Sample records for cw ppln opo

  1. Broadly Turnable Pump-Resonant Diode-Pumped CW PPLN OPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alford, W.J.; Bowers, Mark S.; Raymond, T.D.; Seamans, J.F.


    We have observed low threshold operation of a broadly tunable (2.18-3.4 µm) pump-resonant cw periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). When pumped at 806 nm with 410 mW from a custom-built diode laser the OPO generated 20 mW of idler output at 3.3 µm.

  2. Singly resonant cw OPO with simple wavelength tuning. (United States)

    Vainio, Markku; Peltola, Jari; Persijn, Stefan; Harren, Frans J M; Halonen, Lauri


    A singly resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (cw OPO) is described. The OPO contains no intracavity etalon, which makes its wavelength tuning simple and straightforward, including only temperature tuning of the nonlinear crystal and wavelength tuning of the pump laser. The OPO provides watt-level output in the mid-infrared region and operates reliably without mode hops for several hours.

  3. Self-injection-locking of a CW-OPO by intracavity frequency-doubling the idler wave. (United States)

    Lee, D H; Klein, M; Meyn, J P; Grob, P; Wallenstein, R; Boller, K


    We report on the observation of self-injection-locking of the signal wave of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with the intracavity frequency doubled idler wave. The two-mirror OPO is based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal and pumped with a grating stabilized, continuous-wave (CW) single-frequency diode master-oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) system. Simultaneous quasi-phase-matching (QPM) of OPO and second harmonic generation (SHG) is provided in the same crystal which carries two different domain gratings. The beat of the signal wave and the frequency-doubled idler wave is suppressed within a 500-kHz wide frequency range centered around zero as expected for self-injection- locking. The measurements prove the feasibility of optically phase-stabilized by-three-division of an optical frequency with CW-OPOs using cascaded nonlinearities.

  4. Grating period and temperature dependence of OPO wavelength in 5 mol.% MgO:PPLN cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jong Hoon [Yeungnam University, Kyungsan (Korea, Republic of); Ishizuki, H.; Shoji, I.; Taira, T. [Laser Research Center of Molecular Science, IMS, Okazaki, (Japan)


    Recently developed PPLN (Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate) is a nonlinear crystal which has very high efficiency. The crystal use non-critical phase matching method and extraordinary polarization of laser is used to access high nonlinear coefficient d{sub 33}. We tried to generate the wavelength around 6 {mu}m through optical parametric oscillation (OPO) and difference frequency generation in PPLN utilizing transmission window located around 6 {mu}m. The wavelength around 6 {mu}m is very important for atmosphere spectroscopy, molecular spectroscopy, and DNA probing. For the preliminary experiment, we measured signal and idler wavelength from OPO cavity while changing grating period and temperature of PPLN.

  5. Femtosecond OPO based on MgO:PPLN synchronously pumped by a 532 nm fiber laser (United States)

    Cao, Jianjun; Shen, Dongyi; Zheng, Yuanlin; Feng, Yaming; Kong, Yan; Wan, Wenjie


    With the rapid progress in fiber technologies, femtosecond fiber lasers, which are compact, cost-effective and stable, have been developed and are commercially available. Studies of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) pumped by this type of laser are demanding. Here we report a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) at 79.6 MHz repetition rate based on MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN), synchronously pumped by the integrated second harmonic radiation of a femtosecond fiber laser at 532 nm. The signal delivered by the single resonant OPO is continuously tunable from 757 to 797 nm by tuning the crystal temperature in a poling period of 7.7 μ \\text{m} . The output signal shows good beam quality in TEM00 mode profile with pulse duration of 206 fs at 771 nm. Maximum output signal power of 71 mW is obtained for a pump power of 763 mW and a low pumping threshold of 210 mW is measured. Moreover, grating tuning and cavity length tuning of the signal wavelength are also investigated.

  6. Fiber-laser-pumped CW OPO for red, green, blue laser generation. (United States)

    Lin, S T; Lin, Y Y; Tu, R Y; Wang, T D; Huang, Y C


    We report a CW, watt-level, red, green, and blue (RGB) laser pumped by an economical multimode (1-nm linewidth) Yb-fiber laser at 1.064 mum. A singly resonant optical parametric oscillator at 1.56 mum has two intracavity sum-frequency generators for red and blue laser generation. An extracavity second harmonic generator converts the residual pump power into green laser radiation. At 25-W pump power, the laser generated 3.9, 0.456, and 0.49 W at 633, 532, and 450 nm, respectively. The multimode pump laser offers a large temperature bandwidth for operating the RGB OPO without the need of a precision crystal temperature stabilizer.

  7. Rapid infrared wavelength access with a picosecond PPLN OPO synchronously pumped by a mode-locked diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.E.; Robertson, A.; Tremont, M.A.; Wallenstein, R.; Boller, Klaus J.


    We theoretically and experimentally investigate wavelength tuning of synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) on changing the cavity length or the pump-repetition rate. Conditions for rapid and wide-range wavelength access are derived. Using an OPO pumped directly by a mode-locked

  8. Intracavity-Pumped Raman Laser Action in a Mid-IR, Continuous-Wave (cw) MgO:PPLN Optical Parametric Oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okishev, A.V.; Zuegel, J.D.


    Intracavity-pumped Raman laser action in a fiber-laser–pumped, single-resonant, continuous-wave (cw) MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator with a high-Q linear resonator has been observed for the first time to our knowledge. Experimental results of this phenomenon investigation will be discussed.

  9. Intracavity-pumped Raman laser action in a mid IR, continuous-wave (cw) MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator. (United States)

    Okishev, Andrey V; Zuegel, Jonathan D


    Intracavity-pumped Raman laser action in a fiber-laser-pumped, single-resonant, continuous-wave (cw) MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator with a high-Q linear resonator has been observed for the first time to our knowledge. Experimental results of this phenomenon investigation will be discussed.

  10. Low threshold, singly-resonant CW OPO pumped by an all-fiber pump source. (United States)

    Henderson, Angus; Stafford, Ryan


    An oscillation threshold of 780mW has been demonstrated in a singly-resonant, continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (CW SRO) using a fiber-amplified, distributed feedback (DFB) fiber laser as pump source. A linewidth of 1MHz was measured, and the idler frequency was fine-tuned by up to 130GHz by tuning the pump laser. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a single frequency CW SRO pumped by an all-fiber pump source, a reduction in threshold by a factor of three over previous 1- microm-pumped CW SROs, and a reduction by two orders of magnitude in the linewidth of CW SROs pumped by fiber pump sources.

  11. Phase sensitive amplification with noise figure below the 3 dB quantum limit using CW pumped PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Asobe, Masaki; Umeki, Takeshi; Tadanaga, Osamu


    The noise figure (NF) of a phase sensitive amplifier (PSA) based on a periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) waveguide was evaluated in the optical and electrical domains. Phase sensitive amplification was realized using degenerate parametric amplification in the PPLN waveguide, which was pumped by the second harmonic frequency of the signal. Second harmonic pumping enables direct observation of the intrinsic amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), which determined the NF of the PSA. An NF below the 3 dB quantum limit was obtained by observing the intrinsic ASE. The low NF was also confirmed via the noise floor measurement of a cascaded PSA and erbium doped fiber amplifier in the electrical domain. The PSA was used as a preamplifier for detecting a 40 Gbit/s phase shift keying signal. The low noise characteristics were confirmed by the improved sensitivity.

  12. Thermal waveguide OPO. (United States)

    Lin, S T; Lin, Y Y; Wang, T D; Huang, Y C


    We report a mid-infrared, CW singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a thermally induced waveguide in its gain crystal. We measured a numerical aperture of 0.0062 for the waveguide at 80-W intracavity power at 3.2 microm. This thermal-guiding effect benefits to the stable operation of an OPO and improves the parametric conversion efficiency by more than a factor of two when compared with that without thermal guiding.

  13. Monolithic ring resonator with PPLN crystal for efficient cw SHG of 976 nm emitted by a diode laser (United States)

    Skoczowsky, Danilo; Jechow, Andreas; Stürmer, Herbert; Poßner, Torsten; Stry, Sandra; Sacher, Joachim; Menzel, Ralf


    A new setup for efficient blue light generation that consists of two passively coupled optical resonators is presented. The first resonator is based on a broad area laser diode (BAL) in a Littrow external cavity with a special off-axis design. This external cavity diode laser provides more than 450 mW diffraction limited and narrow bandwidth emission at 976 nm. A compact cavity design with 40 mm length could be realized. The second resonator is a monolithic high finesse ring cavity containing a 10 mm bulk periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal for resonant second harmonic generation. This ring resonator consists of four small mirrors with appropriate reflectivities and two GRIN lenses for stability reasons. All parts of this ring cavity are mounted monolithically on a glass substrate with a size of 19.5 mm x 8.5 mm. First experiments showed good passive matching of both cavities without any active closed-loop control. With this setup efficient SHG was achieved. A maximum optical output power of 70 mW blue light at 488 nm was obtained. The conversion efficiency was better than 15%.

  14. Continuous-wave mid-infrared intra-cavity singly resonant PPLN-OPO under 880 nm in-band pumping. (United States)

    Sheng, Quan; Ding, Xin; Shi, Chunpeng; Yin, Sujia; Li, Bin; Shang, Ce; Yu, Xuanyi; Wen, Wuqi; Yao, Jianquan


    We report herein a continuous-wave mid-infrared intra-cavity singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (ICSRO) which is the first example of ICSRO that utilize in-band pumped Nd-doped vanadate laser as pump source. A 1064 nm Nd:YVO₄ laser in-band pumped by 880 nm LD and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal are employed as the parent pump laser and the nonlinear medium, respectively. The idler output wavelength tuning range is 3.66-4.22 µm. A maximum output power of 1.54 W at 3.66 µm is obtained at absorbed pump power of 21.9 W, with corresponding optical efficiency being 7.0%. The control experiment of ICSRO under 808 nm traditional pumping is also carried out. The results show that in-band pumped ICSRO has better performance in terms of threshold, power scaling, efficiency and power stability than ICSRO traditionally pumped at 808 nm.

  15. Tunable All-Optical Wavelength Conversion Based on Cascaded SHG/DFG in a Ti:PPLN Waveguide Using a Single CW Control Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, Rahman; Wang, Wenrui


    Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of a 40-Gb/s RZ-OOK data signal based on cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) and difference-frequency generation (DFG) in a Ti:PPLN waveguide is demonstrated. Error-free performances with negligible power penalty are achieved for the wavelength...

  16. Continuous-wave 532 nm pumped MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator with external power regulation and spatial mode filtering. (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seung Kwan; Park, Seung-Nam; Park, Hee Su; Lee, Jae Yong; Choi, Sang-Kyung


    We report a continuous-wave (CW) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on a MgO-doped periodically poled LiNbO(3) (MgO:PPLN) crystal. The 532 nm pump generates coherent radiation that is tunable from 800 to 920 nm for the signal and from 1250 to 1580 nm for the idler, respectively. The OPO output power exhibits a slowly varying instability that we attribute to a thermal effect induced by the pump. This instability is truncated by means of a low-pass servo that includes a single-mode fiber that filters the beam into a single spatial mode. The resulting output characteristics are promising for radiometric applications in the near infrared including most fiber-optic communication bands.

  17. Experimental investigations of 3 mm aperture PPLN structures (United States)

    Kolker, D.; Pronyushkina, A.; Boyko, A.; Kostyukova, N.; Trashkeev, S.; Nuyshkov, B.; Shur, V.


    We are reporting about investigation of domestic 3 mm aperture periodically polled lithium niobate (PPLN) structures for cascaded mid-IR OPO. Wide aperture periodically poled MgO-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures at multigrating, fan-out and multi fan-out configuration were prepared at “Labfer LTD”. Laser source based on such structures can be used for special applications. Four different PPLN structures were investigated and effective aperture for effective pumping was defined.

  18. Intracavity interferometry using synchronously pumped OPO (United States)

    Zavadilová, Alena; Vyhlídal, David; Kubeček, Václav; Šulc, Jan; Navrátil, Petr


    The concept of system for intracavity interferometry based on the beat note detection in subharmonic synchronously intracavity pumped optical parametrical oscillator (OPO) is presented. The system consisted of SESAM-modelocked, picosecond, diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser, operating at wavelength 1.06 μm and tunable linear intracavity pumped OPO based on MgO:PPLN crystal, widely tunable in 1.5 μm able to deliver two independent trains of picosecond pulses. The optical length of the OPO cavity was set to be exactly twice the pumping cavity length. In this configuration the OPO produces signal pulses with the same repetition frequency as the pump laser but the signal consists of two completely independent pulse trains. For purpose of pump probe measurements the setup signal with half repetition rate and scalable amplitude was derived from the OPO signal using RF signal divider, electropotical modulator and fiber amplifier. The impact of one pump beam on the sample is detected by one probing OPO train, the other OPO train is used as a reference. The beat note measured using the intracavity interferometer is proportional to phase modulation caused by the pump beam. The bandwidth of observed beat-note was less than 1 Hz (FWHM), it corresponds to a phase shift measurement error of less than 1.5 × 10-7 rad without any active stabilization. Such compact low-cost system could be used for ultra-sensitive phase-difference measurements (e.g. nonlinear refractive index measurement) for wide range of material especially in spectral range important for telecom applications.

  19. Broadband mid-IR subharmonic OPOs for molecular spectroscopy (United States)

    Leindecker, Nick; Marandi, Alireza; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L.; Byer, Robert L.


    We generate broadband mid-infrared frequency combs via degenerate optical parametric oscillation in a subharmonic OPO. This technique efficiently transfers the desirable properties of shorter wavelength mode-locked sources to the mid- IR. Our OPO resonator is a 3m or 4m ring cavity composed of one pair of concave mirrors with R=50mm and four flat mirrors, all but one of which are gold coated with > 99% reflection. A single dielectric mirror is used to introduce the pump (2.05 micron from IMRA America, 75 MHz, 80 fs, 600mW or 1.55 micron from Menlo Systems C-fiber, 100 MHz, 70 fs, 350 mW or 1.56 micron from Toptica Photonics FemtoFiber Pro, 80 MHz, 85 fs, 380 mW). The dielectric mirror is transmissive for the pump and reflective in a 2.5- 4 micron or 3- 6 micron (for 2 micron pump) range. Broadband parametric gain around the 3.1-micron subharmonic is provided by short (0.2-0.5mm) periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) at Brewster angle. Crystals were cut from Crystal Technology Inc. material having QPM period of 34.8 microns for type 0 (e=e+e) phase matching at t=32 deg. C. With the 2-micron pump, orientation patterned gallium arsenide from BAE systems is used as the non-linear material In both systems, the enormous acceptance bandwidth at degeneracy, typical for OPOs with type 0 (or type I) phase-matching, gives broad bandwidth and makes temperature tuning insignificant. Broadband oscillation is achieved when signal/idler are brought into degenerate resonance by fine-tuning the cavity length with a mirror on a piezo stage. Using an 8% reflective pellicle, we outcouple a frequency comb of more than 1000nm bandwidth, centered around 3.1 microns from the Er/PPLN system. A 1mm or 2.5mm thick ZnSe plate at Brewster angle provides 2nd-order group velocity dispersion compensation, improving the OPO bandwidth. The OPO threshold was measured to be < 30mW. When locked, the OPO outputs 60 mW of average power centered at 3.1 microns. With the Tm/OP-GaAs system we

  20. OPO performance with a long pulse length, single frequency Nd:YAG laser pump. [Optical Parametric Oscillators (United States)

    Kozlovsky, W. J.; Gustafson, E. K.; Eckardt, R. C.; Byer, R. L.


    With the advent of new nonlinear materials and single-frequency pump sources, there is renewed interest in optical parametric oscillators (OPOs). A single-mode diode-laser-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG nonplanar ring laser that is both amplified and frequency doubled is used to pump a monolithic MgO:LiNbO3 pulsed singly resonant OPO. The OPO signal output was temperature tuned from 834 to 958 nm, producing an idler tuning from 1.47 to 1.2 microns. Efforts toward a CW all-solid-state doubly resonant OPO are also described.

  1. Vortices in polariton OPO superfluids


    Marchetti, F. M.; Szymanska, M. H.


    his chapter reviews the occurrence of quantised vortices in polariton fluids, primarily when polaritons are driven in the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) regime. We first review the OPO physics, together with both its analytical and numerical modelling, the latter being necessary for the description of finite size systems. Pattern formation is typical in systems driven away from equilibrium. Similarly, we find that uniform OPO solutions can be unstable to the spontaneous formation of quan...

  2. Coupled tandem optical parametric oscillator (OPO): an OPO within an OPO. (United States)

    Phua, P B; Lai, K S; Wu, R F; Chong, T C


    We have demonstrated, for the first time to our knowledge, a coupled tandem optical parametric oscillator (OPO) configuration in which a second ZnGeP(2) OPO is placed within the resonator of the first, KTiOPO(4), OPO. A significant enhancement in the overall cascaded efficiency of this OPO compared with standard two-stage OPO's was observed. With a multimode Nd:YAG laser, an overall optical-to-optical efficiency (from 1.06 microm to the mid IR) of 5.2% was obtained from operating only ~1.4 times above oscillation threshold. The measured overall slope efficiency was attractively high at 35%. With a single set of mirrors we obtained a broad wavelength-tuning range from 2.7 to 8 microm.

  3. Broadly Tunable, Mode-Hop-Tuned cw Optical Parametric Oscillator Based on Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (United States)

    Bisson, Scott E.; Armstrong, Karla M.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Hartings, Matthew


    We describe a broadly tunable, cw optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on periodically poled lithium niobate. The OPO can be tuned over a broad region in the mid IR (2900 -3100 cm-1 ) covering the important C -H stretch region while a high spectral resolution ( volatile organic compounds.

  4. Waveguide-based OPO source of entangled photon pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarico, Enrico; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Gisin, Nicolas; Thew, Robert; Zbinden, Hugo [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Schreiber, Gerhard; Thomas, Abu; Sohler, Wolfgang [Angewandte Physik, University of Paderborn, 33095 Paderborn (Germany)], E-mail:


    In this paper, we present a compact source of narrow-band energy-time-entangled photon pairs in the telecom regime based on a Ti-indiffused periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide resonator, i.e. a waveguide with end-face dielectric multi-layer mirrors. This is a monolithic doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) far below threshold, which generates photon pairs by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) at around 1560 nm with a 117 MHz (0.91 pm)-bandwidth. A coherence time of 2.7 ns is estimated by a time correlation measurement and a high quality of the entangled states is confirmed by a Bell-type experiment. Since highly coherent energy-time-entangled photon pairs in the telecom regime are suitable for long distance transmission and manipulation, this source is well suited to the requirements of quantum communication.

  5. 1-GHz repetition rate femtosecond OPO with stabilized offset between signal and idler frequency combs. (United States)

    Gebs, R; Dekorsy, T; Diddams, S A; Bartels, A


    We report an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) that is synchronously pumped by a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser at 1 GHz repetition rate. The signal output has a center wavelength of 1558 nm and its spectral bandwidth amounts to 40 nm. The OPO operates in a regime where the signal- and idler frequency combs exhibit a partial overlap around 1600 nm. In this near-degeneracy region, a beat at the offset between the signal and idler frequency combs is detected. Phase-locking this beat to an external reference stabilizes the spectral envelopes of the signal- and idler output. At the same time, the underlying frequency combs are stabilized relative to each other with an instability of 1.5x10(-17) at 1 s gate time.

  6. Organ procurement organization (OPO), best practices. (United States)

    Bollinger, R R; Heinrichs, D R; Seem, D L; Rosendale, J D; Johnson, K S


    There are currently 59 organ procurement organizations (OPOs) in the United States which serve their assigned geographic areas with variable productivity. Knowledge of organizational characteristics, programs and practices of more successful OPOs may be useful to increase the productivity of less successful OPOs. A preliminary survey of all OPO executive directors in the United States ascertained the most important beneficial and detrimental factors affecting their success. Site visits were then conducted at OPOs based on a selection process utilizing population size, geographic location, minority population, donors per million population and donors per thousand deaths among potential donors. All OPOs were categorized and the highest ranking OPOs in each of seven categories, based on 4 years of national data, were selected for the site visits. Regression analysis and correlation analysis using Pearson's product-moment correlation were performed. The survey to identify the important factors was returned by 47 (77%) of 61 OPOs existent in 1999. The most important beneficial factors identified by responding OPOs were adequate staffing and experience, allocation of responsibilities, hospital development and leadership. The most important detrimental factors were inadequate staffing and experience, poor donor hospital/transplant center/ OPO relationships and failure in the consent process. Site visits of the highest-ranking OPOs demonstrated all had respected, experienced leadership focused on the donation process; efficient mechanisms for resolving allocation or transplant center conflicts; systems for monitoring activity and tracking outcomes; excellent communication between OPO and transplant centers; open internal communication at all levels of the OPO; immediate, on-site response to vascular donor referrals; and volunteer support of public and/or professional education. Regression and correlation analysis demonstrated that as minority population increases, OPO

  7. Master-oscillator power-amplifier scheme for efficient green-light generation in a planar MgO:PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Sakai, Kiyohide; Koyata, Yasuharu; Shimada, Naoyuki; Shibata, Kimitaka; Hanamaki, Yoshihiko; Itakura, Shigetaka; Yagi, Tetsuya; Hirano, Yoshihito


    We developed a new master-oscillator power-amplifier scheme consisting of a tapered semiconductor amplifier and a fiber-grating-stabilized laser diode for efficient green-light generation in a planar MgO:PPLN waveguide, and demonstrated cw green-light generation of 346 mW.

  8. Investigation of a planar optical waveguide in 2D PPLN using helium implantation technique. (United States)

    Ripault, Q; Lee, M W; Mériche, F; Touam, T; Courtois, B; Ntsoenzok, E; Peng, L-H; Fischer, A; Boudrioua, A


    In this work, we report the investigation of a planar waveguide in a 2D periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN). The waveguide is fabricated by helium (He(+)) implantation at 2 MeV and a fluence of 1.5 x 10(16) ions/cm(2). Second harmonic generation (SHG) at 532 nm using a Q-switched laser and a CW laser diode at 1064 nm, was measured as a function of angular distribution and temperature. The experimental results show higher gain in SHG conversion efficiency in the waveguide than in the bulk 2D PPLN. In particular, SHGs from 2D reciprocal lattice vectors (RLV) are observed and studied.

  9. Toward a 3:1 frequency divider based on parametric oscillation using AgGaS(2) and PPLN crystals. (United States)

    Douillet, A; Zondy, J J; Yelisseyev, A; Lobanov, S; Isaenko, L


    Frequency divide-by-two (2:1) and divide-by-three (3:1) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are basic devices for the implementation of future accurate optical frequency division chains. We report our latest development toward a phase-locked 3:1 frequency division of a radiation at lambda(p) approximately 843 nm (355.9 THz), using doubly resonant oscillators (DROs) based on silver gallium sulfide (AgGaS(2 ) or AGS) and multigrating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). Although stable single-mode pair operation is achievable without any active cavity length servo with the AGS-DRO, because of a strong passive thermal feedback servo, the PPLN-DRO requires an active intensity side-of-fringe locking servo to maintain long-term, single-mode pair operation. To overcome the limited idler output power (PPLN-DRO as a variable output coupler. About 3 mW of idler wave is thus coupled outside the cavity, yielding 15 nW of doubled-idler. We obtained a 30 dB signal-to-noise ratio beatnote in a 100 kHz resolution bandwidth of a spectrum analyser. This beat signal will be used to phase-lock the divider.

  10. Frequency control of a 1163 nm singly resonant OPO based on MgO:PPLN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, P.; Lindsay, I.D.; Lee, Christopher James; Nittmann, M.; Bauer, T.; Bartschke, J.; Warring, U.; Fischer, A.; Kellenbauer, A.; Boller, Klaus J.


    We report the realization of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) that is designed to provide narrow-bandwidth, continuously tunable radiation at a wavelength of 1163 nm for optical cooling of osmium ions. The SRO is based on periodically poled, magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate

  11. Frequency control of a 1163 nm singly resonant OPO based on MgO:PPLN. (United States)

    Gross, P; Lindsay, I D; Lee, C J; Nittmann, M; Bauer, T; Bartschke, J; Warring, U; Fischer, A; Kellerbauer, A; Boller, K-J


    We report the realization of a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) that is designed to provide narrow-bandwidth, continuously tunable radiation at a wavelength of 1163 nm for optical cooling of osmium ions. The SRO is based on periodically poled, magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate and pumped at 532 nm. The output coupling of the resonant idler wave is adjusted to yield up to 400 mW of 1163 nm radiation, with a bandwidth of a few megahertz. For continuous frequency tuning of the idler wave, the SRO is equipped with an intracavity etalon, and the cavity length is controlled with a piezo-actuated mirror synchronized to the etalon angle.

  12. Characterization of type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion in domain-engineered PPLN (United States)

    Kuo, Paulina S.; Gerrits, Thomas; Verma, Varun; Nam, Sae Woo; Slattery, Oliver; Ma, Lijun; Tang, Xiao


    We characterize spontaneous parametric downconversion in a domain-engineered, type-II periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal using seeded emission and single-photon techniques. Using continuous-wave (CW) pumping at 775 nm wavelength, the signal and idler are at 1532.5 nm and 1567.5 nm, respectively. The domain-engineered crystal simultaneously phasematches signal and idler pairs: [H(1532.5 nm), V(1567.5 nm)] and [V(1532.5 nm), H(1567.5 nm)]. We observe the tuning curves of these processes through difference-frequency generation and through CW fiberassisted, single-photon spectroscopy. These measurements indicate good matching in amplitude and bandwidth of the two processes and that the crystal can in principle be used effectively to generate polarization-entangled photon pairs.

  13. Compact efficient passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4/PPLN/Cr4+:YAG tunable intracavity optical parametric oscillator. (United States)

    Tsai, L; Chen, Y F; Lin, S; Lin, Y; Huang, Y


    We report on a compact efficient diode pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GdVO4/Cr4+:YAG/PPLN intracavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a shared-resonator configuration. Experimental results reveal that the amplitude stability of the shared-resonator configuration is substantially superior to that of the conventional coupledresonator configuration. At a diode pump power of 15 W, the compact intracavity OPO cavity produces the average power greater than 900 mW with a pulse repetition rate of 36 kHz. The output pulses noticeably display the mode-locking phenomenon that leads to the maximum peak power to be higher than 20 kW.

  14. Power characteristics of CW second harmonic generation in periodically poled LiNbO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bong Hoon; Rhee, Bum Ku [Dept. of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Myoung Sik [Research Center for Dielectric and Advanced Matter Physics. Busan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Power characteristics of CW second harmonic generation (SHG) in 0.5-mm-thick periodically poled LiNbO{sub 3} (PPLN) witha 6.5 μm domain period were investigated as a function of crystal length, and confocal parameter which was varied by using a lens of different focal length. We found there is the optimum condition of confocal parameter for SHG for a given intensity.

  15. Temperature tuned doubly resonant OPO: Peculiarities (United States)

    Jarutis, Vygandas; Jurkus, Karolis; Smilgevičius, Valerijus


    We show experimentally and theoretically that under some circumstances the doubly resonant OPO's output energy and spectrum periodically depend on the nonlinear crystal temperature. We explain these phenomena using a simple matrix formalism, and interpret them as oscillations between two states of light in the DRO cavity.

  16. Efficient yellow-green light generation at 561 nm by frequency-doubling of a QD-FBG laser diode in a PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Fedorova, Ksenia A; Sokolovskii, Grigorii S; Khomylev, Maksim; Livshits, Daniil A; Rafailov, Edik U


    A compact high-power yellow-green continuous wave (CW) laser source based on second-harmonic generation (SHG) in a 5% MgO doped periodically poled congruent lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide crystal pumped by a quantum-dot fiber Bragg grating (QD-FBG) laser diode is demonstrated. A frequency-doubled power of 90.11 mW at the wavelength of 560.68 nm with a conversion efficiency of 52.4% is reported. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest output power and conversion efficiency achieved to date in this spectral region from a diode-pumped PPLN waveguide crystal, which could prove extremely valuable for the deployment of such a source in a wide range of biomedical applications.

  17. Spontaneous and triggered vortices in polariton OPO superfluids


    Marchetti, F. M.; Szymanska, M. H.; Tejedor, C.; Whittaker, D. M.


    We study non-equilibrium polariton superfluids in the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) regime using a two-component Gross-Pitaevskii equation with pumping and decay. We identify a regime above OPO threshold, where the system undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking and is unstable towards vortex formation without any driving rotation. Stable vortex solutions differ from metastable ones; the latter can persist in OPO superfluids but can only be triggered externally. Both spontaneous and trig...

  18. In-line phase sensitive amplifier based on PPLN waveguides

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Umeki, Takeshi; Asobe, Masaki; Takenouchi, Hirokazu


    ... was achieved using degenerate parametric amplification in a periodically poled LiNbO(3) (PPLN) waveguide. The phase regeneration effect was examined for a degraded signal by means of constellation analyses and bit-error rate measurements...

  19. Critical Boundary of Cascaded Quadratic Soliton Compression in PPLN


    Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin; Bache, Morten


    Cascaded quadratic soliton compression in PPLN is investigated and a general critical soliton number is found as the compression boundary. An optimal-parameter diagram for compression at 1550 nm is presented.

  20. Critical Boundary of Cascaded Quadratic Soliton Compression in PPLN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Hairun; Zeng, Xianglong; Zhou, Binbin


    Cascaded quadratic soliton compression in PPLN is investigated and a general critical soliton number is found as the compression boundary. An optimal-parameter diagram for compression at 1550 nm is presented.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compression in PPLN is investigated and a general critical soliton number is found as the compression boundary. An optimal-parameter diagram for compression at 1550 nm is presented....

  1. Characterization of PPLN-microstructures by means of Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammoum, R.; Fontana, M.D.; Bourson, P. [University Paul Verlaine of Metz and Supelec, Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Systemes - UMR CNRS 7132, Metz (France); Shur, V.Y. [Ural State University, Ferroelectric Laboratory, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)


    In this paper we show how the Raman microprobe can be used for characterization of the domain structure in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). The Raman scattered intensity of the transverse and longitudinal optical phonons was recorded across the stripe ferroelectric domains at the surface of a z-cut congruent PPLN sample. The change of integrated intensities across the domain structure was attributed to the influence of mechanical stresses and partially screened depolarization fields. (orig.)

  2. Phase-sensitive amplification in a single bi-directional PPLN waveguide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albuquerque, André; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Drummond, Miguel; Szabó, Aron; Mazroa, Dániel; Shinada, Satoshi; Wada, Naoya; Nogueira, Rogério


    ...) signal using a single periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The PPLN is operated bi-directionally in order to simultaneously achieve phase correlated signals and phase-sensitive (PS) operation...

  3. An Injection-seeded Narrow Linewidth Singly Resonant ZGP OPO (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Barnes, Norman P.; Lee, Hyung R.; Bai, Yingxin


    Injection seeding of a singly resonant ZnGeP2 (ZGP) mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) using a continuous wave 3.39 micrometers laser and a tunable near-infrared laser has been demonstrated. This ZGP OPO utilizes a bow-tie shape cavity with a partially reflective mirror for injection seeding at the signal wavelength. It produces high energy pulses in the mid-IR range from 4-10 micrometers. The injection seeded OPO provides a narrow idler wavelength linewidth of approximately 1 nm, limited by the measurement resolution of the monochromator.

  4. Broadband, high-power, continuous-wave, mid-infrared source using extended phase-matching bandwidth in MgO:PPLN. (United States)

    Das, Ritwick; Kumar, S Chaitanya; Samanta, G K; Ebrahim-Zadeh, M


    We report a compact and viable source of broadband, high-power, cw, mid-IR radiation based on a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SRO) pumped by a wide-bandwidth cw Yb fiber laser centered at 1060 nm. By exploiting the extended phase-matching bandwidth in a 50 mm crystal of MgO:PPLN and a ring SRO cavity, we obtain 5.3 W of broadband idler output for 25.5 W of pump at >80% depletion, transferring a pump bandwidth of 73.9 cm(-1) to an idler spectrum spread across an equal bandwidth centered at 3454 nm. By deploying output coupling of the signal, we generate 11.2 W of total power at 44% extraction efficiency with a pump depletion of >73% at the maximum available pump power. Measurements of transverse modal power confirm Gaussian distribution of signal and idler beams.

  5. Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leindecker, Nick; Marandi, Alireza; Byer, Robert L; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L


    .... Our source is based on a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) which rigorously both down-converts and augments the spectrum of a pump frequency comb provided by a commercial mode-locked near-IR laser...

  6. Fibre-laser-pumped femtosecond PPLN optical parametric oscillator


    O'Connor, M.V.; Watson, M A.; Hanna, D.C.; Shepherd, D. P.; Lefort, L.; Price, J.H.V.; Malinowski, A.; Nilsson, J.; Broderick, N.G.R.; Richardson, D.J.


    The performance of a fibre-laser-pumped femtosecond PPLN optical parametric oscillator is described. The parametric oscillator exhibits a low threshold of 21mW, a high signal slope efficiency of 35% and generates broadly tunable 330fs pulses.

  7. Phase transition in KTiOPO4


    Stefan T., Norberg



  8. 42 CFR 486.308 - Designation of one OPO for each service area. (United States)


    ... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ...'s relationship with an OPO other than the hospital's designated OPO. (g) A hospital may continue to...

  9. 42 CFR 486.306 - OPO service area size designation and documentation requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OPO service area size designation and documentation...: Organ Procurement Organizations Requirements for Certification and Designation § 486.306 OPO service area size designation and documentation requirements. (a) General documentation requirement. An OPO...

  10. Highly efficient optical parametric generation in proton exchanged PPLN waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Chanvillard, L; Baldi, P; De Micheli, M; Ostrowsky, D B; Huang, L; Bamford, G


    Summary form only given. Parametric fluorescence, amplification, and oscillation in PPLN waveguides have already been demonstrated. In all previous experiments, the measured efficiencies were smaller than the theoretically predicted values since the waveguide fabrication process utilized, annealed proton exchange (APE) can reduce or even destroy the nonlinear coefficient and/or the periodic domain orientation in a portion of the guiding structure. In the experiment reported here, we used a 2 cm long, Z-cut PPLN with a 18 mu m domain inversion period. The waveguides are created using a direct proton exchange process in a highly diluted melt, which induces no crystallographic phase transition. This allows preserving both the nonlinear coefficient and the domain orientation while fully benefiting from the power confinement associated with the guided wave configuration. (4 refs).

  11. Experimental Observation of Thermal Self-Modulation in OPO (United States)

    Gao, Jiangrui; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi


    The thermal self-modulation has been observed experimentally via SHG in OPO. The threshold pump power for the thermal self- modulation is much smaller than that of the nonlinear self-pulsing. The thermal effect prevent from realizing the theoretical prediction for the self-pulsing.

  12. Tomographic characterization of OPO sources close to threshold. (United States)

    D'Auria, Virginia; Chiummo, Antonino; De Laurentis, Martina; Porzio, Alberto; Solimeno, Salvatore; Paris, Matteo


    Pattern function quantum homodyne tomography (QHT) has been used for characterizing the output of a degenerate below-threshold type-I OPO. The recovered photon number distributions deviated from those relative to Gaussian thermal states. The Kurtosis of the homodyne data confirmed these deviations, thus proving the power of QHT to highlight unexpected features of quantum states.

  13. High power single frequency 780nm laser source generated from frequency doubling of a seeded fiber amplifier in a cascade of PPLN crystals. (United States)

    Thompson, R; Tu, M; Aveline, D; Lundblad, N; Maleki, L


    We report on the generation of over 900 mW of tunable cw light at 780 nm by single pass frequency doubling of a high power fiber amplifier in a cascade of two periodically poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN) crystals. Over 500 mW is generated in the first crystal. In the limit of low pump power, we observe an efficiency of 4.6 mW/W2-cm for a single crystal, and 5.6 mW/W2-cm for a combination of two crystals, with an enhancement of the doubling efficiency observed with two crystals due to the presence of second harmonic light from the first crystal acting as a seed for the second. We have frequency locked this laser source relative to a rubidium D2 hyperfine line and demonstrated its utility in a sophisticated laser cooling apparatus.

  14. A Narrow Linewidth Singly Resonant ZGP OPO for Multiple Lidar Applications (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Lee, Hyung R.; Bai, Yingxin; Barnes, Norman P.


    A singly resonant, injection seeded Zinc Germanium Phosphide (ZGP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), capable to tune over 4.3-10.1 microns, is demonstrated. This ZGP OPO uses a bow-tie cavity with a partially reflective mirror for injection seeding at the signal wavelength. The injection seed source can be either a continuous wave 3.39 m laser or a tunable near-infrared OPO laser, which provides wide wavelength tuning capability. The injection seeded ZGP OPO narrows the idler wavelength linewidth to less than 1nm, limited by the measurement resolution of the monochromator. This device has potential to be used as a transmitter for multiple purpose lidar applications.

  15. Discrete dynamics on noncommutative CW complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Milani


    Full Text Available The concept of discrete multivalued dynamical systems for noncommutative CW complexes is developed. Stable and unstable manifolds are introduced and their role in geometric and topological configurations of noncommutative CW complexes is studied. Our technique is illustrated by an example on the noncommutative CW complex decomposition of the algebra of continuous functions on two dimensional torus.

  16. Phase-squeezing properties of non-degenerate PSAs using PPLN waveguides. (United States)

    Puttnam, Benjamin J; Mazroa, Dániel; Shinada, Satoshi; Wada, Naoya


    We investigate the phase squeezing characteristics of non-degenerate phase-sensitive-amplifiers (PSAs) based on periodically-poled-lithium-niobate (PPLN) waveguides. We implement two PSA configurations with phase insensitive idler generation performed in both highly-non-linear-fiber (HNLF) and PPLN waveguides. In both cases we demonstrate regeneration of a noisy BPSK signal, despite net signal attenuation in the phase sensitive PPLN, and show that the level of phase squeezing varies with the phase sensitive dynamic range (PSDR). We observe that weak idler generation in the PPLN limits the achievable PSDR and that use of HNLF for idler generation leads to the largest PSDR. However, in phase regeneration measurements we observe that the pump phase modulation, required to overcome stimulated Brillouin scattering, adds significant amplitude noise, which increases with the PSDR. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  17. Photorefractive damage resistance in Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry (United States)

    Pal, Shantanu; Das, Bijoy Krishna; Sohler, Wolfgang


    A theoretical analysis of the photorefractive sensitivity of Ti:PPLN ridge waveguides in comparison with conventional Ti:PPLN channel waveguides is presented. In particular, intensity-dependent photorefraction, effective indices, waveguide modes and power-dependent SHG in Ti:PPLN ridge and channel waveguides are modeled for a wide range of parameters. Results predict a much better damage resistance of Ti:PPLN waveguides with ridge geometry in comparison with conventional indiffused channels. This superiority of ridge waveguides is attributed to their higher effective refractive index contrast and more tightly confined guided modes. The theoretical predictions are supported by experimental results for second harmonic generation (SHG) at room temperature and for light-induced detuning characteristics of the phase-matching wavelength.

  18. In-line phase sensitive amplifier based on PPLN waveguides. (United States)

    Umeki, Takeshi; Asobe, Masaki; Takenouchi, Hirokazu


    We demonstrate a χ(2)-based in-line PSA with a carrier-recovery and phase-locking system for a phase shift keying (PSK) signal. By doubling the signal phase using a wavelength conversion technique, the carrier was recovered from a PSK signal. The carrier phase was synchronized to a local oscillator using optical injection locking. Phase sensitive amplification with a wide phase sensitive dynamic range of 20 dB was achieved using degenerate parametric amplification in a periodically poled LiNbO(3) (PPLN) waveguide. The phase regeneration effect was examined for a degraded signal by means of constellation analyses and bit-error rate measurements. The in-line PSA also operated successfully as a repeater amplifier in a 160 km fiber link without a power penalty. Finally, we demonstrate the regeneration of non-linear impairments induced by fiber non-linearity.

  19. 42 CFR 413.202 - Organ procurement organization (OPO) cost for kidneys sent to foreign countries or transplanted... (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Organ procurement organization (OPO) cost for... (OPO) cost for kidneys sent to foreign countries or transplanted in patients other than Medicare beneficiaries. An OPO's total costs for all kidneys is reduced by the costs associated with procuring kidneys...

  20. Photodynamic Therapy With YAG-OPO Laser for Early Stage Lung Cancer. (United States)

    Kato, H; Okunaka, T; Konaka, C; Furuse, K; Kusunoki, Y; Horai, T; Takifuji, N; Negoro, S; Fukuoka, M; Yaya, T; Kawase, I


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizing Photofrin is proving to be effective for the treatment of early stage lung cancers. The effect of PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser as new light source was evaluated in 26 patients (29 lesions) with early stage lung cancers. YAG-OPO laser is solid state tunable laser which is easy to change wavelength between 620 and 670 nm exciting various kinds of photosensitizers. Moreover, YAG-OPO laser is more reliable, smaller and has less consumables than argon-dye laser or excimer-dye laser. As the result of PDT with YAG-OPO laser, complete remission (CR) was obtained in 82.6% of the 29 lesions, partial remission (PR) in 13.8% and no change (NC) was obtained in 3.4%. We conclude that PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser is efficacious in the treatment of early stage lung cancers and can achieve complete remission.

  1. Single-frequency tunable long-wave infrared OP-GaAs OPO for gas sensing (United States)

    Armougom, J.; Clément, Q.; Melkonian, J.-M.; Dherbecourt, J.-B.; Raybaut, M.; Grisard, A.; Lallier, E.; Gérard, B.; Faure, B.; Souhaité, G.; Godard, A.


    We report on the first single-frequency nanosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) emitting in the longwave infrared, and use it to perform standoff detection of ammonia vapor by differential spectrometry. The OPO is based on orientation-patterned GaAs (OP-GaAs) pumped by a pulsed single-frequency Tm:YAP microlaser. Single-longitudinal mode emission is obtained owing to a nested cavity OPO (NesCOPO) scheme. The OPO is tuned over 700 nm around 10.4 μm, allowing to measure the absorption spectrum of ammonia across several lines at atmospheric pressure. The potential of this OPO for standoff detection of hazardous gases is also discussed.

  2. Photodynamic Therapy With YAG-OPO Laser for Early Stage Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harubumi Kato


    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT utilizing Photofrin is proving to be effective for the treatment of early stage lung cancers. The effect of PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser as new light source was evaluated in 26 patients (29 lesions with early stage lung cancers. YAG-OPO laser is solid state tunable laser which is easy to change wavelength between 620 and 670 nm exciting various kinds of photosensitizers. Moreover, YAG-OPO laser is more reliable, smaller and has less consumables than argon-dye laser or excimer-dye laser. As the result of PDT with YAG-OPO laser, complete remission (CR was obtained in 82.6% of the 29 lesions, partial remission (PR in 13.8% and no change (NC was obtained in 3.4%. We conclude that PDT utilizing YAG-OPO laser is efficacious in the treatment of early stage lung cancers and can achieve complete remission.

  3. Yb3+-doped KLu(WO4)2, Nb:RbTiOPO4 and KGd(PO3)4 crystals. Growth, characterization and laser operation (United States)

    Pujol, M. C.; Mateos, X.; Carvajal, J. J.; Solé, R.; Massons, J.; Aguiló, M.; Díaz, F.


    Macrodefect-free samples of Yb3+:KLu(WO4)2, Yb3+:Nb:RbTiOPO4 and Yb3+:KGd(PO3)4 laser crystals were grown using the Top Seeded Solution Growth - Slow Cooling technique. Structural and morphological studies related with the three materials were carried out and discussed. The dispersion of the refractive indices was measured and Sellmeier equations were constructed which are valid in the UV-Vis-IR range. The Stark splitting of the two electronic states of trivalent ytterbium was determined and the CW laser generation was demonstrated in these hosts. This paper shows a review of the main results achieved in FiCMA-FiCNA-URV laboratories in relation with these laser materials in the last years.

  4. Program development and routine notification in a large, independent OPO: a 12-year review. (United States)

    Shafer, T J; Van Buren, C T; Andrews, C A


    Since its inception 12 years ago, a large, independent OPO experienced a 631% growth in the number of organ donors. These increases in organ recovery were achieved initially through successful mergers, and later, following the mergers, through focused management, OPO organizational development, and hospital marketing and system development. The cumulative percentage increases beginning in 1987 resulted in the OPO achieving 27.2 donors per million population. In 1996 a system of routine notification of all hospital deaths was implemented and a 24-hour communications center was operated. After 3 full years of routine notification, 73% of all deaths were called to the OPO, resulting in the following increases: total referrals, 691%; organ referrals, 41%; organ donors, 16%; bone donors, 149%; skin donors, 123%; and heart valve donors, 78%. The 16% increase in organ donors was twice the national growth rate and significantly more than the 2% growth experienced by the OPO in the year preceding the implementation of routine notification. The OPO has demonstrated sustained growth over the past decade in a time when erosion of donor recovery levels is always a possibility and frequently a reality for many OPOs.

  5. Monolithically integrated laser Bragg Q-switch and wavelength converter in a PPLN crystal. (United States)

    Lin, S T; Chang, G W; Lin, Y Y; Huang, Y C; Chiang, A C; Chen, Y H


    We report a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal for both temperature-insensitive laser Q-switching and temperature-tuned wavelength conversion. The PPLN crystal consists of two sections, a 20.3-mum period section functioning as an electro-optic Bragg grating for Qswitching a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm and a 31-mum-period section functioning as an optical parametric generator for down converting the generated 1064-nm laser. When driving the PPLN Bragg grating with 170-V voltage pulses, we measured 181 muJ pulse energy at 1064 nm from the Nd:YVO4 laser pumped by 20.4 W diode power. The 181-muJ pulsed laser was further converted into mid-infrared radiation in the monolithic PPLN crystal with 35% parametric efficiency. The wavelengths were broadly tunable in the range of 1.75-1.88 mum (signal) and 2.7-2.44 mum (idler) via temperature without affecting the performance of the PPLN Bragg Qswitch.

  6. Mirrorless optical parametric oscillation in bulk PPLN and PPLT: a feasibility study (United States)

    Minor, Citlali E.; Cudney, Roger S.


    We examine theoretically under what conditions mirrorless optical parametric oscillation can be obtained in PPLN and PPLT. We take into account the damage threshold, idler absorption and domain width fluctuations, as well as competing nonlinear processes that may deplete the pump before oscillation occurs. We also solve numerically the coupled wave equations to take into account the buildup from quantum fluctuations to a detectable level. We found that there is a pulsewidth that minimizes the required pump energy to observe mirrorless oscillation. For a perfect 2-cm-long PPLN sample, a 700-ps, 1.064-µm pump with a 50-µm radius and a counter-propagating 4.5-µm idler, fifth-order quasi-phase-matched oscillation can be obtained with less than 70 µJ. For PPLT, the requirements are higher (200 µJ for a perfect 2.5-cm PPLT sample). Mirrorless oscillation in bulk PPLN and PPLT requires almost perfect domain structures. The average duty cycle must be very close to the ideal value of 50%. For fifth-order quasi-phase-matching in 2-cm-long PPLN, fluctuations with a standard deviation of up to 300 nm are acceptable. For third-order quasi-phase-matching, the requirements are less: In PPLN standard deviations of up to 450 nm are acceptable and in PPLT this value is 300 nm.

  7. Broadband degenerate OPO for mid-infrared frequency comb generation. (United States)

    Leindecker, Nick; Marandi, Alireza; Byer, Robert L; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L


    We present a new technique suitable for generating broadband phase- and frequency-locked frequency combs in the mid-infrared. Our source is based on a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) which rigorously both down-converts and augments the spectrum of a pump frequency comb provided by a commercial mode-locked near-IR laser. Low intracavity dispersion, combined with extensive cross-mixing of comb components, results in extremely broad instantaneous mid-IR bandwidths. We achieve an output power of 60 mW and 20 dB bandwidth extending from 2500 to 3800 nm. Among other applications, such a source is well-suited for coherent Fourier-transform spectroscopy in the absorption-rich mid-IR 'molecular fingerprint' region.

  8. Diode-pumped, actively internal-Q-switched Nd:MgO:PPLN laser. (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Chang, Y C; Lin, C H; Chung, T Y


    We demonstrated a laser-diode-pumped, electro-optically internal-Q-switched laser system radiating at 1.085 mum fabricated using a periodically poled Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 (Nd:MgO:PPLN) crystal. The Nd:MgO:PPLN is 17-mm long and has a 12-mm long, 13.6-mum period polarization-mode quasi-phase-matching (PM QPM) grating section functioning as the Q-switch of the laser system. When the Nd:MgO:PPLN Q-switch was driven by a 260-V voltage pulse train at 5 kHz, we obtained laser pulses of pulse energy >2.45 muJ and a pulse width of ~28 ns, corresponding to a laser peak power of ~88 W, from this internal-Q-switched laser system with 2% output coupling at an absorbed diode pump power of 0.61 W.

  9. Phase-sensitive amplification in a single bi-directional PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Albuquerque, André; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Drummond, Miguel; Szabó, Aron; Mazroa, Dániel; Shinada, Satoshi; Wada, Naoya; Nogueira, Rogério


    We investigate phase-sensitive amplification (PSA) and phase regeneration of a binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signal using a single periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The PPLN is operated bi-directionally in order to simultaneously achieve phase correlated signals and phase-sensitive (PS) operation. We use injection-locking for carrier phase recovery and a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) fiber stretcher to correct path length deviations in the in-line phase regenerator. We observe a trade-off between high PS gain provided by high pumping power and stability of the device.

  10. Bandwidth control of a Ti:PPLN Solc filter by a temperature-gradient-control technique. (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Lak; Noh, Young-Chul; Kee, Chul-Sik; Yu, Nan Ei; Shin, Woojin; Jung, Changsoo; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Lee, Jongmin


    We have demonstrated the bandwidth control of a Ti-diffused periodically poled LiNbO(3) (Ti:PPLN) Solc filter by a temperature-gradient-control technique. Up to 2.8 nm of filtering bandwidth was achieved with a simple temperature-gradient-control technique in a 78-mm-long of Ti:PPLN waveguide, which has a 0.2 nm filtering bandwidth at an uniform temperature. We have also analyzed the experimental results with the theoretical calculation which is derived from the codirectional coupled mode equations.

  11. Spectrotemporal dynamics of a picosecond OPO based on chirped quasi-phase-matching. (United States)

    Descloux, D; Laporte, C; Dherbecourt, J-B; Melkonian, J-M; Raybaut, M; Drag, C; Godard, A


    We report on the first experimental investigation of the spectral dynamics of a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) by use of dispersive Fourier transformation. For standard pumping rates, we observe a reproducible steady-state pulse-to-pulse spectrum. However, at high pumping levels, the OPO delivers pulse trains with nontrivial oscillatory spectral patterns. So as to benefit from a tailored broadband gain spectrum, the investigated OPO contains a chirped quasi-phase matching (QPM) nonlinear crystal. We explore the specific impacts of using such a remarkable parametric amplification medium where nonlinearly coupled frequencies vary with position. Depending on the QPM chirp rate sign, a red- or blue-shift of the emitted wavelength occurs when the OPO is switched on, leading to different spectral steady-states. These singular spectrotemporal dynamics are evidenced and explained for the first time.

  12. Numb/Numbl-Opo antagonism controls retinal epithelium morphogenesis by regulating integrin endocytosis. (United States)

    Bogdanović, Ozren; Delfino-Machín, Mariana; Nicolás-Pérez, María; Gavilán, María P; Gago-Rodrigues, Inês; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Lillo, Concepción; Ríos, Rosa M; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Martínez-Morales, Juan R


    Polarized trafficking of adhesion receptors plays a pivotal role in controlling cellular behavior during morphogenesis. Particularly, clathrin-dependent endocytosis of integrins has long been acknowledged as essential for cell migration. However, little is known about the contribution of integrin trafficking to epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Here we show how the transmembrane protein Opo, previously described for its essential role during optic cup folding, plays a fundamental role in this process. Through interaction with the PTB domain of the clathrin adaptors Numb and Numbl via an integrin-like NPxF motif, Opo antagonizes Numb/Numbl function and acts as a negative regulator of integrin endocytosis in vivo. Accordingly, numb/numbl gain-of-function experiments in teleost embryos mimic the retinal malformations observed in opo mutants. We propose that developmental regulator Opo enables polarized integrin localization by modulating Numb/Numbl, thus directing the basal constriction that shapes the vertebrate retina epithelium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurements of the operating characteristics of a 1064 nm pumped KTP RISTRA OPO.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimmestad, Gary (Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA); Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Wood, Jack (Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA); Roberts, David (Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA)


    Measurements of the operating characteristics of a 1064 nm pumped potassium titanyl phosphte (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) were carried out at the Electro Optics Systems Laboratory of Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI). The OPO was developed by Sandia National Laboratories and employs a nonplanar image-rotating geometry that is known by the acronym RISTRA, denoting Rotated Image Singly-Resonant Twisted RectAngle. The OPO was configured for pumping by the 1064 nm fundamental wavelength of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser to generate a signal wavelength at 1627 nm and idler wavelength at 3074.8 nm. GTRI will be incorporate the OPO into a multi-wavelength lidar platform called the Integrated Atmospheric Characterization System (IACS). Prior to completion of the system design for the IACS platform, personnel at GTRI carried out a series of risk reduction experiments to measure the operating characteristics of the OPO. Sandia's role in this effort included technical assistance with numerical modeling of OPO performance, selection of nonlinear optical crystals, specification of cavity-mirror dielectric coatings, selection of vendors for optical components, and advice concerning integration of the RISTRA OPO into the IACS platform. This report describes results of the risk reduction measurements and it also provides some background information on the operating characteristics of RISTRA OPO's but is not intended to be a tutorial. A working knowledge of pulsed solid-state lasers, laser cavity modes, laser beam quality and beam propagation, and three-wave mixing in nonlinear crystals, is useful.

  14. Viral nucleic acid testing (NAT) and OPO-level disposition of high-risk donor organs. (United States)

    Kucirka, L M; Alexander, C; Namuyinga, R; Hanrahan, C; Montgomery, R A; Segev, D L


    The use of Public Health Service/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (PHS/CDC) high-risk donor (HRD) organs remains controversial, especially in light of a recent high-profile case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission. Nucleic acid testing (NAT), while more expensive and time consuming, reduces infectious risk by shortening the period between infection and detectability. The purpose of this study was to characterize HRDs and disposition of their organs by organ procurement organization (OPO), to measure NAT practices by OPO and to examine associations between NAT practices and use of HRD organs. We analyzed 29 950 deceased donors (2574 HRDs) reported to UNOS since July 1, 2004 and May 8, 2008. We then surveyed all OPO clinical directors about their use of NAT, average time to receive NAT results, locations where NAT is performed and percentage of the time NAT results are available for allocation decisions. In total, 51.7% of OPOs always perform HIV NAT, while 24.1% never do. A similar pattern is seen for HCV NAT performance, while the majority (65.6%) never perform HBV NAT. AIDS prevalence in an OPO service area is not associated with NAT practice. OPOs that perform HIV NAT are less likely to export organs outside of their region. The wide variation of current practice and the possibility that NAT would improve organ utilization support consideration for a national policy.

