producing divergent chemicals such as linear, cyclic and azole containing peptides, alkaloids, cyclophanes, terpenes, lactones, etc. These metabolites have wider biomedical potentials in targeting proteases, cancers, parasites, pathogens and other cyanobacteria and algae (allelopathy). Among the various families of non-marine cyanobacterial peptides reported, many of them are acting as serine protease inhibitors. While the micropeptin family has a preference for chymotrypsin inhibition rather than other serine proteases, the aeruginosin family targets trypsin and thrombin. In addition, cyanobacterial compounds such as scytonemide A, lyngbyazothrins C and D and cylindrocyclophanes were found to inhibit 20S proteosome. Apart from proteases, metabolites blocking the other targets of cancer pathways may exhibit cytotoxic effect. Colon and rectum, breast, lung and prostate are the worst affecting cancers in humans and are deduced to be inhibited by both peptidic and non-peptidic compounds. Moreover, the growth of infections causing parasites such as Plasmodium, Leishmania and Trypanosoma are well controlled by peptides: aerucyclamides A-D, tychonamides and alkaloids: nostocarboline and calothrixins. Likewise, varieties of cyanobacterial compounds tend to inhibit serious infectious disease causing bacterial, fungal and viral agents. Interestingly, portoamides, spiroidesin, nostocyclamide and kasumigamide are the allelopathic peptides determined to suppress the growth of toxic cyanobacteria and nuisance algae. Thus cyanobacterial compounds have a broad bioactive spectrum; the analysis of SAR studies will not only assist to find out the mode of action but also reveal bioactive key components. Thereby, developing the drugs bearing these bioactive skeletons to treat various illnesses is wide open. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Three-dimensional structure and cyanobacterial activity within a desert biological soil crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raanan, Hagai; Felde, Vincent J M N L; Peth, Stephan; Drahorad, Sylvie; Ionescu, Danny; Eshkol, Gil; Treves, Haim; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Berkowicz, Simon M; Keren, Nir; Horn, Rainer; Hagemann, Martin; Kaplan, Aaron

    2016-02-01

    Desert biological soil crusts (BSCs) are formed by adhesion of soil particles to polysaccharides excreted by filamentous cyanobacteria, the pioneers and main producers in this habitat. Biological soil crust destruction is a central factor leading to land degradation and desertification. We study the effect of BSC structure on cyanobacterial activity. Micro-scale structural analysis using X-ray microtomography revealed a vesiculated layer 1.5-2.5 mm beneath the surface in close proximity to the cyanobacterial location. Light profiles showed attenuation with depth of 1%-5% of surface light within 1 mm but also revealed the presence of 'light pockets', coinciding with the vesiculated layer, where the irradiance was 10-fold higher than adjacent crust parts at the same depth. Maximal photosynthetic activity, examined by O2 concentration profiles, was observed 1 mm beneath the surface and another peak in association with the 'light pockets'. Thus, photosynthetic activity may not be visible to currently used remote sensing techniques, suggesting that BSCs' contribution to terrestrial productivity is underestimated. Exposure to irradiance higher than 10% full sunlight diminished chlorophyll fluorescence, whereas O2 evolution and CO2 uptake rose, indicating that fluorescence did not reflect cyanobacterial photosynthetic activity. Our data also indicate that although resistant to high illumination, the BSC-inhabiting cyanobacteria function as 'low-light adapted' organisms. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Symbiotic adaptation drives genome streamlining of the cyanobacterial sponge symbiont "Candidatus Synechococcus pongiarum"

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Zhao-Ming

    2014-04-01

    "Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum" is a cyanobacterial symbiont widely distributed in sponges, but its functions at the genome level remain unknown. Here, we obtained the draft genome (1.66 Mbp, 90% estimated genome recovery) of "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" strain SH4 inhabiting the Red Sea sponge Carteriospongia foliascens. Phylogenomic analysis revealed a high dissimilarity between SH4 and free-living cyanobacterial strains. Essential functions, such as photosynthesis, the citric acid cycle, and DNA replication, were detected in SH4. Eukaryoticlike domains that play important roles in sponge-symbiont interactions were identified exclusively in the symbiont. However, SH4 could not biosynthesize methionine and polyamines and had lost partial genes encoding low-molecular-weight peptides of the photosynthesis complex, antioxidant enzymes, DNA repair enzymes, and proteins involved in resistance to environmental toxins and in biosynthesis of capsular and extracellular polysaccharides. These genetic modifications imply that "Ca. Synechococcus spongiarum" SH4 represents a low-light-adapted cyanobacterial symbiont and has undergone genome streamlining to adapt to the sponge\\'s mild intercellular environment. 2014 Gao et al.

  9. Selection, periodicity and potential function for Highly Iterative Palindrome-1 (HIP1) in cyanobacterial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Minli; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Durand, Dannie

    2018-02-08

    Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1, GCGATCGC) is hyper-abundant in most cyanobacterial genomes. In some cyanobacteria, average HIP1 abundance exceeds one motif per gene. Such high abundance suggests a significant role in cyanobacterial biology. However, 20 years of study have not revealed whether HIP1 has a function, much less what that function might be. We show that HIP1 is 15- to 300-fold over-represented in genomes analyzed. More importantly, HIP1 sites are conserved both within and between open reading frames, suggesting that their overabundance is maintained by selection rather than by continual replenishment by neutral processes, such as biased DNA repair. This evidence for selection suggests a functional role for HIP1. No evidence was found to support a functional role as a peptide or RNA motif or a role in the regulation of gene expression. Rather, we demonstrate that the distribution of HIP1 along cyanobacterial chromosomes is significantly periodic, with periods ranging from 10 to 90 kb, consistent in scale with periodicities reported for co-regulated, co-expressed and evolutionarily correlated genes. The periodicity we observe is also comparable in scale to chromosomal interaction domains previously described in other bacteria. In this context, our findings imply HIP1 functions associated with chromosome and nucleoid structure. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Diversity of cyanobacterial biomarker genes from the stromatolites of Shark Bay, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garby, Tamsyn J; Walter, Malcolm R; Larkum, Anthony W D; Neilan, Brett A

    2013-05-01

    Families of closely related chemical compounds, which are relatively resistant to degradation, are often used as biomarkers to help trace the evolutionary history of early groups of organisms and the environments in which they lived. Biomarkers derived from hopanoid variations are particularly useful in determining bacterial community compositions. 2-Methylhopananoids have been thought to be diagnostic for cyanobacteria, and 2-methylhopanes in the geological record are taken as evidence for the presence of cyanobacteria-containing communities at the time of sediment deposition. Recently, however, doubt has been cast on the validity of 2-methylhopanes as cyanobacterial biomarkers, since non-cyanobacterial species have been shown to produce significant amounts of 2-methylhopanoids. This study examines the diversity of hpnP, the hopanoid biosynthesis gene coding for the enzyme that methylates hopanoids at the C2 position. Genomic DNA isolated from stromatolite-associated pustular and smooth microbial mat samples from Shark Bay, Western Australia, was analysed for bacterial diversity, and used to construct an hpnP clone library. A total of 117 partial hpnP clones were sequenced, representing 12 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Phylogenetic analysis showed that 11 of these OTUs, representing 115 sequences, cluster within the cyanobacterial clade. We conclude that the dominant types of microorganisms with the detected capability of producing 2-methylhopanoids within pustular and smooth microbial mats in Shark Bay are cyanobacteria. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Screen-Capturing System with Two-Layer Display for PowerPoint Presentation to Enhance Classroom Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yen-Shou; Tsai, Hung-Hsu; Yu, Pao-Ta

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a new presentation system integrating a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation in a two-layer method, called the TL system, to promote learning in a physical classroom. With the TL system, teachers can readily control hints or annotations as a way of making them visible or invisible to students so as to reduce information load. In…

  12. Tuberculosis presenting as isolated bronchonodal fistula in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Kyungsoo; Jeon, Kyung Nyeo; Kim, Ho Cheol; Suh, Young Sun; Lee, Gi Dong; Kim, Ju-Young; Song, Dae Hyun

    2017-11-01

    Lymph node is a preferred site for extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). In the thorax, mediastinal tuberculous lymph nodes can erode adjacent structures such as heart, aorta, and esophagus, forming fistula, and causing fatal consequences. However, tuberculous bronchonodal fistula as a complication of lymph node TB in adults is rarely known in terms of imaging or clinical findings. Here, a case of isolated tuberculous bronchonodal fistula appearing as the first presentation of TB in a 74-year-old male with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reported. A 74-year-old male with SLE visited the hospital with dry cough. In family history, his son was treated for pulmonary TB 9 years previously. Laboratory test revealed increased C-reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a necrotic lymph node in the right hilar area connected to the inferior wall of the right upper lobe bronchus and the lateral wall of bronchus intermedius. On bronchoscopy performed under guidance of 3-dimensionally reconstructed CT image, fistula formation between the right hilar lymph node and 2 bronchi (the right upper lobe and intermediate bronchus) was confirmed. Sputum culture revealed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Anti-TB medication with isoniazid, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, and moxifloxacin for 9 months. The patient's symptom was gradually improved. Follow-up bronchoscopy performed at 3 months after starting the medication revealed decreased size of the fistula. This is a rare case of bronchonodal fistula appearing as the first presentation of TB in a 74-year-old male patient with SLE. CT provided useful information regarding the origin and progress of the disease.

  13. Organization of Experience among Family Members in the Immediate Present: A Gestalt/Systems Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marvin L.; Kaplan, Netta R.

    1982-01-01

    Outlines two formulations that generate conceptual perspectives of immediate phenomena: (1) the family system has a time-enduring stability; (2) the family system has an immediate and temporary organization. Integrates systems thinking and Gestalt Therapy while recognizing individual experience as embedded in a self-maintaining system of the…

  14. Past and present variability of the solar-terrestrial system: measurement, data analysis and theoretical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cini Castagnoli, G.; Provenzale, A. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The course Past and present variability of the solar-terrestrial system: measurement, data analysis and theoretical models is explicitly devoted to these issues. A solar cycle ago, in summer 1985, G. Cini organized a similar school, in a time when this field was in a very early stage of development and definitely fewer high-quality measurements were available. After eleven years, the field has grown toward becoming a robust scientific discipline, new data have been obtained, and new ideas have been proposed by both solar physicists and climate dynamicists. For this reason, the authors felt that it was the right time to organize a new summer school, with the aim of formalizing the developments that have taken place during these years, and also for speculating and maybe dreaming of new results that will be achieved in the upcoming years. The papers of the lectures have now been collected in this volume. First, in order to know what the authors talking about, they need to obtain reliable data from terrestrial archives,and to properly date the records that have been measured. To these crucial aspects is devoted the first part of the book, dealing with various types of proxy data and with the difficult issue of the dating of the records.

  15. Visualizing genome and systems biology: technologies, tools, implementation techniques and trends, past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; Malliarakis, Dimitris; Papanikolaou, Nikolas; Theodosiou, Theodosis; Enright, Anton J; Iliopoulos, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    "Α picture is worth a thousand words." This widely used adage sums up in a few words the notion that a successful visual representation of a concept should enable easy and rapid absorption of large amounts of information. Although, in general, the notion of capturing complex ideas using images is very appealing, would 1000 words be enough to describe the unknown in a research field such as the life sciences? Life sciences is one of the biggest generators of enormous datasets, mainly as a result of recent and rapid technological advances; their complexity can make these datasets incomprehensible without effective visualization methods. Here we discuss the past, present and future of genomic and systems biology visualization. We briefly comment on many visualization and analysis tools and the purposes that they serve. We focus on the latest libraries and programming languages that enable more effective, efficient and faster approaches for visualizing biological concepts, and also comment on the future human-computer interaction trends that would enable for enhancing visualization further.

  16. [Systemic necrotizing vasculitis presenting as gangrene combined with diabetes insipidus: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Liu, Yu-lan

    2015-12-18

    The male patient reported here presented as gangrene and central diabetes insipidus (CDI), who had characteristics of vasculitis. The patient complained about polydipsia and polyuria half a year ago, and then developed tingling, pain and blackish discoloration of some fingers and toes 3 month ago. He also had Raynaud's phenomenon. After admission, his laboratory examination showed the rise of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, immunoglobulin, β2-glycoprotein I and the activity of rheumatoid factors, lupus anticoagulant test. his pituitary gland showed loss of posterior signal on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, his vasopressin test was active. However, there was no sufficient evidence to diagnose any specific disease; as a consequence the patient was diagnosed as idiopathic systemic necrotizing vasculitis (SNV). For SNV, the patient was treated with glucocorticoid 40 mg/d and impact therapy of cyclophosphamide 0.4 g every 2 weeks. He also received symptomatic treatment for gangrene and CDI. Cutaneous involvement leading to gangrene was widely reported in SNV, however pituitary involvement in SNV leading to CDI was rare. The prognosis of this patient was poor.

  17. Light Regimes Shape Utilization of Extracellular Organic C and N in a Cyanobacterial Biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Rhona K.; Mayali, Xavier; Boaro, Amy A.; Zemla, Adam; Everroad, R. Craig; Nilson, Daniel; Weber, Peter K.; Lipton, Mary; Bebout, Brad M.; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-06-28

    Although it is becoming clear that many microbial primary producers can also play a role as organic consumers, we know very little about the metabolic regulation of photoautotroph organic matter consumption. Cyanobacteria in phototrophic biofilms can reuse extracellular organic carbon, but the metabolic drivers of extracellular processes are surprisingly complex. We investigated the metabolic foundations of organic matter reuse by comparing exoproteome composition and incorporation of13C-labeled and15N-labeled cyanobacterial extracellular organic matter (EOM) in a unicyanobacterial biofilm incubated using different light regimes. In the light and the dark, cyanobacterial direct organic C assimilation accounted for 32% and 43%, respectively, of all organic C assimilation in the community. Under photosynthesis conditions, we measured increased excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and proteins involved in micronutrient transport, suggesting that requirements for micronutrients may drive EOM assimilation during daylight hours. This interpretation was supported by photosynthesis inhibition experiments, in which cyanobacteria incorporated N-rich EOM-derived material. In contrast, under dark, C-starved conditions, cyanobacteria incorporated C-rich EOM-derived organic matter, decreased excretion of EPS, and showed an increased abundance of degradative exoproteins, demonstrating the use of the extracellular domain for C storage. Sequence-structure modeling of one of these exoproteins predicted a specific hydrolytic activity that was subsequently detected, confirming increased EOM degradation in the dark. Associated heterotrophic bacteria increased in abundance and upregulated transport proteins under dark relative to light conditions. Taken together, our results indicate that biofilm cyanobacteria are successful competitors for organic C and N and that cyanobacterial nutrient and energy requirements control the use of EOM.

  18. An overview of cyanobacterial bloom occurrences and research in Africa over the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlela, L L; Oberholster, P J; Van Wyk, J H; Cheng, P H

    2016-12-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a current cause for concern globally, with vital water sources experiencing frequent and increasingly toxic blooms in the past decade. These increases are resultant of both anthropogenic and natural factors, with climate change being the central concern. Of the more affected parts of the world, Africa has been considered particularly vulnerable due to its historical predisposition and lag in social economic development. This review collectively assesses the available information on cyanobacterial blooms in Africa as well as any visible trends associated with reported occurrences over the last decade. Of the 54 countries in Africa, only 21 have notable research information in the area of cyanobacterial blooms within the last decade, although there is substantial reason to attribute these blooms as some of the major water quality threats in Africa collectively. The collected information suggests that civil wars, disease outbreaks and inadequate infrastructure are at the core of Africa's delayed advancement. This is even more so in the area of cyanobacteria related research, with 11 out of 21 countries having recorded toxicity and physicochemical parameters related to cyanobacterial blooms. Compared to the rest of the continent, peripheral countries are at the forefront of research related to cyanobacteria, with countries such as Angola having sufficient rainfall, but poor water quality with limited information on bloom occurrences. An assessment of the reported blooms found nitrogen concentrations to be higher in the water column of more toxic blooms, validating recent global studies and indicating that phosphorous is not the only factor to be monitored in bloom mitigation. Blooms occurred at low TN: TP ratios and at temperatures above 12°C. Nitrogen was linked to toxicity and temperature also had a positive effect on bloom occurrence and toxicity. Microcystis was the most ubiquitous of the cyanobacterial strains reported in Africa and the

  19. Contrasted effects of an anti-cyanobacterial ultrasound device on the non-target freshwater invertebrate species Gammarus roeseli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techer, Didier; Banas, Damien

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of an anti-cyanobacterial ultrasound device (supplied by an electrical power of 15 W and emitting at 23 and 46 kHz) on the widespread freshwater amphipod species Gammarus roeseli. First, laboratory scale experiments in 8-L glass tanks showed that an ultrasound exposure of 2 h and 40 min was sufficient to produce 50% mortality, along with a 6.5 °C water temperature increase. Avoiding excessive heating by using a water-cooling and recirculation system permitted an exposure time of 29 h for the same mortality rate. A potential relationship between temperature's rise and amphipod mortality was hence highlighted. Moreover, the use of plastic mesh bag (0.5 mm mesh size) as a physical barrier has not shown any lethal effects of ultrasound exposure. Furthermore, the induction of GPx or GST activity as oxidative stress biomarkers was not observed. This could be explained by reduced ultrasound intensity inside the mesh bags. Thus, according to these results, the tested ultrasound system is not expected to be acutely harmful in the field.

