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Sample records for cutoff walls

  1. Numerical and physical modeling of cutoff walls against saltwater intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Seawater intrusion is a relevant problem for many communities living in small islands, where the amount of fresh water available for human consumption depends on the delicate equilibrium between the natural groundwater recharge from rainfall and the surrounding sea. However, it can represent a significant issue also for coastal regions where groundwater is extracted for water supply: an excessive extraction to meet growing demands for drinking water and irrigation purposes leads to a decrease of seaward flows of fresh water and consequently to an increase of seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. Cutoff walls represent one of the possible strategies that can be adopted to reduce seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers and to limit the inland progression of the saltwater wedge. In this study, on the basis of several preliminary simulations developed by the SUTRA code, a cutoff wall occluding 70% of the aquifer depth is designed for a physical experiment, whose setup details are reported as follows. The physical model represents the terminal part of a coastal aquifer and consists of a flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 49 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10 1.5. The resulting porous medium is homogeneous, with porosity of about 0.37 and hydraulic conductivity of about 1.3 10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sandbox, a tank filled by freshwater provides recharge for the aquifer. The downstream tank simulates the sea and red food dye is added to the saltwater to easily visualize the salt wedge. The volume of the downstream tank is about five times the upstream one, and, due to the small filtration discharge, minimizing salt concentration variations due to the incoming freshwater flow. The hydraulic gradient during the tests is constant, due to the fixed water level in the tanks. Water levels and discharged flow rate are continuously monitored. The cutoff wall was realized with sodium bentonite

  2. Flow simulation and investigating the effects of cutoff wall on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the construction of dam is significantly important both according to economic and safety aspects, it should be carefully assessed before construction. The use of available software is one of the evaluation and behavioral investigation methods. On this basis, we have investigated the effect of cutoff wall on the seepage ...

  3. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction.

  4. Seepage remediation by positive cut-off walls : a compendium and analysis of North American case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, D.A. [Geosystems LP, Venetia, PA (United States); Ressi di Cervia, A. [Treviicos Corp., North Dighton, MA (United States); Amos-Venti, J. [Merrimack College, North Andover, MA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Reservoir leakage at major dams in North America is typically remediated through the use of positive cut-offs. Many dam owners and designers use cut-offs as an inexpensive means of addressing leakage. However, the use of cut-offs can lead to depressions and sinkholes, disturb trends from dam and foundation piezometers, and cause the presence of sediment or embankment materials in springs. This paper presented a summary of published literature relating to major North American seepage remediation. Twenty-two case histories were presented in tabulated and summarized form in which cut-offs were constructed from concrete and plastic concrete walls; cement-bentonite walls; and cut-offs using deep mixing methods (DMM). Key observations and relevant details were provided for each case study. The aim of the paper was to provide perspectives to potential users of the various techniques in relation to depth capability; geotechnical suitability; constructability; quality control and verification; and cost. It was concluded that further data input is needed to provide a better understanding of cut-off techniques. 39 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  5. The impact of an underground cut-off wall on nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Pingping; Xu, Shiguo

    2017-03-01

    Underground cut-off walls in coastal regions are mainly used to prevent saltwater intrusion, but their impact on nutrient dynamics in groundwater is not clear. In this study, a combined analysis of multiple isotopes ([Formula: see text]) and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations is used in order to assess the impact of the underground cut-off walls on the nutrient dynamics in groundwater in the lower Wang River watershed, China. Compared with the nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in groundwater downstream of the underground cut-off walls, high [Formula: see text] and total dissolved nitrogen concentrations and similar concentration levels of [Formula: see text] and total dissolved phosphorus are found in groundwater upstream of the underground cut-off walls. The isotopic data indicated the probable occurrence of denitrification and nitrification processes in groundwater upstream, whereas the fingerprint of these processes was not shown in groundwater downstream. The management of fertilizer application is critical to control nitrogen concentrations in groundwater restricted by the underground cut-off walls.

  6. wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Kashif

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining indoor climatic conditions of buildings compatible with the occupant comfort by consuming minimum energy, especially in a tropical climate becomes a challenging problem for researchers. This paper aims to investigate this problem by evaluating the effect of different kind of Photovoltaic Trombe wall system (PV-TW on thermal comfort, energy consumption and CO2 emission. A detailed simulation model of a single room building integrated with PV-TW was modelled using TRNSYS software. Results show that 14-35% PMV index and 26-38% PPD index reduces as system shifted from SPV-TW to DGPV-TW as compared to normal buildings. Thermal comfort indexes (PMV and PPD lie in the recommended range of ASHARE for both DPV-TW and DGPV-TW except for the few months when RH%, solar radiation intensity and ambient temperature were high. Moreover PVTW system significantly reduces energy consumption and CO2 emission of the building and also 2-4.8 °C of temperature differences between indoor and outdoor climate of building was examined.

  7. Elongation Cutoff Technique: Parallel Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Korchowiec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that the elongation cutoff technique (ECT substantially speeds up thequantum-chemical calculation at Hartree-Fock (HF level of theory and is especially wellsuited for parallel performance. A comparison of ECT timings for water chains with thereference HF calculations is given. The analysis includes the overall CPU (central processingunit time and its most time consuming steps.

  8. A Review of Cutoffs for Nutritional Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramkripa; Ashour, Fayrouz Sakr; Bailey, Regan

    2016-01-01

    The nutritional status of an individual or population needs to be assessed through valid and reliable biomarkers. Cutoffs generally have an underlying relation to health status and are one of the important quantitative criteria against which biomarker outputs are compared. For this reason, cutoffs are integral for surveys, surveillance, screening, interventions, monitoring, and evaluation. Despite their importance, nutritional biomarker cutoffs have not been adequately addressed in the literature. Furthermore, the field has not reached a consensus on which cutoff to use for each biomarker, and different cutoffs are often used for the same biomarkers in published studies. This review provides a comprehensive overview of cutoffs related to nutritional biomarkers and highlights some of the high-priority research gaps and challenges of using micronutrient case studies. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Anticipating Cutoff Diameters in Deterministic Lateral Displacement (DLD) Microfluidic Devices for an Optimized Particle Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariset, Eloise; Pudda, Catherine; Boizot, François; Verplanck, Nicolas; Berthier, Jean; Thuaire, Aurélie; Agache, Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices enable to separate nanometer to micrometer-sized particles around a cutoff diameter, during their transport through a microfluidic channel with slanted rows of pillars. In order to design appropriate DLD geometries for specific separation sizes, robust models are required to anticipate the value of the cutoff diameter. So far, the proposed models result in a single cutoff diameter for a given DLD geometry. This paper shows that the cutoff diameter actually varies along the DLD channel, especially in narrow pillar arrays. Experimental and numerical results reveal that the variation of the cutoff diameter is induced by boundary effects at the channel side walls, called the wall effect. The wall effect generates unexpected particle trajectories that may compromise the separation efficiency. In order to anticipate the wall effect when designing DLD devices, a predictive model is proposed in this work and has been validated experimentally. In addition to the usual geometrical parameters, a new parameter, the number of pillars in the channel cross dimension, is considered in this model to investigate its influence on the particle trajectories. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. On Saturnian cosmic ray cutoff rigidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, H. H.

    1980-03-01

    It has been determined that Saturn possesses a relatively pure dipolar magnetic field through magnetometer measurements made by Ness et al. (1979, private comm.) and Smith et al. (1979). The paper briefly outlines the dipole geomagnetic cutoff theory and demonstrates the scaling required for its applicability to energetic particle measurements in the vicinity of Saturn. Since the cutoff rigidity is a function of viewing direction, the effective cutoff rigidity must be determined as an integration over the finite viewing angle of a physical detector.

  11. Transverse vetoes with rapidity cutoff in SCET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornig, Andrew; Kang, Daekyoung; Makris, Yiannis; Mehen, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    We consider di-jet production in hadron collisions where a transverse veto is imposed on radiation for (pseudo-)rapidities in the central region only, where this central region is defined with rapidity cutoff. For the case where the transverse measurement (e.g., transverse energy or min p T for jet veto) is parametrically larger relative to the typical transverse momentum beyond the cutoff, the cross section is insensitive to the cutoff parameter and is factorized in terms of collinear and soft degrees of freedom. The virtuality for these degrees of freedom is set by the transverse measurement, as in typical transverse-momentum dependent observables such as Drell-Yan, Higgs production, and the event shape broadening. This paper focuses on the other region, where the typical transverse momentum below and beyond the cutoff is of similar size. In this region the rapidity cutoff further resolves soft radiation into (u)soft and soft-collinear radiation with different rapidities but identical virtuality. This gives rise to rapidity logarithms of the rapidity cutoff parameter which we resum using renormalization group methods. We factorize the cross section in this region in terms of soft and collinear functions in the framework of soft-collinear effective theory, then further refactorize the soft function as a convolution of the (u)soft and soft-collinear functions. All these functions are calculated at one-loop order. As an example, we calculate a differential cross section for a specific partonic channel, qq ' → qq ' , for the jet shape angularities and show that the refactorization allows us to resum the rapidity logarithms and significantly reduce theoretical uncertainties in the jet shape spectrum.

  12. Cutoff-Free Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekakhlagh, Moein; Petrescu, Alexandru; Türeci, Hakan E.

    2017-08-01

    Any quantum-confined electronic system coupled to the electromagnetic continuum is subject to radiative decay and renormalization of its energy levels. When coupled to a cavity, these quantities can be strongly modified with respect to their values in vacuum. Generally, this modification can be accurately captured by including only the closest resonant mode of the cavity. In the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, it is, however, found that the radiative decay rates are strongly influenced by far off-resonant modes. A multimode calculation accounting for the infinite set of cavity modes leads to divergences unless a cutoff is imposed. It has so far not been identified what the source of divergence is. We show here that unless gauge invariance is respected, any attempt at the calculation of circuit QED quantities is bound to diverge. We then present a theoretical approach to the calculation of a finite spontaneous emission rate and the Lamb shift that is free of cutoff.

  13. Polypharmacy Cutoff for Gait and Cognitive Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Langeard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is a well-established risk factor for falls, and these are one of the major health problems that affect the quality of life as people age. However, the risk of mobility and cognitive impairments consecutive to polypharmacy has been little addressed, despite the association between these adverse outcomes and falls. Moreover, the rare polypharmacy cut-offs were all but one arbitrarily determined. OBJECTIVE: Studying relationships between polypharmacy and both mobility and cognitive impairments, and statistically determining a cut-off point in the number of drugs beyond which polypharmacy has deleterious consequences with respect to mobility and cognitive impairment. METHODS: We enrolled 113 community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older with a fall history, with or without injury, in the previous year. We carefully collected information about daily medications taken. We assessed basic mobility and global cognition with the Time-Up-and-Go and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov NCT02292316RESULTS: TUG and MoCA scores were both significantly correlated with the number of medications used. ROC curves indicate, with high prediction (p<0.002, that daily consumption of five or more medications is associated with risk for both impaired mobility and global cognition. These relationships were independent of the number of comorbidities and of the pharmacological class. CONCLUSION: Community-dwelling adults aged 55 years and older who take five or more daily drugs are at high risk for both mobility and cognitive impairments. Physicians and patients should be aware of these new findings, especially when there are multiple prescribers involved in the care of the patient.

  14. RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

  15. An expected coverage model with a cutoff priority queue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soovin; Albert, Laura A

    2017-07-19

    Emergency medical services provide immediate care to patients with various types of needs. When the system is congested, the response to urgent emergency calls can be delayed. To address this issue, we propose a spatial Hypercube approximation model with a cutoff priority queue that estimates performance measures for a system where some servers are reserved exclusively for high priority calls when the system is congested. In the cutoff priority queue, low priority calls are not immediately served-they are either lost or entered into a queue-whenever the number of busy ambulances is equal to or greater than the cutoff. The spatial Hypercube approximation model can be used to evaluate the design of public safety systems that employ a cutoff priority queue. A mixed integer linear programming model uses the Hypercube model to identify deployment and dispatch decisions in a cutoff priority queue paradigm. Our computational study suggests that the improvement in the expected coverage is significant when the cutoff is imposed, and it elucidates the tradeoff between the coverage improvement and the cost to low-priority calls that are "lost" when using a cutoff. Finally, we present a method for selecting the cutoff value for a system based on the relative importance of low-priority calls to high-priority calls.

  16. Fatigue life analysis of cracked gas receiver of emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junzhi; Zhou, Jiyong; Li, Siyuan

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale air compressor and gas receiver are used as the driving gas of the emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station. Operation of block valve is ensured by starting and stopping compressor automatically. The frequent start-stop of compressor and the pressure fluctuation pose a threat to the service life of gas receiver, and then affect normal operation of the emergency cut-off system and security of gas gathering station. In this paper, the fatigue life of a pressure vessel with axial semi-elliptical surface crack in the inner wall is analyzed under the varying pressure by means of the theory of fracture mechanics. The influences of the amplitude of pressure fluctuation and the initial crack size on the residual life of gas receiver are discussed. It provides a basis for setting the working parameters of gas receiver of emergency cut-off system and determining the maintenance cycle.

  17. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  18. Construction Foundation Report. Mud Mountain Dam Seepage Control Cutoff Wall, White River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    could deliver the aggregates to the truck mixer at a pace of 600 tons per hour. Cement and flyash were weighed in the forward hopper with the cement...being weighed pritr to the flyash . The aggregates were weighed in the aft hopper. The scales were of the suspension hopper type with dials. These dials...of light to severe washout of the mortar component. XI-17 The small amount of water loss recorded during the down-hole packer testE in these panels

  19. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...... and flat, “ambiguous walls” combine softness, tectonics and three-dimensionality. The paper considers a selection of luminious surfaces and reflects on the extent of their ambiguous qualities. Initial ideas for new directions for the wall will be essayed through the discussion....

  20. Bioconcentration factor hydrophobicity cutoff: an artificial phenomenon reconstructed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Van der Heijden, Stephan A

    2007-11-01

    The debate on whether highly hydrophobic organic chemicals (with log Kow > 5-6) bioconcentrate less than may be expected from their hydrophobicity is still not settled. The often-observed hydrophobicity "cutoff" might either be explained by artifacts occurring during bioconcentration factor (BCF) measurements or by a true mechanism, i.e., reduced uptake of larger molecules due to decreased membrane permeation. In this paper, we advocate there is no hydrophobicity cutoff, at least not for compounds with log Kow of up to 7.5. Data are presented on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. For this combination of chemicals/organism, BCFs were measured using several approaches, including traditional batch uptake kinetics measurements and alternative ones, involving solid-phase microextraction (SPME), polyoxymethylene solid-phase extraction (POM-SPE), field exposures, and the substitution of living worms by dead worm material or liposomes. A hydrophobicity cutoff was observed at two levels during the traditional approach only, whereas for the other approaches it was absent. The data were used to demonstrate the presence and impact of artifacts due to so-called "third phase effects" and nonequilibrium conditions that can obscure "true uptake". The experiments suggest that previously observed cutoff effects can be ascribed to artifacts, and that current risk assessment (often incorporating a BCF cutoff) as well as BCF measurement techniques of very hydrophobic chemicals should be revised.

  1. High cut-off dialysis in chronic haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girndt, Matthias; Fiedler, Roman; Martus, Peter; Pawlak, Michael; Storr, Markus; Bohler, Torsten; Glomb, Marcus A; Liehr, Kristin; Henning, Christian; Templin, Markus; Trojanowicz, Bogusz; Ulrich, Christof; Werner, Kristin; Zickler, Daniel; Schindler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    Haemodialysis patients suffer from chronic systemic inflammation and high incidence of cardiovascular disease. One cause for this may be the failure of diseased kidneys to eliminate immune mediators. Current haemodialysis treatment achieves insufficient elimination of proteins in the molecular weight range 15-45 kD. Thus, high cut-off dialysis might improve the inflammatory state. In this randomized crossover trial, 43 haemodialysis patients were treated for 3 weeks with high cut-off or high-flux dialysis. Inflammatory plasma mediators, monocyte subpopulation distribution and leucocyte gene expression were quantified. High cut-off dialysis supplemented by a low-flux filter did not influence the primary end-point, expression density of CD162 on monocytes. Nevertheless, treatment reduced multiple immune mediators in plasma. Such reduction proved - at least for some markers - to be a sustained effect over the interdialytic interval. Thus, for example, soluble TNF-receptor 1 concentration predialysis was reduced from median 13·3 (IQR 8·9-17·2) to 9·7 (IQR 7·5-13·2) ng/mL with high cut-off while remaining constant with high-flux treatment. The expression profile of multiple proinflammatory genes in leucocytes was significantly dampened. Treatment was well tolerated although albumin losses in high cut-off dialysis would be prohibitive against long-term use. The study shows for the first time that a dampening effect of high cut-off dialysis on systemic inflammation is achievable. Earlier studies had failed due to short study duration or insufficient dialysis efficacy. Removal of soluble mediators from the circulation influences cellular activation levels in leucocytes. Continued development of less albumin leaky membranes with similar cytokine elimination is justified. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  2. Cutoff frequencies for Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, B. L. Harsha Kalpanie

    Propagation of linear Alfven waves in the isothermal and non-isothermal solar atmosphere is investigated numerically and analytically. It is shown that the two wave variables, the velocity and magnetic field perturbations, behave differently and that there is a range of wave frequencies for which the wave behavior changes from propagating to non-propagating. The so-called transition and turning points corresponding to this change are determined analytically, and their locations in the atmosphere are calculated and verified against the numerical results. The transition and turning points are then used to introduce cutoff frequencies, which are different for different wave variables. The main result is that there isn't a unique cutoff frequency for Alfven waves. Instead, a number of cutoff frequencies can be introduced depending upon the method used to define them, as well as on the choice of the wave variable used to describe the waves. Relevance of the obtained results to recent observations of Alfven waves in the solar atmosphere is also discussed. A concept of global cutoff frequencies is also introduced by using Leighton's, Hille's and Kneser's oscillation theorems, as well as the Sturm comparison theorems. The oscillation theorems have been applied to bounded and unbounded Alfven wave equations for both the velocity and magnetic field wave variables. The obtained results demonstrated that the global cutoff frequency and the local cutoff frequency are two different physical concepts. Furthermore, the latter exists if and only if the wave frequency is greater than the former. These analytical results have been verified using numerical solutions of the linear Alfven wave equations. The original ideal MHD equations were modified by taking into account the displacement current, and several oscillations theorems were applied to the resulting wave equations. As expected, only oscillatory solutions were found. The results presented in this PhD dissertation give strong

  3. Gravity Cutoff in Theories with Large Discrete Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Sibiryakov, Sergey; Vainshtein, Arkady

    2008-01-01

    We set an upper bound on the gravitational cutoff in theories with exact quantum numbers of large N periodicity, such as Z_N discrete symmetries. The bound stems from black hole physics. It is similar to the bound appearing in theories with N particle species, though a priori, a large discrete symmetry does not imply a large number of species. Thus, there emerges a potentially wide class of new theories, that address the hierarchy problem by lowering the gravitational cutoff due to existence of large Z_{10^32}-type symmetries.

  4. Polyhydramnios and adverse perinatal outcome - what is the actual cutoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlev, A; Sheiner, E; Friger, M; Hershkovitz, R

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between amniotic fluid index (AFI) and adverse perinatal outcome, and whether a critical cutoff can be defined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. Included were patients who were admitted to the ultrasound unit of the tertiary medical center between the years 1988 and 2010. Parturients were classified into five groups according to their AFI:  20 and adverse perinatal outcomes remained. A significant linear association exists between AFI > 20 and perinatal complications such as perinatal mortality, low Apgar scores and preterm labor. Hence, the critical cutoff for polyhydramnios should be re-evaluated.

  5. Suburban Legend: School Cutoff Dates and the Timing of Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Elder, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Many states require children to reach age 5 by a specified date in the calendar year in order to begin kindergarten. We use birth certificate records from 1999 to 2004 to assess whether parents systematically time childbirth before these eligibility cutoff dates to capture the option value of sending their child to school at a relatively young…

  6. Holographic bounds on the UV cutoff scale in inflationary cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keski-Vakkuri, Esko; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how holographic bounds can be applied to the quantum fluctuations of the inflaton. In general the holographic principle will lead to a bound on the UV cutoff scale of the effective theory of inflation, but it will depend on the coarse-graining prescription involved in calculating the e...

  7. FODMAPs: food composition, defining cutoff values and international application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Jane; Barrett, Jacqueline; Scarlata, Kate; Catsos, Patsy; Gibson, Peter R; Muir, Jane G

    2017-03-01

    The low-FODMAP diet is a new dietary therapy for the management of irritable bowel syndrome that is gaining in popularity around the world. Developing the low-FODMAP diet required not only extensive food composition data but also the establishment of "cutoff values" to classify foods as low-FODMAP. These cutoff values relate to each particular FODMAP present in a food, including oligosaccharides (fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides), sugar polyols (mannitol and sorbitol), lactose, and fructose in excess of glucose. Cutoff values were derived by considering the FODMAP levels in typical serving sizes of foods that commonly trigger symptoms in individuals with irritable bowel syndrome, as well as foods that were generally well tolerated. The reliability of these FODMAP cutoff values has been tested in a number of dietary studies. The development of the techniques to quantify the FODMAP content of foods has greatly advanced our understanding of food composition. FODMAP composition is affected by food processing techniques and ingredient selection. In the USA, the use of high-fructose corn syrups may contribute to the higher FODMAP levels detected (via excess fructose) in some processed foods. Because food processing techniques and ingredients can vary between countries, more comprehensive food composition data are needed for this diet to be more easily implemented internationally. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Wall Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Connie Q.

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article, an art teacher at Monarch High School in Louisville, Colorado, describes how her experience teaching in a new school presented an exciting visual challenge for an art teacher--monotonous brick walls just waiting for decoration. This school experienced only minimal instances of graffiti, but as an art teacher, she did…

  9. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Gray

    Full Text Available Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population.4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40-75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans.For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m(2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI 20.7 kg/m(2 to 24.5 kg/m(2 for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m(2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m(2 to 27.3 kg/m(2 for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m(2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m(2 to 30.4 kg/m(2 for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC.Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Wall Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-14

    Sydney, Australia. December 6, 1990. Lumley, J. L. A dynamical-systems-theory approach to the wall region. Environmental Engineering Laboratory, CSIRO...Nonlinear Science. Holmes, P. Editor in Chief, Nonlinear Scinece Today. Holmes, P. Reviewer for Physica D, J. Sound Vib., J. Phys., Q. Appl. Math, Phys...Spring, 1994; Organizing committee member. Holmes, P. Editorial Board Member: Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis; Journal of Nonlinear Scinece

  11. CLIMBING WALL

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    The FIRE AND RESCUE Group of TIS Commission informs that the climbing wall in the yard of the Fire-fighters Station, is intended for the sole use of the members of that service, and recalls that access to this installation is forbidden for safety reasons to all persons not belonging to the Service.CERN accepts no liability for damage or injury suffered as a result of failure to comply with this interdiction.TIS/DI

  12. Cutoff latitude variation during solar proton events: Causes and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Tyssøy, H Nesse

    2016-01-01

    To accurately quantify the effect of solar proton events (SPEs) on the atmosphere requires a good estimate of the particle energy deposition in the middle atmosphere (60- 100 km) and how the energy is distributed globally. Protons in the energy range 1-20MeV, depositing their energy in the middle atmosphere, are subject to more complex dynamics with strong day-night asymmetries compared to higher-energy particles. Our study targets six SPEs from 2003 to 2012. By using measurements from the Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detector on all available Polar Orbit Environment Satellites (POES), we show that in the main phase of geomagnetic storms the dayside cutoff latitudes are pushed poleward, while the nightside cutoff latitudes have the opposite response, resulting in strong day-night asymmetries in the energy deposition. These features cannot bemeasured by the frequently used Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES). Assuming that the protons impact the polar atmosphere homogeneously above a...

  13. Quantum probes for the cutoff frequency of Ohmic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Claudia; Salari Sehdaran, Fahimeh; Zandi, Mohammad H.; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum probing consists of suitably exploiting a simple, small, and controllable quantum system to characterize a larger and more complex system. Here, we address the estimation of the cutoff frequency of the Ohmic spectral density of a harmonic reservoir by quantum probes. To this aim, we address the use of single-qubit and two-qubit systems and different kinds of coupling with the bath of oscillators. We assess the estimation precision by the quantum Fisher information of the sole quantum probe as well as the corresponding quantum signal-to-noise ratio. We prove that, for most of the values of the Ohmicity parameter, a simple probe such as a single qubit is already optimal for the precise estimation of the cutoff frequency. Indeed for those values, upon considering a two-qubit probe either in a Bell or in separable state, we do not find improvement to the estimation precision. However, we also showed that there exist few conditions where employing two qubits in a Bell state interacting with a common bath is more suitable for precisely estimating the cutoff frequency.

  14. Community-Specific BMI Cutoff Points for South Indian Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Kishore Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze multiparameters related to total body composition, with specific emphasis on obesity in South Indian females, in order to derive community-specific BMI cutoff points. Patients and Methods. A total number of 87 females (of age 37.33±13.12 years from South Indian Chennai urban population participated in this clinical study. Body composition analysis and anthropometric measurements were acquired after conducting careful clinical examination. Results. BMI demonstrated high significance when normal group (21.02±1.47 kg/m2 was compared with obese group (29.31±3.95 kg/m2, <0.0001. BFM displayed high significance when normal group (14.92±4.28 kg was compared with obese group (29.94 ± 8.1 kg, <0.0001. Conclusion. Community-specific BMI cutoffs are necessary to assess obesity in different ethnic groups, and relying on WHO-based universal BMI cutoff points would be a wrong strategy.

  15. Energetics of southeastern Pacific cut-off lows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Manoel Alonso; Piva, Everson Dal

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cut-off lows (COLs) over South Pacific and South America is often associated with adverse weather events such as intense precipitation over the central region of South America, frost episodes in southern Brazil and the development of Andes lee cyclones and intense cyclones over the southern coast of Brazil. Despite this importance, the formation and maintenance mechanisms of the COLs are not well understood. To detail the significant variability in terms of the eddy kinetic energy equation for fifty cases of COLs that formed over the southeastern Pacific Ocean is the aim of this study. Only the cases of COLs that formed over the ocean and remained there during most of their life were chosen. The main terms of the equation [ageostrophic flux convergence (AFC), baroclinic conversion (BRC) and barotropic conversion (BRT)] were calculated using the 6-hourly gridded data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Department of Energy reanalysis. The formation mechanism of the COLs was associated with BRC and AFC. During the midlife period, the BRC term converted eddy kinetic energy to eddy potential energy and the AFC had a positive contribution until 6 h after the midlife point. In the dissipation phase, the BRC term remained positive and AFC became negative. The BRT extracted kinetic energy from the COL during the entire life cycle. The AFC term was the most important in all phases of the cut-off lifetime, and it was the responsible for extending the cut-off lifetime while the others terms were negatives.

  16. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee...... on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  17. Probing (macro)molecular transport through cell walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcher, Giona; Delneri, Daniela; Duckham, Craig; Tirelli, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    We here report a study on the passive permeability of hydrophobic probes through the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study we have prepared a series of fluorescent probes with similar chemical composition and molecular weight ranging from a few hundreds to a few thousands of g mol(-1). Their permeation into the cell body exhibits a clear MW cut-off and the underlying mechanism is governed by the permeation of individual molecules rather than aggregates. We also show that it is possible to reversibly alter the cell wall permeation properties without compromising the essence of its structure, by modifying the polarity/dielectric constant of the wall through solvent exchange.

  18. Cut-off nonlinearities in the low-temperature vibrations of glasses and crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, Hideyuki; Silbert, Leonardo E.; Sperl, Matthias; Mossa, Stefano; Barrat, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    We present a computer simulation study of glassy and crystalline states using the standard Lennard-Jones interaction potential that is truncated at a finite cut-off distance, as is typical of many computer simulations. We demonstrate that the discontinuity at the cut-off distance in the first derivative of the potential (corresponding to the interparticle force) leads to the appearance of cut-off nonlinearities. These cut-off nonlinearities persist into the very-low-temperature regime thereby...

  19. Determining Cut-Off Points for the Dental Fear Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maurício Antônio; Bendo, Cristiane Baccin; Paiva, Saul Martins; Vale, Miriam Pimenta; Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria

    2015-01-01

    To determine a high fear cut-off point score for the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) using a single-item self-report questionnaire. The DFS, a 20-item questionnaire assessing fear of dental treatment, was completed by 1,256 participants with a mean age of 22.3 years (SD = 5.1). Another self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on previous dental experiences. A high fear cut-off point score was determined by calculating the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the DFS. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression were calculated; a significance level of p sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 92.5%. Most participants (n = 895; 71.5%) reported no fear of going to the dentist. There was significant association between DFS score and fear assessed with the question "Are you fearful of going to the dentist?" (p sensitivity and specificity and can be used to predict high dental fear.

  20. Quantum Information and Gravity Cutoff in Theories with Species

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that lowering of the gravitational cutoff relative to the Planck mass, imposed by black hole physics in theories with N species, has an independent justification from quantum information theory. First, this scale marks the limiting capacity of any information processor. Secondly, by taking into the account the limitations of the quantum information storage in any system with species, the bound on the gravity cutoff becomes equivalent to the holographic bound, and this equivalence automatically implies the equality of entanglement and Bekenstein-Hawking entropies. Next, the same bound follows from quantum cloning theorem. Finally, we point out that by identifying the UV and IR threshold scales of the black hole quasi-classicality in four-dimensional field and high-dimensional gravity theories, the bound translates as the correspondence between the two theories. In case when the high-dimensional background is AdS, this reproduces the well-known AdS/CFT relation, but also suggests a generalization of the...

  1. Congenital hypothyroidism screening and the cutoff for thyrotropin measurement: recommendations from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, P. H.; Buitendijk, S. E.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: There is little agreement as to the optimal cutoff point for thyrotropin testing in primary thyroxine screening programs for congenital hypothyroidism. Most programs in the United States use a cutoff point of 10% of the lowest thyroxine values, whereas in the Netherlands a cutoff point

  2. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  3. Bremsstrahlung analysis through the microwave cutoff and afterglow performances

    CERN Document Server

    Lamoureux, M P; Niimura, M; Kidera, M; Nakagawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Bremsstralung spectra with a very good energy resolution have been obtained for various time slabs of a few ms throughout the microwave cutoff. In a recent work (1) we had noticed+ and explained why the enhancement of the extracted high charge currents by the afterglow effect is more pronounced when the X-ray emission in the heating stage is more intense. In the present communication, we give some additional information deduced from our spectra. We indicate estimates of the temperature parameter and of the density of the hot electron population at various times. For this purpose the method presented in ref.(3) was adapted to argon. We also determine the maximum energy reached by the electrons in the steady state; the spare results seem to follow the scaling law indicated in Geller's book (4).

  4. Scope and verification of a Fissile Material (Cutoff) Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hippel, Frank N.

    2014-05-01

    A Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT) would ban the production of fissile material - in practice highly-enriched uranium and separated plutonium - for weapons. It has been supported by strong majorities in the United Nations. After it comes into force, newly produced fissile materials could only be produced under international - most likely International Atomic Energy Agency - monitoring. Many non-weapon states argue that the treaty should also place under safeguards pre-existing stocks of fissile material in civilian use or declared excess for weapons so as to make nuclear-weapons reductions irreversible. This paper discusses the scope of the FMCT, the ability to detect clandestine production and verification challenges in the nuclear-weapons states.

  5. Physical and cut-off effects of heavy sea quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Leder, Björn; Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a theory with two dynamical O($a$) improved Wilson quarks whose mass $M$ ranges from a factor eight up to a factor two below the charm quark mass and at three values of the lattice spacing ranging from 0.066 to 0.034 fm. This theory is a prototype to study the decoupling of heavy quarks. We measure the mass and cut-off dependence of ratios of gluonic observables defined from the Wilson flow or the static potential. The size of the 1/$M$ corrections can be determined and disentangled from the lattice artifacts. The difference with the pure gauge theory is at the percent level when two quarks with a mass of the charm quark are present.

  6. Separation-survivability--the elusive moral cut-off point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roubaix, J A M; van Niekerk, A A

    2006-07-01

    Act 92 of 1996, the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy Act, seeks to promote female autonomy. The Act makes no reference to the nature of the abortus--implying its moral insignificance. Utilitarian arguments on the value of life strongly support this position. Utilitarians argue that neither belonging to the human species, nor possession of the potential to develop into a person, is a significant intrinsic characteristic in determining the value of life. For them the entrance requirement to any conception of moral significance is sentience--the ability to suffer. Full moral significance is only accorded to 'persons'. A person is someone who has attained a sufficient level of self-awareness to have an interest in the continuance of its existence. This develops some time after birth. 'Conservatives' argue for conception as the moral cut-off point after which termination is morally unacceptable; 'liberals' hold that there is no such prenatal point. Both of these notions are problematic, as is the notion of sentience. We argue that separation-survivability is the only morally acceptable cut-off point, based on four premises, viz. (i) a particular notion of potentiality; (ii) the inextricable, mutual relationship between human beings and their world (without either, the other cannot exist); (iii) the moral correspondence of the viable fetus and the neonate; and (iv) the moral unacceptability of infanticide. We support a graded position on the value of prenatal human life, and a 'moderate' stance on termination--that notwithstanding possessing some moral significance, other arguments may trump this up to the point of separation-survivability. This seriously problematises 'partial birth' abortion, and the utilitarian argument on the value of life.

  7. Reproducibility of the cutoff probe for the measurement of electron density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J. H.; You, K. H.; Seo, B. H.; Kim, J. H., E-mail: jhkim86@kriss.re.kr [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.-S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan 573-540 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Since a plasma processing control based on plasma diagnostics attracted considerable attention in industry, the reproducibility of the diagnostics using in this application has become a great interest. Because the cutoff probe is one of the potential candidates for this application, knowing the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement becomes quit important in the cutoff probe application research. To test the reproducibility of the cutoff probe measurement, in this paper, a comparative study among the different cutoff probe measurements was performed. The comparative study revealed remarkable result: the cutoff probe has a great reproducibility for the electron density measurement, i.e., there are little differences among measurements by different probes made by different experimenters. The discussion including the reason for the result was addressed via this paper by using a basic measurement principle of cutoff probe and a comparative experiment with Langmuir probe.

  8. A case of self-perturbation: channel responses to meander cutoffs in the Ucayali River, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, Jonathan; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-04-01

    In 1997, the most drastic change in the course of the Ucayali River in over 200 years took place with the cutoff of a human-induced, 72 km triple-lobed meander bend near Pucallpa, Peru. The cutoff's anthropogenic origins are attributed to local ribereños, who decades earlier in an effort to reduce canoe travel time carved a meter deep by 2 m wide shortcut channel across the neck of the bend. The river responded dramatically in the following years, undergoing accelerated migration and channel widening both up- and downstream of the cutoff that led to the eventual cutoff of four additional cutoffs (three downstream and one upstream). In this study, we quantify Ucayali's response to this major cutoff event as well as twelve additional cutoffs occurring since 1992 through the analysis of annual, bankfull-resolving, Landsat-derived channel masks. Cutoff-induced accelerated morphodynamics occurred downstream of all 13 cutoffs, with 11/13 cutoffs spurring accelerated migration and 8/13 causing channel widening. We attempt to understand the mechanisms driving the observed nonlocal accelerated morphodynamics by computing the change in length of the river due to cutoff, which is approximately proportional to the slope perturbation, and the volumes of sediment released to the downstream reaches through the excavation of chute channels. By tracking planform changes of individual meander bends near cutoffs, we find that the downstream distance of cutoff influence scales linearly with the length of the removed reach. Our findings highlight the understated role of cutoff perturbations as drivers of nonlocal morphologic change and provide insight toward improved predictions of channel responses.

  9. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne O.; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    In order to lower the cognitive burden of decision making, consumers may apply attribute cut-off values to simplify decision strategies. Products with attributes that do not pass the cut-off values are either not being considered by the individual or are greatly discounted. This study provides new...... respondents’ attribute cut-off values and their validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit attribute cut-off values and are less likely to violate their cut-off values. Further investigation using...... evidence on consumers’ heterogeneous use of attribute cut-offs with a unique focus on the relationship with consumer involvement, a key component in consumer choice theory. Behavioral data from an online choice experiment on beef steak employing shelf simulations are combined with questions defining...

  10. Pion Form Factor in Chiral Limit of Hard-Wall AdS/QCD Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anatoly Radyushkin; Hovhannes Grigoryan

    2007-12-01

    We develop a formalism to calculate form factor and charge density distribution of pion in the chiral limit using the holographic dual model of QCD with hard-wall cutoff. We introduce two conjugate pion wave functions and present analytic expressions for these functions and for the pion form factor. They allow to relate such observables as the pion decay constant and the pion charge electric radius to the values of chiral condensate and hard-wall cutoff scale. The evolution of the pion form factor to large values of the momentum transfer is discussed, and results are compared to existing experimental data.

  11. Flow, Morphology and Sedimentology of an Evolving Chute Cutoff on the Wabash River, IL-in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinger, J. A.; Best, J.; Rhoads, B. L.; Larson, T. H.

    2014-12-01

    The development of chute cutoffs and the resulting abandonment of meander bends have a substantial influence on the sedimentary dynamics of floodplains. The incision of a chute cutoff channel can rapidly mobilize a large volume of floodplain sediment. On the other hand, bar formation during bend abandonment and the subsequent deposition of sediment within the oxbow lake are key processes in the production of a heterogeneous floodplain sedimentary architecture. This paper describes the evolution of two recent chute cutoffs on the Wabash River, IL-IN. We follow these cutoffs from their initial incision in 2008-2009 through the early stages of bend abandonment. The volume of floodplain sediment mobilized by erosion of the two cutoff channels is estimated using channel bankline positions determined from RTK-GPS surveys and aerial orthophotographs; this flux is then assessed within the context of the sediment mobilized by lateral migration of bends. Repeat bathymetric surveys and aerial photography capture the evolution of bar forms associated with the chute cutoff, and data from ground-penetrating radar reveal the subsurface structure of the complex assemblage of bars that developed as the chute cutoff system shifted from a predominantly erosional to a mixed depositional-erosional phase. These results are combined with knowledge of chute cutoff hydrodynamics to develop an understanding of the dynamics of sediment exchange between river channels and floodplains at evolving meander bend cutoffs.

  12. Validity of newly-developed BMI and waist cut-off values for Sri Lankan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, V P; Arambepola, C; Bandara, D M P S; Abeysekera, M; Kuruppu, S; Dilshan, P; Dissanayake, B S

    2013-05-01

    Excess body fat leads to obesity-related morbidity and population/ethnicity-specific cut-off values of anthropometric measures are useful for better diagnosis. This study assesses the suitability of newly-developed Sri Lankan anthropometric cut-off values in the diagnosis of obesity in Sri Lankan children. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Colombo, Sri Lanka involving 5-15 year old children. Height, weight, waist (WC), and hip (HC) circumferences were measured. Total body fat (FM) was measured using whole body BIA. WHR and WHtR were calculated. Validity of anthropometric measures in detecting childhood obesity (Sri Lankan BMI/WC; IOTF, WHO, British and CDC BMI and British WC cut-off values) were evaluated. Nine hundred and twenty children were assessed. FM showed significant associations with BMI (r = 0.92, p cut-off values under-estimated obesity. Sri Lankan WC and BMI cut-off values over-estimated obesity. International BMI based cut-off values had high specificity (>99%) but a low sensitivity (∼12-33%), while Sri Lankan BMI cut-off values had high sensitivity (>93.1) but low specificity (>79.7). Internationally available BMI cut-off values are poor in diagnosing obesity in Sri Lankan children. Newly developed Sri Lankan BMI cut-off values for children improved the diagnosis. WC can be used successfully as an alternative diagnostic tool of obesity.

  13. Flow Structure and Channel Change in a Chute Cutoff along a Large Meandering River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, B. L.; Best, J.; Johnson, K.; Engel, F. L.

    2009-12-01

    Meander cutoffs, which develop when flow cuts across the narrow neck of a bend, are common features along actively migrating meandering rivers. Despite the importance of cutoffs in the dynamics of river meandering and floodplain sedimentation, few, if any, studies have documented in detail the fluvial processes involved in the development of a meander cutoff. This paper examines the morphodynamics of a chute cutoff along the Wabash River, Illinois-Indiana, immediately following initiation of the cutoff. The original cutoff channel formed across the neck of Mackey Bend, a meander loop immediately upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River, during a major flood in June 2008. The formation of the cutoff channel likely involved migration of a headcut from the downstream side to the upstream side of the meander neck along the path of a floodplain slough. A key focus of the investigation has been to document flow structure at the upstream and downstream ends of the cutoff channel so that patterns of flow can be related to morphological change. Three separate measurement campaigns using an acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) and single-beam echosounder were conducted between January and May 2009 to determine 3D flow structure and bed morphology during events with different discharges and flow stages. In addition, channel dimensions were surveyed using a dGPS system in September 2008 and in August 2009. Results indicate that the cutoff channel has widened dramatically over a one-year period, increasing its width by as much as 100 percent. Curvature of flow into the entrance of the cutoff channel from the Wabash River generates strong helical motion that advects momentum toward the outer bank, resulting in high velocities near the bank toe and ongoing bank retreat through slab failures. This flow pattern, accentuated by dramatic widening of the cutoff channel, has resulted in deposition along the inner bank and development of a large bar platform at this location

  14. Cut-off frequencies of circumferential horizontal shear waves in various functionally graded cylinder shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqin; Ren, Dawei; Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ji

    2017-11-06

    In this study, cut-off frequencies of the circumferential SH waves in functionally graded piezoelectric-piezomagnetic material (FGPPM) cylinder shells with traction free, electrical and magnetic open boundary conditions are investigated analytically. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method is employed for solving differential equations with variable coefficients for general cases. For comparison, Bessel functions and Kummer functions are used for solving cut-off frequency problems in homogenous and ideal FGPPM cylinder shells. It is shown that the WKB solution for the cut-off frequencies has good precise. The set of cut-off frequencies is a series of approximate arithmetic progressions, for which the difference is a function of the density and the effective elastic parameter. The relationship between the difference and the gradient coefficient is described. These results provide theoretical guidance for the non-destructive evaluation of curved shells based on the cut-off frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Approach to Establishing an Aldosterone: Renin Ratio Cutoff for Primary Aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander A; Orton, Dennis J; Chin, Alex; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Kline, Gregory A

    2017-03-01

    Direct renin concentration is replacing plasma renin activity in many laboratories for the investigation of primary aldosteronism, which may have a significant impact on the resulting aldosterone:renin ratios. We sought to develop a population-based approach to establishing an aldosterone:renin ratio cutoff when transitioning between assays. A population-based study was performed in Calgary, Alberta, Canada of 4301 individuals who received testing from January 2012 to November 2015. In 2014, direct renin concentration replaced plasma renin activity in routine testing. We described the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in our population before the change and, using the assumption of disease prevalence stability, determined the corresponding ratio cutoffs after the introduction of the new assay. During the initial portion of the study (using plasma renin activity), 4.9% of those screened were classified as highly probable cases, whereas 10.4% were considered probable and 28.9% possible using locally validated cutoffs. Aldosterone:renin ratio cutoffs were then determined for the direct renin concentration assay. A highly probable case of primary aldosteronism corresponded to a cutoff of >100 pmol L(-1) mIU(-1) L(-1) with hypokalemia. A probable case corresponded to a cutoff of >100 and a possible case to >35 pmol L(-1) mIU(-1) L(-1) In contrast, cutoffs derived using a conversion factor resulted in significantly higher cutoffs and the potential for missed cases. In conclusion, using large population data, historically consistent aldosterone:renin ratio cutoffs can be established when transitioning between assays. Population-derived cutoffs may be more appropriate for clinical use and less likely to result in false-negative classification than those obtained from conventional direct method comparisons. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Charged Domain Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Campanelli, L.; Cea, P.; Fogli, G. L.; Tedesco, L.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate Charged Domain Walls (CDW's), topological defects that acquire surface charge density $Q$ induced by fermion states localized on the walls. The presence of an electric and magnetic field on the walls is also discussed. We find a relation in which the value of the surface charge density $Q$ is connected with the existence of such topological defects.

  17. Are lower TSH cutoffs in neonatal screening for congenital hypothyroidism warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lain, Samantha; Trumpff, Caroline; Grosse, Scott D; Olivieri, Antonella; Van Vliet, Guy

    2017-11-01

    When newborn screening (NBS) for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) using thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as a primary screening test was introduced, typical TSH screening cutoffs were 20-50 U/L of whole blood. Over the years, lowering of TSH cutoffs has contributed to an increased prevalence of detected CH. However, a consensus on the benefit deriving from lowering TSH cutoffs at screening is lacking. The present paper outlines arguments both for and against the lowering of TSH cutoffs at NBS. It includes a review of recently published evidence from Australia, Belgium and Italy. A section focused on economic implications of lowering TSH cutoffs is also provided. One issue that bears further examination is the extent to which mild iodine deficiency at the population level might affect the association of neonatal TSH values with cognitive and developmental outcomes. A debate on TSH cutoffs provides the opportunity to reflect on how to make NBS for CH more effective and to guarantee optimum neurocognitive development and a good quality of life to babies with mild as well as with severe CH. All authors of this debate article agree on the need to establish optimal TSH cutoffs for screening programs in various settings and to ensure the benefits of screening and access to care for newborns worldwide. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. The Optimal Cut-Off Value of Blood Stasis Syndrome Score in BSS Diagnosis in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Kab Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In the traditional oriental medicine, it is sometimes difficult to diagnose Blood Stasis Syndrome (BSS in patients, because the diagnosis of BSS is based on the subjective signs and symptoms of patients. This study is aimed at developing the prediction tool of BSS using cut-off value for BSS score. The identification of a cut-off value for BSS score to diagnose BSS would be helpful. Methods. A total of 887 patients admitted to six traditional Korean medical hospitals in 2013 and three hospitals in 2014. All patients have an identical pattern as a result of diagnostic decision of two experts. The cut-off value for BSS score for BSS diagnosis was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Results. The area under the curve of this curve was 0.897. The optimal cut-off point for detection of BSS was 49.0. The sensitivity and specificity of this cut-off value were 80.8% and 83.2% in modelling data (2013 dataset and 84.6% and 83.1% in validation data (2014 dataset, respectively. Conclusion. Our study suggests that a BSS score cut-off value of 49.0 can be used to detect BSS in the traditional Korean medical hospitals. This cut-off value for diagnosis of BSS will make up the lack of objectivity.

  19. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  20. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five...

  1. Body Mass Index and Obesity : Tailoring "cut-off" for an Asian Indian Male Population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, S P; Sikri, G; Garg, M K

    2008-01-01

    ... (Body Mass Index- BMI), a surrogate measure of fatness. The currently used BMI cut-offs to classify people as overweight or obese in Armed Forces have been defined in studies on Caucasian populations...

  2. Likelihood ratios of multiple cutoff points of the Taipei City Developmental Checklist for Preschoolers, 2nd version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Fang Liao

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Taipei II with multiple cutoff points could give more useful clinical information than using a single cutoff point. The multiple likelihood ratios of Taipei II for children older than 3 years and in different cultural backgrounds need further study.

  3. Green walls in Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, R. [Sharp and Diamond Landscape Architecture Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    With the renewed interest in design for microclimate control and energy conservation, many cities are implementing clean air initiatives and sustainable planning policies to mitigate the effects of urban climate and the urban heat island effect. Green roofs, sky courts and green walls must be thoughtfully designed to withstand severe conditions such as moisture stress, extremes in temperature, tropical storms and strong desiccating winds. This paper focused on the installation of green wall systems. There are 2 general types of green walls systems, namely facade greening and living walls. Green facades are trellis systems where climbing plants can grow vertically without attaching to the surface of the building. Living walls are part of a building envelope system where plants are actually planted and grown in a wall system. A modular G-SKY Green Wall Panel was installed at the Aquaquest Learning Centre at the Vancouver Aquarium in Stanley Park in September 2006. This green wall panel, which was originally developed in Japan, incorporates many innovative features in the building envelope. It provides an exterior wall covered with 8 species of plants native to the Coastal Temperate Rain Forest. The living wall is irrigated by rainwater collected from the roof, stored in an underground cistern and fed through a drip irrigation system. From a habitat perspective, the building imitates an escarpment. Installation, support systems, irrigation, replacement of modules and maintenance are included in the complete wall system. Living walls reduce the surface temperature of buildings by as much as 10 degrees C when covered with vegetation and a growing medium. The project team is anticipating LEED gold certification under the United States-Canada Green Building Council. It was concluded that this technology of vegetated building envelopes is applicable for acoustical control at airports, biofiltration of indoor air, greywater treatment, and urban agriculture and vertical

  4. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelin, J David; Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N; Bernstein, Diana N

    2017-02-07

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff.

  5. [Identification of cutoff points for Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance index in adolescents: systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maria Izabel Siqueira de; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Lima, Niedja Maria da Silva; Costa, Emília Chagas; Aquino, Nathalia Barbosa de; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral de

    2016-06-01

    To identify cutoff points of the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index established for adolescents and discuss their applicability for the diagnosis of insulin resistance in Brazilian adolescents. A systematic review was performed in the PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO databases, using the following descriptors: "Adolescents", "insulin resistance" and "ROC curve". Original articles carried out with adolescents published between 2005 and 2015 in Portuguese, English or Spanish languages, which included the statistical analysis using ROC curve to determine the index cutoff (HOMA-IR) were included. A total of 184 articles were identified and after the study phases were applied, seven articles were selected for the review. All selected studies established their cutoffs using a ROC curve, with the lowest observed cutoff of 1.65 for girls and 1.95 for boys and the highest of 3.82 for girls and 5.22 for boys. Of the studies analyzed, one proposed external validity, recommending the use of the HOMA-IR cutoff >2.5 for both genders. The HOMA-IR index constitutes a reliable method for the detection of insulin resistance in adolescents, as long as it uses cutoffs that are more adequate for the reality of the study population, allowing early diagnosis of insulin resistance and enabling multidisciplinary interventions aiming at health promotion of this population. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Global warming precipitation accumulation increases above the current-climate cutoff scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahany, Sandeep; Stechmann, Samuel N.; Bernstein, Diana N.