  15. OTDM to WDM format conversion based on cascaded SHG/DFG in a single PPLN waveguide


    Liu, S.; Lee, K. J.; Parmigiani, F.; Ibsen, M.; Petropoulos, P.; Richardson, D.J.; K Gallo


    We propose and experimentally demonstrate error-free OTDM to WDM format conversion based on cSHG/DFG within a 30mm-long PPLN waveguide and a time-to-frequency domain conversion approach, which relies upon switching a linearly chirped pulse.

  16. Efficient ultra-fast all-optical wavelength converters with Ti:PPLN waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nouroozi, Rahman; Suche, Hubertus; Hu, Hao


    Applications of packaged and pigtailed (tunable) integrated all-optical Ti:PPLN wavelength converters (AOWC) with different modulation formats (RZ-DQPSK, 16-ary QAM) are reported. The devices take advantage of cascaded second order nonlinear interactions allowing tuning with either one or two...

  17. Efficient Separation and Analysis of Triacylglycerols: Quantitation of β-Palmitate (OPO) in Oils and Infant Formulas. (United States)

    Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bloor, Stephen J; Lagutin, Kirill; Wong, Herbert; Williams, D Bradley G


    A high-efficiency, convenient, and reliable method for the separation of structurally similar triacylglycerols is detailed and applied in the quantitative analysis of 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO) in infant formulas and OPO oils. OPO is an important lipid component in "humanized" infant formula. A fast preparative isolation of an OPO-containing fraction from the crude complex mixture, by nonaqueous reversed phase HPLC, followed by Ag(+)-HPLC with detection at 205 nm allowed fine separation and detection of the desired fraction. OPO was quantitated independently of its regioisomer 1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoylglycerol (OOP) and isomers of stearoyl-linoleoyl-palmitoyl glycerol that might be present in infant formulas. For samples with low OPO content, an evaporative light-scattering detector (ELSD) was more preferable than UV detection, with a calculated LOD of 0.1 μg of OPO injected and LOQ of 0.3 μg. The method, which showed high reproducibility (RSD OPO content oils and low OPO products such as unenriched infant formula. A number of possible interference issues were considered and dealt with.

  18. The potential hidden hazards of a laser pumped tunable OPO system. (United States)

    McPherson, Nicole A; Neal, Thomas A; Johnson, Thomas E


    Laser pumped tunable optical parametric oscillator (OPO) systems from 1,300 to 2,200 nm have been introduced due to their retina-safe characteristics and ability to adjust to multiple wavelengths. We report on unintended consequences to a rabbit cornea resulting from OPO exposure. No gross injury was visible to the cornea post exposure; however, closer examination revealed a vitreous hemorrhage had occurred within the eye. Evaluation of the tunable laser system revealed a cracked crystal and a resultant 1,064 nm emission from the pump laser, rather than the desired 1,540 nm wavelength. This incident illustrates the importance of protective eyewear shielding against all potential wavelengths, including the pump lasers, when operating OPO tunable laser systems.

  19. Development of an OPO-Based Lidar System and Differential Absorption Measurements of Methane (United States)

    Lee, Sang W.; Zenker, T.; Chyba, T. H.


    An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) ground-based lidar system in the wavelength region of 1.45 - 4 pm for the remote measurement of methane will be described. The laser transmitter consists of an injection-seeded ND:YAG laser which pumps an OPO. The OPO output is tunable from 1.45 - 4 pm, with a bandwidth less than 500 MHz, and a pulse energy of 1 to 3 mJ at 3.29 microns. The receiver is cart-mounted and consists of a 14" telescope with 1.57 and 3.29 micron detector channels. A fast oscilloscope is used for data acquisition. The system performance will be tested through measurements of sources of atmospheric methane.

  20. CW CO2 Laser Induced Chemical Reactions (United States)

    Pola, Joseph


    CW CO2 laser driven reactions between sulfur hexafluoride and carbon oxide, carbon suboxide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide proceed at subatmospheric pressures and yield fluorinated carbon compounds and sulfur tetrafluoride. CW CO2 laser driven reactions of organic compounds in the presence of energy-conveying sulfur hexafluoride show reaction course different from that normally observed due to elimination of reactor hot surface effects. The examples concern the decomposition of polychlorohydrocarbons, 2-nitropropane, tert.-butylamine, allyl chloride, spirohexane, isobornyl acetate and the oxidation of haloolefins. CW CO2 laser induced fragmentation of 1-methyl-l-silacyclobutanes and 4-silaspiro(3.4)octane in the presence of sulfur hexafluoride is an effective way for preparation and deposition of stable organosilicon polymers.

  1. Sub-50 fs pulses around 2070 nm from a synchronously-pumped, degenerate OPO. (United States)

    Rudy, Charles W; Marandi, Alireza; Ingold, Kirk A; Wolf, Stephen J; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Byer, Robert L; Yang, Lihmei; Wan, Peng; Liu, Jian


    We report generation of 48 fs pulses at a center wavelength of 2070 nm using a degenerate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) synchronously-pumped with a commercially available 36-MHz, femtosecond, mode-locked, Yb-doped fiber laser. The spectral bandwidth of the output is ~137 nm, corresponding to a theoretical, transform-limited pulse width of 33 fs. The threshold of the OPO is less than 10 mW of average pump power. By tuning the cavity length, the output spectrum covers a spectral width of more than 400 nm, limited only by the bandwidth of the cavity mirrors.

  2. Multiwatt mid-IR output from a Nd:YALO laser pumped intracavity KTA OPO. (United States)

    Wu, R F; Lai, K S; Wong, H; Xie, W J; Lim, Y; Lau, E


    We have achieved 4.1W of 3.5-micron output from a non-critically phasematched (NCPM), type II, KTiOAsO4 (KTA) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped within the cavity of a Q-switched diode-pumped Nd: YALO laser operating at 10kHz. We adopted the simplest configuration with a compact diode-pumped Nd: YALO module pumping the singly resonant KTA OPO. Besides 4.1W of 3.5um, 10.9W of 1.5 micron and 11.3W of 1-micron radiation were obtained simultaneously.

  3. All-optical broadcast and multicast technologies based on PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Lingyun; Wang, Ju; Hu, Hao


    All-optical 1×4 broadcast and 1×3 multicast experiments of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero on-off keying (RZ-OOK) signal based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide are demonstrated in this letter. Clear opened eye diagrams and error-free performance are achieved for the broadcast...... signals at 1541.3, 1543.7, 1548.5, and 1550.9 nm. Multicast technology uses cascaded second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. An error-free operation with a negligible power penalty is achieved for the three wavelength-division multiplexing multicast signals...

  4. Electro-optic Ti:PPLN waveguide as efficient optical wavelength filter and polarization mode converter. (United States)

    Huang, C Y; Lin, C H; Chen, Y H; Huang, Y C


    We report the first experimental demonstration of electrically controlled Solc-type optical wavelength filters and TE-TM mode converters based on Ti-diffused periodically poled lithium niobate (Ti:PPLN) waveguides. A maximum mode conversion efficiency or a peak spectral transmittance of ~99% in the telecom C-L bands was obtained from a 9-mm long, 21.5-21.8-mum multiple-grating Ti:PPLN waveguide device with a switching voltage of as low as 22 V or 0.99 Vxd(mum)/L(cm), where d is the electrode separation and L is the electrode length. The spectral range of this device can be tuned by temperature at a rate of ~0.758 nm/ degrees C.

  5. Simultaneous optical digital half-subtraction and -addition using SOAs and a PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    McGeehan, John E; Kumar, Saurabh; Willner, Alan E


    We demonstrate an optical half-subtracter and half-adder module that performs simultaneous bit-wise subtraction and addition of two 5 Gbit/s RZ data streams. We generate Borrow (/X*Y) and Difference/Sum (X plus sign in circleY, or XOR) outputs using cross-gain modulation (XGM) in two parallel SOAs. Taking advantage of the gain saturation inherent to SOAs, we generate two signals, /X*Y, and X*/Y, and combine them using a passive optical coupler to generate the XOR Difference/Sum output. We use difference-frequency-generation-based lambda-conversion in a PPLN waveguide to generate the Carry (X*Y) output. The PPLN waveguide allows bit-synchronous wavelength shifting, is wide-bandwidth, and offers no intrinsic chirp. Our module uses three active elements to perform simultaneous half-subtraction and addition, and carries a maximum power penalty of 1.0 dB.

  6. [Improvement of grating spectrograph and its application to frequency-doubling in PPLN]. (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Lou, Qi-hong; Zhu, Xiao-zheng; Dong, Jing-xing; Ye, Zhen-huan; Wei, Yun-rong


    Charge-coupled device (CCD) has been widely used in spectral detection and spectral imaging fields, which has a number of benefits: broad spectral range response, low detection limit, wide dynamic range, minimal dark current and readout noise as well as the abilities of signal integration, simultaneous multichannel detection, and real-time detection. The combination of a traditional one meter grating spectrograph and a science charge-coupled device (CCD) led to a real-time grating spectrograph for laser spectrum detection developed in this paper. Based on the new grating spectrograph, the spectral characteristic of frequency-doubling of a broad band double-cladding fiber laser in polarized lithium niobate (PPLN) has been investigated. Dynamic spectrum of the second harmonic with varying temperature of PPLN has been observed and analyzed in detail.

  7. Electro-optic guided-to-radiation mode conversion in annealed proton-exchanged PPLN waveguides. (United States)

    Chang, J W; Chen, Y H; Tseng, Q H; Chang, W K; Deng, S L; Hsieh, C S


    We report the design and experimental demonstration of electro-optically active TM-guided to TE-radiation mode converters in annealed proton-exchanged (APE) periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) channel waveguides in telecom S-C-L bands (1495-1640 nm). A maximum mode conversion efficiency of >95%/cm was obtained at 1520 nm from a 24-μm-period APE PPLN waveguide under an electro-optic (EO) field of ~6.3 V/μm at 35°C. This efficiency has been enhanced by a factor of >4.6 over a waveguide built in the single-domain (unpoled) LiNbO3; it is also to the best of our knowledge the most efficient guided-to-radiation (GTR) mode converter ever reported based on LiNbO3 on-axis waveguides. A conversion bandwidth of ~250 nm was also observed from this EO GTR mode converter.

  8. New high power CW klystrons at TED

    CERN Document Server

    Beunas, A; Marchesin, R


    Thales Electron Devices (TED) has been awarded a contract by CERN to develop and produce 20 units of the klystrons needed to feed the Large Hadrons Collider (LHC). Each of these delivers 300 kW of CW RF power at 400 MHz. Three klystrons have been delivered to CERN up to now.

  9. Phase engineered wavelength conversion of ultra-short optical pulses in TI:PPLN waveguides (United States)

    Babazadeh, Amin; Nouroozi, Rahman; Sohler, Wolfgang


    A phase engineered all-optical wavelength converter for ultra-short pulses (down to 140 fs) in a Ti-diffused, periodically poled lithium niobate (Ti:PPLN) waveguide is proposed. The phase engineering, due to the phase conjugation between signal and idler (converted signal) pulses which takes place in the cascaded second harmonic generation and difference frequency generation (cSHG/DFG) based wavelength conversion, already leads to shorter idler pulses. The proposed device consists of an unpoled (passive) waveguide section beside of the PPLN waveguide section in order to compensate pulse broadening and phase distortion of the idler pulses induced by the wavelength conversion (in the PPLN section). For example numerical analysis shows that a 140 fs input signal pulse is only broadened by 1.6% in a device with a combination of 20 mm and 6 mm long periodically poled and unpoled waveguide sections. Thus, cSHG/DFG based wavelength converters of a bandwidth of several Tbits/s can be designed.

  10. Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diode laser was obtained from 1490.6 to 1580.3 nm with a measured linewidth of. 135 MHz. Baxter et al [9] reported narrow-band PPLN OPO pumped at 1.064. µm from a Q-switched single-mode Nd:YAG laser which was injection seeded by a. CW single-mode tunable diode laser tunable from 1.5 to 1.59 µm. The measured.

  11. All-dielectric KTiOPO4 metasurfaces based on multipolar resonances in the terahertz region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Jingyi; Yang, Yuanqing; Qiu, Min


    We employ ferroelectrics to study the multipolar scattering in all-dielectric metasurfaces based on KTiOPO4 (KTP) micro-disks for efficient manipulation of electromagnetic waves in the THz spectral region (0.6-1.5 THz). By adjusting the aspect ratio of the disks near the multipolar resonances, we...

  12. Spatial variability of δ18O-PO4 in soils. (United States)

    Granger, Steve; Blackwell, Martin; Tamburini, Federica; Guo, Rongrong; Peukert, Sabine; McGrath, Steve


    There is growing interest in the potential for using the δ18OPO4 values of different phosphate sources in the environment to enable identification of sources of phosphate in surface waters. The basis of the study is the belief that different sources of PO4 may have different δ18O values. One of the primary sources of PO4 in runoff from agricultural land is the soil itself. Therefore, in order to account for the PO4 derived from soils in surface waters, it is vital that the degree of spatial variability of its δ18O isotopic values are known, in order that suitable soil sampling approaches can be taken when assessing the soil as a source in future studies. A spatial study of the variability of the δ18OPO4 variability of soils collected from a grazed pasture on the North Wyke Farm Platform was carried out incorporating grid-sampling at a range of spatial scales. Results show that variability across a range of scales is minimal, meaning that, in this case, a relatively small number of samples would be required in order to identify accurately the mean δ18OPO4 value of the soil. This study represents an important contribution towards the methodological development studies required in this field of research in order that the full potential of the δ18OPO4 technique for biological and environmental research can be achieved.

  13. Large Scale CW ECRH Systems: Some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkin Y.


    Full Text Available Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH is a key component in the heating arsenal for the next step fusion devices like W7-X and ITER. These devices are equipped with superconducting coils and are designed to operate steady state. ECRH must thus operate in CW-mode with a large flexibility to comply with various physics demands such as plasma start-up, heating and current drive, as well as configurationand MHD - control. The request for many different sophisticated applications results in a growing complexity, which is in conflict with the request for high availability, reliability, and maintainability. ‘Advanced’ ECRH-systems must, therefore, comply with both the complex physics demands and operational robustness and reliability. The W7-X ECRH system is the first CW- facility of an ITER relevant size and is used as a test bed for advanced components. Proposals for future developments are presented together with improvements of gyrotrons, transmission components and launchers.

  14. Bandwidth reduction in CW fiber Raman lasers (United States)

    Labudde, P.; Weber, H. P.; Stolen, R. H.


    The oscillation linewidth of CW fiber Raman lasers has been reduced from typical uncontrolled values of 200 GHz (approximately 0.2 nm for 528 nm radiation) to 9 GHz by employing prisms, gratings, and etalons in various resonator configurations. Further reduction is limited by four-wave mixing and stimulated Brillouin scattering. Although four-wave mixing limits bandwidth reduction, the results demonstrate the use of this nonlinear process for intensity stabilization.

  15. Single-PPLN-based simultaneous half-adder, half-subtracter, and OR logic gate: proposal and simulation. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Junqiang; Sun, Qizhen


    We propose and simulate all-optical simultaneous half-adder, half-subtracter, and OR logic gate at 40 Gbit/s based on the cascaded sum-and difference-frequency generation (SFG+DFG) using only one periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The SFG and DFG processes generate the Borrow and Carry outputs, respectively. The Sum/Difference and OR are obtained by properly combining the outputs from PPLN after SFG+DFG. The eye diagrams, pulse width, quality-factor (Q-factor), extinction ratio (ER), and tunability are calculated and discussed, showing impressive operation performance.

  16. Tunable narrow band difference frequency THz wave generation in DAST via dual seed PPLN OPG. (United States)

    Dolasinski, Brian; Powers, Peter E; Haus, Joseph W; Cooney, Adam


    We report a widely tunable narrowband terahertz (THz) source via difference frequency generation (DFG). A narrowband THz source uses the output of dual seeded periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric generators (OPG) combined in the nonlinear crystal 4-dimthylamino-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium-tosylate (DAST). We demonstrate a seamlessly tunable THZ output that tunes from 1.5 THz to 27 THz with a minimum bandwidth of 3.1 GHz. The effects of dispersive phase matching, two-photon absorption, and polarization were examined and compared to a power emission model that consisted of the current accepted parameters of DAST.

  17. All-optical UWB pulse generation using sum-frequency generation in a PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Sun, Qizhen; Sun, Junqiang; Zhang, Weiwei


    We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to optically generate ultrawideband (UWB) monocycle pulses by exploiting the parametric attenuation effect of sum-frequency generation (SFG) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The SFG process changes the continuous-wave pump into dark optical pulse pump with undershoot, resulting in the generation of UWB monocycle through the combination of input signal and output pump with proper relative time advance/delay. Pairs of polarity-inverted UWB monocycle pulses meeting the UWB definition of U. S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC, part 15) are successfully obtained in the experiment.

  18. Synthesis and properties of zirconium-doped RbTiOPO{sub 4} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapova, E. I.; Voronkova, V. I., E-mail:; Kharitonova, E. P.; Leont' eva, I. N.; Stefanovich, S. Yu. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sorokina, N. I.; Dudka, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Alekseeva, O. A. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Kononkova, N. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry (Russian Federation)


    Single crystals of the solid solutions RbTi{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}OPO{sub 4} (0.015 < x < 0.034) were grown and their physical properties were studied. In the presence of zirconium in the crystals with the maximum content x = 0.034, the ferroelectric phase transition and the high-temperature transition from the orthorhombic to the cubic phase are shifted to lower temperatures by 100 and 50 Degree-Sign C, respectively. In the temperature range from 700 Degree-Sign C to room temperature, the conductivity of doped crystals decreases compared to that of the undoped crystals. It is of particular interest that the intensity of the second-harmonic generation of the doped crystals is substantially higher than that of RbTiOPO{sub 4}.

  19. Development of Synchronously Scanned OPO CARS as a New Probe for Hostile Environments (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.


    During the second year of this project, we have focused on three new developments. The first has been the accidental discovery of a degenerate peak at the 0/cm position in the coherent Raman spectrum that is not due to incoherent Rayleigh scattering. The second is the incorporation of a second OPO to provide additional capability to the instrument. The third is the design of a new system that could perform single-shot CARS using a solid state broad-band OPO, The project continues to focus on student research training at the undergraduate level, and three students have worked on the project through this grant. The outcome of this work has been I publication published during this period, 2 publications submitted (by invitation), and 7 presentations given or invited, During this period, one additional grant was funded.

  20. Frequency combs for cavity cascades: OPO combs and graphene-coupled cavities (United States)

    Lee, Kevin F.; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, C.-C.; Mohr, C.; Jiang, Jie; Schunemann, Peter G.; Schibli, T. R.; Maslowski, Piotr; Fermann, M. E.


    Frequency combs can be used directly, for example as a highly precise spectroscopic light source. They can also be used indirectly, as a bridge between devices whose high precision requirements would normally make them incompatible. Here, we demonstrate two ways that a frequency comb enables new technologies by matching optical cavities. One cavity is the laser oscillator. A second cavity is a low-threshold doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Extending optical referencing to the doubly-resonant OPO turns the otherwise unstable device into an extremely precise midinfrared frequency comb. Another cavity is an optical enhancement cavity for amplifying spectral absorption in a gas. With the high speed of a graphene-modulated frequency comb, we can couple a frequency comb directly into a high-finesse cavity for trace gas detection.

  1. A Clinical Study of Photodynamic Therapy for Superficial Esophageal Carcinoma by YAG-OPO Laser. (United States)

    Yoshida, K; Suzuki, S; Mimura, S; Narahara, H; Tanimura, H; Nagai, Y; Isono, K; Kozu, T; Fukutomi, H; Nakahara, A; Kashimura, H; Hirashima, T; Murata, Y; Ide, H; Kato, H


    A cooperative clinical study of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for superficial esophageal carcinoma was conducted at 6 medical institution. PHE (2mg/kg) with high tumor affinity was used as the oncotropic compound. The light source was a pulse wave YAG-OPO laser with high penetration into the tissue. Irradiation was performed at an energy density of 60-180 J/cm(2) 48-72 h after PHE administration. Eight lesions in 6 patients were treated. All were type 0-II superficial carcinomas. The depth of invasion was EP-MM for 6 lesions and SM for 2 lesions. A complete response (CR) was achieved in all patients after one session of PDT. Five adverse events, including anemia and fever, were reported by 4 patients, but all were WHO grade 2 or lower and transient. PDT using PHE and YAG-OPO laser was therefore considered effective as a curative therapy for superficial esophageal carcinoma.

  2. Reinvestigation of KMg(1/3)Nb(2/3)OPO(4). (United States)

    Babaryk, Artem A; Bon, Vladimir; Zatovsky, Igor V; Slobodyanik, Nikolay S; Pekhnyo, Vasily


    The crystal structure of potassium magnesium niobium oxide phosphate, KMg(1/3)Nb(2/3)OPO(4), which was described in the space group P4(3)22 [McCarron & Calabrese, (1993 ▶). J. Solid State Chem.102, 354-361], has been redetermined in the revised space group P4(1). Accordingly, the assignment of the space group P4(3)22 and, therefore, localization of K at a single half-occupied position, as noted in the previous study, proved to be an artifact. As a consequence, two major and two minor positions of K are observed due to the splitting along [001], as first noted for KTiOPO(4) structure analogues. It has been shown that the geometry of the {M(II) (1/3)Nb(2/3)O(6/2)}(∞) framework is almost unaffected by the lowering of symmetry.

  3. Theoretical and experimental studies on output characteristics of an intracavity KTA OPO. (United States)

    Bai, Fen; Wang, Qingpu; Liu, Zhaojun; Zhang, Xingyu; Wan, Xuebin; Lan, Weixia; Jin, Guofan; Tao, Xutang; Sun, Youxuan


    An acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YVO(4)/KTiOAsO(4) (KTA) intracavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is efficiently realized in singly resonated scheme. With an end-pumping diode power of 25.9 W, output signal (1535 nm) power of 3.77 W and idler power (3467 nm) of 1.18 W are obtained at a pulse repetition rate of 50 kHz. A rate-equation model is set up to simulate the output power and time characteristics of both signal and idler waves. And both the numerical and experimental results show that the idler pulse width is shorter than the signal one in a singly resonant OPO.

  4. Analysis of opo cis-regulatory landscape uncovers Vsx2 requirement in early eye morphogenesis. (United States)

    Gago-Rodrigues, Ines; Fernández-Miñán, Ana; Letelier, Joaquin; Naranjo, Silvia; Tena, Juan J; Gómez-Skarmeta, José L; Martinez-Morales, Juan R


    The self-organized morphogenesis of the vertebrate optic cup entails coupling the activation of the retinal gene regulatory network to the constriction-driven infolding of the retinal epithelium. Yet the genetic mechanisms underlying this coordination remain largely unexplored. Through phylogenetic footprinting and transgenesis in zebrafish, here we examine the cis-regulatory landscape of opo, an endocytosis regulator essential for eye morphogenesis. Among the different conserved enhancers identified, we isolate a single retina-specific element (H6_10137) and show that its activity depends on binding sites for the retinal determinant Vsx2. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments and ChIP analyses reveal that Vsx2 regulates opo expression through direct binding to this retinal enhancer. Furthermore, we show that vsx2 knockdown impairs the primary optic cup folding. These data support a model by which vsx2, operating through the effector gene opo, acts as a central transcriptional node that coordinates neural retina patterning and optic cup invagination in zebrafish.

  5. 160-Gb/s all-optical phase-transparent wavelength conversion through cascaded SFG-DFG in a broadband linear-chirped PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Shinada, Satoshi; Furukawa, Hideaki; Wada, Naoya; Miyazaki, Tetsuya; Ito, Hiromasa


    We experimentally demonstrated ultra-fast phase-transparent wavelength conversion using cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation (cSFG-DFG) in linear-chirped periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). Error-free wavelength conversion of a 160-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) signal was successfully achieved. Thanks to the enhanced conversion bandwidth in the PPLN with linear-chirped periods, no optical equalizer was required to compensate the spectrum distortion after conversion, unlike a previous demonstration of 160-Gb/s RZ on-off keying (OOK) using fixed-period PPLN.

  6. First demonstration of high-order QAM signal amplification in PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier. (United States)

    Umeki, T; Tadanaga, O; Asobe, M; Miyamoto, Y; Takenouchi, H


    We demonstrate the phase sensitive amplification of a high-order quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal using non-degenerate parametric amplification in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. The interaction between the pump, signal, and phase-conjugated idler enables us to amplify arbitrary phase components of the signal. The 16QAM signals are amplified without distortion because of the high gain linearity of the PPLN-based phase sensitive amplifier (PSA). Both the phase and amplitude noise reduction capabilities of the PSA are ensured. Phase noise cancellation is achieved by using the interaction with the phase-conjugated idler. A degraded signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is restored by using the gain difference between a phase-correlated signal-idler pair and uncorrelated excess noise. The applicability of the simultaneous amplification of multi-carrier signals and the amplification of two independent polarization signals are also confirmed with a view to realizing ultra-high spectrally efficient signal amplification.

  7. Investigation of domain walls in PPLN by confocal raman microscopy and PCA analysis (United States)

    Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Zelenovskiy, Pavel; Bourson, Patrice


    Confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) is a powerful tool for investigation of ferroelectric domains. Mechanical stresses and electric fields existed in the vicinity of neutral and charged domain walls modify frequency, intensity and width of spectral lines [1], thus allowing to visualize micro- and nanodomain structures both at the surface and in the bulk of the crystal [2,3]. Stresses and fields are naturally coupled in ferroelectrics due to inverse piezoelectric effect and hardly can be separated in Raman spectra. PCA is a powerful statistical method for analysis of large data matrix providing a set of orthogonal variables, called principal components (PCs). PCA is widely used for classification of experimental data, for example, in crystallization experiments, for detection of small amounts of components in solid mixtures etc. [4,5]. In Raman spectroscopy PCA was applied for analysis of phase transitions and provided critical pressure with good accuracy [6]. In the present work we for the first time applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method for analysis of Raman spectra measured in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). We found that principal components demonstrate different sensitivity to mechanical stresses and electric fields in the vicinity of the domain walls. This allowed us to separately visualize spatial distribution of fields and electric fields at the surface and in the bulk of PPLN.

  8. Prediction of free field heave using CW and CH indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedźwiedzka Karina


    Full Text Available Prediction of free field heave using CW and CH indices. In order to predict free heave in expansive silty clays two methods were applied: CLOD test and double-swelling methods. In both methods CW and CH indices are required respectively to determine the soil heave. The CW index is determined as a slope of straight line of shrinkage curve obtained with a use of CLOD test. In case of double-swelling method two oedometer tests were carried out to determine CH index: constantvolume and consolidation-swell oedometer tests. Comparison between heave values calculated using CW and CH indexes indicated slight differences.

  9. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Facco, Alberto; Berkovits, Dan; Yamane, Isao; 10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.10.091001


    A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw) proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line adioactive Ion Beam Facility) design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kWof proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fractionof the main H- beam, magnetic splitting of H- and H0, and stripping of H0 to H+. The method allowsslow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  10. Molecular spectroscopy from 5-12 μm using an OP-GaP OPO (United States)

    Maidment, Luke; Schunemann, Peter G.; Reid, Derryck T.


    We report a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on the new semiconductor gain material orientation patterned gallium phosphide (OP-GaP) and being the first example of a broadband OPO operating across the molecular fingerprint region. OP-GaP crystals with lengths of 1 mm and several patterning periods were diced, polished, and antireflection (AR) coated for near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. We configured a synchronously pumped OP-GaP OPO in a 101.2-MHz resonator with high reflectivity from 1.15-1.35 μm, pumped with 150-fs pulses from a 1040-nm femtosecond laser (Chromacity Spark). The coating of one spherical mirror was optimized for transmission at the pump wavelength of 1040 nm and for high reflectivity at the resonant signal wavelength in a range from 1.15-1.35 μm, while the other spherical mirror collimated the idler beam emerging from the OP-GaP crystal and was silver coated to provide high reflectivity for all idler wavelengths. This collimated idler beam was output-coupled from the cavity by transmission through a plane mirror coated with high transmission for the idler wavelengths (5-12 μm) and high reflectivity for the signal wavelengths (1.15-1.35 μm) on an infrared-transparent ZnSe substrate. Idler spectra centered from 5.4-11.8 μm and extending to 12.5 μm were collected. The maximum average power was 55 mW at 5.4 μm with 7.5 mW being recorded at 11.8 μm. Details of Fourier transform spectroscopy using water vapor and a polystyrene reference standard are presented.

  11. 99 W mid-IR operation of a ZGP OPO at 25% duty cycle. (United States)

    Hemming, Alexander; Richards, Jim; Davidson, Alan; Carmody, Neil; Bennetts, Shayne; Simakov, Nikita; Haub, John


    We have demonstrated the highest reported output power from a mid-IR ZGP OPO. The laser is a cascaded hybrid system consisting of a thulium fibre laser, Ho:YAG solid state laser and a Zinc Germanium Phosphide parametric oscillator. The system produces 27 W of output power in the 3-5 μm wavelength range with an M(2) = 4.0 when operating in a repetitively q-switched mode, and a modulated peak output power of 99 W at a reduced duty cycle of 25%.

  12. Nonlinear optical properties of new KTiOPO sub 4 isostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, M.L.F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Harrison, W.T.A.; Stucky, G.D. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)


    The atomic structures of the nonlinear optical materials potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}, or KTP) and potassium titanyl arsenate (KTiOAsO{sub 4}) feature one-dimensional channels through which the potassium ions are relatively free to migrate. Ion exchange results when these materials are immersed in molten salts containing alkali metal ions. Sodium, lithium and silver all exchange readily for K{sup +} single crystals of both KTP and KTA to yield the exchanged derivatives Na{sub .95}K{sub .05}TiOPO{sub 4} (NaTP), Na{sub .83}K{sub .17}TiOAsO{sub 4} (NaTA), Ag{sub .85}K{sub .15}TiOPO{sub 4} (AgTP), Ag{sub .98}K{sub .02}TiOAsO{sub 4} (AgTA), Li{sub .45}K{sub .55}TiOPO{sub 4} (KLTP), and Li{sub .46}K{sub .54}TiOAsO{sub 4} (KLTA), which are all KTP isostructures. The optical nonlinearities (measured as SHG intensities) of the limiting compositions in the NaTA, KLTP, and KLTA systems are similar to that of KTP, but are much smaller in NaTP, AgTP and AgTA. Single crystal X-ray data have revealed differences in coordination of the mobile cations to oxygen atoms linking the TiO{sub 6} groups in these compounds, and these differences correlate with changes in optical nonlinearity. The observed nonlinearities can be rationalized if they are viewed as being dependent on the degree to which delocalized charge-transfer excited state character can be mixed into ground state bonding and nonbonding orbitals in the TiO{sub 6} chains. The relative lack of association of Na{sup +} and Li{sup +} ions with these chains in NATA, KLTP, and KLTA allows extensive excited state delocalization, and thus significant electronic hyperpolarizability. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Dual-wavelength Nd:LGGG laser intracavity pumped simultaneous OPO and SRS processes in single KTP. (United States)

    Chu, Hongwe; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Tao; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Qiao, Wenchao


    Simultaneous optical parametric oscillation (OPO) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in a single KTiOPO₄ (KTP) intracavity pumped by a dual-wavelength Nd:LGGG laser were demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A maximum output power for the signal beam was 448 mW, while for the Stokes radiations it was 40 mW, corresponding to an overall conversion efficiency of about 4.65%. The shortest pulse durations for OPO and SRS waves were directly measured to be 850 ps and 1.526 ns, respectively. The highest peak power of 30.6 kW and the pulse energy of 26 μJ for the signal beam were also obtained. A set of coupled rate equations for the dual-wavelength pumped OPO and SRS was also established. The numerical solutions fit with the experimental results.

  14. Mid-infrared ZGP-OPO with a high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 75.7. (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xing, Tinglun; Hu, Shuwu; Wu, Xianyou; Wu, Haixin; Wang, Jiyang; Jiang, Haihe


    We experimentally demonstrate a ZnGeP2 based optical parametric oscillator (ZGP-OPO) with a record of the optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. To improve the conversion efficiency, we design and construct a double-pass pumped high-gain OPO and a matched large-sized high-peak-power pump beam to suppress the spatial walk-off and conversion. Pulse energy of 19 mJ with pulse width of 27.8 ns at 5 Hz in the mid-infrared 3-5 μm waveband is obtained in the doubly resonated ZGP-OPO, the beam quality M2 is about 9.6, and the corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency reaches up to 75.7%.

  15. High-repetition rate, picosecond-pulse, tunable, mid-IR PPLN OPG source (United States)

    Isyanova, Yelena; Tian, Wenyan; Moulton, Peter F.


    We report here on the performance of a narrow-line, mid-IR source based on a PPLN-crystal optical parametric generator (OPG). The crystal was pumped by a pulsed, 20-MHz-rate, 1064-nm Yb:fiber-based source operating with 20- psec pulses. The OPG produced a broad spectrum between 2027 nm and 2239 nm. By placing a band-pass filter after the OPG we were able to select a 30-nm bandwidth output, and we achieved further line reduction (0.7 nm) and 4.5 mW of average power at 2039 nm, using a reflective Volume Bragg Grating (VBG). Devices such as piezo-controlled etalons can provide rapidly tunable, narrow-linewidth power from this system.

  16. Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN. (United States)

    Rehle, D; Leleux, D; Erdelyi, M; Tittel, F; Fraser, M; Friedfeld, S


    A laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) has been used to quantify atmospheric formaldehyde with a detection limit of 0.32 parts per billion in a given volume (ppbV) using specifically developed data-processing techniques. With state-of-the-art fiber-coupled diode-laser pump sources at 1083 nm and 1561 nm, difference-frequency radiation has been generated in the 3.53-micrometers (2832-cm-1) spectral region. Formaldehyde in ambient air in the 1- to 10-ppb V range has been detected continuously for nine and five days at two separate field sites in the Greater Houston area operated by the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) and the Houston Regional Monitoring Corporation (HRM). The acquired spectroscopic data are compared with results obtained by a well-established wet-chemical o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxylamine (PFBHA) technique.

  17. Wavelength filtering characteristics of Solc filter based on Ti:PPLN channel waveguide. (United States)

    Lee, Y L; Yu, N E; Kee, C-S; Ko, D-K; Lee, J; Yu, B-A; Shin, W; Eom, T J; Noh, Y-C


    We have analyzed the Solc filtering characteristics in a periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 (Ti:PPLN) multimode waveguide. The single- and dual-wavelength filtering were achieved under the optimized guiding condition for the TEM(00)-like mode and two mode (TEM(00)- and TEM(01)-like mode), respectively. The full width at half-maximum of the filter was about 0.21 nm at both guiding conditions. We found that the origin of two peaks of the dual-wavelength Solc filter in the two-mode guiding condition is the different effective refractive index between the TEM(00)- and TEM(01)-like modes. The wavelength difference of two peaks is about 0.8 nm at room temperature.

  18. Multi-span transmission using phase and amplitude regeneration in PPLN-based PSA. (United States)

    Umeki, T; Asobe, M; Takara, H; Miyamoto, Y; Takenouchi, H


    We demonstrated multi-span transmission using a periodically poled LiNbO(3) (PPLN) based phase sensitive amplifier (PSA). An in-line PSA with a carrier recovery and phase locking system is implemented as a repeater amplifier in a recirculating loop. We achieved a PSA gain as high as + 18 dB and a high external gain of + 12 dB for the in-line PSA as a black box. The impairments caused by phase noise resulting from fiber nonlinearity and intensity noise caused by the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of an optical amplifier are largely suppressed using the phase and amplitude regeneration capabilities of the PSA. The ultra long-haul transmission of a 28-Gb/s binary phase shift keying (BPSK) signal over 5400 km was achieved with phase and amplitude regeneration.

  19. Highly efficient heralded single-photon source for telecom wavelengths based on a PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Bock, Matthias; Lenhard, Andreas; Chunnilall, Christopher; Becher, Christoph


    We present the realization of a highly efficient photon pair source based on spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide. The source is suitable for long distance quantum communication applications as the photon pairs are located at the centers of the telecommunication O- and C- band at 1312 nm and 1557 nm. The high efficiency is confirmed by a conversion efficiency of 4 × 10-6 - which is to our knowledge among the highest conversion efficiencies reported so far - and a heralding efficiency of 64.1 ± 2.1%. The heralded single-photon properties are confirmed by the measurement of the photon statistics with a Click/No-Click method as well as the heralded g(2)-function. A minimum value for g(2)(0) of 0.001 ± 0.0003 indicating clear antibunching has been observed.

  20. All optical wavelength conversion and parametric amplification in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides for telecommunication applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouroozi, Rahman


    Efficient ultra-fast integrated all-optical wavelength converters and parametric amplifiers transparent to the polarization, phase, and modulation-level and -format are investigated. The devices take advantage of the optical nonlinearity of Ti:PPLN waveguides exploiting difference frequency generation (DFG). In a DFG, the signal ({lambda}{sub s}) is mixed with a pump ({lambda}{sub p}) to generate a wavelength shifted idler (1/{lambda}{sub i}=1/{lambda}{sub p}-1/{lambda}{sub s}). Efficient generation of the pump in Ti:PPLN channel guides is investigated using different approaches. In the waveguide resonators, first a resonance of the fundamental wave alone is considered. It is shown that the maximum power enhancement of the fundamental wave, and therefore the maximum second-harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency, can be achieved with low loss matched resonators. By this way, SHG efficiency of {proportional_to}10300%/W (10.3 %/mW) has been achieved in a 65 mm long waveguide resonator. Its operation for cSHG/DFG requires narrowband reflector for fundamental wave only. Thus, the SH (pump) wave resonator is investigated. The SH-wave resonator enhances the intracavity SH power only. Based on this scheme, an improvement of {proportional_to}10 dB for cSHG/DFG based wavelength conversion efficiency has been achieved with 50 mW of coupled fundamental power in a 30 mm long Ti:PPLN. However, operation was limited to relatively small fundamental power levels (<50 mW) due to the onset of photorefractive instabilities destroying the cavity stabilization. The cSHG/DFG efficiency can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration in which all the interacting waves were reflected by a broadband dielectric mirror deposited on the one endface of the waveguide. Three different approaches are investigated and up to 9 dB improvement of the wavelength conversion efficiency in comparison with the single-pass configuration is achieved. Polarization-insensitive wavelength

  1. Dual-wavelength source from 5%MgO:PPLN cylinders for the characterization of nonlinear infrared crystals. (United States)

    Kemlin, Vincent; Jegouso, David; Debray, Jérôme; Boursier, Elodie; Segonds, Patricia; Boulanger, Benoit; Ishizuki, Hideki; Taira, Takunori; Mennerat, Gabriel; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Godard, Antoine


    We conceived a unique fully parametric source based on two independent cylindrical OPOs simultaneously pumped by the same Nd:YAG laser. Each OPO delivers more than 2 mJ and is continuously tunable between 1.41 µm and 4.3 µm. This source is of particular interest for the study of the generation of infrared parametric light in nonlinear crystals. It was validated by performing difference frequency generation experiments in CdSe crystals with output in the range 8 - 10 µm.

  2. Mid infrared optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative to tissue ablation with the free electron laser (FEL). (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii; Joos, Karen M; Schwettman, H Alan; Jansen, E Duco


    Investigations with a Mark-III free electron laser, tuned to 6.45 microm in wavelength have demonstrated minimal collateral damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While the use of mid-IR light produced by the free electron laser (FEL) has shown much promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited due the high costs of its use. Further investigation and widespread clinical use of six-micron radiation requires the development of an alternative laser source. In this research, we compared a Mark-III FEL and an Er:YAG pumped ZGP-OPO with respect to the effect of pulse duration on ablation efficiency and thermal damage on porcine cornea. A five by seven grid of craters was made about the center of each cornea. Craters were made with a 60-microm spotsize with a 500-microm spacing. Ablation craters were made using 50 pulses per crater at approximately three times the ablation threshold (for water). Histological analysis was used to determine crater depth and thermal damage. The average zone of thermal damage at 6.1 microm was found to be 4.1 microm for the optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and 5.4 microm for the FEL. At 6.45 microm, the damaged zone was 7.2 microm for the OPO and 7.2 microm for the FEL. At 6.73 microm, the damaged zone was 6.3 microm for the OPO and 7.6 microm+/-0.3 microm for the FEL. The OPO caused similar or significantly less thermal damage in porcine cornea when compared with the FEL while generating significantly deeper craters. We determined that the ZGP-OPO has much promise as a bench-top replacement for the FEL for soft tissue ablation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  3. X-Ray diffraction study of KTiOPO{sub 4} single crystals doped with hafnium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikova, N. E., E-mail:; Verin, I. A.; Sorokina, N. I.; Alekseeva, O. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Orlova, E. I.; Voronkova, V. I. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)


    Single crystals of KTi{sub 1-x}Hf{sub x}OPO{sub 4} (x = 0.015(2), 0.035(1), and 0.128(1) are reinvestigated by precision X-ray diffraction at room temperature. It is found that the implantation of hafnium atoms in the crystal structure of KTiOPO{sub 4} does not lead to significant changes in the framework and affects only the positions of the potassium atoms in the channel. Our studies reveal the displacements of the potassium atoms from their main and additional positions in the structure of pure KTP in all three structures studied. The largest displacements from the K1 Prime and K1 Double-Prime additional positions are observed in the structure with x = 0.035. At this hafnium concentration, the occupancy of the main positions of potassium atoms decreases and the occupancy of the additional positions increases in relation to those in KTP. This redistribution of potassium atoms enhances the nonuniformity of distribution of the electron density in the vicinity of their positions, which is probably responsible for the increase in the nonlinear susceptibility of KTP crystals that contain 3.5% hafnium in relation to crystals of pure KTP.

  4. OPO DIAL lidar for remote measurements of atmospheric gases in the IR range (United States)

    Romanovskii, O. A.; Kharchenko, O. V.; Shumskii, V. K.; Sadovnikov, S. A.; Yakovlev, S. V.


    Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3-4 μm is studied in this work. A technique developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG) is based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The new technique uses broadband radiation and a CCD detector, which ensures measurement of backscattering signals with simultaneous altitude and wavelength resolution. The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases. The numerical simulation performed shows that a KTA-based OPO laser is a promising source of radiation for remote DIAL-DOAS sounding of the TAGs under study along surface tropospheric paths. The laser system design provides a possibility of narrowing the laser line within the 0.01-5 cm-1 limits. This possible improvement along with a small step of laser line tuning and the presence of absorption lines of other atmospheric gases, including atmospheric pollutants, in the spectral range under study make this laser a unique instrument for atmospheric sounding.

  5. Profile of cadaveric liver donors of the OPO-UNICAMP From 2002 to 2006. (United States)

    Boin, I F S F; Kajikawa, P; Palmiero, H O M; Zambelli, H; Bello Stucchi, R; Iracema Leonardi, M; Sergio Leonardi, L


    Four decades after the first successful liver transplantation, the organ donation shortage challenges the scientific community to create various new strategies. We sought to analyze the profile of registered cadaveric liver donors for an Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) during the period of 2002 through 2006. This retrospective analysis of 122 deceased donors in the OPO-Unicamp corresponded to the period of 2002 through 2006. Men were identified as 57.14% of donors and the overall average age was 32.88 years with 16.53% over 50 years of age. Analyzing the causes of brain death, cerebral trauma (CET) was responsible for 46.22% and cerebral vascular accidents, 33.61%. The percentage of use of vasoactive drugs was 88.43%. Observing the donors' backgrounds, we observed that 11.90% had alcoholism, 1.23% drug addiction and 27.78% infection. We verified cardiac arrest in 9.43%. In accordance with the expanded criteria of donation, 89.26% of donors fulfilled some of the criteria: 73.55%, one criterion; 14.05%, two; 1.65%, three; and no donor fulfilled 4 or 5. The donor profile in our unit is a young man with CET and who fulfills at least one expanded donation criterion. Finally, to increase the number of donors, the use of vasoactive drugs (89.26%), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (9.43%), and infection (27.78%) were not considered reasons to discard the liver.

  6. Identification of inversion domains in KTiOPO{sub 4}via resonant X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrizi, Federica, E-mail: [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Thomas, Pamela A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Nisbet, Gareth; Collins, Stephen P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    The identification and high-resolution mapping of the absolute crystallographic structure in multi-domain ferroelectric KTiOPO{sub 4} is achieved through a novel synchrotron X-ray diffraction method. On a single Bragg reflection, the intensity ratio in resonant diffraction below and above the Ti absorption K edge demonstrates a domain contrast up to a factor of ∼270, thus implementing a non-contact, non-destructive imaging technique with micrometre spatial resolution, applicable to samples of arbitrarily large dimensions. A novel method is presented for the identification of the absolute crystallographic structure in multi-domain polar materials such as ferroelectric KTiOPO{sub 4}. Resonant (or ‘anomalous’) X-ray diffraction spectra collected across the absorption K edge of Ti (4.966 keV) on a single Bragg reflection demonstrate a huge intensity ratio above and below the edge, providing a polar domain contrast of ∼270. This allows one to map the spatial domain distribution in a periodically inverted sample, with a resolution of ∼1 µm achieved with a microfocused beam. This non-contact, non-destructive technique is well suited for samples of large dimensions (in contrast with traditional resonant X-ray methods based on diffraction from Friedel pairs), and its potential is particularly relevant in the context of physical phenomena connected with an absence of inversion symmetry, which require characterization of the underlying absolute atomic structure (such as in the case of magnetoelectric coupling and multiferroics)

  7. Two-color CW STED nanoscopy (United States)

    Chen, Xuanze; Liu, Yujia; Yang, Xusan; Wang, Tingting; Alonas, Eric; Santangelo, Philip J.; Ren, Qiushi; Xi, Peng


    Fluorescent microscopy has become an essential tool to study biological molecules, pathways and events in living cells, tissues and animals. Meanwhile even the most advanced confocal microscopy can only yield optical resolution approaching Abbe diffraction limit of 200 nm. This is still larger than many subcellular structures, which are too small to be resolved in detail. These limitations have driven the development of super-resolution optical imaging methodologies over the past decade. In stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, the excitation focus is overlapped by an intense doughnut-shaped spot to instantly de-excite markers from their fluorescent state to the ground state by stimulated emission. This effectively eliminates the periphery of the Point Spread Function (PSF), resulting in a narrower focal region, or super-resolution. Scanning a sharpened spot through the specimen renders images with sub-diffraction resolution. Multi-color STED imaging can present important structural and functional information for protein-protein interaction. In this work, we presented a two-color, synchronization-free STED microscopy with a Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The excitation wavelengths were 532nm and 635nm, respectively. With pump power of 4.6 W and sample irradiance of 310 mW, we achieved super-resolution as high as 71 nm. Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) proteins were imaged with our two-color CW STED for co-localization analysis.

  8. Angular quasi-phase-matching experiments and determination of accurate Sellmeier equations for 5%MgO:PPLN. (United States)

    Brand, Pierre; Boulanger, Benoît; Segonds, Patricia; Petit, Yannick; Félix, Corinne; Ménaert, Bertrand; Taira, Takunori; Ishizuki, Hideki


    We validated the theory of angular quasi-phase-matching (AQPM) by performing measurements of second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation. A nonlinear least-squares fitting of these experimental data led to refine the Sellmeier equations of 5%MgO:PPLN that are now valid over the complete transparency range of the crystal. We also showed that AQPM exhibits complementary spectral ranges and acceptances compared with birefringence phase matching.

  9. Phase control of double-pass cascaded SHG/DFG wavelength conversion in Ti:PPLN channel waveguides. (United States)

    Nouroozi, Rahman; Suche, Hubertus; Hellwig, Ansgar; Ricken, Raimund; Quiring, Viktor; Sohler, Wolfgang


    The efficiency of wavelength conversion by cascaded second harmonic generation / difference frequency generation (cSHG/DFG) in Ti:PPLN waveguides can be considerably improved by using a double-pass configuration. However, due to the wavelength dependent phase change by the dielectric folding mirror phase compensation is required to maintain an optimum power transfer. We experimentally investigated three different approaches and improved the wavelength conversion efficiency up to 9 dB in comparison with the single-pass configuration.

  10. Single-PPLN-assisted wavelength-/time-selective switching/dropping/swapping for 100-GHz-spaced WDM signals. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Fu, Hongyan; Geng, Dongyu; Willner, Alan E


    We propose an approach to implementing wavelength- and time-selective optical switching, dropping and swapping based on the sum-frequency generation (SFG) or cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation (cSFG/DFG) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Analytical solutions are derived, showing the parametric depletion effect for optical switching and the narrow-band operation due to quasi-phase matching (QPM) condition of PPLN. Using parametric depletion effect of SFG process, we demonstrate wavelength- and time-selective optical switching for ITU-grid compatible 40-Gbit/s wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) signals with a channel spacing of 100 GHz. Less than 1-dB power penalty at a bit-error rate (BER) of 10(-9) is measured for the wavelength- and time-selective switching channel. Negligible impacts are observed on other channels of WDM signals. Using combined effects of parametric depletion and wavelength conversion of cSFG/DFG processes, we demonstrate wavelength- and time-selective optical dropping for ITU-grid compatible 100-GHz-spaced 40-Gbit/s WDM signals. Moreover, we demonstrate optical swapping between two 100-GHz-spaced 40-Gbit/s signals. The obtained theoretical and experimental results confirm single-PPLN-assisted wavelength- and time-selective optical switching, dropping and swapping for 100-GHz-spaced WDM signals, which might potentially be extended to WDM signals with narrower channel spacing.

  11. A Stepped Frequency CW SAR for Lightweight UAV Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morrison, Keith


    A stepped-frequency continuous wave (SF-CW) synthetic aperture radar (SAR), with frequency-agile waveforms and real-time intelligent signal processing algorithms, is proposed for operation from a lightweight UAV platform...

  12. Analytic Performance Evaluation Design of the MFACP CW Normalizer (United States)


    Gilbert, D. C. - "Algorithm and Software Specification for ACP CW Detection and Tracking," Analysis and Tecnology , Inc., Report no. P-4569-1-91, 31...Dec 91. 3. Gilbert, D. C. - "Automatic Detection Algorithm for ACP CW Processing," Analysis and Tecnology , Inc., Tech. Memo. 90:32/27-34A, 30 Nov 90. 4...J. - "An Analytical Design and Evaluation Methodology for Active SONAR Normalizers (PRELIMINARY),"Analysis and Tecnology , Engineering Technology

  13. Energetic and spectral properties of triple photon downconversion in a phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal. (United States)

    Dot, Audrey; Borne, Adrien; Boulanger, Benoît; Segonds, Patricia; Félix, Corinne; Bencheikh, Kamel; Levenson, Juan Ariel


    We measured the spectrum and energy of infrared triple photons generated in a phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal pumped by picosecond beams at 532 and 1662 nm. The experimental data are in good agreement with our model, taking into account the spectral linewidths of the incident beams as well as a parasitic Kerr effect.

  14. Mid-Infrared OPO for High Resolution Measurements of Trace Gases in the Mars Atmosphere (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Numata,Kenji; Riris, haris; Abshire, James B.; Allan, Graham; Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.


    The Martian atmosphere is composed primarily (>95%) of CO2 and N2 gas, with CO, O2, CH4, and inert gases such as argon comprising most of the remainder. It is surprisingly dynamic with various processes driving changes in the distribution of CO2, dust, haze, clouds and water vapor on global scales in the meteorology of Mars atmosphere [I]. The trace gases and isotopic ratios in the atmosphere offer important but subtle clues as to the origins of the planet's atmosphere, hydrology, geology, and potential for biology. In the search for life on Mars, an important process is the ability of bacteria to metabolize inorganic substrates (H2, CO2 and rock) to derive energy and produce methane as a by-product of anaerobic metabolism. Trace gases have been measured in the Mars atmosphere from Earth, Mars orbit, and from the Mars surface. The concentration of water vapor and various carbon-based trace gases are observed in variable concentrations. Within the past decade multiple groups have reported detection of CH4, with concentrations in the 10's of ppb, using spectroscopic observations from Earth [2]. Passive spectrometers in the mid-infrared (MIR) are restricted to the sunlit side of the planet, generally in the mid latitudes, and have limited spectral and spatial resolution. To accurately map the global distribution and to locate areas of possibly higher concentrations of these gases such as plumes or vents requires an instrument with high sensitivity and fine spatial resolution that also has global coverage and can measure during both day and night. Our development goal is a new MIR lidar capable of measuring, on global scales, with sensitivity, resolution and precision needed to characterize the trace gases and isotopic ratios of the Martian atmosphere. An optical parametric oscillator operating in the MIR is well suited for this instrument. The sufficient wavelength tuning range of the OPO can extend the measurements to other organic molecules, CO2, atmospheric water

  15. Utility and Usability of the Rapid Assessment of Hospital Procurement Barriers in Donation (RAPiD) as a Tool for OPO Hospital Development Staff. (United States)

    Alolod, Gerard P; Traino, Heather M; Siminoff, Laura A


    Few systematic assessment tools are available to organ procurement organizations (OPOs) for evaluating donation climates of hospitals in their donation service areas (DSAs). The Rapid Assessment of hospital Procurement barriers in Donation (RAPiD) was developed for OPO hospital development staff to assess the organ donation climate of hospitals. To implement a national test of the RAPiD to examine its efficacy and usability by OPO hospital development staff. Two-arm randomized design, comparing implementation of RAPiD protocol between qualitatively trained researchers (n = 7) and OPO hospital development staff (n = 24); all evaluators received the same training assessments of high-yield hospitals. A total of 77 hospitals in DSAs of 8 OPOs. A total of 2552 health-care providers (HCPs) in high organ donor potential units. Twenty-four donation-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. More HCPs interviewed in the autonomous condition were positive toward the concept of organ donation. However, HCPs in the assisted condition were more candid about and critical of the OPO. As for knowledge, fewer HCPs in the autonomous condition reported familiarity with the donation process, need for donors, and generally accepted timely referral criteria. With respect to behaviors, more respondents in the autonomous condition reported frequent or occasional contact with the OPO and routine or occasional referral criteria use. Due to issues of bias, inadequate research experience, conflicts of interest, and ongoing OPO hospital development initiatives, the RAPiD's usability by OPO-based hospital development staff is questionable and not recommended in its current form. A next generation of the RAPiD is described for future consideration. © 2016, NATCO.