  20. University of South Florida System Work Plan Presentation for 2014-15 Board of Governors Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors, State University System of Florida, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The State University System of Florida has developed three tools that aid in guiding the System's future: (1) The Board of Governors' new "Strategic Plan 2012-2025" is driven by goals and associated metrics that stake out where the System is headed; (2) The Board's "Annual Accountability Report" provides yearly tracking for how…

  1. Leak detection systems for VVER units based on leak before break concept. PowerPoint presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, Oldrich

    2010-01-01

    To comply with international standards, independent leak monitoring systems should be installed based on the monitoring of different physical parameters capable of detecting any small leak within one hour from the start of the leak. Such leak detection systems are based mainly on acoustic emission monitoring, humidity monitoring and/or radiation monitoring. Advanced systems integrate the monitoring of different physical parameters into one integrated leak detection system. The Integrated Leak Detection System (ILDS) for NPP Metsamor is described. This system consists of three independent leak detection subsystems, viz. LEMOP (LEak MOnitoring of Pipelines) based on acoustic emission monitoring, HUMOS (HUmidity MOnitoring System) based on humidity monitoring, and RAMOS (RAdiation MOnitoring System) based on radiation monitoring). The Integrated Leak Detection System (ILDS) collects data from the three systems, performs data evaluation, data storage, generates alarms and provides a user interface for the whole system including all subsystems. An example of DiagAssist user interface in the ILDS system in the pictorial form. (P.A.)

  2. Biogeochemical response of tropical coastal systems to present and past environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennerjahn, Tim C.

    2012-08-01

    Global climate and environmental change affect the biogeochemistry and ecology of aquatic systems mostly due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors. The latter became more and more important during the past few thousand years and particularly during the 'Anthropocene'. However, although they are considered important in this respect as yet much less is known from tropical than from high latitude coasts. Tropical coasts receive the majority of river inputs into the ocean, they harbor a variety of diverse ecosystems and a majority of the population lives there and economically depends on their natural resources. This review delineates the biogeochemical response of coastal systems to environmental change and the interplay of natural and anthropogenic control factors nowadays and in the recent geological past with an emphasis on tropical regions. Weathering rates are higher in low than in high latitude regions with a maximum in the SE Asia/Western Pacific region. On a global scale the net effect of increasing erosion due to deforestation and sediment retention behind dams is a reduced sediment input into the oceans during the Anthropocene. However, an increase was observed in the SE Asia/Western Pacific region. Nitrogen and phosphorus inputs into the ocean have trebled between the 1970s and 1990s due to human activities. As a consequence of increased nutrient inputs and a change in the nutrient mix excessive algal blooms and changes in the phytoplankton community composition towards non-biomineralizing species have been observed in many regions. This has implications for foodwebs and biogeochemical cycles of coastal seas including the release of greenhouse gases. Examples from tropical coasts with high population density and extensive agriculture, however, display deviations from temperate and subtropical regions in this respect. According to instrumental records and observations the present-day biogeochemical and ecological response to environmental

  3. Satellite monitoring of cyanobacterial harmful algal bloom frequency in recreational waters and drinking water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John M.; Schaeffer, Blake A.; Darling, John A.; Urquhart, Erin A.; Johnston, John M.; Ignatius, Amber R.; Myer, Mark H.; Loftin, Keith A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Stumpf, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHAB) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and fish kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern in both recreational waters and drinking water sources because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins. Successful cyanoHAB assessment using satellites may provide an indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, methods were developed to assess the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB frequency of occurrence at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent series of Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imagers (OLCI) launched in 2016 as part of the Copernicus program. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, the continental United States contains 275,897 lakes and reservoirs >1 ha in area. Results from this study show that 5.6% of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single-pixel resolution and 0.7% of waterbodies were resolvable when a three by three pixel (3 × 3-pixel) array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data were spatially joined to U.S. public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single-pixel resolution resolved 57% of the PWSI locations and a 3 × 3-pixel array resolved 33% of the PWSI locations. Recreational and drinking water sources in Florida and Ohio were ranked from 2008 through 2011 by cyanoHAB frequency above the World Health Organization’s (WHO) high threshold for risk of 100,000 cells mL−1. The ranking identified waterbodies with values above the WHO high threshold, where Lake Apopka, FL (99.1%) and Grand Lake St. Marys, OH (83%) had the highest observed bloom frequencies per region. The method presented here may indicate

  4. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  5. Relationship of cyanobacterial and algal assemblages with vegetation in the high Arctic tundra (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study of cyanobacteria and green algae assemblages occurring in various tundra types determined on the basis of mosses and vascular plants and habitat conditions. The research was carried out during summer in the years 2009-2013 on the north sea-coast of Hornsund fjord (West Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago. 58 sites were studied in various tundra types differing in composition of vascular plants, mosses and in trophy and humidity. 141 cyanobacteria and green algae were noted in the research area in total. Cyanobacteria and green algae flora is a significant element of many tundra types and sometimes even dominate there. Despite its importance, it has not been hitherto taken into account in the description and classification of tundra. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the legitimacy of using phycoflora in supplementing the descriptions of hitherto described tundra and distinguishing new tundra types. Numeric hierarchical-accumulative classification (MVSP 3.1 software methods were used to analyze the cyanobacterial and algal assemblages and their co-relations with particular tundra types. The analysis determined dominant and distinctive species in the communities in concordance with ecologically diverse types of tundra. The results show the importance of these organisms in the composition of the vegetation of tundra types and their role in the ecosystems of this part of the Arctic.

  6. 76 FR 52539 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Conversion Factors for Spouses of Deceased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...; Present Value Conversion Factors for Spouses of Deceased Separated Employees AGENCY: Office of Personnel... Appendix A to subpart C of part 843 to make the annuity actuarially equivalent to the present value of the... Subpart C of Part 843--Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of...

  7. A Neural Networks Based Operation Guidance System for Procedure Presentation and Validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung, Kun Mo; Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a neural network based operator support system is proposed to reduce operator's errors in abnormal situations in nuclear power plants (NPPs). There are many complicated situations, in which regular and suitable operations should be done by operators accordingly. In order to regulate and validate operators' operations, it is necessary to develop an operator support system which includes computer based procedures with the functions for operation validation. Many computerized procedures systems (CPS) have been recently developed. Focusing on the human machine interface (HMI) design and procedures' computerization, most of CPSs used various methodologies to enhance system's convenience, reliability and accessibility. Other than only showing procedures, the proposed system integrates a simple CPS and an operation validation system (OVS) by using artificial neural network (ANN) for operational permission and quantitative evaluation

  8. Determination of nitrogen-fixing phylotypes in Lyngbya sp. and Microcoleus chthonoplastes cyanobacterial mats from Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoregie, Enoma O; Crumbliss, Lori L; Bebout, Brad M; Zehr, Jonathan P

    2004-04-01

    In many environments, biological nitrogen fixation can alleviate nitrogen limitation. The high rates of N(2) fixation often observed in cyanobacterial mats suggest that N(2) fixation may be an important source of N. In this study, organisms expressing nifH were identified in a Lyngbya sp.- and two Microcoleus chthonoplastes-dominated cyanobacterial mats. The pattern of nitrogenase activity was determined for the Lyngbya sp. mat and a Microcoleus chthonoplastes mat sampled directly in Guerrero Negro, Mexico. Their maximum rates were 23 and 15 micro mol of C(2)H(4) m(-2) h(-1), respectively. The second Microcoleus mat, which was maintained in a greenhouse facility, had a maximum rate of 40 micro mol of C(2)H(4) m(-2) h(-1). The overall diel pattern of nitrogenase activity in the three mats was similar, with the highest rates of activity occurring during the dark period. Analysis of nifH transcripts by reverse transcription-PCR revealed that several different organisms were expressing nifH during the dark period. nifH phylotypes recovered from these mats were similar to sequences from the unicellular cyanobacterial genera Halothece, Myxosarcina, and Synechocystis, the filamentous cyanobacterial genera Plectonema and Phormidium, and several bacterial nifH groups. The results of this study indicate that several different organisms, some of which were not previously known to fix nitrogen, are likely to be responsible for the observed dark-period nitrogenase activity in these cyanobacterial mats.

  9. Bacterial communities associated with four cyanobacterial genera display structural and functional differences: Evidence from an experimental approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the limitations associated with studying the interactions between bacterial communities (BCs and cyanobacteria in natural environments, we compared the structural and functional diversities of the BCs associated with fifteen non-axenic cyanobacterial strains in culture and two natural BCs sampled during cyanobacterial blooms. No significant differences in richness and diversity were found between the natural and cultivated BCs, although some of the cyanobacterial strains had been isolated 11 years earlier. Moreover, these BCs shared some similar characteristics, such as a very low abundance of Actinobacteria, but they display significant differences at the OTU level. Overall, our findings suggest that BCs associated with cyanobacteria in culture are good models to better understand the interactions between heterotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria. Additionally, BCs associated with heterocystous cyanobacterial strains cultivated in Z8X culture medium without nitrate (Aphanizomenon-Dolichospermum demonstrated significant differences compared to BCs associated with non-heterocystous strains cultivated in Z8 culture medium (Planktothrix-Microcystis in terms of their composition and their ability to utilize different carbon sources, suggesting the potential influence of cyanobacterial metabolism and/or culture media on associated BCs. Finally, half of the dominant operational taxonomic units (OTUs in these BCs were specifically associated with cyanobacteria or other phytoplankton, whereas the remaining OTUs were generally associated with ecosystems containing high Organic Matter (OM content, such as sludge or intestines.

  10. Mirror fusion test facility cryogenic system - performance, management approach, and present equipment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.S.; Chronis, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    The cryogenic system for the MFTF is a helium refrigeration system that proved to be successful and cost effective. All operating objectives were met while remaining within a few percent of the initial cost and schedule plans. The management approach used at MFTF is assessed. Manpower levels, extent and type of industrial participation, and subcontractor specifications and interactions are reviewed along with highlights of system testing, documentation, and operation

  11. Dosage and characterization of circulating DNA: present usage and possible applications in systemic autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, M; Morozzi, G; Piccini, M; Chen, J; Bellisai, F; Fineschi, S; Marcolongo, R

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of extracellular nucleic acids in the circulation was firstly reported in 1948. In the last few years it has been demonstrated that the entire spectrum of genetic changes seen in primary tumors could also be detected in the serum of patients with solid tumors. This observation has also opened up exciting possibilities for tumor detection and monitoring. More recently investigators started looking for other forms of non-host DNA in the plasma/serum so that in 1997 the presence of fetal DNA in the plasma/serum of pregnant women was demonstrated. This finding suggested that maternal plasma fetal DNA would be a very valuable material for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and monitoring. It has been also postulated that the presence of the two-way trafficking of nucleated cells and free DNA between the mother and fetus may have potential implications for the development of certain autoimmune diseases. Concerning autoimmune disorders, Tan was the first author to describe the presence of high levels of circulating DNA in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 1986. Later on different authors demonstrated that elevated levels of serum DNA was also present in patients with other diseases including rheumatoid arthritis. We have analyzed both circulating free DNA and DNA extracted from nucleated blood cells in scleroderma and in lupus patients but, by using gel electrophoresis, we were able to define the pattern of the DNA, instead of simply dosing its amount in the circulation. We have found that SLE and SSc have anomalous patterns of DNA both in serum and in the Buffy-coat and that these patterns are typical for each disorder. It is possible that understanding the biological significance of the diversity in DNA pattern exhibition in white blood cells may give new insights into the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders. It is also conceivable that circulating and immune-competent cellular DNA markers might offer the promise of precise quantitative

  12. Energy pay-back time of photovoltaic energy systems: present status and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsema, E.A.; Frankl, P.; Kato, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the energy requirements of PV modules and systems and calculate the Energy Pay-Back Time for three major PV applications. Based on a review of past energy analysis studies we explain the main sources of differences and establish a "best estimate" for key system

  13. Present state and progress of industrial electron processing systems in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, I.; Mizusawa, K.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of the state of utilisation of electron processing systems in Japan, mainly for (1) cross-linking of wire and cable insulator, (2) heat shrinkable tube and sheet, (3) foamed polyethylene, and (4) curing of paint coats. Details are given of some of the electron processing systems. (U.K.)

  14. The Dutch system of education and training in radiation protection. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, Hielke Freerk

    2013-01-01

    The earliest courses in 'Radiation Protection (RP) Education and Training in the Netherlands' date back to the late fifties, a time which saw major developments especially in both nuclear medicine and nuclear power. The Dutch Society for Radiation Protection (NVS - Nederlandse Vereinigung voor Strahlingshygiene), established in 1960, is in fact the result of one of the first RP courses for medical doctors. The current system of recognition of RP courses was implemented in 1984 in Dutch legislation, based on an advice of the Dutch Health Council from 1972 (.). The recognition system has fundamentally remained unchanged since then. Radiation protection courses in the Netherlands based on this system already started in the seventies. After many discussions in the past decade the system will change in the next years in close relation to the start of a system of registration of RPes. In this paper I will start with a short introduction of the Dutch system of RP education and training. I will consecutively describe the background of the future changes in our system. Finally the major changes will be given. In the end I hope to have convinced you of the fact that although we face some major changes in the near future, the basis of the current system of education and training in RP will remain. (orig.)

  15. A Unified Transform for LTI Systems--Presented as a (Generalized) Frame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuer, A.; Van Den Hof, P.M.J.; Heuberger, P.S.C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a set of functions in L2([0,8)) and show it to be a (tight) generalized frame (as presented by G. Kaiser (1994)). The analysis side of the frame operation is called the continuous unified transform. We show that some of the well-known transforms (such as Laplace, Laguerre, Kautz, and

  16. Present day relief-shaping systems acting on the southern slope of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The present topography of the Făgăraş Mountains is a snapshot of the long-term evolution that brought about significant alterations of the landscape, and especially of the relief, which has acquired different features depending on the intensity of the relationship between the exogenous and endogenous agents. At present ...

  17. The Past, Present and Future of Cyber-Physical Systems: A Focus on Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems, which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical.

  18. Evidence of Nervous System Sensitization in Commonly Presenting and Persistent Painful Tendinopathies : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plinsinga, Melanie L.; Brink, Michel S.; Vicenzino, Bill; Van Wilgen, C. Paul

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate if there is sensitization of the nervous system in those with persistent rotator cuff (shoulder), lateral elbow, patellar, and Achilles tendinopathies. BACKGROUND: Tendinopathy can be difficult to treat, and persistent intractable pain and

  19. Water System Adaptation To Hydrological Changes: Module 8, Regulatory Framework Intersections: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course will introduce students to the fundamental principles of water system adaptation to hydrological changes, with emphasis on data analysis and interpretation, technical planning, and computational modeling. Starting with real-world scenarios and adaptation needs, the co...

  20. The past, present and future of cyber-physical systems: a focus on models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward A

    2015-02-26

    This paper is about better engineering of cyber-physical systems (CPSs) through better models. Deterministic models have historically proven extremely useful and arguably form the kingpin of the industrial revolution and the digital and information technology revolutions. Key deterministic models that have proven successful include differential equations, synchronous digital logic and single-threaded imperative programs. Cyber-physical systems, however, combine these models in such a way that determinism is not preserved. Two projects show that deterministic CPS models with faithful physical realizations are possible and practical. The first project is PRET, which shows that the timing precision of synchronous digital logic can be practically made available at the software level of abstraction. The second project is Ptides (programming temporally-integrated distributed embedded systems), which shows that deterministic models for distributed cyber-physical systems have practical faithful realizations. These projects are existence proofs that deterministic CPS models are possible and practical.