    2017-01-01

    Precipitation accumulations, integrated over rainfall events, can be affected by both intensity and duration of the storm event. Thus, although precipitation intensity is widely projected to increase under global warming, a clear framework for predicting accumulation changes has been lacking, despite the importance of accumulations for societal impacts. Theory for changes in the probability density function (pdf) of precipitation accumulations is presented with an evaluation of these changes in global climate model simulations. We show that a simple set of conditions implies roughly exponential increases in the frequency of the very largest accumulations above a physical cutoff scale, increasing with event size. The pdf exhibits an approximately power-law range where probability density drops slowly with each order of magnitude size increase, up to a cutoff at large accumulations that limits the largest events experienced in current climate. The theory predicts that the cutoff scale, controlled by the interplay of moisture convergence variance and precipitation loss, tends to increase under global warming. Thus, precisely the large accumulations above the cutoff that are currently rare will exhibit increases in the warmer climate as this cutoff is extended. This indeed occurs in the full climate model, with a 3 °C end-of-century global-average warming yielding regional increases of hundreds of percent to >1,000% in the probability density of the largest accumulations that have historical precedents. The probabilities of unprecedented accumulations are also consistent with the extension of the cutoff. PMID:28115693

  7. A single error is one too many: Examining alternative cutoffs on Trial 2 of the TOMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdodi, Laszlo A; Rai, Jaspreet K

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of alternative, more liberal cutoffs on Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) to improve classification accuracy relative to the standard cutoffs (≤44). The sample consisted of 152 patients (49.3% male) with psychiatric conditions (PSY) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) referred for neuropsychological assessment in a medico-legal setting (M Age = 44.4, M Education = 11.9 years). Classification accuracy for various TOMM Trial 2 cutoffs was computed against three criterion measures. Patients with TBI failed TOMM Trial 2 cutoffs at higher rates than patients with PSY. Trial 2 ≤49 achieved acceptable combinations of sensitivity (0.38-0.67) and specificity (0.89-0.96) in all but one comparison group. Trial 2 ≤48 improved specificity (0.94-0.98) with minimal loss in sensitivity. The standard cutoff (≤44) disproportionally traded sensitivity (0.15-0.50) for specificity (0.96-1.00). One error on TOMM Trial 2 constitutes sufficient evidence to question the credibility of a response set. However, the confidence in classifying a score as invalid continues to increase with each additional error. Even at the most liberal conceivable cutoff (≤49), the TOMM detected only about half of the patients who failed other criterion measures. Therefore, it should never be used in isolation to determine performance validity.

  8. Determination of new anthropometric cut-off values for obesity screening in Indonesian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, Janatin; Kagawa, Masaharu; Byrne, Nuala M; Hills, Andrew P

    Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) have increasingly been used as screening tools for obesity. However, optimal cut-off values may be different between populations. The current study determined the optimum cut-off values for BMI, WC, WHR, and WSR for obesity screening in Indonesian adults using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Stature, body weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured on 600 Indonesians aged 18-65 years (males, n=292; females, n=308) and BMI, WHR, and WSR calculated. Percentage of body fat (%BF) was determined using the deuterium isotope (D2O) dilution technique. Some existing cut-off points for obesity determination were evaluated for sensitivity and specificity. The existing cutoff values showed low sensitivity in our sample (between 18.4 and 71.1%) and new proposed cut-offs increased the sensitivity to reach 66.7 to 88.5%. The new cut-offs for BMI, WC, WHR, and WSR for determination of obesity were 21.9 (kg/m2), 76.8 (cm), 0.86, and 0.48, respectively, for males and 23.6 (kg/m2), 71.7 (cm), 0.77, and 0.47, respectively, for females. WC and WSR are the most predictive both for males and females, and therefore are considered as better screening tools for obesity in this population.

  9. A New Wide Band Wall Current Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Odier, P

    2003-01-01

    Wall current monitors (WCM) are commonly used to observe the time profile of particle beams. In CTF3, a test facility for the CERN Linear Collider study CLIC, high current electron beams of 1.5 microseconds pulse length are bunched at 3 GHz and accelerated in a Linac working in fully loaded mode, for which a detailed knowledge of the time structure along the pulse is mandatory. The WCM design is based on an earlier version developed for CTF2, a previous phase of the test facility, in which the beam duration was only 16 ns. Due to the longer pulse width the low frequency cut-off must be lowered to 10 KHz while the high frequency cut-off must remain at 10 GHz. The new WCM therefore has two outputs: a direct one for which an increase of the inductance results in a 10 GHz to 250 kHz bandwidth while the second one, using an active integrator compensating the residual droop, provides a 10 kHz to 300 MHz bandwidth. The new WCM has been installed in CTF2 late 2002 in order to test its high frequency capabilities prio...

  10. Prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific antigen density cutoff points among Indonesian population suspected for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Anies Shahab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: PSA and PSAD cutoff point for Indonesian men in this series is relatively different from international consensus. Furthermore, these data show that PSA and PSAD cutoff point must be adjusted to racial variation to discriminate between malignant and benign disease. Urinary retention is a significant factor for PSA cutoff increase.

  11. Supersymmetric domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Riccioni, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    We classify the half-supersymmetric "domain walls," i.e., branes of codimension one, in toroidally compactified IIA/IIB string theory and show to which gauged supergravity theory each of these domain walls belong. We use as input the requirement of supersymmetric Wess-Zumino terms, the properties of

  12. Thin Wall Iron Castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Cuttino; D.M. Stefanescu; T.S. Piwonka

    2001-10-31

    Results of an investigation made to develop methods of making iron castings having wall thicknesses as small as 2.5 mm in green sand molds are presented. It was found that thin wall ductile and compacted graphite iron castings can be made and have properties consistent with heavier castings. Green sand molding variables that affect casting dimensions were also identified.

  13. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...

  14. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  15. Solar Walls in tsbi3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  16. Attenuation in Rectangular Waveguides with Finite Conductivity Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Yeong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a fundamental and accurate approach to compute the attenuation of electromagnetic waves propagating in rectangular waveguides with finite conductivity walls. The wavenumbers kx and ky in the x and y directions respectively, are obtained as roots of a set of transcendental equations derived by matching the tangential component of the electric field (E and the magnetic field (H at the surface of the waveguide walls. The electrical properties of the wall material are determined by the complex permittivity ε, permeability μ, and conductivity σ. We have examined the validity of our model by carrying out measurements on the loss arising from the fundamental TE10 mode near the cutoff frequency. We also found good agreement between our results and those obtained by others including Papadopoulos’ perturbation method across a wide range of frequencies, in particular in the vicinity of cutoff. In the presence of degenerate modes however, our method gives higher losses, which we attribute to the coupling between modes as a result of dispersion.

  17. An SNM Cutoff regime and the Treaty on Open Skies Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.B.

    1995-07-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies has very specific requirements as a confidence building measure, but it could also serve as a component of an SNM Cutoff monitoring strategy. The participants to the Treaty are European countries, the United States, and Canada and would have to be extended to include other than the present signatories if it were to be used in a worldwide SNM verification Cutoff role. The major nuclear powers with the exception of China are signatories to the Treaty and the inclusion of other member states will only be considered once entry into force has started. The technology and data sharing provisions of the Treaty have defined the airborne sensor performance specifications. Therefore, the Treaty allowed sensor technology may not be adequate for the purposes of monitoring an SNM Cutoff regime. New sensors and sensor performance levels to adequately monitor an SNM Cutoff regime may be proposed only after entry into force of the Treaty on Open Skies. The utility of an aerial inspection component to the monitoring strategy for an SNM Cutoff regime would best be evaluated with field trials using realistic scenarios. This would allow the testing of synergism among other components of an overall monitoring strategy and would lend insight into the appropriate sensor technology to be recommended for future implementation.

  18. An improved cutoff rigidity model based on a modification of the Tyganenko 1989 magnetospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Don

    The Tyganenko (Planet. Space Sci., 37, 5-20, 1989) magnetospheric model is convenient to use and requires less computer recourses for the computation of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity models than the more sophisticated magnetospheric models. Its use by Smart et al. (Adv. Space Res., 37, 1206-1217, 2006) resulted in a useful set of world grids of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity values indexed by Kp and UT. Recent evaluation of these cutoff rigidity values by Rodgers et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 111, A04222, 2006) shows that for Kp values larger than 5, the equatorward latitude displacements of the cutoff rigidity contours were overestimated. A comparison of the Dst and Kp indices for the data interval used to construct the Tyganenko 1989 magnetospheric model shows that Dst increments of -50 nT are a good approximation of the effective Kp increment beyond the Kp 5 value. We present an improved set of cutoff rigidity world grids indexed by Kp and UT that are a better fit to the Rodgers et al. (2006) data than the original values by Smart et al. (2006).

  19. Identifying HAM-A cutoffs for mild, moderate, and severe generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matza, Louis S; Morlock, Robert; Sexton, Chris; Malley, Karen; Feltner, Douglas

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify and evaluate cutoffs for mild, moderate, and severe ranges of Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores. Data were from a four-week randomized trial of treatment for generalized anxiety disorder. Measures included the HAM-A, SF-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Clinical Global Impressions of Severity (CGI-S) scale. HAM-A cutoffs were identified based on literature review, expert panel input, and MANOVA models. The optimal cutoff set was evaluated based on association with clinician CGI-S ratings. The sample included 144 patients (56.3% female; 73.6% white; mean age = 35.7 years; mean baseline HAM-A score = 23.7). The optimal HAM-A score ranges were: mild anxiety = 8-14; moderate = 15-23; severe ≥ 24 (scores ≤ 7 were considered to represent no/minimal anxiety). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models found statistically significant differences among these groups in the SF-36 and HADS. The HAM-A severity ranges closely corresponded to clinicians' CGI-S ratings. The study represents the first step towards developing severity ranges for the HAM-A. These cutoffs should be used with caution and validated in larger samples. If the proposed cutoffs are accepted for general use, they could make results more meaningful and interpretable for researchers, clinicians, and patients. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Analysis of cutoff frequency in one dimensional ternary superconducting photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. P., Sreejith; Maria D'souza, Nirmala; Mathew, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    By means of two fluid model and transfer matrix method, we have theoretically investigated the transmittance property of a one dimensional ternary photonic crystal consist of a pair of superconducting materials and a dielectric in the infrared frequency region. We mainly focus on the analysis of cutoff frequency since the calculations can be useful in the fabrication of optical devices such as reflector, high pass filter etc. The study reveals that the cutoff frequency is sensitive to thickness of superconducting materials, dielectric layer thickness, operating temperature and refractive index of intermediate dielectric. Cutoff frequency shifted to higher frequency region on increasing number of periods and superconductor layer thickness where as it reduces on increasing dielectric thickness, operating temperature and refractive index of intermediate dielectric. Furthermore, we compared the cutoff frequency of three different 1D ternary photonic crystals comprising of a dielectric and a pair of high-high, high-low and low-low temperature superconducting materials. Our comparison results shows that the cutoff frequency can be effectively modified with different combination of superconducting materials.

  1. Waist perimeter cutoff points and prediction of metabolic syndrome risk. A study in a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ana Lucia; Munguía-Miranda, Catarina; Ramos-Ponce, David; Hernandez-Saavedra, Daniel; Kumate, Jesus; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    Association between metabolic syndrome (MS) risk factors was analyzed to establish optimum waist perimeter (WP) cutoff points for a Latin American cluster. There were 1036 clinically healthy Mexican subjects without a history of CVD. Their full medical history and anthropometric and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Diagnosis of MS was classified by both the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the American Heart Association (AHA-NHLBI) definitions. The optimum WP cutoff point was defined through one-way ANOVA, homogeneity and chi(2) test of dependency, and receiver operator characteristic analysis (ROC). WP cutoff points suggested by the IDF (> or =90 cm in men, > or =80 cm in women) and AHA-NHLBI (> or =102 cm in men, > or =88 cm in women) showed a weak association with the other MS risk factors. By using the cutoff point of > or =98 cm for men and > or =84 cm for women, we obtained maximum sensitivity and specificity values by ROC analysis. These cutoff points defined as the Mexican Waist Perimeter Proposal (MxWPP) significantly change the prevalence of MS in contrast with the IDF and AHA-NHLBI. Applying the MxWPP new criteria enhances the capability to more accurately detect subjects with MS risk in an apparent healthy Latin American cluster.

  2. Timber frame walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2010-01-01

    A ventilated cavity is usually considered good practice for removing moisture behind the cladding of timber framed walls. Timber frame walls with no cavity are a logical alternative as they are slimmer and less expensive to produce and besides the risk of a two-sided fire behind the cladding...... is reduced. To investigate the possibilities, full-size wall elements with wooden cladding and different cavity design, type of cladding and type of wind barrier were exposed to natural climate on the outside and to a humid indoor climate on the inside. During the exposure period parts of the vapour barrier...

  3. Calculating broad neutron resonances in a cut-off Woods-Saxon potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, A.; Noszaly, Cs. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Salamon, P. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary); Vertse, T. [Faculty of Informatics, University of Debrecen, PO Box 12, Debrecen (Hungary); Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Institute for Nuclear Research, PO Box 51, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-07-15

    In a cut-off Woods-Saxon (CWS) potential with realistic depth S -matrix poles being far from the imaginary wave number axis form a sequence where the distances of the consecutive resonances are inversely proportional with the cut-off radius value, which is an unphysical parameter. Other poles lying closer to the imaginary wave number axis might have trajectories with irregular shapes as the depth of the potential increases. Poles being close repel each other, and their repulsion is responsible for the changes of the directions of the corresponding trajectories. The repulsion might cause that certain resonances become antibound and later resonances again when they collide on the imaginary axis. The interaction is extremely sensitive to the cut-off radius value, which is an apparent handicap of the CWS potential. (orig.)

  4. Design of non-polarizing cut-off filters based on dielectric-metal-dielectric stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing-Yuan; Luo, Hai-Han; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Liu, Ding-Quan

    2013-08-12

    Cut-off filters are usually operating at oblique incidence and exhibit polarization dependence properties. We propose a simple approach to design cut-off filters with low linear polarization sensitivity (LPS) based on dielectric-metal-dielectric (DMD) stacks. The designing method is derived from the theory of optical film characteristic matrix. The admittance loci of the film are adjusted to achieve similar spectral properties of s- and p-polarized light at oblique incidence. Different film structures are designed non-polarizing at different angles of incidence with the method. The results show that the designing method is efficient for designing non-polarizing cut-off filters, which are widely used in non-polarizing optical system.

  5. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have you: Learn pelvic floor muscle exercises ( Kegel exercises ) Use estrogen cream in your vagina Try ... repair; Urinary incontinence - vaginal wall repair Patient Instructions Kegel exercises - self-care Self catheterization - female Suprapubic catheter ...

  6. Advanced walling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The question addressed by this chapter is: How should advanced walling systems be planned, designed, built, refurbished, and end their useful lives, to classify as smart, sustainable, green or eco-building environments?...

  7. CUTOFF POINT OF THE PHASE ANGLE IN PRE-RADIOTHERAPY CANCER PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Thompson Motta, Rachel; Alves Castanho, Ivany; Guillermo Coca Velarde, Luis

    2015-11-01

    malnutrition is a common complication for cancer patients. The phase angle (PA), direct measurement of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), has been considered a predictor of body cell mass and prognostic indicator. Cutoff points for phase angle (PA) associated with nutritional risk in cancer patients have not been determined yet. assess the possibility of determining the cutoff point for PA to identify nutritional risk in pre-radiotherapy cancer patients. sample group: Patients from both genders diagnosed with cancer and sent for ambulatory radiotherapy. body mass index (BMI), percentage of weight loss (% WL), mid-arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), mid-arm muscle area (MAMA), score and categorical assessment obtained using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) form, PA and standardized phase angle (SPA). Kappa coefficient was used to test the degree of agreement between the diagnoses of nutritional risk obtained from several different methods of nutritional assessment. Cutoff points for the PA through anthropometric indicators and PG-SGA were determined by using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves, and patient survival was analyzed with the Cox regression method. the cutoff points with the greatest discriminatory power were those obtained from BMI (5.2) and the categorical assessment of PG-SGA (5.4). The diagnosis obtained using these cutoff points showed a significant association with risk of death for the patients in the sample group. we recommend using the cutoff point 5.2 for the PA as a criterion for identifying nutritional risk in pre-radiotherapy cancer patients. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Methodological issues in the design of a rheumatoid arthritis activity score and its cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be evaluated using several scoring scales based on clinical features. The most widely used one is the Disease Activity Score involving 28 joint counts (DAS28) for which cut-offs were proposed to help physicians classify patients. However, inaccurate scoring can lead to inappropriate medical decisions. In this article some methodological issues in the design of such a score and its cut-offs are highlighted in order to further propose a strategy to overcome them. As long as the issues reviewed in this article are not addressed, results of studies based on standard disease activity scores such as DAS28 should be considered with caution.

  9. BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION MODEL WITH ZETAc OPTIMAL CUT-OFF SCORE TO CORRECT TYPE I ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Iwan

    2005-06-01

    This research has successfully attained the following results: (1 type I error is in fact 59,83 times more costly compared to type II error, (2 22 ratios distinguish between bankrupt and non-bankrupt groups, (3 2 financial ratios proved to be effective in predicting bankruptcy, (4 prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score predicts more companies filing for bankruptcy within one year compared to prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score, (5 Although prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score is more accurate, prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score proved to be able to minimize cost incurred from classification errors.

  10. Cutoff-mesa isolated rib optical waveguide for III-V heterostructure photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vawter, G.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1998-04-28

    A cutoff mesa rib waveguide provides single-mode performance regardless of any deep etches that might be used for electrical isolation between integrated electrooptic devices. Utilizing a principle of a cutoff slab waveguide with an asymmetrical refractive index profile, single mode operation is achievable with a wide range of rib widths and does not require demanding etch depth tolerances. This new waveguide design eliminates reflection effects, or self-interference, commonly seen when conventional rib waveguides are combined with deep isolation etches and thereby reduces high order mode propagation and crosstalk compared to the conventional rib waveguides. 7 figs.

  11. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown...... inhibited by the magnetic propeller effect. The power-law cutoff energy is set by the degree of Compton cooling of the RIAF electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star atmosphere. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen~X-4's...

  12. Compact, low-loss, fused biconical taper couplers: overcoupled operation and antisymmetric supermode cutoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau, F; Hill, K O; Johnson, D C; Faucher, S

    1987-08-01

    The automated manufacture and characterization of compact four-port highly overcoupled fused couplers is reported. During the pulling stage of the manufacturing process, the light power in such devices is observed to cycle back and forth up to 1000 times between the two output ports for elongations smaller than 20 mm. For sufficiently long pulls, antisymmetric supermode cutoff has been observed for the first time to our knowledge, manifested by a sudden cessation of the coupling process. The measured wavelength dependence of the coupling ratio together with the device dimensions are consistent with the observation of cutoff as observed in pull-signature characteristics.

  13. KETERASINGAN DALAM FILM WALL-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadya Putra Nugraha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern society nowadays technological advances at first create efficiency in human life. Further development of the technology thus drown human in a routine and automation of work created. The State is to be one of the causes of man separated from fellow or the outside world and eventually experiencing alienation. The movie as a mass media function to obtain the movie and entertainment can be informative or educative function is contained, even persuasive. The purpose of this research was conducted to find out the alienation in the movie Wall E. The concepts used to analyze the movie Wall E this is communication, movie, and alienation. The concept of alienation of human alienation from covering its own products of human alienation from its activities, the human alienation from nature of his humanity and human alienation from each other. Paradigm used is a critical paradigm with type a descriptive research with qualitative approach. The method used is the analysis of semiotics Roland Barthes to interpretation the scope of social alienation and fellow humans in the movie.This writing research results found that alienation of humans with other humans influenced the development of the technology and how the human it self represented of technology, not from our fellow human beings. Masyarakat modern saat ini kemajuan teknologi pada awalnya membuat efisiensi dalam kehidupan manusia. Perkembangan selanjutnya teknologi justru menenggelamkan manusia dalam suatu rutinitas dan otomatisasi kerja yang diciptakan. Keadaan itulah yang menjadi salah satu penyebab manusia terpisah dari sesama atau dunia luar dan akhirnya mengalami keterasingan. Film sebagai media massa berfungsi untuk memperoleh hiburan dan dalam film dapat terkandung fungsi informatif maupun edukatif, bahkan persuasif. Tujuan Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Keterasingan dalam film Wall E. Konsep-konsep yang digunakan untuk menganalisis film Wall E ini adalah komunikasi, film, dan

  14. A new alternative in vertical barrier wall construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawl, G.F. [Horizontal Technologies Inc., Matlacha, FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A new proprietary vertical barrier wall system has been developed to revolutionize the construction process by eliminating many of the concerns of conventional installation method`s with respect to performance, installation constraints and costs. Vertical barrier walls have been used in the environmental and construction industries for a variety of purposes, usually for cut-off or containment. The typical scenario involves a groundwater contamination problem, in which a vertical barrier wall is utilized to contain or confine the spread of contaminants below the ground surface. Conventional construction techniques have been adequate in many applications, but often fall short of their intended purposes due to physical constraints. In many instances, the economics of these conventional methods have limited the utilization of physical barrier walls. Polywall, the trade name for this new barrier wall technology, was subsequently developed to meet these needs and offer a number of distinct advantages in a variety of scenarios by maximizing confinement and minimizing installation costs. Polywall is constructed from chemically resistant high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic. It has proven in a half-dozen projects to date to be the most cost-effective and technically sound approach to many containment situations. This paper will cover the development of the technology and will provide a brief synopsis of several installations.

  15. The Prekindergarten Age-Cutoff Regression-Discontinuity Design: Methodological Issues and Implications for Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsey, Mark W.; Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Wilson, Sandra Jo; Hofer, Kerry G.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the currently available evidence on the causal effects of public prekindergarten programs on school readiness outcomes comes from studies that use a regression-discontinuity design (RDD) with the age cutoff to enter a program in a given year as the basis for assignment to treatment and control conditions. Because the RDD has high internal…

  16. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Gómez-Campos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80. Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001. Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93% and specificity (between 83% and 88% in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF SKIN TESTING .1. CHOOSING ALLERGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND CUTOFF VALUES BY FACTORIAL DESIGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEMEIJER, NR; GOEDEWAAGEN, B; KAUFFMAN, HF; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1993-01-01

    Standardized extracts of Phleum pratensis (grass) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (house-dust mite) were used as test allergens for multiple regression in order to determine optimum concentrations and cutoff values with regard to diagnostic capacity and safety. If a RAST value of class 1 or more

  18. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution. PMID:27164119

  19. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  20. Emission noise and high frequency cut-off of the Kondo effect in a quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagrange, R.; Basset, J.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.

    2018-01-01

    By coupling on chip via a resonant circuit a carbon nanotube to a quantum noise detector, a superconductor-insulator-superconductor junction we measure the emission noise of a carbon nanotube quantum dot in the Kondo regime. The signature of the Kondo effect in the current noise is measured for different ratios of the Kondo temperature over the measured frequency and for different asymmetries of the coupling to the contacts and compared to finite frequency quantum noise calculations. Our results point towards the existence of a high frequency cut-off of the electronic emission noise associated with the Kondo resonance. This cut-off frequency is on the order of a few times the Kondo temperature when the electronic system is close to equilibrium, which is the case for a strongly asymmetric coupling. On the other hand, this cut-off is shifted to lower frequencies in a symmetric coupling situation where the bias voltage drives the Kondo state out of equilibrium. We then attribute the low frequency cut-off to voltage-induced spin relaxation.

  1. Proposed ratios and cutoffs for the assessment of lipodystrophy in HIV-seropositive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraldo, R A; Vassimon, H S; Aragon, D C; Navarro, A M; Albuquerque de Paula, F J; Foss-Freitas, M C

    2015-02-01

    To propose objective ratios using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to suggest cutoff points for them in order to classify lipodystrophy in male patients. It is a cross-sectional study. DXA was applied and anthropometric measurements were performed in 100 men on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to propose cutoffs. Individuals were divided in without (lipo-) or with (lipo+) lipodystrophy and their metabolic parameters were compared. The following ratios were proposed: fat mass ratio by DXA (FMR), waist thigh ratio (WTR), waist calf ratio (WCR), and arm to trunk ratio (ATR). The best cutoffs observed for FMR, WTR and ATR were 1.26, 1.74 and 2.08, respectively. Using the proposed cutoff for FMR, we observed worse metabolic profile, with increased tryglicerides, fasting serum glucose and more hypercholesterolemia in the lipo+ group. WTR and ATR showed a significant correlation with FMR. Anthropometric ratios (WTR/ATR) and FMR can be used to aid the diagnosis of lipodystrophy in order to contribute to a more accurate and earlier diagnosis permitting intervention and even preventing metabolic disturbances.

  2. Importance of the cutoff value in the quadratic adaptive integrate-and-fire model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    The quadratic adaptive integrate-and-fire model (Izhikevich, 2003 , 2007 ) is able to reproduce various firing patterns of cortical neurons and is widely used in large-scale simulations of neural networks. This model describes the dynamics of the membrane potential by a differential equation that is quadratic in the voltage, coupled to a second equation for adaptation. Integration is stopped during the rise phase of a spike at a voltage cutoff value V(c) or when it blows up. Subsequently the membrane potential is reset, and the adaptation variable is increased by a fixed amount. We show in this note that in the absence of a cutoff value, not only the voltage but also the adaptation variable diverges in finite time during spike generation in the quadratic model. The divergence of the adaptation variable makes the system very sensitive to the cutoff: changing V(c) can dramatically alter the spike patterns. Furthermore, from a computational viewpoint, the divergence of the adaptation variable implies that the time steps for numerical simulation need to be small and adaptive. However, divergence of the adaptation variable does not occur for the quartic model (Touboul, 2008 ) and the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model (Brette & Gerstner, 2005 ). Hence, these models are robust to changes in the cutoff value.

  3. The Effect of Small Group Discussion on Cutoff Scores during Standard Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deunk, Marjolein I.; van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Bosker, Roel J.

    2014-01-01

    Standard setting methods, like the Bookmark procedure, are used to assist education experts in formulating performance standards. Small group discussion is meant to help these experts in setting more reliable and valid cutoff scores. This study is an analysis of 15 small group discussions during two standards setting trajectories and their effect…

  4. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: This study assessed healthy young adults to determine the normal limits for electrocardiographic variables and cut-off values for left ventricular hypertrophy. It was a cross sectional descriptive study in which the participants were evaluated clinically by standard 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (ECG) at 25mm/s ...

  5. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to establish a triage cut-off point or threshold for peripheral bone mineral density (BMD), applicable to black postmenopausal women, and that could be used as a screening method to differentiate between women with normal BMD, and those with possible central osteoporosis.

  6. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-05-05

    To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78-0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution.

  7. Dose Dependency and a Functional Cutoff for TPO-Antibody Positivity During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Pop, Victor J; Chaker, Layal; Goddijn, Mariette; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Bisschop, Peter H; Broeren, Maarten A; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Medici, Marco; Visser, Theo J; Steegers, Eric A P; Vrijkotte, Tanja G; Peeters, Robin P

    2018-02-01

    To investigate a dose dependency of thyroperoxidase antibody (TPOAb) concentrations in relation to thyroid function and premature delivery and define a population-based, pregnancy-specific, functional cutoff for TPOAb positivity. Individual participant meta-analysis of three prospective birth cohorts: the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, and the Holistic Approach to Pregnancy. Population-based studies in the Netherlands (2002 to 2014). A total of 11,212 pregnant women (2.5 mU/L (range, 19.4% to 51.3%). Stratified analyses showed that women with TPOAb concentrations below manufacturer cutoffs already had a higher risk of premature delivery, especially when TSH concentrations were high or in the high-normal range. This study demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship between TPOAbs and thyroid function as well as the risk of premature delivery. Furthermore, our results indicate that the currently used cutoffs for TPOAb positivity may be too high. Furthermore, the use of a population-based cutoff for TPOAbs may identify women with a clinically relevant extent of thyroid autoimmunity and a higher risk of premature delivery but that would not be considered TPOAb positive or eligible for treatment otherwise.

  8. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-15

    Sep 15, 2011 ... Original Research: Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of central osteoporosis. 79. 2012 Volume 17 No 2. JEMDSA remain significantly higher.11 Furthermore, in addition to an increased life expectancy (osteoporosis risk factor), lifestyle behaviours generally associated with.

  9. Separation-survivability - the elusive moral cut-off point? | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both of these notions are problematic, as is the notion of sentience. We argue that separation-survivability is the only morally acceptable cut-off point, based on four premises, viz. (i) a particular notion of potentiality; (ii) the inextricable, mutual relationship between human beings and their world (without either, the other ...

  10. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  11. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than

  12. Analysis of cutoff frequency in a one-dimensional superconductor-metamaterial photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aly, Arafa H, E-mail: arafa16@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Beni-Suef University (Egypt); Aghajamali, Alireza [Department of Physics, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Elsayed, Hussein A.; Mobarak, Mohamed [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Our results show that the appearance of the cutoff frequency, below which the incident electromagnetic waves cannot propagate in the structure. We demonstrate that the cutoff frequency shows an upward trend as the thickness of the superconductor layer as well as the thickness of the metamaterial increase. • The cutoff frequency can be tuned by the operating temperature. Our structures are good candidates for many optical devices such as optical filters, switches, temperature controlled optical shutter, and among photoelectronic applications in gigahertz. - Abstract: In this paper, using the two-fluid model and the characteristic matrix method, we investigate the transmission characteristics of the one-dimensional photonic crystal. Our structure composed of the layers of low-temperature superconductor material (NbN) and double-negative metamaterial. We target studying the effect of many parameters such as the thickness of the superconductor material, the thickness of the metamaterial layer, and the operating temperature. We show that the cut-off frequency can be tuned efficiently by the operating temperature as well as the thicknesses of the constituent materials.

  13. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after

  14. Use of a low cut-off value for the fecal immunochemical test enables better detection of proximal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae Myung; Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil; Jeun, Jung Won; Lim, Jun Uk

    2013-11-01

    The advantage of the quantitative fecal immunochemical test (FIT) is the flexibility to set the positivity threshold. However, the diagnostic success of the FIT has not been compared for standard and low cut-off thresholds. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic success of FIT for standard and low cut-off thresholds. In 2009 and 2010 a standard cut-off threshold (20 μg Hb/g feces) was used as positivity criterion for the FIT; in 2012 a low cut-off (10 μg Hb/g feces) was used. Diagnostic success was compared between the two groups. Of the total of 14,289 participants, 195 (1.4 %) had positive FIT results. Positivity of the FIT was significantly higher in the low cut-off group than in the standard cut-off group (1.8 vs. 1.0 %, p = 0.000). Although detection of advanced neoplasia lesions was comparable, proximal neoplasia was more frequently detected in the low cut-off group (33.3 vs. 20.9 %, p = 0.016). With the low cut-off threshold, 39 (0.7 %) participants were also classified as having positive results, and 18 (46.2 %) of these had colorectal neoplasias. The number of positive results from the FIT was increased by 54.9 %, and detection of advanced neoplasia was increased by 60 % with the low cut-off threshold compared with the standard cut-off. A low cut-off threshold for the FIT resulted in better detection of proximal neoplasia in population-based screening. These results indicate the cut-off threshold for positive FIT should be properly chosen and adjusted in colorectal cancer screening.

  15. Cosmic ray cutoff prediction using magnetic field from global magnetosphere MHD simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Weygand

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic particles entering the Earth's magnetosphere, i.e. cosmic rays and solar energetic particles, are of prime space weather interest because they can affect satellite operations, communications, and the safety of astronauts and airline crews and passengers. In order to mitigate the hazards that originate from such particles one needs to predict the cutoff latitudes of such particles as a function of their energies and the state of the magnetosphere. We present results from a new particle tracing code that is used to determine the cutoff latitudes of 8-15Men-1 alpha particles during the 23/24 April, 1998 geomagnetic storm and the preceding quiet time. The calculations are based on four different geomagnetic field models and compared with SAMPEX observations of alpha particles in the same energy range. The geomagnetic field models under consideration are: (i the International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF model, (ii the Tsyganenko "89" model (T89c, (iii the Tsyganenko "96" model (T96, and (iv a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD model of Earth's magnetosphere. Examining 11 SAMPEX cutoff latitude observations we find that the differences between the observed and the predicted cutoff latitudes are 2.3° ± 2.0° (mean and 7.9° (maximum difference for the IGRF model; 3.9° ± 2.4° (mean and 6.9° (maximum difference for the T89c model; 4.0° ± 1.4° (mean and 5.5° (maximum difference for the T96 model; and 2.5° ± 1.7° (mean and 7.0° (maximum difference for the MHD model. All models generally predict cutoff latitudes equatorward of the SAMPEX observations. The MHD model results also show steeper cutoff energy gradients with latitude compared to the empirical models and more structure in the cutoff energy versus latitude function, presumably due to the presence of boundary layers in the MHD model.

  16. [Cut-off values of waist circumference for central obesity in Chinese adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoxiao; Mai, Jinzhuang; Gao, Xiangmin; Guo, Min; Wu, Yong; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Liancheng

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the appropriate cut-off values of waist circumference(WC)for central obesity and severe central obesity in Chinese adults. A total of 10 265 participants aged 35-69 years from the cross-sectional survey of the PRC-USA Collaborative Study of Cardiovascular and Cardiopulmonary Epidemiology between 1993 and 1994 with integral data were included. Each integer unit in centimeters of WC in a given range was used as the cut-off point to detect clustering of risk factors, which was defined as an individual with 2 or more risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Sensitivity, specificity and distance from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to the upper left corner of the ROC graph were calculated. The WC value corresponding to the point on the ROC curve nearest to the upper left corner was considered as the optimal cut-off value for central obesity and the value corresponding to the point with specificity of 90% or more was considered as the optimal cut-off for severe central obesity. The mean WC was (80.5 ± 9.9) cm in men and (77.8 ± 10.0) cm in women; 18.1% (890/4 921) of men and 14.5% (776/5 344) of women were identified with two or more major risk factors. Based on the ROC curve analysis, the optimal value of WC to detect clustering of risk factors was ≥ 84 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women, and the shortest distance to the upper left corner was 0.430 and 0.450, respectively. The cut-off values of WC to detect clustering of risk factors with specificity of 90% or more were ≥ 93 cm and ≥ 91 cm for men and women, respectively. The cut-off points of WC for central obesity and severe central obesity in Chinese adults obtained from this study are equal or similar to the WC cut-off values proposed by the Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity in Chinese Adults.

  17. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Dietrich; Moore, Guy D.

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can "run away," that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ~ 1014. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ~ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  18. Systematic review of the evidence for Trails B cut-off scores in assessing fitness-to-drive

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Mononita; Molnar, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Fitness-to-drive guidelines recommend employing the Trail Making B Test (a.k.a. Trails B), but do not provide guidance regarding cut-off scores. There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal cut-off score on the Trails B test. The objective of this study was to address this controversy by systematically reviewing the evidence for specific Trails B cut-off scores (e.g., cut-offs in both time to completion and number of errors) with respect to fitness-to-drive. Methods Systematic rev...

  19. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  1. The normative score and the cut-off value of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosu, Juichi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Matsudaira, Ko; Kato, So; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Chikuda, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common scoring systems used for patients with low back pain (LBP). Although the normative score of the ODI was reported to be 10.19 in a review article, no study has calculated the normative score after adjusting the value based on the age distribution. In addition, none of the previous studies has estimated the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The purpose of this study was to estimate the normative score by adjusting the data for age distribution in Japan, and to determine the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. We conducted an internet survey on LBP using the Japanese version of the ODQ. A total of 1,200 respondents, composed of 100 males and 100 females in each age group (from the 20s to 70s), participated in this study. We also asked them to provide information about their backgrounds. We estimated the normative score after correcting for the age distribution of Japan. We also estimated the ODI of those with or without disability, the factors associated with the ODI, and the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The participants' backgrounds were similar to the national survey. The normative score of the ODI was estimated at 8.73. The ODI of the LBP with disability group was 22.07. Those with sciatica and obese subjects showed higher ODI than those without. The optimal cut-off value was estimated to be 12. We defined the normative score and the cut-off value of the ODI.

  2. Metals attenuation in minerally-enhanced slurry walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Prince, M.J. [Bucknell Univ., Lewisburg, PA (United States); Adams, T.L. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Blue Bell, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In current practice, a soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff wall is a mixture of water, soil, and bentonite that is designed to serve as a passive barrier to ground water and contaminant transport. This study evaluated the transformation of a passive slurry trench cutoff wall barrier to an active barrier system. Conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers presently serve as passive barriers to contaminated ground water. An active barrier will not only fulfill the functions of the present passive barrier system, but also retard contaminant transport by adsorptive processes. Attapulgite, Na-chabazite, and Ca-chabazite were added to {open_quotes}activate{close_quotes} the conventional soil-bentonite backfill. Batch extraction tests were performed to determine the partitioning coefficients of cadmium and zinc between the liquid and solid phase when in contact with the backfill mixes. Batch extraction and mathematical modeling results demonstrate the ability of an active barrier to retard the transport of cadmium and zinc. The reactivity of the soil-bentonite vertical barrier depends heavily on the inorganic being adsorbed. The reactivity of the barrier also depends on the adsorptive capabilities of the clay minerals added to the conventional soil-bentonite vertical barrier. The results of laboratory studies suggest that passive barrier systems can be transformed to active systems. Further, the data suggests that although conventional soil-bentonite vertical barriers are presently designed as passive barriers, they already have adsorptive capacity associated with active barriers.

  3. Cosmic Rays In The Magnetosphere, 2. Apparent Cut-off Rigidities and Coupling Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, L. I.; Danilova, O. A.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, M.; Ptitsyna, N. G.; Tyasto, M. I.; Villoresi, G.

    We calculate the apparent cut-off rigidities along the survey Italy-Antarctica-Italy** on the basis of results of Danilova et al. (2001) on trajectory calculations for inclined cut- off rigidities at eight azimuths (through 45?) and five zeniths angles (through 15?) along the survey. For calculations of apparent cut-off rigidities we use also the infor- mation on integral multiplicities of secondary neutrons in dependence of zenith angle of incident primary cosmic ray particles, as theoretically computed. This information is based on the theoretical calculations of meson-nuclear cascades for primary protons with different rigidities arriving to the EarthSs atmosphere at different zenith angles (Dorman and Pakhomov, 1979). These results have been checked and normalized by using coupling functions obtained in the same survey [Dorman et al. (2000)]. The determined apparent cut-off rigidities have been compared with results obtained by Clem et al. (1997) and with those used by Dorman et al. (2000) computed by using vertical cut-off rigidities, for trajectories especially calculated for the survey. On the basis of the apparent cut-off rigidities along the latitude survey, the coupling functions for neutron monitor and bare neutron counters found by Dorman et al. (2000) are now determined more accurately. **Survey realized with logistic and financial support of the Italian Antarctic Program (PNRA) and with the co-operation of IFSI-CNR. REFERENCES: Clem, J.M., et al. J. Geophys. Res., 102, 26,919 (1997). Danilova, O.A., et al., Latitude survey in December 1996-March 1997, 1. Cut-off rigidities for different azimuth and zenith angles, Paper ST13, This issue (2001) Dorman L.I. and Pakhomov N.I., "The dependence of the integral generation multiplicity of neutron component at various depths in the atmosphere on zenith angle on primary particle in- cidence". Proc. 16-th ICRC, Kyoto, 4, 416-420 (1979) Dorman, L.I., et al., J. Geophys. Res. 105 , 21,047 (2000).

  4. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, Caroline Cristina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Costa Junior, Paulo; Machado, Dalmo Roberto Lopes; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K=0.61), Conde and Monteiro (K=0.65), Must et al. (K=0.61) and WHO (K=0.63). The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC=0.72). The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84]) and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]). For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927]) was observed. The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cristina Anzolin

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Results: Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K = 0.61, Conde and Monteiro (K = 0.65, Must et al. (K = 0.61 and WHO (K = 0.63. The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC = 0.72. The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84] and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]. For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927] was observed. Conclusions: The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes.

  6. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  7. Measurement of effective sheath width around the cutoff probe based on electromagnetic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. W.; Oh, W. Y., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: woh1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); You, S. J., E-mail: sjyou@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: woh1@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. H. [Center for Vacuum Technology, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-306 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.-S. [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, Gunsan 573-540 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    We inferred the effective sheath width using the cutoff probe and incorporating a full-wave three-dimensional electromagnetic (EM) simulation. The EM simulation reproduced the experimentally obtained plasma-sheath resonance (PSR) on the microwave transmission (S{sub 21}) spectrum well. The PSR frequency has a one-to-one correspondence with the width of the vacuum layer assumed to be the effective sheath in the EM simulation model. The sheath width was estimated by matching the S{sub 21} spectra of the experiment and the EM simulation for different widths of the sheath. We found that the inferred sheath widths quantitatively and qualitatively agree with the sheath width measured by incorporating an equivalent circuit model. These results demonstrate the excellent potential of the cutoff probe for inferring the effective sheath width from its experimental spectrum data.

  8. Optimal Training for Time-Selective Wireless Fading Channels Using Cutoff Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Lang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the optimal allocation of resources—power and bandwidth—between training and data transmissions for single-user time-selective Rayleigh flat-fading channels under the cutoff rate criterion. The transmitter exploits statistical channel state information (CSI in the form of the channel Doppler spectrum to embed pilot symbols into the transmission stream. At the receiver, instantaneous, though imperfect, CSI is acquired through minimum mean-square estimation of the channel based on some set of pilot observations. We compute the ergodic cutoff rate for this scenario. Assuming estimator-based interleaving and -PSK inputs, we study two special cases in-depth. First, we derive the optimal resource allocation for the Gauss-Markov correlation model. Next, we validate and refine these insights by studying resource allocation for the Jakes model.

  9. Mobilization of Floodplain Sediments by Chute Cutoffs on a Large River: Lower Wabash River, Illinois-Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinger, J. A.; Rhoads, B. L.; Best, J.; Engel, F.; Konsoer, K. M.

    2010-12-01

    Bend cutoffs are a common mechanism of morphologic change in all scales of meandering rivers worldwide. Cutoffs can develop either by progressive migration of an elongated bend onto itself, forming a neck cutoff, or by erosion of a new channel across the neck of a bend, producing a chute cutoff. In contrast to the slow processes of “shaving” of the floodplain by outer bank erosion or formation of neck cutoffs by lateral channel migration, the sudden development of a chute cutoff channel can rapidly introduce a large volume of floodplain sediment into the downstream river channel. Formation of a chute cutoff channel also occurs on much shorter timescales than infilling of the subsequent oxbow lake. The asynchronous nature of such floodplain sediment release and storage resulting from cutoffs has important implications for longer-term floodplain sediment balance and the accurate modeling of floodplain evolution and architecture. In this study, using aerial photography and ground survey, we quantified the quantity of floodplain sediment mobilized by two chute cutoff events on Mackey Bend, a large, elongated meander of the lower Wabash River, IL-IN, located just upstream of the Ohio River confluence. A chute cutoff channel on this bend developed during flooding in June 2008 and was followed by formation of a second cutoff channel in July 2009. Here, we compare the volume of sediment released by these cutoff events to the background flux of sediment generated by lateral migration of the bend in the previous 78 years. Our study also explores the influence of these cutoff events on the morphology of the Wabash-Ohio confluence immediately downstream of the evolving chute cutoff channels. We found that, in just over two years, these cutoffs released c. 3. 6 million cubic meters of floodplain sediment, which is comparable to 4.6% of the annual sediment load of the Mississippi River. According to our calculations, it would take over 60 years of lateral migration of Mackey

  10. Denseness of Ashtekar Lewandowski states and a generalized cut-off in loop quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velhinho, J. M.

    2005-07-01

    We show that the set of states of the Ashtekar Isham Lewandowski holonomy algebra defined by elements of the Ashtekar Lewandowski Hilbert space is dense in the space of all states. We consider weak convergence properties of a modified version of the cut-off procedure currently in use in loop quantum gravity. This version is adapted to vector states rather than to general distributions.

  11. Determining the optimal cut-off scores for the Workplace Bullying Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Marie; Bradbury, Joanne; Browne, Graeme; Hurley, John

    2017-12-18

    Over the past two decades, there has been considerable research into workplace bullying. One area that remains poorly developed is a tool with the capacity to accurately differentiate between exposed and unexposed employees. To determine optimal cut-off scores for the Workplace Bullying Inventory (WBI) that accurately classify cases of exposure to workplace bullying. Secondary analysis of data collected from Australian public sector employees ( n =2,197) was conducted. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used with a minimum sensitivity of 80%, to determine those scores on the WBI that corresponded with the highest accuracy of the tool to distinguish cases from non-cases. The results suggest using a cut score of 29 from the total score on the WBI (possible range: 18-90). When compared to a sum-score from a single dichotomous self-report variable, the cut-off score estimated a more conservative bullying rate. The single-item rate was potentially inflated by misconceptions about what constitutes bullying in the workplace. Employing validated cut-off points for exposure provides an objective threshold for establishing exposure to workplace bullying. The results of the analysis provide a more rigorous approach to quantifying exposure to workplace bullying, in a tool that has been designed and tested in the nursing workforce. This is the first such tool with empirically-derived, discriminant accuracy. It is common for nurse researchers to employ sum-scores from single items to identify exposure to workplace bullying. By providing reliable cut-off points for exposure, this study offers standardised, diagnostic accuracy for researchers, clinicians and managers. ©2017 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  12. Clinically Relevant Cut-off Points for the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia in Older Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yu-Ri; Joh, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yeon-Pyo

    2017-11-09

    The optimal criteria applied to older Korean people have not been defined. We aimed to define clinically relevant cut-off points for older Korean people and to compare the predictive validity with other definitions of sarcopenia. Nine hundred and sixteen older Koreans (≥65 years) were included in this cross-sectional observational study. We used conditional inference tree analysis to determine cut-off points for height-adjusted grip strength (GS) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), for use in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. We then compared the Korean sarcopenia criteria with the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health and Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria, using frailty, assessed with the Korean Frailty Index, as an outcome variable. For men, a residual GS (GSre) of ≤ 0.25 was defined as weak, and a residual ASM (ASMre) of ≤ 1.29 was defined as low. Corresponding cut-off points for women were a GSre of ≤ 0.17 and an ASMre of ≤ 0.69. GSre and ASMre values were adjusted for height. In logistic regression analysis with new cut-off points, the adjusted odds ratios for pre-frail or frail status in the sarcopenia group were 3.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-7.83) for the men and 1.74 (95% CI 0.91-3.35) for the women. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the unadjusted area under the curve for Korean sarcopenia criteria in men and women were 0.653 and 0.608, respectively (p sarcopenia in older Korean people.

  13. Serum uric acid and appropriate cutoff value for prediction of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mei-lin; Gao, Yu-xia; Wang, Xuan; Chang, Hong; Huang, Guo-wei

    2012-01-01

    The relation between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome is observed not only with frank hyperuricemia but also with serum uric acid levels within the normal range. The current ?normal? range set for hyperuricemia often fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. We investigate the association between serum uric acid within the normal range and incident metabolic syndrome risk, and further to determine the optimal cut-off value of serum uric acid for the diagnosis or pre...

  14. Establishment of triglyceride cut-off values to detect chylous ascites and pleural effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Markus A; Bietenbeck, Andreas; Schulz, Christoph; Luppa, Peter B

    2017-02-01

    Lipoprotein electrophoresis is the gold standard for the detection of chylous ascites and pleural effusions. It is, however, not suitable as a front-line test and not widely available. Most clinicians must rely solely on the quantitative determination of lipids. The aim of this work was to establish lipid cut-off values for the presence of chylomicrons in pleural and peritoneal fluid. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels from 113 peritoneal and 154 pleural fluid samples investigated for chylomicrons via lipoprotein electrophoresis were considered. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed and cut-off levels determined. 54 peritoneal and 59 pleural fluid samples were positive for chylomicrons. In peritoneal fluid, triglycerides and triglycerides/cholesterol ratio exhibited areas under the curve (AUC) not significantly different from each other, but significantly larger than cholesterol alone. The AUC for triglycerides in pleural fluid was significantly larger than the AUCs for cholesterol and the triglycerides/cholesterol ratio. Triglyceride cut-offs with maximum Youden-Index, sensitivity >95%, and specificity >95% were calculated to be 187, 148, and 246mg/dl (2.13, 1.69, and 2.80mmol/l) for peritoneal fluid, and 240, 94, and 240mg/dl (2.74, 1.07, and 2.74mmol/l) for pleural fluid. Triglyceride levels are the best parameter to detect chylous body fluids when lipoprotein electrophoresis is not available. Single-point triglyceride cut-offs of 187 and 240mg/dl (2.13 and 2.74mmol/l) or alternatively equivocal ranges of 148-246 and 94-240mg/dl (1.69-2.80 and 1.07-2.74mmol/l) were established for peritoneal and pleural fluid, respectively. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cutoff in the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest power spectrum: warm IGM or warm dark matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Garzilli, Antonella; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    We re-analyse high redshift and high resolution Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest spectra considered in (Viel et al 2013), seeking to constrain the properties of warm dark matter particles. Compared to this previous work, we consider a wider range of thermal histories of the intergalactic medium. We find that both warm and cold dark matter models can explain the cut-off observed in the flux power spectra of high-resolution observations equally well. This implies, however, very different thermal histories...