  16. Power and Efficiency Scaling of Fiber OPO Around 700 to 850 nm and Power-scaling of High Coherence Fiber Raman Amplifiers (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0049 Power and efficiency scaling of fiber OPO around 700 to 850 nm and Power-scaling of high coherence fiber...May 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Power and efficiency scaling of fiber OPO around 700 to 850 nm and Power-scaling of high coherence fiber Raman...sources and on a fiber OPO at red wavelengths. The fiber Raman laser reached 20 W of output power at 1019 nm, pulsed operation at 835 nm, and M2 = 2 at

  17. Frequency-comb-referenced singly-resonant OPO for sub-Doppler spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ricciardi, I; De Tommasi, E; Maddaloni, P; Mosca, S; Rocco, A; Zondy, J-J; De Rosa, M; De Natale, P


    We present a widely-tunable, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator, emitting more than 1 W between 2.7 and 4.2 μm, which is phase locked to a self-referenced frequency comb. Both pump and signal frequencies are directly phase-locked to the frequency comb of a NIR-emitting fs mode-locked fibre laser, linked, in turn, to the caesium primary standard. We estimate for the idler frequency a fractional Allan deviation of ∼ 3 × 10⁻¹²τ⁻½ between 1 and 200 s. To test the spectroscopic performance of the OPO, we carried out saturation spectroscopy of several transitions belonging to the ν1 rovibrational band of CH₃I, resolving their electronic quadrupole hyperfine structure, estimating a linewidth better than 200 kHz FWHM for the idler, and determining the absolute frequency of the hyperfine components with a 50-kHz-uncertainty.

  18. Pratique géopoétique du territoire : habiter un quartier


    Carpentier, André


    Résumé : Comme l’indique le titre de cet article, il s’agira ici d’aborder la double question du territoire et du quartier par le biais du concept d’habiter. La notion de quartier — qui relève à la fois de l’urbanisme, de la sociologie, de l’architecture, de l’histoire, de la géographie, etc. —, sera donc convoquée ainsi que la pratique liée à la fréquentation du quartier ; en l’occurrence, il s’agit ici d’une pratique flâneuse d’inspiration géopoétique. Cet article propose donc quelques réfl...

  19. Non-collinear and non-degenerate polarization-entangled photon generation via concurrent type-I parametric downconversion in PPLN. (United States)

    Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Sergienko, Alexander V; Saleh, Bahaa E A; Teich, Malvin C; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni


    A periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal has been used as an efficient source of non-collinearly generated polarization-entangled photon pairs at 810 and 1550 nm. The PPLN crystal was endowed with a specially designed poling pattern and the entangled photons were generated via the nonlinear optical process of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC). A novel design based on overlapping two concurrent type-I quasi-phase-matching structures in a single PPLN crystals produced correlated pairs of alternatively polarized photons in largely separated spectral regions. The phase of the resulting two-photon state is directly linked to parameters of the nonlinear grating. Continuous tunability of the generated Bell state, from Phi(+) to Phi(-), has been demonstrated by translating a slightly wedged crystal perpendicular to the pump beam.

  20. Residual Phase Noise Measurement of Optical Second Harmonic Generation in PPLN Waveguides (United States)

    Delehaye, Marion; Millo, Jacques; Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves; Groult, Lucas; Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico; Bigler, Emmanuel; Kersale, Yann; Lacroute, Clement


    We report on the characterization, including residual phase noise and fractional frequency instability, of fiber-coupled PPLN non-linear crystals. These components are devoted to frequency doubling 871 nm light from an extended-cavity diode laser to produce a 435.5 nm beam, corresponding to the ytterbium ion electric quadrupole clock transition. We measure doubling efficiencies of up to 117.5 %/W. Using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and an original noise rejection technique, the residual phase noise of the doublers is estimated to be lower than ${\\rm -35\\, dBrad^2/Hz}$ at 1 Hz, making these modules compatible with up-to-date optical clocks and ultra-stable cavities. The influence of external parameters such as pump laser frequency and intensity is investigated, showing that they do not limit the stability of the frequency-doubled signal. Our results demonstrate that such compact, fiber-coupled modules are suitable for use in ultra-low phase noise metrological experiments, including transportable optical atomic clocks.

  1. First experiments with gasdynamic ion source in CW mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail:; Vodopyanov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaskyla (Finland)


    A new type of ECR ion source—a gasdynamic ECR ion source—has been recently developed at the Institute of Applied Physics. The main advantages of such device are extremely high ion beam current with a current density up to 600–700 emA/cm{sup 2} in combination with low emittance, i.e., normalized RMS emittance below 0.1 π mm mrad. Previous investigations were carried out in pulsed operation with 37.5 or 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW at SMIS 37 experimental facility. The present work demonstrates the first experience of operating the gasdynamic ECR ion source in CW mode. A test bench of SMIS 24 facility has been developed at IAP RAS. 24 GHz radiation of CW gyrotron was used for plasma heating in a magnetic trap with simple mirror configuration. Initial studies of plasma parameters were performed. Ion beams with pulsed and CW high voltage were successfully extracted from the CW discharge. Obtained experimental results demonstrate that all advantages of the gasdynamic source can be realized also in CW operation.

  2. Comparing an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as a viable alternative for mid-infrared tissue ablation with a free electron laser (FEL). (United States)

    Mackanos, Mark A; Simanovskii, Dmitrii M; Contag, Christopher H; Kozub, John A; Jansen, E Duco


    Beneficial medical laser ablation removes material efficiently with minimal collateral damage. A Mark-III free electron laser (FEL), at a wavelength of 6.45 μm has demonstrated minimal damage and high ablation yield in ocular and neural tissues. While this wavelength has shown promise for surgical applications, further advances are limited by the high overhead for FEL use. Alternative mid-infrared sources are needed for further development. We compared the FEL with a 5-μs pulse duration with a Q-switched ZGP-OPO with a 100-ns pulse duration at mid-infrared wavelengths. There were no differences in the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis with these two sources in spite of the difference in their pulse structures. There was a significant difference in crater depth between the ZGP:OPO and the FEL. At 6.1 μm, the OPO craters are eight times the depth of the FEL craters. The OPO craters at 6.45 and 6.73 μm were six and five times the depth of the FEL craters, respectively. Bright-field (pump-probe) images showed the classic ablation mechanism from formation of a plume through collapse and recoil. The crater formation, ejection, and collapse phases occurred on a faster time-scale with the OPO than with the FEL. This research showed that a ZGP-OPO laser could be a viable alternative to FEL for clinical applications.

  3. Noise considerations for vital signs CW radar sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Brian Sveistrup; Jensen, Thomas; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    The use of continuous wave (CW) radars for measuring human vital signs have recently received a lot of attention due to its many promising applications like monitoring people at hospitals or infants at home without the need for wired sensors. This paper briefly presents the typical CW radar setup...... and the underlying signal theory for such sensors. Then to point out and especially clarify one of the most important effects aiding the design of vital signs radars (VSR), a more detailed discussion concerning phase noise cancellation (or filtering) by range correlation is given. This discussion leads to some...

  4. All optical wavelength broadcast based on simultaneous Type I QPM broadband SFG and SHG in MgO:PPLN. (United States)

    Gong, Mingjun; Chen, Yuping; Lu, Feng; Chen, Xianfeng


    We experimentally demonstrate wavelength broadcast based on simultaneous Type I quasi-phase-matched (QPM) broadband sum-frequency generation (SFG) and second-harmonic generation (SHG) in 5 mol.% MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN). One signal has been synchronously converted into seven different wavelengths using two pumps at a 1.5 microm band via quadratic cascaded nonlinear wavelength conversion. By selecting different pump regions, i.e., selecting different cascaded chi((2)):chi((2)) interactions, the flexible wavelength conversions with shifting from one signal to single, double, and triple channels were also demonstrated.

  5. PPLN-based OOK and DQPSK optical grooming by amplitude and phase-signal multiplexing through pump depletion. (United States)

    Pinna, Sergio; Malacarne, Antonio; Lazzeri, Emma; Bogoni, Antonella


    We propose and characterize a simple, integrable, and wavelength-preserving scheme able to groom a 40 Gbps (D)QPSK signal with a 20 Gbps OOK one into a 20 Gbaud (60 Gbps) 8-APSK signal. The proposed all-optical scheme is based on the second-order nonlinear signal-depletion effect in a single periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Performance of the device, characterized by means of BER measurements, attests error-free operation and a power penalty below 4.1 dB.

  6. Widely tunable optical parametric oscillator in a 5 mm thick 5% MgO:PPLN partial cylinder. (United States)

    Kemlin, Vincent; Jegouso, David; Debray, Jérôme; Segonds, Patricia; Boulanger, Benoit; Menaert, Bertrand; Ishizuki, Hideki; Taira, Takunori


    A 5 mm thick and 38 mm long 5% MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN) cylinder with a grating period of 28 μm has been engineered as a partial cylinder with an angular aperture of 45°. An optical parametric oscillator based on this crystal and pumped at 1.064 μm is reported. The output energy is comparable to that generated in the same kind of sample cut as a slab, but the wavelength tunability from 1.41 to 4.3 μm is much broader and continuous.

  7. Cooperative Clinical Trial of Photodynamic Therapy for Early Gastric Cancer With Photofrin Injection and YAG-OPO Laser. (United States)

    Mimura, S; Narahara, H; Hirashima, T; Fukutomi, H; Nakahara, A; Kashimura, H; Matsui, H; Tanimura, H; Nagai, Y; Suzuki, S; Murata, Y; Yoshida, K; Isono, K; Kozu, T; Ide, H; Kato, H


    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treats malignant tumors using photosensitizers and light. We employed a new pulse laser as the excitation light source for PDT, i.e. an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, because it provides extremely high peak power. The effects of PDT using the photosensitizer Photofrin((R)) and the new laser were evaluated in 12 patients with early gastric cancer. Complete responses (CR) were obtained in 75% of 12 assessable patients, CR was observed in all cases with mucosal carcinoma (response rate 100%).Regarding toxicity, mild photosensitivity was seen in one case and it lasted several weeks. The other major side effect was decrease of total protein, which was observed in six patients (40%), lasting several months. There were no serious abnormalities in symptoms or laboratory tests. We conclude that the YAG-OPO laser is suitable as an excitation light source for PDT.

  8. An OPO-Based Lidar System for Differential Absorption Measurements of Methane in the 3 micron region (United States)

    Lee, S. W.; Zenker, T.; Chyba, T. H.


    A ground-based lidar system in the wavelength region of 1.45-4 microns for the remote measurement of methane is described. The laser transmitter consists of an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser which pumps an OPO (optical parametric oscillator). The OPO output is tunable from 1.45-4 microns, with a bandwidth less than 500 MHz, and a pulse energy of 1 to 3 mJ at 3.29 microns. The receiver is cart-mounted and consists of a 14" telescope with 1.57 and 3.29 micron detector channels. A fast oscilloscope is used for data acquisition. The system performance will be tested through measurements of sources of atmospheric methane.

  9. Development of a fluorescence detection system using optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser excitation for in vivo diagnosis. (United States)

    Song, J M; Jagannathan, R; Stokes, D L; Kasili, P M; Panjehpour, M; Phan, M N; Overholt, B F; DeNovo, R C; Pan, X; Lee, R J; Vo-Dinh, T


    In this work, the development and applications of a fluorescence detection system using optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser excitation for in vivo disease diagnosis including oral carcinoma are described. The optical diagnosis system was based on an OPO laser for multi-wavelength excitation and time-resolved detection. The pulsed Nd-YAG-pumped OPO laser system (6 ns, 20 Hz) is compact and has a rapid, broad, and uniform tuning range. Time-gated detection of intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) making use of external triggering was used to effectively eliminate the laser scattering and contribute to the highly sensitive in vivo measurements. Artificial tissue-simulating phantoms consisting of polystyrene microspheres and tissue fluorophores were tested to optimize the gating parameters. 51-ns gate width and 39-ns gate delays were determined to be the optimal parameters for sensitive detection. In vivo measurements with the optical diagnosis system were applied to esophagus, stomach, and small intestine using an endoscope in canine animal studies. The rapid tuning capability of the optical diagnosis system contributed greatly to the optimization of wavelength for the observation of porphyrin in the small intestine. When the small intestine was thoroughly washed with water, the emission band which corresponds to porphyrin disappeared. Based on this observation, it was concluded that the detected signal was yielded by porphyrin-containing bile secretion. Also, multispectral analyses using multiple excitations from 415 to 480 nm at 5 nm intervals confirmed the porphyrin detection in the small intestine. The optical diagnosis system was also applied to the detection of human xenograft of oral carcinoma in mice using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) which is a photodynamic therapy (PDT) drug. Significant differences in protoporphyrin IX fluorescence intensity between normal and tumor tissue could be obtained 2 hours after the injection of 5-ALA into mice due to the

  10. Lattice modification in KTiOPO{sub 4} by hydrogen and helium sequentially implantation in submicrometer depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Changdong [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250012 (China); Lu, Fei, E-mail:; Xu, Bo; Fan, Ranran [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100 (China)


    We investigated lattice modification and its physical mechanism in H and He co-implanted, z-cut potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO{sub 4}). The samples were implanted with 110 keV H and 190 keV He, both to a fluence of 4 × 10{sup 16 }cm{sup −2}, at room temperature. Rutherford backscattering/channeling, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the implantation-induced structural changes and strain. Experimental and simulated x-ray diffraction results show that the strain in the implanted KTiOPO{sub 4} crystal is caused by interstitial atoms. The strain and stress are anisotropic and depend on the crystal's orientation. Transmission electron microscopy studies indicate that ion implantation produces many dislocations in the as-implanted samples. Annealing can induce ion aggregation to form nanobubbles, but plastic deformation and ion out-diffusion prevent the KTiOPO{sub 4} surface from blistering.

  11. Efficient RTP-based OPO intracavity pumped by an acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO₄ laser. (United States)

    Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Haiyong; Ye, Yanlin; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Ge; Tang, Dingyuan


    This Letter describes an intracavity pumped optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on noncritical phase matching RbTiOPO4 (RTP) crystal driven by a laser diode end-pumping acousto-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser. Simultaneous efficient signal light at 1.6 μm and idler light at 3.1 μm outputs were obtained. At an incident pump power of 10.5 W and a Q-switching pulse repetition frequency of 60 kHz, 1.42 W at center wavelength of about 1619 nm and 0.38 W at 3108 nm were achieved, with the diode to OPO total output conversion efficiency up to 17.1%. The pulse width is about 6.5 ns for the signal light corresponding to the fundamental light at 1064 nm of about 10 ns. The spectral widths of the signal and idler light are narrower than 0.5 and 1.0 nm. The result shows that the RTP crystal is an efficient crystal to generate eye-safe and mid-infrared lights by making full use of noncritical phase matching.

  12. Photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis using YAG-OPO laser and Porfimer sodium, and comparison with using argon-dye laser. (United States)

    Amemiya, T; Nakajima, H; Katoh, T; Rakue, H; Miyagi, M; Ibukiyama, C


    We performed photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the Yttrium Aluminium Garnet-Optical Parametric Oscillated (YAG-OPO) laser in cases of atherosclerosis, and examined its efficacy in vivo. We also performed PDT using an Argon-dye (Ar-dye) laser with the same output, and compared the efficacies. Following balloon denudation injury of the thoracoabdominal aorta, rabbits were raised on a cholesterol diet for 16 weeks, producing atheroma in that region. At 24 h following the administration of Photofrin 5 mg/kg, PDT was performed, and animals were sacrificed at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks following the procedure to examine its efficacy. This was compared with the efficacy of PDT using the Ar-dye laser. Following PDT using a YAG-OPO laser, an increase in the vessel lumen was seen due to reduction of the hypertrophic intima and media, without the appearance of inflammatory cells. This result was seen more strongly in PDT using the pulse wave YAG-OPO laser than with the continuous wave Ar-dye laser, affecting not just the intima but also the media. These data demonstrated that PDT can effectively regress atherosclerotic lesions.

  13. Development and validation of a population based risk algorithm for obesity: The Obesity Population Risk Tool (OPoRT). (United States)

    Lebenbaum, Michael; Espin-Garcia, Osvaldo; Li, Yi; Rosella, Laura C


    Given the dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity, greater focus on prevention is necessary. We sought to develop and validate a population risk tool for obesity to inform prevention efforts. We developed the Obesity Population Risk Tool (OPoRT) using the longitudinal National Population Health Survey and sex-specific Generalized Estimating Equations to predict the 10-year risk of obesity among adults 18 and older. The model was validated using a bootstrap approach accounting for the survey design. Model performance was measured by the Brier statistic, discrimination was measured by the C-statistic, and calibration was assessed using the Hosmer-Lemeshow Goodness of Fit Chi Square (HL χ2). Predictive factors included baseline body mass index, age, time and their interactions, smoking status, living arrangements, education, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and ethnicity. OPoRT showed good performance for males and females (Brier 0.118 and 0.095, respectively), excellent discrimination (C statistic ≥ 0.89) and achieved calibration (HL χ2 <20). OPoRT is a valid and reliable algorithm that can be applied to routinely collected survey data to estimate the risk of obesity and identify groups at increased risk of obesity. These results can guide prevention efforts aimed at reducing the population burden of obesity.

  14. CW ND:YAG laser welding of dissimilar sheet metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, M


    Full Text Available A 4kW CW Nd:YAG laser was used for lap welding of three different dissimilar sheet metal combinations, namely 316L S/S - Ti64, 316L S/S - Al 5251 and Al 1200 – Cu (99.85%). A welding matrix of laser power, travel speed and spot sizes...

  15. IOT RF Power Sources for Pulsed and CW Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlen, H P


    For many years, klystrons have been the preferred RF power amplifiers for both pulsed and CW linacs at UHF and higher frequencies. Their properties have earned them that position. But in recent years in UHF terrestrial television transmitters the earlier predominant klystron has been replaced the Inductive Output Tube (IOT) because the IOT provides higher efficiency and, due to its excellent linearity, can handle the simultaneous amplification of both the vision and the sound signal. Its robustness and life expectancy equals that of a klystron, and it more than compensates its lower gain by a lower price and a smaller size. For linac operation, derivates of UHF TV IOTs, capable of up to 80 kW CW output power, are already available and operating. In L-Band, they are presently joined by recently developed 15 to 30 kW CW IOTs. HOM-IOTs are expected to extend the CW range in UHF to 1 MW and beyond. Pulsed operation of an IOT can be achieved without a high-voltage modulator. Since the beam current is grid-controll...

  16. SAR: A novel application for FM-CW radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Hoogeboom, P.


    For small-scale earth observation applications, there ia a special interest in low-cost, high-resolution imaging radars small, enough to be operated from small, possibly unmanned aircraft. The combination of FM-CW technology and the high resolution of SAR systems should result in such a small,

  17. Applications of KHZ-CW Lidar in Ecological Entomology (United States)

    Malmqvist, Elin; Brydegaard, Mikkel


    The benefits of kHz lidar in ecological entomology are explained. Results from kHz-measurements on insects, carried out with a CW-lidar system, employing the Scheimpflug principle to obtain range resolution, are presented. A method to extract insect events and analyze the large amount of lidar data is also described.

  18. Large scale CW ECRH systems: Meeting a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erckmann, V.; Kasparek, W.; Plaum, B.; Lechte, C.; Petelin, M.I.; Bruschi, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Bin, W.; Braune, H.; Braber, R. van den; Doelman, N.J.; Gantenbein, G.; Laqua, H.P.; Lubiako, L.; Marushchenko, N.B.; Michel, G.; Thumm, M.; Stuttgart, I.


    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) systems for next step-fusion devices like W7-X and ITER operate in CW-mode and provide a large flexibility to comply with various physics demands such as plasma start-up, heating and current drive, as well as configuration and MHD control. The request for

  19. 110 km transmission of 160 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK signals by midspan polarization-insensitive optical phase conjugation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.


    and difference frequency generation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. Error-free operation with a negligible optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty for the signal after the OPC transmission without and with polarization scrambling was achieved. The results also show the polarization insensitivity of the OPC system using...

  20. Structural changes upon lithium insertion in Ni{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essehli, R., E-mail: [SUBATECH, Unite Mixte de Recherche 6457, Ecole des mines de Nantes, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite de Nantes, BP 20722, 44307 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry (LMSAC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, PO. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); El Bali, B., E-mail: [Laboratory of Mineral Solid and Analytical Chemistry (LMSAC), Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University Mohamed I, PO. Box 717, 60000 Oujda (Morocco); Faik, A. [CIC energigune, Parque Tecnologico de Alava, Albert Einstein 48, 01510 Minano, Alava (Spain); Benmokhtar, S. [LCMS, Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Solides, Departement de chimie, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' SIK, Casablanca (Morocco); Manoun, B. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Materiaux, Departement de Chimie, FST Errachidia, University Moulay Ismail, B.P. 509 Boutalamine, Errachidia (Morocco); Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.J.; Zhou, Z. [Institute of New Energy Material Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Fuess, H. [Materials Science, Darmstadt University of Technology, Petersenstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany)


    Graphical abstract: Ex situ X-ray diffraction patterns for the chemical lithium insertion in, Ni{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4}:Li{sub x} phases as a function of Li amount (x). The results show formation of two phases (I) and (II) during the process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nickel titanium oxyphosphate Ni{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} (NTP), was prepared by solid state reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The NTP electrode delivered a capacity of 530 mAh/g, upon cycling within 0.8-4 V. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction was achieved to elucidate the electrochemical reaction mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High capacity equivalent to the intercalation of more than 3.5 lithium ions per Ni{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Nickel titanium oxyphosphate Ni{sub 0.5}TiOPO{sub 4} (NTP), was prepared by co-precipitation route. Its structure was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic system, S.G: P2{sub 1}/c [a = 7.333(1) Angstrom-Sign , b = 7.316(2) Angstrom-Sign , c = 7.339(2) Angstrom-Sign , {beta} = 119.62(3) Degree-Sign , Z = 4, R{sub 1} = 0.0142, wR{sub 2} = 0.0429]. The structure might be described as a {l_brace}TiOPO{sub 4}{r_brace} framework made of corner-sharing [TiO{sub 6}] octahedra chains running parallel to [0 0 1] and cross linked by phosphate [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedral, where half of octahedral cavities created are occupied by Ni atoms, and the other half of octahedral sites are vacant. During the first discharge, the NTP electrode delivered a capacity of 530 mAh/g, upon cycling within 0.5-4 V. To understand the electrochemical reaction mechanism using different characterization techniques viz. in situ synchrotron diffraction. Reciprocal magnetic susceptibility ({chi}{sup -1}) of NTP, between 4 and 300 K, shows an almost linear behavior and can be fitted by the simple Curie-Weiss law.

  1. An experimental pathologic study of gingivectomy using dual-wavelength laser equipment with OPO. (United States)

    Amagai, Tetsuya; Kato, Junji; Haruyama, Chikahiro; Ohsuka, Keigo; Takase, Yasuaki; Hirai, Yoshito


    This study was conducted to evaluate how soft tissues respond to treatment by a tunable laser with an optical parametric oscillating (OPO) mechanism capable of simultaneously emitting two wavelengths. Marginal gingiva of dogs was incised by a prototype laser oscillator. The oscillator was set at two wavelengths known to effectively incise tissue and arrest hemorrhage with minimal invasiveness. Four laser irradiation conditions were set based on different combinations of the 1.67 and 2.94 microm wavelengths. The animals were sacrificed immediately after surgery, 7 days after surgery, and 28 days after surgery for histological examination. When irradiation at 1.67 and 2.94 microm wavelengths was simultaneously applied, the former conferred an observable hemostatic effect and the latter incised the tissue. Wound healing was similar to that in conventional methods and no serious inflammation was observed. Simultaneous irradiation at wavelengths of 1.67 and 2.94 microm can be an effective method in soft tissue surgery. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Molecular and atomic ultra trace analysis by laser induced fluorescence with OPO system and ICCD camera. (United States)

    Burel, L; Giamarchi, P; Stephan, L; Lijour, Y; Le Bihan, A


    This paper presents a synthesis of some analytical potentialities of an equipment designed for both laser induced molecular and atomic fluorescence in the field of ultra-trace analysis (ng l(-1)). Excitation of fluorescence was performed with a pulsed Nd:Yag laser coupled to an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Fluorescence spectra were recorded with a spectrograph and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD). The high energy and the tunability of the excitation combined with the sensitivity of the ICCD and the time-resolution provide better limit of detection (LOD) and selectivity. By molecular fluorescence, some major organic contaminants in the environment were studied, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo[a]pyrene and hydroxypyrene) and a pesticide (carbaryl). The LODs achieved by direct analysis were far below the restricted European values for tap water. Analysis was performed in water containing humic acids using time resolution to avoid the matrix fluorescence. By electro thermal atomisation-laser excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF), we detected traces of aluminium and lead in seawater. Some general considerations about the signal to noise ratio optimisation are reported. LODs reached the femtogram level.

  3. Phase sensitive degenerate parametric amplification using directly-bonded PPLN ridge waveguides. (United States)

    Umeki, Takeshi; Tadanaga, Osamu; Takada, Atsushi; Asobe, Masaki


    We constructed the first CW pumped degenerate parametric amplifier based on periodically poled and ZnO-doped LiNbO3 ridge waveguides. An in-phase gain of + 11 dB was achieved owing to the high conversion efficiency and high damage resistance of the waveguide obtained by employing direct bonding and dry etching techniques. Nearly identical amplification and deamplification were obtained owing to a sufficient spatial and temporal overlap between the pump and signal beams. No secondary wavelength conversion process was observed, and a maximum output of 22 dBm was obtained. We also successfully demonstrated the phase sensitive amplification of a modulated signal light.

  4. Motion Compensation for a High Resolution Ka-Band Airborne FM-CW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A; Lorga, J.F.M.; Wit, J.J.M. de; Hoogeboom, P.


    Airborne synthetic aperture radar is a promising new application for FM-CW radars. At the IRCTR, an operational demonstrator system has been developed in order to investigate the practicability of FM-CW SAR and to prove that an FM-CW SAR system can be operated in an efficient manner from a small

  5. Performance Analysis of a High Resolution Airborne FM-CW Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Hoogeboom, P.


    Compact FM-CW technology combined with high resolution SAR techniques should pave the way for a small and cost effective imaging radar. A research project has been inìtiated to investigate the feasibility of FM-CW SAR. Within the framework of the project an operational airborne FM-CW SAR


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Rimmer


    Steady development in SRF accelerator technology combined with the success of large scale installations such as CEBAF at Jefferson Laboratory and the SNS Linac at ORNL gives credibility to the concept of very high average power CW machines for light sources or Proton drivers. Such machines would be powerful tools for discovery science in themselves but could also pave the way to reliable cost effective drivers for such applications as neutrino factories, an energy-frontier muon collider, nuclear waste transmutation or accelerator driven subcritical reactors for energy production. In contrast to machines such as ILC that need maximum accelerating gradient, the challenges in these machines are mainly in efficiency, reliability, beam stability, beam loss and of course cost. In this paper the present state of the art is briefly reviewed and options for a multi-GeV, multi-MW CW linac are discussed.

  7. LOT-G3: Plasma Lamp, Ozonator and CW transmitter

    CERN Document Server

    Gobato, Ricardo; Gobato, Alekssander


    The LOT-G3 is designed to be a versatile equipment that perform several simple experiments for use in helping the physics classes for high school. Easy construction, low cost, using easily accessible materials. Its construction involves simple practices and knowledge of electromagnetism. It has the function of a plasma globe to demonstrate the ionization of a low pressure gas, as well as the formation of magnetic field. Can be used as sanitizer closed environments such as automotive vehicles in ozonator function, demonstrating the ionization of oxygen in the atmosphere, producing ozone, essential to life on earth. And as a sparks transmitter, low power, low frequency modulated continuous wave in (CW), for signals in Morse code. Therefore the equipment here called LOT-G3, has three functions: a plasma lamp, ozonator and CW transmitter.

  8. CW-to-pulse conversion using temporal Talbot array illuminators. (United States)

    Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R; Maram, Reza; Azaña, José


    We report on the linear conversion of continuous-wave (CW) laser light to optical pulses using temporal Talbot array illuminators (TAIs) with fractional orders 1/q(q≤10), implemented by use of multilevel PM and dispersive propagation in a chirped fiber Bragg grating. The generated, sub-nanosecond optical pulse trains have repetition rates in the gigahertz range and show the presence of satellite pulses originated by the finite electrical modulation bandwidth (7.5 GHz). Though this fact impacts the resulting extinction ratio, an experimental comparison with time and Fresnel lenses indicates that temporal TAIs represent compact systems with high light gathering efficiency (>87%) at moderate values of compression (q≤8), which can be tailored in repetition rate, gain, or width, through the fractional Talbot order for its use in pulse compression systems fed by CW light.

  9. Laser Photon Force Measurements using a CW Laser (United States)

    Gray, Perry; Edwards, David L.; Carruth, M. Ralph, Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)


    The photon force resulting from the non-damaging impact of laser derived photons on a metallic target was measured using a vacuum compatible microbalance. This experiment quantitatively verified that the force resulting from laser photons impacting a reflective surface is measurable and predictable. The photon wavelength is 1064 mn and the laser is a multi-mode 30OW Nd YAG continuous wave (CW) laser.

  10. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Carol J. [Fermilab; Taylor, J. [Huddersfield U.; Edgecock, R. [Huddersfield U.; Schulte, R. [Loma Linda U.


    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, a joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.

  11. Tunable single-to-dual channel wavelength conversion in an ultra-wideband SC-PPLN. (United States)

    Ahlawat, Meenu; Bostani, Ameneh; Tehranchi, Amirhossein; Kashyap, Raman


    We experimentally demonstrate tunable dual channel broadcasting of a signal over the C-band for wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical networks. This is based on cascaded χ(2) nonlinear mixing processes in a specially engineered, 20-mm-long step-chirped periodically poled lithium niobate with a broad 28-nm second harmonic (SH) bandwidth in the 1.55-μm spectral range. A 10-GHz picosecond mode-locked laser was used as a signal along with a CW pump to generate two pulsed idlers, which are simultaneously tuned across the C-band by detuning of the pump wavelength within the broad SH bandwidth. Variable-input, variable-output scheme of tuned idlers is successfully achieved by tuning the signal wavelength. Pump or signal wavelength tuning of ~10 nm results in the idlers spreading across 30 nm in the C-band.

  12. High-repetition-rate, widely tunable terahertz generation in GaSe pumped by a dual-wavelength KTP-OPO (United States)

    Yan, Dexian; Xu, Degang; Wang, Yuye; Shi, Wei; Zhong, Kai; Liu, Pengxiang; Yan, Chao; Sheng, Quan; Mei, Jialin; Shi, Jia; Yao, Jianquan


    High-repetition-rate, monochromatic and tunable terahertz (THz) source is demonstrated. We use an orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength intracavity OPO to complete the type-II phase-matched collinear difference-frequency generation in GaSe. A high average-power 2 μm laser with 12 W output power and good beam quality based on an intracavity KTP OPO is experimentally designed. The KTP OPO is intracavity pumped by an acousto-optical Q-switched side-pumped Nd:YAG with the repetition rate of 10 kHz. Two identical KTP crystals were 7 × 8 × 15 mm3 in size, cut at θ = 51.2°, φ = 0°, which were tuned in the x-z plane to achieve type-II phase-matching. The KTP OPO consists of two identical KTP crystals to reduce the walk-off effect and improve the beam overlap area of the output signal and idler waves. The pulse-width of the 2-μm KTP OPO laser is about 11 ns with the linewidth about 0.8 nm. The focused OPO beam is injected into the uncoated GaSe with the length of 8 mm, and the generated THz wave is detected with a 4.2-K Si-bolometer after focusing with a polyethylene lens. The tunable and coherent radiation from 0.2 to 3 THz has been achieved based on the type-II phase-matching DFG when the two pump waves are in the range of 2.1064 - 2.1272 μm and 2.1516 - 2.1304 μm while symmetrically tuning the phase-matching angle of the KTPs. The maximum output THz average power can reach μW-level around 1.48 THz.

  13. Narrow linewidth 578 nm light generation using frequency-doubling with a waveguide PPLN pumped by an optical injection-locked diode laser. (United States)

    Kim, Eok Bong; Lee, Won-Kyu; Park, Chang Yong; Yu, Dai-Hyuk; Park, Sang Eon


    This study demonstrates 578 nm yellow light generation with a narrow linewidth using a waveguide periodically poled lithium niboate (PPLN) and an optical injection-locked diode laser. The frequency of an external cavity diode laser used as a master laser operating at 1156 nm in optical injection-locking mode was locked into a high-finesse cavity with the Pound-Drever-Hall technique, which results in a linewidth reduction of the master laser. The linewidth of the master laser was estimated to be approximately 1.6 kHz. In an effort to amplify the optical power, a distributed feed-back laser was phase-locked to the master laser by an optical injection-locking technique. A waveguide PPLN was used for second harmonic generation. Frequency-doubled yellow light of approximately 2.4 mW was obtained with a conversion efficiency of 6.5%. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  14. Pulsed orange generation optimized in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using monolithic dual PPLN electro-optic Q switches. (United States)

    Chang, W K; Chen, Y H; Chang, J W


    We report a pulsed intracavity sum-frequency generator in a diode-pumped, dual-wavelength Nd:YVO(4) laser whose operation was optimized with two electro-optic Q switches built in a monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal. The dual PPLN Q switches, though integrated, are able to work separately at their respective working wavelengths of 1064 and 1342 nm. At 4.8 W diode pump power and 5 kHz Q-switching rate, a maximum orange (593 nm) output peak power of >480 W was achieved in this laser system using the Q-switch opening-time offset technique. This power is approximately 1.7 times higher than that obtained with the system operated in a conventional single-Q-switch mode.

  15. Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion of 320 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK signals using a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.


    Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a single channel 320 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK data signal using a Ti:PPLN waveguide in a bi-directional loop configuration with less than 0.5 dB polarization sensitivity is reported. The conversion efficiency with polarization scrambling of the signal was -21...... dB, which includes 9.2 dB of passive losses in the whole Ti:PPLN subsystem. In BER measurements error-free operation with 2 dB OSNR penalty for the converted signal was achieved. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the temporal shape and chirp of the converted data pulses show only very...

  16. Cooperative Clinical Trial of Photodynamic Therapy for Early Gastric Cancer With Photofrin Injection® and YAG-OPO Laser (United States)

    Narahara, Hiroyuki; Hirashima, Toshio; Fukutomi, Hisayuki; Nakahara, Akira; Kashimura, Hiromasa; Matsui, Hirofumi; Tanimura, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yugo; Suzuki, Shigeru; Murata, Yoko; Yoshida, Kazunari; Isono, Kaichi; Kozu, Teruo; Ide, Hiroko; Kato, Harubumi


    Background and Objective: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) treats malignant tumors using photosensitizers and light. We employed a new pulse laser as the excitation light source for PDT, i.e. an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) system pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, because it provides extremely high peak power. Study Design/Materials and Methods: The effects of PDT using the photosensitizer Photofrin® and the new laser were evaluated in 12 patients with early gastric cancer. Results: Complete responses (CR) were obtained in 75% of 12 assessable patients, CR was observed in all cases with mucosal carcinoma (response rate 100%). Regarding toxicity, mild photosensitivity was seen in one case and it lasted several weeks. The other major side effect was decrease of total protein, which was observed in six patients (40%), lasting several months. There were no serious abnormalities in symptoms or laboratory tests. Conclusion: We conclude that the YAG-OPO laser is suitable as an excitation light source for PDT. PMID:18493468

  17. Crystal growth, electronic structure and luminescence properties of Nb/Yb co-doped RbTiOPO4 crystals (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Ziqing; Zhu, Pengfei; Duan, Xiulan


    Nb/Yb co-doped RbTiOPO4 (RTP) crystals were successfully grown by a top-seeded solution growth method from two different kinds of flux systems. 5%Nb/3%Yb: RTP crystal with more transparency was obtained from the mixed solvent containing MoO3. The chemical composition was analyzed by Electron Probe Microanalyzer (EPMA), and the result indicated that co-doping of Nb and Yb into RTP can greatly increase the concentration of Yb in RTP crystal. The addition of MoO3 into self-flux system can improve the quality of as-grown crystals, but it is not helpful to introduce Yb into crystal. The electronic structures of Nb/Yb: RTP crystals were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS). The results show that the binding energy difference between O 1s and P 2p levels (ΔBE (O-P)) increases firstly with the increase of Yb content, and then decreases with Nb content increasing, which is associated with the covalency change of O-P bonds in crystals. However, the doping has little influence on the chemical bond properties of O-Ti. The FL spectra of Nb/Yb: RbTiOPO4 crystals were also analyzed, and five emission peaks characteristic of Yb3+ ions were observed.

  18. Compact 1.3 W green laser by intracavity frequency doubling of a multi-edge-emitter laser bar using a MgO:PPLN crystal. (United States)

    Li, Kang; Yao, Aiyun; Copner, N J; Gawith, C B E; Knight, Ian G; Pfeiffer, Hans-Ulrich; Musk, Bob


    A compact green laser of 1.3 W output at 534.7 nm is generated by intracavity frequency doubling (ICFD) of a 49 edge-emitter laser bar using a MgO-doped (PPLN) bulk crystal. The measured M(2) values of green beam are 12.1 and 2.9 along the slow and fast axes, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the ICFD of multi-edge-emitters laser bar.

  19. Broadly tunable mode-hop-free mid-infrared light source with MgO:PPLN continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator. (United States)

    Hong, Xiaoping; Shen, Xinglai; Gong, Mali; Wang, Feng


    We report a continuous-wave, broadly tunable mid-infrared MgO:PPLN optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber amplifier. Using pump tuning with synchronized temperature optimization, we achieve the broadest mode-hop-free (MHF) tuning of idler light over 30 cm(-1). We further use this tunable mid-infrared laser to demonstrate high-resolution absorption spectroscopy of methane across the MHF tuning range.

  20. Design and calibration of a CW coherent laser radar (United States)

    Claesson, T.; Gullberg, K.; Letalick, D.; Renhorn, I.; Steinvall, O.; Widen, A.


    The design, calibration and performance of a CW coherent laser radar testbed system is described. Detector responsiveness and detector noise in a heterodyne system is considered. A detailed evaluation of beam propagation and phase front matching is given. The final system is supplemented with a digital image memory, a galvanometer scanner and a boresighted TV camera. Analysis of images obtained indoors from a diffuse reference target reveal the well known Rayleigh statistics for the signal amplitude and speckle "cells' which on the average have a diameter equal to the tranceiver aperture. The influence of atmospheric turbulence on transmitter beam size and signal fluctuations is studied over a 500 m path.

  1. Double-prism domain PPLN for simultaneous laser Q-switching and optical parametric oscillation in a Nd:YVO4 laser. (United States)

    Huang, J F; Chang, W K; Chung, H P; Huang, S S; Chang, J W; Chen, Y H


    We report a design and demonstration of an electro-optically Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) based on a unique ramped duty-cycle periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) in a diode-pumped 1064-nm Nd:YVO(4) laser. The PPLN crystal, having a double-prism domain (DPD) structure with a domain period of 30 μm, can work simultaneously as an electro-optic (EO) beam deflector (and therefore an EO Q-switch in the laser cavity) and an optical parametric down converter. The characterized deflection sensitivity of the DPD PPLN device was 1.15°/kV-cm. At a 180-V Q-switching voltage and a 1-kHz switching rate, we measured a down-converted signal at 1550 nm with pulse energy of >8.1 μJ (or peak power of >2.3 kW) from the constructed IOPO at 7.5-W diode pump power. Continuous wavelength tuning of the IOPO signal was also demonstrated.

  2. Performance of MgO:PPLN, KTA, and KNbO₃ for mid-wave infrared broadband parametric amplification at high average power. (United States)

    Baudisch, M; Hemmer, M; Pires, H; Biegert, J


    The performance of potassium niobate (KNbO₃), MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:PPLN), and potassium titanyl arsenate (KTA) were experimentally compared for broadband mid-wave infrared parametric amplification at a high repetition rate. The seed pulses, with an energy of 6.5 μJ, were amplified using 410 μJ pump energy at 1064 nm to a maximum pulse energy of 28.9 μJ at 3 μm wavelength and at a 160 kHz repetition rate in MgO:PPLN while supporting a transform limited duration of 73 fs. The high average powers of the interacting beams used in this study revealed average power-induced processes that limit the scaling of optical parametric amplification in MgO:PPLN; the pump peak intensity was limited to 3.8  GW/cm² due to nonpermanent beam reshaping, whereas in KNbO₃ an absorption-induced temperature gradient in the crystal led to permanent internal distortions in the crystal structure when operated above a pump peak intensity of 14.4  GW/cm².

  3. Two-dimensional PPLN for simultaneous laser Q-switching and optical parametric oscillation in a Nd:YVO4 laser. (United States)

    Chang, W K; Chen, Y H; Chang, H H; Chang, J W; Chen, C Y; Lin, Y Y; Huang, Y C; Lin, S T


    We report on a tunable intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) achieved using a two-dimensional (2D) periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) as simultaneously an electro-optic (EO) Bragg Q-switch and an optical frequency mixer (OFM) in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO(4) laser. The 2D periodic domain inversion structure is designed to provide two orthogonal reciprocal vectors to respectively satisfy the phase-matching conditions required by the two quasi-phase-matching devices (i.e., the PPLN EO Bragg deflector and the PPLN OFM). At a ~140-V Q-switching voltage and a 1-kHz switching rate, we obtained a signal wave at 1550 nm with a pulse energy of 9.7 μJ (corresponding to a peak power of ~2.4 kW) from the IOPO at 9.1-W diode pump power. Simultaneously we also observed multi-wavelength generation from the system originating in the single-pass parametric conversions in the 2D nonlinear photonic crystal structure. Temperature tuning of the IOPO signal wavelength in the eye-safe region was also demonstrated. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  4. The CW domain, a structural module shared amongst vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants. (United States)

    Perry, Jason; Zhao, Yunde


    A previously undetected domain, named CW for its conserved cysteine and tryptophan residues, appears to be a four-cysteine zinc-finger motif found exclusively in vertebrates, vertebrate-infecting parasites and higher plants. Of the twelve distinct nuclear protein families that comprise the CW domain-containing superfamily, only the microrchida (MORC) family has begun to be characterized. However, several families contain other domains suggesting a relationship between the CW domain and either chromatin methylation status or early embryonic development.

  5. Self-phase-locked frequency-by-two divider OPO with a residual fractional frequency instability of 8.1O(-18)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, P.; Klein, M.E.; Boller, Klaus J.


    We directly measure the phase difference between the subharmonic waves of a self-phase-locked frequency by-2-divider OPO using a phase-sensitive detector scheme. The relative frequency instability of frequency division by 2 is measured to be 8.10(-18)

  6. Solid state P-31 MAS NMR spectroscopy and conductivity measurements on NbOPO4 and H3PO4 composite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risskov Sørensen, Daniel; Nielsen, U. G.; Skou, E. M.


    A systematic study of composite powders of niobium oxide phosphate (NbOPO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) has been performed in order to characterize the material's ability to perform as an electrolyte material in medium temperature fuel cells and electrolyzers. Powders of H3PO4 contents between 13...

  7. Evaluation of a unique cw laser in radial thermokeratoplasty (United States)

    Smithpeter, Colin L.; Welch, Ashley J.; Rylander, Henry G., III


    A unique continuous wave (cw) holmium laser ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers , Rare Earth Medical) has been evaluated as a new heating modality for thermokeratoplasty. Thermokeratoplasty is a refractive surgical procedure for the correction of hyperopia which uses selective heating to reshape the cornea. The holmium laser is highly effective in this procedure due to the high absorption coefficient ((mu) a equals 27.55 cm-1) of the cornea at 2.09 micrometers . The depth of corneal photocoagulation has been evaluated with histological studies of enucleated porcine eyes that were irradiated with the cw Ho:YAG laser. Laser power and exposure time ranged from 300 mW to 800 mW and 100 ms to 800 ms, respectively. The laser was delivered to the eyes via a 600 micrometers low-OH optical fiber. Coagulation depth was determined by birefringence microscopy of the corneal sections. Our studies also compared the effects of contact and non-contact irradiation and found significant advantages with the contact mode. The optimal laser parameters determined from the histology studies were used for in vivo rabbit studies to quantify the refractive correction possible. One coagulation was placed on each of sixteen equiangular rays taken from a central, clear, optical zone in the cornea with a diameter of 7 mm. Refractive changes in the central cornea were quantified with a keratoscope. Initial procedures resulted in refractive changes up to five diopters. The keratoscope results showed a significant regression at three weeks post- operatively.

  8. An Acoustic Demonstration Model for CW and Pulsed Spectrosocopy Experiments (United States)

    Starck, Torben; Mäder, Heinrich; Trueman, Trevor; Jäger, Wolfgang


    High school and undergraduate students have often difficulties if new concepts are introduced in their physics or chemistry lectures. Lecture demonstrations and references to more familiar analogues can be of great help to the students in such situations. We have developed an experimental setup to demonstrate the principles of cw absorption and pulsed excitation - emission spectroscopies, using acoustical analogues. Our radiation source is a speaker and the detector is a microphone, both controlled by a computer sound card. The acoustical setup is housed in a plexiglas box, which serves as a resonator. It turns out that beer glasses are suitable samples; this also helps to keep the students interested! The instrument is controlled by a LabView program. In a cw experiment, the sound frequency is swept through a certain frequency range and the microphone response is recorded simultaneously as function of frequency. A background signal without sample is recorded, and background subtraction yields the beer glass spectrum. In a pulsed experiment, a short sound pulse is generated and the microphone is used to record the resulting emission signal of the beer glass. A Fourier transformation of the time domain signal gives then the spectrum. We will discuss the experimental setup and show videos of the experiments.

  9. Optimal Signal Processing of Frequency-Stepped CW Radar Data (United States)

    Ybarra, Gary A.; Wu, Shawkang M.; Bilbro, Griff L.; Ardalan, Sasan H.; Hearn, Chase P.; Neece, Robert T.


    An optimal signal processing algorithm is derived for estimating the time delay and amplitude of each scatterer reflection using a frequency-stepped CW system. The channel is assumed to be composed of abrupt changes in the reflection coefficient profile. The optimization technique is intended to maximize the target range resolution achievable from any set of frequency-stepped CW radar measurements made in such an environment. The algorithm is composed of an iterative two-step procedure. First, the amplitudes of the echoes are optimized by solving an overdetermined least squares set of equations. Then, a nonlinear objective function is scanned in an organized fashion to find its global minimum. The result is a set of echo strengths and time delay estimates. Although this paper addresses the specific problem of resolving the time delay between the first two echoes, the derivation is general in the number of echoes. Performance of the optimization approach is illustrated using measured data obtained from an HP-X510 network analyzer. It is demonstrated that the optimization approach offers a significant resolution enhancement over the standard processing approach that employs an IFFT. Degradation in the performance of the algorithm due to suboptimal model order selection and the effects of additive white Gaussion noise are addressed.

  10. Variable Power, Short Microwave Pulses Generation using a CW Magnetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIUPA, R.


    Full Text Available Fine control of microwave power radiation in medical and scientific applications is a challenging task. Since a commercial Continuous Wave (CW magnetron is the most inexpensive microwave device available today on the market, it becomes the best candidate for a microwave power generator used in medical diathermy and hyperthermia treatments or high efficiency chemical reactions using microwave reactors as well. This article presents a new method for driving a CW magnetron with short pulses, using a modified commercial Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS inverter, software driven by a custom embedded system. The microwave power generator designed with this method can be programmed for output microwave pulses down to 1% of the magnetron's power and allows microwave low frequency pulse modulation in the range of human brain electrical activity, intended for medical applications. Microwave output power continuous control is also possible with the magnetron running in the oscillating area, using a dual frequency Pulse Width Modulation (PWM, where the low frequency PWM pulse is modulating a higher resonant frequency required by the ZVS inverter's transformer. The method presented allows a continuous control of both power and energy (duty-cycle at the inverter's output.

  11. Demonstration of a 100mJ OPO/OPA for future lidar applications and LIDT testing of optical components for MERLIN (United States)

    Elsen, F.; Livrozet, M.; Strotkamp, M.; Wüppen, J.; Jungbluth, Bernd; Kasemann, R.; Löhring, J.; Meissner, A.; Meyer, Rudolf; Hoffmann, D.; Poprawe, R.


    In the field of atmospheric research, LIDAR is a powerful technology that can measure gas or aerosol concentrations, wind speed or temperature profiles remotely. To conduct such measurements globally, spaceborne systems are advantageous. Pulse energies in the 100 mJ range are required to achieve highly accurate, longitudinal resolved measurements. Measuring concentrations of specific gases, such as CH4 or CO2, requires output wavelengths in the IRB, which can be addressed by optical parametric frequency conversion. An OPO/OPA frequency conversion setup was designed and built as a demonstration module to address the 1.6 μm range. The pump laser is an Nd:YAG-MOPA system, consisting of a stable oscillator and two subsequent Innoslab-based amplifier stages that deliver up to 500 mJ of output pulse energy at 100 Hz repetition frequency. The OPO is inherited from the OPO design for the CH4 lidar instrument on the French-German climate satellite MERLIN. In order to address the 100 mJ regime, the OPO output beam is amplified in a subsequent multistage OPA. With KTP as nonlinear medium, the OPO/OPA delivered more than 100 mJ of output energy at 1645 nm from 450 mJ of the pump energy and a pump pulse duration of 30 ns. This corresponds to a quantum conversion efficiency of about 25 %. Besides demonstrating optical performance for future lidar systems, this laser will be part of a LIDT test facility, which will be used to qualify optical components especially for the MERLIN mission.

  12. A narrow-linewidth, frequency-stabilized OPO for sub-Doppler molecular spectroscopy around 3 μm (United States)

    Ricciardi, Iolanda; De Tommasi, Eduardo; Maddaloni, Pasquale; Mosca, Simona; Rocco, Alessandra; Zondy, Jean-Jacques; De Rosa, Maurizio; De Natale, Paolo


    We present a widely-tunable, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator, emitting more than 1 W in the region between 2.7 and 4.2 μm. Two configurations have been studied in order to improve the frequency stability and the linewidth of the OPO emission. First, we stabilized the signal frequency to a high-finesse Fabry-Perot cavity. Then, we locked both pump and signal frequency to the frequency comb generated by a NIR fs mode-locked fibre laser, linked to the caesium primary standard. With this last configuration we carried out saturation spectroscopy of several transitions belonging to the ν1 rovibrational band of CH3I, resolving their electronic quadrupole hyperfine structure, and determining the absolute frequency of the hyperfine components with a 50-kHz-uncertainty. An upper limit for the idler linewidth has been estimated as 200 kHz FWHM.

  13. Slot-coupled CW standing wave accelerating cavity (United States)

    Wang, Shaoheng; Rimmer, Robert; Wang, Haipeng


    A slot-coupled CW standing wave multi-cell accelerating cavity. To achieve high efficiency graded beta acceleration, each cell in the multi-cell cavity may include different cell lengths. Alternatively, to achieve high efficiency with acceleration for particles with beta equal to 1, each cell in the multi-cell cavity may include the same cell design. Coupling between the cells is achieved with a plurality of axially aligned kidney-shaped slots on the wall between cells. The slot-coupling method makes the design very compact. The shape of the cell, including the slots and the cone, are optimized to maximize the power efficiency and minimize the peak power density on the surface. The slots are non-resonant, thereby enabling shorter slots and less power loss.

  14. Apsidal Motion Study of Close Binary System CW Cephei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonyong Han


    Full Text Available New observations for the times of minimum lights of a well-known apsidal motion star CW Cephei were made using a 0.6 m wide field telescope at Jincheon station of Chungbuk National University Observatory, Korea during the 2015 observational season. We determined new times of minimum lights from these observations and analyzed O-C diagrams together with collected times of minima to study both the apsidal motion and the Light Time Effect (LTE suggested in the system. The new periods of the apsidal motion and the LTE were calculated as 46.6 and 39.3 years, respectively, which were similar but improved accuracy than earlier ones investigated by Han et al. (2002, Erdem et al. (2004 and Wolf et al. (2006.

  15. Concepts for the JLab Ampere-Class CW Cryomodule

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Robert; Henry, James; Hicks, William R; Preble, Joseph P; Stirbet, Mircea; Wang, Haipeng; Wilson, Katherine; Wu, Genfa


    We describe the concepts and developments underway at JLab as part of the program to develop a new CW cryomodule capable of transporting ampere-level beam currents in a compact FEL. Requirements include real-estate gradient of at least 10 MV/m and very strong HOM damping to push BBU thresholds up by two or more orders of magnitude compared to existing designs. Cavity shape, HOM damping, power couplers, tuners etc. are being designed and optimized for this application. Cavity considerations include a large iris for beam halo, low-RF losses, HOM frequencies and Q's, low peak surface fields, field flatness and microphonics. Module considerations include high packing factor, low static heat leak, image current heating of beam-line components, cost and maintainability. This module is being developed for the next generation ERL based high power FELs but may be useful for other applications such as electron cooling, electron-ion colliders, industrial processing etc.

  16. Operational experience with CW high gradient and high QL cryomodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovater, J. Curt [JLAB; Allison, Trent L. [JLAB; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna [JLAB; Daly, Edward F. [JLAB; Drury, Michael A. [JLAB; Lahti, George E. [JLAB; Mounts, Clyde I. [JLAB; Nelson, Richard M. [JLAB; Plawski, Tomasz E. [JLAB


    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) energy upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV includes the installation of ten new 100 MV cryomodules (80 cavities). The superconducting RF cavities are designed to operate CW at an accelerating gradient of 19.3 MV/m with a QL of 3×107. The RF system employs single cavity control using new digital LLRF controls and 13 kW klystrons. Recently, all of the new cryomodules and associated RF hardware and software have been commissioned and operated in the CEBAF accelerator. Electrons at linac currents up to 10 ?A have been successfully accelerated and used for nuclear physics experiments. This paper reports on the commissioning and operation of the cryomodules and RF system.

  17. Effect of Nd 3+concentration on CW and pulsed performance of fiber ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of Nd3+ concentration on the CW and Q-switched laser performances at 1064 nm from Nd : YVO4 has been studied under diode laser pumping in identical laser configuration. The Nd3+ concentrations used were 1, 2 and 3 at. % in YVO4 crystals. Under the CW operations we have compared the thermal lensing ...

  18. Airborne FM-CW SAR and Integrated Navigation System Data Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorga, J.F.M.; Meta, A.; Wit, J.J.M. de; Mulder, J.A.