  1. Effects of a cyanobacterial extract containing-anatoxin-a(s on the cardiac rhythm of Leurolestes circunvagans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Rodríguez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the effects of an anatoxin-a(s-containing extract on a cockroach semi-isolated heart preparation and the results supporting the extract’s biological activity on acetylcholinesterase (purified from ell. The presence of the toxin in cyanobacterial strains Anabaena spiroides (ITEP-024, ITEP-025 and ITEP-026 isolated from the Tapacurá reservoir in Pernambuco, Brazil, was confirmed by means of liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. The anticholinesterase activity was assessed biochemically by the Ellman test and was confirmed by measuring the cockroach’s heart rate. The concentration of the extract containing the tested anatoxin-a(s (antx-a(s (10, 16 and 100 μg.μL-1 inhibited the eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE by more than 90%. The cockroach cardiac frequency increased by a maximum of about 20% within 29 min after the addition of 2.5x10³ μg of extract containing antxa (s.g-1 bw (n=9, p<0.05. Our results strongly indicate that antx-a(s is capable of exerting biological effects on cockroach, indicating that more research might be conducted to determine its role in the environment, especially on insects.

  2. Effects of a cyanobacterial extract containing-anatoxin-a(s on the cardiac rhythm of Leurolestes circunvagans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the effects of an anatoxin-a(s-containing extract on a cockroach semi-isolated heart preparation and the results supporting the extract’s biological activity on acetylcholinesterase (purified from ell. The presence of the toxin in cyanobacterial strains Anabaena spiroides (ITEP-024, ITEP-025 and ITEP-026 isolated from the Tapacurá reservoir in Pernambuco, Brazil, was confirmed by means of liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometer. The anticholinesterase activity was assessed biochemically by the Ellman test and was confirmed by measuring the cockroach’s heart rate. The concentration of the extract containing the tested anatoxin-a(s (antx-a(s (10, 16 and 100 μg.μL-1 inhibited the eel acetylcholinesterase (AChE by more than 90%. The cockroach cardiac frequency increased by a maximum of about 20% within 29 min after the addition of 2.5x10³ μg of extract containing antxa (s.g-1 bw (n=9, p<0.05. Our results strongly indicate that antx-a(s is capable of exerting biological effects on cockroach, indicating that more research might be conducted to determine its role in the environment, especially on insects.

  3. Disproportionate presentation of high risk prostate cancer in a safety net health system

    OpenAIRE

    Porten, SP; Richardson, DA; Odisho, AY; McAninch, JW; Carroll, PR; Cooperberg, MR

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Most prostate cancer research is based on relatively homogenous cohorts of men, often with comparatively high socioeconomic status. We describe prostate cancer characteristics in men treated in a public health system and hypothesize a disproportionate burden of high risk disease in this population. Materials and Methods We created a clinical registry from a review of the medical records of 377 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the San Francisco General Hospital system, which provi...

  4. A presentation system for just-in-time learning in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E; Santos, Amadeu; Thao, Cheng; Rock, Jayson J; Nagy, Paul G; Ehlers, Kevin C

    2007-03-01

    There is growing interest in bringing medical educational materials to the point of care. We sought to develop a system for just-in-time learning in radiology. A database of 34 learning modules was derived from previously published journal articles. Learning objectives were specified for each module, and multiple-choice test items were created. A web-based system-called TEMPO-was developed to allow radiologists to select and view the learning modules. Web services were used to exchange clinical context information between TEMPO and the simulated radiology work station. Preliminary evaluation was conducted using the System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire. TEMPO identified learning modules that were relevant to the age, sex, imaging modality, and body part or organ system of the patient being viewed by the radiologist on the simulated clinical work station. Users expressed a high degree of satisfaction with the system's design and user interface. TEMPO enables just-in-time learning in radiology, and can be extended to create a fully functional learning management system for point-of-care learning in radiology.

  5. Building trusted national identity management systems: Presenting the privacy concern-trust (PCT) model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    systems. We adopted a qualitative research approach in our analysis of data that was gathered through a series of interviews and a stakeholder workshop in Ghana. Our findings indicate that, beyond the threshold level of trust, societal information privacy concern is low; hence, trust is high, thereby......This paper discusses the effect of trust and information privacy concerns on citizens’ attitude towards national identity management systems. We introduce the privacyconcerns- trust model, which shows the role of trust in mediating and moderating citizens’ attitude towards identity management...... encouraging further institutional collaboration and acceptance of citizens’ informational self-determination....

  6. Lipid production in association of filamentous fungi with genetically modified cyanobacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Ana F; Taha, Mohamed; Wrede, Digby; Morrison, Paul; Ball, Andrew S; Stevenson, Trevor; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2015-01-01

    Numerous strategies have evolved recently for the generation of genetically modified or synthetic microalgae and cyanobacteria designed for production of ethanol, biodiesel and other fuels. In spite of their obvious attractiveness there are still a number of challenges that can affect their economic viability: the high costs associated with (1) harvesting, which can account for up to 50 % of the total biofuel's cost, (2) nutrients supply and (3) oil extraction. Fungal-assisted bio-flocculation of microalgae is gaining increasing attention due to its high efficiency, no need for added chemicals and low energy inputs. The implementation of renewable alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources from agricultural wastes and wastewaters for growing algae and fungi makes this strategy economically attractive. This work demonstrates that the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus can efficiently flocculate the unicellular cyanobacteria Synechocystis PCC 6803 and its genetically modified derivatives that have been altered to enable secretion of free fatty acids into growth media. Secreted free fatty acids are potentially used by fungal cells as a carbon source for growth and ex-novo production of lipids. For most of genetically modified strains the total lipid yields extracted from the fungal-cyanobacterial pellets were found to be higher than additive yields of lipids and total free fatty acids produced by fungal and Synechocystis components when grown in mono-cultures. The synergistic effect observed in fungal-Synechocystis associations was also found in bioremediation rates when animal husbandry wastewater was used an alternative source of nitrogen and phosphorus. Fungal assisted flocculation can complement and assist in large scale biofuel production from wild-type and genetically modified Synechocystis PCC 6803 strains by (1) efficient harvesting of cyanobacterial cells and (2) producing of high yields of lipids accumulated in fungal-cyanobacterial pellets.

  7. Light Regimes Shape Utilization of Extracellular Organic C and N in a Cyanobacterial Biofilm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhona K. Stuart

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although it is becoming clear that many microbial primary producers can also play a role as organic consumers, we know very little about the metabolic regulation of photoautotroph organic matter consumption. Cyanobacteria in phototrophic biofilms can reuse extracellular organic carbon, but the metabolic drivers of extracellular processes are surprisingly complex. We investigated the metabolic foundations of organic matter reuse by comparing exoproteome composition and incorporation of 13C-labeled and 15N-labeled cyanobacterial extracellular organic matter (EOM in a unicyanobacterial biofilm incubated using different light regimes. In the light and the dark, cyanobacterial direct organic C assimilation accounted for 32% and 43%, respectively, of all organic C assimilation in the community. Under photosynthesis conditions, we measured increased excretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and proteins involved in micronutrient transport, suggesting that requirements for micronutrients may drive EOM assimilation during daylight hours. This interpretation was supported by photosynthesis inhibition experiments, in which cyanobacteria incorporated N-rich EOM-derived material. In contrast, under dark, C-starved conditions, cyanobacteria incorporated C-rich EOM-derived organic matter, decreased excretion of EPS, and showed an increased abundance of degradative exoproteins, demonstrating the use of the extracellular domain for C storage. Sequence-structure modeling of one of these exoproteins predicted a specific hydrolytic activity that was subsequently detected, confirming increased EOM degradation in the dark. Associated heterotrophic bacteria increased in abundance and upregulated transport proteins under dark relative to light conditions. Taken together, our results indicate that biofilm cyanobacteria are successful competitors for organic C and N and that cyanobacterial nutrient and energy requirements control the use of EOM.

  8. Dissection of Microbial Community Functions during a Cyanobacterial Bloom in the Baltic Sea via Metatranscriptomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Berg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine and brackish surface waters are highly dynamic habitats that undergo repeated seasonal variations in microbial community composition and function throughout time. While succession of the various microbial groups has been well investigated, little is known about the underlying gene-expression of the microbial community. We investigated microbial interactions via metatranscriptomics over a spring to fall seasonal cycle in the brackish Baltic Sea surface waters, a temperate brackish water ecosystem periodically promoting massive cyanobacterial blooms, which have implications for primary production, nutrient cycling, and expansion of hypoxic zones. Network analysis of the gene expression of all microbes from 0.22 to 200 μm in size and of the major taxonomic groups dissected the seasonal cycle into four components that comprised genes peaking during different periods of the bloom. Photoautotrophic nitrogen-fixing Cyanobacteria displayed the highest connectivity among the microbes, in contrast to chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota, while heterotrophs dominated connectivity among pre- and post-bloom peaking genes. The network was also composed of distinct functional connectivities, with an early season balance between carbon metabolism and ATP synthesis shifting to a dominance of ATP synthesis during the bloom, while carbon degradation, specifically through the glyoxylate shunt, characterized the post-bloom period, driven by Alphaproteobacteria as well as by Gammaproteobacteria of the SAR86 and SAR92 clusters. Our study stresses the exceptionally strong biotic driving force executed by cyanobacterial blooms on associated microbial communities in the Baltic Sea and highlights the impact cyanobacterial blooms have on functional microbial community composition.

  9. Cyanobacterial pigments as natural anti-hyperglycemic agents: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonmoy Ghosh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia includes herbs and plant extracts as well as synthetic drugs like acarbose. Synthetic drug molecules frequently have side effects such as flatulence and diarrhea. Cyanobacterial pigments have excellent anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Thus, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities of purified pigments and crude extracts from three cyanobacterial species, Lyngbya, Microcoleus and Synechocystis sp., were investigated. Lyngbya extract had the highest total anti-oxidant activity (TAC before digestion (48.26 ± 0.04 µg AAE ml-1 while purified lycopene had the highest TAC after digestion (154.16 ± 0.96 µg AAE ml-1. The Microcoleus extract had the highest ABTS scavenging activity before digestion (98.23 ± 0.25 % while purified C-phycocyanin (C-PC had the highest ABTS scavenging after digestion (99.69 ±0.04 %. None of the digested or undigested extracts performed better than acarbose in inhibiting α-amylase but the digested Microcoleus extract was able to inhibit its activity by ~35 %. The purified pigments gave inhibitory activities ranging from ~ 8 – 16 %. The Lyngbya extract had the highest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase both before and after digestion (62.22 ± 0.02 and 97.82 ± 0.03 % respectively. Purified C-phycoerythrin (C-PE, C-PC, lycopene and myxoxanthophyll could inhibit α-glucosidase in a range of ~83 – 96 %. Considering the potent inhibitory activities of purified pigments against both α-amylase and α-glucosidase, cyanobacterial pigments could be used as food additives for their dual advantage of anti-oxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  10. Linking cascading effects of fish predation and zooplankton grazing to reduced cyanobacterial biomass and toxin levels following biomanipulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias K Ekvall

    Full Text Available Eutrophication has been one of the largest environmental problems in aquatic ecosystems during the past decades, leading to dense, and often toxic, cyanobacterial blooms. In a way to counteract these problems many lakes have been subject to restoration through biomanipulation. Here we combine 13 years of monitoring data with experimental assessment of grazing efficiency of a naturally occurring zooplankton community and a, from a human perspective, desired community of large Daphnia to assess the effects of an altered trophic cascade associated with biomanipulation. Lake monitoring data show that the relative proportion of Daphnia spp. grazers in June has increased following years of biomanipulation and that this increase coincides with a drop in cyanobacterial biomass and lowered microcystin concentrations compared to before the biomanipulation. In June, the proportion of Daphnia spp. (on a biomass basis went from around 3% in 2005 (the first year of biomanipulation up to around 58% in 2012. During months when the proportion of Daphnia spp. remained unchanged (July and August no effect on lower trophic levels was observed. Our field grazing experiment revealed that Daphnia were more efficient in controlling the standing biomass of cyanobacteria, as grazing by the natural zooplankton community never even compensated for the algal growth during the experiment and sometimes even promoted cyanobacterial growth. Furthermore, although the total cyanobacterial toxin levels remained unaffected by both grazer communities in the experimental study, the Daphnia dominated community promoted the transfer of toxins to the extracellular, dissolved phase, likely through feeding on cyanobacteria. Our results show that biomanipulation by fish removal is a useful tool for lake management, leading to a top-down mediated trophic cascade, through alterations in the grazer community, to reduced cyanobacterial biomass and lowered cyanobacterial toxin levels. This

  11. Dynamics of cyanobacterial bloom formation during short-term hydrodynamic fluctuation in a large shallow, eutrophic, and wind-exposed Lake Taihu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingfeng; Qin, Boqiang; Zhu, Guangwei; Luo, Liancong; Ding, Yanqing; Bian, Geya

    2013-12-01

    Short-term hydrodynamic fluctuations caused by extreme weather events are expected to increase worldwide because of global climate change, and such fluctuations can strongly influence cyanobacterial blooms. In this study, the cyanobacterial bloom disappearance and reappearance in Lake Taihu, China, in response to short-term hydrodynamic fluctuations, was investigated by field sampling, long-term ecological records, high-frequency sensors and MODIS satellite images. The horizontal drift caused by the dominant easterly wind during the phytoplankton growth season was mainly responsible for cyanobacterial biomass accumulation in the western and northern regions of the lake and subsequent bloom formation over relatively long time scales. The cyanobacterial bloom changed slowly under calm or gentle wind conditions. In contrast, the short-term bloom events within a day were mainly caused by entrainment and disentrainment of cyanobacterial colonies by wind-induced hydrodynamics. Observation of a westerly event in Lake Taihu revealed that when the 30 min mean wind speed (flow speed) exceeded the threshold value of 6 m/s (5.7 cm/s), cyanobacteria in colonies were entrained by the wind-induced hydrodynamics. Subsequently, the vertical migration of cyanobacterial colonies was controlled by hydrodynamics, resulting in thorough mixing of algal biomass throughout the water depth and the eventual disappearance of surface blooms. Moreover, the intense mixing can also increase the chance for forming larger and more cyanobacterial colonies, namely, aggregation. Subsequently, when the hydrodynamics became weak, the cyanobacterial colonies continuously float upward without effective buoyancy regulation, and cause cyanobacterial bloom explosive expansion after the westerly. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that the strong wind happening frequently during April and October can be an important cause of the formation and expansion of cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu.

  12. Information and Communication Technology in the Israeli Educational System: Past, Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yaacov J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development of the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in the Israeli educational system. Discusses a behaviorist approach to computer assisted instruction; open-ended courseware; constructivist approaches to multimedia, including simulations, modeling, and virtual reality; technology-based distance learning; and…

  13. Manipulations of the ubiquitin proteasome system and their effects on antigen presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, Tom Alphonsus Maria

    2006-01-01

    Surgery is the most effective cancer therapy, followed by radiotherapy. These techniques usually target tumour specific tissue only, unlike most forms of chemotherapy as is best illustrated by the relatively moderate side effects of such treatments. When the immune system could find and destroy

  14. Negotiating Knowledge in Systems Engineering Curriculum Design : Shaping the Present While Struggling with the Past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, W.A.H.; Bots, P.W.G.

    2000-01-01

    Designing a systems engineering curriculum is a complex process, not in the least because it involves a variety of academic professionals whose perceptions and interests rarely concur from the onset. The variety in stakeholders breeds variety not only in values and objectives, but also in

  15. Raman spectroscopic analysis of cyanobacterial colonization of hydromagnesite, a putative martian extremophile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Howell G. M.; Moody, Caroline D.; Newton, Emma M.; Villar, Susana E. Jorge; Russell, Michael J.

    2005-06-01

    Raman spectra of an extremophile cyanobacterial colony in hydromagnesite from Lake Salda in Turkey have revealed a biogeological modification which is manifest as aragonite in the stratum associated with the colony. The presence of key spectral biomarkers of organic protectant molecules such as β-carotene and scytonemin indicate that the survival strategy of the cyanobacteria is significantly one of UV-radiation protection. The terrestrial location of this extremophile is worthy of consideration further because of its possible putative link with the "White Rock" formations in Sabaea Terra and Juventae Chasma on Mars.

  16. An overview of cyanobacterial blooms occurrences and research in Africa over the last decade

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, Luyanda L

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available as the 349 dominant species (Boelee et al., 2009). A majority of the reports related to cyanobacteria are 350 not accessible in English however according to Boelee et al. (2009), a study assessing 23 351 lakes and reservoirs by Cecchi et al (2009), found... water source in the area with 404 cyanobacterial blooms. This lake is the largest reservoir supplying freshwater to the capital 405 city of the country. Although reports are not extensive on blooms in the past ten years, toxic 406 blooms have been...