  16. Cutoff in the Lyman- α forest power spectrum: Warm IGM or warm dark matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Garzilli, Antonella; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2017-01-01

    We re-analyse high redshift and high resolution Lyman- α forest spectra considered in [1] , seeking to constrain the properties of warm dark matter particles. Compared to this previous work, we consider a wider range of thermal histories of the intergalactic medium. We find that both warm and cold dark matter models can explain the cut-off observed in the flux power spectra of high-resolution observations equally well. This implies, however, very different thermal histories and underlying rei...

  17. Cutoff in the Lyman-α forest power spectrum: Warm IGM or warm dark matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Garzilli; Alexey Boyarsky; Oleg Ruchayskiy

    2017-01-01

    We re-analyse high redshift and high resolution Lyman-α forest spectra considered in [1], seeking to constrain the properties of warm dark matter particles. Compared to this previous work, we consider a wider range of thermal histories of the intergalactic medium. We find that both warm and cold dark matter models can explain the cut-off observed in the flux power spectra of high-resolution observations equally well. This implies, however, very different thermal histories and underlying reion...

  18. Determination of cutoff of ELISA and immunofluorescence assay for scrub typhus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most common method employed for diagnosis of scrub typhus is serology. It is widely known that demonstration of ≥4-fold rise in titers of antibody in paired sera is required for diagnosis. However, for guidance of initial treatment, there is a need for rapid diagnosis at the time of admission. Therefore, there is a need for standardized region specific cutoff titers at the time of admission. Materials and Methods: A total of 258 patients of all age groups with clinically suspected scrub typhus over a period of 24 months (October 2013-October 2015 were enrolled. Serum samples of these patients were subjected to immunofluorescent antibody (IFA for immunoglobulin M (IgM (Fuller Labs, USA with dilutions of 1:64, 1:128, 1:256, and 1:512. Serum samples of all 258 patients were subjected to IgM ELISA (Inbios Inc., USA. Any patient with response to antibiotics within 48 h accompanied by either presence of an eschar or positivity by polymerase chain reaction was taken as positive. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was drawn to generate cutoff for these tests. Results: A total of 20 patients were diagnosed as cases of scrub typhus. The ROC curve analysis revealed a cutoff optical density value of 0.87 with sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 94.12%, respectively. ROC curve analysis of IFA revealed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 93.5%, respectively at 1:64 dilution. Conclusion: Considering cost constraints, centers in and around New Delhi region can use the cutoffs we determined for the diagnosis of scrub typhus.

  19. Screening for Voice Disorders in Older Adults (RAVI)-Part III: Cutoff Score and Clinical Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Leandro; Espelt, Albert; Costa de Lima, Kenio

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the cutoff score and clinical consistency of "Screening for Voice Disorders in Older Adults" (RAVI-Rastreamento de Alterações Vocais em Idosos). This is a prospective, nonrandomized, cross-sectional diagnostic study. A sample of 301 subjects, including both sexes, aged 60 and more, and all of whom were living in either a community or an institution, was studied. To determine which subjects had or did not have voice problems, we used a composite reference standard (auditory-perceptual analysis of sustained vowel phonation, auditory-perceptual analysis of connected speech, and vocal self-assessment). The best cutoff score was identified using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The clinical consistency indicators were co-positivity, co-negativity, positive and negative predictive values, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and test efficiency. The significance level was 5%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.763 (95% confidence interval: 0.706-0.821), and the best cutoff score for determining which older adults had or did not have a voice disorder was 2. All clinical consistency indicators were satisfactory: co-positivity (79%), co-negativity (60%), predictive positive value (51%), negative predictive value (84%), positive likelihood ratio (2.01), negative likelihood ratio (0.34), and test efficiency (69%). RAVI has satisfactory indicators of clinical consistency and is able to determine which older adults have voice disorders by a cutoff score of 2. The use of RAVI as a screening tool is recommended to help determine the prevalence of voice disorders in older adults. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Relativistic backward wave oscillator operating in TM02 with cutoff-type resonant reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Yang, Dewen; Cao, Yibing; Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposes an overmoded relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) operating in the TM02 mode with the cutoff-type resonant reflector characterized by the advantages of the cutoff neck and the single resonant cavity. In order to protect the explosive emission of the annular cathode from the disturbance of the microwave leakage, the cutoff-type resonant reflector can effectively prevent the microwave consisting of several modes from propagating into the diode region. Attributed to the strong reflections caused by the cutoff-type resonant reflector at the front end of the overmoded slow-wave structure (SWS), the overmoded RBWO works in the state of the strong resonance, which enhances the beam-to-microwave power conversion efficiency. TM02 is selected as the operation mode so as to increase the power handling capability. The nonuniform SWS depresses the cross-excitation of the unwanted longitudinal modes of TM02 and improves the synchronous interaction between the electron beam and the structure wave. It is found that when we make the peak values of the longitudinal electric field and the modulated current appear nearly at the same position in the overmoded SWS by optimizing the electrodynamic structure, the conversion efficiency will be enhanced significantly. In the numerical simulation, the microwave generation with power 2.99 GW and efficiency 0.45 is obtained under the diode voltage 851 kV and current 7.8 kA with the guide magnetic field of 4.3 T. The microwave generation with the pure frequency spectrum of 10.083 GHz radiates in the TM01 mode. The conversion efficiency keeps above 0.40 over the diode voltage range of 220 kV.

  1. Introduction of a distance cut-off into structural alignment by the double dynamic programming algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, H

    1997-08-01

    Two approximations were introduced into the double dynamic programming algorithm, in order to reduce the computational time for structural alignment. One of them was the so-called distance cut-off, which approximately describes the structural environment of each residue by its local environment. In the approximation, a sphere with a given radius is placed at the center of the side chain of each residue. The local environment of a residue is constituted only by the residues with side chain centers that are present within the sphere, which is expressed by a set of center-to-center distances from the side chain of the residue to those of all the other constituent residues. The residues outside the sphere are neglected from the local environment. Another approximation is associated with the distance cut-off, which is referred to here as the delta N cut-off. If two local environments are similar to each other, the numbers of residues constituting the environments are expected to be similar. The delta N cut-off was introduced based on the idea. If the difference between the numbers of the constituent residues of two local environments is greater than a given threshold value, delta N, the evaluation of the similarity between the local environments is skipped. The introduction of the two approximations dramatically reduced the computational time for structural alignment by the double dynamic programming algorithm. However, the approximations also decreased the accuracy of the alignment. To improve the accuracy with the approximations, a program with a two-step alignment algorithm was constructed. At first, an alignment was roughly constructed with the approximations. Then, the epsilon-suboptimal region for the alignment was determined. Finally, the double dynamic programming algorithm with full structural environments was applied to the residue pairs within the epsilon-suboptimal region to produce an improved alignment.

  2. Evaluation of cutoff scores for the Parkinson's disease sleep scale-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Miyamoto, T; Miyamoto, M; Suzuki, S; Numao, A; Watanabe, Y; Tatsumoto, M; Sakuta, H; Watanabe, Y; Fujita, H; Iwanami, M; Sada, T; Kadowaki, T; Hashimoto, K; Trenkwalder, C; Hirata, K

    2015-06-01

    The Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS)-2 is a recently developed tool for evaluating disease-related nocturnal disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its cutoff score has not been clinically assessed. We determined the optimal cutoff score of the Japanese version of the PDSS-2. Patients with PD (n = 146) and controls (n = 100) completed the PDSS-2 and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Poor sleepers were defined as having global PSQI scores >5. Optimal cutoff scores for determining poor sleepers were assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A PDSS-2 total score ≥ 14 exhibited 82.0% sensitivity and 70.6% specificity, whereas a PDSS-2 total score ≥ 15 provided 72.1% sensitivity and 72.9% specificity in distinguishing poor sleepers (PSQI score >5) from good sleepers (PSQI ≤ 5). Nocturnal disturbances were more frequently observed in patients with PD than in controls (PDSS-2 total score ≥ 14 or ≥ 15; 51.4% vs 20%; 45.9% vs 19%). Nocturnal disturbances were associated with higher Hoehn and Yahr stages and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores, impaired quality of life, daytime sleepiness, and depressive symptoms. We suggest that PDSS-2 total scores ≥ 15 are useful for detecting poor sleepers among patients with PD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evaluating the effects of cutoffs and treatment of long-range electrostatics in protein folding simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piana

    Full Text Available The use of molecular dynamics simulations to provide atomic-level descriptions of biological processes tends to be computationally demanding, and a number of approximations are thus commonly employed to improve computational efficiency. In the past, the effect of these approximations on macromolecular structure and stability has been evaluated mostly through quantitative studies of small-molecule systems or qualitative observations of short-timescale simulations of biological macromolecules. Here we present a quantitative evaluation of two commonly employed approximations, using a test system that has been the subject of a number of previous protein folding studies--the villin headpiece. In particular, we examined the effect of (i the use of a cutoff-based force-shifting technique rather than an Ewald summation for the treatment of electrostatic interactions, and (ii the length of the cutoff used to determine how many pairwise interactions are included in the calculation of both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Our results show that the free energy of folding is relatively insensitive to the choice of cutoff beyond 9 Å, and to whether an Ewald method is used to account for long-range electrostatic interactions. In contrast, we find that the structural properties of the unfolded state depend more strongly on the two approximations examined here.

  4. Equilibrium properties of blackbody radiation with an ultraviolet energy cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheeraj Kumar; Chandra, Nitin; Vaibhav, Vinay

    2017-10-01

    We study various equilibrium thermodynamic properties of blackbody radiation (i.e. a photon gas) with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We find that the energy density, specific heat etc. follow usual acoustic phonon dynamics as have been well studied by Debye. Other thermodynamic quantities like pressure, entropy etc. have also been calculated. The usual Stefan-Boltzmann law gets modified. We observe that the values of the thermodynamic quantities with the energy cut-off is lower than the corresponding values in the theory without any such scale. The phase-space measure is also expected to get modified for an exotic spacetime appearing at Planck scale, which in turn leads to the modification of Planck energy density distribution and the Wien's displacement law. We found that the non-perturbative nature of the thermodynamic quantities in the SR limit (for both unmodified and modified cases), due to nonanalyticity of the leading term, is a general feature of the theory accompanied with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We have also discussed the possible modification in the case of Big Bang and the Stellar objects and have suggested a table top experiment for verification in effective low energy case.

  5. The 'impact' of force filtering cut-off frequency on the peak knee abduction moment during landing: artefact or 'artifiction'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Benjamin D; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-03-01

    Joint moments computed using inverse dynamic techniques are important estimators of net joint loads. Joints moments computed from marker position and ground reaction force data filtered using different cut-off frequencies may capture changes in moment magnitudes at a single joint that exceed normal physiological response. Peak external knee abduction moment (KAM) generated during landing (ie, the drop vertical jump, DVJ) predicts anterior cruciate ligament injury risk using marker and force data filtered at different cut-off frequencies. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the effects of using the same low cut-off frequencies versus different cut-off frequencies on joint moment magnitudes to evaluate if artificial smoothing attenuates actual resultant joint loads related to injury risk. Twenty-two female, high school volleyball players performed three maximum DVJs in a laboratory setting. The average peak KAM was computed for each knee using marker and force data filtered with the same low cut-off frequencies and different cut-off frequencies. Peak KAMs were significantly larger using different cut-off frequencies. The order of athletes ranked based on the magnitude of their peak KAMs did not significantly change across all filtering cut-off frequencies. The magnitude of peak KAM may differ when the same low or different higher cut-off frequencies are used to filter marker and ground reaction forces (GRF) data collected using standard motion capture equipment. It is not clear to what extent the decrease in peak KAM reported when the same low cut-off frequencies were used was solely due to attenuation of the GRF signal.

  6. High-R Walls for Remodeling: Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J.; Kochkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  7. High-R Walls for Remodeling. Wall Cavity Moisture Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiehagen, J. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Kochkin, V. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the study is on the performance of wall systems, and in particular, the moisture characteristics inside the wall cavity and in the wood sheathing. Furthermore, while this research will initially address new home construction, the goal is to address potential moisture issues in wall cavities of existing homes when insulation and air sealing improvements are made.

  8. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  9. Partial domain wall partition functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foda, O; Wheeler, M

    2012-01-01

    We consider six-vertex model configurations on an (n × N) lattice, n ≤ N, that satisfy a variation on domain wall boundary conditions that we define and call partial domain wall boundary conditions...

  10. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  11. Hair ethyl glucuronide concentrations in teetotalers: Should we re-evaluate the lower cut-off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunelle, Cleo L; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Cappelle, Delphine; Covaci, Adrian; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Neels, Hugo

    2017-05-01

    Ethyl glucuronide in hair (hEtG) can be used to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol. A lower cut-off of 7pg/mg hair in the 0-3cm proximal scalp hair segment has been used for repeated alcohol consumption in the previous three months. While a concentration below this cut-off is stated not to contradict self reported abstinence, it is often used to assess whether an individual has remained abstinent in the period prior to hair sampling. Here, we address hEtG concentrations in alcohol consuming individuals and critically evaluate this cut-off value. Ten individuals remained abstinent from alcohol for 12 weeks. A lock of hair was cut before the start of the study, and the regrown hairs were cut after twelve weeks of abstinence. Hair EtG concentrations were measured both at baseline and after 12 weeks of abstinence. Study compliance was assessed by urine analysis every 2-3 days by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.1μg/mL. HEtG concentrations were assessed in the first 3cm hair using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with an LLOQ of 0.2pg/mg. At the beginning of the study, participants had hEtG concentrations ranging between low, but measurable hEtG concentrations (up to 4.5pg/mg hair), which was in the participant with the highest pre-study alcohol consumption. As only regrown hairs were cut, it is not likely that this was due to residual EtG from the pre-study period. Although the number of specimens was low, this study reports measurable hEtG concentrations following total abstinence, although not exceeding the current 7pg/mg cut-off for hair. A suitable sensitive method (GC-MS/MS) is preferred when assessing alcohol abstinence. We propose that the current cut-off of 7pg/mg should be discussed further, and, in view of the small study sample, evaluated using a larger sample size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Light shining through walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Ringwald, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Shining light through walls? At first glance this sounds crazy. However, very feeble gravitational and electroweak effects allow for this exotic possibility. Unfortunately, with present and near future technologies the opportunity to observe light shining through walls via these effects is completely out of question. Nevertheless there are quite a number of experimental collaborations around the globe involved in this quest. Why are they doing it? Are there additional ways of sending photons through opaque matter? Indeed, various extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict the existence of new particles called WISPs - extremely weakly interacting slim particles. Photons can convert into these hypothetical particles, which have no problems to penetrate very dense materials, and these can reconvert into photons after their passage - as if light was effectively traversing walls. We review this exciting field of research, describing the most important WISPs, the present and future experiments, the indirect hints from astrophysics and cosmology pointing to the existence of WISPs, and finally outlining the consequences that the discovery of WISPs would have. (orig.)

  13. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  14. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  15. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Babai

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2. Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%. When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%. Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190. By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc = 69% and 61%, respectively] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65% with sensitivity and

  16. Domain walls on the brane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; van der Schaar, JP; Papadopoulos, G

    1998-01-01

    We show that all branes admit worldvolume domain wall solutions. We find one class of solutions for which the tension of the brane changes discontinuously along the domain wall. These solutions are not supersymmetric. We argue that there is another class of domain wall solutions which is

  17. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  18. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  19. Indoor climbing walls in Prague

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzová, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the indoor climbing walls in climbing centers for the public in Prague. It creates an overview of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of indoor climbing walls in Prague. Thesis allowing ordinary users and the general public interested in climbing easier selection of the appropriate climbing wall according on their level, the safety requirements, background, but also the place of residence.

  20. Cell wall biology: perspectives from cell wall imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kieran J D; Marcus, Susan E; Knox, J Paul

    2011-03-01

    Polysaccharide-rich plant cell walls are important biomaterials that underpin plant growth, are major repositories for photosynthetically accumulated carbon, and, in addition, impact greatly on the human use of plants. Land plant cell walls contain in the region of a dozen major polysaccharide structures that are mostly encompassed by cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectic polysaccharides. During the evolution of land plants, polysaccharide diversification appears to have largely involved structural elaboration and diversification within these polysaccharide groups. Cell wall chemistry is well advanced and a current phase of cell wall science is aimed at placing the complex polysaccharide chemistry in cellular contexts and developing a detailed understanding of cell wall biology. Imaging cell wall glycomes is a challenging area but recent developments in the establishment of cell wall molecular probe panels and their use in high throughput procedures are leading to rapid advances in the molecular understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of individual cell walls and also cell wall differences at taxonomic levels. The challenge now is to integrate this knowledge of cell wall heterogeneity with an understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms that underpin cell wall properties and functions.

  1. Systematic review of the evidence for Trails B cut-off scores in assessing fitness-to-drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mononita; Molnar, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Fitness-to-drive guidelines recommend employing the Trail Making B Test (a.k.a. Trails B), but do not provide guidance regarding cut-off scores. There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal cut-off score on the Trails B test. The objective of this study was to address this controversy by systematically reviewing the evidence for specific Trails B cut-off scores (e.g., cut-offs in both time to completion and number of errors) with respect to fitness-to-drive. Systematic review of all prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, correlation, and cross-sectional studies reporting the ability of the Trails B to predict driving safety that were published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals. Forty-seven articles were reviewed. None of the articles justified sample sizes via formal calculations. Cut-off scores reported based on research include: 90 seconds, 133 seconds, 147 seconds, 180 seconds, and Trails B cut-offs of 3 minutes or 3 errors (the '3 or 3 rule'). Major methodological limitations of this body of research were uncovered including (1) lack of justification of sample size leaving studies open to Type II error (i.e., false negative findings), and (2) excessive focus on associations rather than clinically useful cut-off scores.

  2. Left ventricular wall stress compendium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L; Ghista, D N; Tan, R S

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) wall stress has intrigued scientists and cardiologists since the time of Lame and Laplace in 1800s. The left ventricle is an intriguing organ structure, whose intrinsic design enables it to fill and contract. The development of wall stress is intriguing to cardiologists and biomedical engineers. The role of left ventricle wall stress in cardiac perfusion and pumping as well as in cardiac pathophysiology is a relatively unexplored phenomenon. But even for us to assess this role, we first need accurate determination of in vivo wall stress. However, at this point, 150 years after Lame estimated left ventricle wall stress using the elasticity theory, we are still in the exploratory stage of (i) developing left ventricle models that properly represent left ventricle anatomy and physiology and (ii) obtaining data on left ventricle dynamics. In this paper, we are responding to the need for a comprehensive survey of left ventricle wall stress models, their mechanics, stress computation and results. We have provided herein a compendium of major type of wall stress models: thin-wall models based on the Laplace law, thick-wall shell models, elasticity theory model, thick-wall large deformation models and finite element models. We have compared the mean stress values of these models as well as the variation of stress across the wall. All of the thin-wall and thick-wall shell models are based on idealised ellipsoidal and spherical geometries. However, the elasticity model's shape can vary through the cycle, to simulate the more ellipsoidal shape of the left ventricle in the systolic phase. The finite element models have more representative geometries, but are generally based on animal data, which limits their medical relevance. This paper can enable readers to obtain a comprehensive perspective of left ventricle wall stress models, of how to employ them to determine wall stresses, and be cognizant of the assumptions involved in the use of specific models.

  3. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  4. Detection of the high energy cut-off from the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273

    OpenAIRE

    Pahari, Mayukh; McHardy, Ian; Mallick, Labani; Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.

    2017-01-01

    We perform the NuSTAR and Swift/XRT joint energy spectral fitting of simultaneous observations from the broad-line Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273. When fitted with the combination of an exponential cut-off power-law and a reflection model, a high energy cut-off is detected at 143$^{+96}_{-40}$ keV with 2-sigma significance. Existence of such cut-off is also consistent with the observed Comptonizing electron temperature when fitted with a Comptonization model independently. We observe a moderate ...

  5. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  6. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  7. Child obesity cut-offs as derived from parental perceptions: cross-sectional questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, James A; Park, MinHae; Gregson, John; Falconer, Catherine L; White, Billy; Kessel, Anthony S; Saxena, Sonia; Viner, Russell M; Kinra, Sanjay

    2015-04-01

    Overweight children are at an increased risk of premature mortality and disease in adulthood. Parental perceptions and clinical definitions of child obesity differ, which may lessen the effectiveness of interventions to address obesity in the home setting. The extent to which parental and objective weight status cut-offs diverge has not been documented. To compare parental perceived and objectively derived assessment of underweight, healthy weight, and overweight in English children, and to identify sociodemographic characteristics that predict parental under- or overestimation of a child's weight status. Cross-sectional questionnaire completed by parents linked with objective measurement of height and weight by school nurses, in English children from five regions aged 4-5 and 10-11 years old. Parental derived cut-offs for under- and overweight were derived from a multinomial model of parental classification of their own child's weight status against school nurse measured body mass index (BMI) centile. Measured BMI centile was matched with parent classification of weight status in 2976 children. Parents become more likely to classify their children as underweight when they are at the 0.8th centile or below, and overweight at the 99.7th centile or above. Parents were more likely to underestimate a child's weight if the child was black or South Asian, male, more deprived, or the child was older. These values differ greatly from the BMI centile cut-offs for underweight (2nd centile) and overweight (85th). Clinical and parental classifications of obesity are divergent at extremes of the weight spectrum. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  8. Angiogenic Markers Predict Pregnancy Complications and Prolongation in Preeclampsia: Continuous Versus Cutoff Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Langeza; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Verdonk, Koen; Russcher, Henk; Bremer, Henk A; Versendaal, Hans J; Steegers, Eric A P; Danser, A H Jan; Visser, Willy

    2017-11-01

    To assess the incremental value of a single determination of the serum levels of sFlt-1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) and PlGF (placental growth factor) or their ratio, without using cutoff values, for the prediction of maternal and fetal/neonatal complications and pregnancy prolongation, 620 women with suspected/confirmed preeclampsia, aged 18 to 48 years, were included in a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study. Women had singleton pregnancies and a median pregnancy duration of 34 (range, 20-41) weeks. Complications occurred in 118 women and 248 fetuses. The median duration between admission and delivery was 12 days. To predict prolongation, PlGF showed the highest incremental value (R2=0.72) on top of traditional predictors (gestational age at inclusion, diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria, creatinine, uric acid, alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, and platelets) compared with R2=0.53 for the traditional predictors only. sFlt-1 showed the highest value to discriminate women with and without maternal complications (C-index=0.83 versus 0.72 for the traditional predictors only), and the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio showed the highest value to discriminate fetal/neonatal complications (C-index=0.86 versus 0.78 for the traditional predictors only). Applying previously suggested cutoff values for the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio yielded lower incremental values than applying continuous values. In conclusion, sFlt-1 and PlGF are strong and independent predictors for days until delivery along with maternal and fetal/neonatal complications on top of the traditional criteria. Their use as continuous variables (instead of applying cutoff values for different gestational ages) should now be tested in a prospective manner, making use of an algorithm calculating the risk of an individual woman with suspected/confirmed preeclampsia to develop complications. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Color filters including infrared cut-off integrated on CMOS image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Laurent; Parrein, Pascale; Raby, Jacques; Pellé, Catherine; Hérault, Didier; Marty, Michel; Michailos, Jean

    2011-07-04

    A color image was taken with a CMOS image sensor without any infrared cut-off filter, using red, green and blue metal/dielectric filters arranged in Bayer pattern with 1.75 µm pixel pitch. The three colors were obtained by a thickness variation of only two layers in the 7-layer stack, with a technological process including four photolithography levels. The thickness of the filter stack was only half of the traditional color resists, potentially enabling a reduction of optical crosstalk for smaller pixels. Both color errors and signal to noise ratio derived from optimized spectral responses are expected to be similar to color resists associated with infrared filter.

  10. Development of megapixel HgCdTe detector arrays with 15 micron cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, William J.; McMurtry, Craig W.; Dorn, Meghan; Pipher, Judith; Cabrera, Mario S.

    2016-10-01

    I. HistoryHgCdTe is a versatile II-VI semiconductor with a direct-bandgap tunable via the Hg:Cd ratio. Hg:Cd ratio = 53:47 (2.5 micron cutoff) was used on the NICMOS instrument on HST and the 2MASS. Increasing Hg:Cd ratio to 70:30 leads to a 5.4 micron cutoff, utilized in NEOWISE and many JWST instruments. Bailey, Wu et al. (1998) motivated extending this technology to 10 microns and beyond. Bacon, McMurtry et al. (2003, 2004) indicated significant progress toward this longwave (LW) goal.Warm-Spitzer has pioneered passive cooling to below 30 K in space, enabling the JWST mission.II. CurrentNASA's proposed NEOcam mission selected HgCdTe with a 10.6 micron cutoff because it promises natural Zodiacal background limited sensitivity with modest cooling (40 K). Teledyne Imaging Systems (TIS) is producing megapixel arrays with excellent performance (McMurtry, Lee, Dorn et al. (2013)) for this mission.III. FutureModest cooling requirements (circa 30 K) coupled with megapixel arrays and LW sensitivity in the thermal IR make HgCdTe attractive for many infrared instruments. For instance, the spectral signature of a terrestrial planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a nearby star will be the deep and wide absorption by CO_2 centered at 15 microns (Seager and Deming, 2010). LW instruments can enhance Solar System missions, such as exploration of the Enceladus geysers (Spencer, Buratti et al. 2006). Passive cooling will be adequate for these missions. Modern ground-based observatories will benefit from infrared capability out to the N band (7.5-13.6 microns). The required detector temperatures (30-40 K) are easily achievable using commercially available mechanical cryo-coolers (refrigerators).IV. Progress to dateTIS is developing megapixel HgCdTe arrays sensitive out to 15 microns under the direction of the University of Rochester. As a first step, we have produced arrays with a 13 micron cutoff. The initial measurements indicate very promising performance. We will present the

  11. Man-Made Cutoffs on the Lower Mississippi River, Conception, Construction, and River Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    prior to the cutoff. This overbank flow had begun to scour "blue holes," which are the result of overbank flow, at high veloc- ities, finding soft ...obtained. The middle section of the cut is across an old lake bed, which is so soft it has slid in and closed off all channels cut 109 F- LU -j Ll- 0...action further retarded the river’s response. In many cea 4 ions it may be impractical to alter the fixed shape of Lae river; however, there are still

  12. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data set is scored. Thus demonstrating how an arbitrarily set of cut-off point in prevalence studies can yield wildly varying prevalence rates. The data further show that making implicit assumptions about...

  13. Cutoff in the Lyman-α forest power spectrum: Warm IGM or warm dark matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Garzilli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We re-analyse high redshift and high resolution Lyman-α forest spectra considered in [1], seeking to constrain the properties of warm dark matter particles. Compared to this previous work, we consider a wider range of thermal histories of the intergalactic medium. We find that both warm and cold dark matter models can explain the cut-off observed in the flux power spectra of high-resolution observations equally well. This implies, however, very different thermal histories and underlying reionization models. We discuss how to remove this degeneracy.

  14. Cutoff in the Lyman-α forest power spectrum: Warm IGM or warm dark matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzilli, Antonella; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2017-10-01

    We re-analyse high redshift and high resolution Lyman-α forest spectra considered in [1], seeking to constrain the properties of warm dark matter particles. Compared to this previous work, we consider a wider range of thermal histories of the intergalactic medium. We find that both warm and cold dark matter models can explain the cut-off observed in the flux power spectra of high-resolution observations equally well. This implies, however, very different thermal histories and underlying reionization models. We discuss how to remove this degeneracy.

  15. Generating elastic band gaps in square lattice grid by periodical cut-off operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Li, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Yan

    2017-09-01

    From periodically cutting off rods in square lattice grids, we give an easy and feasible way to generate elastic band gaps (BGs) in it. We define the model of the periodical cut-off (PCO) square lattice grid, and study the frequency dispersion relation and the motion modes of rods, as well as the frequency responses. On this basis, we confirm that the PCO operation is feasible to generate BGs in square lattice grids. Furthermore, the BGs generated in PCO square lattice grids are basically locally resonant BGs with low frequency ranges which attributes to the motions of exposed cantilevers.

  16. Influence of cut-off value on prevalence of short cervical length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Os, M A; Kleinrouweler, C E; Schuit, E; van der Ven, A J; Pajkrt, E; de Groot, C J M; Mol, B W J; Haak, M C

    2017-03-01

    To assess the distribution of cervical length (CL) in a large cohort of asymptomatic low-risk women with singleton pregnancy and no previous preterm birth and to explain the low prevalence of short CL ≤ 30 mm in this cohort. This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter cohort study with an embedded randomized controlled trial (Triple P trial; NTR-2078) on the prevention of preterm birth with progesterone. In the cohort study, CL was measured in asymptomatic low-risk women with singleton pregnancy to investigate its predictive capacity to identify those at increased risk for preterm birth. A short CL was defined by a cut-off value of ≤ 30 mm, based on existing literature. Women with a short CL were subsequently included in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of progesterone, compared with placebo, on preterm birth. In total, 57 centers and 20 234 women participated in the study. Normal distributions for CL were simulated based on the mean and SD of the original data. The distribution of CL was assessed for each individual center and measurements were compared between levels of care: primary (29 ultrasound centers), secondary (21 general hospitals) and tertiary (seven university medical centers) care institutions. Comparison was also performed between centers with low, intermediate and high volume of CL measurements. CL distributions before (n = 12 284 women) and after (n = 7950 women) a national symposium, at which the prevalence of short CL measurements was addressed publicly, were analyzed. Between November 2009 and August 2013, 20 234 women had CL measurements, of whom 367 (1.8%) had a short CL. Mean ± SD CL was 44.2 ± 7.8 mm. A 'dip' in the distribution of CL measurements between 20 and 30 mm was observed, defined by a ratio of low prevalence of short CL (1.7% vs 2.0% of measurements were ≤ 30 mm, respectively; P cut-off value of 30 mm for CL was used to include women in a randomized clinical trial that was embedded in a cohort study

  17. Cut-off effect of radical TEMPO derivatives in olive oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aliaga, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Three oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from mixtures of olive oil and Tween 20 in water. The effectiveness of a series of radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (TEMPO) derivatives of variable lipophilicity in reactions with antioxidant Trolox, and as pyrene-fluorescence quenchers, was compared in the three emulsions. A "cut-off" effect was observed for the pyrene quenching by the probes, but not for their reaction with Trolox. The results were rationalized in terms of the amphiphobic nature of the probes, and the different locations of probe, pyrene and Trolox in the three-phase microheterogeneous systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  19. Global changes of cosmic ray cutoff rigidities in the maximum of the geomagnetic storm of November 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernova, Elena; Tyasto, Marta; Danilova, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Vertical cosmic ray (CR) cutoff rigidities were calculated by the CR particle trajectory tracing method in the magnetic field of the Tsyganenko's disturbed magnetosphere model Ts01 for the minimum of the Dst-variation for world grid 5°x15°. The results were compared with cutoff rigidities of Shea & Smart for IGRF2000. The areas of the large differences between them are revealed.

  20. The Adjustment Disorder–New Module 20 as a Screening Instrument: Cluster Analysis and Cut-off Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Lorenz

    2016-10-01

    against the theory-based diagnostic algorithm, revealed an optimal cut-off score at 47.5 to distinguish between people at high risk for AjD and people at low risk. Conclusion: The ADNM-20 distinguishes between people with low, moderate, and high symptomatology. The recommendation for a cut-off score at 47.5 facilitates the use of the ADNM-20 in research and practice.

  1. Effect of local perturbations of the geomagnetic field on cosmic ray cutoff rigidities at Jungfraujoch and Kiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueckiger, E.O.; Smart, D.F.; Shea, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    We have investigated the effect of local perturbations of the geomagnetic field on the vertical cosmic ray cutoff rigidities at Jungfraujoch and Kiel as representative mid-latitude neutron monitor stations. The main, effective, and Stoermer vertical cutoff rigidities and their changes were determined by utilizing the trajectory-tracing technique in a magnetic field which is modeled as a simple dipole field to which the disturbance field is superposed. It was found that the cosmic ray cutoff rigidities are most sensitive to variations of the z component of the geomagnetic field at geomagnetic latitudes -20/sup 0/<..lambda..<+30/sup 0/ and at longitudes within 90/sup 0/ to the east of these northern hemisphere stations. Furthermore, cutoff rigidity variations at Kiel are predominantly due to changes of the geomagnetic field within geocentric distances 2.5R/sub E/cutoff rigidities are caused almost exclusively by magnetic disturbances within 1R/sub E/cutoff rigidities on the radial, latitudinal and longitudinal structure of the magnetic perturbations is given explicitly. The results are discussed with respect to the theory by Treiman (1953) describing the effect of a ring current on cosmic ray cutoff rigidities. It is also shown that for the analysis of the characteristic properties of the correlation between cutoff rigidity variations and specific geomagnetic perturbations the rigidity corresponding to the first ''discontinuity band'' of the rigidity spectrum is an extremely useful parameter.

  2. Landscape settings as part of earth wall systems for defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk

    2013-04-01

    Remnants of earth wall systems from different periods are preserved in many European countries. They were built for different functions, such as defence, demarcating ownership or keeping wild animals or cattle in or out a terrain, and often changed function over time. Earth walls date from a past in which man had limited access to man- and horsepower. In the case of defence systems, our ancestors made use of the landscape settings to improve the strength. The poster gives an overview of landscape settings used for this purpose, from prehistoric up to medieval age, for building round and linear earth wall defence systems. Round earth walls systems are found on: • High viewpoints along a river, often in combination with marshland at its feet, • Almost completely cut-off meanders of antecedent rivers. This natural setting offered an ideal defence. It allowed an almost 360 degree view and exposed the enemy for a long time when passing the river, while the steep slopes and narrow entrance made the hill fort difficult to access, • Islands in lakes, • Bordering a lake at one side, • Confluences of rivers, • Hills near the sea and a natural harbour with possibilities for defence, • High flat hill tops of medium size with steep sides. Of each situation examples are presented. Linear earth wall defence systems For linear defence earth walls no overview of landscape settings can be given, for lack of sufficient data. The Celtic, 10 m steep Beech Bottom Dyke earth wall system from around 20 A.D. connects two steeply incised river valleys. For building the Hadrian Wall (UK) the Romans made use of earth walls paralleling the steepest cuesta of the Cheviot hills. The Viking Danewerk (Ger), was built on push moraines and used the coastal marsh lands at their feet for defence. And the defence of the earth wall around the Velder (NL, probably 13th century) made use of the many small streams crossing this marshy coversand landscape, by diverting them into a canal

  3. Flat-walled multilayered anechoic linings: Optimization and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingfeng; Buchholz, Jörg M.; Fricke, Fergus R.

    2005-11-01

    The concept of flat-walled multilayered absorbent linings for anechoic rooms was proposed three decades ago. Flat-walled linings have the advantage of being less complicated and, hence, less costly to manufacture and install than the individual units such as wedges. However, there are difficulties in optimizing the design of such absorbent linings. In the present work, the design of a flat-walled multilayered anechoic lining that targeted a 250 Hz cut-off frequency and a 300 mm maximum lining thickness was first optimized using an evolutionary algorithm. Sixteen of the most commonly used commercial fibrous building insulation materials available in Australia were investigated and fourteen design options (i.e., material combinations) were found by the evolutionary algorithm. These options were then evaluated in accordance with their costs and measured acoustic absorption performances. Finally, the completed anechoic room, where the optimized design was applied, was qualified and the results showed that a large percentage (75%-85%) of the distance between the sound source and the room boundaries, on the traverses made, were anechoic.

  4. Oscillation of solar radio emission at coronal acoustic cut-off frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylaev, O. S.; Zaqarashvili, T. V.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Melnik, V. N.; Hanslmeier, A.; Panchenko, M.

    2017-05-01

    Recent SECCHI COR2 observations on board STEREO-A spacecraft have detected density structures at a distance of 2.5-15 R0 propagating with periodicity of about 90 min. The observations show that the density structures probably formed in the lower corona. We used the large Ukrainian radio telescope URAN-2 to observe type IV radio bursts in the frequency range of 8-32 MHz during the time interval of 08:15-11:00 UT on August 1, 2011. Radio emission in this frequency range originated at the distance of 1.5-2.5 R0 according to the Baumbach-Allen density model of the solar corona. Morlet wavelet analysis showed the periodicity of 80 min in radio emission intensity at all frequencies, which demonstrates that there are quasi-periodic variations of coronal density at all heights. The observed periodicity corresponds to the acoustic cut-off frequency of stratified corona at a temperature of 1 MK. We suggest that continuous perturbations of the coronal base in the form of jets/explosive events generate acoustic pulses, which propagate upwards and leave the wake behind oscillating at the coronal cut-off frequency. This wake may transform into recurrent shocks due to the density decrease with height, which leads to the observed periodicity in the radio emission. The recurrent shocks may trigger quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection in helmet streamers, where the opposite field lines merge and consequently may generate periodic density structures observed in the solar wind.

  5. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbman, G. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed.

  6. A New Cutoff for Abnormal Proteinuria in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: Relationship to Albuminuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erman, Orit; Erman, Arie; Vodonos, Alina; Gafter, Uzi; van Dijk, David J

    2016-07-01

    Proteinuria and albuminuria are markers of kidney injury and function, serving as a screening test as well as a means of assessing the degree of kidney injury and risk for cardiovascular disease and death in both the diabetic and the non-diabetic general population. To evaluate the association between proteinuria below 300 mg/24 hours and albuminuria, as well as a possible association with kidney function in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The medical files of patients with type 1 and type 2 DM with proteinuria below 300 mg/24 hours at three different visits to the Diabetic Nephropathy Clinic were screened. This involved 245 patient files and 723 visits. The data collected included demographics; protein, albumin and creatinine levels in urine collections; blood biochemistry; and clinical and treatment data. The association between proteinuria and albuminuria is non-linear. However, proteinuria in the range of 162-300 mg/24 hours was found to be linearly and significantly correlated to albuminuria (P albuminuria cutoff of 30 mg/24 hours, was found to be 160.5 mg/24 hr. Body mass index (BMI) was the sole independent predictor of proteinuria above 160.5 mg/24 hr. Changes in albuminuria, but not proteinuria, were associated with changes in creatinine clearance. A new cutoff value of 160.5 mg/hr was set empirically, for the first time, for abnormal proteinuria in diabetic patients. It appears that proteinuria below 300 mg/24 hr is not sufficient as a sole prognostic factor for kidney failure.

  7. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allentuck, J.; Lemley, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ``to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.`` Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan.

  8. Assessment of the cutoff of a broken power law fitted to RHESSI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrechtsen, Kjetil; Østgaard, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are short sub-millisecond bursts of high energy gamma radiation, associated with intracloud positive lightning, bringing negative charge upwards. They were first detected by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) in 1991 and were thought to be a rare phenomena. However with new and improved satellites and more sophisticated data search algorithms, they have been found to be more and more common. However, recent work suggest there might be an intrinsic limit to the number of faint TGFs and so to TGF/lightning flash ration. Therefore, an outstanding question is; how common are TGFs? We previously used the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) in addition to RHESSI to extract 100ms interval of RHESSI data centred at the time of each lightning flash. By superposing the RHESSI intervals of data (excluding already identified TGFs) between August 2002 and December 2015, we find a 9.39σ increase in gamma-rays at the time of lightning. This indicates that there exists a population of TGFs that cannot be identified by current RHESSI search algorithms. Comparing the detected counts at the time of lightning to the background, we find a significant and continuous signal down to 3 counts in the detector. We do not see a clear cutoff in the signal, as has been suggested by others. This could indicate that a potential signal cutoff happens below this level in RHESSI.

  9. Establishing a clinically relevant cutoff to the Dependency Scale from the dimensional clinical personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Lucas de F; Pianowski, Giselle; Filho, Nelson H

    2017-05-01

    The Clinical Dimensional Personality Inventory (IDCP) is a 163-item self-report tool developed for the assessment of 12 dimensions of personality pathology. One of the scales comprising the instrument-the Dependency scale-is intended to provide psychometric information on traits closely related to the Dependent Personality Disorder (DPD). In the present study, we used both Item Response Theory modeling and Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis to establishing a clinically meaningful cutoff for the IDCP Dependency Scale. Participants were 2.481 adults, comprised by outpatients diagnosed with DPD, outpatients diagnosed with other PDs, and adults from the general population. The Wright's item map graphing technique revealed that outpatients were located at the very high levels in the latent scale continuum of the Dependency Scale, with a very large effect size for the mean difference between patients and non-patients. The ROC curve analysis supported a cutoff at 2.3 points in the Dependency Scale, which yielded 0.86 of sensitivity and 0.79 of specificity. Findings from the present investigation suggest the IDCP Dependency Scale is useful as a screening tool of the core features of the DPD. We address potential clinical applications for the instrument, and discuss limitations from the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Low cut-off values increase diagnostic performance of protein S assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, René; Ten Kate, Min Ki; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke C; Mulder, André B

    2010-09-01

    Conflicting data have been reported on the accuracy of protein S (PS) assays for detection of hereditary PS deficiency. In this study we assessed the diagnostic performance of two total PS antigen assays, four free PS assays and three PS activity assays in a group of 28 heterozygous carriers of mutations in PROS1 and 165 control subjects. Several control groups were formed, one of healthy volunteers and - because PS levels are influenced by oral contraception and pregnancy, and assays measuring PS activity may be influenced by the presence of the factor V Leiden mutation -, we also investigated the influences of these factors. All nine PS assays detected significantly reduced PS levels in subjects with a PROS1 mutation. Eight out of nine PS assays showed a 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity to detect heterozygous carriers of mutations in PROS1 with values far below the lower limit of the reference values obtained from healthy volunteers. Low specificities were found in subjects with a factor V Leiden mutation and in pregnant women. At lower cut-off levels, equal to the highest PS value found in heterozygous carriers of mutations in PROS1, the specificity considerably increased in these subjects. When using low cut-off levels equal to the highest PS value found in heterozygous carriers of mutations in PROS1, ensuring 100% sensitivity, the specificity in all study groups increases considerably, by which misclassification can be maximally avoided.

  11. Memristor-capacitor passive filters to tune both cut-off frequency and bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shawkat; Hassan, Arshad; Hassan, Gul; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2017-04-01

    In various optical sensor applications, programmable analog filters are desirable to reduce the hardware requirement. Memristor is two state programmable nonvolatile resistor, which has a small size and low power consumption. Using these resistance switching characteristics of a memristor, we propose a novel memristor-capacitor (MC) based printed low pass and high pass filters for analog circuits to achieve tunable cut-off frequencies and bandwidth. The cut-off frequencies of filters are controlled through a memristor state switching (HRS/LRS), whereas the capacitor has a fixed value. The proposed MC filters utilize graphene/poly 4-vinlyphenol (G/PVP) for dielectric layer of capacitors and Graphene Quatum Dots (GQDs)/PVP for an active layer of memristor, and these layers are fabricated on ITO coated flexible PET substrate through electrohydrodynamic (EHD) technique. Both MC filters are designed as parameters of two state memristance and a capacitance. From comparison between designed and fabricated filters, we show that they are matched quite well.

  12. Impact of anthropometric cut-off values in determining the prevalence of metabolic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeda-Valdes, Paloma; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Uribe, Misael; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Méndez-Sánchez, Nahum

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in parallel with associated metabolic disturbances such as diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The objective of this article is to underscore discrepancies in the standard anthropometric cut-off values and the presence of metabolic disturbances including diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused by biological and ethnic variations. We performed a literature review regarding the diagnosis and prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and about the different available indicators to define obesity. There is an ongoing epidemic of these chronic diseases, partially attributed to the increased prevalence of obesity. The available markers to indicate adiposity are imperfect, and the selection of accurate cut-off points is still not clear. Methods to quantify adiposity that are useful in clinical practice should be developed to better classify individuals and to reflect metabolic risk more appropriately. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  13. Physical activity cut-offs and risk factors for preventing child obesity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minematsu, Kazuo; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Okazaki, Hiromi; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tobina, Takuro; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Tsunawake, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    There is no official recommendations for physical activity level or steps for preventing and improving child obesity in Japan. Three hundred and two Japanese children aged 9-12 years were recruited wore 3-D speed sensors. Subjects were divided into two groups using the criteria for child obesity in Japan. Body composition was measured on bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness test was done to evaluate physical strength. Twenty-four hour total steps, energy expenditure, and metabolic equivalents (MET) from Monday to Sunday were consecutively measured. The cut-offs for steps and physical activity level for preventing child obesity were evaluated on receiver operating characteristic curves. Daily life-related risk factors for child obesity were assessed on logistic regression analysis. In both sexes, body volume; bodyweight, body mass index, fat mass, and percentage body fat in the obese group was significantly higher than in the normal group, but age and height were not different (P obese group were inferior to those in the normal group (P child obesity. Additionally, >2 h TV viewing per day is a significant risk factor for child obesity (OR, 3.43; 95%CI: 1.27-9.31). Cut-offs for physical activity and potential risk factors for child obesity have been identified. Recommendations for changes to daily lifestyle for school-aged Japanese children are given. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Excitation of parasitic waves near cutoff in forward-wave amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Sinitsyn, Oleksandr V.; Antonsen, Thomas M., Jr.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, excitation of parasitic waves near cutoff in forward-wave amplifiers is studied in a rather general form. This problem is important for developing high-power sources of coherent, phase controlled short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation because just the waves which can be excited near cutoff have low group velocities. Since the wave coupling to an electron beam is inversely proportional to the group velocity, these waves are the most dangerous parasitic waves preventing stable amplification of desired signal waves. Two effects are analyzed in the paper. The first one is the effect of signal wave parameters on the self-excitation conditions of such parasitic waves. The second effect is the role of the beam geometry on excitation of these parasitic waves in forward-wave amplifiers with spatially extended interaction space, such as sheet-beam devices. It is shown that a large-amplitude signal wave can greatly influence the self-excitation conditions of the parasitic waves which define stability of operation. Therefore the effect described is important for accurate designing of high-power amplifiers of electromagnetic waves.

  15. Integrative analysis unveils new functions for the Drosophila Cutoff protein in noncoding RNA biogenesis and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritykin, Yuri; Brito, Tarcisio; Schupbach, Trudi; Singh, Mona; Pane, Attilio

    2017-07-01

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are central components of the piRNA pathway, which directs transposon silencing and guarantees genome integrity in the germ cells of several metazoans. In Drosophila, piRNAs are produced from discrete regions of the genome termed piRNA clusters, whose expression relies on the RDC complex comprised of the core proteins Rhino, Deadlock, and Cutoff. To date, the RDC complex has been exclusively implicated in the regulation of the piRNA loci. Here we further elucidate the function of Cutoff and the RDC complex by performing genome-wide ChIP-seq and RNA-seq assays in the Drosophila ovaries and analyzing these data together with other publicly available data sets. In agreement with previous studies, we confirm that Cutoff is involved in the transcriptional regulation of piRNA clusters and in the repression of transposable elements in germ cells. Surprisingly, however, we find that Cutoff is enriched at and affects the expression of other noncoding RNAs, including spliceosomal RNAs (snRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). At least in some instances, Cutoff appears to act at a transcriptional level in concert with Rhino and perhaps Deadlock. Finally, we show that mutations in Cutoff result in the deregulation of hundreds of protein-coding genes in germ cells. Our study uncovers a broader function for the RDC complex in the Drosophila germline development. © 2017 Pritykin et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  16. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  17. Optimal BMI cut-off values for predicting diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in a multi-ethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kee Chee; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Lim, Kuang H; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Khor, Geok L; Shahar, Suzana; Rahman, Jamalludin Abd; Zainuddin, Ahmad A; Mustafa, Amal N

    2013-03-01

    To determine the optimal cut-offs of BMI for Malaysian adults. Population-based, cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the cut-off values of BMI with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of three cardiovascular risk factors: diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between BMI and these cardiovascular risk factors. All fourteen states in Malaysia. Malaysian adults aged ≥18 years (n 32 703) who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006. The optimal BMI cut-off value for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one of these cardiovascular risk factors varied from 23.3 to 24.1 kg/m2 for men and from 24.0 to 25.4 kg/m2 for women. In men and women, the odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia or at least one cardiovascular risk factor increased significantly as BMI cut-off point increased. Our findings indicate that BMI cut-offs of 23.0 kg/m2 in men and 24.0 kg/m2 in women are appropriate for classification of overweight. We suggest that these cut-offs can be used by health professionals to identify individuals for cardiovascular risk screening and weight management programmes.

  18. Selecting a Cutoff Point for a Developmental Screening Test Based on Overall Diagnostic Indices and Total Expected Utilities of Professional Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Fang Liao

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: If only one cutoff point can be chosen, the authors suggest that clinicians should choose cutoff point B when using the Taipei II for screening. However, two cutoff points of Taipei II, a combination of strategy A and B, can also be used clinically.

  19. Strengthening of Shear Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg

    The theory for concrete structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer materials has been developing for approximately two decades, and there are at the present time numerous guidelines covering strengthening of many commonly encountered structural building elements. Strengthening of in......-plane loaded walls and disks is however not included in any guidelines, and only a small fraction of scientists have initiated research within this topic. Furthermore, studies of the principal behavior and response of a strengthened disk has not yet been investigated satisfactorily, and this is the principal...... that describes a unit width strip of a strengthened disk. The unit width strip is named a strengthened concrete tension member and contains a single tensile crack and four debonding cracks. Analysis of the member results in closed form expressions for the load-crack opening relationship. Further analysis...