    The combination of compact FM-CW radar technology and high resolution SAR pro- cessing techniques should pave the way for the development of a small and cost e®ective imaging radar with high resolution. However, airborne SAR is a very novel application for FM-CW radars. In order to investigate the

  19. Modified Range-Doppler Processing for FM-CW Synthetic Aperture Radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, J.J.M. de; Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.


    The combination of compact frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FM-CW) technology and high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processing techniques should pave the way for the development of a lightweight, cost-effective, high-resolution, airborne imaging radar. Regarding FM-CW SAR signal

  20. Development of a High Resolution Airborne Millimeter Wave FM-CW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Wit, J.J.M. de; Hoogeboom, P.


    The combination of compact FM-CW radar technology and high resolution SAR processing techniques should pave the way for the development of a small, lightweight and cost effective imaging radar. In the field of airborne earth observation, SAR is however a novel application for FM-CW radars. At IRCTR

  1. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 11, 2016 ... assumption of the different modes to be in thermal equilibrium. Moore et al [8] and Tychinskii [9] were the first to independently propose these rate equations for the CW CO2 laser. Tyte [10] used such a model to calculate population densities of the vibration lev- els of a CW CO2 laser, in the non-lasing case.

  2. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1VLCA-1CW1A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  3. High-power pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers (United States)

    Marshall, Larry R.; Hays, A. D.; Kaz, Alex; Kasinski, Jeff; Burnham, R. L.


    The operation of both pulsed and CW diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers are presented. The pulsed laser produced 1.0 mJ with pulsewidths of 90 psec at 20 Hz. The CW pumped laser produced 6 W output at 1.064 microns and 3 W output at 532 nm.

  4. Detailed characterization of CW- and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillieholm, Mads; Galili, Michael; Grüner-Nielsen, L.


    We present a quantitative comparison of continuouswave- (CW) and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in commercially available highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), and suggest properties for which the CW and pulsed FWM bandwidths are limited in practice. The CWand pulsed-pump parametric gain is charac......We present a quantitative comparison of continuouswave- (CW) and pulsed-pump four-wave mixing (FWM) in commercially available highly nonlinear fibers (HNLFs), and suggest properties for which the CW and pulsed FWM bandwidths are limited in practice. The CWand pulsed-pump parametric gain...... bandwidth. However, an inverse scaling of the TOD with the dispersion fluctuations, leads to different CW-optimized fibers, which depend only on the even dispersion-orders....

  5. CW-pumped telecom band polarization entangled photon pair generation in a Sagnac interferometer


    Li, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen


    A polarization entangled photon pair source is widely used in many quantum information processing applications such as teleportation, quantum swapping, quantum computation and high precision quantum metrology. Here, we report on the generation of a continuous-wave pumped degenerated 1550 nm polarization entangled photon pair source at telecom wavelength using a type-II phase-matched periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal in a Sagnac interferometer. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type interference measurement sho...

  6. PPLN-based photon-pair source compatible with solid state quantum memories and telecom optical fibers (United States)

    Latypov, I. Z.; Shkalikov, A. V.; Akat'ev, D. O.; Kalachev, A. A.


    We report on the realization of a tunable source of correlated photon pairs compatible with telecommunication networks and quantum memories involving dielectric crystals doped by Nd3+ ions. The source is based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a 25 mm periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped by 532 nm cw laser. Spectral and correlation characteristics of the corresponding heralded single-photon source compatible with quantum memories are presented.

  7. High resolution time-to-space conversion of sub-picosecond pulses at 1.55µm by non-degenerate SFG in PPLN crystal. (United States)

    Shayovitz, Dror; Herrmann, Harald; Sohler, Wolfgang; Ricken, Raimund; Silberhorn, Christine; Marom, Dan M


    We demonstrate high resolution and increased efficiency background-free time-to-space conversion using spectrally resolved non-degenerate and collinear SFG in a bulk PPLN crystal. A serial-to-parallel resolution factor of 95 and a time window of 42 ps were achieved. A 60-fold increase in conversion efficiency slope compared with our previous work using a BBO crystal [D. Shayovitz and D. M. Marom, Opt. Lett. 36, 1957 (2011)] was recorded. Finally the measured 40 GHz narrow linewidth of the output SFG signal implies the possibility to extract phase information by employing coherent detection techniques.

  8. Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Lim, Han Chuen; Yoshizawa, Akio; Tsuchida, Hidemi; Kikuchi, Kazuro


    We demonstrate a stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide. Full quantum state tomographic measurement performed on the photon-pairs has revealed a very high state purity of 0.94, and an entanglement fidelity exceeding 0.96 at the low-rate-regime. At higher rates, entanglement quality degrades due to emission of multiple-pairs. Using a new model, we have confirmed that the observed degradation is largely due to double- and triple-pair emissions.

  9. 110 km transmission of 160 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK signals by midspan polarization-insensitive optical phase conjugation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, Rahman; Ludwig, Reinhold; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Suche, Hubertus; Sohler, Wolfgang; Schubert, Colja


    We demonstrate 160 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential quarternary phase-shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over a 110 km single-mode fiber by taking advantage of mid-span optical phase conjugation (OPC). The technique is based on nonlinear wavelength conversion by cascaded second harmonic and difference frequency generation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. Error-free operation with a negligible optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty for the signal after the OPC transmission without and with polarization scrambling was achieved. The results also show the polarization insensitivity of the OPC system using a polarization diversity scheme.

  10. 4.8 μm difference-frequency generation using a waveguide-PPLN crystal and its application to mid-infrared Lamb-dip spectroscopy. (United States)

    Kuma, Susumu; Miyamoto, Yuki; Tsutsumi, Kousuke; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi


    Difference-frequency generation of 4.8 μm mid-infrared light was performed using a waveguide periodically poled LiNbO₃ (PPLN) crystal. 871 and 1064 nm external-cavity diode lasers followed by tapered amplifiers were used as pump sources. A conversion efficiency of ~2%/W with the output power of 2 mW was achieved even under considerable absorption of the crystal at this wavelength. Lamb-dip spectroscopy of carbonyl sulfide was demonstrated showing the satisfactory performance of this device for saturation spectroscopy. The observed dip width shows that the laser linewidth is ~2 MHz, which corresponds to those of the pump lasers.

  11. Tunable Mid-infrared ZnGeP2 RISTRA OPO pumped by periodically-poled Rb:KTP optical parametric master-oscillator power amplifier. (United States)

    Stoeppler, G; Thilmann, N; Pasiskevicius, V; Zukauskas, A; Canalias, C; Eichhorn, M


    A laser-diode pumped Q-switched single-frequency Nd:YAG MOPA operating at 100 Hz was used to generate tunable mid-infrared radiation between 6.27 µm and 8.12 µm by employing a cascaded parametric arrangement consisting of degenerate parametric master-oscillator power amplifier using a large aperture periodically-poled Rb:KTiOPO4 which in turn pumped a ZnGeP2 (ZGP) nonplanar RISTRA OPO. The noncollinear ZGP RISTRA tuning behavior is elucidated. The device is aimed for minimally invasive surgery applications at 6.45 µm where the peak power of 193 kW in 5 ns pulses is demonstrated.

  12. Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser. (United States)

    Leindecker, Nick; Marandi, Alireza; Byer, Robert L; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Jiang, Jie; Hartl, Ingmar; Fermann, Martin; Schunemann, Peter G


    We report the extension of broadband degenerate OPO operation further into mid-infrared. A femtosecond thulium fiber laser with output centered at 2050 nm synchronously pumps a 500-μm-long crystal of orientation patterned GaAs providing broadband gain centered at 4.1 µm. We observe a pump threshold of 17 mW and output bandwidth extending from 2.6 to 6.1 µm at the -30 dB level. Average output power was 37 mW. Appropriate resonator group dispersion is a key factor for achieving degenerate operation with instantaneously broad bandwidth. The output spectrum is very sensitive to absorption and dispersion introduced by molecular species inside the OPO cavity.

  13. Intracavity KTP-based OPO pumped by a dual-loss modulated, simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser. (United States)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao


    An intracavity KTiOPO(4) (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) (Nd:GGG) laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr(4+):YAG saturable absorber is presented. A minimum mode-locking pulse duration underneath the Q-switched envelope was evaluated to be about 290 ps. A maximum QML output power of 82 mW at the signal wavelength of 1570 nm was achieved, corresponding to a maximum mode-locked pulse energy of about 5.12 μJ. The M(2) values were measured to be about 1.3 and 1.5 for tangential and sagittal directions using knife-edge technique.

  14. 6.5 W ZnGeP(2) OPO directly pumped by a Q-switched Tm(3+)-doped single-oscillator fiber laser. (United States)

    Kieleck, Christelle; Berrou, Antoine; Donelan, Brenda; Cadier, Benoit; Robin, Thierry; Eichhorn, Marc


    An efficient actively Q-switched Tm3+-doped single-oscillator fiber laser based on a silica polarization-maintaining (PM) double-clad fiber provided average powers of 23 W at pulse widths of 65 ns at 40 kHz pulse repetition frequency. It was used to directly pump a ZnGeP2 optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Up to 6.5 W were generated in mid-IR wavelength range.

  15. Instantaneous spectral span of 2.85 - 8.40 μm achieved in a Cr:ZnS laser pumped subharmonic OPO (United States)

    Ru, Qitian; Zhong, Kai; Lee, Nathaniel P.; Loparo, Zachary E.; Schunemann, Peter G.; Vasilyev, Sergey; Mirov, Sergey B.; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L.


    Degenerate (subharmonic) optical parametric oscillators (OPO) show great promise for the generation of broadband mid-infrared (MIR) frequency combs. Their main features are low pump threshold, dramatic extension of the spectrum of the pump laser, and phase locking to the pump frequency comb. Here we report on obtaining instantaneous spectrum ranging from 2.85 to 8.40 μm at -40 dB level from a subharmonic OPO pumped by an ultrafast Cr2+:ZnS laser. Our experimental setup includes a free running Kerr lens mode locked 2.35 μm Cr2+:ZnS laser, with 62-fs time-bandwidth limited pulse duration, 630-mW average power, and 79 MHz repetition rate that synchronously pumps a ring-cavity orientation-patterned (OP-GaAs) based OPO. A 0.5-mm-long OP-GaAs crystal has a quasi-phase-matching (QPM) period of 88 μm and is designed to provide a broadband parametric gain at OPO degeneracy. A 0.3-mm-thick ZnSe wedge inside the cavity was used to minimize group velocity dispersion. Spectral span of 1.56 octaves in the MIR that we achieved can be further improved by fabricating an in-coupling dielectric mirror with (i) broader reflectivity range and (ii) with compensation of the residual group velocity dispersion. The broad spectrum achieved, 2.85 - 8.40 μm (2320 cm-1 wide instantaneous span), overlaps with a plethora of fundamental molecular IR resonances and can be used for frequency comb spectroscopic detection applied to such fields as remote sensing, study of fast combustion dynamics and medical diagnostics, to name a few.

  16. Identification of a novel HLA-C allele, Cw*0406, in a Singapore Malay. (United States)

    Ren, E C; Haniff, F; Loh, M T; Chan, S H; Petersdorf, E; Hansen, J


    A novel allele, C*0406, has been identified and is characterised by a single nucleotide substitution at position 196 of exon 3 when compared with its closest related allele, C*0403. The latter is found in 4/69 Chinese and 7/80 Malays while Cw*0406 was found in only one Malay individual within the study populations. The data suggest that Cw*0406 may have arisen as a relatively recent genetic event either by gene conversion or as a simple point mutation variant of Cw*0403.

  17. Design and operation of 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators for power levels up to 1 MW CW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jory, H.; Bier, R.; Craig, L.J.; Felch, K.; Ives, L.; Lopez, N.; Spang, S.


    Varian has designed and tested 140 GHz gyrotron oscillators that have generated output powers of 100 kW CW and 200 kW for 1 ms pulses. Upcoming tubes will be designed to operate at power levels of 200 kW CW and ultimately up to 1 MW CW. The important design considerations which are addressed in the higher power tubes include the design of the electron gun, interaction circuit, and output window. These issues will be discussed and the results of the earlier 140 GHz gyrotron work at Varian will be summarized.

  18. Comparison of a ZGP OPO with a Mark-III FEL as a Potential Replacement for Mid-Infrared Soft Tissue Ablation Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mackanos, M A


    A Mark-III FEL, tuned to 6.45 μm has demonstrated minimal collateral damage and high ablation yield in soft tissue. Further clinical advances are limited due to the overhead associated with an FEL; alternative mid-IR sources are needed. The FEL parameters needed to carry out efficient ablation with minimal damage must be determined. Studies by this author have shown that the unique pulse structure of the FEL does not play a role in this process [1]. We focused on comparing the macropulse duration of the FEL with a ZGP-OPO. No difference in pulse structure between the two laser sources with respect to the ablation threshold of water and mouse dermis was seen. There is a difference between the sources with respect to the crater depths in gelatin and mouse dermis. At 6.1 μm, the OPO craters are 8 times the depth of the FEL ones. Brightfield imaging shows the classic ablation mechanism. The timescale of the crater formation, ejection, and collapse occurs on a faster scale for the OPO. Histology ...

  19. Theoretical analysis of terahertz generation from a compact optical parametric oscillator based on adhesive-free-bonded periodically inverted KTiOPO4 plates (United States)

    Li, Zhongyang; Wang, Silei; Wang, Mengtao; Yuan, Bin; Wang, Weishu


    Terahertz (THz) generation by difference frequency generation (DFG) processes with dual signal waves is theoretically analyzed. The dual signal waves are generated by an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with periodically inverted KTiOPO4 (KTP) plates based on adhesive-free-bonded (AFB) technology. The phase-matching conditions in a same AFB KTP composite for the OPO generating signals and idlers and for the DFG generating THz wave can be simultaneously satisfied by selecting the thickness of each KTP plate. Moreover, 4-order cascaded DFG processes can be realized in the same AFB KTP composite. The cascaded Stokes interaction processes generating THz photons and the cascaded anti-Stokes interaction processes consuming THz photons are investigated from coupled wave equations. Take an example of 3.106 THz which locates in the vicinity of polariton resonances, THz intensities and quantum conversion efficiencies are calculated. Compared with non-cascaded DFG processes, THz intensities of 3.106 THz in 4-order cascaded DFG processes increase to 5.56 times. When the pump intensity equals 20 MW mm-2, the quantum conversion efficiency of 259% in 4-order cascaded DFG processes can be realized, which exceeds the Manley-Rowe limit.

  20. Eighth CW and High Average Power RF Workshop

    CERN Document Server


    We are pleased to announce the next Continuous Wave and High Average RF Power Workshop, CWRF2014, to take place at Hotel NH Trieste, Trieste, Italy from 13 to 16 May, 2014. This is the eighth in the CWRF workshop series and will be hosted by Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. ( CWRF2014 will provide an opportunity for designers and users of CW and high average power RF systems to meet and interact in a convivial environment to share experiences and ideas on applications which utilize high-power klystrons, gridded tubes, combined solid-state architectures, high-voltage power supplies, high-voltage modulators, high-power combiners, circulators, cavities, power couplers and tuners. New ideas for high-power RF system upgrades and novel ways of RF power generation and distribution will also be discussed. CWRF2014 sessions will start on Tuesday morning and will conclude on Friday lunchtime. A visit to Elettra and FERMI will be organized during the workshop. ORGANIZING COMMITTEE (OC): Al...

  1. First lasing of the Darmstadt cw free electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Brunken, M; Eichhorn, R; Genz, H; Gräf, H D; Loos, H; Richter, A; Schweizer, B; Stascheck, A; Wesp, T


    The Darmstadt CW FEL designed for wavelengths between 3 and 10 mu m driven by the superconducting electron accelerator S-DALINAC first lased on December 1st, 1996 and has operated thereafter successfully in the wavelength region between 6.6 and 7.8 mu m. The pulsed electron beam employed had a micro pulse length of about 2ps, with a repetition rate of 10 MHz and a peak current of 2.7 A while its energy was varied between 29.6 and 31.5 MeV. A wedged pole hybrid undulator, with 80 periods each of 0.032 m length and a magnetic field strength of 0.15-0.4T, was located in between a 15.01 m long optical cavity equipped with two high reflectivity (99.8) mirrors of 0.05 m diameter. Due to the low beam current special care with respect to the electron and optical beam properties was necessary to meet the stringent conditions in order to reach a minute small signal gain of at least a few percent resulting in amplification. Saturation was obtained after about 2000 repetitions of the photon pulse inside the cavity. The D...

  2. Photoelectric Observations of the Close Eclipsing Binary System CW Cephei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Han


    Full Text Available Photoelectric observations of the close eclipsing binary system CW Cep, which is well known of its apsidal motion, were made on 20 nights during August and November in 1983 using two 61cm reflectors at the Sobaeksan Observing Station of Korean National Astronomical Observatory and Ilsan Observing Station of Yonsei University Observatory. Standardized new light curves in UBV system are presented with a total of 1,422 individual observations. For the corrections of regional and instrumental differences, same standard stars were observed at the two observatories. Four new times of minimum light were determined with the method of Kwee and van Woerden (1956. With all of the collected times of minima, apsidal motion of this system was checked, but the O-C values calculated by the light elements of Nha (1975 and S derhjelm (1976 did not coincide well with new times of minima. New light elements which satisfy most times of minima better, and are deduced the apsidal period derived by the new light elements turns out to be 43 years, somewhat longer than those of values previously known.

  3. Space-Qualifiable High Reliability Frequency-Stabilized CW Laser Source Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development and space qualification of a high reliability frequency-stabilized CW laser source at 1064 nm wavelength region to satisfy the...

  4. Space-Qualifiable High Reliability Frequency-Stabilized CW Laser Source Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the SBIR Phase II effort to develop and space-qualify a 1.06 micron high reliability frequency-stabilized CW laser source that fully satisfies the...

  5. Strategies for formaldehyde detection in flames and engines using a single-mode Nd:YAG/OPO laser system. (United States)

    Brackmann, Christian; Li, Zhongshan; Rupinski, Martin; Docquier, Nicolas; Pengloan, Gaelle; Aldén, Marcus


    This paper presents technical developments for the detection of formaldehyde (CH2O) using laser-induced fluorescence. The easily accessible third harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 355 nm was used for excitation of formaldehyde. In order to investigate potential background fluorescence, e.g., from large molecules such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons, special attention was paid to investigating the possibility of scanning the wavelength of a single-mode Nd:YAG laser under the gain profile, approximately 3 cm(-1), on and off resonance. Furthermore, a technique for simultaneous detection of formaldehyde and OH using one laser system is presented. The single-mode Nd: YAG laser at 355 nm in combination with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) laser tuned to 283 nm was used for simultaneous two-dimensional imaging of both species using one charge-coupled device (CCD) detector equipped with a dual filter image separator. The techniques are demonstrated with measurements in laboratory flames and the combined measurements are also demonstrated in an engine.

  6. Advances in electronics prompt a fresh look at continuous wave (CW) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)


    Newton, MI; Breeds, EA; Morris, RH


    Continuous Wave Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CW-NMR) was a popular method for sample interrogation at the birth of magnetic resonance but has since been overlooked by most in favor of the now more popular pulsed techniques. CW-NMR requires relatively simple electronics although, for most designs, the execution is critical to the successful implementation and sensitivity of the system. For decades there have been reports in the literature from academic groups showing the potential of magnetic r...

  7. Forensic Application of FM-CW and Pulse Radar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Koppenjan; R. S. Freeland; M. L. Miller; R. E. Yoder


    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technology has supplied vital assistance in criminal investigations. However, law enforcement personnel desire further developments such that the technology is rapidly deployable, and that it provides both a simple user interface and sophisticated target identification. To assist in the development of target identification algorithms, our efforts involve gathering background GPR data for the various site conditions and circumstances that often typify clandestine burials. For this study, forensic anthropologists established shallow-grave plots at The University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facility (ARF) that are specific to GPR research. These plots contain donated human cadavers lying in various configurations and depths, surrounded by assorted construction material and backfill debris. We scanned the plots using two GPR technologies: (1) a multi-frequency synthetic-aperture FM-CW radar (200-700 MHz) (GPR-X) developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Special Technologies Laboratory (STL), Bechtel Nevada (Koppenjan et al., 2000), and (2) a commercial pulse radar (SIR-20) manufactured by Geophysical Survey Systems, Inc. (400 and 900 MHz)(GSSI). The sweep-frequency data show the large biological mass decomposing within the torso as encircled ''hot spots.'' The 400-MHz pulse radar exhibit major horizontal reflectors above the body, with shadow reflectors (horizontal multiples) occurring beneath the body at 60 cm depth. The 400-MHz antenna was able to discern the grave walls and folded tarp covering the lower body. Under these moist, clay-rich conditions, the 900-MHz antenna was able to penetrate slightly beyond 30 cm beneath the concrete layer. However, neither system was able to penetrate beyond a one meter depth in the moist, clay-rich soil (fine, mixed, thermic Typic Paleudalf). Example scans from each system are provided, along with a discussion of the survey protocol and general performance.

  8. Near-field optical and atomic force microscopy studies on RbTiOPO4 single crystal with ferroelectric domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz, F.


    Full Text Available We have developed a Scanning Near-Field Optic Microscope (SNOM, which is based on a commercial tuning-fork sensor, capable of measuring the topography and the optical signal, at the same time. We have measured the SNOM transmission, as well as the topography, of an RbTiOPO4 single crystal, which exhibits two kinds of macroscopic ferroelectric domains. A chemical selective attack has been performed to distinguish them. As a consequence, we obtained zones with a noticeable roughness (C- in comparison with the flat aspect of the other ones (C+. The SNOM topography images have been compared to Atomic Force Microscopy ones, which has a better resolution. The changes observed in the transmission measurements are due to different effects: i variations of the dielectric constant at the interface walls between domains; ii light scattering, wavelength dependent, at the grains in the C- face. Finally, we have determined the angles formed at the domain-walls between inverted domains, which are measured to be higher than 90º and close to 135º, as could be expected, because of the combination between [1 1 0], [-1 1 0], [1 0 0] and [0 1 0] directions of the orthorhombic lattice.Hemos desarrollado un Microscopio Óptico de Campo Cercano (SNOM que es capaz de adquirir una señal óptica, al mismo tiempo que la topografía, basado en un sensor de fuerza lateral comercial. Con este microscopio hemos medido la transmisión óptica en campo cercano, así como la topografía, de un cristal de RbTiOPO4, que exhibe dos tipos de dominios ferroeléctricos macroscópicos. Previamente, la muestra había sido sometida a un ataque químico selectivo, con el que se pueden distinguir dos zonas diferentes, una con una rugosidad apreciable (C- y otra con aspecto perfectamente plano (C+, aspecto que tenía la superficie antes del ataque. Hemos comparado las imágenes de topografía del SNOM con otras tomadas usando un Microscopio de Fuerzas Atómicas, con mayor resoluci

  9. An experimental study on quasi-CW fibre laser drilling of nickel superalloy (United States)

    Marimuthu, S.; Antar, M.; Dunleavey, J.; Chantzis, D.; Darlington, W.; Hayward, P.


    Laser drilling of metals and alloys is extensively used in modern manufacturing industries to produce holes of various size and shape. Currently, most laser drilling of aerospace nickel superalloys is performed using Nd:YAG laser. Over the years, many attempts were made to increase the productivity of Nd:YAG lasers drilling process, but with little success. This paper investigates the fundamental aspects of millisecond-pulsed-Quasi-CW-fibre laser drilling of aerospace nickel superalloy. The main investigation concentrates on understanding the Quasi-CW-fibre laser parameters on trepanning laser drilled hole quality and speed. The principal findings are based on controlling the recast layer, oxide layer, hole surface characteristic and fatigue performance of the laser drilled samples. The results showed that the high average power of the quasi-CW-fibre lasers can be effectively used to achieve increased trepanning drilling speed without undermining the drilling quality, which is not feasible with a free-space Nd:YAG laser. Also, low peak power and high frequency (of quasi-CW-fibre laser) can be effectively used to produce better laser drilled holes than the high peak power and low frequency, which is common with the traditional millisecond Nd:YAG drilling processes. Recast layer thickness of around 30 μm can be achieved with a trepanning speed of up to 500 mm/min with single orbit Quasi-CW fibre laser drilling of 0.75 mm hole over 5 mm thick material.

  10. Laser-induced fluorescence with an OPO system. Part II: direct determination of lead content in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF). (United States)

    Le Bihan, A; Lijour, Y; Giamarchi, P; Burel-Deschamps, L; Stephan, L


    Fluorescence was induced by coupling a laser with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to develop an analytical method for the direct determination of lead content, at ultra-trace level, in seawater by electrothermal atomization-laser-excited atomic fluorescence (ETA-LEAF). The optimization of atomization conditions, laser pulse energy, and mainly temporal parameters allowed us to reach a 3 fg detection limit (0.3 ng L(-1)) despite the low repetition rate of the device. The expected error on predicted concentrations of lead, at trace levels, in seawater was below 15%.

  11. Structure of the RbTi{sub 0.98}Zr{sub 0.02}OPO{sub 4} single crystal at temperatures of 293 and 105 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, O. A., E-mail:; Dudka, A. P.; Novikova, N. E.; Sorokina, N. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Agapova, E. I.; Voronkova, V. I. [Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russian Federation)


    This paper reports on the results of precision X-ray structural investigations of a RbTi{sub 0.98}Zr{sub 0.02}OPO{sub 4} single crystal at temperatures of 293 and 105 K. It is established that the observed decrease in the temperature of the ferroelectric phase transition in RbTiOPO{sub 4} crystals doped with zirconium is associated with the increase in the Rb-O bond lengths. The structural factors responsible for the decrease in the electrical conductivity in these crystals are revealed. An analysis is made of the structure of the helical channels which in crystals of this family are considered to be a decisive factor for the manifestation of superionic conduction. It is shown that, in structures of the KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) type, the migration of ions in channels is most hindered inside the cavities.

  12. Compact, passively Q-switched, all-solid-state master oscillator-power amplifier-optical parametric oscillator (MOPA-OPO) system pumped by a fiber-coupled diode laser generating high-brightness, tunable, ultraviolet radiation. (United States)

    Peuser, Peter; Platz, Willi; Fix, Andreas; Ehret, Gerhard; Meister, Alexander; Haag, Matthias; Zolichowski, Paul


    We report on a compact, tunable ultraviolet laser system that consists of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and a longitudinally diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA). The pump energy for the whole laser system is supplied via a single delivery fiber. Nanosecond pulses are produced by an oscillator that is passively Q-switched by a Cr(4+):YAG crystal. The OPO is pumped by the second harmonic of the Nd:YAG MOPA. Continuously tunable radiation is generated by an intracavity sum-frequency mixing process within the OPO in the range of 245-260 nm with high beam quality. Maximum pulse energies of 1.2 mJ were achieved, which correspond to an optical efficiency of 3.75%, relating to the pulse energy of the MOPA at 1064 nm.

  13. Second Harmonic Generation Using an All-Fiber Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser and MgO:c-PPLN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Gan


    Full Text Available We have experimentally demonstrated an efficient all-fiber passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser with Samarium doped fiber as a saturable absorber. Average output power of 3.4 W at a repetition rate of 250 kHz and a pulse width of 1.1 microseconds was obtained at a pump power of 9.0 W. By using this fiber laser system and an MgO-doped congruent periodically poled lithium niobate (MgO:c-PPLN, second harmonic generation (SHG output at 532 nm was achieved at room temperature. The conversion efficiency is around 4.2% which agrees well with the theoretical simulation.

  14. Carrier-envelope offset locking with a 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer using a dual-pitch PPLN ridge waveguide. (United States)

    Hitachi, Kenichi; Ishizawa, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Tadashi; Asobe, Masaki; Sogawa, Tetsuomi


    We demonstrate that a 2f-to-3f self-referencing interferometer (SRI) becomes a useful tool for stabilizing a carrier-envelope offset frequency of an Er-doped fiber laser. A dual-pitch periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide, consisting of two monolithically integrated segments with different quasi-phase matching pitch sizes, allows us to generate third-harmonic light with high efficiency. By using this device, we obtain a 45-dB signal-to-noise ratio in 100-kHz bandwidth of a heterodyne beat signal and instability of the in-loop f CEO of 8 × 10(-18) at 1 s of averaging time. This result is important for f CEO stabilization of a frequency comb, for which it is difficult to obtain a one-octave supercontinuum spectrum.

  15. Status of the development of the EU 170 GHz/1 MW/CW gyrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagonakis, Ioannis Gr., E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Albajar, Ferran [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Alberti, Stefano [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Avramidis, Konstantinos [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bonicelli, Tullio [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Braunmueller, Falk [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Bruschi, Alex [Plasma Physics Institute, National Research Council of Italy, Milano (Italy); Chelis, Ioannis [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Cismondi, Fabio [The European Joint Undertaking for ITER and The Development of Fusion Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Gantenbein, Gerd [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hermann, Virgile [Thales Electron Devices (TED), Vélizy-Villacoublay (France); Hesch, Klaus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hogge, Jean-Philippe [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Jelonnek, John; Jin, Jianbo; Illy, Stefan [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Ioannidis, Zisis C. [Faculty of Physics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens (Greece); Kobarg, Thorsten [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); and others


    The progress in the development of the European 170 GHz, 1 MW/CW gyrotron for electron cyclotron heating & current drive (ECH&CD) on ITER is reported. A continuous wave (CW) prototype is being manufactured by Thales Electron Devices (TED), France, while a short-pulse (SP) prototype gyrotron is in parallel under manufacture at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), with the purpose of validating the design of the CW industrial prototype components. The fabrication of most of the sub-assemblies of the SP prototype has been completed. In a first step, an existing magnetron injection gun (MIG) available at KIT was used. Despite this non-ideal configuration, the experiments provided a validation of the design, substantiated by an excellent agreement with numerical simulations. The tube, operated without a depressed collector, is able to produce more than 1 MW of output power with efficiency in excess of 30%, as expected, and compatible with the ITER requirements.

  16. Ultrahigh-resolution Cn2 profiles derived from an FM-CW radar (United States)

    Jordan, Jim R.; McLaughlin, Scott


    The U.S. Army Atmospheric Science Laboratory operates a frequency modulated-continuous wave (FM-CW) radar at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. This 10 cm wavelength radar has the unique capability of measuring 2 m resolution Cn2 profiles to 2 km above ground level. At this short wavelength, scattering from point targets, presumably insects, seriously contaminates the turbulence measurements. The ability of the FM-CW radar to resolve individual insects even at two km allows the insect signature to be removed from the turbulent backscatter. Radar calibration, data, and a technique for removing insect contamination are presented.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study on an intracavity KTiOPO4 optical parametric oscillator pumped by a dual loss modulated Q-switched and mode-locked laser (United States)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao; Chu, Hongwei; Luan, Chao


    In this paper, a sub-nanosecond KTiOPO4 (KTP)-based intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) pumped by a dual-loss modulated Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber (Cr4+:YAG-SA) has been demonstrated. By changing the initial transmission of Cr4+:YAG-SA and the transmission of the output coupler at the signal wavelength, the signal pulse width compression can be realized. At an incident pump power of 8.3 W and an AOM repetition rate of 15 kHz, a single signal pulse underneath Q-switched envelope with the shortest pulse width of 220 ps was obtained. The experimental results reveal that this is a simple and effective way to obtain the sub-nanosecond OPO signal pulses. In addition, the related coupled rate equations have been set up and the simulation results agreed with the experimental results well.

  18. Structural reasons for the nonlinear optical properties of KTi{sub 0.96}Zr{sub 0.04}OPO{sub 4} single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikova, N. E., E-mail:; Verin, I. A.; Sorokina, N. I.; Alekseeva, O. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Agapova, E. I.; Voronkova, V. I. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)


    This paper reports on the results of the precision X-ray structural investigations of KTi{sub 0.96}Zr{sub 0.04}OPO{sub 4} single crystals at room temperature. It is established that the incorporation of zirconium atoms into the structure of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) crystals does not lead to substantial changes in the framework structure and results only in an insignificant decrease in the scatter of the distances in the PO{sub 4} tetrahedra and the formation of more symmetric (TiZr)O{sub 6} octahedra as compared to the TiO{sub 6} octahedra. However, the incorporation of zirconium atoms into the KTP structure is accompanied by the redistribution of the electron density in the crystal as a whole, so that the electron density increases in the region of the positions occupied by the potassium atoms. This changes the nonlinear optical properties of the given series of crystals, which are estimated from the intensity of the second harmonic generation signals.

  19. Preparation of 5.6dB vacuum squeezing on 795nm rubidium D1 line via an OPO (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Wang, Junmin; Han, Yashuai; Wen, Xin; Yang, Baodong; Wang, Yanhua; He, Jun


    We report on experimental preparation of the second-harmonic-wave laser and the single-mode squeezed vacuum state of 795 nm (rubidium atom D1 line) with periodically-poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP) bulk crystals. By using a four-mirror bow-tie type ring doubling cavity we achieved ~111 mW of continuous-wave single-frequency ultra-violet (UV) laser radiation at 397.5 nm with ~191 mW of 795 nm fundamental-wave laser input. The corresponding doubling efficiency is 58.1%. To our knowledge, this is the highest doubling efficiency at 795 nm so far. Employing the 397.5 nm UV laser as a pump source of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with a PPKTP crystal, we achieved 5.6 dB of 795 nm single-mode squeezed vacuum output at analyzing frequency of 2 MHz. To our knowledge, this is the highest squeezing level of 795 nm single-mode squeezed vacuum so far. We analyzed the pump power dependence of the squeezing level, and concluded that UV laser induced losses of PPKTP crystal are main limiting factors for further improving the squeezing level. The generated 795 nm vacuum squeezing has huge potential applications in quantum memory and ultra-precision measurement with rubidium atoms.

  20. All-optical wavelength conversion and tuning by the cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (cSFG/DFG) in a temperature gradient controlled Ti:PPLN channel waveguide. (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Lak; Yu, Bong-Ahn; Jung, Changsoo; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Jongmin; Ko, Do-Kyeong


    All-optical single and multiple wavelength conversion and tuning by the cascaded sum- and difference frequency generation (cSFG/DFG) have been demonstrated in a temperature gradient controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 (Ti:PPLN) channel waveguide. Up to 4 channels of wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signals which have 100 GHz channel spacing were simultaneously wavelength converted at a 16.8 degrees C temperature difference between both end faces in a Ti:PPLN waveguide. The 3 dB signal conversion bandwidth was measured to be as broad as 48 nm at single channel conversion. The maximum wavelength conversion efficiency and optical signal to noise ratio of wavelength converted channel were approximately -16 dB and -20 dB at a total pump power level of 810 mW.

  1. A new approach to model CW CO2 laser using rate equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The other distinguishing feature of our model is the methodology adopted for carryingout the calculations. For instance, the CW case being a steady state, all the rate equations are thus equated to zero. In the prior works, researchers derived analytical expressions for the vibration level population densities, thatbecomes ...

  2. Design of 57.5 MHz CW RFQ structure for the Rare Isotope ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The principal specifications of the RFQ are: (1) formation of extremely low longitudinal emittance; (2) stable operation over a wide range of voltage for ... CW operation of an accelerating structure leads to a number of requirements for the resonators such as high shunt impedance, efficient water cooling of all parts of the ...

  3. An Airborne Millimeter-Wave FM-CW Radar for Thickness Profiling of Freshwater Ice (United States)


    Processor V silloscope rrg SCSI Card for Bernoulli Atn 80386 CPU ... .. .. ... =. : : . , . . .i : :" .::: .:::: :::. ’::::::Mo 3.5-in: :• !i~Floppy emo...34:::::: : ::::’: ,: Waterproof Aluminum ==== == === === Figure A52. FM-CW radar system implementation. 80386 DOS-based computer. Also included are an 80387 math coprocessor

  4. Independent tunability of the double-mode-locked cw dye laser.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bourkoff, E


    We report a new configuration that enables the double-mode-locked cw dye laser to be independently tunable. In addition, the output coupling at each of the two wavelengths can be independently specified. A series of oscillographs shows some interesting features unique to double mode locking and also shows the effects of varying the two cavity lengths with respect to each other.

  5. Absolute detection of metastable rare gas atoms by a cw laser photoionization method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohl, S.; Klar, D.; Kraft, T.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Ruf, M.-W.; Schmitz, U.; Smith, S.J.; Hotop, H.


    A novel, accurate method for the absolute detection of metastable rare gas atoms is described and demonstrated. It involves a direct in situ determination of the electron emission coefficient γ for impact of the respective metastable atom on a conducting surface, γ is reliably obtained by a cw

  6. Beam-splitter mount for efficient monitoring of mode-locked and synchronously pumped CW lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van A.; Visser, A.J.W.G.


    Monitoring the optical pulses from mode-locked and synchronously pumped continuous wave (cw) lasers, reference beams are taken from the main beams with beam splitters. Depending on the angle with respect to the incident beam and the direction of the rotation axis of the beam splitter, light

  7. Laser and Electron Beam Processing of Semiconductors: CW Beam Processing of Ion Implanted Silicon (United States)


    1000 A) amorphous layers. Both a scanned cw atoms placed on subsitutional lattice sites for a given anneal argon laser 3 and a scanned e-beam 4...dependence ofthe product v, Nc in the prefactor densities decrease monotonically with distance from the sili- of e., ln(e.IT 2) is plotted versus 1/kT

  8. Nonlinear Effects in CW Mode-Locked Solid-State Lasers with Semiconductor Saturable Absorbers


    Kalashnikov, V. L.; Krimer, D.O.


    The influence of nonlinear properties of semiconductor saturable absorbers on ultrashort pulse generation was investigated. It was shown, that linewidth enhancement, quadratic and linear ac Stark effect contribute essentially to the mode locking in cw solid-state lasers, that can increase the pulse stability, decrease pulse duration and reduce the mode locking threshold

  9. Study of plasma formation in CW CO2 laser beam-metal surface interaction (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Vasilchenko, Zh V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Gresev, A. N.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Chubrik, N. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.


    An interaction of the cw CO2 laser beam and a moving metal surface has been studied. The pulsed and thermodynamical parameters of the surface plasma were investigated by optical and spectroscopical methods. The subsonic radiation wave propagation in the erosion plasma torch has been studied.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eliel, E.R.; Hogervorst, W.; van Leeuwen, K.A.H.; Post, B.H.


    High resolution laser spectroscopy has been applied to the study of three ultraviolet transitions in Europium at λ = 294.8, 295.1 and 295.8 nm. The tunable narrowband UV has been generated by intracavity frequency doubling in a cw ring dye laser using a temperate tuned, Brewster angled ADA crystal.

  11. Heavy metal removal in an UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater. (United States)

    de la Varga, D; Díaz, M A; Ruiz, I; Soto, M


    The objective of the present study was to investigate for the first time the long-term removal of heavy metals (HMs) in a combined UASB-CW system treating municipal wastewater. The research was carried out in a field pilot plant constituted for an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) digester as a pretreatment, followed by a surface flow constructed wetland (CW) and finally by a subsurface flow CW. While the UASB showed (pseudo) steady state operational conditions and generated a periodical purge of sludge, CWs were characterised by the progressive accumulation and mineralisation of retained solids. This paper analyses the evolution of HM removal from the water stream over time (over a period of 4.7 year of operation) and the accumulation of HMs in UASB sludge and CW sediments at two horizons of 2.7 and 4.0 year of operation. High removal efficiencies were found for some metals in the following order: Sn > Cr > Cu > Pb > Zn > Fe (63-94%). Medium removal efficiencies were registered for Ni (49%), Hg (42%), and Ag (40%), and finally Mn and As showed negative percentage removals. Removal efficiencies of total HMs were higher in UASB and SF units and lower in the last SSF unit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Highly efficient F-19 heteronuclear decoupling in solid-state NMR spectroscopy using supercycled refocused-CW irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Equbal, Asif; Basse, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Niels Christian


    We present heteronuclear F-19 refocused CW (rCW) decoupling pulse sequences for solid-state magic-angle- spinning NMR applications. The decoupling sequences have been designed specifically to ensure suppression of the pertinent C-13-F-19 dipolar coupling interactions while simultaneously suppress......We present heteronuclear F-19 refocused CW (rCW) decoupling pulse sequences for solid-state magic-angle- spinning NMR applications. The decoupling sequences have been designed specifically to ensure suppression of the pertinent C-13-F-19 dipolar coupling interactions while simultaneously...... of which clearly render the new rCW schemes the methods of choice for 19F decoupling in rigid, fluorinated compounds - which is further supported by a Floquet-based theoretical analysis....

  13. Antiviral Potential of a Novel Compound CW-33 against Enterovirus A71 via Inhibition of Viral 2A Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ying Wang


    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 in the Picornaviridae family causes hand-foot-and-mouth disease, aseptic meningitis, severe central nervous system disease, even death. EV-A71 2A protease cleaves Type I interferon (IFN-α/β receptor 1 (IFNAR1 to block IFN-induced Jak/STAT signaling. This study investigated anti-EV-A7l activity and synergistic mechanism(s of a novel furoquinoline alkaloid compound CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-β Anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 alone and in combination with IFN-β were evaluated by inhibitory assays of virus-induced apoptosis, plaque formation, and virus yield. CW-33 showed antiviral activities with an IC50 of near 200 µM in EV-A71 plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. While, anti-EV-A71 activities of CW-33 combined with 100 U/mL IFN-β exhibited a synergistic potency with an IC50 of approximate 1 µM in plaque reduction and virus yield inhibition assays. Molecular docking revealed CW-33 binding to EV-A71 2A protease active sites, correlating with an inhibitory effect of CW33 on in vitro enzymatic activity of recombinant 2A protease IC50 = 53.1 µM. Western blotting demonstrated CW-33 specifically inhibiting 2A protease-mediated cleavage of IFNAR1. CW-33 also recovered Type I IFN-induced Tyk2 and STAT1 phosphorylation as well as 2',5'-OAS upregulation in EV-A71 infected cells. The results demonstrated CW-33 inhibiting viral 2A protease activity to reduce Type I IFN antagonism of EV-A71. Therefore, CW-33 combined with a low-dose of Type I IFN could be applied in developing alternative approaches to treat EV-A71 infection.

  14. Structure of KTiOPO{sub 4} single crystals grown by the top-seeded solution and spontaneous flux crystallization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikova, N. E., E-mail:; Verin, I. A.; Sorokina, N. I.; Alekseeva, O. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Voronkova, V. I. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Tseitlin, M. [Ariel University Center of Samaria (Israel); Roth, M. [Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Faculty of Science (Israel)


    This paper reports on the results of precision X-ray structural investigations of KTiOPO{sub 4} single crystals grown by one method (crystallization from a solution in the melt) in two variants (the spontaneous formation of crystallization centers or top-seeded solution growth during slow cooling of saturated solution melts). It is shown that spontaneous flux crystallization leads to the formation of a larger number of defects. Potassium atoms are found to be disordered. The splitting of the K1 and K2 potassium positions is equal to 0.347(4) and 0.279(3) A, respectively, for the crystals grown by the top-seeded solution method and 0.308(5) and 0.321(4) A, respectively, for the crystals grown through the spontaneous flux crystallization.

  15. Dispersion tuning of a narrow-linewidth picosecond OPO based on chirped quasi-phase matching with a volume Bragg grating (United States)

    Descloux, Delphine; Walter, Guillaume; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Gorju, Guillaume; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Raybaut, Myriam; Drag, Cyril; Godard, Antoine


    We report on a widely tunable synchronously-pumped picosecond OPO combining an aperiodically poled MgOdoped LiNbO3 crystal as a broadband gain medium and an intracavity axially chirped volume Bragg (VBG). Owing to the high dispersion induced by the chirped VBG, only a narrow spectral band, corresponding to a thin slice of the VBG, satisfies the synchronous-pumping condition. At a fixed position, the VBG is thus a narrow-band filtering element; variation of its position along the cavity axis enables to tune the idler wavelength over 215nm around 3.82 μm. Rapid continuous tuning over 150nm in 100 ms is also demonstrated.

  16. Compact high-repetition-rate terahertz source based on difference frequency generation from an efficient 2-μm dual-wavelength KTP OPO (United States)

    Mei, Jialin; Zhong, Kai; Wang, Maorong; Liu, Pengxiang; Xu, Degang; Wang, Yuye; Shi, Wei; Yao, Jianquan; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser


    A compact optical terahertz (THz) source was demonstrated based on an efficient high-repetition-rate doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) around 2 μm with two type-II phase-matched KTP crystals in the walk-off compensated configuration. The KTP OPO was intracavity pumped by an acousto-optical (AO) Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser and emitted two tunable wavelengths near degeneracy. The tuning range extended continuously from 2.068 μm to 2.191 μm with a maximum output power of 3.29 W at 24 kHz, corresponding to an optical-optical conversion efficiency (from 808 nm to 2 μm) of 20.69%. The stable pulsed dual-wavelength operation provided an ideal pump source for generating terahertz wave of micro-watt level by the difference frequency generation (DFG) method. A 7.84-mm-long periodically inverted quasi-phase-matched (QPM) GaAs crystal with 6 periods was used to generate a terahertz wave, the maximum voltage of 180 mV at 1.244 THz was acquired by a 4.2-K Si bolometer, corresponding to average output power of 0.6 μW and DFG conversion efficiency of 4.32×10-7. The acceptance bandwidth was found to be larger than 0.35 THz (FWHM). As to the 15-mm-long GaSe crystal used in the type-II collinear DFG, a tunable THz source ranging from 0.503 THz to 3.63 THz with the maximum output voltage of 268 mV at 1.65 THz had been achieved, and the corresponding average output power and DFG conversion efficiency were 0.9 μW and 5.86×10-7 respectively. This provides a potential practical palm-top tunable THz sources for portable applications.

  17. Implementation of a Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) System on a Ti:Sapphire and OPO Laser Based Standard Laser Scanning Microscope. (United States)

    Mytskaniuk, Vasyl; Bardin, Fabrice; Boukhaddaoui, Hassan; Rigneault, Herve; Tricaud, Nicolas


    Laser scanning microscopes combining a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to duplicate the laser line have become available for biologists. These systems are primarily designed for multi-channel two-photon fluorescence microscopy. However, without any modification, complementary non-linear optical microscopy such as second-harmonic generation (SHG) or third harmonic generation (THG) can also be performed with this set-up, allowing label-free imaging of structured molecules or aqueous medium-lipid interfaces. These techniques are well suited for in-vivo observation, but are limited in chemical specificity. Chemically selective imaging can be obtained from inherent vibration signals based on Raman scattering. Confocal Raman microscopy provides 3D spatial resolution, but it requires high average power and long acquisition time. To overcome these difficulties, recent advances in laser technology have permitted the development of nonlinear optical vibrational microscopy, in particular coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). CARS microscopy has therefore emerged as a powerful tool for biological and live cell imaging, by chemically mapping lipids (via C-H stretch vibration), water (via O-H stretch vibrations), proteins or DNA. In this work, we describe the implementation of the CARS technique on a standard OPO-coupled multiphoton laser scanning microscope. It is based on the in-time synchronization of the two laser lines by adjusting the length of one of the laser beam path. We present a step-by-step implementation of this technique on an existing multiphoton system. A basic background in experimental optics is helpful and the presented system does not require expensive supplementary equipment. We also illustrate CARS imaging obtained on myelin sheaths of sciatic nerve of rodent, and we show that this imaging can be performed simultaneously with other nonlinear optical imaging, such as standard two-photon fluorescence technique

  18. Experiment for buried pipes by stepped FM-CW radar; Step shiki FM-CW radar ni yoru maisetsukan tansa jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Ito, M. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering, Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tanabe, K. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)


    The underground radar exploration is adopted to surveys of cavity under the road and buried pipes since the result of high resolution is obtained. However, the explorative depth of the radar is shallow, 2-3m in soil basement, and its applicable field has been limited. The continuous wave radar (FM-CW radar) was devised to get deeper explorative depth, but has been used for the geological structure survey such as the fault survey since it is lower in resolution as compared with the pulse radar. Therefore, to make use of characteristics of the continuous wave radar and enhance resolution in the shallow part, an experiment on buried pipes was conducted for the purpose of assessing and improving the FM-CW radar. In this processing, the wave form treatment used in the reflection method seismic survey was adopted for the radar survey. There are some problems, but it is effective to adopt the same algorithm to that used in the seismic survey to the radar exploration. The explorative depth was discussed from the damping rate of electromagnetic waves and dynamic range of facilities of the experimental site, and 7m was obtained. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Canvas Supports and Grounds in Paintings by C.W. Eckersberg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels Folke; Krarup Andersen, Cecil


    The supports and grounds in 43 paintings on canvas by C.W. Eckersberg, dating from throughout his career, were investigated by visual examination, X-radiography, computer assisted automated thread counting and weave mapping, as well as by cross section analysis. The analytical data were complemen......The supports and grounds in 43 paintings on canvas by C.W. Eckersberg, dating from throughout his career, were investigated by visual examination, X-radiography, computer assisted automated thread counting and weave mapping, as well as by cross section analysis. The analytical data were...... complemented by written sources such as Eckersberg’s diaries, accounts and letters. The results show certain patterns in his practice and are discussed in relation to the varying locations and conditions in successive phases of his career and in view of contemporary paint technical treatises and circumstances...

  20. Starting dynamics of a cw passively mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire/DDI laser. (United States)

    Pu, N W; Shieh, J M; Lai, Y; Pan, C L


    We show that, for a cw passively mode-locked picosecond Ti:sapphire/DDI laser, the first autocorrelation trace with negligible cw background occurs at a delay time of 20 mu;s, or 1600 round trips from the first relaxationoscillation peak. The trace suggests that the pulse consists of a primary pulse as short as 4.4 ps and of small secondary pulses that form a much wider pedestal of the trace, each containing approximately 50% of the photon energy. Nearly transform-limited approximately 5-ps-wide Gaussian pulses were observed at a delay time of 40 mu;s. After 45 mu;s, the optical spectrum broadened considerably, and the time-bandwidth product increased to 4 in the steady state (after 60 micros).

  1. CW single transverse mode all-fiber Tm3+-doped silica fiber laser (United States)

    Song, E. Z.; Li, W. H.; You, L.


    The CW 25.6 W output power with a slope efficiency of 30.6% respected to the pump power from a CW single transverse mode all-fiber Tm3+-doped Silica Fiber Laser is reported. The all-fiber laser is made up by progressively splicing the pigtail fiber, matched FBG fiber and Tm fiber. The reflective FBG and Tm3+-doped fiber end Fresnel reflection build up the laser resonance cavity. Due to the multi-mode FBG as the reflective mirror, the output laser spectrum is multi-peaks at high output power, but the spectrum width is less than 2 nm at 1.94 μm. We estimate the beam quality to be M 2 = 2.39, clearly indicating nearly diffraction-limited beam propagation.

  2. Interaction of cw CO2 laser radiation with plasma near-metallic substrate surface (United States)

    Azharonok, V. V.; Astapchik, S. A.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Golubev, V. S.; Grezev, A. N.; Filatov, Igor V.; Chubrik, N. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.


    Optical and spectroscopic methods were used in studying near-surface plasma that is formed under the effect CW CO2 laser of (2- 5)x106W/cm2 power density upon stainless steel in He and Ar shielding gases. The variation of plume spatial structure with time has been studied, the outflow of gas-vapor jets from the interaction area has been characterized. The spectra of plasma plume pulsations have been obtained for the frequency range Δf = 0-1 MHz. The temperature and electron concentration of plasma plume have been found under radiation effect upon the target of stainless steel. Consideration has been given to the most probable mechanisms of CW laser radiation-metal non-stationary interaction.

  3. Development of an Airborne MMW FM-CW Radar for Mapping River Ice (United States)


    installed in the33-MHz 80386 DOS- S..1.78 (Cumming 1952). based computer with an 80387 math coprocessor, a conventional 40-megabyte hard-drive and 4 mega...InterfaceI - 33M~836 CPU I x Antennas 1I. M 40 M Bernoull i LKF oppy Drive Hard Di 44 MB Disk Field-hardened Computer System Figure 5. MMWFM-CW radar system

  4. Investigation of in-vivo skin autofluorescence lifetimes under long-term cw optical excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lihachev, A; Ferulova, I; Vasiljeva, K; Spigulis, J [Institute of Atomic Physics and Spectroscopy, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)


    The main results obtained during the last five years in the field of laser-excited in-vivo human skin photobleaching effects are presented. The main achievements and results obtained, as well as methods and experimental devices are briefly described. In addition, the impact of long-term 405-nm cw low-power laser excitation on the skin autofluorescence lifetime is experimentally investigated. (laser biophotonics)

  5. CW laser induced crystallization of thin amorphous silicon films deposited by EBE and PECVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said-Bacar, Z., E-mail: [InESS (UMR 7163 CNRS-UDS), 23 rue de Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Prathap, P. [InESS (UMR 7163 CNRS-UDS), 23 rue de Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Cayron, C. [CEA, LITEN, DEHT, Minatec, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Cedex 9 (France); Mermet, F. [IREPA LASER, Pole API - Parc d' Innovation, 67400 Illkirch (France); Leroy, Y.; Antoni, F.; Slaoui, A.; Fogarassy, E. [InESS (UMR 7163 CNRS-UDS), 23 rue de Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of hydrogen in CW laser crystallization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large hydrogen content results in decohesion of the films due to hydrogen effusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very low hydrogen content or hydrogen free amorphous silicon film are suitable for crystallization induced by CW laser. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grains of size between 20 and 100 {mu}m in width and about 200 {mu}m in long in scanning direction are obtained with these latter films. - Abstract: This work presents the Continuous Wave (CW) laser crystallization of thin amorphous silicon (a-Si) films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and by Electron Beam Evaporation (EBE) on low cost glass substrate. The films are characterized by Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) and by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the hydrogen content. Analysis shows that the PECVD films contain a high hydrogen concentration ({approx}10 at.%) while the EBE films are almost hydrogen-free. It is found that the hydrogen is in a bonding configuration with the a-Si network and in a free form, requiring a long thermal annealing for exodiffusion before the laser treatment to avoid explosive effusion. The CW laser crystallization process of the amorphous silicon films was operated in liquid phase regime. We show by Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) that polysilicon films with large grains can be obtained with EBE as well as for the PECVD amorphous silicon provided that for the latest the hydrogen content is lower than 2 at.%.

  6. A CW 4-rod RFQ for deuterons; Ein Hochleistungs-RFQ-Beschleuniger fuer Deuteronen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P.


    A four-rod RFQ accelerator has been built which operates in CW mode with a power consumption of 250 kW. The assembly of a high power RFQ structure requires a precise mechanical alignment and field tuning of the electrode field. The field distribution must be very flat to enable a proper operation with few losses. Adjusting of the field distribution is critical in long structures. (orig.)