  17. Myopericarditis and Pericardial Effusion as the Initial Presentation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Bezwada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopericarditis with a pericardial effusion as the initial presenting feature of SLE is uncommon. We report an unusual case of myopericarditis and pericardial effusion with subsequent heart failure, as the initial manifestation of SLE. The timely recognition and early steroid administration are imperative in SLE-related myopericarditis with cardiomyopathy to prevent the mortality associated with this condition.

  18. From the Editors: The present and future of the scientific communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Sallan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific progress today is a collective task. Faculty working in different institutions collaborate, directly or using extant research published by their colleagues, on the development of the body of knowledge of a scientific paradigm. The scientific communication system (SCS allows that invisible college to communicate; therefore we consider it a cornerstone of the research system, and a key resource for the advance of science. In that editorial note we show the main threats for the future of the SCM. We describe the evolution of the roles of the main agents involved: publishers, academics, suppliers of bibliometric information and the public sector. We argue that initiatives such as SPARC or the creation of open access journals can contribute to the development of an effective SCS in the future.

  19. The analysis and comparison of the ions present in the pore water of different cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolliffe, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    Cementation is currently the main encapsulation route for the safe disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste. By analysis of the pore solutions extracted from hardened cement pastes any potential interactions between the cement matrix and/or the disposal container can be identified. The effect of hydration time on three different blended cement systems has been assessed by analysing the water extracted from the pore voids within the hardened cement pastes by use of a high force hydraulic press. The pH, redox potential, anion and cation concentrations were measured using standard analytical techniques. The results showed that as the cement systems hydrated the volume of pore water extracted decreased, causing a reduction in the ionic species released into solution. The strongly basic pore waters contained mainly potassium and sodium hydroxide and this feature needs to be taken into account when modelling radionuclide migration. (author)

  20. Presentation, calibration and validation of the low-order, DCESS Earth System Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaffer, G.; Olsen, S. Malskaer; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2008-01-01

    . The atmosphere module considers radiation balance, meridional transport of heat and water vapor between low-mid latitude and high latitude zones, heat and gas exchange with the ocean and sea ice and snow cover. Gases considered are carbon dioxide and methane for all three carbon isotopes, nitrous oxide......A new, low-order Earth system model is described, calibrated and tested against Earth system data. The model features modules for the atmosphere, ocean, ocean sediment, land biosphere and lithosphere and has been designed to simulate global change on time scales of years to millions of years...... ocean layer and segment area stems from observed ocean depth distributions. Sediment burial is calculated from sedimentation velocities at the base of the bioturbated layer. Bioturbation rates and oxic and anoxic remineralisation rates depend on organic carbon rain rates and dissolved oxygen...

  1. ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS IN THERAPY OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Andreyevna Lisitsyna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The data available in the literature on experience in using antimalarial drugs in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus are summarized. A major emphasis is placed on therapy with hydroxychlorochine (plaquenil versus chlorine. Possible mechanisms of action of the drug and its effect on the course of the disease itself and concomitant abnormalities are described. Data on the toxicity of the drug and its safe use in pregnancy and lactation are also discussed

  2. 2005 8th Annual Systems Engineering Conference Volume 3 - Wednesday presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-24

    Technology Readiness Assessments (TRAs) with Systems Engineering, Dr. Jay Mandelbaum, Institute for Defense Analyses A Taxonomy of Operational Risks, Mr...Jay Mandelbaum, Institute for Defense Analyses Taxonomy of Operational Risks Mr. Brian Gallagher, Software Engineering Institute A Method for...specify Origin of numbers? • Done by committee (like a camel ) • Not enough probability levels to change single order of magnitude (skipped ahead from 10

  3. Creating an optical spectroscopy system for use in a primary care clinical setting (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshein, Adam; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Gould, Bradley; Wu, Wenli; Konda, Vani; Yang, Leslie W.; Koons, Ann; Feder, Seth; Valuckaite, Vesta; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    While there are a plethora of in-vivo spectroscopic techniques that have demonstrated the ability to detect a number of diseases in research trials, very few techniques have successfully become a fully realized clinical technology. This is primarily due to the stringent demands on a clinical device for widespread implementation. Some of these demands include: simple operation requiring minimal or no training, safe for in-vivo patient use, no disruption to normal clinic workflow, tracking of system performance, warning for measurement abnormality, and meeting all FDA guidelines for medical use. Previously, our group developed a fiber optic probe-based optical sensing technique known as low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy (LEBS) to quantify tissue ultrastructure in-vivo. Now we have developed this technique for the application of prescreening patients for colonoscopy in a primary care (PC) clinical setting. To meet the stringent requirements for a viable medical device used in a PC clinical setting, we developed several novel components including an automated calibration tool, optical contact sensor for signal acquisition, and a contamination sensor to identify measurements which have been affected by debris. The end result is a state-of-the-art medical device that can be realistically used by a PC physician to assess a person's risk for harboring colorectal precancerous lesions. The pilot study of this system shows great promise with excellent stability and accuracy in identifying high-risk patients. While this system has been designed and optimized for our specific application, the system and design concepts are universal to most in-vivo fiber optic based spectroscopic techniques.

  4. Renal tubular dysfunction presenting as recurrent hypokalemic periodic quadriparesis in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report recurrent hypokalemic periodic quadriparesis in a 30-year-old woman. Patient had also symptoms of multiple large and small joint pain, recurrent oral ulceration, photosensitivity and hair loss that were persisting since last 6 months and investigations revealed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE with distal tubular acidosis. Our patient was successfully treated with oral potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, hydroxychloroquine and a short course of steroids. Thus, tubular dysfunction should be carefully assessed in patients with SLE.

  5. ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS IN THERAPY OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Andreyevna Lisitsyna; N M Kosheleva

    2010-01-01

    The data available in the literature on experience in using antimalarial drugs in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus are summarized. A major emphasis is placed on therapy with hydroxychlorochine (plaquenil) versus chlorine. Possible mechanisms of action of the drug and its effect on the course of the disease itself and concomitant abnormalities are described. Data on the toxicity of the drug and its safe use in pregnancy and lactation are also discussed

  6. Towards a high sensitivity small animal PET system based on CZT detectors (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaszadeh, Shiva; Levin, Craig

    2017-03-01

    Small animal positron emission tomography (PET) is a biological imaging technology that allows non-invasive interrogation of internal molecular and cellular processes and mechanisms of disease. New PET molecular probes with high specificity are under development to target, detect, visualize, and quantify subtle molecular and cellular processes associated with cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, the limited uptake of these targeted probes leads to significant reduction in signal. There is a need to advance the performance of small animal PET system technology to reach its full potential for molecular imaging. Our goal is to assemble a small animal PET system based on CZT detectors and to explore methods to enhance its photon sensitivity. In this work, we reconstruct an image from a phantom using a two-panel subsystem consisting of six CZT crystals in each panel. For image reconstruction, coincidence events with energy between 450 and 570 keV were included. We are developing an algorithm to improve sensitivity of the system by including multiple interaction events.

  7. Ethical and legal issues in cross-system practice in India: Past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Math, Suresh Bada; Moirangthem, Sydney; Kumar, Naveen C; Nirmala, Maria Christine

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policies allowing practitioners of Ayurveda, Yoga, Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH) to integrate into the mainstream of healthcare and also allowing practitioners of Ayurveda and Homoeopathy to perform medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) under the proposed amendment to the MTP bill have brought crosssystem practice into the limelight. We evaluate cross-system practice from its legal and ethical perspectives. Across judgments, the judiciary has held that cross-system practice is a form of medical negligence; however, it is permitted only in those states where the concerned governments have authorized it by a general or special order. Further, though a state government may authorize an alternative medicine doctor to prescribe allopathic medicines (or vice versa), it does not condone the prescription of wrong medicines or wrong diagnosis. Courts have also stated that prescribing allopathic medicines and misrepresenting these as traditional medicines is an unfair trade practice and not explaining the side-effects of a prescribed allopathic medicine amounts to medical negligence. Finally, the Supreme Court has cautioned that employing traditional medical practitioners who do not possess the required skill and competence to give allopathic treatment in hospitals and to let an emergency patient be treated by them is gross negligence. In the event of an unwanted outcome, the responsibility is completely on the hospital authorities. Therefore, there is an urgent need to abolish cross-system practice, invest in healthcare, and bring radical changes in health legislations to make right to healthcare a reality. Copyright 2015, NMJI.

  8. Potential of Synechocystis PCC 6803 as a novel cyanobacterial chassis for heterologous expression of enzymes in the trans-resveratrol biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantong, Supaluk; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Sirikantaramas, Supaart; Lindblad, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Selected model strains of phototrophic cyanobacteria have been genetically engineered for heterologous expression of numerous enzymes. In the present study, we initially explored the heterologous expression of enzymes involved in trans-resveratrol production, namely, the production of tyrosine ammonia-lyase, coumaroyl CoA-ligase, and stilbene synthase, in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803. Under the promoters Ptrc1Ocore and Ptrc1O, the respective genes were transcribed and translated into the corresponding soluble proteins at concentrations of 16-34 μg L(-1). The expression levels of these enzymes did not affect the growth rate of the cyanobacterial cells. Interestingly, coumaroyl CoA-ligase expression slightly increased the chlorophyll a content of the cells. Overall, our results suggest that the complete pathway of trans-resveratrol production can be engineered in Synechocystis PCC 6803. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Onboard digital signal processing technologies for present and future TDMA and SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shuzo; Arita, Takemi; Morita, Kozo

    1987-05-01

    Technologies for onboard TDMA equipment, burst modems, baseband switches, and SCPC multicarrier demodulators from the present to the year 2000 are discussed. Onboard TDMA equipment with a clock rate of lower than 100 MHz can presently be realized by parallel-processed CMOS/BULK LSICs, while for equipment with a clock rate greater than 100 MHz, bipolar devices are more appropriate. For carrier frequencies up to 2 GHz, modem implementation in monolithic microwave ICs is found to be most suitable. Single T-stage and T-S-T architectures are compared as potential baseband configurations. The total weight and power consumption for several suitable onboard SCPC demodulation schemes are investigated as a function of the number of channels to be regenerated.

  10. Immunology by numbers: quantitation of antigen presentation completes the quantitative milieu of systems immunology!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Anthony W; Croft, Nathan P; Tscharke, David C

    2016-06-01

    We review approaches to quantitate antigen presentation using a variety of biological and biochemical readouts and highlight the emerging role of mass spectrometry (MS) in defining and quantifying MHC-bound peptides presented at the cell surface. The combination of high mass accuracy in the determination of the molecular weight of the intact peptide of interest and its signature pattern of fragmentation during tandem MS provide an unambiguous and definitive identification. This is in contrast to the potential receptor cross-reactivity towards closely related peptides and variable dose responsiveness seen in biological readouts. In addition, we gaze into the not too distant future where big data approaches in MS can be accommodated to quantify whole immunopeptidomes both in vitro and in vivo. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Using Model-Based System Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-Cycle and Technical Reviews Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Edith L.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2017-01-01

    This is the presentation for the AIAA Space conference in September 2017. It highlights key information from Using Model-Based Systems Engineering to Provide Artifacts for NASA Project Life-cycle and Technical Reviews paper.

  12. Autoimmune thyroiditis perdating the presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus: Two cases and a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhir Rajeev

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases are commonly encountered in dermatology practice. While the association of two autoimmune diseases in the same individual is not unknown, it is relatively rare for the second disease to be suspected based on cutaneous manifestations. We present two such cases wherein cutaneous manifestations were the first clue to the development of lupus erythematosus in a setting of autoimmune thyroiditis. Further, we have reviewed literature on this uncommon occurrence and discuss various aspects of this association.

  13. Prevalence of myocarditis in pediatric intensive care unit cases presenting with other system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Hanaa Ibrahim; Zekri, Hanan

    2015-01-01

    To assess children with myocarditis, the frequency of various presenting symptoms, and the accuracy of different investigations in the diagnosis. This was an observational study of 63 patients admitted to PICU with non-cardiac diagnosis. Cardiac enzymes, chest-X ray, echocardiography, and electrocardiogram were performed to diagnose myocarditis among those patients. There were 16 cases of definite myocarditis. The age distribution was non-normal, with median of 5.5 months (3.25-21). Of the 16 patients who were diagnosed with myocarditis, 62.5% were originally diagnosed as having respiratory problems, and there were more females than males. Among the present cases, the accuracy of cardiac enzymes (cardiac troponin T [cTn] and creatine phosphokinase MB [CKMB]) in the diagnosis of myocarditis was only 63.5%, while the accuracy of low fractional shortening and of chest-X ray cardiomegaly was 85.7 and 80.9%; respectively. Cardiac troponin folds 2.02 had positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 88.7%, specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 62.5%, and accuracy of 90.5%. Children with myocarditis present with symptoms that can be mistaken for other types of illnesses. When clinical suspicion of myocarditis exists, chest-X ray and echocardiography are sufficient as screening tests. Cardiac troponins confirm the diagnosis in screened cases, with specificity of 100%. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of myocarditis in pediatric intensive care unit cases presenting with other system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Ibrahim Rady

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess children with myocarditis, the frequency of various presenting symptoms, and the accuracy of different investigations in the diagnosis. METHODS: This was an observational study of 63 patients admitted to PICU with non-cardiac diagnosis. Cardiac enzymes, chest-X ray, echocardiography, and electrocardiogram were performed to diagnose myocarditis among those patients. RESULTS: There were 16 cases of definite myocarditis. The age distribution was non-normal, with median of 5.5 months (3.25-21. Of the 16 patients who were diagnosed with myocarditis, 62.5% were originally diagnosed as having respiratory problems, and there were more females than males. Among the present cases, the accuracy of cardiac enzymes (cardiac troponin T [cTn] and creatine phosphokinase MB [CKMB] in the diagnosis of myocarditis was only 63.5%, while the accuracy of low fractional shortening and of chest-X ray cardiomegaly was 85.7 and 80.9%; respectively. Cardiac troponin folds 2.02 had positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 88.7%, specificity of 100%, sensitivity of 62.5%, and accuracy of 90.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Children with myocarditis present with symptoms that can be mistaken for other types of illnesses. When clinical suspicion of myocarditis exists, chest-X ray and echocardiography are sufficient as screening tests. Cardiac troponins confirm the diagnosis in screened cases, with specificity of 100%.

  15. Extramedullary hematopoiesis of the conjunctiva presenting as active systemic disease in a patient with myelofibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttler, Nirupa; Heidemann, David; Cendrowski, Christopher; Armin, Ali-Reza; Folberg, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To report the clinicopathological correlation of extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) of the conjunctiva in a patient with a history of myelofibrosis. Case report. Elevated pink conjunctival lesions developed bilaterally in a 73-year-old man who had been treated for myelofibrosis for 13 years. EMH was detected in the examination of tissue from the lesion of the inferior fornix of the right eye. The appearance of conjunctival lesions in a patient with myelofibrosis may indicate underlying pathology of EMH that may necessitate a change in systemic treatment of this condition.

  16. 2005 8th Annual Systems Engineering Conference. Volume 2, Wednesday Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-27

    that he overawed all who did not know him. Miguel de Cervantes Don Quixote Page 3 Background – Critical Issues • Need to be CMMI (L3) to stay in...Jaggers, SAF/AQR (Science & Technology & Engineering) System Engineering Re-vitalization within DoN Status, Mr. Carl Siel, ASN(RDA) Chief Engineer Army SE...0868, melvin.proffitt@navy.mil • AAIPT Air Vehicle IPT lead, Don Sheehan, 301-342-0131, donald.sheehan@navy.mil • AAIPT Consultant, Elizabeth Broadus

  17. Cyanobacterial Occurrence and Diversity in Seagrass Meadows in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    systems in the marine environment (Capone &. Taylor, 1980). Seagrasses are found in the subtidal zone of ... sand, mud or organic debris to well-developed, thick 'carpets' (Paerl et al., 1993). The microbial mats are ... were collected and placed in 250-ml plastic bottles and then filtered using GF/C microfibre filter papers.