  20. Great Wall of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface

  1. Cell wall evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Ulrik Fangel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls display a considerable degree of diversity in their compositions and molecular architectures. In some cases the functional significance of a particular cell wall type appears to be easy to discern: secondary cells walls are often heavy reinforced with lignin that provides the required durability; the thin cell walls of pollen tubes have particular compositions that enable their tip growth; lupin seed cell walls are characteristically thickened with galactan used as a storage polysaccharide. However, more frequently the evolutionary mechanisms and selection pressures that underpin cell wall diversity and evolution are unclear. The rapidly increasing availability of transcriptome and genome data sets, development of high-throughput methods for cell wall analyses, and expansion of molecular probe sets, are providing new insights into the diversity and occurrence of cell wall polysaccharides and associated biosynthetic genes. Such research is important for refining our understanding of some of the fundamental processes that enabled plants to colonise land and subsequently radiate so comprehensively. The study of cell wall structural diversity is also an important aspect of the industrial utilization of global polysaccharide bio-resources.

  2. A novel cutoff for the waist-to-height ratio predicting metabolic syndrome in young American adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D. Bohr

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown the enhanced diagnostic capability of the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR over BMI. However, while a structured cutoff hierarchy has been established for BMI, a rigorous analysis to define individuals as obese using the WHtR has not been performed on a sample of American adults. This study attempts to establish a cutoff for the WHtR using metabolic syndrome as the outcome. Methods The study sample consisted of individuals that were part of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health. The final sample for analysis consisted of 7 935 participants (3 469 males, 4 466 females that were complete respondents for the variables of interest at Wave IV. The participants ranged from 24.55-33.60 years. Weighted and unweighted receiver operator characteristics (ROC analyses were performed predicting metabolic syndrome from the WHtR. Cutoffs were chosen using the Youden index. The derived cutoffs were validated by logistic regression analysis on the Add Health participants and an external sample of 1 236 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Results The ROC analysis resulted in a WHtR cutoff of 0.578 (Youden Index = 0.50 for the full sample of complete respondents, 0.578 (Youden Index = 0.55 for males only, and 0.580 (Youden Index = 0.50 for females only. The area under the curve was 0.798 (95 % CI (0.788, 0.809 for the full sample of complete respondents, 0.833 (95 % CI (0.818, 0.848 for males only, and 0.804 (95 % CI (0.791, 0.818 for females only. Participants in the validation sample with a WHtR greater than the derived cutoff were more likely (Odds Ratio = 9.8, 95 % CI (6.2, 15.3 to have metabolic syndrome than those that were not. Conclusion A WHtR cutoff of 0.580 is optimal for discriminating individuals with metabolic syndrome in two nationally representative samples of young adults. This cutoff is an improvement over a

  3. Variability of cut-off values for the detection of lupus anticoagulants: results of an international multicenter multiplatform study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, A; Chantarangkul, V; Cini, M; Devreese, K; Dlott, J S; Giacomello, R; Gray, E; Legnani, C; Martinuzzo, M E; Pradella, P; Siegemund, A; Subramanian, S; Suchon, P; Testa, S

    2017-06-01

    Essentials Between-lab variations of cut-off values in lupus anticoagulant detection are unknown. Cut-off values were calculated in 11 labs each testing plasma from 120 donors with 3 platforms. Major variation was observed even within the same platform. Cut-off values determined in different labs are not interchangeable. Background Cut-off values for interpretation of lupus anticoagulant (LA) detection are poorly investigated. Aims (i) To assess whether results from healthy donors were normally distributed and (ii) the between-laboratories differences in cut-off values for screening, mixing and LA confirmation when calculated as 99th or 95th centiles, and (iii) to assess their impact on the detection rate for LA. Methods Each of 11 laboratories using one of the three widely used commercial platforms for LA detection was asked to collect plasmas from 120 healthy donors and to perform screening, mixing and LA confirmation with two methods (activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT] and dilute Russell viper venom [dRVV]). A common set of LA-positive or LA-negative freeze-dried plasmas was used to assess the LA detection rate. Results were centralized (Milano) for statistical analysis. Results and conclusions (i) Clotting times or ratios for healthy subjects were not normally distributed in the majority of cases. The take-home message is that cut-off values should be determined preferably by the non-parametric method based on centiles. (ii) There were relatively large inter-laboratory cut-off variations even within the same platform and the variability was marginally attenuated when results were expressed as ratios (test-to-normal pooled plasma). The take-home message is that cut-off values should be determined locally. (iii) There were differences between cut-off values calculated as 99th or 95th centiles that translate into a different LA detection rate (the lower the centile the greater the detection rate). The take-home message is that cut-off values determined

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of the Beck Depression Inventory in cardiologic inpatients: how useful is the conventional cut-off score?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, Thomas; Vehren, Thomas; Boecker, Maren; Norra, Christine; Wirtz, Markus; Gauggel, Siegfried

    2009-10-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used for depression screening in various patient populations. However, there are still insufficient data about its sensitivity and specificity in nonpsychiatric patients. Furthermore, some research suggests that somatic BDI items heighten its sum score artificially in physically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to validate the conventional BDI cut-off score by examination of its sensitivity and specificity in a mixed sample of cardiac inpatients and compare it to a modified "cognitive-emotional" BDI (BDI(c/e)) after exclusion of somatic items. A total of 126 cardiologic inpatients were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) were calculated for total BDI (BDI(t)) and BDI(c/e). Screening performance of cut-off scores was evaluated using the Youden Index (Y). With the application of the conventional BDI cut-off score, ROC analysis revealed a moderate overall screening performance with Y=52.6 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83. In contrast, Y improved to 57.5 at a cut-off score of >9, but screening performance was still not optimal. BDI(c/e) showed also a moderate screening performance (AUC=.82); Y was maximized at a cut-off score of >8 (Y=0.53.5). Again, no cut-off score provided optimal screening performance. The BDI cannot be recommended as a formal screening instrument in cardiac inpatients since no cut-off score for either BDI(t) or BDI(c/e) combined both sufficiently high sensitivity and specificity. However, the shorter BDI(c/e) could be used as alternative to BDI(t) which may be confounded in physically ill patients. Generally, researchers should consider using alternative screening instruments (e.g., the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) instead.

  5. Occupy Wall Street

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez,Francisca

    2011-01-01

    В статье рассматривается организованная антипотребительскими сообществами и направленная против негативных форм глобализации акция «Occupy Wall Street». Движение возникло осенью 2011 г. в США и стремительно распространилось по всему миру. Акции в поддержку движения были проведены еще в 82 странах. Автор, исследуя причины возникновения движения и источники его финансирования, приходит к выводу, что проект «Occupy Wall Street» может быть очередной уловкой глобалистов, цель которой «обезвредить»...

  6. Distribution of Ωk from the scale-factor cutoff measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Simone, Andrea; Salem, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    Our Universe may be contained in one among a diverging number of bubbles that nucleate within an eternally inflating multiverse. A promising measure to regulate the diverging spacetime volume of such a multiverse is the scale-factor cutoff, one feature of which is bubbles are not rewarded for having a longer duration of slow-roll inflation. Thus, depending on the landscape distribution of the number of e-folds of inflation among bubbles like ours, we might hope to measure spatial curvature. We study a recently proposed cartoon model of inflation in the landscape and find a reasonable chance (about 10%) that the curvature in our Universe is well above the value expected from cosmic variance. Anthropic selection does not strongly select for curvature as small as is observed (relative somewhat larger values), meaning the observational bound on curvature can be used to rule out landscape models that typically give too little inflation.

  7. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  8. Multisolitons and stability of two hump solitons of upper cutoff mode in discrete electrical transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togueu Motcheyo, Alain Bertrand, E-mail: abtogueu@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Tchawoua, Clement, E-mail: ctchawa@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Siewe Siewe, Martin, E-mail: martinsiewesiewe@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Tchinang Tchameu, Joel Durel, E-mail: jtchinang@gmail.co [Laboratoire de Mecanique, Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Yaounde I, B.P. 812, Yaounde (Cameroon)

    2011-02-14

    We show that a discrete electrical transmission line, such as a Band-pass filter is modeled by the Salerno equation at the upper cutoff mode. Special interest is paid to the investigation of stationary localized solutions supported by this equation for some given experimental parameters. Applying a map approach, the profiles of single and two bright solitons are obtained. Linear stability and direct numerical simulations are performed and the results show that a single bright soliton is stable while two bright ones are unstable and lead to a single bright soliton. Finally, we show that the lifespan of two hump solitons increases depending on the length thrust range of the kicked initial condition.

  9. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  10. ELISA validation and determination of cut-off level for chloramphenicol residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki Bogumił

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical validation of a screening ELISA for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP in honey was conducted according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines. The analyte was extracted from honey with a water and ethyl acetate mixture, and CAP concentrations were measured photometrically at 450 nm. The recovery rate of the analyte from spiked samples was 79%. The cut-off level of CAP in honey as the minimum recovery (0.17 units was established. Detection capability (CCβ was fixed at 0.25 μg kg−1. No relevant interferences between matrix effects and structurally related substances including florfenicol and thiamphenicol were observed. The ELISA method should be useful for determination of CAP residues in honey monitoring.

  11. Control of Wall Mounting Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pedersen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for designing controllers for trajectory tracking with actuator constraints. In particular, we consider a joystick-controlled wall mounting robot called WallMo. In contrast to previous works, a model-free approach is taken to the control problem, where the path...

  12. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  13. Bacterial cell-wall recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jarrod W.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Many Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria recycle a significant proportion of the peptidoglycan components of their cell walls during their growth and septation. In many—and quite possibly all—bacteria, the peptidoglycan fragments are recovered and recycled. While cell-wall recycling is beneficial for the recovery of resources, it also serves as a mechanism to detect cell-wall–targeting antibiotics and to regulate resistance mechanisms. In several Gram-negative pathogens, anhydro-MurNAc-peptide cell-wall fragments regulate AmpC β-lactamase induction. In some Gram-positive organisms, short peptides derived from the cell wall regulate the induction of both β-lactamase and β-lactam-resistant penicillin-binding proteins. The involvement of peptidoglycan recycling with resistance regulation suggests that inhibitors of the enzymes involved in the recycling might synergize with cell-wall-targeted antibiotics. Indeed, such inhibitors improve the potency of β-lactams in vitro against inducible AmpC β-lactamase-producing bacteria. We describe the key steps of cell-wall remodeling and recycling, the regulation of resistance mechanisms by cell-wall recycling, and recent advances toward the discovery of cell-wall recycling inhibitors. PMID:23163477

  14. The Association Between Epicardial Adipose Tissue and Coronary Artery Disease: an Echocardiographic Cut-off Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoush Toufan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: EAT is an independent factor in coronary artery disease (CAD. The objective of the current study was to define an echocardiographic cut-off point for EAT and to determine its diagnostic value in predicting the increase in CAD risk. Methods: Two hundred patients underwent coronary artery angiography for diagnosis of CAD and transthoracic echocardiography for measurement of EAT on the right ventricle (RV, RV apex and RV outlet tract. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the EAT cut-off points in the three above-mentioned areas for predicting the severity of CAD were measured. The relation between the EAT and CAD risk factors was evaluated as well. Results: EAT was independent from gender, height, hypertension, diabetes, HDL, total cholesterol, ejection fraction, acute coronary syndrome, and the location of the coronary artery stenosis in the coronary artery in all three anatomical areas. EAT on RV and RV apex had a significant relation with CAD (P ≤ 0.05. Overall, RV EAT≥ 10 mm and RV apex EAT ≥ 8 mm had sensitivity and PPV of more than 70% in predicting coronary stenosis ≥ 50% and acute coronary syndrome (ACS and RVOT EAT ≥ 13 mm is of PPV=83.5% for predicting coronary stenosis ≥ 50%. Conclusion: EAT thickness has an acceptable diagnostic value for predicting severe coronary artery stenosis and ACS. Therefore, non-invasive EAT thickness measurement could be of great assistance to clinicians for detecting the patients at risk and helping them to undergo supplementary evaluations with invasive approaches.

  15. The Epidemiologic and Pharmacodynamic Cutoff Values of Tilmicosin against Haemophilus parasuis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong eHao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish antimicrobial susceptibility breakpoints for tilmicosin against Haemophilus parasuis, which is an important pathogen of respiratory tract infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 103 H. parasuis isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. The wild-type (WT distribution and epidemiologic cutoff value (ECV were evaluated by statistical analysis. The new bronchoaveolar lavage (BAL was used to establish intrapulmonary pharmacokinetic (PK model in swine. The pharmacokinetic (PK parameters of tilmicosin, both in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF and in plasma, were determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and WinNonlin software. The pharmacodynamic cutoff (COPD was calculated using Monte Carlo simulation. Our results showed that 100% of WT isolates were covered when the ECV was set at 16μg/mL. The tilmicosin had concentration-dependent activity against H. parasuis. The PK data indicated that tilmicosin concentrations in PELF was rapidly increased to high levels at 4 hours and kept stable until 48 hours after drug administration, while the tilmicosin concentration in plasma reached maximum levels at 4 hours and continued to decrease during 4-72 hours. Using Monte Carlo simulation, COPD was defined as 1 μg/mL. Conclusively, the ECV and COPD of tilmicosin against H. parasuis were established for the first time based on the MIC distribution and PK-PD analysis in the target tissue, respectively. These values are of great importance for detection of tilmicosin-resistant H. parasuis and for effective treatment of clinical intrapulmonary infection caused by H. parasuis.

  16. Science and art of setting performance standards and cutoff scores in kinesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weimo

    2013-12-01

    Setting standards and cutoff scores is essential to any measurement and evaluation practice. Two evaluation frameworks, norm-referenced (NR) and criterion-referenced (CR), have often been used for setting standards. Although setting fitness standards based on the NR evaluation is relatively easy as long as a nationally representative sample can be obtained and regularly updated, it has several limitations-namely, time dependency, population dependence, discouraging low-level performers, and favoring advantaged or punishing disadvantaged individuals. Fortunately, these limitations can be significantly eliminated by employing the CR evaluation, which was introduced to kinesiology by Safrit and colleagues in the 1980s and has been successfully applied to some practical problems (e.g., set health-related fitness standards for FITNESSGRAM). Yet, the CR evaluation has its own challenges, e.g., selecting an appropriate measure for a criterion behavior, when the expected relationship between the criterion behavior and a predictive measure is not clear, and when standards are not consistent among multiple field measures. Some of these challenges can be addressed by employing the latest statistical methods (e.g., test equating). This article provides a comprehensive review of the science and art of setting standards and cutoff scores in kinesiology. After a brief historical overview of the standard-setting practice in kinesiology is presented, a case analysis of a successful CR evaluation, along with related challenges, is described. Lessons learned from past and current practice as well as how to develop a defendable standard are described. Finally, future research needs and directions are outlined.

  17. Are the conventional cutoff values adequate to define hypertension in young women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalar, Enver; Okutucu, Sercan; Aksoy, Hakan; Demiri, Edis; Aksoyek, Serdar

    2010-12-01

    Women have lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels than men during early adulthood. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) tends to be just marginally lower in women than men regardless of age. Aims of this study were (i) to determine 95th percentile value of SBP, DBP, and mean arterial blood pressure in healthy women, and (ii) to evaluate the effects of basal demographic and anthropometric features on blood pressure. Six hundred and fifty-four consecutive participants (18-35 years old) were initially enrolled in the study but among them 54 (8.2%) cases were excluded. Demographic features, relevant personal and family history data about hypertension, smoking habits, and use of medications were interviewed using a questionnaire. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference of every case were measured. Of the 600 patients (mean age, 24.6±4.0 years), 124 (20.7%) were currently smokers, 20 (3.3%) had history of hypertension during pregnancy, and 291 (48.5%) had family history of hypertension in women (mean age, 61.0±9.51 years). Reference ranges of 5th and 95th percentile values for SBP were determined as 74 and 115 mmHg, for mean arterial blood pressure as 57 and 85 mmHg, for DBP as 45 and 72 mmHg, respectively. In conclusion, cutoff values of hypertension in healthy women, which were determined by our study, are lower than the standard cutoff values for definition of hypertension in adults. However, clinical importance of these findings should be investigated in further studies involving larger population with prospective follow-up.

  18. Cut-off values of waist circumference to predict metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masquio, Deborah Cristina Landi; Ganen, Aline de Piano; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Sanches, Priscila de Lima; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Caranti, Danielle; Tock, Lian; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Tufik, Sergio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic alteration related to abdominal obesity, inflammation and insulin resistance, which increase cardiovascular disease and mortality. The aims of the present study were to identify the prevalence of comorbidities and altered parameters in obese adolescents with and without MetS, and determine cut-off points of waist circumference to predict MetS. 195 obese adolescents were recruited and divided according to MetS diagnosis based on IDF criteria. Blood analyses of glucose, lipids, liver enzymes, adiponectin and leptin were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by HOMA-IR, QUICKI and HOMA-AD. Visceral, subcutaneous and hepatic fat were ultrasonography obtained. Body composition was estimated by BOD POD system. We observed a prevalence of 25% of MetS (n=50). The MetS group presented significant higher body mass, BMI, body fat (kg), free-fat mass (kg), waist circumference, visceral fat, glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, total-cholesterol, LDL-c, VLDL-c, triglycerides, liver enzymes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and blood pressure. Significant lower QUICKI and adiponectin in MetS group were noted. MetS girls presented significant higher leptin/adiponectin ratio compared to Non-MetS girls. Cut-off points of 111.5 cm for boys and 104.6 cm for girls of waist circumference were suggested to predict metabolic syndrome. Moreover, waist circumference was positive correlated with visceral fat and the number of metabolic syndrome parameters. MetS group presented significant higher metabolic alterations and inflammation compared to Non-MetS group. Waist circumference is considered an anthropometric measure predictor of metabolic syndrome in obese adolescents, being useful in clinical practice. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Malnutrition Inflammation Score cut-off predicting mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariana Clementoni Costa; Vogt, Barbara Perez; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; Caramori, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira

    2017-02-01

    Malnutrition is a strong predictor of mortality on hemodialysis patients, especially when it is associated with inflammation. Malnutrition Inflammation Score (MIS) is a simple and low cost tool which assesses the presence of malnutrition associated with inflammation. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate if MIS is associated with mortality in patients on maintenance hemodialysis and establish a cut-off to predict mortality at different follow-up periods. Observational retrospective cohort study including 215 patients on hemodialysis between July 2012 and June 2014, censored until November 2015. MIS was used to assess patient's nutritional status at the moment they were enrolled in the study. They were followed for at least 18 months. At the end of 18 months, 38 (17.7%) deaths, 20 renal transplants (9.3%), four facilities transference (1.9%), three dialysis method change (1.4%) and one renal function recovery (0.5%) were observed. One hundred seventy one patients completed at least 24 months of follow-up, and during this additional period, there were five deaths and one renal transplant more. Score higher than 7 points was able to predict mortality for both follow-up periods using sensitivity and specificity analysis and ROC curves. Using this cut-off on Kaplan-Meier survival curve, it was possible to confirm the association of MIS with all-cause mortality at 18 months and 24 or more months of follow-up. Finally, Cox multivariate analysis adjusted for demographic, clinical and nutritional variables showed MIS as the only significant predictor of mortality. MIS is an independent predictor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abrupt skin lesion border cutoff measurement for malignancy detection in dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sertan; Bayraktar, Mustafa; Kockara, Sinan; Mete, Mutlu; Halic, Tansel; Field, Halle E; Wong, Henry K

    2016-10-06

    Automated skin lesion border examination and analysis techniques have become an important field of research for distinguishing malignant pigmented lesions from benign lesions. An abrupt pigment pattern cutoff at the periphery of a skin lesion is one of the most important dermoscopic features for detection of neoplastic behavior. In current clinical setting, the lesion is divided into a virtual pie with eight sections. Each section is examined by a dermatologist for abrupt cutoff and scored accordingly, which can be tedious and subjective. This study introduces a novel approach to objectively quantify abruptness of pigment patterns along the lesion periphery. In the proposed approach, first, the skin lesion border is detected by the density based lesion border detection method. Second, the detected border is gradually scaled through vector operations. Then, along gradually scaled borders, pigment pattern homogeneities are calculated at different scales. Through this process, statistical texture features are extracted. Moreover, different color spaces are examined for the efficacy of texture analysis. The proposed method has been tested and validated on 100 (31 melanoma, 69 benign) dermoscopy images. Analyzed results indicate that proposed method is efficient on malignancy detection. More specifically, we obtained specificity of 0.96 and sensitivity of 0.86 for malignancy detection in a certain color space. The F-measure, harmonic mean of recall and precision, of the framework is reported as 0.87. The use of texture homogeneity along the periphery of the lesion border is an effective method to detect malignancy of the skin lesion in dermoscopy images. Among different color spaces tested, RGB color space's blue color channel is the most informative color channel to detect malignancy for skin lesions. That is followed by YCbCr color spaces Cr channel, and Cr is closely followed by the green color channel of RGB color space.

  1. Is there a cut-off for high-quality guidelines? A systematic analysis of current guideline appraisals using the AGREE II instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Eßer, Wiebke; Siering, Ulrich; Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Lampert, Ulrike; Eikermann, Michaela

    2017-12-26

    To investigate whether AGREE II users apply a cut-off based on standardized domain scores or overall guideline quality in order to distinguish between high- and low-quality guidelines, as well as to investigate which criteria they use to generate this cut-off and which type of cut-off they apply. We conducted a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, DARE, and the HTA-Database for German- and English-language studies appraising guidelines with AGREE II. Information on cut-offs was extracted and analyzed descriptively. We identified 118 relevant publications. 39 (33%) used a cut-off, of which 24 (62%) used a 2-step and 13 (33%) used a 3-step approach. The cut-off for high quality lay between 50%-70% (2-step) and 60%-83% (3-step) of the highest possible rating. 24 (62%) publications applied a cut-off based on standardized domain scores and 7 (18%) based on overall guideline quality. 11 (28%) applied cut-offs to derive the recommendation for guideline use. A third of AGREE II users apply a cut-off to distinguish between high- and low-quality guidelines, often without clearly describing how the cut-off is generated. Many users might welcome a clear distinction between high- and low-quality guidelines; specifying a cut-off for this purpose might be useful. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ultrasonography of chest wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol Min; Kim, C. H.; Cha, I. H.; Chung, K. B.; Ser, W. H.; Choi, Y. H. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Thirty-one patients with chest wall diseases were studied with ultrasound to evaluate its role in chest wall lesions. There were eight infectious conditions, 9 benign tumors, 11 malignant lesions and 3 miscellaneous cases. Diffuse chest wall thickening with heterogeneous echogenicity and obliteration of subcutaneous fat layer are findings of acute infection. In cases of tuberculous smpyema necessitates, pleural abnormality extended to the chest wall through intercostal space. Benign tumors were well demarcated, except in 4 cases of lipoma/lipomatosis. Malignant lesions showed irregular soft tissue masses, bone destruction, pleural effusion and subcutaneous invasion. Multiple enlarged lymph nodes were also shown. Ultrasound can demonstrate te internal structure, extent, depth and associated findings such as pleural effusion, bone destruction and peripheral lung involvement. Ultrasound is not only safe, non-invasive and an effective diagnostic imaging modality for chest wall disease, but can also guide aspiration or biopsy for pathologic diagnosis

  3. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  4. Channel Wall Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The multiple landslides in this VIS image occur along a steep channel wall. Note the large impact crater in the context image. The formation of the crater may have initially weakened that area of the surface prior to channel formation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.7, Longitude 324.8 East (35.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Validity of currently used cutoff values of body mass index as a measure of obesity in Sri Lankan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, V P; Lamabadusuriya, S P; Cleghorn, G J; Davies, P S W

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the reliability of body mass index based (BMI) cutoff values in diagnosing obesity among Sri Lankan children. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) in 282 children were measured. Total body water was determined by deuterium dilution and fat mass (FM) derived using age and gender specific constants. A percentage FM of 30% for girls and 25% for boys were considered as cutoff levels for obesity. Two hundred and eighty two children (M/F: 158/124) were studied and 99 (80%) girls and 72 (45.5%) boys were obese based on % body fat. Eight (6.4%) girls and nine (5.7%) boys were obese based on International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cutoff values. Percentage FM and WC centile charts were able to diagnose a significant proportion of children as true obese children. The FM and BMI were closely associated in both girls (r = 0.82, p FM and BMI had a very low but significant association; girls (r = 0.32, p FM had a significant association with WC and HC. BMI based cutoff values had a specificity of 100% but a very low sensitivity, varying between 8% and 23.6%. BMI is a poor indicator of the percentage fat and the commonly used cutoff values were not sensitive to detect cases of childhood obesity in Sri Lankan children.

  6. The need for re-defining cut-off values in heart failure: From obesity to iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; von Haehling, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    The health status of older people is frequently complicated by one or more chronic diseases. Some conditions might have a different meaning in certain groups of elderly subjects, like in frail people or older patients with heart failure. Cut-off values defining these conditions may require adjustment in such groups. Indeed, several such conditions (e.g. obesity and hypercholesterolemia) have been discussed recently in light of so-called paradoxical situations, which are - counter-intuitively - associated with better outcome instead of a negative impact on survival in the general population. Therefore, different cut-off values may be needed in some groups of older subjects. The pathophysiological mechanisms for these paradoxical situations need to be understood in at least two different ways, causal and non-causal. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of a variety of conditions (obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and diabetes) in which new cut-offs may have diagnostic, clinical, or prognostic value, focusing on heart failure as a chronic disease, which is frequently observed in older patients. Haemoglobin concentration may need a different cut-off in heart failure for a reason other than paradox. Namely, underlying iron deficiency itself, both in those with or without anaemia, can have effects on symptoms and quality of life. Further studies will be needed for re-defining cut-off values in heart failure and maybe in the other chronic illnesses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Cut-off Values of Triglycerides and Glucose Index for Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Park, Joon Sung; Ahn, Youhern

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ethnic- and gender-specific cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index) for clinical usefulness in a representative sample of Mexican American, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Korean adolescents. The data were collected from datasets of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to find valid cut-off values of the TyG index for metabolic syndrome. The total number of eligible participants was 3,164 in the US and 4,873 in Korea. The optimal cut-off value with the Cook et al. definition revealed 8.55 in Mexican American, 8.55 in Non-Hispanic White, 8.35 in Non-Hispanic Black, and 8.45 in Korean, respectively. The cut-off value with the de Ferranti et al. definition was 8.45, 8.45, 8.15, and 8.35, and the cut-off value with the International Diabetes Federation definition was 8.65, 8.65, 8.15, and 8.55, respectively. These findings may be clinically useful for evaluating insulin resistance for determining metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

  8. Solar walls in tsbi3 user's guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, K.B.

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building....... This version, C, of tsbi3 is capable of simulating five types of solar walls say: mass-walls, Trombe-walls, double Trombe-walls, internally ventilated walls and solar walls for preheating ventilation air. The user's guide gives a description of the capabilities and how to simulate solar walls in tsbi3....

  9. GIS for geotechnical decision making: Visualization of cut-odd wall construction data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J.B.; Bachus, R.C.; Schauer, D. [Geosyntec Consultants (United States); Arnold, M.A. [Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Dresden (Germany); Berrios, A. [Bauer Foundation Corporation, Odessa (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The construction industry is investigating how best to collect and manage information from large and high-profile construction projects. An efficient data management system contributes to reducing the complexity, the duration and the budget of projects. This paper presented an application of geographic information systems (GIS) technology to capture information from multiple data streams and provide geotechnical feedback and project control feedback. The Herbert Hoover dike (HHD), Florida, USA, is an on-going program using the cutter soil mixer (CSM) process technique for the cut-off wall. A GIS application WallTracker was developed to manage, visualize and remotely access in near-real time, data from the HHD project. This paper presented the challenges associated with the construction of the HHD cut-off structure. It provided a description of the CSM technology and describes the capability and functionality of the WallTracker to address the information demands. This presentation illustrated the efficiency of GIS technology as a tool for geotechnical decision making.

  10. Cell wall proteomics of crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setsuko eKomatsu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cell wall proteins play key roles in cell structure and metabolism, cell enlargement, signal transduction, responses to environmental stress, and many other physiological events. Agricultural crops are often used for investigating stress tolerance because cultivars with differing degrees of tolerance are available. Abiotic and biotic stress factors markedly influence the geographical distribution and yields of many crop species. Crop cell wall proteomics is of particular importance for improving crop productivity, particularly under unfavorable environmental conditions. To better understand the mechanisms underlying stress response in crops, cell wall proteomic analyses are being increasingly utilized. In this review, the methods of purification and purity assays of cell wall protein fractions from crops are described, and the results of protein identification using gel-based and gel-free proteomic techniques are presented. Furthermore, protein composition of the cell walls of rice, wheat, maize and soybean are compared, and the role of cell wall proteins in crops under flooding and drought stress is discussed. This review will be useful for clarifying the role of the cell wall of crops in response to environmental stresses.

  11. Effective cutoffs for detecting random, partially random, and nonrandom 350-item MMPI--a short form protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsoneault, Terry B

    2014-06-01

    The ability of the 350-item short form Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) validity scales to detect random protocols was investigated using samples of 250 nonrandom protocols, 250 half-random protocols, and 250 all-random protocols. As the manual warns, long form cutoffs of the Variable Response Inconsistency scale (VRIN) of 75T and the Infrequency scale (F) of 90T were ineffective in detecting random protocols. Alternative cutoffs for F₁ and the truncated VRIN and F scales were investigated. Short form subscales of VRIN and F were developed to improve detection of partially random protocols. An algorithm using alternative cutoffs for the scales and the new subscales was quite effective, detecting 95% of the all-random protocols, 87% of the half-random protocols, and 98% of the nonrandom protocols. A follow-up cross-validation study was conducted that confirmed the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  12. Sucrose hydrolysis by invertase using a membrane reactor: effect of membrane cut-off on enzyme performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Di Addezio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose hydrolysis by invertase [EC.3.2.1.26] produces inverted sugar syrup, an ingredient mainly used in the food industry. To properly catalyze hydrolysis, the enzyme should be reused after this reaction. It is advisable to maintain constant activity over a considerable period. Thus, sucrose hydrolysis was performed in a membrane bioreactor - a continuously stirred tank reactor coupled with an ultrafiltration membrane (UFM which provides good diffusion and high activity per unit volume. Molecular weight cut-off for soluble invertase UFMs was up to 100kDa. This study focused on the role of UFM invertase cut-off as it is the main element in the process. We demonstrated that both the cut-off and chemical nature of the UFM affected specific invertase activity.

  13. Measurements and modeling of multipath interference at wavelengths below cable cut-off in a G.654 optical fiber span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D; Hurley, Jason; DePedro, Hector; Garner, Steven; Blaker, Jeremy; Zakharian, Aramais; Ten, Sergey; Mills, Greg

    2017-04-17

    Transmission below the cable cut-off wavelength may be a concern in some systems, especially for an optical supervisory channel (OSC) operating below the signal transmission band in systems built with G.654 fiber. In this work, we constructed a cabled span of G.654-compliant fiber and measured the multipath interference (MPI) generated during propagation through the span at a range of wavelengths below the cable cut-offs of the constituent fibers. Measurements were made under a range of conditions including different splice losses and the presence or absence of higher order mode filters placed around the splices. MPI levels were found to be sufficiently low at wavelengths far below the average cable cut-off such that OSC transmission was penalty-free. We compare the experimental results to modeling predictions and find very good agreement.

  14. Domain walls riding the wave.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karapetrov, G.; Novosad, V.; Materials Science Division

    2010-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid proliferation of electronic gadgets around the world. These devices are used for both communication and entertainment, and it is a fact that they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption and overall world consumption of electricity. Increasing the energy efficiency of these devices could have a far greater and immediate impact than a gradual switch to renewable energy sources. The advances in the area of spintronics are therefore very important, as gadgets are mostly comprised of memory and logic elements. Recent developments in controlled manipulation of magnetic domains in ferromagnet nanostructures have opened opportunities for novel device architectures. This new class of memories and logic gates could soon power millions of consumer electronic devices. The attractiveness of using domain-wall motion in electronics is due to its inherent reliability (no mechanical moving parts), scalability (3D scalable architectures such as in racetrack memory), and nonvolatility (retains information in the absence of power). The remaining obstacles in widespread use of 'racetrack-type' elements are the speed and the energy dissipation during the manipulation of domain walls. In their recent contribution to Physical Review Letters, Oleg Tretiakov, Yang Liu, and Artem Abanov from Texas A&M University in College Station, provide a theoretical description of domain-wall motion in nanoscale ferromagnets due to the spin-polarized currents. They find exact conditions for time-dependent resonant domain-wall movement, which could speed up the motion of domain walls while minimizing Ohmic losses. Movement of domain walls in ferromagnetic nanowires can be achieved by application of external magnetic fields or by passing a spin-polarized current through the nanowire itself. On the other hand, the readout of the domain state is done by measuring the resistance of the wire. Therefore, passing current through the

  15. Individualized Cutoff Value of the Preoperative Carcinoembryonic Antigen Level is Necessary for Optimal Use as a Prognostic Marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byeong Geon; Shin, Rumi; Chung, Jung Kee; Jung, In Mok; Heo, Seung Chul

    2013-06-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an important prognostic marker in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, in some stages, it does not work. We performed this study to find a way in which preoperative CEA could be used as a constant prognostic marker in harmony with the TNM staging system. Preoperative CEA levels and recurrences in CRC were surveyed. The distribution of CEA levels and the recurrences in each TNM stage of CRC were analyzed. An optimal cutoff value for each TNM stage was calculated and tested for validity as a prognostic marker within the TNM staging system. The conventional cutoff value of CEA (5 ng/mL) was an independent prognostic factor on the whole. However, when evaluated in subgroups, it was not a prognostic factor in stage I or stage III of N2. A subgroup analysis according to TNM stage revealed different CEA distributions and recurrence rates corresponding to different CEA ranges. The mean CEA levels were higher in advanced stages. In addition, the recurrence rates of corresponding CEA ranges were higher in advanced stages. Optimal cutoff values from the receiver operating characteristic curves were 7.4, 5.5, and 4.5 ng/mL for TNM stage I, II, and III, respectively. Those for N0, N1, and N2 stages were 5.5, 4.8, and 3.5 ng/mL, respectively. The 5-year disease-free survivals were significantly different according to these cutoff values for each TNM and N stage. The multivariate analysis confirmed the new cutoff values to be more efficient in discriminating the prognosis in the subgroups of the TNM stages. Individualized cutoff values of the preoperative CEA level are a more practical prognostic marker following and in harmony with the TNM staging system.

  16. Meteor head echo altitude distributions and the height cutoff effect studied with the EISCAT HPLA UHF and VHF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Westman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Meteor head echo altitude distributions have been derived from data collected with the EISCAT VHF (224MHz and UHF (930MHz high-power, large-aperture (HPLA radars. At the high-altitude end, the distributions cut off abruptly in a manner reminiscent of the trail echo height ceiling effect observed with classical meteor radars. The target dimensions are shown to be much smaller than both the VHF and the UHF probing wavelengths, but the cutoff heights for the two systems are still clearly different, the VHF cutoff being located several km above the UHF one. A single-collision meteor-atmosphere interaction model is used to demonstrate that meteors in the (1.3–7.2µg mass range will ionise such that critical electron density at 224MHz is first reached at or around the VHF cutoff altitude and critical density at 930MHz will be reached at the UHF cutoff altitude. The observed seasonal variation in the cutoff altitudes is shown to be a function of the seasonal variation of atmospheric density with altitude. Assuming that the electron density required for detection is in the order of the critical density, the abrupt altitude cutoffs can be explained as a consequence of the micrometeoroid joint size-speed distribution dropping off so fast at the large-mass, high-velocity end that above a certain altitude the number of detectable events becomes vanishingly small. Conversely, meteors at the low-mass end of the distribution will be gradually retarded such that the ionisation they generate never reaches critical density. These particles will remain unobservable.Key words. Radio science (instruments and techniques – Interplatery physics (interplanetary dust – General or miscellaneous (new fields

  17. Optimal waist circumference cut-off values for predicting cardiovascular risk factors in a multi-ethnic Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Kee C; Ghazali, Sumarni M; Hock, Lim K; Yusoff, Ahmad F; Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Zainuddin, Ahmad Ali; Ying, Chan Y; Lin, Khor G; Rahman, Jamalludin A; Shahar, Suzana; Mustafa, Amal N

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have proposed the lower waist circumference (WC) cutoffs be used for defining abdominal obesity in Asian populations. To determine the optimal cut-offs of waist circumference (WC) in predicting cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in the multi-ethnic Malaysian population. We analysed data from 32,703 respondents (14,980 men and 17,723 women) aged 18 years and above who participated in the Third National Health and Morbidity Survey in 2006. Gender-specific logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between WC and three CV risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia). The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the cut-off values of WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for detecting these CV risk factors. The odds ratio for having diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia, or at least one of these risks, increased significantly as the WC cut-off point increased. Optimal WC cut-off values for predicting the presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and at least one of the three CV risk factors varied from 81.4 to 85.5 cm for men and 79.8 to 80.7 cm for women. Our findings indicate that WC cut-offs of 81 cm for men and 80 cm for women are appropriate for defining abdominal obesity and for recommendation to undergo cardiovascular risk screening and weight management in the Malaysian adult population. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Beck Depression Inventory II: evaluation of the psychometric properties and cut-off points in a Turkish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapci, Emine Gul; Uslu, R; Turkcapar, H; Karaoglan, A

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been previously conducted to assess the Beck Depression Inventory-II's [BDI II; Beck et al., 1996] psychometric properties. However, none of these studies has examined whether the original cut-off scores were applicable to other cultures. Thus, in addition to evaluating its psychometric properties, we also determined the cut-off scores of the BDI II for the Turkish population. Data from nonclinical (n = 362) and clinical psychiatric outpatients diagnosed as depressive disorder according to DSM-IV criteria (n = 176) were gathered. Analyses for internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities and for convergent and discriminant validities were computed. Two confirmatory factor analyses, one derived from the present exploratory factor analyses and the other proposed in the original study were conducted for both groups. A receiver operating characteristics curve was utilized to determine the cut-off scores for the Turkish population revealing 0-12 for minimal, 13-18 for mild, 19-28 for moderate and 29-63 for severe depression. The internal consistency for the nonclinical and clinical groups were .90 and .89, respectively; test-retest stability was also high (r = .94). Convergent and discriminant validity results were satisfactory. Findings confirmed the present model for the clinical group and equally confirmed both models for the nonclinical group. Furthermore, the cut-off scores to classify minimal, mild, moderate, and severe depression were quite akin to the cut-off points previously suggested for the American population. Taken as a whole our findings revealed that BDI II has sound psychometric properties and comparable cut-off scores for the Turkish population. Depression and Anxiety, 2008. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. The performance of age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in Chinese outpatients with suspected venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengwu; Zhao, Yongqiang; Cheng, Wenli; Yang, Jing; Yuan, Jie; Zheng, Yuehong; Yu, Xueying; Zhu, Tienan

    2015-10-01

    D-dimer testing has been widely used in the exclusion of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but its clinical usefulness is limited in older patients because of a lower specificity. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of STA-Liatest D-dimer assay and validate the age-adjusted cut-off value in Chinese outpatients with suspected VTE in a prospective non-interventional study. Symptomatic patients suspected of having deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism were recruited from 2 participating centers. STA-Liatest D-dimer assay, clinical pretest probability assessment and diagnostic imaging test including complete compression ultrasonography or computed tomography pulmonary angiography were performed among all participants. The performance of D-dimer test was assessed with an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off (age×0.01μg/ml in patients aged>50years) and with conventional cut-off (0.5μg/ml at all ages). A total of 594 eligible outpatients were included in this study and VTE was diagnosed in 195 (32.8%) patients. In those patients with a low or moderate pretest probability (n=373), the increase in the proportion of patients with a D-dimer below the age-adjusted cut-off value compared with the conventional cut-off value was 5.9% (95% confidence interval; 3.8%-8.7%). The sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of STA-Liatest D-dimer test were 95.0% (83.5% - 98.6%), 84.1%(79.8%-87.6%) and 99.3%(97.5% - 99.8%), respectively, using the age-adapted diagnostic strategy. The application of age-adjusted cut-off of D-dimer test combined with clinical probability greatly increases the proportion of Chinese older outpatients in whom VTE can be safely excluded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence for an age cutoff greater than 365 days for neuroblastoma risk group stratification in the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, W B; Castleberry, R P; Matthay, K K; Look, A T; Seeger, R C; Shimada, H; Thorner, P; Brodeur, G; Maris, J M; Reynolds, C P; Cohn, S L

    2005-09-20

    In the Children's Oncology Group, risk group assignment for neuroblastoma is critical for therapeutic decisions, and patients are stratified by International Neuroblastoma Staging System stage, MYCN status, ploidy, Shimada histopathology, and diagnosis age. Age less than 365 days has been associated with favorable outcome, but recent studies suggest that older age cutoff may improve prognostic precision. To identify the optimal age cutoff, we retrospectively analyzed data from the Pediatric Oncology Group biology study 9047 and Children's Cancer Group studies 321p1-p4, 3881, 3891, and B973 on 3,666 patients (1986 to 2001) with documented ages and follow-up data. Twenty-seven separate analyses, one for each different age cutoff (adjusting for MYCN and stage), tested age influence on outcome. The cutoff that maximized outcome difference between younger and older patients was selected. Thirty-seven percent of patients were younger than 365 days, and 64% were > or = 365 days old (4-year event-free survival [EFS] rate +/- SE: 83% +/- 1% [n = 1,339] and 45% +/- 1% [n = 2,327], respectively; P nature of the prognostic contribution of age to outcome. The optimal 460-day cutoff we selected maximized the outcome difference between younger and older patients. Forty-three percent were younger than 460 days, and 57% were > or = 460 days old (4-year EFS rate +/- SE: 82% +/- 1% [n = 1,589] and 42% +/- 1% [n = 2,077], respectively; P nature. Within clinically relevant risk stratification, statistical support exists for an age cutoff of 460 days.

  1. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Whitney, Sophie; de Groot, Richard; Perignon, Marlène; Kuong, Khov; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of children 5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition. To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011-2013). Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated using wasting for children values of AUC, the cut-off with the highest sensitivity and a false positive rate ≤33% was selected as the optimal cut-off. Optimal cut-off values increased with age. Boys had higher cut-offs than girls, except in the 8-10.9 yrs age range. In children 80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs. Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score <-2 z-scores. International reference of MUAC cut-offs by age group and gender should be established to screen for acute malnutrition at the community level.

  2. Twisted mass, overlap and Creutz fermions. Cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, K.; Kujawa, A. [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Gonzalez Lopez, J. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Shindler, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division, Dept. of Mathematical Sicences

    2008-02-15

    We study cutoff effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for maximally twisted mass Wilson, overlap and the recently proposed Creutz fermions. We demonstrate that all three kind of lattice fermions exhibit the expected O(a{sup 2}) scaling behaviour in the lattice spacing. In addition, the sizes of these cutoff effects are comparable for the three kinds of lattice fermions considered here. Furthermore, we analyze situations when twisted mass fermions are not exactly at maximal twist and when overlap fermions are studied in comparison to twisted mass fermions when the quark masses are not matched. (orig.)

  3. Cut-off points to identify sarcopenia according to European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Asli; Tufan, Fatih; Kilic, Cihan; Akpinar, Timur Selçuk; Kose, Murat; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2016-12-01

    The reported prevalence of sarcopenia ranges widely depending on its definition criterion. European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) developed a practical clinical definition and consensus diagnostic criteria. This definition recommends using normative data of the study population rather than other reference populations. We aimed to define the reference cut-off values for muscle mass, muscle strength and calf circumference in Turkey in order to improve general applicability of EWGSOP criteria. Healthy young adults between 18 and 39 years of age with no known chronic disease or chronic drug usage were included in our study to serve as reference population for assessing muscle mass. Community-dwelling older outpatients were prospectively recruited from the geriatrics outpatient clinics of a university hospital for assessing hand grip strength and calf circumference. Body composition was assessed by bioimpedance analysis. Muscle strength was assessed measuring hand grip strength with a Jamar hand dynamometer. The cut-off thresholds for muscle mass were defined as the mean-2SD of the values of the young reference study population; for grip strength were calculated from ROC analyses using cut-off values that predicted gait speed < 0.8 m/s; and for calf circumference were calculated from ROC analyses using cut-off values that predicted low muscle mass. The young reference group included a total of 301 participants (187 male, 114 female; mean age: 26.5 ± 4.6 years). The cut-off thresholds for skeletal muscle mass indexes were 9.2 kg/m(2) and 7.4 kg/m(2) in males and females, respectively. The older community dwelling group included 406 subjects (123 male, 283 female, mean age: 76.6 ± 6.7 years). The cut-off thresholds for hand grip strength were 32 kg and 22 kg for males and females. The cut-off threshold for calf circumference was 33 cm for both males and females. The cut-off thresholds for muscle mass, grip strength and calf

  4. Modeling the cutoff frequency of single-heterojunction bipolar transistors subjected to high collector-layer current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J. J.; Lindholm, F. A.; Wu, B. S.

    1990-06-01

    High current densities in the collector layer reduce the cutoff frequency of heterojunction bipolar transistors. A model is developed based on analytical expressions that describe this reduction. These expressions represent the contributions from each of six regions defined in the output current-voltage characteristic. The model has parameters determined entirely by device physical makeup. It has no fitting parameters. Its predictions agree well with experimental data taken on two N/p+/n aluminum-gallium-arsenide/gallium-arsenide transistors having abrupt junctions grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. The development of the model considers the effects that compound-semiconductor properties, such as velocity overshoot, have on the cutoff frequency.

  5. Wall Insulation; BTS Technology Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southface Energy Institute; Tromly, K.

    2000-11-07

    Properly sealed, moisture-protected, and insulated walls help increase comfort, reduce noise, and save on energy costs. This fact sheet addresses these topics plus advanced framing techniques, insulation types, wall sheathings, and steps for effective wall construction and insulation.

  6. T-cell assays for tuberculosis infection: deriving cut-offs for conversions using reproducibility data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandharaman Veerapathran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA are promising alternatives to the tuberculin skin test, interpretation of repeated testing results is hampered by lack of evidence on optimal cut-offs for conversions and reversions. A logical start is to determine the within-person variability of T-cell responses during serial testing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a pilot study in India, to evaluate the short-term reproducibility of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube assay (QFT among 14 healthcare workers (HCWs who underwent 4 serial QFT tests on day 0, 3, 9 and 12. QFT ELISA was repeated twice on the same sets of specimens. We assessed two types of reproducibility: 1 test-retest reproducibility (between-test variability, and 2 within-person reproducibility over time. Test-retest reproducibility: with dichotomous test results, extremely high concordance was noticed between two tests performed on the same sets of specimens: of the 56 samples, the test and re-test results agreed for all but 2 individuals (kappa = 0.94. Discordance was noted in subjects who had IFN-gamma values around the cut-off point, with both increases and decreases noted. With continuous IFN-gamma results, re-test results tended to produce higher estimates of IFN-gamma than the original test. Within-person reproducibility: when continuous IFN-gamma data were analyzed, the within-person reproducibility was moderate to high. While persons with negative QFT results generally stayed negative, positive results tended to vary over time. Our data showed that increases of more than 16% in the IFN-gamma levels are statistically improbable in the short-term. CONCLUSIONS: Conservatively assuming that long-term variability might be at least twice higher than short-term, we hypothesize that a QFT conversion requires two conditions to be met: 1 change from negative to positive result, and 2 at least 30% increase in the baseline IFN-gamma response. Larger studies are needed

  7. Super Wall Graphics for Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne; Vlastos, George

    1985-01-01

    Steps for organizing and implementing a program that involves elementary students in beautifying their school with large-scale wall graphics are outlined. Sources of design, drawing hints, painting methods, application techniques, and follow-up activities are discussed. (RM)

  8. Restrained shrinkage of masonry walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijl, G.P.A.G. van; Rots, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    State of the art computational rnechanics, in combination with experimental programmes have a lot to offer in providing insight, characterization of total behaviour and predictive ability of structural masonry. Here numerical research towards rationalizing masonry wall movement joint positioning and

  9. Acute traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, Dennis; Tuinebreijer, Wim; Oprel, Pim; Patka, Peter

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) are rare. We describe a large TAWH with associated intra-abdominal lesions that were caused by high-energy trauma. The diagnosis was missed by clinical examination but was subsequently revealed by a computed tomography (CT) scan. Repair consisted of an open anatomical reconstruction of the abdominal wall layers with reinforcement by an intraperitoneal composite mesh. The patient recovered well and...

  10. Brick walls for black holes in AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Iizuka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the 't Hooft's brick wall model for black holes in a holographic context. The brick wall model suggests that without an appropriate near horizon IR cut-off, the free energy of the probe fields shows the divergence due to the large degenerate states near the horizons. After studying the universal nature of the divergence in various holographic settings in various dimensions, we interpret the nature of the divergence in a holographic context. The free energy divergence is due to the large degeneracy and continuity of the low energy spectrum in the boundary theory at the deconfinement phase. These divergence and continuity should be removed by finite N effects, which make the spectrum discrete even at the deconfinement phase. On the other hand, in the bulk, these degenerate states are localized near the horizon, and the universal divergence of these degenerate states implies that the naive counting of the degrees of freedom in bulk should be modified once we take into account the non-perturbative quantum gravity effects near the horizon. Depending on the microscopic degrees of freedom, the position, where the effective field theory description to count the states breaks down, has different Planck scale dependence. It also implies the difficulty to have an electron like gauge-singlet elementary field in the boundary theory Lagrangian. These singlet fields are at most composite fields, because they show divergent free energy, suggesting a positive power of N at the deconfinement phase.