  7. Passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4/PPLN green laser with a few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber (United States)

    Chang, Jianhua; Yang, Zhenbo; Li, Hanhan; Yang, Minhao


    We experimentally realized and demonstrated a solid-state, passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4/PPLN green laser with a saturable absorber (SA) based on few-layered MoS2. The MoS2 SA was fabricated by transferring MoS2 nanosheets onto a quartz substrate, and the obtained SA exhibited good transparency from the ultraviolet to near-infrared spectral regions. The modulation depth and the damage threshold of the MoS2 SA were measured to be 4.3% and 33.6 J/cm2, respectively. By inserting the MoS2 SA into a V-shaped laser resonant cavity, we achieved a stable Q-switched laser operation at 532.7 nm with a maximum average output power of 323 mW at the maximum absorbed pump power of 6.21 W that corresponded to a pulse duration of 320 ns, a repetition rate of 66.7 kHz, and a pulse energy of approximately 4.84 μJ. The experimental results validated the feasibility of MoS2 as a SA material and its promising applications in ultrafast lasers.

  8. Passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4/PPLN green laser with a few-layered MoS2 saturable absorber (United States)

    Chang, Jianhua; Yang, Zhenbo; Li, Hanhan; Yang, Minhao


    We experimentally realized and demonstrated a solid-state, passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4/PPLN green laser with a saturable absorber (SA) based on few-layered MoS2. The MoS2 SA was fabricated by transferring MoS2 nanosheets onto a quartz substrate, and the obtained SA exhibited good transparency from the ultraviolet to near-infrared spectral regions. The modulation depth and the damage threshold of the MoS2 SA were measured to be 4.3% and 33.6 J/cm2, respectively. By inserting the MoS2 SA into a V-shaped laser resonant cavity, we achieved a stable Q-switched laser operation at 532.7 nm with a maximum average output power of 323 mW at the maximum absorbed pump power of 6.21 W that corresponded to a pulse duration of 320 ns, a repetition rate of 66.7 kHz, and a pulse energy of approximately 4.84 μJ. The experimental results validated the feasibility of MoS2 as a SA material and its promising applications in ultrafast lasers.

  9. Evidence for orbital motion of CW Leonis from ground-based astrometry (United States)

    Sozzetti, A.; Smart, R. L.; Drimmel, R.; Giacobbe, P.; Lattanzi, M. G.


    Recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations indicate that CW Leo, the closest carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch star to Sun, might have a low-mass stellar companion. We present archival ground-based astrometric measurements of CW Leo obtained within the context of the Torino Parallax Program and with >6 yr (1995-2001) of time baseline. The residuals to a single-star solution show significant curvature, and they are strongly correlated with the well-known I-band photometric variations due to stellar pulsations. We describe successfully the astrometry of CW Leo with a variability-induced motion (VIM) + acceleration model. We obtain proper motion and parallax of the centre-of-mass of the binary, the former in fair agreement with recent estimates, the latter at the near end of the range of inferred distances based on indirect methods. The VIM + acceleration model results allow us to derive a companion mass in agreement with that inferred by ALMA, they point towards a somewhat longer period than implied by ALMA, but are not compatible with much longer period estimates. These data will constitute a fundamental contribution towards the full understanding of the orbital architecture of the system when combined with Gaia astrometry, providing an ∼25 yr time baseline.

  10. Design of 57.5 MHz cw RFQ for medium energy heavy ion superconducting linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Ostroumov


    Full Text Available The nuclear science community considers the construction of the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA facility as a top priority. The RIA includes a 1.4 GV superconducting linac for production of 400 kW cw heavy ion beams. The initial acceleration of heavy ions delivered from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source can be effectively performed by a 57.5 MHz 4-m long room temperature RFQ. The principal specifications of the RFQ are (i formation of extremely low longitudinal emittance, (ii stable operation over a wide range of voltage for acceleration of various ion species needed for RIA operation, and (iii simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states of uranium ions. cw operation of an accelerating structure leads to a number of requirements for the resonators such as high shunt impedance, efficient water cooling of all parts of the resonant cavity, mechanical stability together with precise alignment, reliable rf contacts, a stable operating mode, and fine tuning of the resonant frequency during operation. To satisfy these requirements a new resonant structure has been developed. This paper discusses the beam dynamics and electrodynamics design of the RFQ cavity, as well as some aspects of the mechanical design of the low-frequency cw RFQ.

  11. Non-invasive optoacoustic temperature determination during retinal cw-laser treatments (United States)

    Kandulla, Jochen; Elsner, Hanno; Sandeau, Julien; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf


    In almost all retinal laser treatments the therapeutic effect is initiated by a transient temperature increase. Due to differences in tissue properties and physiology like pigmentation and vascular blood flow an individually different temperature increase might occur with crucial effects on the therapeutic benefit of the treatment. In order to determine the individual retinal temperature increase during cw-laser irradiation in real-time we developed a non-invasive method based on optoacoustics. Simultaneously to the cw-laser irradiation (λ = 810 nm, P contact lens placed on the cornea. The experiments were performed in-vivo on rabbits. Simultaneous measurements with a miniaturized thermocouple showed a similar slope with a maximum local deviation of 0.4 °C for a temperature increase of 5.5 °C. On two rabbits measurements pre and post mortem at the same location were performed. The temperature increase after 60 s was found to raise by 12.0 % and 66.7 % post mortem, respectively. These data were used to calculate the influence of heat convection by blood circulation using a numerical model based on two absorbing layers and assuming a constant perfusion rate for the choriocapillaris and the choroid. Overall the presented optoacoustic method seems feasible for a non-invasive real-time determination of cw-laser induced retinal temperature increases and might serve as a temperature based dosimetry control during retinal laser treatments.

  12. High-power and highly reliable 638-nm band BA-LD for CW operation (United States)

    Nishida, Takehiro; Kuramoto, Kyosuke; Abe, Shinji; Kusunoki, Masatsugu; Miyashita, Motoharu; Yagi, Tetsuya


    High-power laser diodes (LDs) are strongly demanded as light sources of display applications. In multiple spatial light modulator-type projectors or liquid crystal displays, the light source LDs are operated under CW condition. The high-power 638-nm band broad-area LD for CW operation was newly developed. The LD consisted of two stripes with each width of 75 μm to reduce both an optical power density at a front facet and a threshold current. The newly improved epitaxial technology was also applied to the LD to suppress an electron overflow from an active layer. The LD showed superior output characteristics, such as output of 1.77 W at case temperature of 55 °C with wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 23%, which was improved by 40% compared with the current product. The peak WPE at 25 °C reached 40.6% under the output power of 2.37 W, CW, world highest.

  13. Stimulating ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) activity drives the ammonium oxidation rate in a constructed wetland (CW). (United States)

    Su, Yu; Wang, Weidong; Wu, Di; Huang, Wei; Wang, Mengzi; Zhu, Guibing


    An integrated approach to document high ammonium oxidation rate in Guanjinggang constructed wetland (GJG-CW) was performed and the results showed that the substantial ammonium oxidation rate could be obtained by enhancing Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria (AOB) activity rather than Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea (AOA) activity. In the plant-bed/ditch system, ditch center and plant-bed fringe were two active zones for NH4+-N removal with ammonium oxidation rate peaking at 2.98±0.04 and 2.15±0.02mgNkg-1d-1, respectively. The enhanced AOB activity were achieved by increasing water level fluctuations, extending hydraulic retention time (HRT) and stimulating substrate availability, which subsequently enhanced NH4+-N removal by 34.06% in GJG-CW. However, the high AOB activity was not correlated with high AOB abundance, but was instead mostly determined by specific AOB taxa, particularly Nitrosomonas, which dominated in the active AOB. The increased cell-specific AOA activity and high AOA diversity were also achieved using those engineering measures. Although the AOA activity decreased overall with extended HRT and increased NH4+-N contents in GJG-CW, AOA still played a major role on ammonium oxidation in plant-bed soil. The study illustrated that artificially enhancing AOB activity and certain species in anthropogenically polluted water ecosystems would be an effective strategy to improve NH4+-N removal. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Investigation of radical locations in various sesame seeds by CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging. (United States)

    Nakagawa, K; Hara, H


    We investigated the location of radical in various sesame seeds using continuous-wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9-GHz EPR imaging. CW EPR detected persistent radicals (single line) for various sesame seeds. The EPR linewidth of black sesame seeds was narrower than that of the irradiated white sesame seeds. A very small signal was detected for the white sesame seeds. Two-dimensional (2D) imaging using a 9-GHz EPR imager showed that radical locations vary for various sesame seeds. The paramagnetic species in black sesame seeds were located on the seed coat (skin) and in the hilum region. The signal with the highest intensity was obtained from the hilum part. A very low-intensity image was observed for the white sesame seeds. In addition, the 2D imaging of the irradiated white sesame seeds showed that free radicals were located throughout the entire seed. For the first time, CW EPR and 9-GHz EPR imaging showed the exact location of radical species in various sesame seeds.

  15. EPR and 55Mn cw-ENDOR study of an antiferrogmagnetically coupled dinuclear manganese (Mn III Mn IV) complex (United States)

    Zweygart, W.; Bittl, R.; Wieghardt, K.; Lubitz, W.


    X- and Q-band EPR and 55Mn cw-ENDOR experiments are reported on a binuclear oxo-bridged dimanganese Mn III Mn IV complex. Consistent simulations of spectra from both frequency bands using one parameter set for the orthorhombic g tensor and Mn III and Mn IV hyperfine tensors are achieved. Information on the manganese hyperfine couplings is independently obtained from 55Mn cw-ENDOR spectroscopy performed on both ions.

  16. CW-pumped telecom band polarization entangled photon pair generation in a Sagnac interferometer. (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Bao-Sen


    Polarization entangled photon pair source is widely used in many quantum information processing applications such as teleportation, quantum communications, quantum computation and high precision quantum metrology. We report on the generation of a continuous-wave pumped 1550 nm polarization entangled photon pair source at telecom wavelength using a type-II periodically poled KTiOPO(4) (PPKTP) crystal in a Sagnac interferometer. Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference measurement yields signal and idler photon bandwidth of 2.4 nm. High quality of entanglement is verified by various kinds of measurements, for example two-photon interference fringes, Bell inequality and quantum states tomography. The source can be tuned over a broad range against temperature or pump power without loss of visibilities. This source will be used in our future experiments such as generation of orbital angular momentum entangled source at telecom wavelength for quantum frequency up-conversion, entanglement based quantum key distributions and many other quantum optics experiments at telecom wavelengths.

  17. Method And System For Examining Biological Materials Using Low Power Cw Excitation Raman Spectroscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfano, Robert R. (Bronx, NY); Wang, Wubao (Flushing, NY)


    A method and system for examining biological materials using low-power cw excitation Raman spectroscopy. In accordance with the teachings of the invention, a low-power continuous wave (cw) pump laser beam and a low-power cw Stokes (or anti-Stokes) probe laser beam simultaneously illuminate a biological material and traverse the biological material in collinearity. The pump beam, whose frequency is varied, is used to induce Raman emission from the biological material. The intensity of the probe beam, whose frequency is kept constant, is monitored as it leaves the biological material. When the difference between the pump and probe excitation frequencies is equal to a Raman vibrational mode frequency of the biological material, the weak probe signal becomes amplified by one or more orders of magnitude (typically up to about 10.sup.4 -10.sup.6) due to the Raman emission from the pump beam. In this manner, by monitoring the intensity of the probe beam emitted from the biological material as the pump beam is varied in frequency, one can obtain an excitation Raman spectrum for the biological material tested. The present invention may be applied to in the in vivo and/or in vitro diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, hepatitis, cancers and other diseases by measuring the characteristic excitation Raman lines of blood glucose, cholesterol, serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT)/serum glutamic pyruvic tansaminase (SGPT), tissues and other corresponding Raman-active body constituents, respectively. For example, it may also be used to diagnose diseases associated with the concentration of Raman-active constituents in urine, lymph and saliva It may be used to identify cancer in the breast, cervix, uterus, ovaries and the like by measuring the fingerprint excitation Raman spectra of these tissues. It may also be used to reveal the growing of tumors or cancers by measuring the levels of nitric oxide in tissue.

  18. Laparoscopic Fluorescent Visualization of the Ureter With Intravenous IRDye800CW. (United States)

    Korb, Melissa L; Huh, Warner K; Boone, Jonathan D; Warram, Jason M; Chung, Thomas K; de Boer, Esther; Bland, Kirby I; Rosenthal, Eben L


    Ureter injury is a serious complication of laparoscopic surgery. Current strategies to identify the ureters, such as placement of a ureteral stent, carry additional risks for patients. We hypothesize that the systemically injected near-infrared (NIR) dye IRDye800CW-CA can be used to visualize ureters intraoperatively. Adult female mixed-breed pigs weighing 24 to 41 kg (n = 2 per dose) were given a 30, 60, or 120 μg/kg systemic injection of IRDye800CW-CA. Using the Food and Drug Administration-cleared Pinpoint laparoscopic NIR system, images of the ureter and bladder were captured every 10 minutes for 60 minutes after injection. To determine the biodistribution of the dye, tissues were collected for ex vivo analysis with the Pearl Impulse system. ImageJ software was used to quantify fluorescence signal and signal-to-background ratio (SBR) for the intraoperative images. The ureter was identified in all pigs at each dose, with peak intensity reached by 30 minutes and remaining elevated throughout the duration of imaging (60 minutes). The 60 μg/kg dose was determined to be optimal for differentiating ureters according to absolute fluorescence (>60 counts/pixel) and SBR (3.1). Urine fluorescence was inversely related to plasma fluorescence (R(2) = -0.82). Ex vivo imaging of kidney, ureter, bladder, and abdominal wall tissues revealed low fluorescence. Systemic administration of IRDye800CW-CA shows promise in providing ureteral identification with high specificity during laparoscopic surgery. The low dose required, rapid time to visualization, and absence of invasive ureteral instrumentation inherent to this technique may reduce complications related to pelvic surgery. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Remote wind sensing with a CW diode laser lidar beyond the coherence regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian


    We experimentally demonstrate for the first time (to our knowledge) a coherent CW lidar system capable of wind speed measurement at a probing distance beyond the coherence regime of the light source. A side-by-side wind measurement was conducted on the field using two lidar systems with identical...... optical designs but different laser linewidths. While one system was operating within the coherence regime, the other was measuring at least 2.4 times the coherence range. The probing distance of both lidars is 85 m and the radial wind speed correlation was measured to be r2=0.965 between the two lidars...

  20. CW seeded optical parametric amplifier providing wavelength and pulse duration tunable nearly transform limited pulses. (United States)

    Hädrich, S; Gottschall, T; Rothhardt, J; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A


    An optical parametric amplifier that delivers nearly transform limited pulses is presented. The center wavelength of these pulses can be tuned between 993 nm and 1070 nm and, at the same time, the pulse duration is varied between 206 fs and 650 fs. At the shortest pulse duration the pulse energy was increased up to 7.2 microJ at 50 kHz repetition rate. Variation of the wavelength is achieved by applying a tunable cw seed while the pulse duration can be varied via altering the pump pulse duration. This scheme offers superior flexibility and scaling possibilities.

  1. Fourier-Bessel Field Calculation and Tuning of a CW Annular Array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Paul D.; Cheng, Jiqi; Lu, Jian-yu


    field by linking the quantized surface pressure profile to a set of limited diffraction Bessel beams propagating into the medium. In the limit, these become a known set of nondiffracting Bessel beams satisfying the lossless linear wave equation, which allow us to derive a linear matrix formulation......A 1-D Fourier-Bessel series method for computing and tuning the linear lossless field of flat continuous wave (CW) annular arrays is given and discussed with both numerical simulation and experimental verification. The technique provides a new method for modelling and manipulating the propagated...

  2. Broad-band chopper for a CW proton linac at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Lebedev, V.A.; Solyak, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sun, D.; /Fermilab


    The future Fermilab program in the high energy physics is based on a new facility called the Project X [1] to be built in the following decade. It is based on a 3 MW CW linear accelerator delivering the 3 GeV 1 mA H{sup -} beam to a few experiments simultaneously. Small fraction of this beam will be redirected for further acceleration to 8 GeV to be injected to the Recycler/Main Injector for a usage in a neutrino program and other synchrotron based high energy experiments. Requirements and technical limitations to the bunch-by-bunch chopper for the Fermilab Project X are discussed.

  3. Feasibility and conceptual design of a C.W. positron source at CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golge, Serkan [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)


    A feasibility study of a CW positron source for the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) is provided. The proposed ≥ 100 nA Continuous Wave (CW) positron source at JLAB has several unique and challenging characteristics: high current incident electron beam at 126 MeV with a high beam power (up to a MW); CW e- beam and CW e+ production. The multiple scattering is a dominant process when creating e+ in a target, which results a large phase space area of the emitted positrons. An admittance study was done at CEBAF to find the maximum phase space area, which is tolerated in the machine. The measured geometrical transverse admittance (A) were Ax =10 and Ay = 5 mm∙mrad at the injector. Energy spread measurement was also done at the ARC1. The fractional spread limit in the ARC1 was measured as δ = 3×10-3 at 653 MeV. By using the optimized results and the CEBAF parameters, three positron injector configurations are proposed; Combined Function Magnet, Two-Dipole and Microtron Dipole configurations. With the assumptions made, by using 126 MeV Ⓧ10 mA e- beam impinging on a 2 mm W target with a 100 μm spot size, we can get up to 3 μA useful e+ current at the North Linac connection. One of the biggest challenges is the target design, which the deposited power is about 60 kW. ILC designs project power deposition up to 13 kW, which would allow the creation of a e+ beam of up to 650 nA otherwise. The results of analytic and monte carlo simulations of the positron production, capture and acceleration are presented. For the target design, a review is presented of solutions for the high power production target. Portions of this dissertation work have been published in two conference proceedings.

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double-resonance study of Ti sup 3 sup + centres in KTiOPO sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Setzler, S D; Fernelius, N C; Scripsick, M P; Edwards, G J; Halliburton, L E


    Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance have been used to characterize four Ti sup 3 sup + centres in undoped crystals of potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO sub 4 or KTP). These 3d sup 1 defects (S = 1/2) are produced by ionizing radiation (either 60 kV x-rays or 355 nm photons from a tripled Nd:YAG laser), and form when the regular Ti sup 4 sup + ions in the crystal trap an electron. Two of these trapped-electron centres are only observed in hydrothermally grown KTP and the other two are dominant in flux-grown KTP. Both of the Ti sup 3 sup + centres in hydrothermally grown crystals have a neighbouring proton (i.e. an OH sup - molecule). In the flux-grown crystals, one of the Ti sup 3 sup + centres is adjacent to an oxygen vacancy and the other centre is tentatively attributed to a self-trapped electron (i.e. a Ti sup 3 sup + centre with no stabilizing entity nearby). The g matrix and phosphorus hyperfine matrices are determined for all four Ti sup 3 sup + centres, and the proto...

  5. Collinear and vector interaction of light waves in nonlinear optical crystals KTiOPO4("KTP"), Ba2NaNb5O15 ("banana") (United States)

    Deinekina, N. A.; Korosteleva, I. A.; Kravchenko, O. V.; Faleev, D. S.


    Esents the research results of biaxial crystals with mm2 symmetry class. These crystals were used for determining regularities of nonlinear conversion of broadband optical emission on the basis of collinear and vector light waves interactions of different nature. The quantities of the basis nonlinear optical characteristics of "KTP" (KTiOPO4) and "banana" (Ba2NaNb5O15) crystals were calculated in case of synchronous conversion of broadband emission from the area of 0.8 - 2.8 micron to the visible spectrum of 0.4 - 0.7 micron. The nonlinear optical characteristics of "KTP" crystals are defined by their geometrical structure, the mode of interaction of light waves, and the infra-red spectrum width, that was experimentally confirmed on "KTP" crystal. The quality characteristics β were calculated for the "KTP" crystal. For "banana" crystal the angle of phase synchronism θc changes insignificantly when the observation plane is changed. It can be explained by the fact that the biaxiality of crystal is not strongly expressed, because of the basis refraction indices the conditions nz<=ny≈nx are performed.

  6. Generation of high-contrast millijoule pulses by optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification in periodically poled KTiOPO4. (United States)

    Jovanovic, Igor; Brown, Curtis G; Ebbers, Christopher A; Barty, C P J; Forget, Nicolas; Le Blanc, Catherine


    A new high-contrast, high-gain optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) architecture is demonstrated in periodically poled KTiOPO4 (PPKTP). This architecture overcomes parametric fluorescence contrast limitations of the OPCPA in periodically poled materials. The scheme is based on two passes of a single relay-imaged pump pulse and a free-propagating signal pulse through a 1.5 mm x 5 mm x 7.5 mm PPKTP crystal. The output energy of 1.2 mJ is generated at a center wavelength of 1053 nm by 24 mJ of pump energy. A prepulse contrast level of > 3 x 10(7) was measured with > 10(6) saturated gain in the amplifier. Amplified pulses were compressed to 200 fs. This simple and versatile concept requires only a modest pump energy from a commercial pump laser and represents a possible high-contrast front end for high-energy Nd:glass-based petawatt-class lasers.

  7. Use of Multipass Recirculation and Energy Recovery In CW SRF X-FEL Driver Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David; Akers, Walt; Benson, Stephen V.; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisk, Sally; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Hardy, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, J.; Legg, Robert; Li, Rui; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven W.; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shin, Ilkyoung; Shinn, Michelle D.; Tennant, Christopher; Terzic, Balsa; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn P.; Wilson, G.; Zhang, Shukui


    We discuss the use of multipass recirculation and energy recovery in CW SRF drivers for short wavelength FELs. Benefits include cost management (through reduced system footprint, required RF and SRF hardware, and associated infrastructure - including high power beam dumps and cryogenic systems), ease in radiation control (low drive beam exhaust energy), ability to accelerate and deliver multiple beams of differing energy to multiple FELs, and opportunity for seamless integration of multistage bunch length compression into the longitudinal matching scenario. Issues include all those associated with ERLs compounded by the challenge of generating and preserving the CW electron drive beam brightness required by short wavelength FELs. We thus consider the impact of space charge, BBU and other environmental wakes and impedances, ISR and CSR, potential for microbunching, intra-beam and beam-residual gas scattering, ion effects, RF transients, and halo, as well as the effect of traditional design, fabrication, installation and operational errors (lattice aberrations, alignment, powering, field quality). Context for the discussion is provided by JLAMP, the proposed VUV/X-ray upgrade to the existing Jefferson Lab FEL.

  8. Homogeneity and EPR metrics for assessment of regular grids used in CW EPR powder simulations (United States)

    Crăciun, Cora


    CW EPR powder spectra may be approximated numerically using a spherical grid and a Voronoi tessellation-based cubature. For a given spin system, the quality of simulated EPR spectra depends on the grid type, size, and orientation in the molecular frame. In previous work, the grids used in CW EPR powder simulations have been compared mainly from geometric perspective. However, some grids with similar homogeneity degree generate different quality simulated spectra. This paper evaluates the grids from EPR perspective, by defining two metrics depending on the spin system characteristics and the grid Voronoi tessellation. The first metric determines if the grid points are EPR-centred in their Voronoi cells, based on the resonance magnetic field variations inside these cells. The second metric verifies if the adjacent Voronoi cells of the tessellation are EPR-overlapping, by computing the common range of their resonance magnetic field intervals. Beside a series of well known regular grids, the paper investigates a modified ZCW grid and a Fibonacci spherical code, which are new in the context of EPR simulations. For the investigated grids, the EPR metrics bring more information than the homogeneity quantities and are better related to the grids’ EPR behaviour, for different spin system symmetries. The metrics’ efficiency and limits are finally verified for grids generated from the initial ones, by using the original or magnetic field-constraint variants of the Spherical Centroidal Voronoi Tessellation method.

  9. Toward an integrated computational approach to CW-ESR spectra of free radicals. (United States)

    Barone, Vincenzo; Polimeno, Antonino


    Interpretation of structural properties and dynamic behaviour of molecules in solution is of fundamental importance to understand their stability, chemical reactivity and catalytic action. Information can be gained, in principle, by a variety of spectroscopic techniques, magnetic as well as optical. In particular, continuous wave electron spin resonance (CW-ESR) measurements are highly informative. However, the wealth of structural and dynamic information which can be extracted from ESR spectroscopy is, at present, limited by the necessity of employing computationally efficient models, which are increasingly complex as they need to take into account diverse relaxation processes affecting the spectrum. In this paper, we address the basic theoretical tools needed to predict, essentially ab initio, CW-ESR spectra observables according to the stochastic Liouville equation (SLE) approach, combined with quantum mechanical and hybrid methods for the accurate and efficient computation of structural, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of molecular systems. We shall discuss, on one hand, the quantum mechanical calculation of magnetic observables, via density functional theory (DFT), time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) and application of the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for the description of environmental effects, including anisotropic environments and systems where different regions are characterized by different dielectric constants. One the other hand, the explicit evaluation of dynamical effects will be discussed based on the numerically exact treatment of the SLE in the presence of several relaxation processes, which has been proven to be a challenging task.

  10. Hardness variation of welded boron steel using continuous wave (CW) and pulse wave (PW) mode of fiber laser (United States)

    Yaakob, K. I.; Ishak, M.; Idris, S. R. A.; Aiman, M. H.; Khalil, N. Z.


    Recent car manufacturer requirement in lightweight and optimum safety lead to utilization of boron steel with tailor welded blank approach. Laser welding process in tailor welded blank (TWB) production can be applied in continuous wave (CW) of pulse wave (PW) which produce different thermal experience in welded area. Instead of microstructure identification, hardness properties also can determine the behavior of weld area. In this paper, hardness variation of welded boron steel using PW and CW mode is investigated. Welding process is conducted using similar average power for both welding mode. Hardness variation across weld area is observed. The result shows similar hardness pattern across weld area for both welding mode. Hardness degradation at fusion zone (FZ) is due to ferrite formation existence from high heat input applied. With additional slower cooling rate for CW mode, the hardness degradation is become obvious. The normal variation of hardness behavior with PW mode might lead to good strength.

  11. Experimental evaluation of the cw lasing threshold for a Ce:LiCaAlF6 laser. (United States)

    Alderighi, D; Toci, G; Vannini, M; Parisi, D; Tonelli, M


    We present an experimental technique that allows the direct measurement of the continuous wave (cw) lasing threshold and the slope efficiency of a Ce:LiCaAlF6 (Ce:LiCAF) laser source by means of time-resolved measurement in the pulsed regime. We used a long-pulse-duration source to pump a tunable laser and a high-efficiency nondispersive laser in a quasi-stationary lasing regime. We compare the experimental results with earlier theoretical evaluations, and we demonstrate the feasibility of a cw Ce:LiCAF laser. Under the conditions discussed here, our technique can be applied to all the active media that achieved pulsed laser emission to investigate their potential as cw laser active media.

  12. First Light Curve Analyses of Binary Systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7


    Ulas, Burak; Ulusoy, Ceren


    Using the data from the public database of the All Sky Automated Survey ({\\tt ASAS}) we performed the very first light curve analyses of the three eclipsing binary systems \\astrobj{AO~Aqr}, \\astrobj{CW~Aqr} and \\astrobj{ASAS~012206-4924.7}. The physical parameters of the systems were determined by the {\\tt PHOEBE} software. From an analysis of the ASAS data it was concluded that AO~Aqr was found to be a contact binary system while CW~Aqr and ASAS~012206-4924.7 were found to be near--contact a...

  13. Variable-wavelength second harmonic generation of CW Yb-fibre laser in partially coupled enhancement cavity. (United States)

    Khripunov, Sergey; Radnatarov, Daba; Kobtsev, Sergey; Skorkin, Aleksey


    This work for the first time proposes and studies a method of frequency doubling of CW non-single-frequency fibre lasers with a high-Q resonator partially coupled to the fibre laser cavity. The proposed new approach resulted in the following parameters: laser's maximal output power 880 mW at 536 nm when pumped with 6.2 W at 976 nm, wavelength tuneability range 521-545 nm with the output power at the extreme ends of this range 420 and 220 mW correspondingly. The proposed configuration allows efficient non-linear transformation of both CW and pulsed radiation in a partially coupled enhancement cavity.

  14. Hybrid Q-switched laser with MoS2 saturable absorber and AOM driven sub-nanosecond KTP-OPO. (United States)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition-metal dichalcogenides, such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2), have attracted great interests due to their exceptional optical properties as saturable absorbers in laser systems. In this work, at first, we presented a diode-pumped passively Q-switched laser with MoS2 saturable absorber (MoS2-SA). At an incident pump power of 6.54 W, a maximum output power of 1.15 W with a minimum pulse duration of 70.6 ns was obtained, which is the shortest pulse duration of diode pumped passively Q-switched laser with MoS2-SA to the best of our knowledge. Then, by using a hybrid Q-switched laser with a MoS2-SA and an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) as pumping fundamental laser, a sub-nanosecond KTiOPO4 (KTP) based intracavity optical parametric oscillation (IOPO) was realized. With an incident pump power of 10.2 W and AOM repetition rate of 10 kHz, the maximum output power of 183 mW with minimum pulse duration of 850 ps was obtained. The experimental results indicate that the IOPO pumped by the hybrid Q-switched laser with AOM and MoS2-SA can generate signal wave with shorter pulse duration than those IOPOs pumped by hybrid Q-switched laser with AOM and Cr4+:YAG or single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absober (SWCNT-SA) or monolayer graphene SA.

  15. Controlling software development of CW terahertz target scattering properties measurements based on LabVIEW (United States)

    Fan, Chang-Kun; Li, Qi; Zhou, Yi; Zhao, Yong-Peng; Chen, De-Ying


    With the development of terahertz technology and increasing studies on terahertz target scattering properties, research on terahertz target scattering properties measurements attracts more and more attention. In this paper, to solve problems in the detection process, we design a controlling software for Continuous-Wave (CW) terahertz target scattering properties measurements. The software is designed and programmed based on LabVIEW. The software controls the whole system, involving the switch between the target and the calibration target, the rotation of target, collection, display and storage of the initial data and display, storage of the data after the calibration process. The experimental results show that the software can accomplish the expected requirement, enhance the speed of scattering properties measurements and reduce operation errors.

  16. He-Ne and cw CO2 laser long-path systems for gas detection. (United States)

    Grant, W B


    This paper describes the design and testing of a laboratory prototype dual He-Ne laser system for the detection of methane leaks from underground pipelines and solid-waste landfill sites using differential absorption of radiation backscattered from topographic targets. A laboratory-prototype dual cw carbon dioxide laser system also using topographic backscatter is discussed, and measurement results for methanol are given. With both systems, it was observed that the time-varying differential absorption signal was useful in indicating the presence of a gas coming from a nearby source. Limitations to measurement sensitivity, especially the role of speckle and atmospheric turbulence, are described. The speckle results for hard targets are contrasted with those from atmospheric aerosols. The Appendix gives appropriate laser lines and values of absorption coefficients for the hydrazine fuel gases.

  17. Optical trapping assembling of clusters and nanoparticles in solution by CW and femtosecond lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Masuhara, Hiroshi


    Laser trapping of molecular systems in solution is classified into three cases: JUST TRAPPING, EXTENDED TRAPPING, and NUCLEATION and GROWTH. The nucleation in amino acid solutions depends on where the 1064-nm CW trapping laser is focused, and crystallization and liquid–liquid phase separation are induced by laser trapping at the solution/air surface and the solution/glass interface, respectively. Laser trapping crystallization is achieved even in unsaturated solution, on which unique controls of crystallization are made possible. Crystal size is arbitrarily controlled by tuning laser power for a plate-like anhydrous crystal of l-phenylalanine. The α- or γ-crystal polymorph of glycine is selectively prepared by changing laser power and polarization. Further efficient trapping of nanoparticles and their following ejection induced by femtosecond laser pulses are introduced as unique trapping phenomena and finally future perspective is presented.

  18. Design of spherical electron gun for ultra high frequency, CW power inductive output tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Meenu, E-mail:; Joshi, L. M., E-mail: [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute (CEERI), Pilani, Rajasthan (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), New Delhi (India)


    Inductive Output Tube (IOT) is an amplifier that usually operates in UHF range. It is an electron tube whose basic structure is similar to conventional vacuum devices. This device is widely used in broadcast applications but is now being explored for scientific applications also specifically, particle accelerators and fusion plasma heating purposes. The paper describes the design approach of a spherical gridded electron gun of a 500 MHz, 100 kW CW power IOT. The electron gun structure has been simulated and optimized for operating voltage and current of 40kV and 3.5 A respectively. The electromagnetic analysis of this spherical electron gun has been carried out in CST and TRAK codes.

  19. A 350 MHz, 200 kW CW, Multiple Beam Inductive Output Tube - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.Lawrece Ives; George Collins; David Marsden Michael Read; Edward Eisen; Takuchi Kamura, Philipp Borchard


    This program developed a 200 kW CW, 350 MHz, multiple beam inductive output tube (MBIOT) for driving accelerator cavities. The MBIOT operates at 30 kV with a gain of 23 dB. The estimated efficiency is 70%. The device uses seven electron beams, each transmitting 1.4 A of current. The tube is approximately six feet long and weighs approximately 400 lbs. The prototype device will be evaluated as a potential RF source for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Because of issues related to delivery of the electron guns, it was not possible to complete assembly and test of the MBIOT during the Phase II program. The device is being completed with support from Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., Communications & Power Industries, LLC. and the Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) in Dahlgren, VA. The MBIOT will be initially tested at NSWC before delivery to ANL. The testing at NSWC is scheduled for February 2013.

  20. Operation of a sub-terahertz CW gyrotron with an extremely low voltage (United States)

    Bratman, V. L.; Fedotov, A. E.; Fokin, A. P.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Manuilov, V. N.; Osharin, I. V.


    Decreasing the operating voltage for medium-power sub-terahertz gyrotrons aimed at industrial and scientific applications is highly attractive, since it allows size and cost reduction of the tubes and power supply units. In this paper, we examine such an opportunity both numerically and experimentally for the fundamental cyclotron resonance operation of an existing gyrotron initially designed for operation at the second cyclotron harmonic with a relatively high voltage. Simulations predict that output power higher than 10 W can be produced at the fundamental harmonic at voltages less than 2 kV. To form a low-voltage helical electron beam with a sufficiently large pitch-factor, a positive voltage was applied to the first anode of the gyrotron three-electrode magnetron-injection gun with a negative voltage at the cathode. CW gyrotron operation at voltages down to 1.5 kV has been demonstrated at a frequency about of 256 GHz.

  1. Surface hardening using cw CO2 laser: laser heat treatment, modelation, and experimental work (United States)

    Muniz, German; Alum, Jorge


    In the present work are given the results of the application of laser metal surface hardening techniques using a cw carbon dioxide laser as an energy source on steel 65 G. The laser heat treatment results are presented theoretically and experimentally. Continuous wave carbon dioxide laser of 0.6, 0.3, and 0.4 kW were used. A physical model for the descriptions of the thermophysical laser metal interactions process is given and a numerical algorithm is used to solve this problem by means of the LHT code. The results are compared with the corresponding experimental ones and a very good agreement is observed. The LHT code is able to do predictions of transformation hardening by laser heating. These results will be completed with other ones concerning laser alloying and cladding presented in a second paper.

  2. Design and testing of a 750MHz CW-EPR digital console for small animal imaging. (United States)

    Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Emoto, Miho C; Hirata, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hirotada G


    This paper describes the development of a digital console for three-dimensional (3D) continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging of a small animal to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and lower the cost of the EPR imaging system. A RF generation board, an RF acquisition board and a digital signal processing (DSP) & control board were built for the digital EPR detection. Direct sampling of the reflected RF signal from a resonator (approximately 750MHz), which contains the EPR signal, was carried out using a band-pass subsampling method. A direct automatic control system to reduce the reflection from the resonator was proposed and implemented in the digital EPR detection scheme. All DSP tasks were carried out in field programmable gate array ICs. In vivo 3D imaging of nitroxyl radicals in a mouse's head was successfully performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Revealing statistical properties of quasi-CW fibre lasers in bandwidth-limited measurements. (United States)

    Gorbunov, O A; Sugavanam, S; Churkin, D V


    We introduce a general technique how to reveal in experiments of limited electrical bandwidth which is lower than the optical bandwidth of the optical signal under study, whether the statistical properties of the light source obey Gaussian distribution or mode correlations do exist. To do that one needs to perform measurements by decreasing the measurement bandwidth. We develop a simple model of bandwidth-limited measurements and predict universal laws how intensity probability density function and intensity auto-correlation function of ideal completely stochastic source of Gaussian statistics depend on limited measurement bandwidth and measurement noise level. Results of experimental investigation are in good agreement with model predictions. In particular, we reveal partial mode correlations in the radiation of quasi-CW Raman fibre laser.

  4. Influence of geomagnetic field for continuous wave (CW) laser excited sodium guide stars backward fluorescence intensity (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-peng; Wang, Hong-yan; Hua, Wei-hong; Ning, Yu; Xu, Xiao-jun


    Recent years, benefited from their greater coverage and smaller focus anisoplanatism, sodium laser guide stars are becoming more attractive in providing artificial beacons for adaptive optical (AO) system in large ground telescopes compared to Rayleigh guide stars. And it had been found that the Sodium laser guide stars backward fluorescence intensity is closely related with the local magnetic field intensity and direction. In this paper, we make use of the World Magnetic Model (WMM) 2010 and by considering the geographical differences in Beijing, Nanjing and Kunming we investigate the effects of the light intensity, line-width, polarization of the CW laser and re-pumping conditions on the photon return flux by numerically solving the Rochester et al. Bloch model. So in theory we can get better Sodium guide star in Beijing. In conclusion, according to the simulation results, we can acquire much bright of Sodium guide stars by optimize the parameter of the launched 589 nm laser.

  5. Regional and Global Atmospheric CO2 Measurements Using 1.57 Micron IM-CW Lidar (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Harrison, F. Wallace; Dobler, Jeremy; Campbell, Joel; Kooi, Susan; Meadows, Byron; Fan, Tai-Fang; hide


    Atmospheric CO2 is a critical forcing for the Earth's climate, and knowledge of its distribution and variations influences predictions of the Earth's future climate. Accurate observations of atmospheric CO2 are also crucial to improving our understanding of CO2 sources, sinks and transports. To meet these science needs, NASA is developing technologies for the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission, which is aimed at global CO2 observations. Meanwhile an airborne investigation of atmospheric CO2 distributions as part of the NASA Suborbital Atmospheric Carbon and Transport â€" America (ACT-America) mission will be conducted with lidar and in situ instrumentation over the central and eastern United States during all four seasons and under a wide range of meteorological conditions. In preparing for the ASCENDS mission, NASA Langley Research Center and Exelis Inc./Harris Corp. have jointly developed and demonstrated the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements with an intensity-modulated continuous-wave (IM-CW) lidar. Since 2005, a total of 14 flight campaigns have been conducted. A measurement precision of approx.0.3 ppmv for a 10-s average over desert and vegetated surfaces has been achieved, and the lidar CO2 measurements also agree well with in-situ observations. Significant atmospheric CO2 variations on various spatiotemporal scales have been observed during these campaigns. For example, around 10-ppm CO2 changes were found within free troposphere in a region of about 200A-300 sq km over Iowa during a summer 2014 flight. Results from recent flight campaigns are presented in this paper. The ability to achieve the science objectives of the ASCENDS mission with an IM-CW lidar is also discussed in this paper, along with the plans for the ACT-America aircraft investigation that begins in the winter of 2016.

  6. Advancing IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements from Space (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Harrison, F. W.; Chen, S.; Obland, M. D.


    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) decadal survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, time shifted PN, sine wave modulated PN, and sine wave pulsed PN. Different PN code techniques are presented that are appropriate for different types of lidar hardware, including our current ASCENDS IM-CW concept space hardware. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties without sidelobes while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space.

  7. HLA-Cw Allele Frequency in Definite Meniere’s Disease Compared to Probable Meniere’s Disease and Healthy Controls in an Iranian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Dabiri


    Full Text Available Introduction Several lines of evidence support the contribution of autoimmune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of Meniere’s disease. The aim of this study was determining the association between HLA-Cw Alleles in patients with definite Meniere’s disease and patients with probable Meniere’s disease and a control group.  Materials and Methods: HLA-Cw genotyping was performed in 23 patients with definite Meniere’s disease, 24 with probable Meniere’s disease, and 91 healthy normal subjects, using sequence specific primers polymerase chain reaction technique. The statistical analysis was performed using stata 8 software.  Results: There was a significant association between HLA-Cw*04 and HLA-Cw*16 in both definite and probable Meniere’s disease compared to normal healthy controls. We observed a significant difference in HLA-Cw*12 frequencies between patients with definite Meniere’s disease compared to patients with probable Meniere’s disease (P=0.04. The frequency of HLA-Cw*18 is significantly higher in healthy controls (P=0.002.  Conclusion: Our findings support the rule of HLA-Cw Alleles in both definite and probable Meniere’s disease. In addition, differences in HLA-Cw*12 frequency in definite and probable Meniere’s disease in our study’s population might indicate distinct immune and inflammatory mechanisms involved in each condition.

  8. Controllable generation and manipulation of micro-bubbles in water with absorptive colloid particles by CW laser radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya.; Maksimyak, P. P.


    Micrometer-sized vapor-gas bubbles are formed due to local heating of a water suspension containing absorptive pigment particles of 100 nm diameter. The heating is performed by CW near-infrared (980 nm) laser radiation with controllable power, focused into a 100 mu m spot within a 2 mm suspension...

  9. [Effect of cw laser YAG: Nd laser beam on the wall of the urinary bladder taken from cadavers]. (United States)

    Kuzaka, B; Mindak, M; Pykało, R

    The results of irradiation of the urinary bladder wall with cw YAG:Nd laser beam are presented. The use of irradiation times ranging from 02, and 0.8 second destroyed irradiated tissues up to a half of the muscular laser.

  10. Intracavity doubling of CW Ti:sapphire laser to 392.5 nm using BiBO-crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Thorhauge, Morten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter


    In this work we present results obtained for intra-cavity frequency-doubling of a 785 nm CW Ti:sapphire laser utilising BiBO as the non-linear crystal. Intracavity doubling offers several advantages compared to extra-cavity doubling, such as no need to couple to an external resonance cavity, and ...

  11. CW operation of high-power blue laser diodes with polished facets on semi-polar ( 20 2 ¯ 1 ¯ ) GaN substrates

    KAUST Repository

    Pourhashemi, A.


    Continuous wave (CW) operation of high-power blue laser diodes (LDs) with polished facets on semi-polar (202̅1̅) gallium nitride (GaN) substrates is demonstrated. Ridge waveguide LDs were fabricated using indium GaN waveguiding layers and GaN cladding layers. At a lasing wavelength of 452 nm, the peak two-facet CW output power from an LD with uncoated facets was 1.71 W at a current of 3 A, corresponding to an optical power density of 32.04 MW/cm2 on each facet. The dependence of output power on current did not change with repeated CW measurements, indicating that the polished facets did not degrade under high-power CW operation. These results show that polished facets are a viable alternative to cleaved or etched facets for high-power CW semi-polar LDs.

  12. Integrating in silico and in vitro analysis of peptide binding affinity to HLA-Cw*0102: a bioinformatic approach to the prediction of new epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Walshe


    Full Text Available Predictive models of peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC binding affinity are important components of modern computational immunovaccinology. Here, we describe the development and deployment of a reliable peptide-binding prediction method for a previously poorly-characterized human MHC class I allele, HLA-Cw*0102.Using an in-house, flow cytometry-based MHC stabilization assay we generated novel peptide binding data, from which we derived a precise two-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (2D-QSAR binding model. This allowed us to explore the peptide specificity of HLA-Cw*0102 molecule in detail. We used this model to design peptides optimized for HLA-Cw*0102-binding. Experimental analysis showed these peptides to have high binding affinities for the HLA-Cw*0102 molecule. As a functional validation of our approach, we also predicted HLA-Cw*0102-binding peptides within the HIV-1 genome, identifying a set of potent binding peptides. The most affine of these binding peptides was subsequently determined to be an epitope recognized in a subset of HLA-Cw*0102-positive individuals chronically infected with HIV-1.A functionally-validated in silico-in vitro approach to the reliable and efficient prediction of peptide binding to a previously uncharacterized human MHC allele HLA-Cw*0102 was developed. This technique is generally applicable to all T cell epitope identification problems in immunology and vaccinology.

  13. A computer control system for the PNC high power cw electron linac. Concept and hardware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emoto, T.; Hirano, K.; Takei, Hayanori; Nomura, Masahiro; Tani, S. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Kato, Y.; Ishikawa, Y.


    Design and construction of a high power cw (Continuous Wave) electron linac for studying feasibility of nuclear waste transmutation was started in 1989 at PNC. The PNC accelerator (10 MeV, 20 mA average current, 4 ms pulse width, 50 Hz repetition) is dedicated machine for development of the high current acceleration technology in future need. The computer control system is responsible for accelerator control and supporting the experiment for high power operation. The feature of the system is the measurements of accelerator status simultaneously and modularity of software and hardware for easily implemented for modification or expansion. The high speed network (SCRAM Net {approx} 15 MB/s), Ethernet, and front end processors (Digital Signal Processor) were employed for the high speed data taking and control. The system was designed to be standard modules and software implemented man machine interface. Due to graphical-user-interface and object-oriented-programming, the software development environment is effortless programming and maintenance. (author)

  14. A 10-watt CW photodissociation laser with IODO perfluoro-tert-butane (United States)

    Tabibi, Bagher; Venable, Demetrius D.


    NASA has been investigating the feasibility of direct solar-pumped laser systems for power beaming in space. Among the various gas, liquid, and solid laser systems being proposed as candidates for solar-pumped lasers, the iodine photodissociation gas laser has demonstrated its potential for space application. Of immediate attention is the determination of system requirements and the choice of lasants to improve the system efficiency. The development of an efficient iodine laser depends on the availability of a suitable iodide which has favorable laser kinetics, chemically reversibility, and solar energy utilization. Among the various alkyliodide lasants comparatively tested in a long-pulse system, perfluoro- tert-butyl iodide, T-C4F9I, was found to be the best. However, the operating conditions for the laser medium in a continuously pumped and continuous-flow iodine laser differ considerably from those in the pulsed regime. The results of the continuous wave (CW)) laser performance from t-C4F9I are reported. Perfluoro- n-propyl iodide, n-C3F7I is used for comparison because of its universal use in photodissociation iodine lasers.

  15. Efficient Low-Voltage Operation of a CW Gyrotron Oscillator at 233 GHz. (United States)

    Hornstein, Melissa K; Bajaj, Vikram S; Griffin, Robert G; Temkin, Richard J


    The gyrotron oscillator is a source of high average power millimeter-wave through terahertz radiation. In this paper, we report low beam power and high-efficiency operation of a tunable gyrotron oscillator at 233 GHz. The low-voltage operating mode provides a path to further miniaturization of the gyrotron through reduction in the size of the electron gun, power supply, collector, and cooling system, which will benefit industrial and scientific applications requiring portability. Detailed studies of low-voltage operation in the TE(2) (,) (3) (,) (1) mode reveal that the mode can be excited with less than 7 W of beam power at 3.5 kV. During CW operation with 3.5-kV beam voltage and 50-mA beam current, the gyrotron generates 12 W of RF power at 233.2 GHz. The EGUN electron optics code describes the low-voltage operation of the electron gun. Using gun-operating parameters derived from EGUN simulations, we show that a linear theory adequately predicts the low experimental starting currents.

  16. Functional role of the additional domains in inulosucrase (IslA from Leuconostoc citreum CW28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munguia Agustin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inulosucrase (IslA from Leuconostoc citreum CW28 belongs to a new subfamily of multidomain fructosyltransferases (FTFs, containing additional domains from glucosyltransferases. It is not known what the function of the additional domains in this subfamily is. Results Through construction of truncated versions we demonstrate that the acquired regions are involved in anchoring IslA to the cell wall; they also confer stability to the enzyme, generating a larger structure that affects its kinetic properties and reaction specificity, particularly the hydrolysis and transglycosylase ratio. The accessibility of larger molecules such as EDTA to the catalytic domain (where a Ca2+ binding site is located is also affected as demonstrated by the requirement of 100 times higher EDTA concentrations to inactivate IslA with respect to the smallest truncated form. Conclusion The C-terminal domain may have been acquired to anchor inulosucrase to the cell surface. Furthermore, the acquired domains in IslA interact with the catalytic core resulting in a new conformation that renders the enzyme more stable and switch the specificity from a hydrolytic to a transglycosylase mechanism. Based on these results, chimeric constructions may become a strategy to stabilize and modulate biocatalysts based on FTF activity.

  17. A CW radiofrequency ion source for production of negative hydrogen ion beams for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.; Tuunanen, J. [University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics (Finland); Potkins, D.; Stewart, T.; Dehnel, M. P. [D-Pace, Inc., Nelson, B.C. Canada (Canada)


    A CW 13.56 MHz radiofrequency-driven ion source RADIS for production of H{sup −} and D{sup −} beams is under development for replacing the filament-driven ion source of the MCC30/15 cyclotron. The RF ion source has a 16-pole multicusp plasma chamber, an electromagnet-based magnetic filter and an external planar spiral RF antenna behind an AlN window. The extraction is a 5-electrode system with an adjustable puller electrode voltage for optimizing the beam formation, a water-cooled electron dump electrode and an accelerating einzel lens. At 2650 W of RF power, the source produces 1 mA of H{sup −} (2.6 mA/cm{sup 2}), which is the intensity needed at injection for production of 200 µA H{sup +} with the filament-driven ion source. A simple pepperpot device has been developed for characterizing the beam emittance. Plans for improving the power efficiency with the use of a new permanent magnet front plate is discussed.

  18. Dancing with the Electrons: Time-Domain and CW In Vivo EPR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali C. Krishna


    Full Text Available The progress in the development of imaging the distribution of unpaired electrons in living systems and the functional and the potential diagnostic dimensions of such an imaging process, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI, is traced from its origins with emphasis on our own work. The importance of EPR imaging stems from the fact that many paramagnetic probes show oxygen dependent spectral broadening. Assessment of in vivo oxygen concentration is an important factor in radiation oncology in treatment-planning and monitoring treatment-outcome. The emergence of narrow-line trairylmethyl based, bio-compatible spin probes has enabled the development of radiofrequency time-domain EPRI. Spectral information in time-domain EPRI can be achieved by generating a time sequence of T2* or T2 weighted images. Progress in CW imaging has led to the use of rotating gradients, more recently rapid scan with direct detection, and a combination of all the three. Very low field MRI employing Dynamic Nuclear polarization (Overhauser effect is also employed for monitoring tumor hypoxia, and re-oxygenation in vivo. We have also been working on the co-registration of MRI and time domain EPRI on mouse tumor models at 300 MHz using a specially designed resonator assembly. The mapping of the unpaired electron distribution and unraveling the spectral characteristics by using magnetic resonance in presence of stationary and rotating gradients in indeed ‘dancing with the (unpaired electrons’, metaphorically speaking.

  19. Superconducting Cavity Cryomodule Designs for the Next Generation of CW Linacs: Challenges and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, Thomas [Fermilab; Orlov, Yuriy [Fermilab; Peterson, Thomas [Fermilab; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav [Fermilab


    The designs of nearly all superconducting RF (SRF) linacs over the last several years, with one notable exception being CEBAF at Jefferson Lab, have assumed pulsed beam operation with relatively low duty factors. These include the XFEL at DESY, the ILC, the original configuration for Project X at Fermilab, as well as several others. Recently proposed projects, on the other hand, including the LCLS-II at SLAC, the newly configured low and medium energy sections for Project X, and FRIB at Michigan State, to name a few, assume continuous wave or CW operation on quite a large scale with ambitious gradients and cavity performance requirements. This has implications in the cavity design as well as in many parts of the overall cryomodule due to higher dynamic heat loads in the cavities themselves and higher heat loads in the input and high-order-mode (HOM) couplers. Piping internal to the cryomodule, the effectiveness of thermal intercepts, the size of integrated heat exchangers, and many other aspects of the overall design are also affected. This paper will describe some of these design considerations as we move toward the next generation of accelerator projects.

  20. Production of High Intracavity UV Power From a CW Laser Source (United States)

    David, R. T.; Chyba, T. H.; Keppel, C. E.; Gaskell, D.; Ent, R.


    The goal of this research project is to create a prototype high power CW source of ultraviolet (UV) photons for photon-electron scattering at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Hall B. The facility will use optical resonant cavities to produce a high photon flux. The technical approach will be to frequency-double the 514.5 mn light from an Argon-Ion Laser to create 0.1 to 1.0 watt in the UV. The produced UV power will be stored in a resonant cavity to generate an high intracavity UV power of 102 to 103 watts. The specific aim of this project is to first design and construct the low-Q doubling cavity and lock it to the Argon-Ion wavelength. Secondly, the existing 514.5 nm high-Q build-up cavity and its locking electronics will be modified to create high intracavity UV power. The entire system will then be characterized and evaluated for possible beam line use.

  1. ARBRES: Light-Weight CW/FM SAR Sensors for Small UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Fabregas


    Full Text Available This paper describes a pair of compact CW/FM airborne SAR systems for small UAV-based operation (wingspan of 3.5 m for low-cost testing of innovative SAR concepts. Two different SAR instruments, using the C and X bands, have been developed in the context of the ARBRES project, each of them achieving a payload weight below 5 Kg and a volume of 13.5 dm3 (sensor and controller. Every system has a dual receiving channel which allows operation in interferometric or polarimetric modes. Planar printed array antennas are used in both sensors for easy system integration and better isolation between transmitter and receiver subsystems. First experimental tests on board a 3.2 m wingspan commercial radio-controlled aircraft are presented. The SAR images of a field close to an urban area have been focused using a back-projection algorithm. Using the dual channel capability, a single pass interferogram and Digital Elevation Model (DEM has been obtained which agrees with the scene topography. A simple Motion Compensation (MoCo module, based on the information from an Inertial+GPS unit, has been included to compensate platform motion errors with respect to the nominal straight trajectory.

  2. Dancing with the Electrons: Time-Domain and CW EPR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran Subramanian


    Full Text Available The progress in the development of imaging the distribution of unpaired electrons in living systems and the functional and the potential diagnostic dimensions of such an imaging process, using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging (EPRI, is traced from its origins with emphasis on our own work. The importance of EPR imaging stems from the fact that many paramagnetic probes show oxygen dependent spectral broadening. Assessment of in vivo oxygen concentration is an important factor in radiation oncology in treatment-planning and monitoring treatment-outcome. The emergence of narrow-line trairylmethyl based, bio-compatible spin probes has enabled the development of radiofrequency time-domain EPRI. Spectral information in time-domain EPRI can be achieved by generating a time sequence of T 2 * or T 2 weighted images. Progress in CW imaging has led to the use of rotating gradients, more recently rapid scan with direct detection, and a combination of all the three. Very low field MRI employing Dynamic Nuclear polarization (Overhauser effect is also employed for monitoring tumor hypoxia, and re-oxygenation in vivo . We have also been working on the co-registration of MRI and time domain EPRI on mouse tumor models at 300 MHz using a specially designed resonator assembly. The mapping of the unpaired electron distribution and unraveling the spectral characteristics by using magnetic resonance in presence of stationary and rotating gradients in indeed ‘dancing with the ( unpaired electrons’, metaphorically speaking.