  18. Multiple-System Atrophy with Cerebellar Predominance Presenting as Respiratory Insufficiency and Vocal Cords Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Andrade Bezerra de Mello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. MSA (Multiple System Atrophy may be associated either with Parkinsonism or with cerebellar ataxia (MSA-c subtype. It is considered a rare disease, but many patients are misdiagnosed as suffering from idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In this paper, we report a case of a patient admitted with respiratory failure and vocal cords paralysis due to MSA-c. Case Report. A 79-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted in March 2010 with dyspnea, asthenia, stridor, and respiratory failure needing noninvasive ventilation. She had orthostatic blood pressure decline, constipation, insomnia, daytime sleepiness, and snoring. The neurologic examination revealed cerebellar ataxia. A laryngoscopy revealed vocal cord paralysis in midline position and tracheostomy was performed. The Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging revealed atrophy of middle cerebellar peduncles and pons with the “hot cross bun sign.” Conclusion. Although Multiple-system atrophy is a rare disease, unexplained respiratory failure, bilateral vocal cord paralysis, or stridor should lead to consider MSA as diagnosis.

  19. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  20. Using geographical information systems mapping to identify areas presenting high risk for traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colantonio Angela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to show how geographical information systems (GIS can be used to track and compare hospitalization rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI over time and across a large geographical area using population based data. Results & Discussion Data on TBI hospitalizations, and geographic and demographic variables, came from the Ontario Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set for the fiscal years 1993-1994 and 2001-2002. Various visualization techniques, exploratory data analysis and spatial analysis were employed to map and analyze these data. Both the raw and standardized rates by age/gender of the geographical unit were studied. Data analyses revealed persistent high rates of hospitalization for TBI resulting from any injury mechanism between two time periods in specific geographic locations. Conclusions This study shows how geographic information systems can be successfully used to investigate hospitalizaton rates for traumatic brain injury using a range of tools and techniques; findings can be used for local planning of both injury prevention and post discharge services, including rehabilitation.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cardiovascular system: present state of the art and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    State-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) generates high-resolution images of the cardiovascular system. Conventional MRI techniques provide images in six to ten minutes per tomographic slice. New strategies have substantially improved the speed of imaging. The technology is relatively expensive, and its cost-effectiveness remains to be defined in relation to other effective, less expensive, and noninvasive technologies, such as echocardiography and nuclear medicine. The ultimate role of MRI will depend on several factors, including the development of specific applications such as (1) noninvasive angiography, especially of the coronary arteries;(2) noninvasive, high-resolution assessment of regional myocardial blood flow distribution (e.g., using paramagnetic contrast agents); (3) characterization of myocardial diseases using proton-relaxation property changes; and (4) evaluation of in vivo myocardial biochemistry. The three-dimensional imaging capability and the ability to image cardiovascular structures without contrast material give MRI a potential advantage over existing noninvasive diagnostic imaging techniques. This report analyzes current applications of MRI to the cardiovascular system and speculates on their future

  2. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome as Presenting Form of Very Early Systemic Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Pedraza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES is an increasingly recognized clinical and radiological entity with a wide spectrum of symptoms. Its mechanism depends on failure of the blood-brain barrier due to high systemic blood pressure (BP and loss of integrity of vascular endothelium related with different triggers. Methods. We aim to report a case of PRES induced by arterial hypertension and very early systemic sclerosis (SSc not previously known. Results. A 64-year-old female was admitted due to 1-week pulsating headache more prominent on frontal scalp, accompanied by phonophobia, photophobia, and facial flushing. Neurological exam revealed brisk deep tendon reflex. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed subcortical lesions mainly located in posterior regions. BP was monitored and episodic arterial hypertension was detected. In laboratory tests positive anti-topoisomerase I antibodies were detected. BP was controlled with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and headache improved. In a new MRI a month later improvement of white matter lesions was observed. Capillaroscopy showed “active pattern,” considered typical of SSc. Conclusion. In SSc anti-endothelial cell antibodies impair vascular endothelium and liberation of vasoconstrictors leads to BP increasing and disruption of blood-brain barrier autoregulation mechanisms. PRES can be the first manifestation of very early SSc and this entity should be considered even in absence of skin lesions or Raynaud phenomenon.

  3. Utilizing past and present mouse systems to engineer more relevant pancreatic cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCant, Brian T; Principe, Daniel R; Guerra, Carmen; Pasca di Magliano, Marina; Grippo, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    The study of pancreatic cancer has prompted the development of numerous mouse models that aim to recapitulate the phenotypic and mechanistic features of this deadly malignancy. This review accomplishes two tasks. First, it provides an overview of the models that have been used as representations of both the neoplastic and carcinoma phenotypes. Second, it presents new modeling schemes that ultimately will serve to more faithfully capture the temporal and spatial progression of the human disease, providing platforms for improved understanding of the role of non-epithelial compartments in disease etiology as well as evaluating therapeutic approaches.

  4. Utilizing Past and Present Mouse Systems to Engineer More Relevant Pancreatic Cancer Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian T DeCant

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of pancreatic cancer has prompted the development of numerous mouse models that aim to recapitulate the phenotypic and mechanistic features of this deadly malignancy. This review accomplishes two tasks. First, it provides an overview of the models that have been used as representations of both the neoplastic and carcinoma phenotypes. Second, it presents new modeling schemes that ultimately will serve to more faithfully capture the temporal and spatial progression of the human disease, providing platforms for improved understanding of the role of non-epithelial compartments in disease etiology as well as evaluating therapeutic approaches.

  5. On-board digital signal processing technologies for present and future SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shuzo; Ohtani, Kohichi; Kohri, Takehru; Morikura, Masahiro; Umehira, Masahiro

    1988-09-01

    This paper surveys trends in digital and analog ICs and LSICs, including radiation hardness performance. An optimal selection of devices and suitable architectures for SCPC multicarrier demodulators is discussed. The results show good and clear guidelines for device and architecture selection for on-board signal processing at the present time and toward the year 2000. It is shown that, for on-board SCPC multicarrier demodulation, a transmultiplexer type channel divider and digital common demodulator has a good performance with a medium number of channels for regeneration.

  6. Present status of an integrated software system for HASP (Human Acts Simulation Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Takayuki; Ebihara, Ken-ichi; Kambayashi, Shaw; Kume, Etsuo; Higuchi, Kenji; Fujii, Minoru; Akimoto, Masayuki

    1994-01-01

    In Human Acts Simulation Program (HASP), human acts to be realized by a human-shaped intelligent robot in a nuclear power plant are simulated by computers. The major purpose of HASP is to develop basic and underlying design technologies for intelligent and automatic power plant. The objectives of this paper is to show the present status of the HASP, with particular emphasis on activities targetted at the integration of developed subsystems to simulate the important capabilities of the intelligent robot such as planning, robot dynamics, and so on. (author)

  7. Improvement of security techniques and protection of biometric data in biometric systems: Presentation of International Standard ISO 24745

    OpenAIRE

    Milinković, Milorad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the International Standard ISO 24745 as a potential security tool for biometric information protection, more precisely as a tool for privacy protection in biometric systems. This is one of the latest internationally accepted standards that address the security issues of biometric systems.

  8. Prospecting cyanobacterial formulations as plant-growth-promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyanobacteria represent environment-friendly inputs that can lead to savings of nitrogenous fertilisers, in addition to improving plant growth and soil fertility. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the potential of cyanobacteria inoculants as nutrient-management and plant-growth-promoting options for maize hybrids, ...

  9. Annual Systems Engineering Conference: Focusing on Improving Performance of Defense Systems Programs (10th). Volume 3. Thursday Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-25

    Software NOW!”, Ms. Dorothy Acton, Lockheed Martin IS&GS “Identifying Acquisition Patterns of Failure Using System Archetypes ”, Mr. William Novak, Software...Dorothy Acton 3B8 5803 Identifying Acquisition Patterns of Failure Using System Archetypes Mr. William Novak Dr. Linda Levine 3B8 5883 Acoustic Rapid...B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung , D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership

  10. Present activity of the feasibility study of HTGR-GT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.

    2001-01-01

    In JAERI a feasibility study of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor-Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) system has been carried out since January, 1997 as an assigned work by the Science and Technology Agency. The study aims at obtaining a promising concept of HTGR-GT system that yields a high thermal efficiency and at the same time is economically competitive. Designs of a few candidate systems will be undertaken and their power generation costs will be evaluated in parallel with design works, some experimental works such as the fabrication of a plate-fin type heat exchanger core and material tests will be carried out. The study will be continued till 2000 fiscal year. In 1997 fiscal year, a preliminary design of a direct cycle plant of 600 MWt was developed. A reactor inlet gas temperature of 460 deg. C, a reactor outlet gas temperature of 850 deg. C and a helium gas pressure of 6MPa were selected. Some advanced technologies were adopted such as a monolithic fuel compact and a control rod sheath made of carbon/carbon composite material. They were very effective to enhance the heat transfer of fuel and to reduce the core bypass flow. As a result, a power density of 6MW/m 3 and the maximum burnup of 10 5 MWD/ton were achieved. A single-shaft horizontal turbomachine of 3600 rpm was selected to ease the mechanical design of the rotor supported by magnetic bearings. The turbine, two compressors, a generator and six units of intercooler were placed in a turbine vessel, Plate-fin type recuperator and precooler are installed in a vertical heat exchanger vessel. By this design, a net thermal efficiency of 45.7% is expected to be achieved. To develop a high performance plate-fin recuperator, a core model of W200 mm x L200 mm x H200 mm with small fin size of 1.15 mm height was fabricated and as a result of tests, leak tightness, component strength and bonding appearance were found to be satisfactory. In 1998 fiscal year, a design of a direct cycle plant of 300 MWt is undertaken. The

  11. The system of dose limitation and its optimization requirement: Present status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Optimization of radiation protection is a relevant and controversial requirement of the system of dose limitation currently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Since the first European Scientific Seminar on Experience and Methods on Optimization - held by the Commission of the European Communities in 1979 - and several related seminars and symposia organized by the IAEA, many international efforts have been made to promote the practical implementation of the requirement. Recently, the ICRP published a report of ICRP Committee 4 on cost-benefit analysis in the optimization of radiation protection (ICRP Publication 37); it provides guidance on the principles and methods of application of the requirement. Ultimately, this seminar demonstrates the continuous interest of the international community in the proper use of optimization. This paper is intended to contribute to the seminar's objective, discussing the current issues concerning the implementation of the requirement and exploring perspectives for future applications of the principles involved in optimization

  12. Regulating incentives: the past and present role of the state in health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2002-06-01

    The desire of national policymakers to encourage entrepreneurial behavior in the health sector has generated not only a new structure of market-oriented incentives, but also a new regulatory role for the State. To ensure that entrepreneurial behavior will be directed toward achieving planned market objectives, the State must shift modalities from staid bureaucratic models of command-and-control to more sensitive and sophisticated systems of oversight and supervision. Available evidence suggests that this structural transformation is currently occurring in several Northern European countries. Successful implementation of that shift will require a new, intensive, and expensive strategy for human resources development, raising questions about the financial feasibility of this incentives-plus-regulation model for less-well-off CEE/CIS and developing countries.

  13. Modified chitosan hydrogels as drug delivery and tissue engineering systems: present status and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Kumar Giri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan, a natural cationic polysaccharide, is prepared industrially by the hydrolysis of the aminoacetyl groups of chitin, a naturally available marine polymer. Chitosan is a non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable polymer and has attracted considerable interest in a wide range of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, and tissue engineering. The primary hydroxyl and amine groups located on the backbone of chitosan are responsible for the reactivity of the polymer and also act as sites for chemical modification. However, chitosan has certain limitations for use in controlled drug delivery and tissue engineering. These limitations can be overcome by chemical modification. Thus, modified chitosan hydrogels have gained importance in current research on drug delivery and tissue engineering systems. This paper reviews the general properties of chitosan, various methods of modification, and applications of modified chitosan hydrogels.

  14. Antigen 43-mediated autotransporter display, a versatile bacterial cell surface presentation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Hasman, Henrik; Schembri, Mark

    2002-01-01

    to the outer membrane and secretion through the cell envelope is contained within the protein itself. Ag43 consists of two subunits (alpha and beta), where the beta-subunit forms an integral outer membrane translocator to which the alpha-subunit is noncovalently attached. The simplicity of the Ag43 system...... makes it ideally suited as a surface display scaffold. Here we demonstrate that the Ag43 alpha-module can accommodate and display correctly folded inserts and has the ability to display entire functional protein domains, exemplified by the FimH lectin domain. The presence of heterologous cysteine...... bridges does not interfere with surface display, and Ag43 chimeras are correctly processed into alpha- and beta-modules, offering optional and easy release of the chimeric alpha-subunits. Furthermore, Ag43 can be displayed in many gram-negative bacteria. This feature is exploited for display of our...

  15. The accelerated site technology deployment program presents the segmented gate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patteson, Raymond; Maynor, Doug; Callan, Connie

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is working to accelerate the acceptance and application of innovative technologies that improve the way the nation manages its environmental remediation problems. The DOE Office of Science and Technology established the Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program (ASTD) to help accelerate the acceptance and implementation of new and innovative soil and ground water remediation technologies. Coordinated by the Department of Energy's Idaho Office, the ASTD Program reduces many of the classic barriers to the deployment of new technologies by involving government, industry, and regulatory agencies in the assessment, implementation, and validation of innovative technologies. The paper uses the example of the Segmented Gate System (SGS) to illustrate how the ASTD program works. The SGS was used to cost effectively separate clean and contaminated soil for four different radionuclides: plutonium, uranium, thorium, and cesium. Based on those results, it has been proposed to use the SGS at seven other DOE sites across the country

  16. Geochemical modelling and speciation studies of metal pollutants present in selected water systems in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magu, M. M.; Govender, P. P.; Ngila, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    Metal pollutants in water poses great threats to living beings and hence requires to be monitored regularly to avoid loss of lives. Various analytical methods are available to monitor these pollutants in water and can be improved with time. Modelling of metal pollutants in any water system helps chemists, engineers and environmentalists to greatly understand the various chemical processes in such systems. Water samples were collected from waste water treatment plant and river from highlands close to its source all the way to the ocean as it passing through areas with high anthropogenic activities. Pre-concentration of pollutants in the samples was done through acid digestion and metal pollutants were analysed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectra (ICP-OES) to determine the concentration levels. Metal concentrations ranged between 0.1356-0.4658 mg/L for Al; 0.0031-0.0050 mg/L for Co, 0.0019-0.0956 mg/L for Cr; 0.0028-0.3484 mg/L for Cu; 0.0489-0.3474 mg/L for Fe; 0.0033-0.0285 mg/L for Mn; 0.0056-0.0222 mg/L for Ni; 0.0265-0.4753 mg/L for Pb and 0.0052-0.5594 mg/L for Zn. Modelling work was performed using PHREEQC couple with Geochemist's workbench (GWB) to determine speciation dynamics and bioavailability of these pollutants. Modelling thus adds value to analytical methods and hence a better complementary tool to laboratory-based experimental studies.

  17. Slow-light enhanced sensing with an on-chip Fano system (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Arijit; Kuittinen, Markku; Honkanen, Seppo; Roussey, Matthieu

    2017-02-01

    Integrated silicon photonics promises efficient on-chip solutions for chemical and bio-molecule sensing for faster and reliable disease diagnostics. By integrating a sensor with a light source and a detector, a compact lab-on-chip sensing device is possible to realize. To increase the sensing efficiency, slot waveguide geometry is preferable due to the high confinement of the mode within the cover material. When two different light-paths in a structure interfere with each other, causing the superposition of a Lorenzian response with the background radiation continuum, a Fano lineshape occurs. This sharp resonance leads to a superior refractive index sensing capability. To develop a compact on-chip Fano-resonant platform for chemical sensing, we used a merged photonic crystal - slot waveguide (MPCSW) structure as the basic building block. It contains slot waveguides merged with Bragg gratings, formed by periodic patterning of the rails. A defect between the two Bragg grating sections forms a resonant cavity. In addition to the enhancement due to the confinement of light in the slot waveguide, the highly dispersive nature of the Bragg grating leads to slow light effect at the resonance. Three MPCSW structures are parallel-coupled to form an on-chip Fano system. By changing the refractive index of the cover material, we found a sensitivity as high as 775 nm/RIU. Moreover, the group index at the resonance of our Fano system is as high as ng = 500, due to the effect of slow light. We obtain vast increase in the refractive index sensitivity of the device.