  11. Solute removal capacity of high cut-off membrane plasma separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Kurashima, Naoki; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyamoto, Satoko; Iimori, Soichiro; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2013-10-01

    In vitro blood filtration was performed by a closed circuit using high cut-off membrane plasma separators, EVACURE EC-2A10 (EC-2A) and EVACURE EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Samples were obtained from sampling sites before the plasma separator, after each plasma separator, and from the ultrafiltrate of each separator. The sieving coefficient (S.C.) of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), IgG, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen (Fib), antithrombin III (AT-III), and coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) were calculated. The S.C. of each solute using EC-2A and EC-A4 were as follows; TP: 0.25 and 0.56, Alb: 0.32 and 0.73, IgG: 0.16 and 0.50, IL-6:0.73 and 0.95, IL-8:0.85 and 0.82, TNF-α: 1.07 and 0.99, Fib: 0 and 0, FXIII: 0.07 and 0.17, respectively. When compared with the conventional type of membrane plasma separators, EVACURE could efficiently remove cytokines while retaining coagulation factors such as fibrinogen. Moreover, EC-2A prevented protein loss, whereas EC-4A could remove approximately 50% of IgG. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  12. Reconsidering Dispersion Potentials: Reduced Cutoffs in Mesh-Based Ewald Solvers Can Be Faster Than Truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isele-Holder, Rolf E; Mitchell, Wayne; Hammond, Jeff R; Kohlmeyer, Axel; Ismail, Ahmed E

    2013-12-10

    Long-range dispersion interactions have a critical influence on physical quantities in simulations of inhomogeneous systems. However, the perceived computational overhead of long-range solvers has until recently discouraged their implementation in molecular dynamics packages. Here, we demonstrate that reducing the cutoff radius for local interactions in the recently introduced particle-particle particle-mesh (PPPM) method for dispersion [Isele-Holder et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 137, 174107] can actually often be faster than truncating dispersion interactions. In addition, because all long-range dispersion interactions are incorporated, physical inaccuracies that arise from truncating the potential can be avoided. Simulations using PPPM or other mesh Ewald solvers for dispersion can provide results more accurately and more efficiently than simulations that truncate dispersion interactions. The use of mesh-based approaches for dispersion is now a viable alternative for all simulations containing dispersion interactions and not merely those where inhomogeneities were motivating factors for their use. We provide a set of parameters for the dispersion PPPM method using either ik or analytic differentiation that we recommend for future use and demonstrate increased simulation efficiency by using the long-range dispersion solver in a series of performance tests on massively parallel computers.

  13. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Brito-Santos, Fábio; Figueiredo-Carvalho, Maria Helena Galdino; Machado, Ana Caroline Sá; Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria

    2017-05-01

    Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) support the detection of identification of resistant strains. To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. MICs of amphotericin B (AMB), itraconazole (ITR), ketoconazole (KET), posaconazole (POS), and terbinafine (TRB) against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

  14. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  15. Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle Engine Cutoff System (ECO) Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Hugo E.; Welzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter's main engine cutoff (ECO) system first failed ground checkout in April, 2005 during a first tanking test prior to Return-to-Flight. Despite significant troubleshooting and investigative efforts that followed, the root cause could not be found and intermittent anomalies continued to plague the Program. By implementing hardware upgrades, enhancing monitoring capability, and relaxing the launch rules, the Shuttle fleet was allowed to continue flying in spite of these unexplained failures. Root cause was finally determined following the launch attempts of STS-122 in December, 2007 when the anomalies repeated, which allowed drag-on instrumentation to pinpoint the fault (the ET feedthrough connector). The suspect hardware was removed and provided additional evidence towards root cause determination. Corrective action was implemented and the system has performed successfully since then. This white paper presents the lessons learned from the entire experience, beginning with the anomalies since Return-to-Flight through discovery and correction of the problem. To put these lessons in better perspective for the reader, an overview of the ECO system is presented first. Next, a chronological account of the failures and associated investigation activities is discussed. Root cause and corrective action are summarized, followed by the lessons learned.

  16. Serum uric acid and appropriate cutoff value for prediction of metabolic syndrome among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei-Lin; Gao, Yu-Xia; Wang, Xuan; Chang, Hong; Huang, Guo-Wei

    2013-01-01

    The relation between serum uric acid and metabolic syndrome is observed not only with frank hyperuricemia but also with serum uric acid levels within the normal range. The current "normal" range set for hyperuricemia often fails to identify patients with potential metabolic disorders. We investigate the association between serum uric acid within the normal range and incident metabolic syndrome risk, and further to determine the optimal cut-off value of serum uric acid for the diagnosis or prediction of metabolic syndrome. A total of 7399 Chinese adults (2957 men and 4442 women; ≥20 years) free of metabolic syndrome were followed for 3 years. During the 3-year follow-up, 1190 normouricemic individuals developed metabolic syndrome (16.1%). After adjusting the associated variables, the top quartile of serum uric acid levels was associated with higher metabolic syndrome development compared with the bottom quartile in men (hazard ratio (HR), 1.29; puric acid to identify metabolic syndrome were 6.3 mg/dl in men and 4.9 mg/dl in women. Our results suggested that high baseline serum uric acid levels within the normal range predict future development of metabolic syndrome after 3 y of follow-up.

  17. Cutoff low systems and their relevance to large-scale extreme precipitation in the European Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, N. K.; Formayer, H.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we attempt to highlight the relevance of cutoff low systems (CoLs) to large-scale heavy precipitation events within the Alpine region which often lead to catastrophic flooding. The main results of this study are (1) a detailed climatology (1971-1999) of CoLs for the European region, (2) contribution of CoLs to extreme precipitation events in the European Alpine region, (3) identification of regions within the European Alps most affected by extreme precipitation caused by CoLs, and (4) identification of regions where presence of CoLs is related to extreme precipitation in the Alpine region. The findings of this paper suggest that CoLs have a significant correlation with extreme precipitation events and strongly influence the climate of the Alpine region. The total contribution of CoLs to large-scale heavy precipitation events ranges between 20 and 95 % and is most pronounced in the northern and eastern parts of the Alps. More than 80 % of the events occur in the summer season. The area around the Alps and West of Spain (over the Atlantic Ocean) is the most affected region. The location of the center of CoLs that affect the Alpine region most occur on the northern and southern sides of the Alpine ridge.

  18. Minimal inhibitory concentration distributions and epidemiological cutoff values of five antifungal agents against Sporothrix brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Almeida-Paes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Sporothrix brasiliensis is the most virulent sporotrichosis agent. This species usually responds to antifungal drugs, but therapeutic failure can occur in some patients. Antifungal susceptibility tests have been performed on this species, but no clinical breakpoints (CBPs are available. In this situation, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC distributions and epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs support the detection of identification of resistant strains. OBJECTIVES To study the MIC distributions of five antifungal drugs against S. brasiliensis and to propose tentative ECVs. METHODS MICs of amphotericin B (AMB, itraconazole (ITR, ketoconazole (KET, posaconazole (POS, and terbinafine (TRB against 335 S. brasiliensis strains were determined by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method. FINDINGS The proposed ECV, in µg/mL, for AMB, ITR, KET, POS, and TRB were 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 2.0, and 0.25, respectively. Percentages of wild-type strains in our population for the above antifungal drugs were 98.48, 95.22, 95.33, 100, and 97.67%, respectively. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These ECVs will be useful to detect strains with resistance, to define CBPs, and to elaborate specific therapeutic guidelines for S. brasiliensis. Rational use of antifungals is strongly recommended to avoid the emergence of resistant strains and ensure the therapeutic effectiveness of sporotrichosis.

  19. Routine inspection effort required for verification of a nuclear material production cutoff convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, D.; Fainberg, A.; Sanborn, J.; Allentuck, J.; Sun, C.

    1996-11-01

    On 27 September 1993, President Clinton proposed {open_quotes}... a multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards.{close_quotes} The UN General Assembly subsequently adopted a resolution recommending negotiation of a non-discriminatory, multilateral, and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty (hereinafter referred to as {open_quotes}the Cutoff Convention{close_quotes}) banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons. The matter is now on the agenda of the Conference on Disarmament, although not yet under negotiation. This accord would, in effect, place all fissile material (defined as highly enriched uranium and plutonium) produced after entry into force (EIF) of the accord under international safeguards. {open_quotes}Production{close_quotes} would mean separation of the material in question from radioactive fission products, as in spent fuel reprocessing, or enrichment of uranium above the 20% level, which defines highly enriched uranium (HEU). Facilities where such production could occur would be safeguarded to verify that either such production is not occurring or that all material produced at these facilities is maintained under safeguards.

  20. Tube method of sound-absorption measurement extended to frequencies far above cutoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, F. D.; Bass, H. E.; Bolen, L. N.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment had been constructed for measuring sound absorption in the frequency range from 4 to 100 kHz in a large tube 25.4 cm in diameter and 4.8-m long. The technique employs a large moveable solid-dielectric capacitance transducer that completely fills the tube cross section and generates pulses of plane waves. An identical transducer terminates the other end of the tube and serves as a microphone to detect and reflect the sound pulses. Measurements in argon, nitrogen, and air indicate that the attenuation of the sound pulses differs by less than 1% from values calculated for the zero-order mode for frequencies up to 44 times the cutoff frequency for the first 'nonplane' mode. Above that frequency, the measured values are less than those predicted by theory by an amount that is approximately proportional to the wavelength to the -3.1 power. In a smaller tube of similar construction, the high-frequency deviation from theory is absent.

  1. Attributes of cut-off low induced rainfall over the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molekwa, S.; Engelbrecht, C. J.; Rautenbach, C. J. deW

    2014-10-01

    Cut-off low (COL) weather systems that are associated with rainfall over the Eastern Cape are considered in this study. COLs are objectively identified and tracked over a 31-year period. Daily rainfall data of 22 evenly distributed stations over the Eastern Cape are utilized. Only COLs with a minimum spatial distribution, defined as more than a third of the rainfall stations that need to report rainfall on at least 1 day of a COL event, are considered for analysis of rainfall attributes. These attributes include the occurrence of COL rain days of different magnitudes, the distribution of the depth and temperature of the COL centres for the rain days of different magnitudes, the associated spatial distribution of rainfall as well as the associated atmospheric circulation. The frequency of COLs over the Eastern Cape has a winter maximum and a summer minimum. COL rain days of small, medium and large magnitudes occur most frequently during the winter, while small- and medium-magnitude COL rain days experience peaks in autumn and spring, respectively. The low-level flow, and in particular the position of the low/trough, seems to be the determinant factor in the occurrence, magnitude and spatial extent of COL-induced rainfall.

  2. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates.......5% of the strains as belonging to the WT population, since this proportion of strains harbored resistance genes and exhibited MICs ≤32 mg/L. Out of 208 E. coli strains, 80 (38.5%) tested positive for aadA (n = 69), strA (n = 18), and strB (n = 31). Of the E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs of 4 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 16 mg....../L, and 32 mg/L, 3.6%, 17.6%, 53%, and 82.3%, respectively, harbored any of the three genes. Based on the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing guidelines (ECOFF ≤16 mg/L), 25% of the E. coli strains presenting MIC ≤16 mg/L would have been incorrectly categorized as belonging to the WT...

  3. High cutoff membrane to reduce systemic inflammation due to differentiation syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Zaragoza, Jose J; Sharma, Aashish; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Ronco, Claudio; De Gaudio, A Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Differentiation syndrome is a life-threatening complication of therapy that is carried out with agents used for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Its physiopathology comprehends the production of inflammatory mediators by differentiating granulocytes, endothelial and alveolar cells due to stimulation by all-trans retinoic acid and leading to sustained systemic inflammation. Treatment with high cut-off continuous veno-venous hemodialysis (HCO-CVVHD) was performed to reduce the circulating mediators of systemic inflammation. After 52 h of treatment, an important reduction was observed in inflammatory mediators (IL-1β: from 10 to 2 pg/ml; IL-8: from 57 to 40 pg/ml; TNF-α: from 200 to 105 pg/ml; IL-6: from 263 to 91 pg/ml), as well as in anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-10: from 349 to 216 pg/ml). HCO-CVVHD should be explored as a part of treatment in systemic inflammation states other than sepsis (e.g., differentiation syndrome). Furthermore, its immunomodulatory effects could be particularly useful in immunocompromised patient treated with corticosteroids. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Extracting the QCD Cutoff Parameter Using the Bernstein Polynomials and the Truncated Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mirjalili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there are not experimental data over the whole range of x-Bjorken variable, that is, 0cutoff parameter. The results are in good agreement with what is being expected.

  5. Optimal Cut-Off Points for the Short-Negative Act Questionnaire and Their Association with Depressive Symptoms and Diagnosis of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Høgh (Hogh), Annie; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    , the present study aimed to: (i) identify optimal cut-off points, reflecting a possible subjectively experienced exposure to occasional and frequent workplace bullying, for the 9-item Short Negative Act Questionnaire (S-NAQ), and (ii) examine the criterion validity of these cut-off points in relation...... its criterion validity in relation to depressive symptoms (N = 4071) and diagnosis of depression (N = 4844). Results The S-NAQ cut-off points obtained were ≥12 and ≥16 when using occasional and frequent bullying as reference standards, respectively. Both cut-off points showed high classification...... The two cut-off points for the S-NAQ identified in this study showed a significant association with both depressive symptoms and diagnosis of depression. However, future prospective studies are needed to establish the predictive validity of the proposed cut-off points....

  6. Age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff levels to rule out pulmonary embolism: the ADJUST-PE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righini, Marc; van Es, Josien; den Exter, Paul L.; Roy, Pierre-Marie; Verschuren, Franck; Ghuysen, Alexandre; Rutschmann, Olivier T.; Sanchez, Olivier; Jaffrelot, Morgan; Trinh-Duc, Albert; Le Gall, Catherine; Moustafa, Farès; Principe, Alessandra; van Houten, Anja A.; ten Wolde, Marije; Douma, Renée A.; Hazelaar, Germa; Erkens, Petra M. G.; van Kralingen, Klaas W.; Grootenboers, Marco J. J. H.; Durian, Marc F.; Cheung, Y. Whitney; Meyer, Guy; Bounameaux, Henri; Huisman, Menno V.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Le Gal, Grégoire

    2014-01-01

    D-dimer measurement is an important step in the diagnostic strategy of clinically suspected acute pulmonary embolism (PE), but its clinical usefulness is limited in elderly patients. To prospectively validate whether an age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff, defined as age × 10 in patients 50 years or older,

  7. Epidemiological cutoff values for azoles and Aspergillus fumigatus based on a novel mathematical approach incorporating cyp51A sequence analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Mavridou, E.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Mouton, J.W.; Verweij, P.E.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological cutoff values (ECV) are commonly used to separate wild-type isolates from isolates with reduced susceptibility to antifungal drugs, thus setting the foundation for establishing clinical breakpoints for Aspergillus fumigatus. However, ECVs are usually determined by eye, a method which

  8. Clinical validation of cutoff target ranges in newborn screening of metabolic disorders by tandem mass spectrometry : A worldwide collaborative project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McHugh, David M. S.; Cameron, Cynthia A.; Abdenur, Jose E.; Abdulrahman, Mahera; Adair, Ona; Al Nuaimi, Shahira Ahmed; Ahlman, Henrik; Allen, Jennifer J.; Antonozzi, Italo; Archer, Shaina; Au, Sylvia; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Baker, Mei; Bamforth, Fiona; Beckmann, Kinga; Pino, Gessi Bentz; Berberich, Stanton L.; Binard, Robert; Boemer, Francois; Bonham, Jim; Breen, Nancy N.; Bryant, Sandra C.; Caggana, Michele; Caldwell, S. Graham; Camilot, Marta; Campbell, Carlene; Carducci, Claudia; Cariappa, Rohit; Carlisle, Clover; Caruso, Ubaldo; Cassanello, Michela; Miren Castilla, Ane; Castineiras Ramos, Daisy E.; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Chandrasekar, Ram; Ramos, Alfredo Chardon; Cheillan, David; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Childs, Thomas A.; Chrastina, Petr; Sica, Yuri Cleverthon; Cocho de Juan, Jose Angel; Elena Colandre, Maria; Cornejo Espinoza, Veronica; Corso, Gaetano; Currier, Robert; Cyr, Denis; Czuczy, Noemi; D'Apolito, Oceania; Davis, Tim; de Sain-Van der Velden, Monique G.; Delgado Pecellin, Carmen; Di Gangi, Iole Maria; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Downing, Melanie; Downs, Stephen M.; Dy, Bonifacio; Dymerski, Mark; Rueda, Inmaculada; Elvers, Bert; Eaton, Roger; Eckerd, Barbara M.; El Mougy, Fatma; Eroh, Sarah; Espada, Mercedes; Evans, Catherine; Fawbush, Sandy; Fijolek, Kristel F.; Fisher, Lawrence; Franzson, Leifur; Frazier, Dianne M.; Garcia, Luciana R. C.; Garcia-Valdecasas Bermejo, Maria Sierra; Gavrilov, Dimitar; Gerace, Rosemarie; Giordano, Giuseppe; Irazabal, Yolanda Gonzalez; Greed, Lawrence C.; Grier, Robert; Grycki, Elyse; Gu, Xuefan; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Hagar, Arthur F.; Han, Lianshu; Hannon, W. Harry; Haslip, Christa; Hassan, Fayza Abdelhamid; He, Miao; Hietala, Amy; Himstedt, Leslie; Hoffman, Gary L.; Hoffman, William; Hoggatt, Philis; Hopkins, Patrick V.; Hougaard, David M.; Hughes, Kerie; Hunt, Patricia R.; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Hynes, June; Ibarra-Gonzalez, Isabel; Ingham, Cindy A.; Ivanova, Maria; Jacox, Ward B.; John, Catharine; Johnson, John P.; Jonsson, Jon J.; Karg, Eszter; Kasper, David; Klopper, Brenda; Katakouzinos, Dimitris; Khneisser, Issam; Knoll, Detlef; Kobayashi, Hirinori; Koneski, Ronald; Kozich, Viktor; Kouapei, Rasoul; Kohlmueller, Dirk; Kremensky, Ivo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Lavochkin, Marcia; Lee, Soo-Youn; Lehotay, Denis C.; Lemes, Aida; Lepage, Joyce; Lesko, Barbara; Lewis, Barry; Lim, Carol; Linard, Sharon; Lindner, Martin; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele A.; Lorey, Fred; Loukas, Yannis L.; Luedtke, Julie; Maffitt, Neil; Magee, J. Fergall; Manning, Adrienne; Manos, Shawn; Marie, Sandrine; Hadachi, Sonia Marchezi; Marquardt, Gregg; Martin, Stephen J.; Matern, Dietrich; Gibson, Stephanie K. Mayfield; Mayne, Philip; McCallister, Tonya D.; McCann, Mark; McClure, Julie; McGill, James J.; McKeever, Christine D.; McNeilly, Barbara; Morrissey, Mark A.; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi; Mulcahy, Eleanor A.; Nikoloudis, Dimitris; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Oglesbee, Devin; Oltarzewski, Mariusz; Ombrone, Daniela; Ojodu, Jelili; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis; Reoyo, Sherly Pardo; Park, Hyung-Doo; Pasquali, Marzia; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Patel, Pallavi; Pass, Kenneth A.; Peterson, Colleen; Pettersen, Rolf D.; Pitt, James J.; Poh, Sherry; Pollak, Arnold; Porter, Cory; Poston, Philip A.; Price, Ricky W.; Queijo, Cecilia; Quesada, Jonessy; Randell, Edward; Ranieri, Enzo; Raymond, Kimiyo; Reddic, John E.; Reuben, Alejandra; Ricciardi, Charla; Rinaldo, Piero; Rivera, Jeff D.; Roberts, Alicia; Rocha, Hugo; Roche, Geraldine; Greenberg, Cheryl Rochman; Egea Mellado, Jose Maria; Jess Juan-Fita, Maria; Ruiz, Consuelo; Ruoppolo, Margherita; Rutledge, S. Lane; Ryu, Euijung; Saban, Christine; Sahai, Inderneel; Salazar Garcia-Blanco, Maria Isabel; Santiago-Borrero, Pedro; Schenone, Andrea; Schoos, Roland; Schweitzer, Barb; Scott, Patricia; Seashore, Margretta R.; Seeterlin, Mary A.; Sesser, David E.; Sevier, Darrin W.; Shone, Scott M.; Sinclair, Graham; Skrinska, Victor A.; Stanley, Eleanor L.; Strovel, Erin T.; Jones, April L. Studinski; Sunny, Sherlykutty; Takats, Zoltan; Tanyalcin, Tijen; Teofoli, Francesca; Thompson, J. Robert; Tomashitis, Kathy; Domingos, Mouseline Torquado; Torres, Jasmin; Torres, Rosario; Tortorelli, Silvia; Turi, Sandor; Turner, Kimberley; Tzanakos, Nick; Valiente, Alf G.; Vallance, Hillary; Vela-Amieva, Marcela; Vilarinho, Laura; von Doebeln, Ulrika; Vincent, Marie-Francoise; Vorster, B. Chris; Watson, Michael S.; Webster, Dianne; Weiss, Sheila; Wilcken, Bridget; Wiley, Veronica; Williams, Sharon K.; Willis, Sharon A.; Woontner, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Yssel, Melissa; Zakowicz, Wendy M.

    Purpose: To achieve clinical validation of cutoff values for newborn screening by tandem mass spectrometry through a worldwide collaborative effort. Methods: Cumulative percentiles of amino acids and acylcarnitines in dried blood spots of approximately 25-30 million normal newborns and 10,742

  9. Pulmonary function impairment in patients with chronic heart failure: Lower limit of normal versus conventional cutoff values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minasian, A.G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.; Willems, F.F.; Bergh, P.J.P.C. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary function abnormalities in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) according to recent American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) guidelines using the lower limit of normal (LLN) compared to conventional cutoff values.

  10. Setting up the cut-off level of a sensitive barcode lateral flow assay with magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panferov, Vasily G; Safenkova, Irina V; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2017-03-01

    A barcode lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) based on magnetic nanoparticles with a controllable cut-off level was developed for the first time. The regulation of the cut-off levels was based on the changes in the position and concentration of three antibodies (two monoclonal and polyclonal) with different affinities (K D =4.22×10 -9 , 9.67×10 -9 , 1.05×10 -8 M), respectively. To obtain specific conjugates, monoclonal antibodies were covalently immobilized on the magnetic nanoparticles' surface. Potato virus X causing a reduction in the potato yield was used as a model polyvalent antigen. To detect potato virus X in the leaf extracts, a barcode LFIA with cut-off levels of 3, 30, and 150ng/mL was used for the analysis. The application of magnetic concentration leads to a six-fold reduction in the first cut-off level (0.5ng/mL) in comparison with magnetic LFIA without the concentration stage. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Screening for Internet Addiction: An Empirical Study on Cut-off Points for the Chen Internet Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Ko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the optimal cut-off points of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, to screen for and diagnose Internet addiction among adolescents in the community by using the well- established diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction. This survey of 454 adolescents used screening (57/58 and diagnostic (63/64 cut-off points of the CIAS, a self-reported instrument, based on the results of systematic diagnostic interviews by psychiatrists. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that CIAS has good diagnostic accuracy (89.6%. The screening cut-off point had high sensitivity (85.6% and the diagnostic cut-off point had the highest diagnostic accuracy, classifying 87.6% of participants correctly. Accordingly, the screening point of the CIAS could provide a screening function in two-stage diagnosis, and the diagnostic point could serve as a diagnostic criterion in one-stage massive epidemiologic research.

  12. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  13. Anthropometric parameters’ cut-off points and predictive value for metabolic syndrome in women from Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Mora-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate anthropometric parameters’ (APs cut-off points and association for metabolic syndrome (MetS. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a total of 434 adult women from Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 2012. APs measured were waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Cut-off points were estimated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC. Logistic regression was applied to estimate possible associations. Results. Cut-off points for WC, BMI, BAI, WHR and WHtR were 85 cm, 28 kg/m2, 39%, 0.80 and 56, respectively. Only WHtR was associated to MetS (OR=1.11, CI95% [1.07-1.15]. Conclusion. WC cut-off point was higher than those proposed for Latin-American women by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS. WHtR had a low predictive value for MetS.

  14. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  15. Spectrally selective solar absorber with sharp and temperature dependent cut-off based on semiconductor nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Qinghui; Lu, Hong; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-01

    Spectrally selective absorbers (SSA) with high selectivity of absorption and sharp cut-off between high absorptivity and low emissivity are critical for efficient solar energy conversion. Here, we report the semiconductor nanowire enabled SSA with not only high absorption selectivity but also temperature dependent sharp absorption cut-off. By taking advantage of the temperature dependent bandgap of semiconductors, we systematically demonstrate that the absorption cut-off profile of the semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can be flexibly tuned, which is quite different from most of the other SSA reported so far. As an example, silicon nanowire based selective absorbers are fabricated, with the measured absorption efficiency above (below) bandgap ˜97% (15%) combined with an extremely sharp absorption cut-off (transition region ˜200 nm), the sharpest SSA demonstrated so far. The demonstrated semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can enable a high solar thermal efficiency of ≳86% under a wide range of operating conditions, which would be competitive candidates for the concentrated solar energy utilizations.

  16. Anthropometric parameters' cut-off points and predictive value for metabolic syndrome in women from Cartagena, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-García, Gustavo José; Gómez-Camargo, Doris; Mazenett, Enrique; Alario, Ángelo; Fortich, Álvaro; Gómez-Alegría, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Objective. To estimate anthropometric parameters' (APs) cut-off points and association for metabolic syndrome (MetS). Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a total of 434 adult women from Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 2012. APs measured were waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-height ratio (WHtR). Cut-off points were estimated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Logistic regression was applied to estimate possible associations. Results. Cut-off points for WC, BMI, BAI, WHR and WHtR were 85 cm, 28 kg/m(2), 39%, 0.80 and 56, respectively. Only WHtR was associated to MetS (OR=1.11, CI95% [1.07-1.15]). Conclusion. WC cut-off point was higher than those proposed for Latin-American women by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS). WHtR had a low predictive value for MetS.

  17. Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background. Studies have indicated that use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for patients above 50 years increases utility of the diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism. Evidence for the same approach regarding diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is, however, unclear. Materials...

  18. Establishing the cut-off score for remission and severity-ranges on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Rothschild, Anthony J; Flint, Alastair J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) is a rating scale dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to establish the PDAS cut-off for remission of PD as well as PDAS score-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD. The sec...

  19. Bifurcation of the Quark Self-Energy: Infra-Red and Ultra-Violet Cut-Offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, D.; Johnson, P. W.

    1987-01-01

    The quark self-energy in massless QCD is studied in the approximation that both the quark-gluon vertex and the gluon propagator remain bare. It is shown that chiral invariance is not spontaneously broken at a critical coupling λc>0, unless both infrared and ultraviolet cutoffs are introduced.

  20. Interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast of South Africa linked to cut-off low associated rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cut-off low (COL) associated rainfall on interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast region of South Africa for the period 1979-2011 is investigated. COLs are objectively identified and tracked on daily average 500 h...

  1. Cut-off levels and diagnostic accuracy of infliximab trough levels and anti-infliximab antibodies in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Bendtzen, Klaus; Brynskov, Jørn

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for infliximab failure in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are debated. Serum levels of infliximab and anti-infliximab antibodies have been associated with loss of response. We aimed at determining cut-off levels for infliximab and anti-infliximab antibody concentrations associated...

  2. Cutoff Values of Serum Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) in Normal Korean Adults and Factors Influencing Serum CEA Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Soon [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    Carcinoembryonic Antigen is one of most frequently checked tumor markers in cancer management. We performed statistical analysis with serum CEA data of 2626 persons who received regular health examination and were thought to be free of active disease to determine the cutoff values of serum CEA level in normal Korean adults and to study the factors influencing serum CEA levels in normal subjects. 1) The cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults in general were 9.28 ng/ml for men, 5.90 ng/ml for women. 2) Serum CEA level was influenced by age, present smoking history, sex, and abnormal findings in chest X ray. 3) Serum CEA level had no correlation with the history of amount of alcohol consumption or obesity. 4) Cutoff values of serum CEA in normal Korean adults were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history. Serum CEA level was influenced by age, sex, present smoking history and abnormal findings in chest X ray and cutoff values of serum CEA were tabulated according to age, sex, and smoking history.

  3. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia : The al-Ándalus Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412501031; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010)

  4. The topographical arrangement of cutoff spatial frequencies across lower and upper visual fields in mouse V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; An, Xu; Liu, Hanxiao; Peng, Jing; Cai, Shanshan; Wang, Wei; Lin, Da-Ting; Yang, Yupeng

    2015-01-13

    The visual response to spatial frequency (SF), a characteristic of spatial structure across position in space, is of particular importance for animal survival. A natural challenge for rodents is to detect predators as early as possible while foraging. Whether neurons in mouse primary visual cortex (V1) are functionally organized to meet this challenge remains unclear. Combining intrinsic signal optical imaging and single-unit recording, we found that the cutoff SF was much greater for neurons whose receptive fields were located above the mouse. Specifically, we discovered that the cutoff SF increased in a gradient that was positively correlated with the elevation in the visual field. This organization was present at eye opening and persisted through adulthood. Dark rearing delayed the maturation of the cutoff SF globally, but had little impact on the topographical organization of the cutoff SF, suggesting that this regional distribution is innately determined. This form of cortical organization of different SFs may benefit the mouse for detection of airborne threats in the natural environment.

  5. Innovative Composite Wall System for Sheathing Masonry Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Robert L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Cavallo, James [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-25

    Existing Housing - Much of the older multifamily housing stock in the United States includes units in structures with uninsulated masonry walls. Included in this stock are two- and three-story walk-up apartments, larger apartment complexes, and public housing (both high- rise and townhouse). This older multifamily housing has seen years of heavy use that may have left the plaster wall marred or damaged. Long- term building settlement or movement may have cracked the plaster, sometimes severely. Moisture from invented kitchens and baths may have caused condensation on uninsulated exterior walls. At best this condensation has left stains on the paint or wallpaper. At worst it has supported mold and mildew growth, fouling the air and creating unhealthy living conditions. Deteriorating plaster and flaking paint also result from wet walls. The presence of flaking, lead-based paint in older (pre-1978) housing is a major public health concern. Children can suffer permanent mental handicaps and psychological disorders if they are subjected to elevated levels of lead, while adults can suffer hypertension and other maladies. Studies have found that, in some urban communities with older housing stocks, over 35% of children tested have elevated blood lead levels (Hastings, et al.: 1997). Nationally, nearly 22% of black, non-hispanic children living in pre-1946 housing were found to have elevated levels of lead in their blood (MWWR Article: February 21,1997). The deterioration of many of these walls is to the point that lead can freely enter the living space.

  6. N{sub f}=2+1+1 flavours of twisted mass quarks. Cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luschevskaya, Elena [ITEP, Moscow (Russian Federation); NIC/DESY, Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing; Cichy, Krzysztof [Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics

    2010-12-15

    We present a calculation of cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for the K and D mesons using the twisted mass formulation of lattice QCD. The analytical calculations are performed in the time-momentum frame. The relative sizes of cut-off effects are compared for the pion, the kaon and the D meson masses. In addition, different realizations of maximal twist condition are considered and the corresponding cut-off effects are analyzed. (orig.)

  7. Optimum binary cut-off threshold of a diagnostic test: comparison of different methods using Monte Carlo technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibnegger, Gilbert; Schrabmair, Walter

    2014-11-25

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we compare different methods (maximizing Youden index, maximizing mutual information, and logistic regression) for their ability to determine optimum binary cut-off thresholds for a ratio-scaled diagnostic test variable. Special attention is given to the stability and precision of the results in dependence on the distributional characteristics as well as the pre-test probabilities of the diagnostic categories in the test population. Fictitious data sets of a ratio-scaled diagnostic test with different distributional characteristics are generated for 50, 100 and 200 fictitious "individuals" with systematic variation of pre-test probabilities of two diagnostic categories. For each data set, optimum binary cut-off limits are determined employing different methods. Based on these optimum cut-off thresholds, sensitivities and specificities are calculated for the respective data sets. Mean values and SD of these variables are computed for 1000 repetitions each. Optimizations of cut-off limits using Youden index and logistic regression-derived likelihood ratio functions with correct adaption for pre-test probabilities both yield reasonably stable results, being nearly independent from pre-test probabilities actually used. Maximizing mutual information yields cut-off levels decreasing with increasing pre-test probability of disease. The most precise results (in terms of the smallest SD) are usually seen for the likelihood ratio method. With this parametric method, however, cut-off values show a significant positive bias and, hence, specificities are usually slightly higher, and sensitivities are consequently slightly lower than with the two non-parametric methods. In terms of stability and bias, Youden index is best suited for determining optimal cut-off limits of a diagnostic variable. The results of Youden method and likelihood ratio method are surprisingly insensitive against distributional differences as well as pre-test probabilities of

  8. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  9. Testing the role of meander cutoff in promoting gene flow across a riverine barrier in ground skinks (Scincella lateralis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Jackson

    Full Text Available Despite considerable attention, the long-term impact of rivers on species diversification remains uncertain. Meander loop cutoff (MLC is one river phenomenon that may compromise a river's diversifying effects by passively transferring organisms from one side of the river to the other. However, the ability of MLC to promote gene flow across rivers has not been demonstrated empirically. Here, we test several predictions of MLC-mediated gene flow in populations of North American ground skinks (Scincella lateralis separated by a well-established riverine barrier, the Mississippi River: 1 individuals collected from within meander cutoffs should be more closely related to individuals across the river than on the same side, 2 individuals within meander cutoffs should contain more immigrants than individuals away from meander cutoffs, 3 immigration rates estimated across the river should be highest in the direction of the cutoff event, and 4 the distribution of alleles native to one side of the river should be better predicted by the historical rather than current path of the river. To test these predictions we sampled 13 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA from ground skinks collected near three ancient meander loops. These predictions were generally supported by genetic data, although support was stronger for mtDNA than for microsatellite data. Partial support for genetic divergence of samples within ancient meander loops also provides evidence for the MLC hypothesis. Although a role for MLC-mediated gene flow was supported here for ground skinks, the transient nature of river channels and morphologies may limit the long-term importance of MLC in stemming population divergence across major rivers.

  10. Detection of the high-energy cut-off from the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; McHardy, I. M.; Mallick, Labani; Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.

    2017-09-01

    We perform the NuSTAR and Swift/XRT joint energy spectral fitting of simultaneous observations from the broad-line Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 5273. When fitted with the combination of an exponential cut-off power law and a reflection model, a high-energy cut-off is detected at 143^{+96}_{-40} keV with 2σ significance. Existence of such cut-off is also consistent with the observed Comptonizing electron temperature when fitted with a Comptonization model independently. We observe a moderate hard X-ray variability of the source over the time-scale of ∼12 yr using INTEGRAL/ISGRI observations in the energy range of 20-100 keV. When the hard-band count rate (6-20 keV) is plotted against the soft-band count rate (3-6 keV), a hard offset is observed. Our results indicate that the cut-off energy may not correlate with the coronal X-ray luminosity in a simple manner. Similarities in parameters that describe coronal properties indicate that the coronal structure of NGC 5273 may be similar to that of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 390.3 and another galaxy MCG-5-23-16, where the coronal plasma is dominated by electrons, rather than electron-positron pairs. Therefore, the coronal cooling is equally efficient to the heating mechanism keeping the cut-off energy at low even at the low accretion rate.

  11. Extended characterization of a new class of membranes for blood purification: the high cut-off membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschetti-de-Fierro, Adriana; Voigt, Manuel; Storr, Markus; Krause, Bernd

    2013-07-01

    High cut-off membranes are a new class of blood purification membranes whose particular characteristics present challenges for commonly-used characterization methods. Dextran sieving curves for representative blood purification membranes of the high-flux and high cut-off types were measured and compared to curves for the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). The performance was also determined after blood exposure for the most permeable synthetic membranes. High cut-off membranes were observed to be more open than the GFB before blood exposure, but become tighter and more selective after the exposure, keeping the permeation for low and middle molecules while restraining the filtration of large species. Based on dextran sieving experiments for a variety of commercially available blood purification membranes, we present a novel method for classifying blood purification membranes. By using a well-established technique and introducing a new characteristic parameter for the sieving curve--the molecular weight retention onset (MWRO)--a graph of molecular weight cut-off versus molecular weight retention onset provides the landscape of dialysis membrane types. This meaningful representation is based on only one in vitro method, and allows the membrane classification by indirectly considering two structural parameters: pore size and pore size distribution. In this way, the families of low-flux, high-flux, protein leaking, and high cut-off membranes are clearly differentiated. The differentiation allows for the definition of MWCO/MWRO regions for the different types, so that further classification of newly developed membranes can be easily achieved.

  12. Using serum α-fetoprotein for prognostic prediction in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: what is the most optimal cutoff?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yang Hsu

    Full Text Available The prognostic ability of α-fetoprotein (AFP for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was examined by using different cutoff values. The optimal AFP cutoff level is still unclear.A total of 2579 HCC patients were consecutively enrolled in Taiwan, where hepatitis B is the major etiology of chronic liver disease. Four frequently used AFP cutoff levels, 20, 200, 400, 1000 ng/mL, were investigated. One-to-one matched pairs between patients having AFP higher and lower than the cutoffs were selected by using the propensity model. The adjusted hazard ratios of survival difference were calculated with Cox proportional hazards model.Patients with a higher AFP level were associated with more severe cirrhosis, more frequent vascular invasion, higher tumor burden and poorer performance status (all p0.05. Patients with AFP <20 ng/mL had significantly better long-term survival than patients with AFP ≧20 ng/mL (p<0.0001, and patients with AFP <400 ng/mL had significantly better overall outcome than patients with AFP ≧400 ng/mL (p = 0.0186. There was no difference of long-term survival between patients divided by AFP levels of 200 and 1000 ng/mL. The adjusted hazard ratios of AFP ≧20 ng/mL and AFP ≧400 ng/mL were 1.545 and 1.471 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-1.838 and 1.178-1.837, respectively.This study shows the independently predictive ability of baseline serum AFP level in HCC patients. AFP levels of 20 and 400 ng/mL are considered feasible cutoffs to predict long-term outcome in unselected HCC patients.

  13. Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Value Based on Insulin Resistance and Visceral Obesity in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Soo Lim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundVisceral obesity is the most powerful contributor to the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular diseases. In light of visceral obesity, however, there is a paucity of data on the appropriate cutoff point of waist circumference (WC in subjects with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimal cutoff value for WC that signals insulin resistance (IR and visceral obesity in Koreans with type 2 diabetes.MethodsWe evaluated 4,252 patients with type 2 diabetes (male 2,220, female 2,032, mean age 57.24 years who visited our clinic between January 2003 and June 2009. WC was measured at the midpoint between the lower rib and the iliac crest, and insulin sensitivity was assessed by the rate constant of plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt %/min using an insulin tolerance test. Visceral fat thickness was measured using ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using receiver operating characteristic curve.ResultsThe optimal cutoff points for WC for identifying the presence of IR and visceral obesity, as well as two or more metabolic components, were 87 cm for men and 81 cm for women. Moreover, these cutoff points had the highest predictive powers for the presence of visceral obesity. The MetS defined by new criteria correlated with the increased carotid intima-media thickness in female subjects.ConclusionOur results suggest that the optimal cutoff values for WC in Koreans with type 2 diabetes should be reestablished based on IR and visceral obesity.

  14. MHD Electrode and wall constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Stewart; Lempert, Joseph

    1984-01-01

    Electrode and wall constructions for the walls of a channel transmitting the hot plasma in a magnetohydrodynamic generator. The electrodes and walls are made of a plurality of similar modules which are spaced from one another along the channel. The electrodes can be metallic or ceramic, and each module includes one or more electrodes which are exposed to the plasma and a metallic cooling bar which is spaced from the plasma and which has passages through which a cooling fluid flows to remove heat transmitted from the electrode to the cooling bar. Each electrode module is spaced from and electrically insulated from each adjacent module while interconnected by the cooling fluid which serially flows among selected modules. A wall module includes an electrically insulating ceramic body exposed to the plasma and affixed, preferably by mechanical clips or by brazing, to a metallic cooling bar spaced from the plasma and having cooling fluid passages. Each wall module is, similar to the electrode modules, electrically insulated from the adjacent modules and serially interconnected to other modules by the cooling fluid.

  15. Functional domain walls in multiferroics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Dennis

    2015-11-25

    During the last decade a wide variety of novel and fascinating correlation phenomena has been discovered at domain walls in multiferroic bulk systems, ranging from unusual electronic conductance to inseparably entangled spin and charge degrees of freedom. The domain walls represent quasi-2D functional objects that can be induced, positioned, and erased on demand, bearing considerable technological potential for future nanoelectronics. Most of the challenges that remain to be solved before turning related device paradigms into reality, however, still fall in the field of fundamental condensed matter physics and materials science. In this topical review seminal experimental findings gained on electric and magnetic domain walls in multiferroic bulk materials are addressed. A special focus is put on the physical properties that emerge at so-called charged domain walls and the added functionality that arises from coexisting magnetic order. The research presented in this review highlights that we are just entering a whole new world of intriguing nanoscale physics that is yet to be explored in all its details. The goal is to draw attention to the persistent challenges and identify future key directions for the research on functional domain walls in multiferroics.

  16. Observations of the marine boundary layer under a cutoff low over the southeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Stratocumulus is often present offshore of Peru and northern Chile and exists at the top of a cool, moist and well-mixed marine boundary layer (MBL) under a marked temperature inversion maintained by large-scale subsidence. The subtropical MBL and stratocumulus has been the focus of many recent studies, but mid-latitude systems can exert a strong influence. However, this connection is not well established due to debatable model results and few in situ measurements south of 20°S. During a 2-week field campaign in August 2011 at Robinson Crusoe Island (~700 km offshore at 33.6°S), radiosondes were launched to observe the response of the MBL to mid-latitude synoptic forcing. During the observation period a broad, slow-moving cutoff low (COL) passed over the region. Other observations include COSMIC GPS, infrared satellite imagery, TRMM radar reflectivity, and operational radiosondes from the Chilean weather service. A numerical simulation is included to diagnose the synoptic features. The inversion prior to the COL was maintained and lifted above 5 km as the COL passed over the island. Soon after the COL center passed the island, the MBL top did not descend or reform near the surface and then deepen, but rather an inversion reformed at ~2.7 km. Using a variety of datasets, the height of the reformation of the inversion is related to the cloud top height of the scattered shallow cumulus convection under the COL, which coincides with the level of maximum convergence of the vertical velocity.

  17. Leptin Reference Values and Cutoffs for Identifying Cardiometabolic Abnormalities in the Spanish Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón-Conde, Teresa; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Aguilera, M Teresa; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Banegas, José R

    2015-08-01

    Estimate leptin reference values and calculate leptinemia cutoff values for identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities in Spain. Cross-sectional study carried out between 2008 and 2010 in 11 540 individuals representing the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Data were obtained by standardized physical examination and analyses were performed at a central laboratory. Leptinemia was measured using ELISA. Cardiometabolic abnormality was defined as the presence of at least two of the following: high blood pressure, high triglycerides, reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high insulin resistance values, and elevated C-reactive protein and glucose. Leptin values were higher in women than men (geometric mean, 21.9 and 6.6 ng/mL; P<.001). The median [interquartile range] was 24.5 [14.1-37.0] ng/mL in women, and 7.2 [3.3-14.3] ng/mL in men. In the multivariate analysis, leptin was significantly associated with anthropometric measures, insulin, and C-reactive protein, and inversely associated with age, smoking, and physical activity in women (r(2)=0.53; P<.001) and in men (r(2)=0.61; P<.001). The leptin values that identified cardiometabolic abnormality were 23.75 ng/mL in women (area under the curve, 0.722; sensitivity, 72.3%; specificity, 58.7%) and 6.45 ng/mL in men (area under the curve, 0.716; sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 60.2%). These results facilitate the interpretation of leptin values in clinical and population studies. Leptin has moderate sensitivity and specificity for identifying cardiometabolic abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Scale-invariant neuronal avalanche dynamics and the cut-off in size distributions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Yu

    Full Text Available Identification of cortical dynamics strongly benefits from the simultaneous recording of as many neurons as possible. Yet current technologies provide only incomplete access to the mammalian cortex from which adequate conclusions about dynamics need to be derived. Here, we identify constraints introduced by sub-sampling with a limited number of electrodes, i.e. spatial 'windowing', for well-characterized critical dynamics-neuronal avalanches. The local field potential (LFP was recorded from premotor and prefrontal cortices in two awake macaque monkeys during rest using chronically implanted 96-microelectrode arrays. Negative deflections in the LFP (nLFP were identified on the full as well as compact sub-regions of the array quantified by the number of electrodes N (10-95, i.e., the window size. Spatiotemporal nLFP clusters organized as neuronal avalanches, i.e., the probability in cluster size, p(s, invariably followed a power law with exponent -1.5 up to N, beyond which p(s declined more steeply producing a 'cut-off' that varied with N and the LFP filter parameters. Clusters of size s≤N consisted mainly of nLFPs from unique, non-repeated cortical sites, emerged from local propagation between nearby sites, and carried spatial information about cluster organization. In contrast, clusters of size s>N were dominated by repeated site activations and carried little spatial information, reflecting greatly distorted sampling conditions. Our findings were confirmed in a neuron-electrode network model. Thus, avalanche analysis needs to be constrained to the size of the observation window to reveal the underlying scale-invariant organization produced by locally unfolding, predominantly feed-forward neuronal cascades.

  19. The feasibility of removable prefab diaphragm walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaarouk, R.; De Gijt, J.G.; Braam, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    A diaphragm wall is a cast in-situ reinforced concrete retaining wall applied in, among others, quay walls. The main advantages of this type of retaining wall are that it can be made in almost every preferred length and that it can resist high structural loads. However, there are several

  20. Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

    2013-08-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

  1. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  2. Acalculous Diffuse Gallbladder Wall Thickening in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Haeng; No, Young Eun; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Park, Jae Hong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gallbladder (GB) wall thickening can be found in various conditions unrelated to intrinsic GB disease. We investigated the predisposing etiologies and the outcome of acalculous GB wall thickening in children. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 67 children with acalculous GB wall thickening who had visited our institute from June 2010 to June 2013. GB wall thickening was defined as a GB wall diameter >3.5 mm on abdominal ultrasound examination or computed tomography. Underlying diseas...

  3. Solar Walls for concrete renovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Lotte; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Olsen, Lars

    1996-01-01

    This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results of the mea......This repport gives a short presentation of three full-scale testing solar walls, the construction including the architectural design, materials and components, transportation and storage of solar enegy, the effect on the construction behind, statics and practical experience.The results...

  4. Wave Forces on Crown Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan; Burcharth, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results from a large parametric laboratory study including more than 200 long-duration model tests. The study addresses both the wave forces imposed on the breakwater crown wall as well as the performance of the structure in reducing the wave overtopping. The testing...... programme includes variations of the sea state parameters and of the geometrical configuration of the breakwater and crown wall. Basic relations between forces/overtopping and the varied parameters are examined and preliminary design guidelines for structures within the tested range of variations...

  5. Definition of a Geriatric Depression Scale cutoff based upon quality of life: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudisio, Alice; Antonelli Incalzi, Raffaele; Gemma, Antonella; Marzetti, Emanuele; Pozzi, Gino; Padua, Luca; Bernabei, Roberto; Zuccalà, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    The cutoff scores for the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) commonly adopted in clinical and research settings are based upon other neuropsychological tests. However, any intervention for depression should aim at improving subjective quality of life (QoL). We searched for a GDS cutoff level that might identify a decrease in perceived QoL using a scale that also allows formal cost-effectiveness calculations. Quality of life was assessed by the Health Utilities Index, Mark 3 in all 344 residents of Tuscania (Italy) aged 75 years and above. Mood was assessed by both the 30-item GDS and the derived 15-item GDS. The association of GDS with low QoL was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was adopted to estimate the overall predictive value and the best GDS cutoff for poor QoL. The 30-item GDS score was associated with increased probability of a worse QoL (odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, 95% confidence (CI) = 1.02-1.12, p = 0.003); also, it was a fair predictor of worse QoL (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.67-0.76). The best GDS score cutoff for identifying a poor QoL was above 9/30. Results were similar (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02-1.12, p = 0.003, and AUC = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.67-0.76) for the short GDS form for a cutoff above 5/15. Among older subjects, depressive symptoms are associated with reduced QoL; GDS scores above 9/30 or 5/15 best predict poor perceived health-related QoL. These cutoff scores could therefore identify subjects in whom treatment is more likely to improve QoL and to yield a favorable cost-effectiveness ratio. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Age, Gender and Ethnic Differences in Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Asian American College Students and Their Parents Using Different BMI Cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Hui; Chen, Ying Chang; Ka Chung, Angela; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Tam, Chick F.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to determine if the WHO global BMI (kg/m[squared]) cutoffs for determining overweight and obesity in the general populations are appropriate for Asian populations and to consider whether population-specific cutoffs would be warranted. A nonrandomized biased sampling of 227 Asian Americans were composed of 149 college students,…

  7. The Objective Borderline Method (OBM): A Probability-Based Model for Setting up an Objective Pass/Fail Cut-Off Score in Medical Programme Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Turner, Rolf; Poole, Phillippa; Wilkinson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The decision to pass or fail a medical student is a "high stakes" one. The aim of this study is to introduce and demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of a new objective standard-setting method for determining the pass/fail cut-off score from borderline grades. Three methods for setting up pass/fail cut-off scores were compared: the…

  8. Overlap/Domain-wall reweighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, H.; Aoki, S.; Cossu, G.; Hashimoto, S.; Kaneko, T.; Noaki, J.