  3. Modeling of a CW Nd:YVO4 laser longitudinally pumped by high power VCSEL modules at 808 nm (United States)

    Alimohammadian, E.; Major, A.


    In this work longitudinal pumping of a continuous wave (CW) Nd:YVO4 laser by high power VCSEL modules was numerically studied. Two VCSEL pump modules (6 W and 15 W) were compared. The maximum output power from a Nd:YVO4 crystal using these pump modules was calculated to be 2.5 W and 6 W, respectively, using a 10 % output coupler. The slope and optical-to-optical efficiencies in both cases were around 47% and 40%, respectively. The performance of Nd:YVO4 crystal was found to be better than that of Nd:YAG crystal. Our numerical results indicate that VCSELs can serve as efficient pump sources for the end-pumped CW Nd:YVO4 lasers.

  4. First light curve analyses of binary systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7 (United States)

    Ulaş, B.; Ulusoy, C.


    Using the data from the public database of the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) we performed the very first light curve analyses of the three eclipsing binary systems AO Aqr, CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7. The physical parameters of the systems were determined by the PHOEBE (Prša and Zwitter, 2005) software. From an analysis of the ASAS data it was concluded that AO Aqr was found to be a contact binary system while CW Aqr and ASAS 012206-4924.7 were found to be near-contact and detached binaries, respectively. Finally, the locations of the components, corresponding to the estimated physical parameters, in the HR diagram were also discussed.

  5. A 700 MHZ, 1 MW CW RF System for a FEL 100mA RF Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Roybal, William; Reass, William; Rees, Daniel; Tallerico, Paul J; Torrez, Phillip A


    This paper describes a 700 MHz, 1 Megawatt CW, high efficiency klystron RF system utilized for a Free Electron Laser (FEL) high-brightness electron photoinjector (PI). The E2V klystron is mod-anode tube that operates with a beam voltage of 95 kV. This tube, operating with a 65% efficiency, requires ~96 watts of input power to produce in excess of 1 MW of output power. This output drives the 3rd cell of a 2½-cell, p-mode PI cavity through a pair of planar waveguide windows. Coupling is via a ridge-loaded tapered waveguide section and "dog-bone" iris. This paper will present the design of the RF, RF transport, coupling, and monitoring/protection systems that are required to support CW operations of the 100 mA cesiated, semi-porous SiC photoinjector.

  6. Evaluation of early rheumatic disorders in PIP joints using a cw-transillumination method: first clinical results (United States)

    Prapavat, Viravuth; Luhmann, Till; Krause, Andreas; Backhaus, Marina; Beuthan, Juergen; Mueller, Gerhard J.


    This paper presents first clinical results of an in vivo experimental study on the detection of early pathological changes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a near IR cw- transillumination method on finger joints (PIP). The inflammation of a joint system when caused by RA leads to changes in the synovial membrane and synovial. Measurements have shown that these rheumatic induced processes results in a variation in optical properties within the joint system. Using a cw system the PIP-joint is transilluminated with diode lasers at the articular cavity in order to use the entire scattered distribution of the transmitted radiation intensity for diagnostic purposes. The study includes results of in vivo measurements on 24 joints with known status and the evaluation of the feasibility of different distribution properties for detection of early RA.

  7. 100 kW CW highly-efficient multi-beam klystron for a future electron-ion collider (United States)

    Teryaev, Vladimir E.; Shchelkunov, Sergey V.; Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay L.


    Initial results are presented for the development of a CW highly-efficient RF source needed for operation of a future electron-ion collider. The design of this compact multi-beam klystron yields high efficiency (above 70%) for the power output of 125 kW at 952.6 MHz. The klystron is to work for the RF systems for ion acceleration in the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider as being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.

  8. A deep-sea hydrothermal vent isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CW961, requires thiosulfate for Cd tolerance and precipitation. (United States)

    Wang, Clifford L; Ozuna, Samantha C; Clark, Douglas S; Keasling, Jay D


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa CW961, an isolate from the vicinity of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, grew in the presence of 5 mM Cd(2+) and removed Cd(2+) from solution. Sulfate was sufficient for growth when Cd(2+) was not present in the culture medium; however, thiosulfate was necessary for Cd(2+) precipitation and cell survival in the presence of Cd(2+).

  9. A deep-sea hydrothermal vent isolate, Pseudomonas aeruginosa CW961, requires thiosulfate for Cd2+ tolerance and precipitation (United States)

    Wang, Clifford L.; Ozuna, Samantha C.; Clark, Douglas S.; Keasling, Jay D.


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa CW961, an isolate from the vicinity of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent, grew in the presence of 5 mM Cd2+ and removed Cd2+ from solution. Sulfate was sufficient for growth when Cd2+ was not present in the culture medium; however, thiosulfate was necessary for Cd2+ precipitation and cell survival in the presence of Cd2+. PMID:20725529

  10. Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S.T.; Velsko, S.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)


    We report kilohertz repetition-rate pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning from 3.22 to 3.7 {mu}m in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Rapid tuning over 400thinspcm{sup {minus}1} with random wavelength accessibility is achieved by rotation of the pump beam angle by no more than 24thinspthinspmrad in the PPLN crystal by use of an acousto-optic beam deflector. Over the entire tuning range, a near-transform-limited OPO bandwidth can be obtained by means of injection seeding with a single-frequency 1.5-{mu}m laser diode. The frequency agility, high repetition rate, and narrow bandwidth of this mid-IR PPLN OPO make it well suited as a lidar transmitter source. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Optical Society of America}

  11. Preparação e caracterização de materiais híbridos celulose/NbOPO4.nH2O a partir de celulose branqueada de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar Preparation and characterization of a cellulose/NbOPO4.nH2O hybrid from bleached sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. F. Pereira


    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a preparação e caracterização do híbrido celulose/fosfato de nióbio hidratado (Cel/NbOPO4.nH2O utilizando como material de partida a celulose branqueada de bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e o nióbio metálico. O híbrido foi preparado por dois métodos: denominados métodos I e II. O método I consistiu na dissolução do nióbio metálico em solução de ácido fluorídrico/nítrico (100:10, com tempo de contato de 16 horas entre a celulose branqueada do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e a solução ácida. Adicionou-se a essa solução ácido fosfórico para precipitação do material. O método II foi semelhante, com proporções diferentes da solução ácida fluorídrico/nítrico (160/100, sem tempo de contato da celulose com a solução ácida. Os métodos I e II utilizaram as seguintes proporções de cel/ Nb2O5.nH2O: (10:10;(10:6 e (10:2. Os materiais preparados pelos métodos I e II foram caracterizados por difração de raios X (DRX, termogravimetria (TG/DTG e microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV. Observou-se aumento do índice do grau de cristalinidade e mudanças na morfologia dos materiais preparados.This work describes the preparation and characterization of cellulose/hydrous niobium phosphate hybrid with bleached cellulose from sugarcane bagasse. The hybrid was prepared in two different forms: named methods I and II. Method I consisted in dissolving metallic niobium in a fluoridric/nitric (100:10 mixture, with aging time of 16 hours in which the sugarcane bagasse was in contact with the acid solution. Phosphoric acid was then added to the solution for precipitation of the material. Method II was similar, but metallic niobium was diluted in a fluoridric /nitric (160/100 solution without aging time. In both methods different proportions of Cel/NbOPO4.nH2O were used: (10:10; (10:6 and (10:2. These materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, thermogravimetry (TG/DTG analysis and scanning

  12. 地域ストック持続可能性マネジメントプロジェクト (OPoSSuM) の最終年度の展望


    前川, 智美; 倉阪, 秀史; 佐藤, 峻


    [はじめに] プロジェクト“OPoSSuM(Open Project on Stock Sustainability Management)”は、日本における人口減少・高齢化社会のなかで維持することが困難になりつつある4つの資本基盤(人的資本基盤、人工資本基盤、自然資本基盤、社会関係資本基盤)に着目し、その健全な維持と将来世代への継承を可能とするシステムを開発・普及することを目的とするものである。OPoSSuM の正式名称は「多世代参加型ストックマネジメント手法の普及を通じた地方自治体での持続可能性の確保」(研究代表者:倉阪秀史)といい、千葉大学、芝浦工業大学、国立環境研究所の研究者グループによる3年間のプロジェクトとして、2014年11月に独立行政法人科学技術振興機構(JST)社会技術研究開発センター(RISTEX)の平成26年度新規研究開発領域「持続可能な多世代共創社会のデザイン」に採択された。 2017年2月現在、OPoSSuM はその最終年度を迎えている。本章では、開発中のシステムの内容とこれまでの主な成果を概説したうえで、これまでの成果と最終年度の計画について報告すると...

  13. Use of monoclonal antibody-IRDye800CW bioconjugates in the resection of breast cancer. (United States)

    Korb, Melissa L; Hartman, Yolanda E; Kovar, Joy; Zinn, Kurt R; Bland, Kirby I; Rosenthal, Eben L


    Complete surgical resection of breast cancer is a powerful determinant of patient outcome, and failure to achieve negative margins results in reoperation in between 30% and 60% of patients. We hypothesize that repurposing Food and Drug Administration-approved antibodies as tumor-targeting diagnostic molecules can function as optical contrast agents to identify the boundaries of malignant tissue intraoperatively. The monoclonal antibodies bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumumab, trastuzumab, and tocilizumab were covalently linked to a near-infrared fluorescence probe (IRDye800CW) and in vitro binding assays were performed to confirm ligand-specific binding. Nude mice bearing human breast cancer flank tumors were intravenously injected with the antibody-IRDye800 bioconjugates and imaged over time. Tumor resections were performed using the SPY and Pearl Impulse systems, and the presence or absence of tumor was confirmed by conventional and fluorescence histology. Tumor was distinguishable from normal tissue using both SPY and Pearl systems, with both platforms being able to detect tumor as small as 0.5 mg. Serial surgical resections demonstrated that real-time fluorescence can differentiate subclinical segments of disease. Pathologic examination of samples by conventional and optical histology using the Odyssey scanner confirmed that the bioconjugates were specific for tumor cells and allowed accurate differentiation of malignant areas from normal tissue. Human breast cancer tumors can be imaged in vivo with multiple optical imaging platforms using near-infrared fluorescently labeled antibodies. These data support additional preclinical investigations for improving the surgical resection of malignancies with the goal of eventual clinical translation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Multi-kW cw fiber oscillator pumped by wavelength stabilized fiber coupled diode lasers (United States)

    Becker, Frank; Neumann, Benjamin; Winkelmann, Lutz; Belke, Steffen; Ruppik, Stefan; Hefter, Ulrich; Köhler, Bernd; Wolf, Paul; Biesenbach, Jens


    High power Yb doped fiber laser sources are beside CO2- and disk lasers one of the working horses of industrial laser applications. Due to their inherently given robustness, scalability and high efficiency, fiber laser sources are best suited to fulfill the requirements of modern industrial laser applications in terms of power and beam quality. Pumping Yb doped single-mode fiber lasers at 976nm is very efficient. Thus, high power levels can be realized avoiding limiting nonlinear effects like SRS. However the absorption band of Yb doped glass around 976nm is very narrow. Therefore, one has to consider the wavelength shift of the diode lasers used for pumping. The output spectrum of passively cooled diode lasers is mainly defined by the applied current and by the heat sink temperature. Furthermore the overall emission line width of a high power pump source is dominated by the large number of needed diode laser emitters, each producing an individual spectrum. Even though it is possible to operate multi-kW cw single-mode fiber lasers with free running diode laser pumps, wavelength stabilizing techniques for diode lasers (e.g. volume holographic gratings, VHG) can be utilized in future fiber laser sources to increase the output power level while keeping the energy consumption constant. To clarify the benefits of wavelength stabilized diode lasers with integrated VHG for wavelength locking the performance of a dual side pumped fiber oscillator is discussed in this article. For comparison, different pumping configurations consisting of stabilized and free-running diode lasers are presented.

  15. Synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and in vivo metabolism of fluor/quencher compounds containing IRDye 800CW and Black Hole Quencher-3 (BHQ-3). (United States)

    Linder, Karen E; Metcalfe, Edmund; Nanjappan, Palaniappa; Arunachalam, Thangavel; Ramos, Kimberly; Skedzielewski, Tina Marie; Marinelli, Edmund R; Tweedle, Michael F; Nunn, Adrian D; Swenson, Rolf E


    Protease-cleavable peptides containing a suitable fluor/quencher (Fl/Q) pair are optically dark until cleaved by their target protease, generating fluorescence. This approach has been used with many Fl/Q pairs, but little has been reported with IRDye 800CW, a popular near-infrared (NIR) fluor. We explored the use of the azo-bond-containing Black Hole Quencher 3 (BHQ-3) as a quencher for IRDye 800CW and found that IRDye 800CW/BHQ-3 is a suitable Fl/Q pair, despite the lack of proper spectral overlap for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) applications. Cleavage of IRDye 800CW-PLGLK(BHQ-3)AR-NH(2) (8) and its D-arginine (Darg) analogue (9) by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in vitro yielded the expected cleavage fragments. In vivo, extensive metabolism was found. Significant decomposition of a "non-cleavable" control IRDye 800CW-(1,13-diamino-4,7,10-trioxatridecane)-BHQ-3 (10) was evident in plasma of normal mice by 3 min post injection. The major metabolite showed a m/z and UV/vis spectrum consistent with azo bond cleavage in the BHQ-3 moiety. Preparation of an authentic standard of this metabolite (11) confirmed the assignment. Although the IRDye 800CW/BHQ-3 constructs showed efficient contact quenching prior to enzymatic cleavage, BHQ-3 should be used with caution in vivo, due to instability of its azo bond.

  16. Quantitative cw Overhauser effect dynamic nuclear polarization for the analysis of local water dynamics. (United States)

    Franck, John M; Pavlova, Anna; Scott, John A; Han, Songi


    Liquid state Overhauser effect Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (ODNP) has experienced a recent resurgence of interest. The ODNP technique described here relies on the double resonance of electron spin resonance (ESR) at the most common, i.e. X-band (∼10GHz), frequency and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) at ∼15 MHz. It requires only a standard continuous wave (cw) ESR spectrometer with an NMR probe inserted or built into an X-band cavity. We focus on reviewing a new and powerful manifestation of ODNP as a high frequency NMR relaxometry tool that probes dipolar cross relaxation between the electron spins and the ¹H nuclear spins at X-band frequencies. This technique selectively measures the translational mobility of water within a volume extending 0.5-1.5 nm outward from a nitroxide radical spin probe that is attached to a targeted site of a macromolecule. It allows one to study the dynamics of water that hydrates or permeates the surface or interior of proteins, polymers, and lipid membrane vesicles. We begin by reviewing the recent advances that have helped develop ODNP into a tool for mapping the dynamic landscape of hydration water with sub-nanometer locality. In order to bind this work coherently together and to place it in the context of the extensive body of research in the field of NMR relaxometry, we then rephrase the analytical model and extend the description of the ODNP-derived NMR signal enhancements. This extended model highlights several aspects of ODNP data analysis, including the importance of considering all possible effects of microwave sample heating, the need to consider the error associated with various relaxation rates, and the unique ability of ODNP to probe the electron-¹H cross-relaxation process, which is uniquely sensitive to fast (tens of ps) dynamical processes. By implementing the relevant corrections in a stepwise fashion, this paper draws a consensus result from previous ODNP procedures and then shows how such data can be

  17. Design of the 3.7 GHz, 500 kW CW circulator for the LHCD system of the SST-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Harish V., E-mail: [Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019 (India); Jadhav, Aviraj R. [Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019 (India); Jain, Yogesh M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Cheeran, Alice N. [Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019 (India); Gupta, Vikas [Vidyavardhini' s College of Engineering and Technology, Vasai, Maharashtra 401202 (India); Sharma, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Training School Complex, Anushakti Nagar, Mumbai 400094 (India)


    Highlights: • Design of a 500 kW CW circulator for LHCD system at 3.7 GHz. • Mechanism for thermal management of ferrite tile. • Scheme for uniform magnetisation of the ferrite tiles. • Design of high CW power CW quadrature and 180 ° hybrid coupler. - Abstract: Circulators are used in high power microwave systems to protect the vacuum source against reflection. The Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system of SST-1 tokamak commissioned at IPR, Gandhinagar in India comprises of four high power circulators to protect klystrons (supplying 500 kW CW each at 3.7 GHz) which power the system. This paper presents the design of a Differential Phase Shift Circulator (DPSC) capable of handling 500 kW CW power at 3.7 GHz so that four circulators can be used to protect the four available klystrons. As the DPSC is composed by three main components, viz., magic tee, ferrite phase shifter and 3 dB hybrid coupler, the designing of each of the proposed components is described. The design of these components is carried out factoring various multiphysics aspects of RF, heating due to high CW power and magnetic field requirement of the ferrite phase shifter. The primary objective of this paper is to present the complete RF, magnetic and thermal design of a high CW power circulator. All the simulations have been carried out in COMSOL Multiphysics. The designed circulator exhibits an insertion loss of 0.13 dB with a worst case VSWR of 1.08:1. The total length of the circulator is 3 m.

  18. Research on quasi-cw and pulse interaction of strong laser radiation with the military technical materials (United States)

    Rycyk, Antoni; CzyŻ, Krzysztof; Sarzyński, Antoni; Skrzeczanowski, Wojciech; Ostrowski, Roman; Strzelec, Marek; Jach, Karol; Świerczyński, Robert


    The paper describes work connected to the investigation of the interaction of strong laser radiation with selected metals, constituting typical materials applied in military technology, like aluminum, copper, brass and titanium. A special laser experimental stand was designed and constructed to achieve this objective. The system consisted of two Nd:YAG lasers working in the regime of free generation (quasi-cw) and another Nd:YAG laser, generating short pre-pulses in the Qswitching regime. During the concurrent operation of both quasi-cw systems it was possible to obtain pulse energies amounting to 10 J in a time period (pulses) of 1 ms. The synchronized, serial operation resulted in energy amounting to 5 J over a time period (pulse) of 2 ms. Variations of the target's surface reflection coefficient, caused by the interaction of short pre-pulses with high power density were determined. The experiments were performed using a standard Nd:YAG laser with amplifiers, generating output pulses whose duration amounted to 10 ns and energy to 1 J, with near Gaussian profile. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to analyze the emission spectra of targets under the conditions of the interaction of destructive strong and weak as well as long and short excitation laser pulses. A decay of the spectra in the UV range from 200 to around 350 nm was observed when irradiating the target with a long, quasi-cw destructive pulse. Moreover, in the case of an Al target, some AlO molecular spectra appeared, suggesting a chemical reaction of the aluminum atoms with oxygen.

  19. HLA-Cw*04 allele associated with nevirapine-induced rash in HIV-infected Thai patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunthanathip Preecha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high incidence of rash has been reported in HIV-1 patients who received the anti-retroviral drug nevirapine. In addition, several studies have suggested that polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA genes may play important roles in nevirapine-induced rash. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different HLA-C alleles on rash associated with nevirapine in patients who started highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART containing nevirapine in Thailand. Results A case-control study was carried out involving HIV-1 patients under treatment at Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Institute, Nonthaburi, Thailand between March 2007 and March 2008. The study included all HIV/AIDS patients being treated with nevirapine-containing regimens. The study population comprised 287 HIV/AIDS patients of whom 248 were nevirapine-tolerant and 39 developed rash after nevirapine treatment. From the nevirapine-tolerant patients, 60 were selected as the control group on the basis of age, sex, and therapy history matched for nevirapine-induced rash cases. We observed significantly more HLA-Cw*04 alleles in nevirapine-induced rash cases than in nevirapine-tolerant group, with frequencies of 20.51% and 7.50%, respectively (P = 0.009. There were no significant differences between the rash and tolerant groups for other HLA-C alleles except for HLA-Cw*03 (P = 0.015. Conclusion This study suggests that HLA-Cw*04 is associated with rash in nevirapine treated Thais. Future screening of patients' HLA may reduce the number of nevirapine-induced rash cases, and patients with alleles associated with nevirapine-induced rash should be started on anti-retroviral therapy without nevirapine.

  20. Characterizing fluorescent imaging properties of antibodies conjugated to IRDye800CW for use in imaging of head and neck cancer (United States)

    Foster, Robert C.; Krell, Asher M.; Chung, Thomas K.; Warram, Jason M.; Zinn, Kurt R.; Rosenthal, Eben L.


    Introduction: Proteins conjugated to the near infrared (NIR) moieties for detection of head and neck cancers are being translated to the clinic. However, little is known about the fluorescent properties of IRDye800CW after conjugation to antibodies. We investigated factors that may alter the real-time observed fluorescence of antibody conjugated dye and the rate of fluorescent signal loss. Methods: Signal loss was examined using three FDA approved monoclonal antibodies conjugated to IRDye800CW (LICOR) over a period of 15 days. Temperature effects on fluorescence were examined for conjugated dye in both solution and a mouse tumor model. Samples were cooled to -20°C then warmed to predetermined temperatures up to 60°C with imaging performed using the PEARL Impulse (LI-COR) and LUNA (Novadaq) systems. Results: Short term fluorescent signal loss (< 1 hour) was linear, while long term loss (15 days) was exponential with significant increases in rate observed with light exposure and increased temperatures. Cooling of tumor tissue at -20°C was shown to significantly increase tumor fluorescence on both imaging modalities when compared to room temperature (p=0.008, p=0.019). Concurrently the ratio of tumor to background fluorescent signal (TBR) increased with decreasing temperature with statistically significant increases seen at -20°C and 4°C (p=0.0015, p=0.03). Conclusions: TBR is increased with decreasing sample temperature, suggesting that the clinical exam of fluorescently labeled tissues may be improved at cooler temperatures. Our results indicate that both the rate of signal loss and the change in fluorescence with temperature observed for IRDye800CW are independent of the conjugating antibody.

  1. Development of a Time Synchronized CW-Laser Induced Fluorescence Measurement for Quasi-Periodic Oscillatory Plasma Discharges (United States)

    MacDonald, Natalia; Cappelli, Mark; Hargus, William, Jr.


    An advanced CW laser induced fluorescence diagnostic technique, capable of correlating high frequency current fluctuations to the resulting fluorescence excitation lineshapes, has been developed. This presentation describes this so-called ``Sample-Hold'' method of time-synchronization, and provides the steps taken to validate this technique, including simulations and experimental measurements on a 60 Hz Xe lamp discharge. Initial results for time-synchronized velocity measurements on the quasi-periodic oscillatory mode of a magnetic cusped plasma accelerator are also presented. These results show that the positions of the ionization and peak acceleration regions in the device vary over the course of a discharge current oscillation.

  2. Development of a 200 W CW high efficiency traveling wave tube at 12 GHz. [for use in communication technology satellites (United States)

    Christensen, J. A.; Tammaru, I.


    The design, development, and test results are reported for an experimental PPM focused, traveling-wave tube that produces 235 watts of CW RF power over 85 MHz centered at 12.080 GHz. The tube uses a coupled cavity RF circuit with a velocity taper for greater than 30 percent basic efficiency. Overall efficiency of 51 percent is achieved by means of a nine stage depressed collector designed at NASA Lewis Research Center. This collector is cooled by direct radiation to deep space.

  3. A simple digital system for tuning and long-term frequency stabilisation of a CW Ti:Sapphire laser


    Beterov, I. I.; Markovski, A.; Kobtsev, S. M.; Yakshina, E. A.; Entin, V. M.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Baraulya, V. I.; Ryabtsev, I. I.


    We have implemented a simple and cost-effective digital system for long-term frequency stabilisation and locking to an arbitrary wavelength of the single-frequency ring CW Ti:Sapphire laser. This system is built around two confocal Fabry-Perot cavities, one of which is used to narrow short-term line width of the laser and the other to improve long-term stability of the laser frequency. The second interferometer is also in the path of the radiation from an external-cavity diode laser stabilize...

  4. High-speed high-efficiency 500-W cw CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronics devices (United States)

    Levin, Andrey V.


    High-speed, efficient method of laser surface treatment has been developed using (500 W) cw CO2 laser. The principal advantages of CO2 laser surface treatment in comparison with solid state lasers are the basis of the method. It has been affirmed that high efficiency of welding was a consequence of the fundamental properties of metal-IR-radiation (10,6 mkm) interaction. CO2 laser hermetization of metal frames of microelectronic devices is described as an example of the proposed method application.

  5. CW and Q-switched GGG/Er:Pr:GGG/GGG composite crystal laser at 2.7 µm (United States)

    You, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Sun, Y. J.; Xu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. J.; Li, J. F.; Wang, H. Y.; Tu, C. Y.


    We report the continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched laser operations of a GGG/Er:Pr:GGG/GGG composite crystal at about 2.7 µm. Owing to the alleviation of the thermal lensing effect, the CW laser with a maximum output power of 463 mW was obtained with a slope efficiency of 15.5%. Based on the broadband saturable absorption property, a graphene saturable absorber (SA) mirror was fabricated and employed for realizing the Q-switched mid-infrared laser. Under an absorbed pump power of 2.47 W, an average output power of 186 mW was generated with a slope efficiency of 12.3%. The pulse width and the repetition rate of the laser were 360 ns and 120.5 kHz, respectively. These results indicate that the Er:Pr:GGG crystal, with the relatively lower upper-level lifetime, shows great promise for generating a short pulsed 2.7 µm mid-infrared laser using the graphene SA.

  6. Design of a 10 MeV normal conducting CW proton linac based on equidistant multi-gap CH cavities (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Hui


    Continuous wave (CW) high current proton linacs have wide applications as the front end of high power proton machines. The low energy part of such a linac is the most difficult and there is currently no widely accepted solution. Based on the analysis of the focusing properties of the CW low energy proton linac, a 10 MeV low energy normal conducting proton linac based on equidistant seven-gap Cross-bar H-type (CH) cavities is proposed. The linac is composed of ten 7-gap CH cavities and the transverse focusing is maintained by quadrupole doublets located between the cavities. The total length of the linac is less than 6 meters and the average acceleration gradient is about 1.2 MeV/m. The electromagnetic properties of the cavities are investigated by Microwave Studio. At the nominal acceleration gradient the maximum surface electric field in the cavities is less than 1.3 times the Kilpatrick limit, and the Ohmic loss of each cavity is less than 35 kW. Multi-particle beam dynamics simulations are performed with Tracewin code, and the results show that the beam dynamics of the linac are quite stable, the linac has the capability to accelerate up to 30 mA beam with acceptable dynamics behavior. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375122, 91126003)

  7. Locations of radical species in black pepper seeds investigated by CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Epel, Boris


    In this study, noninvasive 9 GHz electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-imaging and continuous wave (CW) EPR were used to investigate the locations of paramagnetic species in black pepper seeds without further irradiation. First, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPC) phantom was used to examine 9 GHz EPR imaging capabilities. The 9 GHz EPR-imager easily resolved the LiPC samples at a distance of ∼2 mm. Then, commercially available black pepper seeds were measured. We observed signatures from three different radical species, which were assigned to stable organic radicals, Fe3+, and Mn2+ complexes. In addition, no EPR spectral change in the seed was observed after it was submerged in distilled H2O for 1 h. The EPR and spectral-spatial EPR imaging results suggested that the three paramagnetic species were mostly located at the seed surface. Fewer radicals were found inside the seed. We demonstrated that the CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging were useful for the determination of the spatial distribution of paramagnetic species in various seeds.

  8. High-field CW electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy with Gd(III) tags for structure-dynamics studies of proteorhodopsin (United States)

    Clayton, Jessica A.; Han, Chung-Ta; Wilson, C. Blake; Qi, Mian; Godt, Adelheid; Goldfarb, Daniella; Sherwin, Mark S.; Han, Songi

    Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a seven-helical transmembrane protein that functions as a light-activated proton pump. Much of the structure of PR has been mapped by solution-state NMR and X-ray crystallography, however it remains difficult to study protein associations and conformational changes. Here we report development of 240 GHz CW electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) as a tool to determine inter- and intra-protein distances in the range of 1-4 nm under biologically relevant conditions, using S = 7/2 Gd(III)-based complexes as an EPR-active paramagnetic tag. The dipolar coupling between Gd(III) pairs is determined via the width of the central transition in the CW EPR spectrum, allowing for the inference of an interspin distance. Proof-of-principle experiments are demonstrated on Gd-ruler molecules, from cryogenic temperatures up to room temperature. First results applying this method to inter-protein measurement of Gd(III) tagged PR oligomers reveals distances consistent with the penta- or hexameric organization determined by crystal structure. Finally, we present progress towards development of measurement methods that will enable observation of light-induced conformational changes in the EF-loop region of PR at temperatures above the protein dynamical transition. This work is supported by NSF MCB-1617025 and NSF MCB-1244651.

  9. Pulsed vs. CW low level light therapy on osteoarticular signs and symptoms in limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome) (United States)

    Barolet, Daniel


    Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (lcSSc) was formerly known as CREST syndrome in reference to the associated clinical features: Calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal dysfunction, Sclerodactyly, and Telangiectasias. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has been identified has a major player in the pathogenic process, while low level light therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate this cytokine superfamily. This case study was conducted to assess the efficacy of 940nm using microsecond domain pulsing and continuous wave mode (CW) on osteoarticular signs and symptoms associated with lcSSc. The patient was treated two to three times a week for 13 weeks, using a sequential pulsing mode on one elbow, and a CW mode on the other. Efficacy assessments included inflammation, symptoms, pain, and health scales, patient satisfaction, clinical global impression, and adverse effects monitoring. Significant functional and morphologic improvements were observed after LLLT, with best results seen with the pulsing mode. No significant adverse effects were noted. Two mechanisms of action may be at play. The 940nm wavelength provides inside-out heating possibly vasodilating capillaries which in turn increases catabolic processes leading to a reduction of in situ calcinosis. LLLT may also improve symptoms by triggering a cascade of cellular reactions, including the modulation of inflammatory mediators.

  10. Effective Fluorescence Lifetime and Stimulated Emission Cross-Section of Nd/Cr:YAG Ceramics under CW Lamplight Pumping (United States)

    Saiki, Taku; Motokoshi, Shinji; Imasaki, Kazuo; Fujioka, Kana; Fujita, Hisanori; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Izawa, Yasukazu; Yamanaka, Chiyoe


    Remarkable improvements in the lifetime of the Nd upper level and in the effective stimulated emission cross-section of Nd/Cr:YAG ceramics have been theoretically and experimentally studied. Until recently, it had been thought that the long energy transition time from Cr ions to Nd ions of Nd/Cr:YAG adversely affects laser action, degrading optical-optical conversion efficiency under CW and flash lamp pumping. However, current research showed that high-efficiency energy transition has a positive effect on laser action. The effective lifetime is increased from 0.23 to 1.1 ms and the emission cross-section is effectively increased to three times for that of the conventional Nd:YAG. A small signal gain is significantly improved, and the saturation power density is reduced to 1/10 that of the Nd:YAG for the same pumping power density. A CW laser light generated in a laser diode (LD)-pumped 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser oscillator was amplified, and the measured output power was saturated. The output laser power calculated using theoretical saturation power density was consistent with the experimental results.

  11. A method of laser micro-polishing for metallic surface using UV nano-second pulse and CW lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Pong-Ryol; Ji, Kum-Hyok; Kim, Nam-Chol


    During laser micro-polishing, the constant control of laser energy density is a key technology to improve the surface roughness. In this paper, a method which controls the energy density of UV(ultraviolet) pulse laser in real time with the control of CW(continuous wave) laser spot size in laser micro-polishing for metallic surface was presented. The experimental and analytical considerations of several influence factors such as laser spot size, fusion zone and focal offset were investigated. In addition, using a laser micro-polishing system manufactured with this method, the laser micro-polishing experiments on the two different surface shapes of stainless steel 316L were conducted. For the inclined or curved surface, the surface roughness improvements of up to 56.4% and 57.3% were respectively obtained, and the analysis of the results were discussed.

  12. Progress in Cr and Fe doped ZnS/Se mid-IR CW and femtosecond lasers (United States)

    Vasilyev, Sergey; Moskalev, Igor; Mirov, Mike; Smolski, Viktor; Martyshkin, Dmitry; Fedorov, Vladimir; Mirov, Sergey; Gapontsev, Valentin


    This paper summarizes recent improvements of output characteristics of polycrystalline Cr:ZnS/Se master oscillators in Kerr-Lens-Mode-Locked regime. We developed a flexible design of femtosecond polycrystalline Cr:ZnS and Cr:ZnSe lasers and amplifiers in the spectral range 2-3 μm. We obtained few-optical-cycle pulses with multi-Watt average power in very broad range of repetition rates 0.08-1.2 GHz. We also report on efficient nonlinear frequency conversion directly in the polycrystalline gain elements of ultra-fast lasers and amplifiers. In this work we also report on recent progress in spinning ring gain element technology and report to the best of our knowledge the highest output power of 9.2 W Fe:ZnSe laser operating in CW regime at 4150nm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea UDREA


    Full Text Available Preliminary results obtained in developing a visualisation technique for non-invasive analysis of air flow inside INCAS subsonic wind tunnel and its appendages are presented. The visualisation technique is based on using a green light sheet generated by a continuous wave (cw longitudinally diode pumped and frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser. The output laser beam is expanded on one direction and collimated on rectangular direction. The system is tailored to the requirements of qualitative analysis and vortex tracking requirements inside the INCAS 2.5m x 2.0m subsonic wind tunnel test section, for measurements performed on aircraft models. Also the developed laser techniques is used for non-invasive air flow field analysis into environmental facilities settling room (air flow calming area. Quantitative analysis is enabled using special image processing tools upon movies and pictures obtained during the experiments. The basic experimental layout in the wind tunnel takes advantage of information obtained from the investigation of various aircraft models using the developed visualisation technique. These results are further developed using a Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV experimental technique.The focus is on visualisation techniques to be used for wind flow characterization at different altitudes in indus-trial and civil buildings areas using a light sheet generated by a Nd:YAG cw pumped and doubled laser at 532 nm wave-length. The results are important for prevention of biological/chemical disasters such as spreading of extremely toxic pol-lutants due to wind. Numerical simulations of wind flow and experimental visualisation results are compared. A good agreement between these results is observed.

  14. X-ray investigation of lateral hetero-structures of inversion domains in LiNbO{sub 3}, KTiOPO{sub 4} and KTiOAsO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyford, Thomas S. [Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom); Collins, Stephen P., E-mail: [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Fewster, Paul F. [Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom); Thomas, Pamela A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom)


    Periodically-poled ferroelectric crystals are studied by observing their superlattice (grating) diffraction profiles with high-resolution X-ray diffraction. In order to successfully model the data, the effects of strain, and sample and beam coherence, must be taken into account. In this paper periodically domain-inverted (PDI) ferroelectric crystals are studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Rocking curves and reciprocal-space maps of the principal symmetric Bragg reflections in LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) (Λ = 5 µm), KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) (Λ = 9 µm) and KTiOAsO{sub 4} (KTA) (Λ = 39 µm) are presented. For all the samples strong satellite reflections were observed as a consequence of the PDI structure. Analysis of the satellites showed that they were caused by a combination of coherent and incoherent scattering between the adjacent domains. Whilst the satellites contained phase information regarding the structure of the domain wall, this information could not be rigorously extracted without a priori knowledge of the twinning mechanism. Analysis of the profiles reveals strain distributions of Δd/d = 1.6 × 10{sup −4} and 2.0 × 10{sup −4} perpendicular to domain walls in KTP and LN samples, respectively, and lateral correlation lengths of 63 µm (KTP), 194 µm (KTA) and 10 µm (LN). The decay of crystal truncation rods in LN and KTP was found to support the occurrence of surface corrugations.

  15. Magnetization transfer effect on the creatine methyl resonance studied by CW off-resonance irradiation in human skeletal muscle on a clinical MR system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.K.J.; Klomp, D.W.J.; Philippens, M.E.P.; Bergh, A.J. van den; Wieringa, B.; Heerschap, A.


    Magnetization transfer (MT) between the mobile (MR-visible) spin pool and immobile (MR-invisible) spin pool of creatine (Cr) was studied on a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner in human skeletal muscle using continuous wave (CW) pre-irradiation as the saturation method for the immobile pool. For this

  16. Demonstration of frequency control and CW diode laser injection control of a titanium-doped sapphire ring laser with no internal optical elements (United States)

    Bair, Clayton H.; Brockman, Philip; Hess, Robert V.; Modlin, Edward A.


    Theoretical and experimental frequency narrowing studies of a Ti:sapphire ring laser with no intracavity optical elements are reported. Frequency narrowing has been achieved using a birefringent filter between a partially reflecting reverse wave suppressor mirror and the ring cavity output mirror. Results of CW diode laser injection seeding are reported.

  17. Effect of corn steep liquor (CSL) and cassava wastewater (CW) on chitin and chitosan production by Cunninghamella elegans and their physicochemical characteristics and cytotoxicity. (United States)

    Berger, Lúcia Raquel Ramos; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Stamford-Arnaud, Thatiana Montenegro; de Oliveira Franco, Luciana; do Nascimento, Aline Elesbão; Cavalcante, Horacinna M de M; Macedo, Rui Oliveira; de Campos-Takaki, Galba Maria


    Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 grown in different concentrations of two agro-industrial wastes, corn steep liquor (CSL) and cassava wastewater (CW) established using a 2² full factorial design. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of chitosan was evaluated for signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The highest biomass (9.93 g/L) was obtained in trial 3 (5% CW, 8% CSL), the greatest chitin and chitosan yields were 89.39 mg/g and 57.82 mg/g, respectively, and both were obtained in trial 2 (10% CW, 4% CSL). Chitin and chitosan showed a degree of deacetylation of 40.98% and 88.24%, and a crystalline index of 35.80% and 23.82%, respectively, and chitosan showed low molecular weight (LMW 5.2 × 10³ Da). Chitin and chitosan can be considered non-irritating, due to the fact they do not promote vascular change. It was demonstrated that CSL and CW are effective renewable agroindustrial alternative substrates for the production of chitin and chitosan.

  18. Effect of vegetation type on treatment performance and bioelectric production of constructed wetland modules combined with microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC) treating synthetic wastewater. (United States)

    Saz, Çağdaş; Türe, Cengiz; Türker, Onur Can; Yakar, Anıl


    An operation of microcosm-constructed wetland modules combined with microbial fuel cell device (CW-MFC) was assessed for wastewater treatment and bioelectric generation. One of the crucial aims of the present experiment is also to determine effect of vegetation on wastewater treatment process and bioelectric production in wetland matrix with microbial fuel cell. Accordingly, CW-MFC modules with vegetation had higher treatment efficiency compared to unplanted wetland module, and average COD, NH4+, and TP removal efficiency in vegetated wetland modules were ranged from 85 to 88%, 95 to 97%, and 95 to 97%, respectively. However, the highest NO3- removal (63%) was achieved by unplanted control module during the experiment period. The maximum average output voltage, power density, and Coulombic efficiency were obtained in wetland module vegetated with Typha angustifolia for 1.01 ± 0.14 V, 7.47 ± 13.7 mWatt/m2, and 8.28 ± 10.4%, respectively. The results suggest that the presence of Typha angustifolia vegetation in the CW-MFC matrix provides the benefits for treatment efficiency and bioelectric production; thus, it increases microbial activities which are responsible for biodegradation of organic compounds and catalyzed to electron flow from anode to cathode. Consequently, we suggest that engineers can use vegetated wetland matrix with Typha angustifolia in CW-MFC module in order to maximize treatment efficiency and bioelectric production.

  19. Characteristics of the evolution of a plasma generated by radiation from CW and repetitively pulsed CO2 lasers in different gases (United States)

    Kanevskii, M. F.; Stepanova, M. A.


    The interaction between high-power CW and repetitively pulsed CO2 laser radiation and a low-threshold optical-breakdown plasma near a metal surface is investigated. The characteristics of the breakdown plasma are examined as functions of the experimental conditions. A qualitative analysis of the results obtained was performed using a simple one-dimensional model for laser combustion waves.

  20. Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL and Cassava Wastewater (CW on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger


    Full Text Available Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 grown in different concentrations of two agro-industrial wastes, corn steep liquor (CSL and cassava wastewater (CW established using a 22 full factorial design. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of chitosan was evaluated for signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The highest biomass (9.93 g/L was obtained in trial 3 (5% CW, 8% CSL, the greatest chitin and chitosan yields were 89.39 mg/g and 57.82 mg/g, respectively, and both were obtained in trial 2 (10% CW, 4% CSL. Chitin and chitosan showed a degree of deacetylation of 40.98% and 88.24%, and a crystalline index of 35.80% and 23.82%, respectively, and chitosan showed low molecular weight (LMW 5.2 × 103 Da. Chitin and chitosan can be considered non-irritating, due to the fact they do not promote vascular change. It was demonstrated that CSL and CW are effective renewable agroindustrial alternative substrates for the production of chitin and chitosan.

  1. High-effective denitrification of low C/N wastewater by combined constructed wetland and biofilm-electrode reactor (CW-BER). (United States)

    He, Yuan; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan


    The low denitrification effect on constructed wetlands (CWs) treating low carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) wastewater was a problem. In this study, a novel coupled system by installing CW and biofilm-electrode reactor (CW-BER) was developed. In this system, the heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifying bacteria all played their roles in denitrification process. The system was investigated systematically with simulated wastewater at different C/Ns, electric current intensities (I), hydraulic retention times (HRTs), and pH. Results showed that the optimum running conditions were C/N=0.75-1, I=15 mA, HRT=12 h, and pH=7.5. The highest removal efficiency of NO3-N and TN at the best conditions was respectively 63.03% and 98.11% for CW-BER. Also, the TN and NO3-N enhancive removal efficiency of CW-BER was 23.26% and 24.20%, respectively. No residual organic carbon source was detected in final effluent at the best parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rietvlei (CW24) and Diep (CW25)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grindley, JR


    Full Text Available . This report is part of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report entails available historical information on Rietvlei and Diep estuary and abiotic and biotic characteristics found...

  3. Use of the 2-μm cw laser as addition and/or alternative for the Nd:YAG in urology (United States)

    de Boorder, Tjeerd; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Lock, Tycho; Grimbergen, Matthijs; Klaessens, John


    Recently, 2 μm cw laser systems have been introduced for surgery. The 2 μm wavelength is predominantly absorbed by water and enables effective cutting and ablation of tissue similar to the cw CO II laser. In contrast to the CO II laser, the 2 μm wavelength is delivered through fiber optics and available for endoscopic procedures. After many years of experience with the 1.06 μm Nd:YAG laser, we started to use the 2 μm cw laser as alternative for various urological treatments. The treatments strategies and optimal settings were examined in the lab comparing the two 1.06 and 2 μm wavelengths performing thermal measurements. Consequently, the laser was applied for various urological cases. Penile tumors were resected with haemostatic effects and good aesthetic healing comparable with the Nd:YAG laser. Although the Nd:YAG has initially a deeper penetration, the blackening of the fiber during tissue cutting, provides a more superficial effect like the 2 μm laser. Bladder (pre)malignancies were ablated after biopsy. Only with higher stage tumors, coagulation depth of the Nd:YAG might be preferable for adequate treatment. Strictures in the urethra were incised and stents were effectively desobstructed: one patient with a stent implanted after a pelvic trauma, and one patient with catheterizable apedico stoma stenoses. The thermal damage during incision to deeper layers is minimal so recurrence due to scarring is not expected. Also hair grow in patients who underwent urethroplasty was effectively treated and scrotal atheromata cysts were effectively resected without recurrence. Laparoscopic nefrectomies are being considered using the 2 μm cw laser. The 2 μm cw laser has shown to be a versatile instrument for effective treatment of various urological indications. More patients and long term results are needed to prove the clinical significance compared to other treatment modalities

  4. Thermal stability of Cpl-7 endolysin from the streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-7; cell wall-targeting of its CW_7 motifs. (United States)

    Bustamante, Noemí; Rico-Lastres, Palma; García, Ernesto; García, Pedro; Menéndez, Margarita


    Endolysins comprise a novel class of selective antibacterials refractory to develop resistances. The Cpl-7 endolysin, encoded by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-7, consists of a catalytic module (CM) with muramidase activity and a cell wall-binding module (CWBM) made of three fully conserved CW_7 repeats essential for activity. Firstly identified in the Cpl-7 endolysin, CW_7 motifs are also present in a great variety of cell wall hydrolases encoded, among others, by human and live-stock pathogens. However, the nature of CW_7 receptors on the bacterial envelope remains unknown. In the present study, the structural stability of Cpl-7 and the target recognized by CW_7 repeats, relevant for exploitation of Cpl-7 as antimicrobial, have been analyzed, and transitions from the CM and the CWBM assigned, using circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. Cpl-7 stability is maximum around 6.0-6.5, near the optimal pH for activity. Above pH 8.0 the CM becomes extremely unstable, probably due to deprotonation of the N-terminal amino-group, whereas the CWBM is rather insensitive to pH variation and its structural stabilization by GlcNAc-MurNAc-l-Ala-d-isoGln points to the cell wall muropeptide as the cell wall target recognized by the CW_7 repeats. Denaturation data also revealed that Cpl-7 is organized into two essentially independent folding units, which will facilitate the recombination of the CM and the CWBM with other catalytic domains and/or cell wall-binding motifs to yield new tailored chimeric lysins with higher bactericidal activities or new pathogen specificities.

  5. Thermal stability of Cpl-7 endolysin from the streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-7; cell wall-targeting of its CW_7 motifs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemí Bustamante

    Full Text Available Endolysins comprise a novel class of selective antibacterials refractory to develop resistances. The Cpl-7 endolysin, encoded by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-7, consists of a catalytic module (CM with muramidase activity and a cell wall-binding module (CWBM made of three fully conserved CW_7 repeats essential for activity. Firstly identified in the Cpl-7 endolysin, CW_7 motifs are also present in a great variety of cell wall hydrolases encoded, among others, by human and live-stock pathogens. However, the nature of CW_7 receptors on the bacterial envelope remains unknown. In the present study, the structural stability of Cpl-7 and the target recognized by CW_7 repeats, relevant for exploitation of Cpl-7 as antimicrobial, have been analyzed, and transitions from the CM and the CWBM assigned, using circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry. Cpl-7 stability is maximum around 6.0-6.5, near the optimal pH for activity. Above pH 8.0 the CM becomes extremely unstable, probably due to deprotonation of the N-terminal amino-group, whereas the CWBM is rather insensitive to pH variation and its structural stabilization by GlcNAc-MurNAc-l-Ala-d-isoGln points to the cell wall muropeptide as the cell wall target recognized by the CW_7 repeats. Denaturation data also revealed that Cpl-7 is organized into two essentially independent folding units, which will facilitate the recombination of the CM and the CWBM with other catalytic domains and/or cell wall-binding motifs to yield new tailored chimeric lysins with higher bactericidal activities or new pathogen specificities.

  6. SU-F-T-85: Energy Modulated Electron Postmastectomy Unreconstructed (PU) Chest Wall (CW) Irradiation Technique to Achieve Heart Sparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, L; Ballangrud, A; Mechalakos, J [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); McCormick, B [Memerial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)


    Purpose: For left-sided PU patients requiring CW and nodal irradiation, sometimes partial wide tangents (PWT) are not feasible due to abnormal chest wall contour or heart position close to the anterior chest wall or unusual wide excision scar. We developed an energy modulated electron chest wall irradiation technique that will achieve heart sparing. Methods: Ten left-sided PU patients were selected for this dosimetry study. If PWT were used, the amount of the ipsilateral lung would be ranged 3.4 to 4.4 cm, and the amount of heart would be ranged 1.3 to 3.8 cm. We used electron paired fields that matched on the skin to achieve dose conformity to the chest wall. The enface electron fields were designed at extended SSD from a single isocenter and gantry angle with different energy beams using different cutout. Lower energy was used in the central chest wall part and higher energy was used in the periphery of the chest wall. Bolus was used for the electron fields to ensure adequate skin dose coverage. The electron fields were matched to the photon supra-clavicle field in the superior region. Daily field junctions were used to feather the match lines between all the fields. Target volumes and normal tissues were drawn according to institutional protocols. Prescription dose was 2Gy per fraction for a total 50Gy. Dose calculations were done with Eclipse EMC-11031 for Electron and AAA-11031 for photons. Results: Six patients were planned using 6/9MeV, three using 9/12MeV and one 6/12MeV. Target volumes achieved adequate coverage. For heart, V30Gy, V20Gy and Mean Dose were 0.6%±0.6%, 2.7%±1.7%, and 3.0Gy±0.8Gy respectively. For ipsilateral lung, V50Gy, V20Gy, V10Gy and V5Gy were 0.9%±1.1%, 34.3%±5.1%, 51.6%±6.3% and 64.1%±7.5% respectively. Conclusion: For left-sided PU patients with unusual anatomy, energy modulated electron CW irradiation technique can achieve heart sparing with acceptable lung dose.

  7. Intact anthracene inhibits photosynthesis in algal cells: a fluorescence induction study on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cw92 strain. (United States)

    Aksmann, Anna; Tukaj, Zbigniew


    Short-term (24h) experiments were performed to examine the effect of anthracene (ANT) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cw92 grown in a batch culture system aerated with 2.5% CO(2). At concentrations ranging from 0.7 to 5.6 microM, ANT inhibited the growth of population in a concentration-dependent manner and EC(50) calculated amounted to 1.6 microM. At concentrations from 0.7 to 4.2 microM ANT stimulated respiration and inhibited the intensity of photosynthesis but did not affect chlorophyll content in the cells. ANT influenced chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, measured by OJIP test (O, J, I and P are the different steps of fluorescence induction curve). ANT diminished the performance index (PI), the yield of primary photochemistry (phi(Po)), the yield of electron transport (phi(Epsilonomicron), the efficiency of moving the electron beyond Qa(-) (Psi(0)) and the fraction of active oxygen evolving complexes (OEC). The fraction of active PS II reaction centres in the treated samples dramatically dropped. The most pronounced changes in ANT-treated cells were observed in the stimulation of energy dissipation parameter (DI(0)/RC). The only OJIP parameter that was not influenced by ANT was energy absorption by photosynthetic antennae (ABS). The results lead to a conclusion that the inhibition of photosynthesis may be a consequence of unspecific ANT-membrane interaction, resulting from hydrophobic character of this hydrocarbon.

  8. Three new bands of 18O16O18O by CW-CRDS between 6340 and 6800 cm-1 (United States)

    Starikova, E.; Barbe, A.; De Backer, M.-R.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.


    Three very weak bands of the 18O16O18O isotopologue of ozone have been detected by high sensitivity CW-Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy between 6340 and 6800 cm-1. They are vibrationally assigned as 2ν1+5ν3, ν1+4ν2+3ν3 and 3ν2+5ν3 and correspond to the highest frequency bands of this isotopologue detected so far. A total of 464, 318 and 194 transitions were rovibrationally assigned, respectively. The good agreement with theoretical values achieved for the derived band centres and rotational constants confirms the accuracy of the potential energy surface recently obtained via extensive ab initio calculations. A set of line intensities was measured and fitted to derive the first transition moment parameter of the three bands. The determined sets of effective Hamiltonian parameter and transition moment operators, as well as the experimental energy levels, were used to generate a complete list of 1526 transitions, provided as Supplementary materials. The calculated line-list allows generating a synthetic spectrum which reproduces satisfactorily the experimental spectrum.

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental investigation of Ti-6Al-4V melted by CW fiber laser at different pressures (United States)

    Tabassum, Aasma; Zhou, Jie; Han, Bing; Ni, Xiao-wu; Sardar, Maryam


    The interaction of continuous wave (CW) fiber laser with Ti-6Al-4V alloy is investigated numerically and experimentally at different laser fluence values and ambient pressures of N2 atmosphere to determine the melting time threshold of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. A 2D-axisymmetric numerical model considering heat transfer and laminar flow is established to describe the melting process. The simulation results indicate that material melts earlier at lower pressure (8.0 Pa) than at higher pressure (8.8×104 Pa) in several milliseconds with the same laser fluence. The experimental results demonstrate that the melting time threshold at high laser fluence (above 1.89×108 W/m2) is shorter for lower pressure (vacuum), which is consistent with the simulation. While the melting time threshold at low laser fluence (below 1.89×108 W/m2) is shorter for higher pressure. The possible aspects which can affect the melting process include the increased heat loss induced by the heat conduction between the metal surface and the ambient gas with the increased pressure, and the absorption variation of the coarse surface resulted from the chemical reaction.

  10. Heat-sink free CW operation of injection microdisk lasers grown on Si substrate with emission wavelength beyond 1.3  μm. (United States)

    Kryzhanovskaya, Natalia; Moiseev, Eduard; Polubavkina, Yulia; Maximov, Mikhail; Kulagina, Marina; Troshkov, Sergey; Zadiranov, Yury; Guseva, Yulia; Lipovskii, Andrey; Tang, Mingchu; Liao, Mengya; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Siming; Liu, Huiyun; Zhukov, Alexey


    High-performance injection microdisk (MD) lasers grown on Si substrate are demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Continuous-wave (CW) lasing in microlasers with diameters from 14 to 30 μm is achieved at room temperature. The minimal threshold current density of 600  A/cm2 (room temperature, CW regime, heatsink-free uncooled operation) is comparable to that of high-quality MD lasers on GaAs substrates. Microlasers on silicon emit in the wavelength range of 1320-1350 nm via the ground state transition of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots. The high stability of the lasing wavelength (dλ/dI=0.1  nm/mA) and the low specific thermal resistance of 4×10-3°C×cm2/W are demonstrated.

  11. CW blue-green light emission from GaN and SiC by sum-frequency generation and second harmonic generation (United States)

    Chao, L. C.; Steckl, A. J.


    Continuous wave (CW) back-scattered sum-frequency generation (SFG) and second harmonic generation (SHG) have been obtained from GaN and SiC. GaN samples were obtained from GaN films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic chemical-vapor deposition and hydride vapor-phase epitaxy. The SiC samples were obtained from 3C SiC/Si grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), 4H and 6H single crystal SiC substrates. The samples were optically excited with two CW lasers at the red (840 nm) and the infrared (1.0 µm). SHG at 420 nm and 500 nm and SFG at 455 nm were observed. SFG and SHG were verified by measuring their relative intensities against the pumping laser power. The SHG signals from GaN and SiC samples are compared with that from KH2PO4 (KDP).