  18. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems (RPS) have been essential to the U.S. exploration of outer space. RPS have two primary uses: electrical power and thermal power. To provide electrical power, the RPS uses the heat produced by the natural decay of a radioisotope (e.g., plutonium-238 in U.S. RPS) to drive a converter (e.g., thermoelectric elements or Stirling linear alternator). As a thermal power source the heat is conducted to whatever component on the spacecraft needs to be kept warm; this heat can be produced by a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) or by using the excess heat of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). As of 2010, the U.S. has launched 41 RTGs on 26 space systems. These space systems have ranged from navigational satellites to challenging outer planet missions such as Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Ulysses, Cassini and the New Horizons mission to Pluto. In the fall of 2011, NASA plans to launch the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) that will employ the new Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) as the principal power source. Hundreds of radioisotope heater units (RHUs) have been launched to provide warmth to Apollo 11, used to provide heating of critical components in a seismic experiment package, Pioneer 10/11, Voyager 1/2, Galileo, Cassini, Mars Pathfinder, MER rovers, etc. to provide temperature control to critical spacecraft electronics and other mechanical devices such as propulsion system propellant valves. A radioisotope (electrical) power source or system (RPS) consists of three basic elements: (1) the radioisotope heat source that provides the thermal power, (2) the converter that transforms the thermal power into electrical power and (3) the heat rejection radiator. Figure 1 illustrates the basic features of an RPS. The idea of a radioisotope power source follows closely after the early investigations of radioactivity by researchers such as Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), Marie Curie (1867-1935), Pierre Curie (1859

  19. Present State and Future Developments in Mechatronics and it's Influence on Fluid Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg; Zhou, Jianjun; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    with electronics, software and mechanics. This synergetic integration is often called Mechatronics.The topic which is rather widespread will be treated in three sections: I) General overview of mechatronics and fluid power. In this section the general trends of mechatronics in fluid power is considered by relating...... trends in the neighbouring fields of software and electronic hardware to fluid power developments. II) Mechatronic case stories from IKS In this section the results of a conceptual design study : "Design of a frequency converter based hydraulic power supply" is presented together with a more detailed......This paper tries to sketch the outlines for the future of : Fluid Power Control under the influence of the rapid advances of computer hardware and software technologies. The influences, when they improve the performance of fluid power, are seen as a synergetic integration of fluid power...

  20. Present-value analysis: A systems approach to public decisionmaking for cost effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, T. T.

    1971-01-01

    Decision makers within Governmental agencies and Congress must evaluate competing (and sometimes conflicting) proposals which seek funding and implementation. Present value analysis can be an effective decision making tool by enabling the formal evaluation of the effects of competing proposals on efficient national resource utilization. A project's costs are not only its direct disbursements, but its social costs as well. How much does it cost to have those funds diverted from their use and economic benefit by the private sector to the public project? Comparisons of competing projects' social costs allow decision makers to expand their decision bases by quantifying the projects' impacts upon the economy and the efficient utilization of the country's limited national resources. A conceptual model is established for the choosing of the appropriate discount rate to be used in evaluation decisions through the technique.

  1. A Case with Symmetrical Intracranial Calcifications and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with Optic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Güler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 53 years old female patient were evaluated for decrease in right eye vision with sudden onset. Neurological examination revealed no characteristics except 20/200 visual acuity in right eye, significant hyperemia and edema findings in optical disc. On cranial CT scans, symmetrical calcifications were evident in bilateral cerebellar peduncles, cerebral hemispheres, both putamens and thalamus. Laboratory examinations showed positive ANA as well as positive anti-DNA and lymphopenia and the case was diagnosed as lupus erythematosus. SLE case with bilaterally diffuse cerebral calcification showed additionally unilateral optic neuropathy clinical presentation. Being the first case in the literature with these two rare associations because of lupus makes it much more interesting to report

  2. Bioavailable nitrate detection in water by an immobilized luminescent cyanobacterial reporter strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbeunkui, F; Richaud, C; Etienne, A-L; Schmid, R D; Bachmann, T T

    2002-11-01

    Cyanobacteria are a major group of photosynthetic bacteria that can accumulate in surface water as so-called "blooms" in response to environmental factors such as temperature, light and certain nutrients such as N, P, and Fe. Some species of cyanobacteria produce toxins, causing a considerable danger for human and livestock health. As a consequence, monitoring of bloom formation and toxin production of drinking water supplies has become a major concern. To enable prediction and monitoring of cyanobacterial blooms, tools to detect nutrient bioavailability in water would be advantageous. A whole-cell biosensor was developed for monitoring nitrate (NO(3-)) bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems using the recombinant bioluminescent cyanobacterial strain Synechocystis PCC 6803 harboring an insertion of a luxAB-kmr fusion with nblA1 in its chromosomal DNA, leading to PnblA::luxAB-kmr. This reporter strain was designated N1LuxKm. Cells were immobilized in microtiter plates and showed a dose-dependent response to nitrate deprivation. The resultant CyanoSensor could detect nitrate in the 4-100 micro M concentration range after a sample incubation time of 10 h under continuous illumination (50 micro E m(-2) s(-1)). The optimal temperature for sensor operation was 29 degrees C and the immobilized biosensor could be stored at 4 degrees C in dark for about 1 month without significant loss of sensitivity.

  3. What season suits you best? Seasonal light changes and cyanobacterial competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cascallares

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nearly all living organisms, including some bacterial species, exhibit biological processes with a period of about 24 h called circadian (from the Latin circa, about and dies, day rhythms. These rhythms allow living organisms to anticipate the daily alternation of light and darkness. Experiments carried out in cyanobacteria have shown the adaptive value of circadian clocks. In theseexperiments, a wild type cyanobacterial strain (with a 24 h circadian rhythm and a mutantstrain (with a longer or shorter period grow in competition. In different experiments, the external light dark cycle was chosen to match the circadian period of the different strains, revealing that the strain whose circadian period matches the light-dark cycle has a larger fitness. As a consequence, the initial population of one strain grows while the other decays. These experiments were made under fixed light and dark intervals. In Nature, however, this relationship changes according to the season. Therefore, seasonalchanges in light could affect the results of the competition. Using a theoretical model, we analyze how modulation of light can change the survival of the different cyanobacterial strains. Our results show that there is a clear shift in the competition due to the modulation of light, which could be verified experimentally. Received: 20 Novembre 2014, Accepted: 29 March 2015; Edited by: C. A. Condat, G. J. Sibona; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.070005 Cite as: G Cascallares, P M Gleiser, Papers in Physics 7, 070005 (2015

  4. Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Fixation Influences the Nitrogen Removal Efficiency in a Constructed Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen removal efficiency in constructed wetlands (CW is influenced by multiple environmental factors. However, little is known about the role of cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation in affecting nitrogen removal efficiency. This study investigated how cyanobacterial nitrogen fixation affects the efficiency, at which a CW removes nitrogen from an associated artificial lake (AL in Beijing. For this purpose, we measured cell densities of N-fixing and non-N-fixing cyanobacteria, the aquatic nitrogen fixation rate (RNfix, and the concentration of various nitrogen fractions over the growing season (April–November of 2014 in both AL and CW. We found that the removal of particulate organic nitrogen (PON contributed to >90% of the total nitrogen removal in the CW. The removal efficiency of PON was lower during August–October (55.45 ± 27.49% than during April–July (68.86 ± 8.83%. Phytoplankton proliferation in summer, as one of the main sources of PON, may have exceeded the capacity of the CW and led to declines in PON removal efficiency. RNfix peaked in July–October (3–169 ng N·L−1·h−1 and was positively correlated with both PON concentration and the cell density of N-fixing Anabaena sp. over the growing season, suggesting that aquatic nitrogen fixation (primarily in the AL may increase PON and thereby reduce the its removal efficiency in the CW.

  5. Cyanobacterial diversity and a new acaryochloris-like symbiont from Bahamian sea-squirts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna López-Legentil

    Full Text Available Symbiotic interactions between ascidians (sea-squirts and microbes are poorly understood. Here we characterized the cyanobacteria in the tissues of 8 distinct didemnid taxa from shallow-water marine habitats in the Bahamas Islands by sequencing a fragment of the cyanobacterial 16S rRNA gene and the entire 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS and by examining symbiont morphology with transmission electron (TEM and confocal microscopy (CM. As described previously for other species, Trididemnum spp. mostly contained symbionts associated with the Prochloron-Synechocystis group. However, sequence analysis of the symbionts in Lissoclinum revealed two unique clades. The first contained a novel cyanobacterial clade, while the second clade was closely associated with Acaryochloris marina. CM revealed the presence of chlorophyll d (chl d and phycobiliproteins (PBPs within these symbiont cells, as is characteristic of Acaryochloris species. The presence of symbionts was also observed by TEM inside the tunic of both the adult and larvae of L. fragile, indicating vertical transmission to progeny. Based on molecular phylogenetic and microscopic analyses, Candidatus Acaryochloris bahamiensis nov. sp. is proposed for this symbiotic cyanobacterium. Our results support the hypothesis that photosymbiont communities in ascidians are structured by host phylogeny, but in some cases, also by sampling location.

  6. Monitoring studies should consider temporal variability to reveal relations between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA WOJCIECHOWSKI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of monitoring cyanobacteria blooms in aquatic environments is to reveal the relationship between cyanobacterial abundance and environmental variables. Studies typically correlate data that were simultaneously sampled. However, samplings occur sparsely over time and may not reveal the short-term responses of cyanobacterial abundance to environmental changes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stronger cyanobacteria x environment relationships in monitoring are found when the temporal variability of sampling points is incorporated in the statistical analyses. To this end, we investigated relationships between cyanobacteria and seven environmental variables that were sampled twice yearly for three years across 11 reservoirs, and data from an intensive monitoring in one of these reservoirs. Poor correlations were obtained when correlating data simultaneously sampled. In fact, the 'highly recurrent' role of phosphorus in cyanobacteria blooms is not properly observed in all sampling periods. On the other hand, the strongest correlation values for the total phosphorus x cyanobacteria relationship were observed when we used the variation of sampling points. We have also shown that environment variables better explain cyanobacteria when a time lag is considered. We conclude that, in cyanobacteria monitoring, the best approach to reveal determinants of cyanobacteria blooms is to consider environmental variability.

  7. Photosynthetic action spectra and adaptation to spectral light distribution in a benthic cyanobacterial mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, B. B.; Cohen, Y.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    We studied adaptation to spectral light distribution in undisturbed benthic communities of cyanobacterial mats growing in hypersaline ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico. Microscale measurements of oxygen photosynthesis and action spectra were performed with microelectrodes; spectral radiance was measured with fiber-optic microprobes. The spatial resolution of all measurements was 0.1 mm, and the spectral resolution was 10 to 15 nm. Light attenuation spectra showed absorption predominantly by chlorophyll a (Chl a) (430 and 670 nm), phycocyanin (620 nm), and carotenoids (440 to 500 nm). Blue light (450 nm) was attenuated 10-fold more strongly than red light (600 nm). The action spectra of the surface film of diatoms accordingly showed activity over the whole spectrum, with maxima for Chl a and carotenoids. The underlying dense Microcoleus population showed almost exclusively activity dependent upon light harvesting by phycobilins at 550 to 660 nm. Maximum activity was at 580 and 650 nm, indicating absorption by phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as well as by allophycocyanin. Very little Chl a-dependent activity could be detected in the cyanobacterial action spectrum, even with additional 600-nm light to excite photosystem II. The depth distribution of photosynthesis showed detectable activity down to a depth of 0.8 to 2.5 mm, where the downwelling radiant flux at 600 nm was reduced to 0.2 to 0.6% of the surface flux.

  8. Reefs under Siege—the Rise, Putative Drivers, and Consequences of Benthic Cyanobacterial Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K. Ford

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Benthic cyanobacteria have commonly been a small but integral component of coral reef ecosystems, fulfilling the critical function of introducing bioavailable nitrogen to an inherently oligotrophic environment. Though surveys may have previously neglected benthic cyanobacteria, or grouped them with more conspicuous benthic groups, emerging evidence strongly indicates that they are becoming increasingly prevalent on reefs worldwide. Some species can form mats comprised by a diverse microbial consortium which allows them to exist across a wide range of environmental conditions. This review evaluates the putative driving factors of increasing benthic cyanobacterial mats, including climate change, declining coastal water quality, iron input, and overexploitation of key consumer and ecosystem engineer species. Ongoing global environmental change can increase growth rates and toxin production of physiologically plastic benthic cyanobacterial mats, placing them at a considerable competitive advantage against reef-building corals. Once established, strong ecological feedbacks [e.g., inhibition of coral recruitment, release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC] reinforce reef degradation. The review also highlights previously overlooked implications of mat proliferation, which can extend beyond reef health and affect human health and welfare. Though identifying (opportunistic consumers of mats remains a priority, their perceived low palatability implies that herbivore management alone may be insufficient to control their proliferation and must be accompanied by local measures to improve water quality and watershed management.

  9. In-line polarization holographic memory system using PQ doped PMMA photopolymer (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiuan-Huei; Lin, Lun Kuang; Marinova, Vera; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-09-01

    Polarization hologram provides some unique features over classical phase or amplitude hologram. One of the most important features is that the photo-induced anisotropy in those materials leads to the polarization-dependent diffraction from the hologram. This property is useful for many applications, such as optical interconnection, holographic data storage and bio-imaging …etc. Recently, the 9, 10-phenanthrenequinone -doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PQ/PMMA) photopolymer with cm thickness has attracted intense research interesting for the volume holographic applications because the experiments demonstrated that PQ/PMMA photopolymers possess not only high optical quality but also negligible shrinkage effect under light exposure [3-5]. Additionally, in terms of chemical formula, the PQ/PMMA consists of planar structures PQ molecules dispersed in amorphous PMMA polymer so that it is possible to be oriented if irradiated with polarized light, resulting in a photoinduced birefringence. This phenomenon makes it capable for permanent polarization holographic recording via photochemical reaction. Thus, combining these two properties may make PQ/PMMA photopolymer attractive for volume polarization holographic applications. In this paper, we particularly characterize polarization holographic recording in our materials for high-density data storage. Then, we will demonstrate a in-line polarization holographic memory system using PQ/PMMA photopolymer.

  10. Integrated ion sensor device applications based on printed hybrid material systems (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Comfortable, wearable sensors and computers will enhance every person's awareness of his or her health condition, environment, chemical pollutants, potential hazards, and information of interest. In agriculture and in the food industry there is a need for a constant control of the condition and needs of plants, animals, and farm products. Yet many of these applications depend upon the development of novel, cheap devices and sensors that are easy to implement and to integrate. Organic semiconductors as well as several inorganic materials and hybrid material systems have proven to combine a number of intriguing optical and electronic properties with simple processing methods. As it will be reviewed in this contribution, these materials are believed to find their application in printed electronic devices allowing for the development of smart disposable devices in food-, health-, and environmental monitoring, diagnostics and control, possibly integrated into arrays of sensor elements for multi-parameter detection. In this contribution we review past and recent achievements in the field. Followed by a brief introduction, we will focus on two topics being on the agenda recently: a) the use of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistor (EGOFET) and ion-selective membrane based sensors for in-situ sensing of ions and biological substances and b) the development of hybrid material based resistive switches and their integration into fully functional, printed hybrid crossbar sensor array structures.

  11. Conformable wearable systems comprising organic electronics on foil for well being and healthcare (presentation video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kok, Margreet M.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of electronics into materials and objects that have not been functionalized with electronics before, open up extensive possibilities to support mankind. By adding intelligence and/or operating power to materials in close skin contact like clothing, furniture or bandages the health of people can be monitored or even improved. Foil based electronics are interesting components to be integrated as they are thin, large area and cost effective available components Our developed technology of printed electronic structures to which components are reliably bonded, fulfills the promise. We have integrated these components into textiles and built wearable encapsulated products with foil based electronics. Foil components with organic and inorganic LEDs are interconnected and laminated onto electronic textiles by using conductive adhesives to bond the contact pads of the component to conductive yarns in the textile. Modelling and reliability testing under dynamic circumstances provided important insights in order to optimise the technology. The design of the interconnection and choice of conductive adhesive / underfill and lamination contributed to the durability of the system. Transition zones from laminated foil to textile are engineered to withstand dynamic use. As an example of a product, we have realized an electronic wristband that is encapsulated in rubber and has a number of sensor functionalities integrated on stretchable electronic circuits based on Cu and Ag. The encapsulation with silicone or polyurethanes was performed such, that charging and sensor/skin contacts are possible while simultaneously protecting the electronics from mechanical and environmental stresses.