    We investigate the eigenvalues of nearly chiral lattice Dirac operators constructed with five-dimensional implementations. Allowing small violation of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation, the HMC simulation is made much faster while the eigenvalues are not significantly affected. We discuss the possibility of reweighting the gauge configurations generated with domain-wall fermions to those of exactly chiral lattice fermions.

  9. The Influence of Wall Binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report is an analysis of the thermal bridge effects that occur in wall binders in masonry buildings. The effects are analyzed using a numerical calculation programme.The results are compared to the values given in the danish standard, DS418....

  10. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages....... The different systems are evaluated using 5 different types of existing walls....

  11. Acute traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); P.P. Oprel (Pim); P. Patka (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) are rare. We describe a large TAWH with associated intra-abdominal lesions that were caused by high-energy trauma. The diagnosis was missed by clinical examination but was subsequently revealed by a

  12. Fandom and the fourth wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kathryn Ballinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available I use the Teen Wolf fandom as an example to examine the ways social media has created a more complicated, nuanced relationship with fans. The collapse of the fourth wall between fans and The Powers That Be can have both positive and negative impacts, depending on the willingness of participants to maintain mutual respect and engage in meaningful dialogue.

  13. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research...

  14. Chapter 3 Cell Wall Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; Roger Pettersen; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2012-01-01

    Wood is best defined as a three-dimensional biopolymer composite composed of an interconnected network of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin with minor amounts of extractives, and inorganics. The major chemical component of a living tree is water, but on a dry weight basis, all wood cell walls consist mainly of sugar-based polymers (carbohydrates, 65-75%) that are...

  15. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  16. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, T.A. [Duffy, (T.A.) Tijeras, NM (United States); Goldman, A. [Goldman, (A.), Sandia, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Farrar, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  17. [Screening for Anxiety in Cardiovascular Rehabilitation Patients: Concurrent Validity and Cut-off Values of the ACAT-cardio].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Baumeister, H; Abberger, B

    2016-08-01

    The computer adaptive test ACAT-cardio has been developed in order to screen cardiovascular rehabilitation patients for anxiety. This study aims at investigating the criterion validity, and identifying appropriate cut-off values for its use in cardiac rehabilitation. 106 cardiovascular rehabilitation patients were tested for anxiety disorders using the instruments ACAT-cardio and SKID-I. Receiver operating characteristics were employed to analyse the results of 3 stopping rules of the ACAT-cardio. ROC analyses for the stopping rules yielded areas under the curve (AUC) between 0.80 and 0.84. The ideal cut-off values of the ACAT-cardio (theta scores) were - 0.20 (sensitivity: 86%),-0.23 (sensitivity: 71%) and - 0.35 (sensitivity: 86%). The ACAT-cardio has proven to be a valid instrument that can be used for screening anxiety disorders in cardiac rehabilitation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Nancy (France). Lab. de Physique du Solide; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author). 18 refs.

  19. Optimal cut-off value of perfusion parameters for diagnosing prostate cancer and for assessing aggressiveness associated with Gleason score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunkyung; Chung, Dong Jin; Yeo, Dong Myung; Sohn, Dongwan; Son, Yohan; Kim, Taejung; Hahn, Sung-Tae

    2015-01-01

    To determine cut-off value of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters for differentiation of prostate malignant from benign and cancer with high-grade Gleason score (GS) (GS>7) from low-grade GS (GS≤7), 35 patients (24 malignant and 11 benign) who underwent DCE-MRI were included. Difference between malignant and benign was statistically significant for all magnetic resonance parameters except Ve. The cut-off values were K(trans)=0.184min(-1), Kep=0.695min(-1), iAUC=4.219mmol/l/min, and ADC=1340.5mm(2)/s. A significant difference in mean values of K(trans) and Kep between cancer with high-grade GS and low-grade GS was also observed. K(trans) and Kep showed a significant correlation with GS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of pair cascades on the high-energy spectral cut-off in gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan

    2018-03-01

    The highly luminous and variable prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) arises in an ultra-relativistic outflow. The exact underlying radiative mechanism shaping its non-thermal spectrum is still uncertain, making it hard to determine the outflow's bulk Lorentz factor Γ. GRBs with spectral cut-off due to pair production (γγ → e+e-) at energies Ec ≳ 10 MeV are extremely useful for inferring Γ. We find that when the emission region has a high enough compactness, then as it becomes optically thick to scattering, Compton downscattering by non-relativistic e±-pairs can shift the spectral cut-off energy well below the self-annihilation threshold, Esa = Γmec2/(1 + z). We treat this effect numerically and show that Γ obtained assuming Ec = Esa can underpredict its true value by as much as an order of magnitude.

  1. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Fiorentino

    Full Text Available Early identification of children 5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition.To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011-2013. Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC were calculated using wasting for children 80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs.Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score <-2 z-scores. International reference of MUAC cut-offs by age group and gender should be established to screen for acute malnutrition at the community level.

  2. An Appropriate Cutoff Value for Determining the Colonization of Helicobacter pylori by the Pyrosequencing Method: Comparison with Conventional Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyeon; Kim, Nayoung; Jo, Hyun Jin; Park, Ji Hyun; Nam, Ryoung Hee; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Kim, Joo Sung; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, Jung Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2015-10-01

    Sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene has improved the characterization of microbial communities. It enabled the detection of low abundance gastric Helicobacter pylori sequences even in subjects that were found to be H. pylori negative with conventional methods. The objective of this study was to obtain a cutoff value for H. pylori colonization in gastric mucosa samples by pyrosequencing method. Gastric mucosal biopsies were taken from 63 subjects whose H. pylori status was determined by a combination of serology, rapid urease test, culture, and histology. Microbial DNA from mucosal samples was amplified by PCR using universal bacterial primers. 16S rDNA amplicons were pyrosequenced. ROC curve analysis was performed to determine the cutoff value for H. pylori colonization by pyrosequencing. In addition, temporal changes in the stomach microbiota were observed in eight initially H. pylori-positive and eight H. pylori-negative subjects at a single time point 1-8 years later. Of the 63 subjects, the presence of H. pylori sequences was detected in all (28/28) conventionally H. pylori-positive samples and in 60% (21/35) of H. pylori-negative samples. The average percent of H. pylori reads in each sample was 0.67 ± 1.09% in the H. pylori-negative group. Cutoff value for clinically positive H. pylori status was approximately 1.22% based on ROC curve analysis (AUC = 0.957; p Helicobacter pylori was successfully eradicated in five of seven treated H. pylori-positive subjects (71.4%), and the percentage of H. pylori reads in these five subjects dropped from 1.3-95.18% to 0-0.16% after eradication. These results suggest that the cutoff value of H. pylori sequence percentage for H. pylori colonization by pyrosequencing could be set at approximately 1%. It might be helpful to analyze gastric microbiota related to H. pylori sequence status. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adiposity cut-off points for cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk in the Portuguese population: The PORMETS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Milton; Santos, Ana Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The contribution of adiposity to cardiovascular and diabetes risk justifies the inclusion of an adiposity measure, usually waist circumference, in the definition of metabolic syndrome. However, waist circumference thresholds differ across populations. Our aim was to assess which adiposity measure performs the best in identifying the metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese participants and to estimate cut-off values for these measures. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study (PORMETS study) conducted in Portugal between 2007 and 2009. A representative sample of non-institutionalized adults, comprising 3,956 participants, aged 18 years and older, was evaluated. A structured questionnaire was administered, collecting information on personal medical history, socio-demographics and behavioral characteristics. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and venous blood samples were also obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology recommended criteria. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was considered when two or more of the four criteria of metabolic syndrome were present, excluding the waist circumference component. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate cut-off points. Results This study found that waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index performed better than other adiposity measures, such as body mass index. The estimated cut-off points for waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index in women and men were 0.564 / 89 cm / 27.4 and 0.571 / 93.5 cm / 25.5, respectively. Conclusion As waist circumference is currently used as the adiposity measure in the definition of metabolic syndrome and as no relevant differences were observed between this measure and waist-to-height ratio, it is likely that no modification to the metabolic syndrome definition needs to be proposed. Moreover

  4. Fourier phase analysis on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography: Range of phase spread and cut-off limits in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L; Harish, B; Sunil, Hv; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi, Kishore Ag; Nair, Gopinathan

    2011-07-01

    To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  5. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  6. Validation of a cutoff for the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7).

    OpenAIRE

    Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez; Betty Manrique-Espinoza; Isaac Acosta-Castillo; Martha Ma. Téllez-Rojo; Aurora Franco-Núñez; Luis Miguel Gutiérrez-Robledo; Ana Luisa Sosa-Ortiz

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7) psychometric properties in Mexican adult population, and validate a cutoff for classifying subjects according to the presence / absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS). Materials and methods. Screening cross-sectional study with a subsample of 301 adult residents of the Morelos state in Mexico, originally interviewed for the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2...

  7. The association between refractive cutoffs for spectacle provision and visual improvement among school-aged children in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Nathan G; Patel, Nita; Esteso, Paul; Chikwembani, Florence; Webber, Fiona; Msithini, Robert Bongi; Ratcliffe, Amy

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate different refractive cutoffs for spectacle provision with regards to their impact on visual improvement and spectacle compliance. Prospective study of visual improvement and spectacle compliance. South African school children aged 6-19 years receiving free spectacles in a programme supported by Helen Keller International. Refractive error, age, gender, urban versus rural residence, presenting and best-corrected vision were recorded for participants. Spectacle wear was observed directly at an unannounced follow-up examination 4-11 months after initial provision of spectacles. The association between five proposed refractive cutoff protocols and visual improvement and spectacle compliance were examined in separate multivariate models. Refractive cutoffs for spectacle distribution which would effectively identify children with improved vision, and those more likely to comply with spectacle wear. Among 8520 children screened, 810 (9.5%) received spectacles, of whom 636 (79%) were aged 10-14 years, 530 (65%) were girls, 324 (40%) had vision improvement > or = 3 lines, and 483 (60%) were examined 6.4+/-1.5 (range 4.6 to 10.9) months after spectacle dispensing. Among examined children, 149 (31%) were wearing or carrying their glasses. Children meeting cutoffs or = +1.00 D of hyperopia and > or = +0.75 D of astigmatism had significantly greater improvement in vision than children failing to meet these criteria, when adjusting for age, gender and urban versus rural residence. None of the proposed refractive protocols discriminated between children wearing and not wearing spectacles. Presenting vision and improvement in vision were unassociated with subsequent spectacle wear, but girls (p spectacle retention and either refractive error or vision may have been due to the relatively modest degree of refractive error in this African population.

  8. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA® -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA® -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. What is the optimal cutoff value of the axis-line-angle technique for evaluating trunk imbalance in coronal plane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Fang; Fu, Yu-Chuan; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Yu-Min; Zhou, Yong-Jin; Tian, Nai-Feng; He, Jia-Wei; Yan, Zhi-Han

    2017-02-01

    Accurately evaluating the extent of trunk imbalance in the coronal plane is significant for patients before and after treatment. We preliminarily practiced a new method, axis-line-angle technique (ALAT), for evaluating coronal trunk imbalance with excellent intra-observer and interobserver reliability. Radiologists and surgeons were encouraged to use this method in clinical practice. However, the optimal cutoff value of the ALAT for determination of the extent of coronal trunk imbalance has not been calculated up to now. The purpose of this study was to identify the cutoff value of the ALAT that best predicts a positive measurement point to assess coronal balance or imbalance. A retrospective study at a university affiliated hospital was carried out. A total of 130 patients with C7-central sacral vertical line (CSVL) >0 mm and aged 10-18 years were recruited in this study from September 2013 to December 2014. Data were analyzed to determine the optimal cutoff value of the ALAT measurement. The C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements were conducted respectively twice on plain film within a 2-week interval by two radiologists. The optimal cutoff value of the ALAT was analyzed via receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Comparison variables were performed with chi-square test between the C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements for evaluating trunk imbalance. Kappa agreement coefficient method was used to test the intra-observer and interobserver agreement of C7-CSVL and ALAT. The ROC curve area for the ALAT was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.753-0.894, p.05). Intra-observer agreement values for the C7-CSVL measurements by observers 1 and 2 were 0.79 and 0.91 (pplane with a high level of intra-observer and interobserver agreement, which suggests that the ALAT is suitable for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  11. Using Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve to Define the Cutoff Points of Voice Handicap Index Applied to Young Adult Male Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafiadis, Dionysios; Chronopoulos, Spyridon K; Kosma, Evangelia I; Voniati, Louiza; Raptis, Vasilis; Siafaka, Vasiliki; Ziavra, Nausica

    2017-07-11

    Voice performance is an inextricable key factor of everyday life. Obviously, the deterioration of voice quality can cause various problems to human communication and can therefore reduce the performance of social skills (relevant to voice). The deterioration could be originated from changes inside the system of the vocal tract and larynx. Various prognostic methods exist, and among them is the Voice Handicap Index (VHI). This tool includes self-reported questionnaires, used for determining the cutoff points of total score and of its three domains relevant to young male Greek smokers. The interpretation of the calculated cutoff points can serve as a strong indicator of imminent or future evaluation by a clinician. Consistent with previous calculation, the VHI can also act as a feedback for smokers' voice condition and as monitoring procedure toward smoking cessation. Specifically, the sample consisted of 130 male nondysphonic smokers (aged 18-33 years) who all participated in the VHI test procedure. The test results (through receiver operating characteristic analysis) concluded to a total cutoff point score of 19.50 (sensitivity: 0.838, 1-specificity: 0). Also, in terms of constructs, the Functional domain was equal to 7.50 (sensitivity: 0.676, 1-specificity: 0.032), the Physical domain was equal to 7.50 (sensitivity: 0.706, 1-specificity: 0.032), and the Emotional domain was equal to 6.50 (sensitivity: 0.809, 1-specificity: 0.048). Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Remote effects of tropical storm Cristobal upon a cut-off cyclone over Europe in August 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, T.; Ohfuchi, W.; Nakamura, H.; Shapiro, M. A.

    2007-04-01

    In August 2002, many parts of central Europe were affected by heavy precipitation and flooding caused by a cut-off cyclone. This study shows that this cyclone developed as a result of the propagation of a Rossby wave packet. The wave-packet propagation along the relatively weak subtropical jet was accompanied by wave-breaking and re-emission in the subtropics. In particular, there was an interaction between the Rossby wave packet and a precipitation band along the east coast of North America associated with tropical storm Cristobal. This interaction had a significant influence upon the formation of the European cut-off low. Results from numerical simulations from two different initial conditions are investigated to study this interaction. Downstream influences from tropical storm Cristobal upon the development of this cyclone and associated flooding precipitation are confirmed by sensitivity analysis using ensemble forecasts. It is concluded from analysis and simulations that poor forecast skills of tropical storm Cristobal affected the predictability of the European cut-off low.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of lenalidomide during high cut-off dialysis in a patient with multiple myeloma and renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Kim; Lu, Yimin; Peer, Cody J; Figg, William D; Stadelmann, Raphael; Burnier, Michel; Buclin, Thierry; Kissling, Sebastien

    2017-01-01

    High cut-off dialysis, increasingly used in multiple myeloma patients, is susceptible to influence anticancer drug elimination. We report about lenalidomide disposition in a patient on high cut-off dialysis for renal failure secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient received a higher dosage of lenalidomide (5 mg b.i.d.), owing to concerns about a potential decrease in lenalidomide exposure during dialysis sessions. A set of blood samples was taken in order to develop a pharmacokinetic model accounting for lenalidomide concentrations in this setting. According to our model, the area under the curve was 3273 µg h/L, i.e., 60% higher than expected under usual dosage (25 mg q.d.) with normal renal function. Despite this, the patient did not develop major hematological toxicity. Lenalidomide doses of 5 mg b.i.d. led to high exposure in a patient with renal failure undergoing high cut-off dialysis. Yet, the dosage of 5 mg q.d. recommended in conventional dialysis would probably be adequate in such patients.

  14. Development of short-form and screening cutoff point of the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-SF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Chen, Sue-Huei

    2017-06-01

    Smartphone addiction is considered a form of technological addiction that has attracted increasing attention. The present study developed and validated the short-form Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI-SF) and established cutoff point for screening smartphone addiction based on diagnostic criteria established by psychiatric interview. A total of 268 participants completed an online survey that collected demographic data, smartphone use behaviours, and responses to the 26-item SPAI. Each participant also completed a psychiatric interview. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the 10-item SPAI-SF replicated the structure of original 26-item SPAI accurately, yielding a four-factor model consisting of compulsive behaviour, functional impairment, withdrawal, and tolerance. For maximal diagnostic accuracy, a cutoff point of 24/25 best discriminated cases of smartphone addiction from diagnostic negatives. The present findings suggest that both the 26-item SPAI and SPAI-SF manifest the four constructs of behavioural addiction and the characteristics of smartphone addiction. The cutoff point determined by psychiatrists' diagnostic interview will be useful for clinical screening and epidemiologic research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Validation of a cutoff for the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Salinas-Rodríguez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the Depression Scale of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies, Brief Version (CESD-7 psychometric properties in Mexican adult population, and validate a cutoff for classifying subjects according to the presence / absence of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CSDS. Materials and methods. Screening cross-sectional study with a subsample of 301 adult residents of the Morelos state in Mexico, originally interviewed for the National Survey of Health and Nutrition 2012. Sensitivity and specificity of the selected cutoff were estimated using as reference the diagnostic criteria of ICD-10 and DSM-IV. Results. The cutoff point estimated was CESD-7=9. Using the ICD-10 the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2 and 86%, and ROC was 88%. Using DSM-IV, the values were 80.4, 89.6, and 85%, respectively. Conclusions. The short version of the CESD-7 has good psychometric properties and can be used as a screening test to identify probable cases of subjects with clinically significant depressive symptoms.

  16. A statistical model for intervertebral disc degeneration: determination of the optimal T2 cut-off values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, S A; Juhasz, I; Komaromy, H; Pozsar, K; Zsigmond, I; Perlaki, G; Orsi, G; Schwarcz, A; Walter, N; Doczi, T; Bogner, P

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of quantitative classification in intervertebral disc degeneration using spin-spin relaxation time (T2) cut-off values with regard to morphological classifications. Lumbar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed on 21 subjects (a total of 104 lumbar disks). The T2 relaxation time was measured in the nucleus pulposus using a sagittal multi-echo spin-echo sequence. The morphological classification of disc degeneration was assessed independently by three experienced neuroradiologists according to the Pfirrmann and Schneiderman classifications. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed among grades to determine T2 cut-off values in each classification. Intra- and interobserver differences were calculated using kappa statistics. Moderate overall interobserver agreement was found between observers in both the Pfirrmann and Schneiderman classification schemes (kappa 0.46 and 0.51), while intraobserver reliability was substantial to almost perfect. The interobserver reliability was only fair in Pfirrmann grades III and IV (kappa 0.33 and 0.36), but the T2 cut-off values still indicated a significant difference between grades (pcut-off values seem to be a more reliable method to define the degree of disc degeneration, which may help staging intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD) even if the interobserver reliability is low.

  17. Mean Hand Grip Strength and Cut-off Value for Sarcopenia in Korean Adults Using KNHANES VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun Il; Choi, Hana; Ha, Yong Chan

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report age- and gender-specific distribution of the hand grip strength (HGS) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VI-3 (2015) survey and determine cut-off values for low muscle strength of HGS of Koreans. Of a total of 7,380 participants, 4,553 were subjected to measurements of HGS, including 1,997 men and 2,556 women with a mean age of 49.3 years (range, 19-80 years). The mean ages of men and women were 49.0 and 49.5 years, respectively. HGS was measured using a digital hand dynamometer. It was defined as maximal measured grip strength of the dominant hand. The cut-off value for low muscle strength was defined as the lower 20th percentile of HGS of the study population. Maximum grip strength of men was significantly higher than that of women (40.2 kg in men vs. 24.2 kg in women, P cut-off values of HGS in male and female elderly healthy populations were 28.6 and 16.4 kg, respectively. These data might be used as reference values when evaluating sarcopenia and assessing hand injuries. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  18. Ozone transport during a cut-off low event studied in the frame of the TOASTE program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancellet, G.; Beekmann, M.; Papayannis, A.; Megie, G.

    1994-01-01

    A study of ozone transfer to the troposphere has been performed during two phases of the evolution of a cut-off low using both ozone vertical profiles and objective analysis of the ECMWF to compute potential vorticity distributions and air mass trajectories. Ozone profiles were measured by a ground based lidar system at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP, 43 deg 55 N, 5 deg 42 E). A stratospheric ozone transport into the troposphere has been observed during a tropopause fold which occurred at the beginning of the cut-off low formation and during the erosion phase of the cut-off low. From the estimate of the maximum ozone content transferred to the troposphere, both mechanisms have the same order of magnitude of influence on the ozone flux to the troposphere. On a time scale of a few days, the correlation is very good between the potential vorticity and the ozone time evolution in the vicinity of the upper level frontal system.

  19. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia: The al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010) better discriminate fibromyalgia symptomatology. A total of 488 women with fibromyalgia and 200 non-fibromyalgia (control) women participated. All participants underwent both the 1990 and the modified 2010 ACR preliminary criteria (hereinafter 1990c and m-2010c, respectively). We used fitness cut-off points (Senior Fitness Tests Battery plus handgrip strength test) to discriminate between presence and absence of fibromyalgia. Additionally, we employed several instruments to assess fibromyalgia symptoms. Fitness cut-off points discriminated between high and low levels of the main symptoms the disease in all age groups (P from fibromyalgia diagnosis and monitoring. Moreover, the effect size of the differences in symptoms between women with fibromyalgia and controls were overall larger using the m-2010c compared with the 1990c, except for the tender points count, reflecting better the polysymptomatic distress condition of fibromyalgia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. The ‘impact’ of force filtering cut-off frequency on the peak knee abduction moment during landing: artefact or ‘artifiction’?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Benjamin D; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Background Joint moments computed using inverse dynamic techniques are important estimators of net joint loads. Joints moments computed from marker position and ground reaction force data filtered using different cut-off frequencies may capture changes in moment magnitudes at a single joint that exceed normal physiological response. Peak external knee abduction moment (KAM) generated during landing (ie, the drop vertical jump, DVJ) predicts anterior cruciate ligament injury risk using marker and force data filtered at different cut-off frequencies. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the effects of using the same low cut-off frequencies versus different cut-off frequencies on joint moment magnitudes to evaluate if artificial smoothing attenuates actual resultant joint loads related to injury risk. Methods Twenty-two female, high school volleyball players performed three maximum DVJs in a laboratory setting. The average peak KAM was computed for each knee using marker and force data filtered with the same low cut-off frequencies and different cut-off frequencies. Results Peak KAMs were significantly larger using different cut-off frequencies. The order of athletes ranked based on the magnitude of their peak KAMs did not significantly change across all filtering cut-off frequencies. Conclusions The magnitude of peak KAM may differ when the same low or different higher cut-off frequencies are used to filter marker and ground reaction forces (GRF) data collected using standard motion capture equipment. It is not clear to what extent the decrease in peak KAM reported when the same low cut-off frequencies were used was solely due to attenuation of the GRF signal. PMID:22893510

  1. Through-the-wall radar imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Amin, Moeness G

    2011-01-01

    Wall Attenuation and Dispersion, A. Hussein Muqaibel, M.A. Alsunaidi, Nuruddeen M. Iya, and A. Safaai-JaziAntenna Elements, Arrays, and Systems for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging, A. Hoorfar and A. FathyBeamforming for Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging, G. Alli and D. DiFilippoImage and Localization of Behind-the-Wall Targets Using Collocated and Distributed Apertures, Y.D. Zhang and A. HuntConventional and Emerging Waveforms for Detection and Imaging of Targets behind Walls, F. Ahmad and R.M. NarayananInverse Scattering Approaches in Through-the-Wall Imaging, K. Sarabandi, M. Thiel, M. Dehmollai

  2. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-03-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study I was a systematic review of the existing standardized methods for assessing quality of life after incisional hernia repair. After a systematic search in the electronic databases Embase and PubMed, a total of 26 studies using standardized measures for assessment of quality of life after incisional hernia repair were found. The most commonly used questionnaire was the generic Short-Form 36, which assesses overall health-related quality of life, addressing both physical and mental health. The second-most common questionnaire was the Carolinas Comfort Scale, which is a disease specific questionnaire addressing pain, movement limitation and mesh sensation in relation to a current or previous hernia. In total, eight different questionnaires were used at varying time points in the 26 studies. In conclusion, standardization of timing and method of quality of life assessment after incisional hernia repair was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the

  3. [Assessment of mesopic and contrast vision for driving licences: which cut-off values, which methods are appropriate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, H; Peters, T; Durst, W; Roelcke, S; Quast, R; Hütten, M; Wilhelm, B

    2013-11-01

    Hitherto recommendations and thresholds for contrast tests are available for mesopic but not for photopic methods. While mesopic tests are widespread in ophthalmology, in occupational medicine photopic contrast tests are often used. With regard to the attachment 6 of the German Fahrerlaubnisverordnung (FeV) which is relevant since July 2011 we tested the specificity and sensitivity as well as the test-retest reliability of available test devices and defined cut-off values. We examined patients with medium opacities, healthy volunteers and a sample of employees. Optovist EU, Binoptometer 4P and Pelli-Robson charts with standardised illumination were applied for contrast sensitivity testing. All these methods were compared to the Mesotest II as gold standard. We followed the recommendations of the German Qualitätssicherungs-Kommission der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft (DOG) for contrast vision testing and definition of cut-off values. 64 patients with cataract (age 42-70 years, median 62 years), 50 pilots (age 40-69 years, median 53.5 years) and 109 employees of a transportation company (age 40-59 years, median 50 years) were included in the trial. All contrast sensitivity tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity (AUC 0.86 to 0.99). For Optovist EU and Binoptometer 4P a threshold of 15 % Weber contrast is recommended for examinations according to FeV. The test-retest reliability was high in all methods with highly significant Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.77 to 0.94 and a repeatability coefficient between 0.08 und 0.4. The standard distance of 1 m common for the Pelli-Robson chart cannot be recommended for FeV examinations, while the results at 3 m distance are comparable to those of the other contrast vision tests. The preliminary cut-off for the Pelli-Robson chart at 3 m distance is 1.65. Cut-off values for the lawful assessment of applicants are now available. Both Binoptometer 4P and Optovist EU proved to be appropriate and

  4. Grading the intensity of nondental orofacial pain: identification of cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brailo V

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vlaho Brailo,1 Joanna M Zakrzewska2 1Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Facial Pain Unit, Division of Diagnostic, Surgical and Medical Sciences, Eastman Dental Hospital, UCLH NHS Foundation Trust/University College London, London, UK Background: When assessing pain in clinical practice, clinicians often label pain as mild, moderate, and severe. However, these categories are not distinctly defined, and are often used arbitrarily. Instruments for pain assessment use more sophisticated scales, such as a 0–10 numerical rating scale, and apart from pain intensity assess pain-related interference and disability. The aim of the study was to identify cutoff points for mild, moderate, and severe nondental orofacial pain using a numerical rating scale, a pain-related interference scale, and a disability measurement. Materials and methods: A total of 245 patients referred to the Facial Pain Unit in London were included in the study. Intensity and pain-related interference were assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory. Pain-related disability was assessed by the Chronic Graded Pain Scale. Average pain intensity (0–10 was classified into nine schemes with varying cutoff points of mild, moderate, and severe pain. The scheme with the most significant intergroup difference, expressed by multivariate analysis of variance, provided the cutoffs between mild, moderate, and severe pain. Results: The combination that showed the greatest intergroup differences for all patients was scheme 47 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–7, severe 8–10. The same combination provided the greatest intergroup differences in subgroups of patients with temporomandibular disorder and chronic idiopathic facial pain, respectively. Among the trigeminal neuralgia patients alone, the combination with the highest intergroup differences was scheme 48 (mild 1–4, moderate 5–8, severe 9–10. Conclusion: The cutoff points established in

  5. Creating universes with thick walls

    CERN Document Server

    Ulvestad, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a "thick wall", which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the "Farhi-Guth-Guven" (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The ADM mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  6. Primary chest wall lymphoma: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binay Kumar Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary chest wall lymphoma is a rare but curable condition. This paper reports a case of a 52-year-old female patient who presented with a primary chest wall diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  7. Breaching Walls in Urban Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-06

    Jewish forces, each struggling for dominance "■" - ■ ■ wmmtti**, : A3 as the British relinquished control of Palestine. Jewish forces bottled ...rebel forces held much of the city and threatened to topple the government. The stated mission of the initial elements deployed, the U.S. Army’s...8217 When five round« were fired at angles to the target wall rather than at zero degrees obliquity, a larger hole was obtained, but

  8. Thermal insulation properties of walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.

  9. Flooding Effect on Earth Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Banimahd

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Earth building is a sustainable, environmentally friendly and economical method of construction that has been used worldwide for many centuries. For the past three decades, earth has seen a revival as a building material for a modern construction method due to its benefits in terms of low carbon content, low cost and energy involved during construction, as well as the fact that it is a sustainable technology of building. Climate change is influencing precipitation levels and patterns around the world, and as a consequence, flood risk is increasing rapidly. When flooding occurs, earth buildings are exposed to water by submersion, causing an increase in the degree of saturation of the earth structures and therefore a decrease of the suction between particles. This study investigated the effect of cycles of flooding (consecutive events of flooding followed by dry periods on earth walls. A series of characterization tests were carried out to obtain the physical and mechanical properties of the studied earth material. In a second stage, Flooding Simulation Tests (FST were performed to explore the earth walls’ response to repeated flooding events. The results obtained for the tested earth wall/samples with reinforced material (straw reveal hydraulic hysteresis when wall/samples are subject to cycles of wetting and drying.

  10. Cells, walls, and endless forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monniaux, Marie; Hay, Angela

    2016-12-01

    A key question in biology is how the endless diversity of forms found in nature evolved. Understanding the cellular basis of this diversity has been aided by advances in non-model experimental systems, quantitative image analysis tools, and modeling approaches. Recent work in plants highlights the importance of cell wall and cuticle modifications for the emergence of diverse forms and functions. For example, explosive seed dispersal in Cardamine hirsuta depends on the asymmetric localization of lignified cell wall thickenings in the fruit valve. Similarly, the iridescence of Hibiscus trionum petals relies on regular striations formed by cuticular folds. Moreover, NAC transcription factors regulate the differentiation of lignified xylem vessels but also the water-conducting cells of moss that lack a lignified secondary cell wall, pointing to the origin of vascular systems. Other novel forms are associated with modified cell growth patterns, including oriented cell expansion or division, found in the long petal spurs of Aquilegia flowers, and the Sarracenia purpurea pitcher leaf, respectively. Another good example is the regulation of dissected leaf shape in C. hirsuta via local growth repression, controlled by the REDUCED COMPLEXITY HD-ZIP class I transcription factor. These studies in non-model species often reveal as much about fundamental processes of development as they do about the evolution of form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal Load Calculations of Multilayered Walls

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir M. Suleiman

    2012-01-01

    Thermal load calculations have been performed for multi-layered walls that are composed of three different parts; a common (sand and cement) plaster, and two types of locally produced soft and hard bricks. The masonry construction of these layered walls was based on concrete-backed stone masonry made of limestone bricks joined by mortar. These multilayered walls are forming the outer walls of the building envelope of a typical Libyan house. Based on the periodic seasonal ...

  12. Thermal control wall prototype and test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakao, M.; Ohshima, K.; Jitsukawa, H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a heat exchanger prototype and test results. The heat exchanger, called a thermal control wall, functions as a skin wall and as a means to vary the exterior wall thermal resistance of a building. Test results confirm that the capacity of the TCW is influenced by solar radiation. Furthermore, this TCW capacity can be evaluated by an overall heat transmission coefficient defined using the same sol air temperature difference as for a conventional wall.

  13. Correlations of coronary plaque wall thickness with wall pressure and wall pressure gradient: a representative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Biyue

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two major hemodynamic stresses imposed at the blood arterial wall interface by flowing blood: the wall shear stress (WSS acting tangentially to the wall, and the wall pressure (WP acting normally to the wall. The role of flow wall shear stress in atherosclerosis progression has been under intensive investigation, while the impact of blood pressure on plaque progression has been under-studied. Method The correlations of wall thickness (WT with wall pressure (WP, blood pressure on the lumen wall and spatial wall pressure gradient (WPG in a human atherosclerotic right coronary artery were studied. The pulsatile blood flow was simulated using a three dimensional mathematical model. The blood was treated as an incompressible viscous non-Newtonian fluid. The geometry of the artery was re-constructed using an in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS 44-slice dataset obtained from a patient with consent obtained. The WT, the WP and the WPG were averaged on each slice, respectively, and Pearson correlation analysis was performed on slice averaged base. Each slice was then divided into 8 segments and averaged vessel WT, WP and WPG were collected from all 352 segments for correlation analysis. Each slice was also divided into 2 segments (inner semi-wall of bend and outer semi-wall of bend and the correlation analysis was performed on the 88 segments. Results Under mean pressure, the Pearson coefficient for correlation between WT and WP was r = − 0.52 (p  Conclusions Results from this representative case report indicated that plaque wall thickness correlated negatively with wall pressure (r = −0.81 by slice and positively with wall pressure gradient (r = 0.45. The slice averaged WT has a strong linear relationship with the slice averaged WP. Large-scale patient studies are needed to further confirm our findings.

  14. Modelling wall pressure fluctuations under a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doisy, Yves

    2017-07-01

    The derivation of the wave vector-frequency (w-f) spectrum of wall pressure fluctuations below a turbulent boundary layer developed over a rigid flat plate is re-considered. The Lighthill's equation for pressure fluctuations is derived in a frame of reference fix with respect to the plate, at low Mach numbers, and transformed into the convected frame moving with the flow. To model the source terms of the Lighthill equation, it is assumed that in the inertial range, the turbulence is locally isotropic in the convected frame. The w-f spectrum of isotropic turbulence is obtained from symmetry considerations by extending the isotropy to space time, based on the concept of sweeping velocity. The resulting solution for the pressure w-f spectrum contains a term (the mean shear-turbulence term) which does not fulfill the Kraichnan Philipps theorem, due to the form of the selected turbulent velocity spectrum. The viscous effects are accounted for by a cut-off depending on wall distance; this procedure allows extending the model beyond the inertial range contribution. The w-f pressure spectrum is derived and compared to the experimental low wavenumber data of Farabee and Geib (1991) [8] and Bonness et al. (2010) [5], for which a good agreement is obtained. The derived expression is also compared to Chase theoretical model Chase (1987) [6] and found to agree well in the vicinity of the convective ridge of the subsonic domain and to differ significantly both in supersonic and subsonic low wavenumber limits. The pressure spectrum derived from the model and its scaling are discussed and compared to experimental data and to the empirical model of Goody (2002) [23], which results from the compilation of a large set of experimental data. Very good agreement is obtained, except at vanishing frequencies where it is claimed that the experimental results lack of significance due to the limited size of the experimental facilities. This hypothesis supported by the results obtained from

  15. Theory of topological edges and domain walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bais, F.A.; Slingerland, J.K.; Haaker, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate domain walls between topologically ordered phases in two spatial dimensions. We present a method which allows for the determination of the superselection sectors of excitations of such walls and which leads to a unified description of the kinematics of a wall and the two phases to

  16. To detect anomalies in diaphragm walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragm walls are potentially ideal retaining walls for deep excavations in densely built-up areas, as they cause no vibrations during their construction and provide structural elements with high strength and stiffness. In the recent past, however, several projects using diaphragm walls as soil

  17. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafez, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used in external walls. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became

  18. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was

  19. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  20. Young Athletes Cleared for Sports Participation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: How Many Actually Meet Recommended Return-to-Sport Criterion Cutoffs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, Allison R; Ithurburn, Matthew P; Rauh, Mitchell J; Hewett, Timothy E; Paterno, Mark V; Schmitt, Laura C

    2017-11-01

    Study Design Prospective cohort study. Background While meeting objective criterion cutoffs is recommended prior to return to sports following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the number of young athletes who meet recommended cutoffs and the impact of cutoffs on longitudinal sports participation are unknown. Objectives To test the hypothesis that a higher proportion of young athletes who meet recommended cutoffs will maintain the same level of sports participation over the year following return-to-sport clearance compared to those who do not meet recommended cutoffs. Methods At the time of return-to-sport clearance, the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form (IKDC), quadriceps and hamstring strength limb symmetry index (LSI), and single-leg hop test LSI were assessed. Proportions of participants who met individual (IKDC score of 90 or greater; strength and hop test LSIs of 90% or greater) and combined cutoffs were calculated. Proportions of participants who continued at the same level of sports participation over the year following return-to-sport clearance (assessed using the Tegner activity scale) were compared between those who met and did not meet cutoffs. Results Participants included 115 young athletes (88 female). The proportions meeting individual cutoffs ranged from 43.5% to 78.3%. The proportions meeting cutoffs for all hop tests, all strength tests, and all combined measures were 53.0%, 27.8%, and 13.9%, respectively. A higher proportion of participants who met cutoffs for both strength tests maintained the same level of sports participation over the year following return-to-sport clearance than those who did not (81.3% versus 60.2%, P = .02). Conclusion The proportions of young athletes after ACL reconstruction recently cleared for return to sports who met the combined criterion cutoffs were low. Those who met the criterion cutoffs for both strength tests maintained the same level of sports

  1. Cut-off low monitoring by the French VHF-ST-radar network during the ESTIME campaign

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    Caccia, J.-L.; Bertin, F.; Campistron, B.; Klaus, V.; Pointin, Y.; van Baelen, J.; Wilson, R.

    2000-05-01

    In order to investigate mesoscale strato-tropospheric exchanges, the field campaign `Echanges Stratosphère-Troposphère: Investigations à Moyenne Echelle' was conducted in France from late 1993 to mid 1995 and focused on cut-off low events. It involved the French research network of five VHF (Very High Frequency) ST (Strato-Tropospheric) radars deployed in southern France. Observations corresponding to three Intensive Observing Periods are reported here. The radar data analyzed and discussed are time-height diagrams of the aspect ratio (AR), that is, the vertical to oblique beam-returned power ratio, used for monitoring three cut-off low events. In order to discuss the validity of the method, 506 h of radar AR data were compared with time-height diagrams of the static stability and the humidity obtained from synoptic European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts model analyses. A dataset corresponding to 297 h of observations is analyzed and discussed here. It is concluded that the AR is a good tracer to document cut-off low events, including tropopause folding identification and the detection of tropospheric air masses of enhanced stability, in dry or weakly humid cases. On the other hand, although the effects of the specific humidity and its gradients on VHF radar echo power could not be extensively investigated, our results suggest that the same parameter cannot be used at mid- and lower-tropospheric levels when the effects of specific humidity significantly reinforce the moist static stability. It is important to take into account these insights in the context of future observing campaigns in which a network of VHF-ST-radars will be involved, and where their role will be to observe and to document the evolution of upper-level features or potential vorticity streamers, or more generally stratospheric-tropospheric exchanges.

  2. Accurate cut-offs for predicting endoscopic activity and mucosal healing in Crohn's disease with fecal calprotectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan María Vázquez-Morón

    Full Text Available Background: Fecal biomarkers, especially fecal calprotectin, are useful for predicting endoscopic activity in Crohn's disease; however, the cut-off point remains unclear. The aim of this paper was to analyze whether faecal calprotectin and M2 pyruvate kinase are good tools for generating highly accurate scores for the prediction of the state of endoscopic activity and mucosal healing. Methods: The simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease and the Crohn's disease activity index was calculated for 71 patients diagnosed with Crohn's. Fecal calprotectin and M2-PK were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Results: A fecal calprotectin cut-off concentration of ≥ 170 µg/g (sensitivity 77.6%, specificity 95.5% and likelihood ratio +17.06 predicts a high probability of endoscopic activity, and a fecal calprotectin cut-off of ≤ 71 µg/g (sensitivity 95.9%, specificity 52.3% and likelihood ratio -0.08 predicts a high probability of mucosal healing. Three clinical groups were identified according to the data obtained: endoscopic activity (calprotectin ≥ 170, mucosal healing (calprotectin ≤ 71 and uncertainty (71 > calprotectin < 170, with significant differences in endoscopic values (F = 26.407, p < 0.01. Clinical activity or remission modified the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity (100% vs 89% or mucosal healing (75% vs 87% in the diagnostic scores generated. M2-PK was insufficiently accurate to determine scores. Conclusions: The highly accurate scores for fecal calprotectin provide a useful tool for interpreting the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity or mucosal healing, and are valuable in the specific clinical context.

  3. Sinus cut-off sign: A helpful sign in the CT diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture associated with pleural effusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey)]. E-mail: skaya@pamukkale.edu.tr; Karabulut, Nevzat [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Denizli (Turkey); Yuncu, Gokhan [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey); Sevinc, Serpil [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Thoracic Surgery, Denizli (Turkey); Kiroglu, Yilmaz [Pamukkale University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Denizli (Turkey)

    2006-08-15

    The objective of our study was to describe the 'sinus cut-off' sign at CT in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in patients with blunt abdominal trauma complicated with pleural effusion, and evaluate its utility in an experimental model. Between January 2004 and March 2005, we observed an unusual interruption of costophrenic sinus at CT in three patients with blunt abdominal trauma accompanied with pleural effusion. This observation prompted us to evaluate the utility of this sign in an experimental model. Laparotomically, we created 2 cm diapragmatic lacerations at each hemidiaphragm in two rabbits and pushed up the abdominal viscera with omentum through the defect. To simulate hemothorax, we also injected 5-10 mL of diluted contrast material into the pleural space. Using a dual-slice helical CT scanner, limited thoracoabdominal CT examination was performed before and after injection of intrapleural contrast material. The images were analyzed for the presence of CT signs for diaphragmatic injury. The left posterior costophrenic sulcus was interrupted in all of the three patients with left pleural effusion. While it was associated with other findings of diaphragmatic injury, the 'sinus cut-off sign' was the sole finding in one patient. The sinus cut-off sign was observed on the CT scans of 100% of the rabbits with a left and right sided diaphragmatic rupture. The 'sinus cut-off sign' is useful and can increase the CT detection of acute diaphragmatic injury associated with pleural effusion.

  4. Age-related cutoffs for cervical movement behaviour to distinguish chronic idiopathic neck pain patients from unimpaired subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Daniel; Vogt, Lutz; Wilke, Jan; Rickert, Marcus; Banzer, Winfried

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims to develop age-dependent cutoff values in a quasi-experimental, cross-sectional diagnostic test study. One hundred and twenty (120) asymptomatic subjects (n = 100, 36♀, 18 75 years, for normative values; n = 20, 23-75 years, 15♀, for selectivity analyses) and 20 patients suffering from idiopathic neck pain (selectivity analyses, 22-71 years, 15♀) were included. Subjects performed five repetitive maximal cervical flexion/extension movements in an upright sitting position. Cervical kinematic characteristics (maximal range of motion (ROM), coefficient of variation (CV) and mean conjunct movements in rotation and flexion (CM)) were calculated from raw 3D ultrasonic data. Regression analyses were conducted to reveal associations between kinematic characteristics and age and gender and thus to determine normative values for healthy subjects. Age explains 53 % of the variance in ROM (decrease 10.2° per decade), 13 % in CV (increase 0.003 per decade) and 9 % in CM (increase 0.57° per decade). Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted for differences between individual values of the kinematic characteristics and normative values to optimise cutoff values for distinguishing patients from unimpaired subjects (20 patients and 20 healthy). Cutoff values distinguished asymptomatic subjects' and chronic nonspecific neck patient's movement characteristics with sufficient quality (sensitivity 70-80 %, specificity 65-70 %). By including such classifications, the present findings expand actual research stating an age-related decrease in kinematic behaviour only using categorising span widths across decades. Future study is warranted to reveal our results' potential applicability for intervention onset decision making for idiopathic neck pain patients.

  5. Relationship between childhood obesity cut-offs and metabolic and vascular comorbidities: comparative analysis of three growth standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Costa, C; Núñez, F; Montal, A; Brines, J

    2014-04-01

    To compare the association between metabolic and vascular comorbidities and the body mass (BMI)-for-age cut-off criteria from three growth standards [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2000; World Health Organization (WHO), 2007; Spanish Reference Criteria (Carrascosa Lezcano et al., 2008)] that are used to define being overweight and obese in childhood. A prospective study was conducted in 137 children (aged 8-16 years). Based on BMI-for-age Z-scores according to WHO cut-offs, 59 participants were obese, 35 were overweight and 43 were normal-weight. All participating children were subsequently reclassified applying the CDC and Spanish Reference Criteria. Blood pressure (BP), biochemical variables and vascular parameters (stiffness and intima-media thickness) were analysed. According to WHO and CDC references, 48% and 43% of the children, respectively, were categorised as obese, whereas 16% were considered as obese using the Spanish Reference Criteria. Applying WHO criteria, obese children showed significantly higher levels of insulin, homeostasis model assessment index and most vascular parameters, as well as lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol than overweight children. Moreover, overweight children showed higher BP, insulin and uric acid, and lower HDL-cholesterol than normal weight children. The CDC criteria yielded similar results, although with fewer differences between obese and overweight children. Applying Spanish criteria, the differences between obese and overweight children disappeared. WHO and CDC BMI-for-age references and cut-offs are useful for defining obesity and being overweight in children because they clearly identify metabolic and vascular comorbidities. The Spanish Reference Criteria underdiagnose obesity because overweight children show comorbidities typical of the obese. © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. Cut-off scores of a brief neuropsychological battery (NBACE for Spanish individual adults older than 44 years old.

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    Montserrat Alegret

    Full Text Available The neuropsychological battery used in Fundació ACE (NBACE is a relatively brief, and easy to administer, test battery that was designed to detect cognitive impairment in the adulthood. The NBACE includes measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis and executive functions. The aim of the present study was to establish the cut-off scores for impairment for different levels of age and education that could be useful in the cognitive assessment of Spanish subjects who are at risk for cognitive impairment, especially dementia. Data from 1018 patients with a mild dementia syndrome, and 512 cognitively healthy subjects, older than 44 years, from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE (Barcelona, Spain were analyzed. In the whole sample, cut-off scores and sensitivity/specificity values were calculated for six conditions after combining 3 age ranges (44 to 64; 65 to 74; and older than 74 years old by 2 educational levels (until Elementary school; and more than Elementary school. Moreover, general cut-offs are reported for Catalan and Spanish speakers. The results showed that most of NBACE tests reached good sensitivity and specificity values, except for Ideomotor praxis, Repetition and Verbal Comprehension tests, which had a ceiling effect. Word List Learning from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and Semantic Verbal Fluency were the most useful tests to discriminate between cognitively healthy and demented subjects. The NBACE has been shown to be a useful tool able to detect cognitive impairment, especially dementia, in older than 44 years Spanish persons.

  7. The Adjustment Disorder--New Module 20 as a Screening Instrument: Cluster Analysis and Cut-off Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, L; Bachem, R C; Maercker, A

    2016-10-01

    Adjustment disorder (AjD) is a transient mental health condition emerging after stressful life events. Its diagnostic criteria have recently been under revision which led to the development of the Adjustment Disorder--New Module 20 (ADNM-20) as a self-report assessment. To identify a threshold value for people at high risk for AjD. As part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating a self-help manual for burglary victims, the baseline data of all participants (n=80) were analyzed. Besides the ADNM-20, participants answered self-report questionnaires regarding the external variables post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology, depression, anxiety, and stress levels. We used cluster analysis and ROC analysis to identify the most appropriate cut-off value. The cluster analysis identified three different subgroups. They differed in their level of AjD symptomatology from low to high symptom severity. The same pattern of impairment was found for the external variables. The ROC analysis testing the ADNM-20 sum scoreagainst the theory-based diagnostic algorithm, revealed an optimal cut-off score at 47.5 to distinguish between people at high risk for AjD and people at low risk. The ADNM-20 distinguishes between people with low, moderate, and high symptomatology. The recommendation for a cut-off score at 47.5 facilitates the use of the ADNM-20 in research and practice.

  8. Gestational Age-specific Cut-off Values Are Needed for Diagnosis of Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Sung; Kim, Byoung Jae; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Da Young; Hwang, Kyu Ri; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Mi

    2015-09-01

    During the first trimester of pregnancy, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) >2.5 mIU/L has been suggested as the universal criterion for subclinical hypothyroidism. However, TSH levels change continuously during pregnancy, even in the first trimester. Therefore the use of a fixed cut-off value for TSH may result in a different diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism according to gestational age. The objective of this study was to obtain the normal reference range of TSH during the first trimester in Korean gravida and to determine the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism using the fixed cut-off value (TSH >2.5 mIU/L). The study population consisted of pregnant women who were measured for TSH during the first trimester of pregnancy (n=492) and nonpregnant women (n=984). Median concentration of TSH in pregnant women was lower than in non-pregnant women. There was a continuous decrease of median TSH concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy (median TSH concentration: 1.82 mIU/L for 3+0 to 6+6 weeks; 1.53 mIU/L for 7+0 to 7+6 weeks; and 1.05 mIU/L for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks). Using the fixed cut-off value of TSH >2.5 mIU/L, the diagnosis rate of subclinical hypothyroidism decreased significantly according to the gestational age (GA) at TSH (25% in 3+0 to 6+6 weeks, 13% in 7+0 to 7+6 weeks, and 9% for 8+0 to 13+6 weeks, Phypothyroidism.