  12. Characterization of the optical beam emitted by high-power phase-locked arrays of diode lasers (P = 1 W CW) (United States)

    Sobczak, Grzegorz; Dabrowska, ElŻbieta; Teodorczyk, Marian; Kalbarczyk, Joanna; Malag, Andrzej


    The quality of the beam emitted by high-power laser diodes is still the main disadvantage of these devices. One of the ways to improve it is to design diode as a matrix of narrow active stripes - so called: phase-locked arrays. The optical coupling which is occurs in such devices causes the emission in the form of a few almost diffraction limited beams (lobes). Unfortunately, because of temperature dependence of refractive indices this coupling often disappears at high drive currents. In this paper the CW operation (up to 4Ith) of the phase-locked semiconductor laser arrays is reported. The devices are based on asymmetric heterostructure which is designed for improving thermal and electrical resistances. The single supermode operation is obtained and the lasers are emitted up to 1 W of the optical power in CW.

  13. 2-GHz band CW and W-CDMA modulated radiofrequency fields have no significant effect on cell proliferation and gene expression profile in human cells. (United States)

    Sekijima, Masaru; Takeda, Hiroshi; Yasunaga, Katsuaki; Sakuma, Noriko; Hirose, Hideki; Nojima, Toshio; Miyakoshi, Junji


    We investigated the mechanisms by which radiofrequency (RF) fields exert their activity, and the changes in both cell proliferation and the gene expression profile in the human cell lines, A172 (glioblastoma), H4 (neuroglioma), and IMR-90 (fibroblasts from normal fetal lung) following exposure to 2.1425 GHz continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) RF fields at three field levels. During the incubation phase, cells were exposed at the specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80, 250, or 800 mW/kg with both CW and W-CDMA RF fields for up to 96 h. Heat shock treatment was used as the positive control. No significant differences in cell growth or viability were observed between any test group exposed to W-CDMA or CW radiation and the sham-exposed negative controls. Using the Affymetrix Human Genome Array, only a very small (CDMA RF fields for up to 96 h did not act as an acute cytotoxicant in either cell proliferation or the gene expression profile. These results suggest that RF exposure up to the limit of whole-body average SAR levels as specified in the ICNIRP guidelines is unlikely to elicit a general stress response in the tested cell lines under these conditions.

  14. Pulsed and CW adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser system for surgical laser soft tissue ablation applications. (United States)

    Huang, Yize; Jivraj, Jamil; Zhou, Jiaqi; Ramjist, Joel; Wong, Ronnie; Gu, Xijia; Yang, Victor X D


    A surgical laser soft tissue ablation system based on an adjustable 1942 nm single-mode all-fiber Tm-doped fiber laser operating in pulsed or CW mode with nitrogen assistance is demonstrated. Ex vivo ablation on soft tissue targets such as muscle (chicken breast) and spinal cord (porcine) with intact dura are performed at different ablation conditions to examine the relationship between the system parameters and ablation outcomes. The maximum laser average power is 14.4 W, and its maximum peak power is 133.1 W with 21.3 μJ pulse energy. The maximum CW power density is 2.33 × 106 W/cm2 and the maximum pulsed peak power density is 2.16 × 107 W/cm2. The system parameters examined include the average laser power in CW or pulsed operation mode, gain-switching frequency, total ablation exposure time, and the input gas flow rate. The ablation effects were measured by microscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to evaluate the ablation depth, superficial heat-affected zone diameter (HAZD) and charring diameter (CD). Our results conclude that the system parameters can be tailored to meet different clinical requirements such as ablation for soft tissue cutting or thermal coagulation for future applications of hemostasis.

  15. CW EPR and 9 GHz EPR imaging investigation of stable paramagnetic species and their antioxidant activities in dry shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Hara, Hideyuki


    We investigated the antioxidant activities and locations of stable paramagnetic species in dry (or drying) shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) using continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and 9 GHz EPR imaging. CW 9 GHz EPR detected paramagnetic species (peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔHpp) = 0.57 mT) in the mushroom. Two-dimensional imaging of the sharp line using a 9 GHz EPR imager showed that the species were located in the cap and shortened stem portions of the mushroom. No other location of the species was found in the mushroom. However, radical locations and concentrations varied along the cap of the mushroom. The 9 GHz EPR imaging determined the exact location of stable paramagnetic species in the shiitake mushroom. Distilled water extracts of the pigmented cap surface and the inner cap of the mushroom showed similar antioxidant activities that reduced an aqueous solution of 0.1 mM 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl. The present results suggest that the antioxidant activities of the edible mushroom extracts are much weaker than those of ascorbic acid. Thus, CW EPR and EPR imaging revealed the location and distribution of stable paramagnetic species and the antioxidant activities in the shiitake mushroom for the first time.

  16. Simultaneous oscillations of twelve wavelengths around 1.3 μm in quasi-CW Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Saha, Ardhendu; Debnath, Ruma; Hada, Digvijay Singh; Beda, Susheel Kumar


    In this work, a simple cavity configuration for simultaneous observation of twelve oscillating wavelengths around 1.3 μm in a quasi-CW side pumped Nd:YAG laser is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The experiment has been studied in free running condition and by placing a position tunable Brewster plate within a linear cavity where new wavelengths viz. 1318.71 nm, 1338.14 nm, 1338.16 nm, 1338.18 nm, 1338.21 nm, 1338.23 nm, 1338.25 nm and 1338.27 nm have been observed. By introducing a Brewster plate within the cavity it is possible to maintain almost equal spectral contributions around 1318 nm and 1338 nm wavelength's regions at the highest as well as lowest pump power levels. The maximum average output power of 20 W and 13.87 W at slope efficiencies of 42.22% and 35.37% are obtained in both conditions respectively. In this work it is also possible to measure the average output powers around 1319 nm and 1338 nm regions simultaneously at different average pump powers. The experimental results indicate the higher and better stability of power contributions of observed oscillating wavelengths around 1.3 μm. The beam quality factor varies from 1.11 to 1.44 with the rise in average pump power simultaneously. The proposed work may enhance the application of 1.3 μm laser in spectroscopic field and tunable laser generation. Moreover, by difference frequency mixing within these closely spaced wavelengths this configuration may also be a good source of coherent THz generation.

  17. Determination of optical properties of turbid medium from relative interstitial CW radiance measurements using the incomplete P3 approximation. (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Wan, Wenbo; Qin, Zhuanping; Zhang, Limin; Jiang, Jingying; Wang, Yihan; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan


    Interstitial determination of the tissue optical properties is important in biomedicine, especially for interstitial laser therapies. Continuous wave (CW) radiance techniques which examine light from multiple directions have been proposed as minimally invasive methods for determining the optical properties under an interstitial probe arrangement. However, both the fitting algorithm based on the P3 approximation and the analytical method based on the diffusion approximation (DA), which are currently used recovery algorithms, cannot extract the optical properties of tissue with low transport albedos accurately from radiance measurements. In this paper, we proposed an incomplete P3 approximation for the radiance, the P3in for short, which is the asymptotic part of the solution for the P3 approximation. The relative differences between the P3in and the P3 were within 0.48% over a wide range of clinically relevant optical properties for measurements at source detector separations (SDS) from 5 mm to 10 mm and angles from 0° to 160°. Based on the P3in, we developed an analytical method for extracting the optical properties directly using simple expressions constructed from the radiance measurements at only two SDSs and four angles. The developed recovery algorithm was verified by simulated and experimental radiance data. The results show that both the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were recovered accurately with relative errors within 5.28% and 3.86%, respectively, from the simulated data and with relative errors within 10.82% and 10.67%, respectively, from the experimental data over a wide range of albedos from 0.5 to 0.99. Since the developed P3in-based radiance technique can obtain the optical properties rapidly from the measurements at only two SDSs and four angles, it is expected to be used for in vivo and in situ determination of the optical properties in online treatment planning during laser therapies.

  18. Room temperature CW and QCW operation of Ho:CaF2 laser pumped by Tm:fiber laser (United States)

    Jelínek, Michal; Cvrček, Jan; Kubeček, Václav; Zhao, Beibei; Ma, Weiwei; Jiang, Dapeng; Su, Liangbi


    Laser radiation in the wavelength range around 2 μm is required for its specific properties - it is very suitable for medical applications, remote sensing, or pumping of optical parametric oscillators to generate ultrafast pulses in the mid-IR region further exploited in nonlinear optics. Crystals as YLF, YAG, LLF, and GdVO4 doped by holmium were already investigated and found suitable for the tunable laser generation around 2.1 mμ. Only a few works are devoted to the laser operation of holmium-doped fluorides as CaF2. In this work, pulsed and continuous-wave laser operation of a modified- Bridgman-grown Ho:CaF2 active crystal at room temperature is reported. A commercial 50 W 1940 nm Tm-fiber laser was used to pump a laser oscillator based on a novel 10 mm long 0.5 at.% Ho:CaF2 active crystal placed in the Peltiercooled holder. In the pulsed regime (10 ms, 10 Hz), the laser slope efficiency of 53 % with respect to the absorbed pump power was achieved. The laser generated at the central wavelength of 2085 nm with the maximum mean output power of 365 mW corresponding to the power amplitude of 3.65 W. In the continuous wave regime, the maximum output power was 1.11 W with the slope efficiency of 41 % with respect to the absorbed pump power. To our best knowledge this is the first demonstration of this laser active material operating in the CW regime at room temperature. The tuning range over 60 nm from 2034 to 2094 nm was achieved using a birefringent filter showing the possibility to develop a mode-locked laser system generating pulses in the sub-picosecond range.

  19. A Comparison of Potential IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements From Space (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Ismail, Syed


    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  20. Use of Resting Cells of Native Screened Rhodotorula sp. CW03 in Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theophylline and Paraxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashengroph


    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, microorganisms have been applied as biocatalysts for making pharmaceutically natural products. Microbial biotransformation of caffeine suggests a dual approach for biodegradation of toxic caffeine from polluted environments and a method for the production of medically and pharmaceutically valuable dimethylxanthines. The present work describes the identification of native yeasts capable of biotransformation of caffeine into theophylline and paraxanthine. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study fourteen yeast strains which were able to de-grade caffeine isolated based on their morphology were selected as biocatalysts for biotrans-formation of caffeine as a low-cost substrate to high value added dimethylxanthines such as theophylline and theobromine. The selected strains were characterized based on phenotypic and genetic tests. Screening was performed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analyses. Results: The results obtained using TLC and HPLC analyses suggest formation of two main metabolites of theophylline and paraxanthine from biotransformation of caffeine under resting cells of Rhodotorula sp. CW03 (GenBank accession number KF414531. The results showed that under resting cell conditions a maximum concentration of theophylline 380 mg/l (molar yield of 16.4% and paraxanthine 880 mg/l (molar yield of 37.9% were obtained after 72 h and 120 h of conversion time, respectively. Conclusion: In the current investigation, done for the first time in Iran, we describe the isola-tion and identification of yeast strains with caffeine degradation ability which can be proposed as safe and cost-effective biocatalysts in production of value added dimethylxanthines from caffeine as a low-cost substrate.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 83-92

  1. QEPAS based ppb-level detection of CO and N2O using a high power CW DFB-QCL. (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Lewicki, Rafał; Razeghi, Manijeh; Tittel, Frank K


    An ultra-sensitive and selective quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) sensor platform was demonstrated for detection of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrous oxide (N2O). This sensor used a state-of-the art 4.61 μm high power, continuous wave (CW), distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL) operating at 10°C as the excitation source. For the R(6) CO absorption line, located at 2169.2 cm(-1), a minimum detection limit (MDL) of 1.5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at atmospheric pressure was achieved with a 1 sec acquisition time and the addition of 2.6% water vapor concentration in the analyzed gas mixture. For the N2O detection, a MDL of 23 ppbv was obtained at an optimum gas pressure of 100 Torr and with the same water vapor content of 2.6%. In both cases the presence of water vapor increases the detected CO and N2O QEPAS signal levels as a result of enhancing the vibrational-translational relaxation rate of both target gases. Allan deviation analyses were performed to investigate the long term performance of the CO and N2O QEPAS sensor systems. For the optimum data acquisition time of 500 sec a MDL of 340 pptv and 4 ppbv was obtained for CO and N2O detection, respectively. To demonstrate reliable and robust operation of the QEPAS sensor a continuous monitoring of atmospheric CO and N2O concentration levels for a period of 5 hours were performed.

  2. Impact of preformed donor-specific antibodies against HLA class I on kidney graft outcomes: Comparative analysis of exclusively anti-Cw vs anti-A and/or -B antibodies (United States)

    Santos, Sofia; Malheiro, Jorge; Tafulo, Sandra; Dias, Leonídio; Carmo, Rute; Sampaio, Susana; Costa, Marta; Campos, Andreia; Pedroso, Sofia; Almeida, Manuela; Martins, La Salete; Henriques, Castro; Cabrita, António


    AIM To analyze the clinical impact of preformed antiHLA-Cw vs antiHLA-A and/or -B donor-specific antibodies (DSA) in kidney transplantation. METHODS Retrospective study, comparing 12 patients transplanted with DSA exclusively antiHLA-Cw with 23 patients with preformed DSA antiHLA-A and/or B. RESULTS One year after transplantation there were no differences in terms of acute rejection between the two groups (3 and 6 cases, respectively in the DSA-Cw and the DSA-A-B groups; P = 1). At one year, eGFR was not significantly different between groups (median 59 mL/min in DSA-Cw group, compared to median 51 mL/min in DSA-A-B group, P = 0.192). Moreover, kidney graft survival was similar between groups at 5-years (100% in DSA-Cw group vs 91% in DSA-A-B group, P = 0.528). The sole independent predictor of antibody mediated rejection (AMR) incidence was DSA strength (HR = 1.07 per 1000 increase in MFI, P = 0.034). AMR was associated with shortened graft survival at 5-years, with 75% and 100% grafts surviving in patients with or without AMR, respectively (Log-rank P = 0.005). CONCLUSION Our data indicate that DSA-Cw are associated with an identical risk of AMR and impact on graft function in comparison with “classical” class I DSA. PMID:28058219

  3. Stability analysis of the self-phase-locked divide-by-2 optical parametric oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.


    The properties of all-optical phase-coherent frequency division by 2, based on a self-phase-locked continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), are investigated theoretically. The coupled field equations of an OPO with intracavity quarter-wave plate are solved analytically in

  4. 110 GHz rapid, continous tuning from an optical parametric oscillator pumped by a fiber-amplified DBR diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindsay, I.D.; Adhimoolam, B.; Gross, P.; Klein, M.E.; Boller, Klaus J.


    A singly-resonant continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO) pumped by a fiber-amplified diode laser is described. Tuning of the pump source allowed the OPO output to be tuned continuously, without mode-hops, over 110 GHz in 29 ms. Discontinuous pump tuning over 20 nm in the region of

  5. Fiber Laser Pumped Continuous-wave Singly-resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.E.; Gross, P.; Walde, T.; Boller, Klaus J.; Auerbach, M.; Wessels, P.; Fallnich, C.; Fejer, Martin M.


    We report on the first fiber-pumped CW LiNbO/sub 3/ optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The OPO is singly resonant (SRO) and generates idler wavelengths in the range of 3.0 /spl mu/m to 3.7 /spl mu/m with a maximum output power of 1.9 watt.

  6. Co11Li[(OH)5O][(PO3OH)(PO4)5], a Lithium-Stabilized, Mixed-Valent Cobalt(II,III) Hydroxide Phosphate Framework. (United States)

    Ludwig, Jennifer; Geprägs, Stephan; Nordlund, Dennis; Doeff, Marca M; Nilges, Tom


    A new metastable phase, featuring a lithium-stabilized mixed-valence cobalt(II,III) hydroxide phosphate framework, Co11.0(1)Li1.0(2)[(OH)5O][(PO3OH)(PO4)5], corresponding to the simplified composition Co1.84(2)Li0.16(3)(OH)PO4, is prepared by hydrothermal synthesis. Because the pH-dependent formation of other phases such as Co3(OH)2(PO3OH)2 and olivine-type LiCoPO4 competes in the process, a pH value of 5.0 is crucial for obtaining a single-phase material. The crystals with dimensions of 15 μm × 30 μm exhibit a unique elongated triangular pyramid morphology with a lamellar fine structure. Powder X-ray diffraction experiments reveal that the phase is isostructural with the natural phosphate minerals holtedahlite and satterlyite, and crystallizes in the trigonal space group P31m (a = 11.2533(4) Å, c = 4.9940(2) Å, V = 547.70(3) Å(3), Z = 1). The three-dimensional network structure is characterized by partially Li-substituted, octahedral [M2O8(OH)] (M = Co, Li) dimer units which form double chains that run along the [001] direction and are connected by [PO4] and [PO3(OH)] tetrahedra. Because no Li-free P31m-type Co2(OH)PO4 phase could be prepared, it can be assumed that the Li ions are crucial for the stabilization of the framework. Co L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy demonstrates that the cobalt ions adopt the oxidation states +2 and +3 and hence provides further evidence for the incorporation of Li in the charge-balanced framework. The presence of three independent hydroxyl groups is further confirmed by infrared spectroscopy. Magnetization measurements imply a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition at around T = 25 K as well as a second transition at around 9-12 K with a ferromagnetic component below this temperature. The metastable character of the phase is demonstrated by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, which above 558 °C reveal a two-step decomposition to CoO, Co3(PO4)2, and olivine-type LiCoPO4 with release of

  7. Spoeg (CW5)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research


    Full Text Available deposition. The state of knowledge of the Spoeg is largely limited to the information obtained during the ECRU survey of 17/18 October 1980. This report provides historical information on Spoeg river but the flood history, in particular is lacking....

  8. Bitter (CW6)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit, RCRU


    Full Text Available The nature of the Bitter surface sediments in the mouth region suggest that the river flows intermittently but probably only for short periods. This is to be expected from the nature of the rainfall and the small size of the catchment. Sediments...

  9. Verlorenvlei (CW13)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinclair, SA


    Full Text Available in South Africa which provide the opportunity to combine conversation of the natural environment with the culture which developed in association with it. Furthermore, the rich archaeological resources of the region provide an insight into the pre...

  10. Swartlintjies (CW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research


    Full Text Available . The Swartlintjies is approximately 30 km long from the mouth up to where it splits into a number of unnamed tributaries. The lower part of the Estuary consists of a flat, wide sandy riverbed which indicates that substantial flooding and concomitant silt deposition...

  11. Ellipticus CW Illumination System (United States)


    3.2.1 Wormhole feed concept ................................................................................................5 3.2.2 Resistive Loading... Wormhole Feed concept for Ellipticus .....................................................................5 Figure 7. Ellipticus Resistive Loading...Illuminator at Patuxent River NAS. 3.2.1 Wormhole feed concept. The method chosen for driving the radiat- ing gap at the top of the antenna was what Dr

  12. Buffels (CW3)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit, ECRU


    Full Text Available This report entails available historical information on Buffels estuary and abiotic and biotic characteristics found in the estuary are presented. Although the Buffels River has a relatively large catchment compared with most other major rivers...

  13. Olifants (CW10)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Morant, PD


    Full Text Available In this report available historical information on Olifants estuary and abiotic and biotic characteristics found in the estuary are presented. The Olifants River system was explored early in the colonization of the Cape by European settlers...

  14. Holgat (CW2)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit, ECRU


    Full Text Available The Holgat is not an estuary in the true sense, due to a combination of factors. Although the catchment has an area of 1500 km2, the Holgat last flowed in 1925. The main reason for this appears to be the low rainfall in the catchment and the dune...

  15. Hout Bay (CW27)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grindley, SA


    Full Text Available convenient and, in the short-term, cheap conduit for stormwater from new development should be halted. More effective means of conducting stormwater to the sea from new developments on both sides of the valley should be investigated. To allow new developments...

  16. Groen (CW7)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal


    Full Text Available The state of knowledge of the Groen is poor. The area, being remote, has received little attention in the past and the bulk of information in this report originates from the Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit (ECRU) survey. Although the Groen flows...

  17. Carbonated water (CW) process waste reuse for ammonium-uranyl-carbonate (AUC) production and its gains on the environmental, economic and social aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaval, Joao Paulo R.; Santos, Rafael D. dos; Barbosa, Rodrigo A.; Lauer, Sergio, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)


    In the INB nuclear fuel cycle, the pellets production is based on UO{sub 2} powder made by AUC (Ammonium-Uranyl-Carbonate) route. AUC formation occurs by fluidising of UF{sub 6}, NH{sub 3} and CO{sub 2} in a vase containing usually pure water, and this exothermal reaction has AUC as direct product. The mass formed is filtered, washed with CW, washed again with methano solution, dried with air and conducted to the fluidized bed furnace, to be converted to UO{sub 2} powder. At this point, the dried AUC decompounds to UO{sub 3}, NH{sub 3} and C0{sub 2}, these 2 gases are absorbed at the gases washer, formin go the carbonated water (CW), whit is basically a (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution. The UO{sub 2+x} is reduced and stabilized to UO{sub 2} powder, which is conducted to pellets production. During the process, a considerable amount of this aqueous waste is generated and goes for effluent treatment. After that, the solution is sent for spray-dryer for power formation, and stock. This treatment demands equipment, energy and time, representing considerable costs of the company beyond the human risks involved on the drying step. The purpose of this work is to present a study of the carbonated water use as substitute of pure water in the AUC formation step. At this point, tests were made varying the CW loads for the AUC precipitation, and the control was made by the UO{sub 2} powder properties. The carbonated water used for AUC precipitation has been tested at several levels and the results has demonstrated full viability to become a definitive process step (INB, Resende site). It has been demonstrated the great resources economy caused by the waste reuse and the guarantee product quality. This represents such an environmental gain and also economic and social aspects got improved. (author)

  18. Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) and Constructed Wetlands (CW) Applications for Nutrients and Organic Micropollutants (OMPs) Attenuation Using Primary and Secondary Wastewater Effluents

    KAUST Repository

    Hamadeh, Ahmed F.


    Constructed wetlands (CW) and soil aquifer treatment (SAT) represent natural wastewater treatment systems (NWTSs). The high costs of conventional wastewater treatment techniques encourage more studies to investigate lower cost treatment methods which make these appropriate for developing and also in developed countries. The main objective of this research was to investigate the removals of nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) through SAT, CW and the CW-SAT hybrid system. CWs are an efficient technology to purify and remove different nutrients as well as OMPs from wastewater. They removed most of the dissolved organic matter (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium and phosphate. Furthermore, CWs aeration could be used as one of the alternatives to reduce CWs footprint by around 10%. The vegetation in CWs plays an essential role in the treatment especially for nitrogen and phosphate removals, it is responsible for the removal of 15%, 55%, 38%, and 22% for TN, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), nitrate and phosphate, respectively. CWs achieved a very high removal for some OMPs; they attenuated acetaminophen, caffeine, fluoxetine and trimethoprim (>90%) under different redox conditions. Moreover, it was found that increasing temperature (up to 36 C) could enhance the removals of atenolol, caffeine, DEET and trimethoprim by 17%, 14%, 28% and 45%, respectively. On the other hand, some OMPs, were found to be removed by vegetation such as: acetaminophen, caffeine, fluoxetine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim. Moreover, atenolol, caffeine, fluoxetine and trimethoprim, showed high removal (>80%) through SAT system. It was also found that, temperature increasing and using primary instead of secondary effluent could enhance the removal of some OMPs. The CWs performance study showed that these systems are adapted to the prevailing extreme arid conditions and the average percent removals are about, 88%, 96%, 98%, 98% and 92%, for COD, BOD and TSS, ammonium and phosphate

  19. 28 W CW linearly polarized single mode all-fiber thulium-doped fiber laser operating at 1.95 μm (United States)

    Wang, Jiachen; Yeom, Dong-il; Lee, Sang Bae; Lee, Kwanil


    An all-fiber type, CW, linearly polarized thulium-doped fiber laser is reported. Highly linear polarization was achieved by a special management of fiber Bragg gratings, which performs as the laser cavity reflectors. The laser generated 28 W signal output at 1949 nm with a slope efficiency of 47.3%. The polarization extinction ratio of the laser was measured to be around 20 dB. The beam quality of the laser was near diffraction-limited, with M2 of 1.1. The laser's output features make it to be a potential light source for some important applications such as for pumping holmium-doped solid state lasers.

  20. Bone marrow transplantation with unrelated donors: what is the probability of identifying an HLA-A/B/Cw/DRB1/B3/B5/DQB1-matched donor? (United States)

    Tiercy, J M; Bujan-Lose, M; Chapuis, B; Gratwohl, A; Gmür, J; Seger, R; Kern, M; Morell, A; Roosnek, E


    Patients transplanted with marrow from an HLA-ABDR serologically matched unrelated donor suffer from more post-transplant complications than those who are transplanted with marrow from an HLA-identical sibling. This is most likely due to either HLA-ABDR incompatibilities not resolved by standard techniques and/or HLA polymorphisms not tested for by routine tissue typing (HLA-Cw,-DQ). By resolving these incompatibilities by molecular techniques combined with the in vitro cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor frequency (CTLpf) test, we have shown that a high degree of HLA compatibility is associated with increased patient survival. However, higher requirements for HLA matching decrease the number of available donors. We have estimated the probability of finding an HLA-A/B/Cw/DRB1/DRB3/DRB5/DQB1 compatible donor based on 104 consecutive unrelated bone marrow donor searches initiated between January 1995 and December 1997, with December 1998 as the endpoint. For 96 patients (92.3%), one or more ABDR-identical donors were listed in the Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide Registry (BMDW). After contacting the registries, we obtained at least one (mean, 5.36; range, 1-20; total, 461) blood sample for 86 patients. A highly compatible donor was identified for 33/86 patients (38.4%), after testing an average number of 4.5 donors/patients (range, 1-13). However, by accepting an HLA-DRB3 or -DQB1 or -Cw incompatibility, this number would be as high as 68.6%. Approximately half of the patients (n = 40) for whom a search had been initiated have been transplanted: 22 patients with a perfectly matched donor, 15 patients with an HLA-DRB3 or -DQB1 or -Cw mismatch and three with other mismatches. The average time needed to identify the most compatible donor was 4 months. Extremely long searches seemed to be less useful, because after testing the first seven, a more compatible donor was seldom found. These results show that even when requirements for compatibility are high, the chances of finding

  1. Quantum Enhanced Imaging by Entangled States (United States)


    respectively, this gives, for an L = 5 cm long PPLN crystal, a divergence θi = 13 mrad before the collimating lens. Assuming average CW output...Ac = (λiL)/2ni. For L = 5 cm, ni = 2.14 ( PPLN crystal), we have Ac = 5.6x10-9 m2 at the SPDC output plane and then magnification by ≈ 3 (= Fθi/d0...Parametric Generation POVM: Positive Operator Valued Measures PPLN : Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) PSF: Point Spread Function QPM

  2. Molecular Gas-Filled Hollow Optical Fiber Lasers in the Near Infrared (United States)


    Wavelength (m) 10000 R(11)P(13) 10100 P(13) 00100 00000 M gO : PPLN Tunable CW laser ns OPA @ ~1.5 m ns N d:YA G PCF Gas Filled Chambers 3 m...output OPGL spectrometer PD or M gO : PPLN ns N d:YA G Fig. 3 a) Setup used for both the C2H2 and HCN (see below) gas lasers at K-State. b) The...Both beams are coupled into a 50 mm length periodically poled lithium niobate ( PPLN ) crystal doped with MgO2, which increases the nonlinearity. The

  3. Further Characterization of 394-GHz Gyrotron FU CW GII with Additional PID Control System for 600-MHz DNP-SSNMR Spectroscopy (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Matsuki, Yoh; Fujiwara, Toshimichi; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka


    A 394-GHz gyrotron, FU CW GII, has been designed at the University of Fukui, Japan, for dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) experiments at 600-MHz 1H resonant frequency. After installation at the Institute for Protein Research (IPR), Osaka University, Japan, a PID feedback control system was equipped to regulate the electron gun heater current for stabilization of the electron beam current, which ultimately achieved stabilization of output power when operating in continuous wave (CW) mode. During exploration to further optimize operating conditions, a continuous tuning bandwidth of approximately 1 GHz was observed by varying the operating voltage at a fixed magnetic field. In the frequency range required for positive DNP enhancement, the output power was improved by increasing the magnetic field and the operating voltage from their initial operational settings. In addition, fine tuning of output frequency by varying the cavity cooling water temperature was demonstrated. These operating conditions and ancillary enhancements are expected to contribute to further enhancement of SSNMR signal.

  4. Monitoring Tumor Targeting and Treatment Effects of IRDye 800CW and GX1-Conjugated Polylactic Acid Nanoparticles Encapsulating Endostar on Glioma by Optical Molecular Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqian Li


    Full Text Available Molecular imaging used in cancer diagnosis and therapeutic response monitoring is important for glioblastoma (GBM research. Antiangiogenic therapy currently is one of the emerging approaches for GBM treatment. In this study, a multifunctional nanoparticle was fabricated that can facilitate the fluorescence imaging of tumor and deliver a therapeutic agent to the tumor region in vivo and therefore possesses broad application in cancer diagnosis and treatment. This particle was polylactic acid (PLA nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar, which was further conjugated with GX1 peptide and the near-infrared (NIR dye IRDye 800CW (IGPNE. We demonstrated noninvasive angiogenesis targeting and therapy of IGPNE on U87MG xenografts in vivo using dual-modality optical molecular imaging including NIR fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI. The NIR FMI results demonstrated that IGPNE had more accumulation to the tumor site compared to free IRDye 800CW. To further evaluate the antitumor treatment efficacy of IGPNE, BLI and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed on tumor-bearing mice. With the aid of molecular imaging, the results confirmed that IGPNE enhanced antitumor treatment efficacy compared to free Endostar. In conclusion, IGPNE realizes real-time imaging of U87MG tumors and improves the antiangiogenic therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  5. Room-temperature CW operation of a nitride-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser using thick GaInN quantum wells (United States)

    Furuta, Takashi; Matsui, Kenjo; Horikawa, Kosuke; Ikeyama, Kazuki; Kozuka, Yugo; Yoshida, Shotaro; Akagi, Takanobu; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Iwaya, Motoaki; Akasaki, Isamu


    We demonstrated a room-temperature (RT) continuous-wave (CW) operation of a GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) using a thick GaInN quantum well (QW) active region and an AlInN/GaN distributed Bragg reflector. We first investigated the following two characteristics of a 6 nm GaInN 5 QWs active region in light-emitting diode (LED) structures. The light output power at a high current density (∼10 kA/cm2) from the 6 nm GaInN 5 QWs was the same or even higher than that from standard 3 nm 5 QWs. In addition, we found that hole injection into the farthest QW from a p-layer was sufficient. We then demonstrated a GaN-based VCSEL with the 6 nm 5 QWs, resulting in the optical confinement factor of 3.5%. The threshold current density under CW operation at RT was 7.5 kA/cm2 with a narrow (0.4 nm) emission spectrum of 413.5 nm peak wavelength.

  6. Measurements of carbon monoxide mixing ratios in Houston using a compact high-power CW DFB-QCL-based QEPAS sensor (United States)

    Stefański, Przemysław; Lewicki, Rafał; Sanchez, Nancy P.; Tarka, Jan; Griffin, Robert J.; Razeghi, Manijeh; Tittel, Frank K.


    Measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in Houston, Texas, during the period from May 16, 2013 to May 28, 2013 were performed using a sensitive, selective, compact, and portable quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS)-based CO sensor employing a high-power continuous wave (CW) distributed feedback quantum cascade laser (DFB-QCL). The minimum detectable CO concentration was 3 ppbv for the strong, interference-free R(6) absorption line at 2,169.2 cm-1 and a 5 s data acquisition time. The average CO concentration during the measurement period was 299.1 ± 81.4 ppb with observed minimum and maximum values of 210.5 and 4,307.9 ppb, respectively. A commercially available electrochemical sensor was employed in-line for simultaneous measurements to confirm the response of the CW DFB-QCL-based QEPAS sensor to variations of the CO mixing ratios. Moderate agreement (R 2 = 0.7) was found between both sets of CO measurements.

  7. Femtosecond optical parametric oscillators toward real-time dual-comb spectroscopy (United States)

    Jin, Yuwei; Cristescu, Simona M.; Harren, Frans J. M.; Mandon, Julien


    We demonstrate mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) toward real-time field measurement. A singly resonant OPO based on a MgO-doped periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal is demonstrated. Chirped mirrors are used to compensate the dispersion caused by the optical cavity and the crystal. A low threshold of 17 mW has been achieved. The OPO source generates a tunable idler frequency comb between 2.7 and 4.7 μm. Dual-comb spectroscopy is achieved by coupling two identical Yb-fiber mode-locked lasers to this OPO with slightly different repetition frequencies. A measured absorption spectrum of methane is presented with a spectral bandwidth of , giving an instrumental resolution of . In addition, a second OPO containing two MgO-doped PPLN crystals in a singly resonant ring cavity is demonstrated. As such, this OPO generates two idler combs (average power up to 220 mW), covering a wavelength range between 2.7 and 4.2 μm, from which a mid-infrared dual-comb Fourier transform spectrometer is constructed. By detecting the heterodyned signal between the two idler combs, broadband spectra of molecular gases can be observed over a spectral bandwidth of more than . This special cavity design allows the spectral resolution to be improved to without locking the OPO cavity, indicating that this OPO represents an ideal high-power broadband mid-infrared source for real-time gas sensing.

  8. Manufacture of IRDye800CW-coupled Fe3O4 nanoparticles and their applications in cell labeling and in vivo imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhongping


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles have been synthesized and applied in a number of applications, including the labeling of human cells for monitoring the engraftment process, imaging tumors, sensoring the in vivo molecular environment surrounding nanoparticles and tracing their in vivo biodistribution. These studies demonstrate that NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles provide an efficient probe for cell labeling. Furthermore, the in vivo imaging studies show excellent performance of the NIR fluorophores. However, there is a limited selection of NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles with an optimal wavelength for imaging around 800 nm, where tissue autofluorescence is minimal. Therefore, it is necessary to develop additional alternative NIRF-labeled iron nanoparticles for application in this area. Results This study manufactured 12-nm DMSA-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye800CW (excitation/emission, 774/789 nm, to investigate their applicability in cell labeling and in vivo imaging. The mouse macrophage RAW264.7 was labeled with IRDye800CW-labeled Fe3O4 nanoparticles at concentrations of 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100 μg/ml for 24 h. The results revealed that the cells were efficiently labeled by the nanoparticles, without any significant effect on cell viability. The nanoparticles were injected into the mouse via the tail vein, at dosages of 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight, and the mouse was discontinuously imaged for 24 h. The results demonstrated that the nanoparticles gradually accumulated in liver and kidney regions following injection, reaching maximum concentrations at 6 h post-injection, following which they were gradually removed from these regions. After tracing the nanoparticles throughout the body it was revealed that they mainly distributed in three organs, the liver, spleen and kidney. Real-time live-body imaging effectively reported the dynamic

  9. Feasibility of in vivo three-dimensional T 2* mapping using dicarboxy-PROXYL and CW-EPR-based single-point imaging. (United States)

    Kubota, Harue; Komarov, Denis A; Yasui, Hironobu; Matsumoto, Shingo; Inanami, Osamu; Kirilyuk, Igor A; Khramtsov, Valery V; Hirata, Hiroshi


    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo three-dimensional (3D) relaxation time T 2* mapping of a dicarboxy-PROXYL radical using continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging. Isotopically substituted dicarboxy-PROXYL radicals, 3,4-dicarboxy-2,2,5,5-tetra(2H3)methylpyrrolidin-(3,4-2H2)-(1-15N)-1-oxyl (2H,15N-DCP) and 3,4-dicarboxy-2,2,5,5-tetra(2H3)methylpyrrolidin-(3,4-2H2)-1-oxyl (2H-DCP), were used in the study. A clonogenic cell survival assay was performed with the 2H-DCP radical using squamous cell carcinoma (SCC VII) cells. The time course of EPR signal intensities of intravenously injected 2H,15N-DCP and 2H-DCP radicals were determined in tumor-bearing hind legs of mice (C3H/HeJ, male, n = 5). CW-EPR-based single-point imaging (SPI) was performed for 3D T 2* mapping. 2H-DCP radical did not exhibit cytotoxicity at concentrations below 10 mM. The in vivo half-life of 2H,15N-DCP in tumor tissues was 24.7 ± 2.9 min (mean ± standard deviation [SD], n = 5). The in vivo time course of the EPR signal intensity of the 2H,15N-DCP radical showed a plateau of 10.2 ± 1.2 min (mean ± SD) where the EPR signal intensity remained at more than 90% of the maximum intensity. During the plateau, in vivo 3D T 2* maps with 2H,15N-DCP were obtained from tumor-bearing hind legs, with a total acquisition time of 7.5 min. EPR signals of 2H,15N-DCP persisted long enough after bolus intravenous injection to conduct in vivo 3D T 2* mapping with CW-EPR-based SPI.

  10. Measurements of linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene in the ν4+ν5 combination band using a cw quantum cascade laser

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal


    Linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene have been measured at 296K in the P branch of the ν4+ν5 combination band for 25 rotational transitions. The effect of gas temperature is studied over 296-683K for five transitions to allow the determination of the temperature dependent exponent n for N2- and Ar-broadening coefficients. These measurements were performed using a continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) operating over 1253-1310cm-1. Spectroscopic parameters were obtained by fitting absorption spectra using Voigt, Galatry and Rautian profiles. Linestrength and broadening results are compared with previous studies available in literature for the ν4+ν5 combination band and other vibrational bands of acetylene. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Measurements of linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene in the ν4+ν5 combination band using a cw quantum cascade laser (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal; Es-sebbar, Et-touhami; Farooq, Aamir


    Linestrengths, N2-, Ar-, He- and self-broadening coefficients of acetylene have been measured at 296 K in the P branch of the ν4+ν5 combination band for 25 rotational transitions. The effect of gas temperature is studied over 296-683 K for five transitions to allow the determination of the temperature dependent exponent n for N2- and Ar-broadening coefficients. These measurements were performed using a continuous-wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) operating over 1253-1310 cm-1. Spectroscopic parameters were obtained by fitting absorption spectra using Voigt, Galatry and Rautian profiles. Linestrength and broadening results are compared with previous studies available in literature for the ν4+ν5 combination band and other vibrational bands of acetylene.

  12. Up to 30 mW of broadly tunable CW green-to-orange light, based on sum-frequency mixing of Cr4+:forsterite and Nd:YVO4 lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; McWilliam, Allan; G. Leburn, Christopher


    Efficient generation of continuous-wave (CW) tunable light in the yellow region is reported. The method is based on sum-frequency mixing of a tunable Cr4+:forsterite laser with a Nd:YVO4 laser. A periodically poled lithium niobate crystal was placed intra-cavity in a Nd:YVO4 laser, and the Cr4...

  13. Up to 30 mW of broadly tunable CW green-to-orange light, based on sum-frequency mixing of Cr4+:forsterite and Nd:YVO4 lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; McWilliam, Alan; Leburn, Christopher G


    +:forsterite laser was single-passed through the non-linear media. With this setup, it was possible to generate up to 3 mW of yellow light smoothly tunable from 573 to 587 nm. This is the highest output demonstrated to date for a tunable diode pumped solid-state CW laser in this wavelength region. The ways...

  14. Single-mode visible and mid-infrared periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator amplified in perylene red doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (United States)

    Schlup, Philip; W. Baxter, Glenn; McKinnie, Iain T.


    We have demonstrated a simple grazing-incidence optical parametric oscillator (OPO) based on periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) capable of generating single-mode visible (619-640 nm) and infrared (3.16-3.77 μm) radiation. The single-mode (poly(methyl methacrylate) disc was used to amplify the signal wavelength up to 114 μJ in a single pass without broadening the optical bandwidth.

  15. Comportamiento en fluencia de un material compuesto de matriz metálica Al6061-15 vol % SiCw pulvimetalúrgico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Doncel, G.


    Full Text Available The creep behavior of a powder metallurgy (PM Al6061-15 vol % SiCw metal matrix composite has been studied. This behavior has been compared to that of 6061Al cast alloy and 6061Al PM alloy. The creep response of the PM unreinforced alloy is better than that of the cast 6061Al alloy. Similarly, the behavior of the composite is better than that of the PM unreinforced alloy. Two microstructural factors have been considered the responsible ones of this improvement. The first one is the dispersion of Al2O3 oxide particles of nanometric scale. The second one, is the presence of the SiC whisker reinforcement of micrometric scale. Despite the similar strengthening effect, the intrinsic nature of the reinforcing mechanism is, however, different for each type of particle due to the different microstructural scale.Se ha realizado un estudio de las propiedades en fluencia del material compuesto pulvimetalúrgico Al6061-15 vol % SiCw. Su comportamiento se ha comparado con el de la aleación Al6061 pulvimetalúrgica y la aleación Al6061 de colada. El comportamiento del material pulvimetalúrgico sin reforzar mejora respecto al del material de colada. Al mismo tiempo, el del material compuesto mejora respecto al comportamiento del material pulvimetalúrgico sin reforzar. Se consideran dos factores microestructurales como los principales responsables de la mejora de las propiedades en fluencia de este material compuesto. Por un lado, las partículas de Al2O3 de tamaño nanométrico y, por otro, las partículas de fibra corta cerámicas de SiC de tamaño micrométrico. Aunque ambos tipos de partículas dan lugar a un efecto de refuerzo similar, los mecanismos intrínsecos asociados a la presencia de estas partículas tienen una naturaleza diferente debido a la diferencia en la escala microestructural.

  16. A tunable general purpose Q-band resonator for CW and pulse EPR/ENDOR experiments with large sample access and optical excitation (United States)

    Reijerse, Edward; Lendzian, Friedhelm; Isaacson, Roger; Lubitz, Wolfgang


    We describe a frequency tunable Q-band cavity (34 GHz) designed for CW and pulse Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) as well as Electron Nuclear Double Resonance (ENDOR) and Electron Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. The TE 011 cylindrical resonator is machined either from brass or from graphite (which is subsequently gold plated), to improve the penetration of the 100 kHz field modulation signal. The (self-supporting) ENDOR coil consists of four 0.8 mm silver posts at 2.67 mm distance from the cavity center axis, penetrating through the plunger heads. It is very robust and immune to mechanical vibrations. The coil is electrically shielded to enable CW ENDOR experiments with high RF power (500 W). The top plunger of the cavity is movable and allows a frequency tuning of ±2 GHz. In our setup the standard operation frequency is 34.0 GHz. The microwaves are coupled into the resonator through an iris in the cylinder wall and matching is accomplished by a sliding short in the coupling waveguide. Optical excitation of the sample is enabled through slits in the cavity wall (transmission ˜60%). The resonator accepts 3 mm o.d. sample tubes. This leads to a favorable sensitivity especially for pulse EPR experiments of low concentration biological samples. The probehead dimensions are compatible with that of Bruker flexline Q-band resonators and it fits perfectly into an Oxford CF935 Helium flow cryostat (4-300 K). It is demonstrated that, due to the relatively large active sample volume (20-30 μl), the described resonator has superior concentration sensitivity as compared to commercial pulse Q-band resonators. The quality factor ( Q L) of the resonator can be varied between 2600 (critical coupling) and 1300 (over-coupling). The shortest achieved π/2-pulse durations are 20 ns using a 3 W microwave amplifier. ENDOR (RF) π-pulses of 20 μs ( 1H @ 51 MHz) were obtained for a 300 W amplifier and 7 μs using a 2500 W amplifier. Selected applications of the

  17. Функциональные элементы на основе градиентного ppln


    Галуцкий, Валерий; Кузора, Виталий; Никитин, Валерий; Строганова, Елена; Шмаргилов, Сергей; Яковенко, Николай


    В работе проведены исследования принципов реализации функциональных оптических элементов на примере градиентных PPLN. Показано уширение полосы пропускания градиентных преобразователей по сравнению с идеализированным нулевым рассогласованием групповых скоростей входных каналов....

  18. Design and construction of a 500 KW CW, 400 MHz klystron to be used as RF power source for LHC/RF component tests

    CERN Document Server

    Frischholz, Hans; Pearson, C


    A 500 kW cw klystron operating at 400 MHz was developed and constructed jointly by CERN and SLAC for use as a high-power source at CERN for testing LHC/RF components such as circulators, RF absorbers and superconducting cavities with their input couplers. The design is a modification of the 353 MHz SLAC PEP-I klystron. More than 80% of the original PEP-I tube parts could thus be incorporated in the LHC test klystron which resulted in lower engineering costs as well as reduced development and construction time. The physical length between cathode plane and upper pole plate was kept unchanged so that a PEP-I tube focusing solenoid, available at CERN, could be re-used. With the aid of the klystron simulation codes JPNDISK and CONDOR, the design of the LHC tube was accomplished, which resulted in a tube with noticeably higher efficiency than its predecessor, the PEP-I klystron. The integrated cavities were redesigned using SUPERFISH and the output coupling circuit, which also required redesigning, was done with t...

  19. Theory of CW lidar aerosol backscatter measurements and development of a 2.1 microns solid-state pulsed laser radar for aerosol backscatter profiling (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Henderson, Sammy W.; Frehlich, R. G.


    The performance and calibration of a focused, continuous wave, coherent detection CO2 lidar operated for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter coefficient, B(m), was examined. This instrument functions by transmitting infrared (10 micron) light into the atmosphere and collecting the light which is scattered in the rearward direction. Two distinct modes of operation were considered. In volume mode, the scattered light energy from many aerosols is detected simultaneously, whereas in the single particle mode (SPM), the scattered light energy from a single aerosol is detected. The analysis considered possible sources of error for each of these two cases, and also considered the conditions where each technique would have superior performance. The analysis showed that, within reasonable assumptions, the value of B(m) could be accurately measured by either the VM or the SPM method. The understanding of the theory developed during the analysis was also applied to a pulsed CO2 lidar. Preliminary results of field testing of a solid state 2 micron lidar using a CW oscillator is included.

  20. Design-support and performance estimation using HYDRUS/CW2D: a horizontal flow constructed wetland for polishing SBR effluent. (United States)

    Pálfy, Tamás Gábor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Langergraber, Günter


    The 4,000 PE (700 m(3)/d) wastewater treatment plant at Balf, Hungary was based on sequencing batch reactor technology with phosphorus precipitation as the tertiary step. Its effluent met quality thresholds on average, with above-threshold peaks mainly in winter. The HYDRUS/CW2D model package (PC Progress s.r.o.) was used to simulate the treatment performance of a horizontal flow constructed wetland for polishing effluent. The goal of this study was to provide design-supportive information about the suitability of the proposed wetland and to prove the applicability of the computational tool used to gain that information. The simulations showed that the wetland with the proposed layout could not tackle peaks in NH4-N. Other effluent thresholds could be met, including chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total nitrogen, total inorganic nitrogen and total phosphorus. The tool was unable to simulate COD and BOD5 removal in periods when the electron acceptors were depleted because anaerobic processes are not modelled. Using a tool of such complexity for designing carries excessive work demands and involves many uncertainties. The simulation study highlighted that the model used could still facilitate the design of an effective system by showing the weaknesses of a test scenario as it was demonstrated.

  1. The microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CW-15 as a solar cell for hydrogen peroxide photoproduction. Comparison between free and immobilized cells and thylakoids for energy conversion efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, W.; Galvan, F.; Rosa, F.F. de la [Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Universidad de Sevilla y CSIC, Sevilla (Spain)


    Immobilized cells and thylakoid vesicles of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CW-15 have been developed as a solar cell because of their capabilities of producing hydrogen peroxide. This compound is an efficient and clean fuel used for rocket propulsion, motors and for heating. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by the photosystem in a catalyst cycle in which a redox mediator (methyl viologen) is reduced by electrons obtained from water by the photosynthetic apparatus of the microalga and it is re-oxidized by the oxygen dissolved in the solution. The photoproduction has been investigated using a discontinuous system with whole cells, or thylakoid vesicles, free or immobilized on alginate. The stimulation by azide as an inhibitor of catalase has also been analyzed. Under determined optimum conditions, the photoproduction by Ca-alginate entrapped cells, with a rate of 33 {mu}mol H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/mg Chl.h, was maintained for several hours with an energy conversion efficiency of 0.25%

  2. Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal exposure of circle of Willis (CW); can it be applied in vascular neurosurgery in the near future? A cadaveric study of 26 cases. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Forhad H; Haque, Mohammod R; Kawsar, Khandkar A; Ara, Shamim; Mohammod, Quazi Deen; Sarker, Mainul H; Goel, Atul H


    Endonasal transsphenoidal approaches are getting rapidly popular in removing many midline skullbase lesions from crista galli to foramen magnum. For safe removal of these lesions, familiarity with endoscopic endonasal anatomy of circle of Willis is very important. Furthermore, for safe development of this approach in vascular neurosurgery in the near future, endoscopic endonasal exposure of circle of Willis is a fundamental step. The goals in this study were to dissect the circle of Willis completely through the endoscopic endonasal approach and to become more familiar with the views and skills associated with the technique by using fresh cadaveric specimens. After obtaining ethical clearance, 26 fresh cadaver heads were used without any preparation. Using a neuroendoscope, complete exposure of the circle of Willis was done endonasaly, and various observations including relation of circle of Willis was recorded. Complete exposure of the circle of Willis was made through an endonasal approach in all cases without injuring surrounding structures. Endoscopic endonasal extended transsphenoidal exposure of CW can make the surgeon more efficient in removing midline skullbase lesions with safe handling of different parts of circle of Willis and it may help in development of endonasal endoscopic vascular neurosurgery in the near future.

  3. Optical features of Ca{sub 4}NdO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Yb single crystals under CW laser illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojciechowski, A. [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa Technological University, Armii Krajowej Av. 17/19, Czestochowa (Poland); Swirkowicz, M.; Karas, A. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Jaroszewicz, L.R.; Majchrowski, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, Gen. Sylwestra Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Gondek, E. [Institute of Physics, Cracow University of Technology, Podchorazych St. 1, Cracow 30-084 (Poland); Ozga, K. [Public Health, Czestochowa Technological University, Armii Krajowej Av. 36B, 42-200 Czestochowa (Poland); Kityk, I.V., E-mail: ikityk@el.pcz.czest.p [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa Technological University, Armii Krajowej Av. 17/19, Czestochowa (Poland)


    Optical treatment of Ca{sub 4}NdO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Yb under continuous laser illumination at different wavelengths led to substantial changes of optical absorption and optical second harmonic generation. The treatment was performed successively by infrared (780 nm), red (650 nm), green (532 nm) and blue (405 nm) laser wavelengths with powers varying within the 200-400 mW range. We demonstrated enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation in the Ca{sub 4}NdO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}:Yb (1.9% in weighting unit) crystals under the influence of the green cw laser at 532 nm. The principal changes were observed after 15 min of the treatment. A correlation between the occurrence of the hyperfine structure in the absorption spectra and the enhancement of the optical second harmonic generation was found. The additional treatment by the blue laser led to disappearance of appeared photo-induced changes of absorption and decrease of the optical second harmonic generation. It is principal that the effect is non-reversible in time and it does not depend on the photo-inducing light polarization. The principal origin of the observed photo-induced optical second harmonic generation is photo-polarization of the particular rare earth localized levels and formation of the stable polarized states due to the presence of Yb ions, playing crucial role. No such effects were observed in pure Ca{sub 4}NdO(BO{sub 3}){sub 3}.

  4. Validation of an SPME method, using PDMS, PA, PDMS-DVB, and CW-DVB SPME fiber coatings, for analysis of organophosphorus insecticides in natural waters. (United States)

    Lambropoulou, D A; Sakkas, V A; Albanis, T A


    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been optimized and applied to the determination of the organophosphorus insecticides diazinon, dichlofenthion, parathion methyl, malathion, fenitrothion, fenthion, parathion ethyl, bromophos methyl, bromophos ethyl, and ethion in natural waters. Four types of SPME fiber coated with different stationary phases (PDMS, PA, PDMS-DVB, and CW-DVB) were used to examine their extraction efficiencies for the compounds tested. Conditions that might affect the SPME procedure, such as extraction time and salt content, were investigated to determine the analytical performance of these fiber coatings for organophosphorus insecticides. The optimized procedure was applied to natural waters - tap, sea, river, and lake water - spiked in the concentration range 0.5 to 50 micro g L(-1) to obtain the analytical characteristics. Recoveries were relatively high - >80% for all types of aqueous sample matrix - and the calibration plots were reproducible and linear (R(2)>0.982) for all analytes with all the fibers tested. The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 90 ng L(-1), depending on the detector and the compound investigated, with relative standard deviations in the range 3-15% at all the concentration levels tested. The SPME partition coefficients (K(f)) of the organophosphorus insecticides were calculated experimentally for all the polymer coatings. The effect of organic matter such as humic acids on extraction efficiency was also studied. The analytical performance of the SPME procedure using all the fibers in the tested natural waters proved effective for the compounds.

  5. Investigation of the C2H2-CO2 van der Waals complex in the overtone range using cw cavity ring-down spectroscopy (United States)

    Lauzin, C.; Didriche, K.; Liévin, J.; Herman, M.; Perrin, A.


    A slit nozzle supersonic expansion containing acetylene [492 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP)] and carbon dioxide (740 SCCM) seeded into Ar (837 SCCM) is investigated using cw-cavity ring-down spectroscopy, in the 1.5 μm range. The C2H2-CO2 van der Waals complex is observed around the ν1+ν3 acetylenic band. The rotational temperature is estimated to be close to 60 K from the comparison between observed and simulated spectra. The analysis of the main, perturbed B-type band centered near 6 549.280 cm-1, is performed. It is attributed to a dimer with the known planar, C2v geometry. The present overtone data, involving ground state levels with higher J /K states (J ≤35 and Ka≤20) than previously reported, are combined to 3 μm data [D. G. Prichard, R. N. Nandi, J. S. Muenter, and B. J. Howard, J. Chem. Phys. 89, 1245 (1988); Z. S. Huang and R. E. Miller, Chem. Phys. 132, 185 (1989)] to determine improved ground state parameters. The major perturbations affecting the upper state are accounted for through C-type Coriolis resonances involving one dark state, whose symmetry must therefore be A1. Upper state constants are obtained for the bright and dark states. The dependence upon vibrational excitation is demonstrated to arise from excitation in the acetylene unit, only, for the former, but cannot be unravelled for the latter.