  12. [The association of fibromyalgia and systemic lupus erythematosus change the presentation and severity of both diseases?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza P Kasemodel; Paliares, Isabella Cristina; de Araújo, Maria Izabel P Kasemodel; Novo, Neil Ferreira; Cadaval, Ricardo Augusto M; Martinez, José Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The association of fibromyalgia (FM) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been investigated, with conflicting results regarding the impact of a condition on the other. To determine the frequency of FM in a sample of patients with SLE treated at the Hospital Complex of Sorocaba (CHS) and the impact of FM in SLE activity and quality of life, as well as of SLE in FM. Descriptive and correlational study. Patients who met the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE and/or FM were included. The total sample was divided into three groups: FM/SLE (patients with association of SLE and FM), SLE (SLE patients only) and FM (FM patients only). The following variables were used: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), activity index of SLE (SLEDAI), Indices of Diagnostic Criteria for Fibromyalgia 2010 (SSI end GPI) and SF-36. The prevalence of patients with FM among SLE patients was 12%. FIQ showed no difference between groups, indicating that SLE did not affect the impact caused by FM alone. The presence of FM in SLE patients did not influence the clinical activity of this disease. A strong impact of FM on the quality of life in patients with SLE was observed; the opposite was not observed. The prevalence of FM observed in SLE patients is 12%. The presence of FM adversely affects the quality of life of patients with SLE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Human iPSC for Therapeutic Approaches to the Nervous System: Present and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Giuseppina Cefalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many central nervous system (CNS diseases including stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI, and brain tumors are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity/mortality and yet do not have satisfying treatments. Cell-based therapy to restore lost function or to carry new therapeutic genes is a promising new therapeutic approach, particularly after human iPSCs became available. However, efficient generation of footprint-free and xeno-free human iPSC is a prerequisite for their clinical use. In this paper, we will first summarize the current methodology to obtain footprint- and xeno-free human iPSC. We will then review the current iPSC applications in therapeutic approaches for CNS regeneration and their use as vectors to carry proapoptotic genes for brain tumors and review their applications for modelling of neurological diseases and formulating new therapeutic approaches. Available results will be summarized and compared. Finally, we will discuss current limitations precluding iPSC from being used on large scale for clinical applications and provide an overview of future areas of improvement. In conclusion, significant progress has occurred in deriving iPSC suitable for clinical use in the field of neurological diseases. Current efforts to overcome technical challenges, including reducing labour and cost, will hopefully expedite the integration of this technology in the clinical setting.

  14. Recent developments in wireless recording from the nervous system with ultrasonic neural dust (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharbiz, Michel M.

    2017-05-01

    The emerging field of bioelectronic medicine seeks methods for deciphering and modulating electrophysiological activity in the body to attain therapeutic effects at target organs. Current approaches to interfacing with peripheral nerves and muscles rely heavily on wires, creating problems for chronic use, while emerging wireless approaches lack the size scalability necessary to interrogate small-diameter nerves. Furthermore, conventional electrode-based technologies lack the capability to record from nerves with high spatial resolution or to record independently from many discrete sites within a nerve bundle. We recently demonstrated (Seo et al., arXiV, 2013; Seo et al., Neuron, 2016) "neural dust," a wireless and scalable ultrasonic backscatter system for powering and communicating with implanted bioelectronics. There, we showed that ultrasound is effective at delivering power to mm-scale devices in tissue; likewise, passive, battery-less communication using backscatter enabled high-fidelity transmission of electromyogram (EMG) and electroneurogram (ENG) signals from anesthetized rats. In this talk, I will review recent developments from my group and collaborators in this area.

  15. Placental melatonin system is present throughout pregnancy and regulates villous trophoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ahmed; Lacasse, Andrée-Anne; Lanoix, Dave; Sagrillo-Fagundes, Lucas; Boulard, Véronique; Vaillancourt, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Melatonin is highly produced in the placenta where it protects against molecular damage and cellular dysfunction arising from hypoxia/re-oxygenation-induced oxidative stress as observed in primary cultures of syncytiotrophoblast. However, little is known about melatonin and its receptors in the human placenta throughout pregnancy and their role in villous trophoblast development. The purpose of this study was to determine melatonin-synthesizing enzymes, arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) and hydroxyindole O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), and melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) expression throughout pregnancy as well as the role of melatonin and its receptors in villous trophoblast syncytialization. Our data show that the melatonin generating system is expressed throughout pregnancy (from week 7 to term) in placental tissues. AANAT and HIOMT show maximal expression at the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. MT1 receptor expression is maximal at the 1st trimester compared to the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, while MT2 receptor expression does not change significantly during pregnancy. Moreover, during primary villous cytotrophoblast syncytialization, MT1 receptor expression increases, while MT2 receptor expression decreases. Treatment of primary villous cytotrophoblast with an increasing concentration of melatonin (10 pM-1 mM) increases the fusion index (syncytium formation; 21% augmentation at 1 mM melatonin vs. vehicle) and β-hCG secretion (121% augmentation at 1 mM melatonin vs. vehicle). This effect of melatonin appears to be mediated via its MT1 and MT2 receptors. In sum, melatonin machinery (synthetizing enzymes and receptors) is expressed in human placenta throughout pregnancy and promotes syncytium formation, suggesting an essential role of this indolamine in placental function and pregnancy well-being. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Present status of endoscopy, therapeutic endoscopy and the endoscopy training system in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makmun, Dadang

    2014-04-01

    Recently, Indonesia was ranked as the fourth most populous country in the world. Based on 2012 data, 85000 general practitioners and 25000 specialists are in service around the country. Gastrointestinal (GI) disease remains the most common finding in daily practise, in both outpatient and inpatient settings, and ranks fifth in causing mortality in Indonesia. Management of patients with GI disease involves all health-care levels with the main portion in primary health care. Some are managed by specialists in secondary health care or are referred to tertiary health care. GI endoscopy is one of the main diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the management of GI disease. Development of GI endoscopy in Indonesia started before World War II and, today, many GI endoscopy procedures are conducted in Indonesia, both diagnostic and therapeutic. Based on August 2013 data, there are 515 GI endoscopists in Indonesia. Most GI endoscopists are competent in carrying out basic endoscopy procedures, whereas only a few carry out advanced endoscopy procedures, including therapeutic endoscopy. Recently, the GI endoscopy training system in Indonesia consists of basic GI endoscopy training of 3-6 months held at 10 GI endoscopy training centers. GI endoscopy training is also eligible as part of a fellowship program of consultant gastroenterologists held at six accredited fellowship centers in Indonesia. Indonesian Society for Digestive Endoscopy in collaboration with GI endoscopy training centers in Indonesia and overseas has been working to increase quality and number of GI endoscopists, covering both basic and advanced GI endoscopy procedures. © 2014 The Author. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  17. Tidal dynamics and their influence on the climate system from the Cretaceous to present day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tobias; Thomas, Maik

    2017-11-01

    Global numerical ocean models used for paleo-climate reconstructions commonly only consider the ocean's general circulation but neglect tidal dynamics. However, tidal dynamics affect the ocean's mean general circulation, in particular by vertical mixing and tidal residual mean currents. Through feedback loops the whole climate system is affected. Plate tectonics modify geometric resonance conditions in ocean basins and thereby tidal dynamics. We study the influence of ocean tides on the ocean general circulation and atmospheric parameters by forcing the coupled atmosphere-ocean model ECHAM5/MPIOM with the complete lunisolar tidal potential. Simulations have been performed for five tectonically important time-slices: the Early Albian (ca. 110 million years ago, Ma), the Cenomanian-Turonian Boundary (ca. 93 Ma, CTB), the Early Eocene (ca. 55 Ma), the Early Pliocene (ca. 3.5 Ma), and a pre-industrial period (ca. 1850 CE). The model results suggest that the global mean tidal potential energy in the Early Eocene is almost three times larger than in the CTB. The large potential energy input in the Early Eocene leads to a tripling of current velocities in 10% of the deep ocean. Although the effect of tides on the general ocean circulation is less pronounced in the other time-slices, horizontal velocities are modified by more than 20% in 55% of the deep ocean. The tidally induced shifts of ocean currents and vertical mixing also have an effect on the three-dimensional temperature distribution in the ocean. The impact of tidal dynamics on atmospheric temperatures is particularly strong in the Southern Ocean of the Early Pliocene and the pre-industrial period. By a feedback loop with the atmosphere, tidal forcing locally reduces sea-ice concentration by up to 30% and local atmospheric 2 m temperatures by up to 4°C. Although uncertainties in bathymetry reconstructions limit the significance of quantitative analysis, the qualitative conclusions suggest that the impacts of

  18. Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES), a Review: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Priestley, K. J.; Loeb, N. G.; Wielicki, B. A.; Charlock, T. P.; Minnis, P.; Doelling, D. R.; Rutan, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project s objectives are to measure the reflected solar radiance (shortwave) and Earth-emitted (longwave) radiances and from these measurements to compute the shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface and radiation divergence within the atmosphere. The fluxes at TOA are to be retrieved to an accuracy of 2%. Improved bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) have been developed to compute the fluxes at TOA from the measured radiances with errors reduced from ERBE by a factor of two or more. Instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft provide sampling at four local times. In order to further reduce temporal sampling errors, data are used from the geostationary meteorological satellites to account for changes of scenes between observations by the CERES radiometers. A validation protocol including in-flight calibrations and comparisons of measurements has reduced the instrument errors to less than 1%. The data are processed through three editions. The first edition provides a timely flow of data to investigators and the third edition provides data products as accurate as possible with resources available. A suite of cloud properties retrieved from the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) by the CERES team is used to identify the cloud properties for each pixel in order to select the BRDF for each pixel so as to compute radiation fluxes from radiances. Also, the cloud information is used to compute radiation at the surface and through the atmosphere and to facilitate study of the relationship between clouds and the radiation budget. The data products from CERES include, in addition to the reflected solar radiation and Earth emitted radiation fluxes at TOA, the upward and downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes at the surface and at various levels in the atmosphere. Also at the surface the photosynthetically active radiation

  19. Virus genetic variations and evade from immune system, the present influenza challenges: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Shahsavandi

    2015-10-01

    viral vaccine can be achieved by using adjuvant. The ability of biological molecular adjuvant such as cytokines, interlukines, and bacterial derivatives to improve the immunogenicity of vaccines as a novel strategy is under evaluation, however, and immune system regulator proteins have additional considerations.

  20. Redirecting the Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transporters BicA and SbtA to the Chloroplast Envelope: Soluble and Membrane Cargos Need Different Chloroplast Targeting Signals in Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien eRolland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most major crops used for human consumption are C3 plants, which yields are limited by photosynthetic inefficiency. To circumvent this, it has been proposed to implement the cyanobacterial CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM, principally consisting of bicarbonate transporters and carboxysomes, into plant chloroplasts. As it is currently not possible to recover homoplasmic transplastomic monocots, foreign genes must be introduced in these plants via nuclear transformation. Consequently, it is paramount to ensure that resulting proteins reach the appropriate sub-cellular compartment, which for cyanobacterial transporters BicA and SbtA, is the chloroplast inner-envelope membrane (IEM. At present, targeting signals to redirect large transmembrane proteins from non-chloroplastic organisms to plant chloroplast envelopes are unknown. The goal of this study was to identify such signals, using agrobacteria-mediated transient expression and confocal microscopy to determine the sub-cellular localization of ~37 GFP-tagged chimeras. Initially, fragments of chloroplast proteins known to target soluble cargos to the stroma were tested for their ability to redirect BicA, but they proved ineffective. Next, different N-terminal regions from Arabidopsis IEM transporters were tested. We demonstrated that the N-terminus of AtHP59, AtPLGG1 or AtNTT1 (92-115 amino acids, containing a cleavable chloroplast transit peptide (cTP and a membrane protein leader (MPL, was sufficient to redirect BicA or SbtA to the chloroplast envelope. This constitutes the first evidence that nuclear-encoded transmembrane proteins from non-chloroplastic organisms can be targeted to the envelope of plant chloroplasts; a finding which represents an important advance in chloroplast engineering by opening up the door to further manipulation of the chloroplastic envelope.

  1. Modulation of Biochemical and Haematological Indices of Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.) Exposed to Toxic Cyanobacterial Water Bloom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopp, Radovan; Palíková, M.; Navrátil, S.; Kubíček, Z.; Ziková, A.; Mareš, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2010), s. 135-146 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : silver carp * cyanobacterial water blooms * haematological indices Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.534, year: 2010

  2. Effects of physicochemical variables and cyanobacterial extracts on the immunoassay of microcystin-LR by two ELISA kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, J S; Hyenstrand, P; Beattie, K A; Codd, G A

    2000-09-01

    Two types of commercially available ELISA kits for the immunoassay of cyanobacterial microcystins were evaluated for potential interference effects due to methanol, salinity, pH, plasticware and cyanobacterial extract. Of the treatments examined, methanol had the greatest effect, giving false positive microcystin concentrations with increasing methanol concentrations up to 30% (v/v) compared with the negative calibrators of each kit. False positive microcystin results were also produced with increasing salinity up to full strength seawater. Decreases in microcystin-LR equivalents were observed when assaying purified microcystin-LR at pH values between 6.25 and 10. Aqueous microcystin-LR solutions in plastic microcentrifuge tubes after pipetting with disposable plastic tips had lower toxin concentrations than expected when analysed by ELISA. Indicated microcystin concentrations in cyanobacterial extracts varied between kit types and the choice of blanks used. Although ELISAs can be useful tools for the screening of water and cyanobacterial blooms for microcystins and nodularins, users should be aware that commercial kits can be susceptible to interference by commonly encountered environmental and laboratory conditions and materials.

  3. Toxicity of complex cyanobacterial samples and their fractions in Xenopus laevis embryos and the role of microcystins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buryšková, B.; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Vršková, D.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Luděk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 4 (2006), s. 346-354 ISSN 0166-445X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571; GA AV ČR KJB6005411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : FETAX * Xenopus laevis * malformations * cyanobacterial fractions * biomarkers Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.964, year: 2006

  4. Synergistic and species-specific effects of climate change and water colour on cyanobacterial toxicity and bloom formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekvall, M.K.; Faassen, E.J.; Gustafsson, J.A.; Lurling, M.; Hansson, L.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are a worldwide phenomenon in both marine and freshwater ecosystems and are predicted to occur more frequently due to global climate change. However, our future water resources may also simultaneously suffer from other environmental threats such as elevated amounts of humic

  5. Correlations between cyanobacterial density and bacterial transformation to the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state in four freshwater water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huirong; Shen, Ju; Pan, Gaoshan; Liu, Jing; Li, Jiancheng; Hu, Zhangli

    2015-10-01

    Nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton density and community composition, and the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of heterotrophic bacteria were investigated in three connected reservoirs and a small isolated lake in South China to study the relationship between biotic and abiotic factors and the VBNC state in bacteria. Nutrient concentrations in the reservoirs increased in the direction of water flow, whereas Wenshan Lake was more eutrophic. Cyanobacterial blooms occurred in all four water bodies, with differing seasonal trends and dominant species. In Xili and Tiegang Reservoirs, the VBNC ratio (percent of VBNC state bacteria over total viable bacteria) was high for most of the year and negatively correlated with cyanobacterial density. Laboratory co-culture experiments were performed with four heterotrophic bacterial species isolated from Wenshan Lake (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella peneumoniae, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus cereus) and the dominant cyanobacterial species (Microcystis aeruginosa). For the first three bacterial species, the presence of M. aeruginosa induced the VBNC state and the VBNC ratio was positively correlated with M. aeruginosa density. However, B. cereus inhibited M. aeruginosa growth. These results demonstrate that cyanobacteria could potentially regulate the transformation to the VBNC state of waterborne bacteria, and suggest a role for bacteria in cyanobacterial bloom initiation and termination.

  6. Some like it high! Phylogenetic diversity of high-elevation cyanobacterial community from biological soil crusts of Western Himalaya.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, K.; Hauer, T.; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2016), s. 113-123 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : soil crusts * cyanobacterial diversity * Western Himalayas * high-elevation * desert * phosphorus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  7. Some Like it High! Phylogenetic Diversity of High-Elevation Cyanobacterial Community from Biological Soil Crusts of Western Himalaya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čapková, Kateřina; Hauer, Tomáš; Řeháková, Klára; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2016), s. 113-123 ISSN 0095-3628 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Soil crusts * Cyanobacterial diversity * Western Himalaya s Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  8. Degradation Mechanism of Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin by Hydroxyl Radicals in Homogeneous UV/H2O2 Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degradation of cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a widely distributed and highly toxic cyanobacterial toxin (cyanotoxin), remains poorly elucidated. In this study, the mechanism of CYN destruction by UV-254 nm/H2O2 advanced oxidation process (AOP) was investigated by mass spectrometr...