  9. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yom; Yi, Siyan; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Gupta, Vinay; Prak, Piseth Raingsey; Oum, Sophal; Logerfo, James P

    2013-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786) were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229) were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years) and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years) for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2) and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values value <0.001) when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men). Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  10. Tumor Budding in Colorectal Carcinoma: Confirmation of Prognostic Significance and Histologic Cutoff in a Population-based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rondell P; Vierkant, Robert A; Tillmans, Lori S; Wang, Alice H; Laird, Peter W; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Lynch, Charles F; French, Amy J; Slager, Susan L; Raissian, Yassaman; Garcia, Joaquin J; Kerr, Sarah E; Lee, Hee Eun; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Cerhan, James R; Limburg, Paul J; Smyrk, Thomas C

    2015-10-01

    Tumor budding in colorectal carcinoma has been associated with poor outcome in multiple studies, but the absence of an established histologic cutoff for "high" tumor budding, heterogeneity in study populations, and varying methods for assessing tumor budding have hindered widespread incorporation of this parameter in clinical reports. We used an established scoring system in a population-based cohort to determine a histologic cutoff for "high" tumor budding and confirm its prognostic significance. We retrieved hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections from 553 incident colorectal carcinoma cases. Each case was previously characterized for select molecular alterations and survival data. Interobserver agreement was assessed between 2 gastrointestinal pathologists and a group of 4 general surgical pathologists. High budding (≥ 10 tumor buds in a ×20 objective field) was present in 32% of cases, low budding in 46%, and no budding in 22%. High tumor budding was associated with advanced pathologic stage (P 2 times risk of cancer-specific death (hazard ratio = 2.57 [1.27, 5.19]). After multivariate adjustment, by penalized smoothing splines, we found increasing tumor bud counts from 5 upward to be associated with an increasingly shortened cancer-specific survival. By this method, a tumor bud count of 10 corresponded to approximately 2.5 times risk of cancer-specific death. The interobserver agreement was good with weighted κ of 0.70 for 2 gastrointestinal pathologists over 121 random cases and 0.72 between all 6 pathologists for 20 random cases. Using an established method to assess budding on routine histologic stains, we have shown that a cutoff of 10 for high tumor budding is independently associated with a significantly worse prognosis. The reproducibility data provide support for the routine widespread implementation of tumor budding in clinical reports.

  11. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Determination of the Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points in a Rural South African Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motala, Ayesha A.; Esterhuizen, Tonya; Pirie, Fraser J.; Omar, Mahomed A.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and to define optimal ethnic-specific waist-circumference cutoff points in a rural South African black community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by random-cluster sampling of adults aged >15 years. Participants had demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements taken, including a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the 2009 Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definition. RESULTS Of 947 subjects (758 women) studied, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.1%, with a higher prevalence in women (25.0%) than in men (10.5%). Peak prevalence was in the oldest age-group (≥65 years) in women (44.2%) and in the 45- to 54-year age-group in men (25.0%). The optimal waist circumference cutoff point to predict the presence of at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome was 86 cm for men and 92 cm for women. The crude prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher with the JIS definition (26.5%) than with the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) (23.3%) or the modified Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATPIII) (18.5%) criteria; there was very good agreement with the IDF definition (κ = 0.90 [95% CI 0.87–0.94]) and good concordance with ATPIII criteria (0.77 [0.72–0.82]). CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, especially in women, suggesting that this community, unlike other rural communities in Africa, already has entered the epidemic of metabolic syndrome. Waist circumference cutoff points differ from those currently recommended for Africans. PMID:21330644

  12. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Young Adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoka, A O; Ogunlade, O; Akintomide, A O; Akomolafe, R O; Ajayi, O E

    2014-06-19

    This study assessed healthy young adults to determine the normal limits for electrocardiographic variables and cut-off values for left ventricular hypertrophy. It was a cross sectional descriptive study in which the participants were evaluated clinically by standard 12-lead resting electrocardiogram (ECG) at 25 mm/s during quiet respiration. The heart rate, P wave duration, axis and amplitude, PR and QT intervals, QRS duration, axis and amplitude and T wave axis were assessed. Three hundred and twenty four (324) volunteers comprising of 175 males and 149 females aged 20 to 30 years (mean, 23.01 ± 2.88 years) participated in the study. The normal limits for heart rate, P wave duration, amplitude and axis in lead II, QRS duration and axis, T wave axis, PR interval, QT interval and QTc respectively were; 61-93 beats per minute,0.08-0.12s,1.00-2.00 mm,22.00-79.000,78.00-106.00 ms,15.50-81.000, 24.25-69.000,0.12-0.19s, 0.32-0.40s and 0.36-0.44s. The cut-off values for Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell and Araoye criteria for assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) were higher than those previously in use in medical practice. Gender difference exists in some cut-off values for LVH. This study defined the normal limits for electrocardiographic variables for young adult Nigerians. Racial factor should be taken into consideration in interpretation of ECG.

  13. Handgrip Strength Cutoff Points to Identify Mobility Limitation in Community-dwelling Older People and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, K S de Souza; Dias, J M Domingues; Bastone, A de Carvalho; Vieira, R Alvarenga; Andrade, A C de Souza; Perracini, M Rodrigues; Guerra, R Oliveira; Dias, R Corrêa

    2016-03-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. The specific threshold of muscle weakness that leads to mobility limitations has not been identified. To determine the best cutoff point of handgrip strength for identifying mobility limitation and to investigate the factors associated with muscle weakness and mobility limitation in community-dwelling older people. Transversal study. Cities of Belo Horizonte, Barueri and Santa Cruz in Brazil. 1374 community-dwelling older people from the Frailty study in Brazilian older people (FIBRA Study). Outcomes included muscle weakness determined according to gender-specific handgrip strength cutoff points generated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, mobility limitation defined as a gait speed ≤ 0.8 m/s; and a combination of both muscle weakness and mobility limitation. Associated factors included socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, anthropometrics, health conditions, use of health services and disability. The cutoff points of handgrip strength with the best balancing between sensitivity and specificity for mobility limitation were 25.8 kgf for men (sensitivity 69%, specificity 73%) and 17.4 kgf (sensitivity 60%, specificity 66%) for women. Age and disability in instrumental activities of daily living were associated with all outcomes. Women had greater odds of mobility limitation than men. Physical inactivity, body fat, diabetes, depression, sleeping disturbances, number of medications and occurrence of falls remained as significant associated factors in the final model. Handgrip strength can be a useful tool to identify mobility limitation in clinical practice. Interventions to prevent or minimize impacts of sarcopenia should stimulate physical activity and improvement of body composition in addition to the management of chronic diseases and disabilities.

  14. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas; de Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. Results: We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. PMID:27812631

  15. The effect of a weak nonlinearity on the lowest cut-off frequencies of a cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianov, I. V.; Kaplunov, J.; Kudaibergenov, A. K.; Manevitch, L. I.

    2018-02-01

    The plane strain problem for a thin circular cylindrical shell is considered within the framework of the Sanders-Koiter theory. The relative shell thickness and displacement amplitude are chosen to be of the same asymptotic order. The leading nonlinear correction to the lowest cut-off frequencies is derived using the method of multiple scales. In contrast to the traditional two-mode Galerkin expansions assuming inextensibility of the shell transverse cross section, the developed fourth-order asymptotic scheme operates with five angular modes. The obtained results reveal asymptotic inconsistency of previous approximate solutions to the problem.

  16. Historical aspects of genetic counseling: why was maternal age 35 chosen as the cut-off for offering amniocentesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resta, Robert G

    2002-01-01

    The justification for offering amniocentesis to women age 35 or older is that by age 35 the risk of having a child with chromosome problem is greater than the risk of amniocentesis. In fact, this seemingly objective statement is not supported by historical analysis. Maternal age 35 was chosen for the cutoff based mostly on economic cost-benefit analysis rather than objective medical assessment. The story of why 35 was chosen illustrates how collective memory can affect, and be influenced by, the guiding ethical principles of a medical profession.

  17. Detecting outliers and/or leverage points: a robust two-stage procedure with bootstrap cut-off points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Marubini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust two-stage procedure for identification of outlying observations in regression analysis. The exploratory stage identifies leverage points and vertical outliers through a robust distance estimator based on Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD. After deletion of these points, the confirmatory stage carries out an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS analysis on the remaining subset of data and investigates the effect of adding back in the previously deleted observations. Cut-off points pertinent to different diagnostics are generated by bootstrapping and the cases are definitely labelled as good-leverage, bad-leverage, vertical outliers and typical cases. The procedure is applied to four examples.

  18. Determination of the optimal cut-off point for ELISA test for diagnosis of brucellosis in Iran

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    Soudbakhsh A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Finding a reliable diagnostic method for brucellosis is the most challengeable problem. In this study we determined the optimal diagnostic cut-off point for ELISA test."n"nMethods: We gathered 56 confirmed cases of brucellosis. Furthermore blood samples from 126 controls including 73 healthy controls and 53 without brucellosis febrile patients were collected. In all of the cases and controls ELISA Ig G and ELISA Ig M levels were measured and compared with each other by Box plot graph and the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA Ig G and Ig M were fixed in different cut-off values and Ig G and Ig M levels yielding maximal sensitivity plus specificity were selected for determination of optimal cut-off point."n"nResults: The nineteen patients had positive blood cultures for Brucella melitensis. The standard agglutination test results were 1/160 or more in 54 patients. The Box plot graph indicated a high degree of dispersion for Ig G and Ig M data in patients with brucellosis compared with febrile patients without brucellosis and healthy controls. We observed partial overlap for Ig M data (not for Ig G between cases and controls. The area under ROC curve for

  19. Appropriate body mass index and waist circumference cutoff for overweight and central obesity among adults in Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yom An

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher's Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786 were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229 were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m(2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001 when BMI of 23.0 kg/m(2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m(2 for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001 when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥ 94.0 cm in men. CONCLUSION: Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years.

  20. Exploration of the optimal diameter cut-off value in patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor suitable for surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan LIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the pathology of the patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor (NFA, and explore the optimal diameter cut-off value. Methods  The clinical data of 243 patients with NFA, evaluated in the Department of Endocrinology and operated in the Department of Urology of General Hospital of Chinese PLA from Feb. 1996 to Jan. 2016, were collected. The patients were divided into two groups according to pathology: those in real demand of surgery were classified to the surgery-need group (n=57, while the others were categorized as the surgery-unwanted group (n=186. The general situation, pathological type and tumor diameter of the two groups and the factors affecting the surgery were analyzed, and the ROC curve was used to explore the optimal surgery cut-off value, which represents the maximum value of the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results  Of the 57 patients in surgery-need group (27 males and 30 females, the lesions were on the right in 31 cases, on the left in 25 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 4.5cm, and the average age was 41.5±12.1 years old. Of the 186 patients in surgery-unwanted group (87 males and 99 females, the lesions were on the right in 99 cases, on the left in 86 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 3.0cm, and the average age was 50.6±10.9 years old. Logistic regression revealed that lesion diameter might be a risk factor (OR=1.340, 95%CI 1.266-1.418, P=0.000 and age be a protective factor (OR=0.942, 95%CI 0.929-0.955, P=0.000 for real demand of surgery. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of lesion diameter was 0.757(95%CI 0.681-0.833. The optimal cut-off value was 4.1cm (sensitivity 60.7% and specificity 83.0%. Conclusions  Younger patients with bigger lesion diameter may have greater possibility for surgery. The optimal surgery cut-off value of the lesion diameter is 4.1cm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.11

  1. Seismic displacement of gravity retaining walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mohamed Hafez Ismail Ibrahim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Seismic displacement of gravity walls had been studied using conventional static methods for controlled displacement design. In this study plain strain numerical analysis is performed using Plaxis dynamic program where prescribed displacement is applied at the bottom boundary of the soil to simulate the applied seismic load. Constrained absorbent side boundaries are introduced to prevent any wave reflection. The studied soil is chosen dense granular sand and modeled as elasto-plastic material according to Mohr–Column criteria while the gravity wall is assumed elastic. By comparing the resulted seismic wall displacements calculated by numerical analysis for six historical ground motions with that calculated by the pseudo-static method, it is found that numerical seismic displacements are either equal to or greater than corresponding pseudo-static values. Permissible seismic wall displacement calculated by AASHTO can be used for empirical estimation of seismic displacement. It is also found that seismic wall displacement is directly proportional with the positive angle of inclination of the back surface of the wall, soil flexibility and with the earthquake maximum ground acceleration. Seismic wall sliding is dominant and rotation is negligible for rigid walls when the ratio between the wall height and the foundation width is less than 1.4, while for greater ratios the wall becomes more flexible and rotation (rocking increases till the ratio reaches 1.8 where overturning is susceptible to take place. Cumulative seismic wall rotation increases with dynamic time and tends to be constant at the end of earthquake.

  2. Near-wall serpentine cooled turbine airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Pang

    2013-09-17

    A serpentine coolant flow path (54A-54G) formed by inner walls (50, 52) in a cavity (49) between pressure and suction side walls (22, 24) of a turbine airfoil (20A). A coolant flow (58) enters (56) an end of the airfoil, flows into a span-wise channel (54A), then flows forward (54B) over the inner surface of the pressure side wall, then turns behind the leading edge (26), and flows back along a forward part of the suction side wall, then follows a loop (54E) forward and back around an inner wall (52), then flows along an intermediate part of the suction side wall, then flows into an aft channel (54G) between the pressure and suction side walls, then exits the trailing edge (28). This provides cooling matched to the heating topography of the airfoil, minimizes differential thermal expansion, revives the coolant, and minimizes the flow volume needed.

  3. Water Walls for Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael T. (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J. (Inventor); Hammoudeh, Mona (Inventor); Richardson, Tra-My Justine (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method and associated system for processing waste gases, liquids and solids, produced by human activity, to separate (i) liquids suitable for processing to produce potable water, (ii) solids and liquids suitable for construction of walls suitable for enclosing a habitat volume and for radiation shielding, and (iii) other fluids and solids that are not suitable for processing. A forward osmosis process and a reverse osmosis process are sequentially combined to reduce fouling and to permit accumulation of different processable substances. The invention may be used for long term life support of human activity.

  4. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  5. Suggested Cut-Off Values for Vitamin D as a Risk Marker for Total and Cardiac Death in Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Naesgaard, Patrycja A.; Ricardo A. León de la Fuente; Nilsen, Stein Tore; Pönitz, Volker; Brügger-Andersen, Trygve; Grundt, Heidi; Staines, Harry; Nilsen, Dennis W.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut-off levels are still under debate. Objectives To assess two cut-off levels, 40 and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Methods We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of d...

  6. In Vitro Dialysis of Cytokine-Rich Plasma With High and Medium Cut-Off Membranes Reduces Its Procalcific Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Kevin; Hulko, Michael; Storr, Markus; Speidel, Rose; Gauss, Julia; Schindler, Ralf; Zickler, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Recently developed high-flux (HF) dialysis membranes with extended permeability provide better clearance of middle-sized molecules such as interleukins (ILs). Whether this modulation of inflammation influences the procalcific effects of septic plasma on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is not known. To assess the effects of high cut-off (HCO) and medium cut-off (MCO) membranes on microinflammation and in vitro vascular calcification we developed a miniature dialysis model. Plasma samples from lipopolysaccharide-spiked blood were dialyzed with HF, HCO, and MCO membranes in an in vitro miniature dialysis model. Afterwards, IL-6 concentrations were determined in dialysate and plasma. Calcifying VSMCs were incubated with dialyzed plasma samples and vascular calcification was assessed. Osteopontin (OPN) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) were measured in VSMC supernatants. IL-6 plasma concentrations were markedly lower with HCO and MCO dialysis. VSMC calcification was significantly lower after incubation with MCO- and HCO-serum compared to HF plasma. MGP and OPN levels in supernatants were significantly lower in the MCO but not in the HCO group compared to HF. In vitro dialysis of cytokine-enriched plasma samples with MCO and HCO membranes reduces IL-6 levels. The induction of vascular calcification by cytokine-enriched plasma is reduced after HCO and MCO dialysis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Taming cut-off induced artifacts in molecular dynamics studies of solvated polypeptides. The reaction field method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, H; Steinhauser, O

    1992-12-05

    In this paper we present a model system of a solvated polypeptide, which is a suitable reference platform for the systematic exploration of methods for taming artifacts introduced by an incorrect treatment of long-range Coulomb forces. The essential feature of the system composed of an alpha-helical peptide and 1021 water molecules is the strict neutrality of all charge groups. The dynamical properties of the peptide, i.e. unfolding or maintenance of the helix, already give first hints on the influence of boundary effects. A rigorous and deeper insight is gained, however, if analyzing the system by means of the generalized Kirkwood g-factor, which projects the net dipole moment of concentric spheres onto the respective dipole moment of the reference charge group. The g-factor is a global measure for, and a sensitive probe of, the orientational structure, which in its turn reflects even the smallest inconsistencies in the treatment of long-range forces. While the cut-off scheme failed the g-factor test, the "reaction field" method, the simplest cut-off correction scheme, enables a consistent description. In other words, with the aid of the reaction field, the correct orientational structure is restored. As a consequence, the helix stability is regained and we were able to calculate the dielectric constant epsilon approximately 55 to 60 for our system, which is slightly below the corresponding value epsilon SPC = 66 of the pure solvent.

  8. On the design of reflectors that produce a cut-off line with a given anisotropic source of light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, G.

    2006-08-01

    The problem of generating a cut-off line with a carefully calculated reflector contour has been treated in detail by Spencer et al. for the case of a cylindrical source of light mounted perpendicular to the optic axis. Because this geometry does not properly represent the geometry in which standard light sources are used in the illumination systems which we study, the attempt was made to extend this theory to anisotropic light sources. This case of lower symmetry is closer to the geometry of light sources encountered in headlamp design. Spencer et al. were able to obtain an implicit algebraic equation for the problem of high symmetry that they analyzed. After adopting their method to the problem under investigation, the method of analysis used was different insofar as an algebraic equation was not obtained and the corresponding ordinary differential equation and the corresponding initial-value problem were solved instead and the solutions are visualized with the aid of a computer-algebra system. In this context, the concept of a so-called polar line or surface proved helpful. This describes a set of points that connect the tangent lines that link a given point of the reflector contour to a given extended lightsource of low symmetry. The extension of the lightsource is assumed to be elliptical in the plane that contains the optic axis and the plane perpendicular to the cut-off line. The analysis extended to the anisotropic case gave some insight into the underlying scaling laws and geometrical constraints.

  9. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V

    2016-12-01

    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  10. STS-114: Engine Cut-Off Sensors Are a No-Go: Teaching Notes for NASA Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    This case study format is intended to simulate the experience of facing the same difficult challenges and making the same critical decisions as managers, engineers, and scientists in the Space Shuttle Program. It has been designed for use in the classroom setting to help students develop skills related to decision-making. Students will read about the engine cut-off sensor anomaly which created challenges during the STS-114 mission and have the opportunity to make decisions as lead NASA engineers and Mission Management Team members. Included within this document are three case study presentation options - class discussion, group activity, and open-ended research. Please read the full case prior to in-class presentation to allow ample time for students' analysis and reflection, as well as to prepare additional questions. activities or exercises, material selection, etc. Depending upon the setting of your presentation and the number of participants, please choose at least one presentation format beforehand and plan accordingly. You may expect the following learning objectives by using the proposed formats. Learning Objectives: To enable students to experience the responsibilities of NASA management, engineers, and analysis; to discover possible procedures for investigating system anomalies; to become familiar with the liquid hydrogen low level engine cut-off sensor, including its function, connecting components, and location within the Space Shuttle; and to encourage critical analysis and stimulating discussion of Space Shuttle mission challenges.

  11. Lowered cutoff points of obesity indicators are better predictors of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in premenopausal Taiwanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-Ling; Hsu, Chung-Huei; Jeng, Chii

    2015-01-01

    In previous study, we found that in order to prevent MS in women aged obesity indicators should be lowered. To investigate whether our proposed cutoff points of obesity indicators predict the occurrence of hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), and hyperlipidemia in premenopausal women with greater sensitivity and specificity compared to reference cutoff points of obesity that are currently being used. Using the database of the "2002 Survey on the Prevalence of Hypertension, Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Taiwan" provided by the Bureau of Health Promotion, Taiwan as research material, data from 2270 premenopausal women aged 20-65 years were used for the analyses. The receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC) of the body-mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were used to predict HT, DM, and hyperlipidemia. Obesity is not a good predictor of the occurrence of hyperlipidemia in premenopausal women aged obesity indicators should be reduced. The proposed values are as follows: a WHR of 0.79; a WC of 74.7 cm; a WHtR of 0.49; and a BMI of 22.3 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical applicability and cutoff values for an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for older adults with low formal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Bertola, Laiss; Ávila, Rafaela Teixeira; Moreira, Lafaiete; Coutinho, Gabriel; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Nicolato, Rodrigo; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease) with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education.

  13. Accelerating potential of mean force calculations for lipid membrane permeation: System size, reaction coordinate, solute-solute distance, and cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Naomi; Atkovska, Kalina; Hub, Jochen S.

    2016-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are capable of predicting the permeability of lipid membranes for drug-like solutes, but the calculations have remained prohibitively expensive for high-throughput studies. Here, we analyze simple measures for accelerating potential of mean force (PMF) calculations of membrane permeation, namely, (i) using smaller simulation systems, (ii) simulating multiple solutes per system, and (iii) using shorter cutoffs for the Lennard-Jones interactions. We find that PMFs for membrane permeation are remarkably robust against alterations of such parameters, suggesting that accurate PMF calculations are possible at strongly reduced computational cost. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the definition of the membrane center of mass (COM), used to define the transmembrane reaction coordinate. Membrane-COM definitions based on all lipid atoms lead to artifacts due to undulations and, consequently, to PMFs dependent on membrane size. In contrast, COM definitions based on a cylinder around the solute lead to size-independent PMFs, down to systems of only 16 lipids per monolayer. In summary, compared to popular setups that simulate a single solute in a membrane of 128 lipids with a Lennard-Jones cutoff of 1.2 nm, the measures applied here yield a speedup in sampling by factor of ˜40, without reducing the accuracy of the calculated PMF.

  14. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoshitaro; Agata, Kiyokazu; Inoue, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and then moving along it

  15. Spontaneous Behaviors and Wall-Curvature Lead to Apparent Wall Preference in Planarian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaro Akiyama

    Full Text Available The planarian Dugesia japonica tends to stay near the walls of its breeding containers and experimental dishes in the laboratory, a phenomenon called "wall preference". This behavior is thought to be important for environmental adaptation, such as hiding by planarians in nature. However, the mechanisms regulating wall-preference behavior are not well understood, since this behavior occurs in the absence of any particular stimulation. Here we show the mechanisms of wall-preference behavior. Surprisingly, planarian wall-preference behavior was also shown even by the head alone and by headless planarians. These results indicate that planarian "wall-preference" behavior only appears to be a "preference" behavior, and is actually an outcome of spontaneous behaviors, rather than of brain function. We found that in the absence of environmental cues planarians moved basically straight ahead until they reached a wall, and that after reaching a wall, they changed their direction of movement to one tangential to the wall, suggesting that this spontaneous behavior may play a critical role in the wall preference. When we tested another spontaneous behavior, the wigwag movement of the planarian head, using computer simulation with various wigwag angles and wigwag intervals, large wigwag angle and short wigwag interval reduced wall-preference behavior. This indicated that wigwag movement may determine the probability of staying near the wall or leaving the wall. Furthermore, in accord with this simulation, when we tested planarian wall-preference behavior using several assay fields with different curvature of the wall, we found that concavity and sharp curvature of walls negatively impacted wall preference by affecting the permissible angle of the wigwag movement. Together, these results indicate that planarian wall preference may be involuntarily caused by the combination of two spontaneous planarian behaviors: moving straight ahead until reaching a wall and

  16. Influence of presence/absence of thyroid gland on the cutoff value for thyroglobulin in lymph-node aspiration to detect metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huan; Wang, Yong; Wang, Min-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hai-Rui; Zhang, Bing; Guo, Hui-Qin

    2017-04-28

    Thyroglobulin measurement with fine-needle aspiration (Tg-FNA) is a sensitive method for detecting metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the diagnostic threshold is not well established and the influence of the thyroid gland on the cutoff value is also controversial. In this study, patients were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of thyroid tissue, to determine an appropriate cutoff value for clinical practice. Patients with a history of thyroid nodules or surgery for PTC and with enlarged cervical lymph nodes on an FNA examination were enrolled for Tg-FNA detection. One hundred ninety-six lymph nodes (189 patients) were included: 100 from preoperative patients, 49 from patients treated with partial thyroid ablation, and 47 from patients with total thyroid ablation. In 149 lymph nodes from patient with thyroids, the cutoff value for Tg-FNA was 55.99 ng/mL (sensitivity, 95.1%; specificity, 100%), whereas in 47 lymph nodes from patients without a thyroid, it was 9.71 ng/mL (sensitivity, 96.7%; specificity, 100%). Thus, the cutoff value for Tg-FNA was higher in patients with thyroids than in patients without thyroids. The cutoff value for Tg-FNA is influenced by residual thyroid tissue, and a higher cutoff value is recommended for patients with thyroids than for patients without thyroids.

  17. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Whitney, Sophie; de Groot, Richard; Perignon, Marlène; Kuong, Khov; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification of children malnutrition is a priority. Acute malnutrition is defined by the World Health Organization as a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) malnutrition in communities, but MUAC cut-offs currently recommended by WHO do not identify the majority of children with weight-for-height Z-score (5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition. Methods To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011–2013). Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated using wasting for children 80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs. Conclusion Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score malnutrition at the community level. PMID:26840899

  18. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  19. Immersion Refractometry of Isolated Bacterial Cell Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Robert E.

    1973-01-01

    Immersion-refractometric and light-scattering measurements were adapted to determinations of average refractive indices and physical compactness of isolated bacterial cell walls. The structures were immersed in solutions containing various concentrations of polymer molecules that cannot penetrate into wall pores, and then an estimate was made of the polymer concentration or the refractive index of the polymer solution in which light scattering was reduced to zero. Because each wall preparation was heterogeneous, the refractive index of the medium for zero light scattering had to be estimated by extrapolation. Refractive indices for walls suspended in bovine serum albumin solutions ranged from 1.348 for walls of the rod form of Arthrobacter crystallopoietes to 1.382 for walls of the teichoic acid deficient, 52A5 strain of Staphylococcus aureus. These indices were used to calculate approximate values for solids content per milliliter, and the calculated values agreed closely with those estimated from a knowledge of dextran-impermeable volumes per gram, dry weight, of the walls. When large molecules such as dextrans or serum albumin were used for immersion refractometry, the refractive indices obtained were for entire walls, including both wall polymers and wall water. When smaller molecules that can penetrate wall pores to various extents were used with Micrococcus lysodeikticus walls, the average, apparent refractive index of the structures increased as the molecular size of probing molecules was decreased. It was possible to obtain an estimate of 1.45 to 1.46 for the refractive index of wall polymers, predominantly peptidoglycans in this case, by extrapolating the curve for refractive index versus molecular radius to a value of 0.2 nm, the approximate radius of a water molecule. This relatively low value for polymer refractive index was interpreted as evidence in favor of the amorphous, elastic model of peptidoglycan structure and against the crystalline, rigid

  20. The State of the GeoWall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P. J.; Leigh, J.; van Keken, P.; Johnson, A.

    2003-12-01

    The GeoWall stereo projection technology has been widely adopted within Earth Science. Over 20,000 undergraduate students per year use a GeoWall in classroom and lab settings at over 80 institutions around the world using over 200 GeoWalls. We believe that critical mass for this technology has been reached in the Earth Science. Many collaborations have been initiated. With Iris, GeoWall is exploring new ways to monitor seismic networks in real-time and to visualize extremely large, whole Earth seismic simulations. We are also working with a number of drilling organizations including JOI, DOSECC and LacCore to bring modern visualization technology to core interpretation and drill site selection. Also, over 15 museums now have or are building GeoWalls for informal education. Much of the science that is being performed on the GeoWall is finding its way directly into the classroom and science museum. One of the success stories has been the GeoWall Consortium's interaction with industry. The basic hardware for the GeoWall has been spun off to companies that now sell variations of the hardware. In addition, many software companies including ESRI and Dynamic Graphics have added support for the GeoWall in their products. The future of GeoWall is four fold. Curriculum development will bring more material to all GeoWall users. Assessment of the curriculum and educational psychology will give us GeoWall best practices. In technology development, the GeoWall 2 is a 20+ million pixel, tiled display which brings more resolution to the Earth Sciences than ever. To support research the consortium is developing a volume rendering application to visualize extremely large datasets.

  1. Is the necrosis/wall ADC ratio useful for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Durur-Karakaya, Afak; Karaman, Adem; Seker, Mehmet; Demirci, Elif; Alper, Fatih

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether the necrosis/wall apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratio is useful for the malignant-benign differentiation of necrotic breast lesions. Breast MRI was performed using a 3-T system. In this retrospective study, calculation of the necrosis/wall ADC ratio was based on ADC values measured from the necrosis and from the wall of malignant and benign breast lesions by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). By synchronizing post-contrast T1 weighted images, the separate parts of wall and necrosis were maintained. All the diagnoses were pathologically confirmed. Statistical analyses were conducted using an independent sample t-test and receiver operating characteristic analysis. The intraclass and interclass correlations were evaluated. A total of 66 female patients were enrolled, 38 of whom had necrotic breast carcinomas and 28 of whom had breast abscesses. The ADC values were obtained from both the wall and necrosis. The mean necrosis/wall ADC ratio (± standard deviation) was 1.61 ± 0.51 in carcinomas, and it was 0.65 ± 0.33 in abscesses. The area under the curve values for necrosis ADC, wall ADC and the necrosis/wall ADC ratio were 0.680, 0.068 and 0.942, respectively. A wall/necrosis ADC ratio cut-off value of 1.18 demonstrated a sensitivity of 97%, specificity of 93%, a positive-predictive value of 95%, a negative-predictive value of 96% and an accuracy of 95% in determining the malignant nature of necrotic breast lesions. There was a good intra- and interclass reliability for the ADC values of both necrosis and wall. The necrosis/wall ADC ratio appears to be a reliable and promising tool for discriminating breast carcinomas from abscesses using DWI. Advances in knowledge: ADC values of the necrosis obtained by DWI are valuable for malignant-benign differentiation in necrotic breast lesions. The necrosis/wall ADC ratio appears to be a reliable and promising tool in the breast imaging field.

  2. Improvement of wall condensation modeling with suction wall functions for containment application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmkuhl, Jan, E-mail: j.lehmkuhl@fz-juelich.de [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Kelm, Stephan, E-mail: s.kelm@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany); Bucci, Matteo [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives, Paris (France); Allelein, Hans-Josef [RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich (Germany)

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of wall functions for single phase condensation models for large scale application. • Identification of modeling errors related to standard log-law due to buoyancy and wall normal mass transfer (suction). • Modeling of wall normal mass transfer by literature formulation (Sucec, 1999) and in-house approach (FIBULA). • Validation against isothermal Favre experimental data. • Comparison against reference fine grid solution for condensing conditions. - Abstract: To simulate wall condensation on containment scale with CFD methods at reasonable computational cost, a single phase approach has to be applied and wall functions have to be used. However, standard wall functions were derived for flows without heat and mass transfer and their fundamental simplifications are not appropriate to deal with condensation. This paper discusses the limitations of standard wall functions and proposes two wall functions for the momentum equation dealing with mass transfer normal to the sheared wall (suction). The first proposed suction wall function is an algebraic modification based on the standard wall function concept. The second proposed wall function is an in-house developed suction wall function with the potential to cover also heat and mass transfer effects by storing the complex solutions of the RANS-Equations in a lookup table. The wall function approaches are compared to experimental results for boundary layer flows with suction and to the reference results obtained using a refined grid in order to resolve the condensing boundary layer.

  3. Inverse measurement of wall pressure field in flexible-wall wind tunnels using global wall deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kenneth; Brown, Julian; Patil, Mayuresh; Devenport, William

    2018-02-01

    The Kevlar-wall anechoic wind tunnel offers great value to the aeroacoustics research community, affording the capability to make simultaneous aeroacoustic and aerodynamic measurements. While the aeroacoustic potential of the Kevlar-wall test section is already being leveraged, the aerodynamic capability of these test sections is still to be fully realized. The flexibility of the Kevlar walls suggests the possibility that the internal test section flow may be characterized by precisely measuring small deflections of the flexible walls. Treating the Kevlar fabric walls as tensioned membranes with known pre-tension and material properties, an inverse stress problem arises where the pressure distribution over the wall is sought as a function of the measured wall deflection. Experimental wall deformations produced by the wind loading of an airfoil model are measured using digital image correlation and subsequently projected onto polynomial basis functions which have been formulated to mitigate the impact of measurement noise based on a finite-element study. Inserting analytic derivatives of the basis functions into the equilibrium relations for a membrane, full-field pressure distributions across the Kevlar walls are computed. These inversely calculated pressures, after being validated against an independent measurement technique, can then be integrated along the length of the test section to give the sectional lift of the airfoil. Notably, these first-time results are achieved with a non-contact technique and in an anechoic environment.

  4. Hydrodynamics of ultra-relativistic bubble walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Leitao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In cosmological first-order phase transitions, gravitational waves are generated by the collisions of bubble walls and by the bulk motions caused in the fluid. A sizeable signal may result from fast-moving walls. In this work we study the hydrodynamics associated to the fastest propagation modes, namely, ultra-relativistic detonations and runaway solutions. We compute the energy injected by the phase transition into the fluid and the energy which accumulates in the bubble walls. We provide analytic approximations and fits as functions of the net force acting on the wall, which can be readily evaluated for specific models. We also study the back-reaction of hydrodynamics on the wall motion, and we discuss the extrapolation of the friction force away from the ultra-relativistic limit. We use these results to estimate the gravitational wave signal from detonations and runaway walls.

  5. Selective Cutoff Reporting in Studies of Diagnostic Test Accuracy: A Comparison of Conventional and Individual-Patient-Data Meta-Analyses of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Depression Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Brooke; Benedetti, Andrea; Levis, Alexander W; Ioannidis, John P A; Shrier, Ian; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Kloda, Lorie A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Bombardier, Charles H; de Lima Osório, Flavia; Fann, Jesse R; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Lamers, Femke; Lotrakul, Manote; Loureiro, Sonia R; Löwe, Bernd; Shaaban, Juwita; Stafford, Lesley; van Weert, Henk C P M; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, Linda S; Wittkampf, Karin A; Yeung, Albert S; Thombs, Brett D

    2017-05-15

    In studies of diagnostic test accuracy, authors sometimes report results only for a range of cutoff points around data-driven "optimal" cutoffs. We assessed selective cutoff reporting in studies of the diagnostic accuracy of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression screening tool. We compared conventional meta-analysis of published results only with individual-patient-data meta-analysis of results derived from all cutoff points, using data from 13 of 16 studies published during 2004-2009 that were included in a published conventional meta-analysis. For the "standard" PHQ-9 cutoff of 10, accuracy results had been published by 11 of the studies. For all other relevant cutoffs, 3-6 studies published accuracy results. For all cutoffs examined, specificity estimates in conventional and individual-patient-data meta-analyses were within 1% of each other. Sensitivity estimates were similar for the cutoff of 10 but differed by 5%-15% for other cutoffs. In samples where the PHQ-9 was poorly sensitive at the standard cutoff, authors tended to report results for lower cutoffs that yielded optimal results. When the PHQ-9 was highly sensitive, authors more often reported results for higher cutoffs. Consequently, in the conventional meta-analysis, sensitivity increased as cutoff severity increased across part of the cutoff range-an impossibility if all data are analyzed. In sum, selective reporting by primary study authors of only results from cutoffs that perform well in their study can bias accuracy estimates in meta-analyses of published results. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Chest wall ectopic synovial bursa cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, P; Filis, C; Pikoulis, E; Varelas, P; Kyrochristos, D; Mihail, S; Bastounis, E

    1999-11-01

    We report an unusual case of chest wall tumor in a 27-year-old patient. A complete resection was accomplished, and the patient had an excellent postoperative course. Histologically, the mass was confirmed to be an ectopic synovial bursa cyst. Although rare, synovial cysts should be considered in any case of a fluctuating chest wall mass. We also discuss the etiology and diagnostic approach of cystic masses of the chest wall.

  7. Trend, projection, and appropriate body mass index cut-off point for diabetes and hypertension in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Akter, Shamima; Jung, Jenny; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Sultana, Papia

    2017-04-01

    Rapid increasing of high body mass index (BMI) is a global health concern. Population with high BMI predicts an increased risk of diabetes and hypertension. The objective of the present study is to estimate the trend and prediction of diabetes and hypertension in Bangladesh, to examine the association of BMI with risk of diabetes and hypertension, and to ascertain an appropriate BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes. We searched PubMed from inception to August 2016 and identified studies reporting diabetes and hypertension prevalence in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011 data was also included in this study. Bayesian model was used to estimate trend and projection in diabetes and hypertension prevalence by sex and residence. Receiver operating characteristic curves was used to determine the optimal BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes. Of 535 articles reviewed, 35 studies reported prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. Prevalence of diabetes (95% credible interval) increased between 1992 and 2015 from 3.2% (2.2-4.3) to 12.1% (9.1-15.4) in men, and from 2.5% (1.8-3.5) to 13.4% (9.7-17.6) in women. Diabetes prevalence in 2030 is expected to reach 23.6% (13.6-36.3) for men and 33.5% (19.9-50.9) for women. Hypertension prevalence increased between 1992 and 2015 from 11.0% (8.6-13.7) to 20.4% (18.4-22.4%) in 2015 in men, and from 14.0% (10.3-19.0) to 21.3% (19.0-23.6) in women. Annual average rate of change for diabetes prevalence was higher among women and in rural areas, while for hypertension prevalence it was higher in men and urban areas. Adults with BMI of 22.5kg/m 2 or above had a higher risk of diabetes and hypertension in this study. The optimal BMI cut-off point for screening diabetes was 23kg/m 2 for overall population, 22kg/m 2 for men, and 23kg/m 2 for women. Diabetes is more prevalent among women and rural population groups, while hypertension is more prevalent among men and urban population groups in Bangladesh. A BMI of 22

  8. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  9. On Real Intrinsic Wall Crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We study moduli space stabilization of a class of BPS configurations from the perspective of the real intrinsic Riemannian geometry. Our analysis exhibits a set of implications towards the stability of the D-term potentials, defined for a set of abelian scalar fields. In particular, we show that the nature of marginal and threshold walls of stabilities may be investigated by real geometric methods. Interestingly, we find that the leading order contributions may easily be accomplished by translations of the Fayet parameter. Specifically, we notice that the various possible linear, planar, hyper-planar and the entire moduli space stabilities may easily be reduced to certain polynomials in the Fayet parameter. For a set of finitely many real scalar fields, it may be further inferred that the intrinsic scalar curvature defines the global nature and range of vacuum correlations. Whereas, the underlying moduli space configuration corresponds to a non-interacting basis at the zeros of the scalar curvature, where the...

  10. Wall-crossing made smooth

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In $D=4,N=2$ theories on $R^{3,1}$, the index receives contributions not only from single-particle BPS states, counted by the BPS indices, but also from multi-particle states made of BPS constituents. In a recent work [arXiv:1406.2360], a general formula expressing the index in terms of the BPS indices was proposed, which is smooth across walls of marginal stability and reproduces the expected single-particle contributions. In this note, I analyze the two-particle contributions predicted by this formula, and show agreement with the spectral asymmetry of the continuum of scattering states in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics of two non-relativistic, mutually non-local dyons. This provides a physical justification for the error function profile used in the mathematics literature on indefinite theta series, and in the physics literature on black hole partition functions.

  11. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function...... was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...... pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the implementation of the pathway. The enhanced recovery after surgery pathway included preoperative high-dose steroid, daily assessment...

  12. Creating universes with thick walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Andrew; Albrecht, Andreas

    2012-05-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherically symmetric false vacuum bubble embedded in a true vacuum region separated by a “thick wall”, which is generated by a scalar field in a quartic potential. We study the “Farhi-Guth-Guven” (FGG) quantum tunneling process by constructing numerical solutions relevant to this process. The Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass of the spacetime is calculated, and we show that there is a lower bound that is a significant fraction of the scalar field mass. We argue that the zero mass solutions used to by some to argue against the physicality of the FGG process are artifacts of the thin wall approximation used in earlier work. We argue that the zero mass solutions should not be used to question the viability of the FGG process.

  13. Hygrothermal behavior for a clay brick wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, R.; Issaadi, N.; Belarbi, R.; El-Meligy, M.; Altahrany, A.

    2018-01-01

    In Egypt, the clay brick is the common building materials which are used. By studying clay brick walls behavior for the heat and moisture transfer, the efficient use of the clay brick can be reached. So, this research studies the hygrothermal transfer in this material by measuring the hygrothermal properties and performing experimental tests for a constructed clay brick wall. We present the model for the hygrothermal transfer in the clay brick which takes the temperature and the vapor pressure as driving potentials. In addition, this research compares the presented model with previous models. By constructing the clay brick wall between two climates chambers with different boundary conditions, we can validate the numerical model and analyze the hygrothermal transfer in the wall. The temperature and relative humidity profiles within the material are measured experimentally and determined numerically. The numerical and experimental results have a good convergence with 3.5% difference. The surface boundary conditions, the ground effect, the infiltration from the closed chambers and the material heterogeneity affects the results. Thermal transfer of the clay brick walls reaches the steady state very rapidly than the moisture transfer. That means the effect of using only the external brick wall in the building in hot climate without increase the thermal resistance for the wall, will add more energy losses in the clay brick walls buildings. Also, the behavior of the wall at the heat and mass transfer calls the three-dimensional analysis for the whole building to reach the real behavior.

  14. Planar domain walls in black hole spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, Filip; Mach, Patryk

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the behavior of low-mass, planar domain walls in the so-called ϕ4 model of the scalar field on the Schwarzschild and Kerr backgrounds. We focus on a transit of a domain wall through a black hole and solve numerically the equations of motion for a range of parameters of the domain wall and the black hole. We observe a behavior resembling an occurrence of ringing modes. Perturbations of domain walls vanish during latter evolution, suggesting their stability against a passage through the black hole. The results obtained for Kerr and Reissner-Nordström black holes are also compared.

  15. Superfast domain walls in KTP single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Esin, A. A.; Alam, M. A.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    Potassium titanyl phosphate KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystals with periodical ferroelectric domain structures are one of the most promising materials for nonlinear optics, in which the main types of nonlinear optical interactions have been demonstrated. Despite the crucial importance of the in situ visualization of domain structure kinetics for creation of high quality periodical domain gratings, there are only a few works concerning KTP. We present the results of in situ visualization of domain kinetics in KTP with the time resolution down to 12.5 μs and simultaneous recording of the switching current data. The wide range of wall velocities with two orders of magnitude difference was observed for switching in a uniform electric field. The kinetic maps allowed analyzing the spatial distribution of wall motion velocities and classifying the walls by velocity ranges. The distinguished slow, fast, and superfast types of domain walls differed by their orientation. It was shown that the fast and slow domain walls provided the smooth input to the switching current, whereas the short-lived superfast walls resulted in short current peaks. The mobility and the threshold fields for all types of domain walls were estimated. The revealed increase in the wall velocity with deviation from low-index crystallographic planes for slow and fast walls was considered in terms of determined step generation and anisotropic kink motion. The obtained results are important for further development of domain engineering in KTP required for creation of high power, reliable, and effective coherent light sources.

  16. Reinforcement mechanism of multi-anchor wall with double wall facing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kouta; Kobayashi, Makoto; Miura, Kinya; Konami, Takeharu; Hayashi, Taketo

    2017-10-01

    The reinforced soil wall has high seismic performance as generally known. However, the seismic behavior has not been clarified accurately yet, especially on multi-anchor wall with double wall facing. Indefinite behavior of reinforced soil wall during earthquake make us complicated in case with adopting to the abutment, because of arrangement of anchor plate as reinforcement often different according to the width of roads. In this study, a series of centrifuge model tests were carried out to investigate the reinforcement mechanism of multi anchor wall with double wall facing from the perspective of the vertical earth pressure. Several types of reinforce arrangement and rigid wall were applied in order to verify the arch function in the reinforced regions. The test results show unique behavior of vertical earth pressure, which was affected by arch action. All the vertical earth pressure placed behind facing panel, are larger than that of middle part between facing panel despite of friction between backfill and facing panel. Similar results were obtained in case using rigid wall. On the other hands, the vertical earth pressure, which were measured at the 3cm high from bottom of model container, shows larger than that of bottom. This results show the existence of arch action between double walls. In addition, it implies that the wall facing of such soil structure confined the backfill as pseudo wall, which is very reason that the multi anchor wall with double wall facing has high seismic performance.

  17. Performance of the age-adjusted cut-off for D-dimer in patients with cancer and suspected pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilts, I T; Le Gal, G; Den Exter, P L; Van Es, J; Carrier, M; Planquette, B; Büller, H R; Righini, M; Huisman, M V; Kamphuisen, P W

    2017-04-01

    Cancer patients frequently present with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). The D-dimer (DD) test is less useful in excluding PE in cancer patients due to the lower specificity. In the general population, the age-adjusted cutoff for DD combined with a clinical decision rule (CDR) improved specificity in the diagnosis of PE. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the age-adjusted cutoff (defined as age∗10μg/L in patients >50years) combined with a CDR for the exclusion of PE in cancer patients. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the age-adjusted cutoff in patients with suspected PE. Here we report a post-hoc analysis on the performance of the age-adjusted cutoff in patients with and without cancer. The primary outcome was the rate of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) during three-month follow-up. Of 3324 patients with suspected PE, 429 (12.9%) patients had cancer. The prevalence of PE was 25.2% in cancer patients and 18% in patients without cancer (p<0.001). Among cancer patients with an unlikely CDR, 9.9% had a DD <500μg/L as compared with 19.7% using the age-adjusted cutoff. In patients without cancer, these rates were 30.1% and 41.9%. The proportion of cancer patients in whom PE could be excluded by CDR and DD doubled from 6.3% to 12.6%. No VTE occurred during three-month follow-up (failure rate 0.0% (95% CI 0.0-6.9%)). Compared with the conventional cutoff, the age-adjusted D-dimer cutoff doubles the proportion of patients with cancer in whom PE can be safely excluded by CDR and DD without imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Is there any gender-specific difference in the cut-off values of ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score in patients with axial spondyloarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gamze; Kilic, Erkan; Ozgocmen, Salih

    2017-09-01

    To assess the validity of Assessment in Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) endorsed Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) C-reactive protein (-CRP) and ASDAS erythrocyte sedimentation rate (-ESR) in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) and to estimate the cut-off values for male and female patients with axSpA. Patients with axSpA were assessed for disease activity, functions, mobility and AS Quality of Life (ASQoL) and pain. The discriminant ability of ASDAS versions was assessed using standardized mean differences. Optimal cut-off values of ASDAS versions were calculated. Patients with axSpA were included (196 AS, 164 non-radiographic axSpA). ASDAS versions and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) had good correlations with patient's global (PtG) and physician's global (PhG) assessment in both groups; however, men had relatively higher coefficients. Women had significantly higher pain, ASQoL, ASDAS-ESR, BASDAI item scores, PtG, PhG and ESR. Discriminant abilities of ASDAS-CRP, ASDAS-ESR and BASDAI were similar in men and women regarding low and high disease activity. ASDAS cut-offs are quite similar in both genders and in accordance with predefined values. The cut-offs for ASDAS-ESR were relatively lower than ASDAS-CRP and women tend to have higher cut-offs than men. The construct validity of ASDAS-CRP to discriminate low and high disease activity and cut-off values are similar in male and female patients with axSpA; however, cut-offs for ASDAS-ESR need to be defined. © 2016 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Optimal cut-off age in the TNM Staging system of differentiated thyroid cancer: is 55 years better than 45 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mijin; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, Won Gu; Park, Suyeon; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Ahn, Hyeon Seon; Jung, Sin-Ho; Kim, Sun Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Chung, Jae Hoon; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Kim, Tae Yong

    2017-03-01

    Age >45 years is included as a variable in the tumor, node, metastases (TNM) staging of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but a higher cut-off value has been suggested to be more clinically relevant and prevent over-staging. We evaluated the optimal age cut-off to predict disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with DTC. This cohort study included 6333 patients with DTC who underwent thyroid surgery at two tertiary referral centres between 1996 and 2005. The optimal age cut-off value between 45 and 65 years for prediction of DSS was assessed. The proportion of variation explained (PVE) and Harrell's c-index was calculated to compare the predictability of each model. The median age of patients was 46·0 years (IQR 37·8-54·6), and 5498 (87%) were female. Median follow-up period was 10·0 years, and 10-year DSS rate was 98%. Using TNM staging with 45 years as the cut-off (TNM45), 10-year DSS rates of stage I-IV were 99·4%, 96·1%, 97·7% and 85·9%, respectively (PVE = 3·0%, Harrell's c-index = 0·693); and using 55 years as the cut-off (TNM55), 99·4%, 92·2%, 95·3% and 79·7%, respectively (PVE = 4·3%, Harrell's c-index = 0·776). On receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the optimal age cut-off for prediction of DSS was 55·4 years (area under the curve = 0·837, P cut-off age of 55 years was more appropriate for TNM staging to achieve better predictability for DSS in patients with DTC. This change would prevent over-staging in low-risk patients and prevent over-aggressive treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [The value of age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value in diagnosing deep vein thrombosis in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun-xin; Li, Jun-lai; Liu, Cui; Tan, Guo-juan; Cao, Xiao-lin; Wang, Jie

    2013-11-01

    To validate the value of age-adjusted D-dimer combined with clinical probability to confirm or exclude deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in elderly patients. Elderly patients ( ≥ 65 years) suspected with DVT were evaluated by Wells score and D-dimer test. All patients underwent ultrasonography examination except for patients with Wells score cut-off value is 500 µg/L, while age-adjusted cut-off value is set as patient's age×10 µg/L. We compared the sensitivity and specificity using the 2 cut-off values in confirming or excluding the diagnoses of DVT. The study population consisted of 624 patients [mean age(76.4 ± 19.3) years], DVT was confirmed in 192 (30.8%) patients. Using Wells score model, 326 patients (52.2%) were scored as unlikely DVT and DVT was confirmed by ultrasonography in 44 patients (13.5%), and 298 patients as likely DVT patients and DVT was confirmed in 148 patients (55.0%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value by conventional and age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for diagnosing DVT in low-risk patients evaluated by Wells score model were 95.5%, 40.4%, 20.0%, 98.3% and 95.5%, 61.0%, 27.6%, 87.1%, respectively, and which were 89.9%, 67.3%, 73.1%, 87.1% and 89.2%, 89.3%, 89.2%, 89.3%, respectively, in high-risk patients evaluated by Wells score model. Thus, specificity increased about 20% using age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value compared with conventional D-dimer cut-off value. The age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value combined with clinical probability evaluation could increase diagnosing specificity of DVT in elderly patients.