  6. Topotactic changes on η-Mo{sub 4}O{sub 11} caused by biased atomic force microscope tip and cw-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovšak, Miloš, E-mail: [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty for Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska ulica 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Šutar, Petra; Goreshnik, Evgeny [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mihailovic, Dragan [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); International Postgraduate School Jožef Stefan, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Highlights: • We report influencing electronic properties of η-Mo{sub 4}O{sub 11}. • With the biased AFM tip we induce the surface potential changes on η-Mo{sub 4}O{sub 11}. • We used cw-laser to induced similar effect on surface potential on η-Mo{sub 4}O{sub 11}. • We do not influence the surface and topography of the samples. • No change in topography of samples indicates the topotactic transformation. - Abstract: We present topotactic changes on Mo{sub 4}O{sub 11} crystals induced by a biased atomic force microscope tip and continuous laser. The transformation does not change the topography of the samples, while the surface potential shows remarkable changes on areas where the biased AFM tip was applied. No structural changes were observed by Raman spectroscopy, but AFM scans revealed changes to surface potential due to laser illumination. The observed phenomenon could be potentially useful for memristive memory devices considering the fact that properties of other molybdenum oxides vary from metallic to insulators.

  7. DNA strand breaks are not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz band CW and W-CDMA modulated radiofrequency fields allocated to mobile radio base stations. (United States)

    Sakuma, N; Komatsubara, Y; Takeda, H; Hirose, H; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J


    We conducted a large-scale in vitro study focused on the effects of low level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system in order to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields may act as a DNA damaging agent. First, we evaluated the responses of human cells to microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 80 mW/kg, which corresponds to the limit of the average whole body SAR for general public exposure defined as a basic restriction in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Second, we investigated whether continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated signal RF fields at 2.1425 GHz induced different levels of DNA damage. Human glioblastoma A172 cells and normal human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to mobile communication frequency radiation to investigate whether such exposure produced DNA strand breaks in cell culture. A172 cells were exposed to W-CDMA radiation at SARs of 80, 250, and 800 mW/kg and CW radiation at 80 mW/kg for 2 and 24 h, while IMR-90 cells were exposed to both W-CDMA and CW radiations at a SAR of 80 mW/kg for the same time periods. Under the same RF field exposure conditions, no significant differences in the DNA strand breaks were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA or CW radiation and the sham exposed negative controls, as evaluated immediately after the exposure periods by alkaline comet assays. Our results confirm that low level exposures do not act as a genotoxicant up to a SAR of 800 mW/kg.

  8. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Characteristics of the evolution of a plasma formed by cw and pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation in various gases (United States)

    Kanevskiĭ, M. F.; Stepanova, M. A.


    An investigation was made of the interaction between high-power cw and pulse-periodic CO2 laser radiation and a low-threshold optical breakdown plasma near a metal surface. Characteristics of the breakdown plasma were studied as a function of the experimental conditions. A qualitative analysis was made of the results using a simple one-dimensional model for laser combustion waves.

  9. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Spectroscopic investigation of thermodynamic parameters of a plasma plume formed by the action of cw CO2 laser radiation on a metal substrate (United States)

    Vasil'chenko, Zh V.; Azharonok, V. V.; Filatova, I. I.; Shimanovich, V. D.; Golubev, V. S.; Zabelin, A. M.


    Emission spectroscopy methods were used in an investigation of thermodynamic parameters of a surface plasma formed by the action of cw CO2 laser radiation of (2-5)×106 W cm-2 intensity on stainless steel in a protective He or Ar atmosphere. The spatiotemporal structure and pulsation characteristics of the plasma plume were used to determine the fields of the plasma electron density and temperature.

  10. Acute exposure to low-level CW and GSM-modulated 900 MHz radiofrequency does not affect Ba 2+ currents through voltage-gated calcium channels in rat cortical neurons. (United States)

    Platano, Daniela; Mesirca, Pietro; Paffi, Alessandra; Pellegrino, Monica; Liberti, Micaela; Apollonio, Francesca; Bersani, Ferdinando; Aicardi, Giorgio


    We have studied the non-thermal effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on Ba(2+) currents (I Ba 2+) through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), recorded in primary cultures of rat cortical neurons using the patch-clamp technique. To assess whether low-level acute RF field exposure could modify the amplitude and/or the voltage-dependence of I Ba 2+, Petri dishes containing cultured neurons were exposed for 1-3 periods of 90 s to 900 MHz RF-EMF continuous wave (CW) or amplitude-modulated according to global system mobile communication standard (GSM) during whole-cell recording. The specific absorption rates (SARs) were 2 W/kg for CW and 2 W/kg (time average value) for GSM-modulated signals, respectively. The results obtained indicate that single or multiple acute exposures to either CW or GSM-modulated 900 MHz RF-EMFs do not significantly alter the current amplitude or the current-voltage relationship of I Ba 2+, through VGCC. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Rapid Sintering of Silica Xerogel Ceramic Derived from Sago Waste Ash Using Sub-millimeter Wave Heating with a 300 GHz CW Gyrotron (United States)

    Aripin, Haji; Mitsudo, Seitaro; Sudiana, I. Nyoman; Tani, Shinji; Sako, Katsuhide; Fujii, Yutaka; Saito, Teruo; Idehara, Toshitaka; Sabchevski, Sliven


    In this paper, we present and discuss experimental results from a microwave sintering of a silica-glass ceramic, produced from a silica xerogel extracted from a sago waste ash. As a radiation source for the microwave heating a sub-millimeter wave gyrotron (Gyrotron FU CW I) with an output frequency of 300 GHz has been used. The powders of silica xerogel have been dry pressed and then sintered at temperatures ranging from 300°C to 1500°C. The influence of the sintering temperature on the technological properties such as porosity and bulk density was studied in detail. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been used in order to study the structure of the produced silica glass-ceramics. It has been found that the silica xerogel crystallizes at a temperature of 800°C, which is about 200°C lower than the one observed in the conventional process. The silica xerogel samples sintered by their irradiation with a sub-millimeter wave at 900°C for 18 minutes are fully crystallized into a silica glass-ceramic with a density of about 2.2 g/cm3 and cristobalite as a major crystalline phase. The results obtained in this study allow one to conclude that the microwave sintering with sub-millimeter waves is an appropriate technological process for production of silica glass-ceramics from a silica xerogel and is characterized with such advantages as shorter times of the thermal cycle, lower sintering temperatures and higher quality of the final product.

  12. HUNDSONAR (CW2015, ES60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  13. HUDSONAR (CW2013, EK60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  14. Wildevoelvlei/Noordhoek (CW28)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heinecken, TJE


    Full Text Available . Furthermore because of the inter-relationship between a high water table and the vleis and pans in the Noordehoek and Kommetjie basin, the two Wildevoelvlei cannot be considered in isolation from the other water bodies in the basin. Although, there does...

  15. HUDSONAR (CW2014, EK60) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — HUDSONAR is a bioacoustic survey of the Hudson River Estuary being conducted aboard the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater by the Acoustic Laboratory for Ecology Studies...

  16. The near infrared spectrum of ozone by CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy between 5850 and 7000 cm(-1): new observations and exhaustive review. (United States)

    Campargue, A; Barbe, A; De Backer-Barilly, M-R; Tyuterev, Vl G; Kassi, S


    Weak vibrational bands of (16)O(3) could be detected in the 5850-7030 cm(-1) spectral region by CW-cavity ring down spectroscopy using a set of fibered DFB diode lasers. As a result of the high sensitivity (noise equivalent absorption alpha(min) approximately 3 x 10(-10) cm(-1)), bands reaching a total of 16 upper vibrational states have been previously reported in selected spectral regions. In the present report, the analysis of the whole investigated region is completed by new recordings in three spectral regions which have allowed: (i) a refined analysis of the nu(1) + 3nu(2) + 3nu(3) band from new spectra in the 5850-5900 cm(-1) region; (ii) an important extension of the assignments of the 2nu(1)+5nu(3) and 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3) bands in the 6500-6600 cm(-1) region, previously recorded by frequency modulation diode laser spectroscopy. The rovibrational assignments of the weak 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3) band were fully confirmed by the new observation of the 4nu(1) + 2nu(2) + nu(3)- nu(2) hot band near 5866.9 cm(-1) reaching the same upper state; (iii) the observation and modelling of three A-type bands at 6895.51, 6981.87 and 6990.07 cm(-1) corresponding to the highest excited vibrational bands of ozone detected so far at high resolution. The upper vibrational states were assigned by comparison of their energy values with calculated values obtained from the ground state potential energy surface of (16)O(3). The vibrational mixing and consequently the ambiguities in the vibrational labelling are discussed. For each band or set of interacting bands, the spectroscopic parameters were determined from a fit of the corresponding line positions in the frame of the effective Hamiltonian (EH) model. A set of selected absolute line intensities was measured and used to derive the parameters of the effective transition moment operator. The exhaustive review of the previous observations gathered with the present results is presented and discussed. It leads to a total number

  17. Highly efficient 2  μm CW and Q-switched Tm3+:Lu2O3 ceramics lasers in-band pumped by a Raman-shifted erbium fiber laser at 1670  nm. (United States)

    Antipov, Oleg; Novikov, Anton; Larin, Sergey; Obronov, Ivan


    Highly efficient laser oscillations at 2 μm were investigated in Tm:Lu2O3 ceramics in-band pumped at 1670 nm by a Raman-shifted erbium fiber laser. Both 23 W CW and 15 W active Q-switched oscillations with 40 ns pulse duration and 15-30 kHz repetition rate were achieved in a high-quality beam. The evolution of two generated waves at 1966 and 2064 nm in dependence on pump power was studied.

  18. Molecular cloning of kman coding for mannanase from Klebsiella oxytoca KUB-CW2-3 and its hybrid mannanase characters. (United States)

    Pongsapipatana, Nawapan; Damrongteerapap, Piyanat; Chantorn, Sudathip; Sintuprapa, Wilawan; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Nitisinprasert, Sunee


    Gene encoding for β-mannanase (E.C from Klebsiella oxytoca KUB-CW2-3 was cloned and expressed by an E. coli system resulting in 400 times higher mannanase activities than the wild type. A 3314bp DNA fragment obtained revealed an open reading frame of 1164bp, namely kman-2, which encoded for 387 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 43.2kDa. It belonged to the glycosyl hydrolase family 26 (GH26) exhibited low similarity of 50-71% to β-mannanase produced by other microbial sources. Interestingly, the enzyme had a broad range of substrate specificity of homopolymer of ivory nut mannan (6%), carboxymethyl cellulose (30.6%) and avicel (5%), and heteropolymer of konjac glucomannan (100%), locust bean gum (92.6%) and copra meal (non-defatted 5.3% and defatted 7%) which would be necessary for in vivo feed digestion. The optimum temperature and pH were 30-50°C and 4-6, respectively. The enzyme was still highly active over a low temperature range of 10-40°C and over a wide pH range of 4-10. The hydrolysates of konjac glucomannan (H-KGM), locust bean gum (H-LBG) and defatted copra meal (H-DCM) composed of compounds which were different in their molecular weight range from mannobiose to mannohexaose and unknown oligosaccharides indicating the endo action of mannanase. Both H-DCM and H-LBG enhanced the growth of lactic acid bacteria and some pathogens except Escherichia coli E010 with a specific growth rate of 0.36-0.83h(-1). H-LBG was more specific to 3 species of Weissella confusa JCM 1093, Lactobacillus reuteri KUB-AC5, Lb salivarius KL-D4 and E. coli E010 while both H-KGM and H-DCM were to Lb. reuteri KUB-AC5 and Lb. johnsonii KUNN19-2. Based on the nucleotide sequence of kman-2 containing two open reading frames of 1 and 2at 5' end of the +1 and +43, respectively, removal of the first open reading frame provided the recombinant clone E. coli KMAN-3 resulting in the mature protein of mannanase composing of 345 amino acid residues confirmed by 3D

  19. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Dynamics of a plasma formed by a surface optical-discharge in a metal vapour interacting with a cw CO2 laser beam (United States)

    Zaikin, A. E.; Levin, A. V.; Petrov, A. L.


    A surface optical-discharge plasma was formed in a metal vapour under normal conditions by steady-state irradiation with a cw CO2 laser delivering radiation of moderate (2-4.5 MW cm-2) intensity. This plasma strongly screened the irradiated surface. Under the selected experimental conditions the optical discharge was not a continuous (steady-state) process. The plasma cloud was displaced along the beam out of the waist to a region where the laser radiation intensity was almost an order of magnitude less than the threshold for excitation of the optical-discharge plasma in the vapour. A strong screening of the metal surface, which could even completely stop evaporation of the metal, was observed. Self-oscillations of the optical-discharge plasma were observed for the first time in a vapour interacting with cw CO2 radiation: this was attributed to screening of the target surface. Within one period of the self-oscillations there were additional hf plasma pulsations which led to stratification of the plasma cloud. The results obtained were interpreted.

  20. Few-cycle, broadband, mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, Suddapalli; Esteban-Martin, Adolfo; Ideguchi, Takuro; Yan, Ming; Holzner, Simon; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid


    A few-cycle, broadband, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for the mid-infrared based on MgO-doped periodically-poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN), synchronously pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser is reported. By using crystal interaction lengths as short as 250 µm, and careful dispersion management of input pump pulses and the OPO resonator, near-transform-limited, few-cycle idler pulses tunable across the mid-infrared have been generated, with as few as 3.7 optical cycles at 2682 nm. The OPO can be continuously tuned over 2179-3732 nm (4589-2680 cm-1) by cavity delay tuning, providing up to 33 mW of output power at 3723 nm. The idler spectra exhibit stable broadband profiles with bandwidths spanning over 422 nm (FWHM) recorded at 3732 nm. The effect of crystal length on spectral bandwidth and pulse duration is investigated at a fixed wavelength, confirming near-transform-limited idler pulses for all grating interaction lengths. By locking the repetition frequency of the pump laser to a radio-frequency reference, and without active stabilization of the OPO cavity length, an idler power stability better than 1.6% rms over >2.75 hours is obtained when operating at maximum output power, in excellent spatial beam quality with TEM00 mode profile. Photograph shows a multigrating MgO:PPLN crystal used as a nonlinear gain medium in the few-cycle femtosecond mid-IR OPO. The visible light is the result of non-phase-matched sum-frequency mixing between the interacting beams. PMID:25793016

  1. Phosphorylation and gene expression of p53 are not affected in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz band CW or W-CDMA modulated radiation allocated to mobile radio base stations. (United States)

    Hirose, H; Sakuma, N; Kaji, N; Suhara, T; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J


    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields induce apoptosis or other cellular stress response that activate p53 or the p53-signaling pathway. First, we evaluated the response of human cells to microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 80 mW/kg, which corresponds to the limit of the average whole-body SAR for general public exposure defined as a basic restriction by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Second, we investigated whether continuous wave (CW) and wideband code division multiple access (W-CDMA) modulated signal RF fields at 2.1425 GHz induced apoptosis or any signs of stress. Human glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to W-CDMA radiation at SARs of 80, 250, and 800 mW/kg, and CW radiation at 80 mW/kg for 24 or 48 h. Human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to both W-CDMA and CW radiation at a SAR of 80 mW/kg for 28 h. Under the RF field exposure conditions described above, no significant differences in the percentage of apoptotic cells were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls, as evaluated by the Annexin V affinity assay. No significant differences in expression levels of phosphorylated p53 at serine 15 or total p53 were observed between the test groups and the negative controls by the bead-based multiplex assay. Moreover, microarray hybridization and real-time RT-PCR analysis showed no noticeable differences in gene expression of the subsequent downstream targets of p53 signaling involved in apoptosis between the test groups and the negative controls. Our results confirm that exposure to low-level RF signals up to 800 mW/kg does not induce p53-dependent apoptosis, DNA damage, or other stress response in human

  2. Far-infrared cw difference-frequency generation using vertically integrated and planar low temperature grown GaAs photomixers: application to H2S rotational spectrum up to 3 THz (United States)

    Mouret, G.; Matton, S.; Bocquet, R.; Hindle, F.; Peytavit, E.; Lampin, J. F.; Lippens, D.


    The generation of continuous coherent THz radiation by mixing two cw Ti:Sa laser beams with a well-controlled frequency separation for a new scheme of vertically integrated low temperature grown GaAs (LTG-GaAs) spiral photomixer is reported. For this new photomixer device used in THz emission, the LTG-GaAs active layer is sandwiched between the two parallel metal plates of a high-speed photodetector loaded by a broadband spiral antenna. We have exploited the advantage of a higher delivered power in the low part of the spectrum (detector was used at the upper frequency. The performances of the spectroscopic setup in terms of spectral resolution (5 MHz), tunability and frequency capability are assessed by measurements of the pure rotational spectra of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) up to 3000 GHz.

  3. High-energy picosecond OPO based on PPKTP. (United States)

    Chuchumishev, D; Marchev, G; Buchvarov, I; Pasiskevicius, V; Laurell, F; Petrov, V


    Output energy of 1 mJ is obtained for the 380 ps long idler pulses at 2800 nm from a short cavity singly resonant 500 Hz optical parametric oscillator employing PPKTP and a near-diffraction-limited, single frequency, sub-nanosecond pump source at 1064 nm.

  4. Terahertz generation by difference frequency generation from a compact optical parametric oscillator (United States)

    Li, Zhongyang; Wang, Silei; Wang, Mengtao; Wang, Weishu


    Terahertz (THz) generation by difference frequency generation (DFG) processes with dual idler waves is theoretically analyzed. The dual idler waves are generated by a compact optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). The phase-matching conditions in a same PPLN for the optical parametric oscillation generating signal and idler waves and for the DFG generating THz waves can be simultaneously satisfied by selecting the poling period of PPLN. Moreover, 3-order cascaded DFG processes generating THz waves can be realized in the same PPLN. To take an example of 8.341 THz which locates in the vicinity of polariton resonances, THz intensities and quantum conversion efficiencies are calculated. Compared with non-cascaded DFG processes, THz intensities of 8.341 THz in 3-order cascaded DFG processes increase to 2.57 times. When the pump intensity equals to 20 MW/mm2, the quantum conversion efficiency of 106% in 3-order cascaded DFG processes can be realized, which exceeds the Manley-Rowe limit.

  5. Triple-wavelength Nd-laser system by cascaded electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate Bragg modulator. (United States)

    Lin, Shou-Tai; Hsieh, Chuan-Sheng


    This study presents a diode-pumped cw triple-wavelength Nd:GdVO₄ laser system using an electro-optic periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) Bragg modulator. The PPLN consists of two cascaded sections, 20.3 μm and 25.7 μm, functioning as loss modulators for 1063 and 1342 nm at the same Bragg incident angle. When switching the dc voltages on PPLN and applying 25 W pump power, the output wavelength can be selected among 912, 1063, and 1342 nm with output power of 2, 5, and 1.4 W, respectively. The device is capable of triple-wavelength generation simultaneous when applied voltages are 180 (Λ = 20.3 μm) and -50 V (Λ = 25.7 μm) at a 25 W pump power. Gain competition induced power instability was also observed.

  6. Phase-coherent all-optical frequency division by three

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Klein, M.E.; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Wallenstein, Richard; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.


    The properties of all-optical phase-coherent frequency division by 3, based on a self-phase-locked continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The frequency to be divided is provided by a diode laser master-oscillator power-amplifier

  7. Frequency measurements and molecular constants of the 12C16O2 [1001, 0201]II ← 0000 band near 2.7 μm (United States)

    Guan, Yu-Chan; Patel, D. N.; Peng, Bo-Hao; Suen, Te-Hwei; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong


    Absolute frequencies of 23 transitions ranging from J = 2 to 70 for both the P and R branches of the 12C16O2 [1001, 0201]II ← 0000 band near 2.7 μm are measured to 17 kHz accuracy with sub-Doppler saturated absorption spectroscopy using a precise single frequency PPLN (periodically poled lithium niobate) OPO (optical parametric oscillator). A refined set of molecular constants are obtained which gives the differences between measured and calculated values of less than 7 kHz.

  8. Stable low noise 1.5 µm laser generated by a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (United States)

    Peng, Li; Yuanji, Li; Kuanshou, Zhang


    We present a stable low noise continuous wave (CW) single frequency 1.5 µm laser generated by an output-coupled singly resonant optical parametric oscillator based on a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and a home-made CW single frequency Nd:YVO4 laser at 1.064 µm as the pump source. A maximum signal power of 5.3 W can be obtained at a pump power of 16 W. The long-term power stability is better than ±0.9% in a given two hours and the intensity noise reaches the shot noise limit for frequencies above 3 MHz. The signal wavelength can be tuned from 1.560 to 1.592 µm with PPLN temperature controlled from 120 to 180 °C. This kind of laser source can be used in quantum information processing research.

  9. Side-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} cw laser with grazing-incidence small angle configuration; Laser de Nd:YVO{sub 4} bombeado transversalmente em configuracao com angulo rasante interno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida


    Within the existing variety of laser cavity geometries and gain materials there is one combination that is particularly interesting because of its reduced complexity and high efficiency: the edge-pumped slab-laser using grazing-incidence geometry and a gain media with a very high pump absorption cross-section. In this work we studied a diode side-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} cw laser. We describe a single and a multiple bounce laser configurations. We demonstrate 22 W of multimode output power for 35 watts of pump power with a single pass through the gain media. A high optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 63% and a slope efficiency of 74% with a very compact and simple Nd:YVO{sub 4} cavity that uses joint stability zones was achieved. The beam quality was M{sup 2} = 26 x 11 in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. With a double pass configuration we achieved 17 watts with a better beam quality of M{sup 2} = 3,4 x 3,7, in the horizontal and vertical direction, respectively. (author)

  10. Development of a Singly-Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillation for a Laser Transmitter of an Eye-Safe Ground-Based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Methane (CH4) Studies (United States)

    Chantjaroen, C.; Repasky, K. S.


    Improved understanding of the spatial distribution of the greenhouse gases CO2 and CH4 is necessary to quantify their anthropogenic climate impact. While extensive research has been done on instrumentation for both CO2 and CH4 measurements, the accuracy of below 2% error needed for carbon cycle studies remains a challenge. The goal of our current research is to develop a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for use as a laser transmitter for a ground based differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for the spatial mapping of CO2 and CH4 concentrations. Modeling predicts that the DIAL requires a laser transmitter with over 3 mJ of pulse energy and a repetition rate of 1 kHz at 1.571 μm and 1.654 μm wavelengths for CO2 and CH4 respectively. A periodically poled magnesium-doped lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal is used in the OPO based laser transmitter where quasi-phase matching can be achieved at CO2 and CH4 lines via temperature tuning of the PPLN crystal. The initial laser development for CO2 DIAL applications uses two input laser beams, a 1.064 μm pulsed pump beam and a 1.571 μm continuous wave seed beam. These are guided into the crystal placed within a 99%-50% reflective hemispherical cavity for the seed laser wavelength. Results from the OPO yield an output energy of 2.1 mJ at the 1.571 μm wavelength when operating the pump laser at a 20 Hz pulse repetition rate at 11.5 mJ and the seed laser at 160 mW. Good input/output conversion efficiency of the OPO is observed at greater than 18%. These results predict that an OPO output energy of 3 mJ at 1.571 μm would be possible with an input pump energy of 17 mJ. The CO2/CH4 DIAL architecture, modeling results for the DIAL instrument, and the performance of the OPO based laser transmitter will be presented.

  11. Numerical Investigation of Photon-Pair Generation in Periodically Poled M TiO X O4 (M =K , Rb, Cs; X =P , As) (United States)

    Laudenbach, Fabian; Jin, Rui-Bo; Greganti, Chiara; Hentschel, Michael; Walther, Philip; Hübel, Hannes


    We present a detailed numerical investigation of five nonlinear materials and their properties regarding photon-pair creation using parametric down-conversion. Periodic poling of ferroelectric nonlinear materials is a convenient way to generate collinearly propagating photon pairs. Most applications and experiments use the well-known potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4, PPKTP) and lithium niobate (LiNbO3, PPLN) crystals for this purpose. We provide a profound discussion on the family of KTP-isomorphic nonlinear materials, including KTP itself but also the much less common CsTiOAsO4, KTiOAsO4, RbTiOAsO4, and RbTiOPO4. We discuss the way in which these crystals can be used for the creation of spectrally pure down-conversion states and the generation of crystal-intrinsic polarization and frequency entanglement. The investigation of the new materials discloses an entirely different range of promising experimental setups, in some cases even outperforming the established materials PPLN and PPKTP.

  12. CW Energy Recovery Operation of XFELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacek Sekutowicz; S. Bogacz; Dave Douglas; Peter Kneisel; Gwyn P. Wiliams; Massimo Ferrario; Luca Serafini; Ilan Ben-Zvi; James Rose; Triveni Srinivasan-Rao; Patrick Colestock; Wolf-Dietrich Moeller; Bernd Petersen; Dieter Proch; S. Simrock; James B. Rosenzweig


    Commissioning of two large coherent light facilities at SLAC and DESY should begin in 2008 and in 2011 respectively. In this paper we look further into the future, hoping to answer, in a very preliminary way, two questions. First: What will the next generation of the XFEL facilities look like ? Believing that super-conducting technology offers several advantages over room-temperature technology, such as high quality beams with highly populated bunches and the possibility of energy recovery or higher overall efficiency, we focus this preliminary study on the superconducting option. From this belief the second question arises: ''What modifications in superconducting technology and in machine design are needed, as compared to the present DESY XFEL, and what kind of R&D program is required over the next few years to arrive at a technically feasible solution with even higher brilliance and increased overall conversion of AC power to photon beam power. In this paper we will very often refer to and profit from the DESY XFEL design, acknowledging its many technically innovative solutions.

  13. Design of multi-frequency CW radars

    CERN Document Server

    Jankiraman, Mohinder


    This book deals with the basic theory for design and analysis of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radar systems. The design of one such multi-frequency high resolution LPI radar, PANDORA, is covered.

  14. CW ESR studies on endohedral fullerenes (United States)

    Bartl, Anton; Dunsch, Lothar; Kirbach, Uwe


    Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is used in this study in connection with the mass spectrometry one of the most promising method to characterize the state of endohedral fullerenes. The aim of this contribution is to study scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, samarium, europium, holmium, thulium and lutetium containing fullerenes in dependence on the production and handling conditions with respect to their electronic structure. For the most metallofullerenes both single filled and double filled fullerenes were measured. The mass spectrometric signals of single filled fullerenes are much larger than the signals of double and higher filled metallofullerenes. ESR spectroscopic properties were followed especially in solution of isolated metallofullerenes of high purity characterized by well resolved ESR spectra but also of the solid soot extract resulting in low resolved ESR spectra. In this way new information on the electronic states and the influence of oxygen on endohedral metallofullerene were obtained. The interaction of the lanthanofullerence with oxygen is studied in detail. Different stabilities in different solvents in the presence of oxygen were found for La at C82 molecules. For scandium, yttrium and lanthanum containing fullerenes ESR spectra with hyperfine structure splittings corresponding to the nuclear spin of the metal ion were found. Experiments with lanthanoides results in fullerenes, showing mass spectra with lines equivalent to the corresponding endohedral compounds with single and double filed cages, but no ESR spectra due to the interaction of an unpaired electron with the nuclear spin of the lanthanoide ion could be detected in the magnetic field range of 0 to 800 mT.

  15. Seventeenth "CW" Survey of Audiovisual Materials (United States)

    Seittelman, Elizabeth E.


    This survey is an annotated list of films, filmstrips, slides, transparencies, pictures and prints, posters and charts, maps, replicas and models, coloring books and puzzles, jewelry, recordings and catalogs dealing with classical history and languages. Addresses of producers and suppliers are included. (CK)

  16. Quantum state specific reactant preparation in a molecular beam by rapid adiabatic passage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, Helen, E-mail:; Hundt, P. Morten; Reijzen, Maarten E. van; Yoder, Bruce L.; Beck, Rainer D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique Moléculaire, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Highly efficient preparation of molecules in a specific rovibrationally excited state for gas/surface reactivity measurements is achieved in a molecular beam using tunable infrared (IR) radiation from a single mode continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (cw-OPO). We demonstrate that with appropriate focusing of the IR radiation, molecules in the molecular beam crossing the fixed frequency IR field experience a Doppler tuning that can be adjusted to achieve complete population inversion of a two-level system by rapid adiabatic passage (RAP). A room temperature pyroelectric detector is used to monitor the excited fraction in the molecular beam and the population inversion is detected and quantified using IR bleaching by a second IR-OPO. The second OPO is also used for complete population transfer to an overtone or combination vibration via double resonance excitation using two spatially separated RAP processes.

  17. Combined optical parametric oscillator with continuous tuning of radiation wavelength in the spectral range 2.5-10.8 μm (United States)

    Kolker, D. B.; Sherstov, I. V.; Kostyukova, N. Yu.; Boyko, A. A.; Zenov, K. G.; Pustovalova, R. V.


    A combined optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with continuous tuning of the radiation wavelength in the spectral range 2.5-10.8 μm, optically pumped with the radiation from a Q-switched Nd : YLF laser (1.053 μm), is developed and tested. The oscillation is provided by an OPO1 based on a MgO : PPLN ‘fan-out’ structure in the spectral region 2.5-4.5 μm and by an OPO2 based on HgGa2S4 nonlinear crystals in the spectral region 4.18-10.8 μm, respectively. The angles of phase matching are measured for the HgGa2S4 crystals in the spectral range 4.18-10.8 μm for the type II conversion (eo-e), which virtually coincide with the calculated ones. The experimental absorption spectra of a gas mixture in the range 2.5-10.8 μm obtained using a gas-filled sealed-off photoacoustic cell are presented.

  18. Tunable all-optical wavelength broadcasting in a PPLN with multiple QPM peaks. (United States)

    Ahlawat, Meenu; Tehranchi, Amirhossein; Pandiyan, Krishnamoorthy; Cha, Myoungsik; Kashyap, Raman


    We experimentally demonstrate tunable multiple-idler wavelength broadcasting of a signal to selective channels for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). This is based on cascaded χ(2) nonlinear mixing process in a novel multiple-QPM 10-mm-long periodically poled LiNbO3 having an aperiodic domain in the center. The idlers' spacing is varied utilizing detuning of the pump wavelength within the SHG bandwidth. The temperature-assisted tuning of QPM pump wavelengths allows shifting the idlers together to different set of WDM channels. Our experimental results indicate that an overall idler wavelength shift of less than 10 nm realized by selecting pump wavelengths via temperature tuning, is sufficient to cover up to 40 WDM channels for multiple idlers broadcasting.

  19. High-Efficiency Mid-Infrared Picosecond MgO:PPLN Single Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator (United States)

    Han, Ke-Zhen; Ning, Jian; He, Jing-Liang; Hou, Jia; Zhang, Bai-Tao; Wang, Zhao-Wei


    Not Available Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos 61275142, 61308042, and 51321091, the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project under Grant No 2011YQ030127, and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No 2014T70633.

  20. Dependences of the group velocity for femtosecond pulses in MgO-doped PPLN crystal. (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ping; Lu, Wen-Jie; Xia, Yu-Xing; Chen, Xian-Feng


    Theoretical investigation on the group velocity control of ultrafast pulses through quadratic cascading nonlinear interaction is presented. The dependences of the fractional time delay as well as the quality factor of the delayed femtosecond pulse on the peak intensity, group velocity mismatch, wave-vector mismatch and the pulse duration are examined. The results may help to understand to what extent some optical operation parameters could have played a role in controlling the ultrashort pulses. We also predict the maximum achievable pulse delay or advancement efficiency without large distortions. A compact solid medium integrating multiple functions including slowing light, wavelength conversion or broadcasting on a single chip, may bring significant practicality and high integration applications at optical communication band.

  1. [Difference-frequency generation in PPLN and water vapor detection in air]. (United States)

    Deng, Lun-Hua; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Cao, Zhen-Song; Yuan, Yi-Qian; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Gong, Zhi-Ben


    The continuously tunable laser source has been realized in a periodically poled LiNO3 crystal based on difference frequency generation and quasi-phase-matching technique. The pump laser is an 1 W tunable Ti: Sapphire laser with a tunable region from 770 to 870 nm. The signal laser is an 1 W diode-pumped monolithic Nd : YAG laser. When the grating period is 20 microm and the temperature is tuned between room temperature and 200 degrees C, the generated wavelength of idler laser is around 2. 8 microm with the general power of .1-2 microW. The direct absorption spectra of (001 <-- 000) band of water in laboratory air were measured based on the laser source. The concentration of water vapor in the laboratory air was estimated with an absorption optical path of 8. 5 cm in open air.

  2. Simultaneous QPSK-to-2 × BPSK wavelength and Modulation Format Conversion in PPLN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Dalgaard, Kjeld; Fukuchi, Yutaka


    Phase-sensitive cascaded second-harmonic generation and difference-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide allow converting two orthogonal quadratures of an optical field to different wavelengths, thus enabling simultaneous quadrature phase-shift keying-to- \\(2\\times...... \\) binary phase-shift keying modulation format and wavelength conversions. Static phase-sensitive extinction ratios above 20 dB are obtained for both quadratures, resulting in error-free dynamic operation with low penalty (BER (10-9) ) at 10 Gbaud....

  3. Coherence properties of exciton-polariton OPO condensates in one and two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spano, R.; Cuadra, J.; Anton, C.


    We give an overview of the coherence properties of exciton-polariton condensates generated by optical parametric scattering. Different aspects of the first-order coherence (g((1))) have been investigated. The spatial coherence extension of a two-dimensional (2D) polariton system, below and at the...

  4. 2007 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_244220_000_ps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  5. 2008 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_255604_000_ps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  6. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_004_ps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  7. 2007 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_244220_001_ps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  8. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_012_ps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  9. 2006 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_215365_000_ps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  10. 2008 IKONOS Image Vieques Puerto Rico - opo_260684_001_ps (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Vieques, Puerto Rico were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of...

  11. Decreased oscillation threshold of a continuous-wave OPO using a semiconductor gain mirror. (United States)

    Siltanen, Mikael; Leinonen, Tomi; Halonen, Lauri


    We have constructed a singly resonant, continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator, where the signal beam resonates and is amplified by a semiconductor gain mirror. The gain mirror can significantly decrease the oscillation threshold compared to an identical system with conventional mirrors. The largest idler beam tuning range reached by changing the pump laser wavelength alone is from 3.6 to 4.7 µm. The single mode output power is limited but can be continuously scanned for at least 220 GHz by adding optical components in the oscillator cavity for increased stability. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Peak multiphoton excitation of mCherry using an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). (United States)

    Vadakkan, Tegy J; Culver, James C; Gao, Liang; Anhut, Tiemo; Dickinson, Mary E


    mCherry is a red fluorescent protein which is bright, photostable, and has a low molecular weight. It is an attractive choice for multiphoton fluorescence imaging; however, the multiphoton excitation spectrum of mCherry is not known. In this paper we report the two photon excitation spectrum of mCherry measured up to 1190 nm in the near infrared (NIR) region. Skin tissues of transgenic mice that express mCherry were used in the experiments. mCherry in the tissues was excited with a Titanium:Sapphire laser and an optical parametric oscillator pumped by the Titanium:Sapphire laser. We found that the peak excitation of mCherry occurs at 1160 nm.

  13. Experimental demonstration of frequency-degenerate bright EPR beams with a self-phase-locked OPO. (United States)

    Keller, G; D'Auria, V; Treps, N; Coudreau, T; Laurat, J; Fabre, C


    We report the first experimental observation of bright EPR beams produced by a type-II optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold at frequency degeneracy. The degenerate operation is obtained by introducing a birefringent plate inside the cavity resulting in phase locking. After filtering the pump noise, which plays a critical role, continuous-variable EPR correlations between the orthogonally polarized signal and idler beams are demonstrated.

  14. Mid-infrared laser beam steering based on Fourier transform OPO (United States)

    Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Brignon, Arnaud; Dolfi, Daniel; Huignard, Jean-Pierre


    Inertia-less optical scanners are an essential building block for many systems, including remote sensing, spectroscopy, and optronics. Although many solutions provide efficient scanning devices in the visible to near-infrared spectral range today, none of these devices offers good performances in longer wavelengths like in the mid-IR range. The new rationale that is described in this paper is to take advantage of existing and well-proven steering techniques in the near IR and to reach mid-IR by frequency conversion in a specifically designed Fourier transform optical parametric oscillator.

  15. Multi-gigahertz, femtosecond Airy beam optical parametric oscillator pumped at 78 MHz (United States)

    Aadhi, A.; Sharma, Varun; Chaitanya, N. Apurv; Samanta, G. K.


    We report a high power ultrafast Airy beam source producing femtosecond pulses at multi-gigahertz (GHz) repetition rate (RR). Based on intra-cavity cubic phase modulation of an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) designed in high harmonic cavity configuration synchronous to a femtosecond Yb-fiber laser operating at 78 MHz, we have produced ultrafast 2D Airy beam at multi-GHz repetition rate through the fractional increment in the cavity length. While small (PPLN) crystal for efficient generation of ultrafast Airy beam and broadband mid-IR radiation. Pumping the MgO:PPLN crystal of grating period, Λ = 30 μm and crystal temperature, T = 100 °C using a 5-W femtosecond laser centred at 1064 nm, we have produced Airy beam radiation of 684 mW in ~639 fs (transform limited) pulses at 1525 nm at a RR of ~2.5 GHz. Additionally, the source produces broadband idler radiation with maximum power of 510 mW and 94 nm bandwidth at 3548 nm in Gaussian beam profile. Using an indirect method (change in cavity length) we estimate maximum RR of the Airy beam source to be ~100 GHz.

  16. On the possibility of developing quasi-CW high-power high-pressure laser on 4p–4s transition of ArI with electron beam—optical pumping: quenching of 4s (3P2) lower laser level (United States)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kholin, I. V.; L’dov, A. Yu; Seleznev, L. V.; Ustinovskii, N. N.; Zayarnyi, D. A.


    A new electron beam-optical procedure is proposed for quasi-cw pumping of high-pressure large-volume He–Ar laser on the 4p[1/2]1–4s[3/2]20 argon atom transition at the wavelength of 912.5 nm. It consists of creation and maintenance of a necessary density of the 4s[3/2]20 metastable state in the gain medium by a fast electron beam and subsequent optical pumping of the upper laser level via the classical three-level scheme using a laser diode. Absorption probing is used to study collisional quenching of Ar* metastable in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He–Ar mixtures with a low content of argon. The rate constants for plasma-chemical reactions Ar*  +  He  +  Ar  >  Ar2*   +  He (3.6  ±  0.4)  ×  10‑33 cm6 s‑1, Ar*  +  2He  >  HeAr*  +  He (4.4  ±  0.9)  ×  10‑36 cm6 s‑1 and Ar*  +  He  >  Products  +  He (2.4  ±  0.3)  ×  10‑15 cm3 s‑1 were for the first time measured.

  17. Monitoring combat wound healing by IR hyperspectral imaging (United States)

    Howle, Chris R.; Spear, Abigail M.; Gazi, Ehsan; Crane, Nicole J.


    In recent conflicts, battlefield injuries consist largely of extensive soft injuries from blasts and high energy projectiles, including gunshot wounds. Repair of these large, traumatic wounds requires aggressive surgical treatment, including multiple surgical debridements to remove devitalised tissue and to reduce bacterial load. Identifying those patients with wound complications, such as infection and impaired healing, could greatly assist health care teams in providing the most appropriate and personalised care for combat casualties. Candidate technologies to enable this benefit include the fusion of imaging and optical spectroscopy to enable rapid identification of key markers. Hence, a novel system based on IR negative contrast imaging (NCI) is presented that employs an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) source comprising a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) crystal. The crystal operates in the shortwave and midwave IR spectral regions (ca. 1.5 - 1.9 μm and 2.4 - 3.8 μm, respectively). Wavelength tuning is achieved by translating the crystal within the pump beam. System size and complexity are minimised by the use of single element detectors and the intracavity OPO design. Images are composed by raster scanning the monochromatic beam over the scene of interest; the reflection and/or absorption of the incident radiation by target materials and their surrounding environment provide a method for spatial location. Initial results using the NCI system to characterise wound biopsies are presented here.

  18. Dual-frequency continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (United States)

    Sun, Bingjie; Wang, Xin; Yang, Suhui; Li, Kun


    This article shows a dual-frequency OPO with multi-grating (28.5-31.5 μm) periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN) pumped by a dual-frequency continuous wave at 1.064 μm. The wavelengths of idler and signal varying versus temperature at different periods of inverted domains were numerical simulated. It proves that as the temperature rises, or as the poling period increases, the idler wavelength shortens and signal wavelength lengthens. The pump is a 30 W dual-frequency fiber laser MOPA with beat note frequency varying from 125 MHz to 175 MHz. The pump threshold of the bow-tie ring cavity OPO was 3 W. An average dual-frequency idler output power of 2.6 W was obtained when the pump power was 17.2 W at 45 °C. The idler wavelength was 3.4 μm when the poling period was 30.5 μm. The idler wavelength could be tuned from 2.9 μm to 3.9 μm by changing the temperature and the poling period, and the beat note frequency was proved to be equal to that of the pump.

  19. Continuous-wave optical parametric oscillation tunable up to 8 μm wavelength (United States)

    Breunig, Ingo; Fürst, Josef Urban; Hanka, Kevin; Buse, Karsten


    We demonstrate the first cw OPO emitting mid-infrared light at wavelengths up to 8 μm. This device is based on a 3.5-mm-diameter whispering gallery resonator made of silver gallium selenide (AgGaSe2) pumped by a compact distributed feedback laser diode emitting light at 1.57 μm wavelength. Phase-matching is achieved for a c-cut resonator disk pumped with extraordinarily polarized light at this wavelength. The oscillation thresholds are in the mW region, while the output power ranges from 10 to 800 μW. Wavelength tuning is achieved via changing the radial mode number of the pump wave and by changing the resonator temperature. Simulations predict that whispering gallery OPOs based on AgGaSe2 with diameters around 2 mm can generate idler waves exceeding 10 μm wavelength.

  20. Production of CW and mode-locked atom lasers (United States)

    Bouyer, P.; Rangwala, S. A.; Thywissen, J. H.; Le Coq, Y.; Gerbier, F.; Richard, S.; Delannoy, G.; Aspect, A.


    Nous étudions les propriétés des faisceaux cohérents atomique à partir d'un condensat de Bose Einstein. Grâce à un contrôle précis du coupleur de sortie, il est possible, comme en optique, de produire des faisceaux laser monomodes, multiples ou mode-lockés. De plus, on peut montrer que la propagation du faisceau peut être décrite par des matrices ABCD similaires à celles qui sont utilisées en optique. Néanmoins, les interactions entre atomes, qui sont inexistantes entre les photons, conduisent quelques différences entre les propriétés de collimation des lasers atomes et photoniques.

  1. High Power CW Superconducting Linacs for EURISOL and XADS

    CERN Document Server

    Biarrotte, J L


    A multi-MW superconducting proton linac is proposed as the baseline solution for the EURISOL and the XADS driver accelerators. In the EURISOL project, which studies the design of the next-generation European ISOL facility, it is used to produce both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich exotic nuclei far from the valley of stability. In the PDS-XADS project, which aims to the demonstration of the feasibility of an ADS system for nuclear waste transmutation, it is used to produce the neutron flux required by the associated sub-critical reactor. In this paper, we report the main results and conclusions reached within these preliminary design studies. A special emphasis is given on the on-going and future R&D to be done to accomplish the demonstration of the full technology.

  2. [CW bio-radar vital sign detector and experiment study]. (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wang, Yunfeng; Zhao, Zhangyan; Zhang, Haiying


    Non-contact vital sign detection technique provides an effective usage in health monitoring applications. A vital sign detector was designed based on microwave bio-radar technique. Using Doppler principle, continuous wave bioradar was designed for tiny body movement detection, short-time Fourier transform and interpolation algorithm were adopted for heart and respiration rate extraction, embedded system was used for system integration, real-time signal processing software was designed on it. Experiments were done by using simulation device and human body for research and performance evaluation. The result shows that the proposed prototype can be used for single target vital signs detection at the distance of 90 cm, and the heart rate result shows a 96% recognition rate.

  3. Processing of dual-orthogonal cw polarimetric radar signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babur, G.


    The thesis consists of two parts. The first part is devoted to the theory of dual-orthogonal polarimetric radar signals with continuous waveforms. The thesis presents a comparison of the signal compression techniques, namely correlation and de-ramping methods, for the dual-orthogonal sophisticated

  4. Decontamination of Casualties from Battlefield Under CW and BW Attack (United States)


    dichromate, peroxyacid , and hypochlorite did not react with EEMPT and reacted with DECP only if the film was moist. The colored films from permanganate... peroxyacid films were wetted and then treated with CEES (Tables XX, XXI and XXII). 3. Detector Films Several of the films were colorless because of the

  5. CW 100MW microwave power transfer in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, K. (Houston Univ., TX (United States). Inst. for Beam Particle Dynamics National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan) Texas Accelerator Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States)); Hiramatsu, S. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Shiho, M. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan))


    A proposal is made for high-power microwave transfer in space. The concept consists in a microwave power station integrating a multistage microwave free-electron laser and asymmetric dual-reflector system. Its use in space is discussed. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. FM-CW Based Miniature SAR System for Small UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeboom, P.; Wit, J.J.M. de; Meta, A.; Figueras, J.


    In some earth observation applications there is a requirement for low cost, high performance imaging radar systems small enough to be operated from small, even unmanned, aircraft. The existing pulse radars are non-cost effective complex systems. Therefore they are not suited for these applications.

  7. Parametric Four-Wave Mixing Using a Single cw Laser (United States)

    Brekke, Erik; Herman, Emily; Alderson, Laura


    We present progress in using parametric four-wave mixing in a rubidium cell for the generation of coherent emission at 420 nm and 5.4 μm. A simple system using a single external cavity diode laser at 778 nm and a tapered amplifier supplies the needed optical beams. The efficiency is limited by absorption of the 420 nm beam, with single pass outputs of 40 μW. Optical pumping presents a possibility for increased output powers, but radiation trapping must be overcome at high densities. Several methods for increasing the effectiveness of the process are currently underway. The resulting beam at 420 nm presents an intriguing alternative method of exciting Rydberg states in Rubidium atoms.

  8. AM-CW Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses NASA's science objectives with innovative lidar architecture for atmospheric CO2 measurements. Specifically, the proposed work can support...

  9. Generation conditions of CW Diode Laser Sustained Plasma (United States)

    Nishimoto, Koji; Matsui, Makoto; Ono, Takahiro


    Laser sustained plasma was generated using 1 kW class continuous wave diode laser. The laser beam was focused on the seed plasma generated by arc discharge in 1 MPa xenon lamp. The diode laser has advantages of high energy conversion efficiency of 80%, ease of maintenance, compact size and availability of conventional quartz based optics. Therefore, it has a prospect of further development compared with conventional CO2 laser. In this study, variation of the plasma shape caused by laser power is observed and also temperature distribution in the direction of plasma radius is measured by optical emission spectroscopy.

  10. Nonlinear optical studies of curcumin metal derivatives with cw laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henari, F. Z., E-mail:; Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain (Bahrain)


    We report on measurements of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficients for curcumin and curcumin metal complexes of boron, copper, and iron at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique. These materials are found to be novel nonlinear media. It was found that the addition of metals slightly influences its nonlinearity. These materials show a large negative nonlinear refractive index of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W and negative nonlinear absorption of the order of 10{sup −6} cm/W. The origin of the nonlinearity was investigated by comparison of the formalism that is known as the Gaussian decomposition model with the thermal lens model. The optical limiting behavior based on the nonlinear refractive index was also investigated.

  11. Tunable cw UV laser with spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states. (United States)

    Bridge, Elizabeth M; Keegan, Niamh C; Bounds, Alistair D; Boddy, Danielle; Sadler, Daniel P; Jones, Matthew P A


    We present a solid-state laser system that generates over 200 mW of continuous-wave, narrowband light, tunable from 316.3 nm - 317.7 nm and 318.0 nm - 319.3 nm. The laser is based on commercially available fiber amplifiers and optical frequency doubling technology, along with sum frequency generation in a periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal. The laser frequency is stabilized to an atomic-referenced high finesse optical transfer cavity. Using a GPS-referenced optical frequency comb we measure a long term frequency instability of spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states from n = 37 - 81, demonstrating mode-hop-free scans of 24 GHz. In a cold atomic sample we measure Doppler-limited linewidths of 350 kHz.

  12. A Passive Multistatic CW Radar System using Geostationary Illuminators


    Thölert, Steffen; Hounam, David


    In this paper a new passive radar system using a geostationary TV satellite as an illuminator and ground-based receivers is presented. The system can be operated as a monostatic or multistatic radar and can be used for target detection or reflectivity measurements. Full polarimetric operation is possible. The measurement technique and the system hardware of an experimental system are described, particular attention being paid to the methods of signal synchronization. The results of experiment...

  13. CW STED nanoscopy with a Ti:Sapphire oscillator (United States)

    Liu, Yujia; Xie, Hao; Alonas, Eric; Santangelo, Philip J.; Jin, Dayong; Xi, Peng


    Fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool to study biological molecules, pathways and events in living cells, tissues and animals. Meanwhile, the conventional optical microscopy is limited by the wavelength of the light. Even the most advanced confocal microscopy or multiphoton microscopy can only yield optical resolution approaching the diffraction limit of ~200 nm. This is still larger than many subcellular structures, which are too small to be resolved in detail. These limitations have driven the development of super-resolution optical imaging methodologies over the past decade. The stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy was the first and most direct approach to overcoming the diffraction limit for far-field nanoscopy. Typically, the excitation focus is overlapped by an intense doughnut-shaped spot to instantly de-excite markers from their fluorescent state to the ground state by stimulated emission. This effectively eliminates the periphery of the Point Spread Function (PSF), resulting in a narrower focal region, or super-resolution. Scanning a sharpened spot through the specimen renders images with sub-diffraction resolution. Multi-color STED imaging can present important structural and functional information for protein-protein interaction. In this work, we presented a dual color, synchronization-free STED stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy with a Ti:Sapphire oscillator. The excitation wavelengths were 532nm and 635nm, respectively. With pump power of 4.6 W and sample irradiance of 310 mW, we achieved super-resolution as high as 71 nm. We also imaged 200 nm nanospheres as well as all three cytoskeletal elements (microtubules, intermediate filaments, and actin filaments), clearly demonstrating the super-resolution resolving power over conventional diffraction limited imaging. It also allowed us to discover that, Dylight 650, exhibits improved performance over ATTO647N, a fluorophore frequently used in STED. Furthermore, we applied synchronization-free STED to image fluorescently-labeled intracellular viral RNA granules, which otherwise cannot be differentiated by confocal microscopy. Thanks to the widely available Ti:Sapphire oscillators in multiphoton imaging system, this work suggests easier access to setup super-resolution microscope via the synchronization-free STED A series of biological specimens were imaged with our dual-color STED.


    The preparation of Adams’ most active tetrehydrocannabinol analog (Formula I, R=1,2-dimethylheptyl), and of synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (I, R=n...beta-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl) ethylanine. The pyrons related to tetrahydrocannabinol (II, R=n-amyl) has been reaction with aqueous ammonia to produce a high...amylphenol. An attempt will be made to condense this aminophenol with pulegone to give a nitrogen analog of tetrahydrocannabinol . The synthesis of pulegone from isopulegol has been accomplished.

  15. ARRA NEPA Quarterly Report- First Report: USACE-CW (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Executive Office of the President — Reports prepared by the Departments and Agencies on status of NEPA progress for activities and projects funded under Division A of the American Recovery and...

  16. Selective control of HOD photodissociation using CW lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    noted by reaction coordinate ri, with H + O–D chan- nel labelled as 1 and H–O + D channel as 2. The expressions for the total flux J in the H + O–D and. H–O + D channels are given by,. 2. 2. 1. 2. 1. 2. 0 0 cos. ˆ. ˆ. *( , , ) d r T. H O D o. J. r r t j j m μ θ. + −. ⎛. ⎞. = Ψ. +. ⎜. ⎟. ⎝. ⎠. ∫ ∫. 1. 2. 2. ( , , ). ,. r r t drdt. Ψ. (5). 1. 1. H O+D.

  17. Continuous-wave terahertz light from optical parametric oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowade, Rosita


    Continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) are working horses for spectroscopy in the near and mid infrared. However, in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 to 10 THz), the pump threshold is more than 100 W due to the high absorption in nonlinear crystals and thus exceeds the power of standard cw single-frequency pump sources. In this thesis the first cw OPO capable of generating terahertz radiation is demonstrated. To overcome the high threshold, the signal wave of a primary infrared process is resonantly enhanced to serve as the pump wave for a cascaded parametric process with one wave being at the terahertz frequency level. A terahertz output power of more than two microwatts is measured and tuning is achieved from 1.3 to 1.7 THz. This terahertz source emits a narrow-band, diffraction-limited beam which remains mode-hop free over more than one hour. Such a device inhibits high potential for applications in areas like astronomy, telecommunications or high-resolution spectroscopy. (orig.)

  18. All-optical half adder using an SOA and a PPLN waveguide for signal processing in optical networks. (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Willner, Alan E; Gurkan, Deniz; Parameswaran, Krishnan R; Fejer, Martin M


    We demonstrate an all-optical half adder for bit-wise addition of two serial data streams that simultaneously generates Sum and Carry outputs. The module performs the required XOR and AND operations using only two nonlinear optical elements. Difference Frequency Generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide serves as the AND gate and cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier is employed to generate the XOR output. Error free operation for RZ data is reported.

  19. Nearly degenerate wavelength-multiplexed polarization entanglement by cascaded optical nonlinearities in a PPLN ridge waveguide device. (United States)

    Arahira, Shin; Murai, Hitoshi


    In this paper we report the generation of wavelength-multiplexed polarization-entangled photon pairs in the 1.5-μm communication wavelength band by using cascaded optical second nonlinearities (sum-frequency generation and subsequent spontaneous parametric down-conversion, c-SFG/SPDC) in a periodically poled LiNbO(3) ridge waveguide device. The c-SFG/SPDC method makes it possible to fully use the broad spectral bandwidth of SPDC in nearly frequency-degenerate conditions, and can provide more than 50 pairs of wavelength channels for the entangled photon pairs in the 1.5-μm wavelength band, using only standard optical resources in the telecom field. Visibilities higher than 98% were clearly observed in two-photon interference fringes for all the wavelength channels under investigation (eight pairs). We further performed a detailed experimental investigation of the cross-talk characteristics and the impact of detuning the pump wavelengths.

  20. Flexible wavelength conversion via cascaded second order nonlinearity using broadband SHG in MgO-doped PPLN. (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Chen, Yuping; Lu, Feng; Chen, Xianfeng


    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate flexible wavelength conversion, in which the input signals can be freely converted to output wavelengths through widely and arbitrarily tuning the pump wavelength within a broad second harmonic (SH) bandwidth up to 25 nm. The scheme is based on the cascaded chi (2) process in a 20-mm periodically poled MgO-doped LiNbO(3) (PPMgLN). Also, wavelength broadcasting can be performed by simultaneous use of multiple pumps with wavelengths located in the broad SH bandwidth.