  9. Occurrence and origin of mono-, di- and trimethylalkanes in modern and Holocene cyanobacterial mats from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kenig, F.; Kock-van Dalen, A.C.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Huc, A.Y.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    n-Alkanes, highly branched isoprenoids, monomethylalkanes (MMAs), dimethylalkanes (DMAs), and trimethylalkanes (TMAs) are the most abundant components in the hydrocarbon fractions of extracts of four modern and two Holocene cyanobacterial mats (1500 and 5110 ± 170 y ) collected in Abu Dhabi (United

  10. Effect of different cyanobacterial biomasses and their fractions with variable microcystin content on embryonal development of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palíková, M.; Krejčí, R.; Hilscherová, Klára; Babica, Pavel; Navrátil, S.; Kopp, R.; Bláha, Luděk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 3 (2007), s. 312-318 ISSN 0166-445X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6005411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacterial biomass * embryonal development * common carp Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.975, year: 2007

  11. Cyanobacterial Sunscreen Scytonemin: Role in Photoprotection and Biomedical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Rajesh Prasad; Sonani, Ravi Raghav; Madamwar, Datta

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are the most promising group of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing an array of natural products of industrial importance. Scytonemin is a small hydrophobic alkaloid pigment molecules present in the extracellular sheath of several cyanobacteria as a protective mechanism against short wavelength solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It has great efficacy to minimize the production of reactive oxygen species and formation of DNA lesions. The biosynthesis of scytonemin is regulated by different physico-chemical stressors. Scytonemin display multiple roles, functioning as a potent UV sunscreen and antioxidant molecules, and can be exploited in cosmetic and other industries for the development of new cosmeceuticals. Herein, we review the occurrence, biosynthesis, and potential application of scytonemin in photoprotection, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical research.

  12. The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) induces neuronal and behavioral changes in honeybees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okle, Oliver, E-mail: oliver.okle@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Jacob-Burckhardt-Strasse 25, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Rath, Lisa; Galizia, C. Giovanni [Zoology and Neurobiology, University of Konstanz, Universitätsstraße 10, 78457 Konstanz (Germany); Dietrich, Daniel R., E-mail: daniel.dietrich@uni-konstanz.de [Human and Environmental Toxicology, University of Konstanz, Jacob-Burckhardt-Strasse 25, 78457 Konstanz (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The cyanobacterially produced neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is thought to induce amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC)-like symptoms. However, its mechanism of action and its pathway of intoxication are yet unknown. In vivo animal models suitable for investigating the neurotoxic effect of BMAA with applicability to the human are scarce. Hence, we used the honeybee (Apis mellifera) since its nervous system is relatively simple, yet having cognitive capabilities. Bees fed with BMAA-spiked sugar water had an increased mortality rate and a reduced ability to learn odors in a classical conditioning paradigm. Using {sup 14}C-BMAA we demonstrated that BMAA is biologically available to the bee, and is found in the head, thorax and abdomen with little to no excretion. BMAA is also transferred from one bee to the next via trophallaxis resulting in an exposure of the whole beehive. BMAA bath application directly onto the brain leads to an altered Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis and to generation of reactive oxygen species. These behavioral and physiological observations suggest that BMAA may have effects on bee brains similar to those assumed to occur in humans. Therefore the bee could serve as a surrogate model system for investigating the neurological effects of BMAA. - Highlights: • Investigating of neurotoxic effects of BMAA in honeybees • BMAA impairs ALS markers (ROS, Ca{sup 2+}, learning, memory, odor) in bees. • A method for the observation of ROS development in living bees brain was established. • Honeybees are a suitable model to explore neurodegenerative processes. • Neurotoxic BMAA can be spread in bee populations by trophallaxis.

  13. The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) induces neuronal and behavioral changes in honeybees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okle, Oliver; Rath, Lisa; Galizia, C. Giovanni; Dietrich, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The cyanobacterially produced neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is thought to induce amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS/PDC)-like symptoms. However, its mechanism of action and its pathway of intoxication are yet unknown. In vivo animal models suitable for investigating the neurotoxic effect of BMAA with applicability to the human are scarce. Hence, we used the honeybee (Apis mellifera) since its nervous system is relatively simple, yet having cognitive capabilities. Bees fed with BMAA-spiked sugar water had an increased mortality rate and a reduced ability to learn odors in a classical conditioning paradigm. Using 14 C-BMAA we demonstrated that BMAA is biologically available to the bee, and is found in the head, thorax and abdomen with little to no excretion. BMAA is also transferred from one bee to the next via trophallaxis resulting in an exposure of the whole beehive. BMAA bath application directly onto the brain leads to an altered Ca 2+ homeostasis and to generation of reactive oxygen species. These behavioral and physiological observations suggest that BMAA may have effects on bee brains similar to those assumed to occur in humans. Therefore the bee could serve as a surrogate model system for investigating the neurological effects of BMAA. - Highlights: • Investigating of neurotoxic effects of BMAA in honeybees • BMAA impairs ALS markers (ROS, Ca 2+ , learning, memory, odor) in bees. • A method for the observation of ROS development in living bees brain was established. • Honeybees are a suitable model to explore neurodegenerative processes. • Neurotoxic BMAA can be spread in bee populations by trophallaxis

  14. Mining Metatranscriptomic Data of a Cyanobacterial Bloom for Patterns of Secondary Metabolism Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, K.; Wang, J.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The secondary metabolism of bacterial cells produces small molecules that can have both medicinal properties and toxigenic effects. This study focuses on mining metatranscriptomes from a tropical eutrophic water reservoir in Singapore experiencing a cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom dominated by Microcystis, to identify the types of secondary metabolites genes being expressed and by what taxa. A phylogenomic approach as implemented in the online tool Natural Product Domain Seeker (NaPDoS) was used. NaPDoS was recently developed to classify ketosynthase and condensation domains from polyketide synthases and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, respectively, to provide insight into potential types of pathway products. Water samples from the reservoir were collected six times over a day/night cycle. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to ribosomal depletion followed by cDNA synthesis and next-generation Illumina DNA sequencing, generating 493,468 to 678,064 95-101 base pairs post-quality control reads per sample. Evidence for expression of PKS and NRPS type genes based on identification of a ketosynthase and condensation domains are present in all time points. KS domains fall into to two main phylogenetic groups, type I and type II, within the type II group of domains are domains for fatty acid biosynthesis (fab), which is considered a part of primary metabolism. Type I KS domains are part of the classic PKS natural product biosynthetic genes that make things such as antibiotics and other toxins such as microcystin. 2849 KS domains were detected in the combined reservoir samples, of these 1141 were likely from fatty acid biosynthesis and 1708 were related to secondary metabolism type KS domains. The most abundant KS domains (485) besides the fab genes are closely related to a KS domain that is not currently experimentally linked to a known secondary metabolite but the domain is found in four Microcystis genomes along with two other species of cyanobacteria. The three

  15. Microenvironments and microscale productivity of cyanobacterial desert crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Belnap, Jayne

    1996-01-01

    We used microsensors to characterize physicochemical microenvironments and photosynthesis occurring immediately after water saturation in two desert soil crusts from southeastern Utah, which were formed by the cyanobacteria Microcoleus vaginatus Gomont, Nostoc spp., and Scytonema sp. The light fields within the crusts presented steep vertical gradients in magnitude and spectral composition. Near-surface light-trapping zones were formed due to the scattering nature of the sand particles, but strong light attenuation resulted in euphotic zones only ca. 1 mm deep, which were progressively enriched in longer wavelengths with depth. Rates of gross photosynthesis (3.4a??9.4 mmol O2A?ma??2A?ha??1) and dark respiration (0.81a??3.1 mmol Oa??2A?ma??2A?ha??1) occurring within 1 to several mm from the surface were high enough to drive the formation of marked oxygen microenvironments that ranged from oxygen supersaturation to anoxia. The photosynthetic activity also resulted in localized pH values in excess of 10, 2a??3 units above the soil pH. Differences in metabolic parameters and community structure between two types of crusts were consistent with a successional pattern, which could be partially explained on the basis of the microenvironments. We discuss the significance of high metabolic rates and the formation of microenvironments for the ecology of desert crusts, as well as the advantages and limitations of microsensor-based methods for crust investigation.

  16. Unlocking the Constraints of Cyanobacterial Productivity: Acclimations Enabling Ultrafast Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; McClure, Ryan S.; Hill, Eric A.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Chrisler, William B.; Romine, Margie F.; McDermott, Jason E.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Konopka, Allan E.; Fredrickson, James K.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-07-26

    ABSTRACT

    Harnessing the metabolic potential of photosynthetic microbes for next-generation biotechnology objectives requires detailed scientific understanding of the physiological constraints and regulatory controls affecting carbon partitioning between biomass, metabolite storage pools, and bioproduct synthesis. We dissected the cellular mechanisms underlying the remarkable physiological robustness of the euryhaline unicellular cyanobacteriumSynechococcussp. strain PCC 7002 (Synechococcus7002) and identify key mechanisms that allow cyanobacteria to achieve unprecedented photoautotrophic productivities (~2.5-h doubling time). Ultrafast growth ofSynechococcus7002 was supported by high rates of photosynthetic electron transfer and linked to significantly elevated transcription of precursor biosynthesis and protein translation machinery. Notably, no growth or photosynthesis inhibition signatures were observed under any of the tested experimental conditions. Finally, the ultrafast growth inSynechococcus7002 was also linked to a 300% expansion of average cell volume. We hypothesize that this cellular adaptation is required at high irradiances to support higher cell division rates and reduce deleterious effects, corresponding to high light, through increased carbon and reductant sequestration.

    IMPORTANCEEfficient coupling between photosynthesis and productivity is central to the development of biotechnology based on solar energy. Therefore, understanding the factors constraining maximum rates of carbon processing is necessary to identify regulatory mechanisms and devise strategies to overcome productivity constraints. Here, we interrogate the molecular mechanisms that operate at a systems level to allow cyanobacteria to achieve ultrafast growth. This was done by considering growth and photosynthetic kinetics with global transcription patterns. We have delineated

  17. Wet season cyanobacterial N enrichment highly correlated with species richness and Nostoc in the northern Australian savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Williams

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Boodjamulla National Park research station is situated in the north-western Queensland dry savannah, where the climate is dominated by summer monsoons and virtually dry winters. Under shrub canopies and in between the tussock grasses cyanobacterial crusts almost entirely cover the flood plain soil surfaces. Seasonality drives N fixation, and in the savannah this has a large impact on both plant and soil function. Many cyanobacteria fix dinitrogen that is liberated into the soil in both inorganic and organic N forms. We examined cyanobacterial species richness and bioavailable N spanning 7 months of a typical wet season. Over the wet season cyanobacterial richness ranged from 6 to 19 species. N-fixing Scytonema accounted for seasonal averages between 51 and 93 % of the biocrust. Cyanobacterial richness was highly correlated with N fixation and bioavailable N in 0–1 cm. Key N-fixing species such as Nostoc, Symploca and Gloeocapsa significantly enriched soil N although Nostoc was the most influential. Total seasonal N fixation by cyanobacteria demonstrated the variability in productivity according to the number of wet days as well as the follow-on days where the soil retained adequate moisture. Based on total active days per month we estimated that N soil enrichment via cyanobacteria would be  ∼  5.2 kg ha−1 annually which is comparable to global averages. This is a substantial contribution to the nutrient-deficient savannah soils that are almost entirely reliant on the wet season for microbial turnover of organic matter. Such well-defined seasonal trends and synchronisation in cyanobacterial species richness, N fixation, bioavailable N and C fixation (Büdel et al., 2018 provide important contributions to multifunctional microprocesses and soil fertility.

  18. Association of a new type of gliding, filamentous, purple phototrophic bacterium inside bundles of Microcoleus chthonoplastes in hypersaline cyanobacterial mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelio, E. D.; Cohen, Y.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    An unidentified filamentous purple bacterium, probably belonging to a new genus or even a new family, is found in close association with the filamentous, mat-forming cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes in a hypersaline pond at Guerrero Negro, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and in Solar Lake, Sinai, Egypt. This organism is a gliding, segmented trichome, 0.8-0.9 micrometer wide. It contains intracytoplasmic stacked lamellae which are perpendicular and obliquely oriented to the cell wall, similar to those described for the purple sulfur bacteria Ectothiorhodospira. These bacteria are found inside the cyanobacterial bundle, enclosed by the cyanobacterial sheath. Detailed transmission electron microscopical analyses carried out in horizontal sections of the upper 1.5 mm of the cyanobacterial mat show this cyanobacterial-purple bacterial association at depths of 300-1200 micrometers, corresponding to the zone below that of maximal oxygenic photosynthesis. Sharp gradients of oxygen and sulfide are established during the day at this microzone in the two cyanobacterial mats studied. The close association, the distribution pattern of this association and preliminary physiological experiments suggest a co-metabolism of sulfur by the two-membered community. This probable new genus of purple bacteria may also grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by the cyanobacterium. Since the chemical gradients in the entire photic zone fluctuate widely in a diurnal cycle, both types of metabolism probably take place. During the morning and afternoon, sulfide migrates up to the photic zone allowing photoautotrophic metabolism with sulfide as the electron donor. During the day the photic zone is highly oxygenated and the purple bacteria may either use oxidized species of sulfur such as elemental sulfur and thiosulfate in the photoautotrophic mode or grow photoheterotrophically using organic carbon excreted by M. chthonoplastes. The new type of filamentous purple sulfur

  19. Wet season cyanobacterial N enrichment highly correlated with species richness and Nostoc in the northern Australian savannah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy; Büdel, Burkhard; Williams, Stephen

    2018-04-01

    The Boodjamulla National Park research station is situated in the north-western Queensland dry savannah, where the climate is dominated by summer monsoons and virtually dry winters. Under shrub canopies and in between the tussock grasses cyanobacterial crusts almost entirely cover the flood plain soil surfaces. Seasonality drives N fixation, and in the savannah this has a large impact on both plant and soil function. Many cyanobacteria fix dinitrogen that is liberated into the soil in both inorganic and organic N forms. We examined cyanobacterial species richness and bioavailable N spanning 7 months of a typical wet season. Over the wet season cyanobacterial richness ranged from 6 to 19 species. N-fixing Scytonema accounted for seasonal averages between 51 and 93 % of the biocrust. Cyanobacterial richness was highly correlated with N fixation and bioavailable N in 0-1 cm. Key N-fixing species such as Nostoc, Symploca and Gloeocapsa significantly enriched soil N although Nostoc was the most influential. Total seasonal N fixation by cyanobacteria demonstrated the variability in productivity according to the number of wet days as well as the follow-on days where the soil retained adequate moisture. Based on total active days per month we estimated that N soil enrichment via cyanobacteria would be ˜ 5.2 kg ha-1 annually which is comparable to global averages. This is a substantial contribution to the nutrient-deficient savannah soils that are almost entirely reliant on the wet season for microbial turnover of organic matter. Such well-defined seasonal trends and synchronisation in cyanobacterial species richness, N fixation, bioavailable N and C fixation (Büdel et al., 2018) provide important contributions to multifunctional microprocesses and soil fertility.

  20. Selected Haematological and Biochemical Indices of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Reared in the Environment with Cyanobacterial Water Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Palíková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of toxic cyanobacterial water blooms on blood indices in the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Experimental fish were exposed to natural cyanobacterial water blooms (consisting mainly of Microcystis aeruginosa and M. ichthyoblabe which contained microcystins (total concentration 1187 - 1211 μg g-1 of dry weight and 17.4 - 25.4 μg l-1 of water for 28 days without additional feeding. Control groups of fish were kept in another pond without apparent cyanobacterial bloom formation. Experimental and control rearing ponds had the same water source. After exposure, fish were placed in dechlorinated potable water for the same period. Statistical evaluation of the influence of cyanobacterial water bloom on biochemical indices of experimental fish showed a distinct increase of alkaline phosphatase (p ⪬ 0.05, total bilirubin (p ⪬ 0.001, creatinine (p ⪬ 0.01, lactate (p ⪬ 0.01 and urea (p ⪬ 0.01 when compared to controls. After transfer to the dechlorinated potable water the experimental group showed significantly lower values of phosphorus (p ⪬ 0.001, urea (p ⪬ 0.01 and cholinesterase (p ⪬ 0.05 and higher values of lactate (p ⪬ 0.05 and iron (p ⪬ 0.05 compared to controls. It may be concluded that the exposure of the Nile tilapia to the environment containing cyanobacterial water bloom influenced only some biochemical indices. However, this modulation is to a much lower degree compared to the common carp and silver carp.