  1. Optimal waist circumference cutoff points for the determination of abdominal obesity and detection of cardiovascular risk factors among adult Egyptian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir H Assaad-Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the best anthropometric measurement of obesity, and its optimal cutoff, that best predicts the presence of cardiovascular risk factors among adult Egyptian population. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including a representative randomly chosen sample of the adult Egyptian population from all Alexandria Districts (the second largest governorate in Egypt based on the multistage random technique. It included 3209 subjects (1567 men, 1642 women aged 18–80 years from urban and rural areas. The response rate was 80.2%. History, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Laboratory investigations included fasting lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, and serum uric acid. Different criteria of metabolic syndrome were used and compared. Receiver operator characteristic curve and Youden index were used to determine predictability and cutoffs. Results: Waist circumference (WC is the best to predict at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome as defined by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. The optimal WC cutoffs were 100.5 and 96.25 cm for Egyptian men and women, respectively. The Joint Interim Statement definition (JIS of metabolic syndrome was the best to predict cardiovascular disease in both genders and diabetes mellitus in women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity was 42.5%, 61%, respectively (ATPIII definition; 43.8%, 61% (American Heart Association definition; 44.3%, 76.4% (IDF definition; 33.8%, 51.7% (IDF definition with Egyptian cutoffs; and 41.5%, 51.7% (JIS with Egyptian cutoffs. Conclusion: WC cutoffs in Egyptians differ from those currently recommended. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity is high in Egypt, despite being lower on using the Egyptian cutoffs.

  2. Electromagnetic approaches to wall characterization, wall mitigation, and antenna design for through-the-wall radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thajudeen, Christopher

    Through-the-wall imaging (TWI) is a topic of current interest due to its wide range of public safety, law enforcement, and defense applications. Among the various available technologies such as, acoustic, thermal, and optical imaging, which can be employed to sense and image targets of interest, electromagnetic (EM) imaging, in the microwave frequency bands, is the most widely utilized technology and has been at the forefront of research in recent years. The primary objectives for any Through-the-Wall Radar Imaging (TWRI) system are to obtain a layout of the building and/or inner rooms, detect if there are targets of interest including humans or weapons, determine if there are countermeasures being employed to further obscure the contents of a building or room of interest, and finally to classify the detected targets. Unlike conventional radar scenarios, the presence of walls, made of common construction materials such as brick, drywall, plywood, cinder block, and solid concrete, adversely affects the ability of any conventional imaging technique to properly image targets enclosed within building structures as the propagation through the wall can induce shadowing effects on targets of interest which may result in image degradation, errors in target localization, and even complete target masking. For many applications of TWR systems, the wall ringing signals are strong enough to mask the returns from targets not located a sufficient distance behind the wall, beyond the distance of the wall ringing, and thus without proper wall mitigation, target detection becomes extremely difficult. The results presented in this thesis focus on the development of wall parameter estimation, and intra-wall and wall-type characterization techniques for use in both the time and frequency domains as well as analysis of these techniques under various real world scenarios such as reduced system bandwidth scenarios, various wall backing scenarios, the case of inhomogeneous walls, presence

  3. Deep-ultraviolet Al0.75Ga0.25N photodiodes with low cutoff wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butun, Serkan; Tut, Turgut; Butun, Bayram; Gokkavas, Mutlu; Yu, HongBo; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2006-03-01

    Deep ultraviolet Al0.75Ga0.25N metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with high Al concentration have been demonstrated. A metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown high quality Al0.75Ga0.25N layer was used as a template. Spectral responsivity, current-voltage, optical transmission, and noise measurements were carried out. The photodetectors exhibited a 229nm cutoff wavelength and a peak responsivity of 0.53A/W at 222nm. Some 100×100μm2 devices have shown a dark current density of 5.79×10-10A/cm2 under 50V bias. An ultraviolet-visible rejection ratio of seven orders of magnitude was obtained from the fabricated devices.

  4. (abstract) 9 (micro)m Cutoff 640x480 Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP) Focal Plane Array Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Sundaram, M.; Liu, J. K.; Bandara, S. V.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, T.

    1997-01-01

    Long wavelength infrared (LWIR) detectors, 8 (micro)m to 12 (micro)m, are of great interest for a variety of ground-based and space-borne applications. These applications have placed stringent requirements on the performance of the infrared detectors and arrays including high detectivity, low dark current, uniformity, radiation hardness, and low power dissipation. I will discuss the development and progress of GaAs based long-wavelength quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) to meet those stringent requirements and the demonstration of a 9 (micro)m cutoff 640x480 QUIP focal plane array camera. The noise equivalent temperature difference of the focal plane array is 25 mK at 300 K background and the operating temperature is 70 K.

  5. Backscattering in a helical liquid induced by Rashba spin-orbit coupling and electron interactions: Locality, symmetry, and cutoff aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharitonov, Maxim; Geissler, Florian; Trauzettel, Björn

    2017-10-01

    The combination of the time-reversal-symmetric single-particle backscattering field (commonly known as Rashba spin-orbit coupling) and nonbackscattering electron interactions is generally expected to produce inelastic backscattering in one-dimensional helical electron liquids at the edge of two-dimensional topological insulators, as theoretically predicted in a number of works. An opposite conclusion of absent backscattering was reached in a recent work [H.-Y. Xie et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 086603 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.086603] for the "local" model of the backscattering field and interactions. Motivated to resolve this potential controversy, in the present work, we study backscattering effects employing fermionic perturbation theory and considering quite general forms of the backscattering field and electron interactions. We discover that backscattering effects are crucially sensitive to the locality properties of the backscattering field and electron interactions, to the symmetry of the latter, as well as to the presence or absence of the cutoff of the electron spectrum. We find that backscattering is indeed absent under the following assumptions: (i) local backscattering field; (ii.a) local or (ii.b) SU(2)-symmetric interactions; (iii) absent cutoff of the edge-state spectrum. However, violation of any of these conditions leads to backscattering. This also reconciles with the results based on the bosonization technique. We calculate the associated backscattering current, establish its low-bias scaling behavior, and predict a crossover between two different scaling regimes. The main implication of our findings is that backscattering of some magnitude is inevitable in a real system, although it could be quite suppressed for nearly local backscattering field and interactions.

  6. A cut-off in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the SNR Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colak, M.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Inada, T.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, no observational evidence of the presence of particles of PeV energies in SNRs has yet been found. The young historical SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) appears as one of the best candidates to study acceleration processes. Between 2014 December and 2016 October, we observed Cas A with the MAGIC telescopes, accumulating 158 h of good quality data. We derived the spectrum of the source from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We also analysed ∼8 yr of Fermi-LAT to obtain the spectral shape between 60 MeV and 500 GeV. The spectra measured by the LAT and MAGIC telescopes are compatible within the errors and show a clear turn-off (4.6σ) at the highest energies, which can be described with an exponential cut-off at E_c = 3.5(^{+1.6}_{-1.0})_{stat} (^{+0.8}_{-0.9})_{sys} TeV. The gamma-ray emission from 60 MeV to 10 TeV can be attributed to a population of high-energy protons with a spectral index of ∼2.2 and an energy cut-off at ∼10 TeV. This result indicates that Cas A is not contributing to the high energy (∼PeV) cosmic ray sea in a significant manner at the present moment. A one-zone leptonic model fails to reproduce by itself the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. Besides, if a non-negligible fraction of the flux seen by MAGIC is produced by leptons, the radiation should be emitted in a region with a low magnetic field (B⪅180 μG) like in the reverse shock.

  7. Body weight statuses and their sociodemographic correlates among adolescents in southern Taiwan: results using two sets of cutoff references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hsiao, Ray C; Yen, Ju-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Shu-Chun; Huang, Chi-Fen; Wang, Shing-Yaw

    2010-01-01

    To examine the differences in the prevalence of overweight and obesity based on the cutoff references established by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC), the prevalence of underweight on the IOTF reference, and the sociodemographic correlates of body weight statuses in Taiwanese adolescents. Overweight and obesity in 10,371 Taiwanese adolescents were determined by the IOTF and WGOC cutoff references for body mass index (BMI). Underweight was determined by the IOTF. The prevalence of overweight and obesity using the IOTF standard were compared to those using the WGOC standard. Associations of body weight statuses with gender, age, residential status, and parental education level were also examined. Using the IOTF standard, 3.4% were underweight, 15.2% were overweight, and 6.1% obese, whereas 14.1% were considered overweight and 8.7% were obese by the WGOC standard. For both genders, more adolescents were classified as overweight by the IOTF standard and as obese by the WGOC standard. Although females were more likely to be underweight than males, males were more likely to be overweight or obese than females. For both genders, although older age increased the risk of being underweight, younger age increased the risk of being overweight or obese. For males, living in urban areas was associated with being overweight, and low paternal education level was associated with being obese. The prevalence of overweight and obesity may differ depending on the reference standard consulted. Paternal education level and urbanicity were associated with gender differences in the proportion of adolescents who were overweight or obese. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Appropriate neck circumference cut-off points for metabolic syndrome in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ismail; Yardimci, Bulent; Tunckale, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), overweight, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 264 diabetic patients (mean age: 52.9±8.1 years) were recruited from two centers in Istanbul to perform anthropometric measurements, including waist and hip circumference, NC, and body mass index. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) were determined. NC correlated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides in men, whereas NC only correlated with waist circumference in women. Additionally, NC was shown to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both men and women. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for NC and overweight was 0.95 for both men and women (P<0.001). Moreover, a NC of 38cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point for determining overweight. The area under the curve for NC and MS was 0.87 for men and 0.83 for women (P<0.001). A NC of 39cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point to determine participants with MS. Our findings suggest a positive correlation of NC with MetS in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes, and could be a useful and accurate tool to identify MS. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. A new perspective of the climatological features of upper-level cut-off lows in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Henri Rossi; Hodges, Kevin Ivan; Gan, Manoel Alonso; Ferreira, Nelson Jesuz

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a detailed view of the seasonal variability of upper-level cut-off lows (COLs) in the Southern Hemisphere. The COLs are identified and tracked using data from a 36-year period of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast reanalysis (ERA-Interim). The objective identification of the COLs uses a new approach, which is based on 300 hPa relative vorticity minima, and three restrictive criteria of the presence of a cold-core, stratospheric potential vorticity intrusion, and cut-off cyclonic circulation. The highest COL activity is in agreement with previous studies, located near three main continental areas (Australia, South America, and Africa), with maximum frequencies usually observed in the austral autumn. The COL mean intensity values show a marked seasonal and spatial variation, with maximum (minimum) values during the austral winter (summer), a unique feature that has not been observed previously in studies based on the geopotential. The link between intensity and lysis is examined, and finds that weaker systems are more susceptible to lysis in the vicinity of the Andes Cordillera, associated with the topographic Rossby wave. Lysis and genesis regions are close to each other, confirming that COLs are quasi-stationary systems. Also, COLs tend to move eastward and are faster over the higher latitudes. The mean growth/decay rates coincide with the major genesis and lysis density regions, such as the significant decay values across the Andes all year. As a consequence of using vorticity for the tracking method a longer lifetime of COLs is detected than in other studies, but this does not affect the total frequency of occurrence. Comparisons with other studies suggest that the differences in seasonality are due to uncertainties in the reanalyses and the methods used to identify COLs.

  10. Clinical applicability and cutoff values for an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for older adults with low formal education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jardim de Paula

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The neuropsychological exam plays a central role in the assessment of elderly patients with cognitive complaints. It is particularly relevant to differentiate patients with mild dementia from those subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Formal education is a critical factor in neuropsychological performance; however, there are few studies that evaluated the psychometric properties, especially criterion related validity, neuropsychological tests for patients with low formal education. The present study aims to investigate the validity of an unstructured neuropsychological assessment protocol for this population and develop cutoff values for clinical use. METHODS AND RESULTS: A protocol composed by the Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Frontal Assessment Battery, Category and Letter Fluency, Stick Design Test, Clock Drawing Test, Digit Span, Token Test and TN-LIN was administered to 274 older adults (96 normal aging, 85 mild cognitive impairment and 93 mild Alzheimer`s disease with predominantly low formal education. Factor analysis showed a four factor structure related to Executive Functions, Language/Semantic Memory, Episodic Memory and Visuospatial Abilities, accounting for 65% of explained variance. Most of the tests showed a good sensitivity and specificity to differentiate the diagnostic groups. The neuropsychological protocol showed a significant ecological validity as 3 of the cognitive factors explained 31% of the variance on Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. CONCLUSION: The study presents evidence of the construct, criteria and ecological validity for this protocol. The neuropsychological tests and the proposed cutoff values might be used for the clinical assessment of older adults with low formal education.

  11. Molecular Weight Cut-Off and Structural Analysis of Vacuum-Assisted Titania Membranes for Water Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurehan Abd Jalil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the structural formation and analyses of titania membranes (TM prepared using different vacuum exposure times for molecular weight (MW cut-off performance and oil/water separation. Titania membranes were synthesized via a sol-gel method and coated on macroporous alumina tubes followed by exposure to a vacuum between 30 and 1200 s and then calcined at 400 °C. X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption analyses showed that the crystallite size and particle size of titania increased as a function of vacuum time. All the TM membranes were mesoporous with an average pore diameter of ~3.6 nm with an anatase crystal morphology. Water, glucose, sucrose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone with 40 and 360 kDa (PVP-40 kDa and PVP-360 kDa were used as feed solutions for MW cut-off and hexadecane solution for oil filtration investigation. The TM membranes were not able to separate glucose and sucrose, thus indicating the membrane pore sizes are larger than the kinetic diameter of sucrose of 0.9 nm, irrespective of vacuum exposure time. They also showed only moderate rejection (20% of the smaller PVP-40 kDa, however, all the membranes were able to obtain an excellent rejection of near 100% for the larger PVP-360 kDa molecule. Furthermore, the TM membranes were tested for the separation of oil emulsions with a high concentration of oil (3000 ppm, reaching high oil rejections of more than 90% of oil. In general, the water fluxes increased with the vacuum exposure time indicating a pore structural tailoring effect. It is therefore proposed that a mechanism of pore size tailoring was formed by an interconnected network of Ti–O–Ti nanoparticles with inter-particle voids, which increased as TiO2 nanoparticle size increased as a function of vacuum exposure time, and thus reduced the water transport resistance through the TM membranes.

  12. Flow and sediment processes in a cutoff meander of the Danube Delta during 100-year recurrent flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugaru Tiron, L.; Le Coz, J.; Provansal, M.; Dutu, F.

    2009-04-01

    River training operations, such as meander cutoff, initiated for navigational purposes often lead to dramatic changes in the streamwise profiles (Hooke, 1986, Kesel, 2003; Kiss et al., 2007). Meander correction affects both the hydraulic and morphodynamical behavior of the modified branches that sedimentation occurs in time, while newly built canals usually experience degradation (Jugaru et. al, 2006). This study reports and analyzes new data on the hydrological and sedimentary processes at work during a morphogenic flood in a large modified meander (the Mahmudia meander) of the St. George branch, the southern branch of the Danube Delta. The 100-year recurrent flood that occurred in 2006 offered an exceptional opportunity for scanning different cross sections of the Mahmudia meander system by means of the emerging Doppler profiler (aDcp) technology in order to analyze the impact on sedimentation and dynamic processes in the study area. The Mahmudia study site corresponds to a vast natural meander which was cut off in 1984-1988 by an artificial canal opened to shipping. The meander correction accelerated fluxes through the artificial canal and dramatically enhanced deposition in the former meander. After his formation, the cutoff meander acted as sediment storage locations, essentially removing channel and point bar sediments from the active sediment budget of the main channel (Popa, 1997). During the one-hundred-year recurrent flood in April 2006, bathymetry, flow velocity and discharge data were acquired across several sections of both natural and artificial channels with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp Workhorse Sentinel 600 kHz, Teledyne RDI) in order to investigate the distribution of the flow and sediment and his impact on sedimentation in a channelized reach and its adjacent cutoff. The contrasting hydro-sedimentary processes at work in both channels and bifurcation/confluence nodal points are analyzed from the measured flux distribution

  13. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1” to 1 ½”), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  14. External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of exterior insulation on a building is an accepted and effective means to increase the overall thermal resistance of the assembly that also has other advantages of improved water management and often increased air tightness of building assemblies. For thin layers of insulation (1" to 1 1/2"), the cladding can typically be attached directly through the insulation back to the structure. For thicker insulation layers, furring strips have been added as a cladding attachment location. This approach has been used in the past on numerous Building America test homes and communities (both new and retrofit applications), and has been proven to be an effective and durable means to provide cladding attachment. However, the lack of engineering data has been a problem for many designers, contractors, and code officials. This research project developed baseline engineering analysis to support the installation of thick layers of exterior insulation on existing masonry and frame walls. Furthermore, water management details necessary to integrate windows, doors, decks, balconies and roofs were created to provide guidance on the integration of exterior insulation strategies with other enclosure elements.

  15. Hoof wall defects: chronic hoof wall separations and hoof wall cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, William

    2003-08-01

    Hoof wall defects in horses are common occurrences, and, fortunately, many of those detected present little or no danger to the individual horse. Those defects that are either presently a problem or have a great likelihood of being a problem do often require specialized consideration. Horse shoeing and farriery are ancient practices; over the years, a multitude of methods, theories, and management schemes have been proposed. It is unfortunate to note that few studies are available to provide an accurate incidence rate, a better understanding of the various causes, and, lastly, a comparative appreciation of the possible modes of treatment and management. This discussion reflects the thinking and experience of the author and, as such, should be read and viewed with an open and critical mind set.

  16. Simplified scoring of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis: a comparative analysis of test performance at different cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Blok, Bertil F; Heesakkers, John P; Heerings, Marco; Lemmens, Wim A; Donders, Rogier

    2015-10-24

    The Actionable questionnaire is an 8-item tool to screen patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for neurogenic bladder problems, identifying those patients who might benefit from urological referral and bladder-specific treatment. The original scoring yields a total score of 0 to 24 with cut-off point 6. A simplified scoring, yielding a total score of 0 to 8 with cut-off point 3, has been developed in urogynaecological patients, but has not been investigated in MS. One-hundred-and-forty-one MS patients completed the Actionable on two occasions. We compared the test performance of the simplified scoring with cut-off point 3 with that of cut-off point 2, using the original scoring with cut-off point 6 as a gold standard. The following measures were calculated: True Positives (TP), True Negatives (TN), False Positives (FP), False Negatives (FN), Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), Negative Predictive Value (NPV), and Accuracy. The associations between positive test result and urological treatment, and bladder-specific drug treatment were calculated. For cut-off point 3 the outcomes (Test 1, Test 2) were: TP 43.26 %, 40.88 %; TN 29.79 %, 32.85 %; FP 0.00 %, 0.00 %; FN 26.95 %, 26.28 %; Sensitivity 0.62, 0.61; Specificity 1.00, 1.00; PPV 1.00, 1.00; NPV 0.53, 0.55; Accuracy 0.73, 0.74; and for cut-off point 2: TP 59.57 %, 59.85 %; TN 26.95 %, 31.39 %; FP 2.84 %, 1.46 %; FN 10.63 %, 7.30 %; Sensitivity 0.85, 0.89; Specificity 0.90, 0.96; PPV 0.95, 0.98; NPV 0.72, 0.81; Accuracy 0.87, 0.91. Cut-off 3 completely prevented FP outcomes, but wrongly classified 26 % of the patients as negative (FN). Cut-off 2 reduced the FN to 7-10 %, with low FP values (2.84-1.46 %). With cut-off 2, the percentage of patients screened positive was higher in the Progressive group (75.00 %) than in the Relapsing Remitting group (56.25 %) (P = 0.0331), which was not the case with cut-off 3. Only a positive test according to the original scoring was associated with both

  17. Practical use of visual medial temporal lobe atrophy cut-off scores in Alzheimer's disease: Validation in a large memory clinic population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, Jules J.; Holl, Dana C.; Roorda, Jelmen J. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Neurology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Staekenborg, Salka S. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Neurology, Blaricum (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schuur, Jacqueline [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Geriatrics, Blaricum (Netherlands); Koster, Pieter [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Tielkes, Caroline E.M. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Medical Psychology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To provide age-specific medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) cut-off scores for routine clinical practice as marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD (n = 832, mean age 81.8 years) were compared with patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 333, mean age 71.8 years) in a large single-centre memory clinic. Mean of right and left MTA scores was determined with visual rating (Scheltens scale) using CT (0, no atrophy to 4, severe atrophy). Relationships between age and MTA scores were analysed with regression analysis. For various MTA cut-off scores, decade-specific sensitivity and specificity and area under the curve (AUC) values, computed with receiver operator characteristic curves, were determined. MTA strongly increased with age in both groups to a similar degree. Optimal MTA cut-off values for the age ranges <65, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 were: ≥1.0, ≥1.5, ≥ 2.0 and ≥2.0. Corresponding values of sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 86.4%; 73.7% and 84.6%; 73.7% and 76.2%; and 84.0% and 62.5%. From this large unique memory clinic cohort we suggest decade-specific MTA cut-off scores for clinical use. After age 85 years, however, the practical usefulness of the MTA cut-off is limited. (orig.)

  18. Italians do it worse. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) optimal cut-off scores for people with probable Alzheimer's disease and with probable cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Andrea; Spano, Giuseppina; Caffò, Alessandro O; Lopez, Antonella; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Saracino, Giuseppe; Pinto, Katia; Hoogeveen, Frans; Lancioni, Giulio E

    2017-12-01

    Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) is a test providing a brief screening for people with cognitive impairment due to aging or neurodegenerative syndromes. In Italy, as in the rest of the world, several validation studies of MoCA have been carried out. This study compared, for the first time in Italy, a sample of people with probable Alzheimer's Disease (AD) with healthy counterparts. The study also compared two community-dwelling groups of aged participants with and without probable cognitive impairment, as discriminated by two cut-off points of adjusted MMSE score. All the comparisons were carried out according to ROC statistics. Optimal cutoff for a diagnosis of probable AD was a MoCA score ≤14. Optimal cutoff for the discrimination of probable cognitive impairment was a MoCA score ≤17 (associated to MMSE cutoff of 23.8). Results confirm the substantial discrepancy in cut-off points existing between Italian and other international validation studies, showing that Italian performance on MoCA seems to be globally lower than that in other Countries. Characteristics of population might explain these results.

  19. The dischargeable cut-off score of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in the inpatient care for low back pain with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Jin-Ho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2014-10-01

    The admission due to low back pain (LBP) became prevalent cause of international economic losses. Since LBP patients with disability are often subject to inpatient care, it is important to determine the appropriate time of discharge. The purpose of this study is to set the cut-off value of appropriate Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at the time of discharge. Of 1,394 LBP patients admitted in hospital specialized in spinal disease, 774 eligible patients with disability were included in this study. And several clinical variables including numerical rating score, ODI, satisfaction level were observed during the hospital stay. We considered satisfaction level as an important factor for discharge, categorized patients into satisfied group and dissatisfied group. Through the statistical analysis, appropriate factor for determining dischargeable patients satisfied with their current condition and its cut-off value of ODI were found. And proper predictors for the cut-off value were extracted statistically and logically from a pool of several clinical indexes. The ODI at the time of discharge was most accurate in determining dischargeable patients. The cut-off value of ODI was 30. Predictors were ODI questions 4 and 6. We set the cut-off value of dischargeable ODI for LBP inpatient with disability and found its predictor.

  20. Suggested Cut-Off Values for Vitamin D as a Risk Marker for Total and Cardiac Death in Patients with Suspected Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naesgaard, Patrycja A; León de la Fuente, Ricardo A; Nilsen, Stein Tore; Pönitz, Volker; Brügger-Andersen, Trygve; Grundt, Heidi; Staines, Harry; Nilsen, Dennis W T

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut-off levels are still under debate. To assess two cut-off levels, 40 and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. Two-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death, and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Two hundred fifty-five patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50-0.88), p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22-0.94), p = 0.034, respectively]. Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 and 70 nmol/L were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.

  1. Determination of the optimal cutoff time to use when screening elderly people for locomotive syndrome using the one-leg standing test (with eyes open).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seichi, Atsushi; Hoshino, Yuichi; Doi, Tokuhide; Akai, Masami; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Kita, Kiyoshi; Iwaya, Tsutomu

    2014-07-01

    To establish the cutoff time for the one-leg standing (OLS) test (with eyes open) to use when screening elderly people for locomotive syndrome. Patients visiting orthopedic clinics and healthy volunteers, all ≥65 years old, were recruited. Participants were asked to complete the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25) and then underwent the OLS test. Using the previously determined GLFS-25 cutoff value, participants were divided into two groups: the locomotive and the non-locomotive syndrome groups (GLFS-25 scores of ≥16 and 70 and ≤75, and aged >75), we determined the optimal cutoff value for IA-OLS time for each of the three age groups using ROC analysis. According to additional ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for IA-OLS time was 19 s for individuals aged ≤70, 10 s for individuals aged >70 and ≤75, and 6 s for individuals aged >75 when screening elderly persons for locomotive syndrome. We propose using a GLFS-25 score of 16 and/or a cutoff for the IA-OLS time of 19 s for individuals aged ≤70, 10 s for individuals aged >70 and ≤75, and 6 s for individuals aged >75 when screening elderly persons to determine who should receive medical intervention or undergoing training programs.

  2. Research on wall shear stress considering wall roughness when shear swirling flow vibration cementing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhihua; Ai, Chi; Feng, Fuping

    2017-01-01

    When shear swirling flow vibration cementing, the casing is revolving periodically and eccentrically, which leads to the annulus fluid in turbulent swirling flow state. The wall shear stress is more than that in laminar flow field when conventional cementing. The paper mainly studied the wall shear stress distribution on the borehole wall when shear swirling flow vibration cementing based on the finite volume method. At the same time, the wall roughness affected and changed the turbulent flow near the borehole wall and the wall shear stress. Based on the wall function method, the paper established boundary conditions considering the wall roughness and derived the formula of the wall shear stress. The results showed that the wall roughness significantly increases the wall shear stress. However, the larger the wall roughness, the greater the thickness of mud cake, which weakening the cementing strength. Considering the effects in a comprehensive way, it is discovered that the particle size of solid phase in drilling fluid is about 0.1 mm to get better cementing quality.

  3. Turbulent channel flows over complex walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosti, Marco Edoardo; Brandt, Luca

    2017-11-01

    We perform numerical simulations of turbulent channel flows over porous walls and deformable hyper-elastic walls. The flow over porous walls is simulated using volume-averaged Navier ``Stokes equations within the porous layers, while the multiphase flow over deformable walls is solved with a one-continuum formulation which allows the use of a fully Eulerian formulation. New insights on the effect of these complex walls on the turbulent flows in terms of friction, statistics and flow structures are discussed using a number of post-processing techniques. The turbulent flow in the channel is affected by the porous and moving walls in a similar manner even at low values of porosity and elasticity due to the non-zero fluctuations of vertical velocity at the interface that influence the flow dynamics. The near-wall streaks and the associated quasi-streamwise vortices are strongly reduced near porous and deformable isotropic wall while the flow becomes more correlated in the spanwise direction. On the contrary, an opposite behavior is noticed in the case of anisotropic porous layers, with an increase of streamwise correlation due to a strengthening of the low- and high-speed streaks.

  4. Domain Wall Propagation through Spin Wave Emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.S.; Yan, P.; Shen, Y.H.; Bauer, G.E.W.; Wang, X.R.

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study field-induced domain wall motion in an electrically insulating ferromagnet with hard- and easy-axis anisotropies. Domain walls can propagate along a dissipationless wire through spin wave emission locked into the known soliton velocity at low fields. In the presence of

  5. Neurofibromas as bilateral cystic chest wall swellings.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serrano-Egea A, Santo-Briz A, Garcia-Munoz H,. Martinez-Tello F.J. Chest wall harmatoma:a report of two cases with secondary aneurismal bone cysts. Path. Resec. Pract. 2001; 197: 835-9. 9. Ballas K, Rafailidis S, Simeonidis N, Papanikolaou. K, Aimoniotou E, Sakadamis AK. Anterior chest wall. African Health Sciences ...

  6. [The cell wall of Coelastrum (Chlorophycees)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymond, O

    1975-01-01

    The cell wall of Coelastrum is usually composed of three layers. The outermost layer was studied most extensively. It consists of erect tubules which often bear long bristles whose function may be to stabilize the algae in its enviroment. The cell wall can modify its morphology according to the enviroment.

  7. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  8. Detection of Anomalies in Diaphragm Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, R.; Van Tol, F.; Broere, W.

    2015-01-01

    If a calamity with a retaining wall occurs, the impact on surrounding buildings and infrastructure is at least an order of magnitude more severe than without the calamity. In 2005 and 2006 major leaks in the retaining walls of underground stations in Amsterdam and Rotterdam occurred. After these

  9. Post caesarean section anterior abdominal wall endometriosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is a likely sequelae of caesarean section as viable endometrial tissue are deposited in the peritoneal cavity or anterior abdominal wall. One such case to sensitize clinicians of this rare presentation of the disease is presented. The patient was a 48 year old woman who presented with a lesion ...

  10. Thermodynamic magnon recoil for domain wall motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, P.; Cao, Y.; Sinova, J.

    2015-01-01

    We predict a thermodynamic magnon recoil effect for domain wall motions in the presence of temperature gradients. All current thermodynamic theories assert that a magnetic domain wall must move toward the hotter side, based on equilibrium thermodynamic arguments. Microscopic calculations, on the

  11. Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sonographic gallbladder wall thickness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study population's age ranged from 16 - 78 years, with a mean age and SD of 32±13.2 years. The age parameter was unevenly distributed. →. →. Fig. 1. Longitudinal US image showing site of measurement of gallbladder wall thickness (arrows). Table I. Age distribution of mean gallbladder wall thickness in the study ...

  13. ADULT ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIA IN IBADAN.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical practice. Groin hernia is the commonest type of abdominal wall hernias. There are several methods of hernia repair but tension-free repair (usually ... Aim: To describe the clinical profile of anterior abdominal wall hernias and our ... recent time but high cost and initial non-availability of the mesh limit its use in our.

  14. Solar walls in tsbi3 user's guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, K.B.

    tsbi3 is a user-friendly and flexible computer program, which provides support to the design team in the analysis of the indoor climate and the energy performance of buildings. The solar wall module gives tsbi3 the capability of simulating solar walls and their interaction with the building...

  15. [Accident statistics at "indoor climbing walls"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, V; Winkelmann, H P

    1999-03-01

    During a period of 6 month the risk of significant injuries on indoor climbing walls was survived. A total of 25,163 visitors were registrated at the 10 walls. Overall only 4 significant injuries were found, the injury-risk per visit was 0.016%.

  16. Chiral gauge theories with domain wall fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Golterman, M.; Jansen, K.; Petcher, D.; Vink, J.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated a proposal to construct chiral gauge theories on the lattice using domain wall fermions. The model contains two opposite chirality zeromodes, which live on two domain walls. We couple only one of them to a gauge field, but find that mirror fermions which also couple to the gauge field always seem to exist.

  17. Air pressures in wood frame walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton. TenWolde; Charles G. Carll; Vyto. Malinauskas

    1998-01-01

    Wind pressures can play an important role in the wetting of exterior walls (driving rain). In response, the rain screen concept, including compartmentalization and air spaces, has been developed to provide pressure equalization and limit water entry into the wall. However, conventional construction such as wood lap siding has not been evaluated as to its ability to...

  18. Transcriptional regulatory network controlling secondary cell wall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Secondary wall is an abundant component of plant biomass and has a potential to be a renewable resource of bioenergy and biomaterials. It is important to unravel the molecular mechanism underlying secondary wall formation and how it contributes to plant biomass production. In this review, we summarized the potential ...

  19. Mechanics of the Toxoplasma gondii oocyst wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of microorganisms to survive under extreme conditions is closely related to the physicochemical properties of their wall. In the ubiquitous protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, the oocyst stage possesses a bilayered wall that protects the dormant but potentially infective parasites from...

  20. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  1. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  2. Seismic Performance of Precast Polystyrene RC Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibowo Ari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Precast concrete structure such as precast wall is a concept that is growing rapidly these days. However, the earthquake resistance is believed to be one of its drawbacks. Additionally, the large weight of solid elements also increase the building weight significantly which consequently increase the earthquake base shear force as well. Therefore, investigation on the seismic performance of precast concrete wall has been carried out. Three RC wall specimens using wire mesh reinforcement and EPS (Extended Polystyrene System panel have been tested. This wall was designed as a structural wall that was capable in sustaining lateral loads (in-plane yet were lightweight to reduce the total weight of the building. Parameter observed was the ratio of height to width (aspect ratio of wall of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 respectively with the aim to study the behaviour of brittle to ductile transition of the wall. Incremental static load tests were conducted until reaching peak load and then followed by displacement control until failure. Several data were measured at every stage of loading comprising lateral load-displacement behaviour, ultimate strength and collapse mechanism. The outcomes showed that precast concrete walls with a steel wire and EPS panel filler provided considerably good resistance against lateral load.

  3. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations...... in abdominal wall hernia formation....

  4. Statistical analysis of silo wall pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Berntsen, Kasper Nikolaj

    1998-01-01

    Previously published silo wall pressure measurements during plug flow of barley in alarge concrete silo are re-analysed under the hypothesis that the wall pressures are gamma-distributed.The fits of the gamma distribution type to the local pressure data from each measuring cell are satisfactory.......However, the estimated parameters of the gamma distributions turn out to be significantly inhomogeneous overthe silo wall surface. This inhomogeneity is attributed to the geometrical imperfections of the silo wall.Motivated by the engineering importance of the problem a mathematical model for constructing astochastic...... gamma-type continuous pressure field is given. The model obeys the necessary equilibrium conditionsof the wall pressure field and reflects the spatial correlation properties as estimated from simultaneouslymeasured pressures at different locations along a horizontal perimeter....

  5. 2003 Plant Cell Walls Gordon Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Cosgrove

    2004-09-21

    This conference will address recent progress in many aspects of cell wall biology. Molecular, genetic, and genomic approaches are yielding major advances in our understanding of the composition, synthesis, and architecture of plant cell walls and their dynamics during growth, and are identifying the genes that encode the machinery needed to make their biogenesis possible. This meeting will bring together international scientists from academia, industry and government labs to share the latest breakthroughs and perspectives on polysaccharide biosynthesis, wood formation, wall modification, expansion and interaction with other organisms, and genomic & evolutionary analyses of wall-related genes, as well as to discuss recent ''nanotechnological'' advances that take wall analysis to the level of a single cell.

  6. Anther Wall Formation in Solanaceae Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARRIZO GARCÍA, CAROLINA

    2002-01-01

    Anther wall formation was studied in 32 species belonging to 27 genera of Solanaceae. Dicotyledonous and basic types of wall formation were observed, as well as several deviations due to subsequent periclinal divisions in the layers formed (middle layers and sometimes the endothecium). One type of wall formation was observed in each species. Some genera are uniform in their type of wall formation, while others are heterogeneous; a similar situation was observed at the tribal level. Summarizing all reported information on anther wall formation in the Solanaceae, 64 % of species show the basic type, while the remaining 36 % show the dicotyledonous type. Thus, neither type predominates, and no single type characterizes genera, tribes or the entire family. PMID:12451025

  7. From Soft Walls to Infrared Branes

    CERN Document Server

    von Gersdorff, Gero

    2010-01-01

    Five dimensional warped spaces with soft walls are generalizations of the standard Randall-Sundrum compactifications, where instead of an infrared brane one has a curvature singularity (with vanishing warp factor) at finite proper distance in the bulk. We project the physics near the singularity onto a hypersurface located a small distance away from it in the bulk. This results in a completely equivalent description of the soft wall in terms of an effective infrared brane, hiding any singular point. We perform explicitly this calculation for two classes of soft wall backgrounds used in the literature. The procedure has several advantages. It separates in a clean way the physics of the soft wall from the physics of the five dimensional bulk, facilitating a more direct comparison with standard two-brane warped compactifications. Moreover, consistent soft walls show a sort of universal behavior near the singularity which is reflected in the effective brane Lagrangian. Thirdly, for many purposes, a good approxima...

  8. Green Walls Utilizing Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejs BONDAREVS

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A wireless sensor network was used to automatically control the life-support equipment of a green wall and to measure its influence on the air quality. Temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter, volatile organic compound and carbon dioxide were monitored during different tests. Green wall performance on improving the air quality and the influence of the air flow through the green wall on its performance were studied. The experimental results show that the green wall is effective to absorb particulate matter and volatile organic compound. The air flow through the green wall significantly increases the performance. The built-in fan increases the absorption rate of particulate matter by 8 times and that of formaldehyde by 3 times.

  9. Mirror, mirror on the wall

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    RICH 2, one of the two Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors of the LHCb experiment, is being prepared to join the other detector elements ready for the first proton-proton collisions at LHC. The mirrors of the RICH2 detector are meticulously assembled in a clean room.In a large dark room, men in white move around an immense structure some 7 metres high, 10 metres wide and nearly 2.5 metres deep. Apparently effortlessly, they are installing the two large high-precision spherical mirrors. These mirrors will focus Cherenkov light, created by the charged particles that will traverse this detector, onto the photon detectors. Each spherical mirror wall is made up of facets like a fly's eye. Twenty-eight individual thin glass mirrors will all point to the same point in space to within a few micro-radians. The development of these mirrors has been technically demanding : Ideally they should be massless, sturdy, precise and have high reflectivity. In practice, though not massless, they are made from a mere 6 mm thin gl...

  10. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function. Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available. Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt. Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically

  11. Thoracic wall reconstruction after tumor resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran eHarati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgical treatment of malignant thoracic wall tumors represents a formidable challenge. In particular, locally advanced tumors that have already infiltrated critical anatomic structures are associated with a high surgical morbidity and can result in full thickness defects of the thoracic wall. Plastic surgery can reduce this surgical morbidity by reconstructing the thoracic wall through various tissue transfer techniques. Sufficient soft tissue reconstruction of the thoracic wall improves life quality and mitigates functional impairment after extensive resection. The aim of this article is to illustrate the various plastic surgery treatment options in the multimodal therapy of patients with malignant thoracic wall tumors.Material und methods: This article is based on a review of the current literature and the evaluation of a patient database.Results: Several plastic surgical treatment options can be implemented in the curative and palliative therapy of patients with malignant solid tumors of the chest wall. Large soft tissue defects after tumor resection can be covered by local, pedicled or free flaps. In cases of large full-thickness defects, flaps can be combined with polypropylene mesh to improve chest wall stability and to maintain pulmonary function. The success of modern medicine has resulted in an increasing number of patients with prolonged survival suffering from locally advanced tumors that can be painful, malodorous or prone to bleeding. Resection of these tumors followed by thoracic wall reconstruction with viable tissue can substantially enhance the life quality of these patients. Discussion: In curative treatment regimens, chest wall reconstruction enables complete resection of locally advanced tumors and subsequent adjuvant radiotherapy. In palliative disease treatment, stadium plastic surgical techniques of thoracic wall reconstruction provide palliation of tumor-associated morbidity and can therefore improve

  12. Modifying crops to increase cell wall digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Samac, Deborah A; Sarath, Gautam

    2012-04-01

    Improving digestibility of roughage cell walls will improve ruminant animal performance and reduce loss of nutrients to the environment. The main digestibility impediment for dicotyledonous plants is highly lignified secondary cell walls, notably in stem secondary xylem, which become almost non-digestible. Digestibility of grasses is slowed severely by lignification of most tissues, but these cell walls remain largely digestible. Cell wall lignification creates an access barrier to potentially digestible wall material by rumen bacteria if cells have not been physically ruptured. Traditional breeding has focused on increasing total dry matter digestibility rather than cell wall digestibility, which has resulted in minimal reductions in cell wall lignification. Brown midrib mutants in some annual grasses exhibit small reductions in lignin concentration and improved cell wall digestibility. Similarly, transgenic approaches down-regulating genes in monolignol synthesis have produced plants with reduced lignin content and improved cell wall digestibility. While major reductions in lignin concentration have been associated with poor plant fitness, smaller reductions in lignin provided measurable improvements in digestibility without significantly impacting agronomic fitness. Additional targets for genetic modification to enhance digestibility and improve roughages for use as biofuel feedstocks are discussed; including manipulating cell wall polysaccharide composition, novel lignin structures, reduced lignin/polysaccharide cross-linking, smaller lignin polymers, enhanced development of non-lignified tissues, and targeting specific cell types. Greater tissue specificity of transgene expression will be needed to maximize benefits while avoiding negative impacts on plant fitness.cauliflower mosiac virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. The optimal cut-off value of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index for the survival differs according to the TNM stage in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Yukiyasu; Sugiura, Teiichi; Ito, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Ashida, Ryo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    To establish the optimal cut-off value of the preoperative prognostic nutritional index (PNI) for prognosis according to the Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. This retrospective study reviewed the records of 375 patients. The optimal cut-off value of the PNI was established according to the TNM stage, and overall survival was compared between the low and high PNI groups. The optimal cut-off value of the PNI decreased with increasing TNM stage, with 52, 47, and 43 patients having stage I, II, and III HCC, respectively. A low preoperative PNI predicted a poorer overall survival than did a high PNI for stage I (P cut-off value for the PNI for prognosis differs among the TNM stages and that the preoperative PNI is a favorable prognostic factor for stage I HCC.

  14. New guidelines for lupus anticoagulant: sensitivity and specificity of cut-off values calculated with plasmas from healthy controls in mixing and confirmatory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinuzzo, M E; Cerrato, G S; Varela, M L I; Adamczuk, Y P; Forastiero, R R

    2012-04-01

    The updated guidelines for lupus anticoagulant (LA) diagnosis indicate locally calculate the cut-off values of the index of circulating anticoagulant (ICA) and the clotting time in seconds (s) for mixing studies and % of correction (%C) for confirmatory tests. We assess sensitivity (SEN) and specificity (SPC) of the cut-off values obtained as the 99th percentile from 60 plasmas of healthy individuals. We analysed 647 plasmas from patients studied in the last 3 years, and results were revaluated according to the new criteria and cut-off values. Four hundred and three had LA, and 75 of them were under oral anticoagulants (OA). We performed three screening tests: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), diluted Russell viper venom time (dRVVT) and dilute prothrombin time (dPT), and previous diagnosis was carried out using our home-made cut-off calculated by receiver operating characteristics curves. We reanalysed the mixing and confirmatory data of APTT/dRVVT, the tests selected in the new guidelines. To evaluate SPC, 244 plasmas (160 OA and 84 congenital deficient patients) were studied. Considering mixing studies, the cut-off values demonstrate that SEN of ICA-APTT was 94% and of clotting time in second (s) 83%, with an SPC of 77% and 84%, respectively. For ICA-dRVVT, SEN was 72% and for clotting time in second (s) 77%, with SPC of 98% and 84%, respectively. The cut-off values for %C for confirmatory APTT show good SEN 82% and high SPC 96%; for confirmatory dRVVT lower SEN 77%, but a SPC of 100%. The combination of mixing and confirmatory tests interpreted according to the new guidelines can clearly differentiate LA from other coagulopathies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro González-Álvaro

    Full Text Available To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI in patients with chronic polyarthritis.Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR] including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28. ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI.The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5, moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756 and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728. HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values.The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  16. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  17. [Potential utility of a renal function adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for improving the exclusion of pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xin; Yang, Jinghua; Wang, Zengzhi; Zhu, Chenxi; Li, Jie; Liu, Shuang

    2015-08-11

    To evaluate the potential utility of a renal function adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for improving the exclusion of pulmonary embolism. Retrospective analyses were performed for 1 784 inpatients and outpatients with low and moderate probability of pulmonary embolism at Anzhen Hospital from January 2011 to June 2013. The Well's score was used. The diagnoses of pulmonary embolism were confirmed by computed tomography pulmonary angiogram and ventilation-perfusion scan. Based upon estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), they were divided into three subgroups of normal renal function, mild renal impairment and moderate renal impairment. Negative D-dimer was defined as a level of age-standardized D-dimer valuecut-off point in patients with renal impairment was developed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the effect of diagnostic efficiency of ruling out pulmonary embolism with renal function adjusted D-dimer cut-off was assessed. The medians of D-dimer of three subgroups with normal renal function, mild renal impairment and moderate renal impairment were 291.5, 995.5 and 1 901.5 µg/L (Pcut-off value increased to 1.2 and 1.75 times of old one in patients with mild and moderate renal impairments and the proportion of patients with a negative D-dimer level rose from 48.7% to 53.0% as compared with old D-dimer cut-off value. The sensitivity and specificity of negative D-dimer for ruling out pulmonary embolism was 98% and 62% with the new cut-off value versus 99% and 57% with the old cut-off value and the NNT of D-dimer for ruling out pulmonary embolism declined from 3.52 to 3.34. The renal function adjusted D-dimer cut-off point can improve the diagnostic efficiency of D-dimer test for ruling out pulmonary embolism.

  18. HPV self-sampling in CIN2+ detection: sensitivity and specificity of different RLU cut-off of HC2 in specimens from 786 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, F; Igidbashian, S; Boveri, S; Tricca, A; Gulmini, C; Sesia, M; Spolti, N; Sideri, M; Landoni, F; Sandri, M T

    2017-04-01

    Mortality for cervical cancer varies between the different regions of the world, with high rates in low-income countries where screening programmes are not present and organised. However, increasing screening coverage is still a priority in all countries: one way to do that is to base screening on self-sampled screening. The success of a self-sampling screening strategy depends on capacity to recruit unscreened women, on the performance and acceptability of the device and on the clinical performance of the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) test. This study based on 786 enrolled women investigates the best cut-off value of Hybrid Capture 2 HPV test (HC2) for self-sampled specimens in terms of sensitivity and specificity. In this population, we found that the sensitivity and the specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more detection of HC2 performed on self-sampled specimens were 82.5% and 82.8%, respectively considering the relative light units (RLU) cut-off value of 1. Increasing the cut-off value the sensitivity decreases and the specificity raises and the best area under the curve for the RLU cut-off value is 1. Our results confirm that the cut-off value of 1 suggested by Qiagen for PreservCyt specimen is the best cut-off value also for self-sampled specimens. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Prospective Study of Optimal Obesity Index Cut-Off Values for Predicting Incidence of Hypertension in 18–65-Year-Old Chinese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity increase the risk of elevated blood pressure; most of the studies that serve as a background for the debates on the optimal obesity index cut-off values used cross-sectional samples. The aim of this study was to determine the cut-off values of anthropometric markers for detecting hypertension in Chinese adults with data from prospective cohort. Methods This study determines the best cut-off values for the obesity indices that represent elevated incidence of hypertension in 18–65-year-old Chinese adults using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006–2011 prospective cohort. Individual body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist:stature ratio (WSR) were assessed. ROC curves for these obesity indices were plotted to estimate and compare the usefulness of these obesity indices and the corresponding values for the maximum of the Youden indices were considered the optimal cut-off values. Results Five-year cumulative incidences of hypertension were 21.5% (95% CI: 19.4–23.6) in men and 16.5% (95% CI: 14.7–18.2) in women, and there was a significant trend of increased incidence of hypertension with an increase in BMI, WC, WHR or WSR (P for trend Obesity in China (WGOC), the cut-off values for WHR that were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and a global WSR cut-off value of 0.50 may be the appropriate upper limits for Chinese adults. PMID:26934390

  20. Prospective Study of Optimal Obesity Index Cut-Off Values for Predicting Incidence of Hypertension in 18-65-Year-Old Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qian; Su, Chang; Wang, Huijun; Wang, Zhihong; Du, Wenwen; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity increase the risk of elevated blood pressure; most of the studies that serve as a background for the debates on the optimal obesity index cut-off values used cross-sectional samples. The aim of this study was to determine the cut-off values of anthropometric markers for detecting hypertension in Chinese adults with data from prospective cohort. This study determines the best cut-off values for the obesity indices that represent elevated incidence of hypertension in 18-65-year-old Chinese adults using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006-2011 prospective cohort. Individual body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist:hip ratio (WHR) and waist:stature ratio (WSR) were assessed. ROC curves for these obesity indices were plotted to estimate and compare the usefulness of these obesity indices and the corresponding values for the maximum of the Youden indices were considered the optimal cut-off values. Five-year cumulative incidences of hypertension were 21.5% (95% CI: 19.4-23.6) in men and 16.5% (95% CI: 14.7-18.2) in women, and there was a significant trend of increased incidence of hypertension with an increase in BMI, WC, WHR or WSR (P for trend Obesity in China (WGOC), the cut-off values for WHR that were developed by the World Health Organization (WHO), and a global WSR cut-off value of 0.50 may be the appropriate upper limits for Chinese adults.

  1. Optimal cutoff points for HOMA-IR and QUICKI in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamed, Nima; Miresmail, Seyed Javad Haji; Rabiee, Behnam; Keyvani, Hossein; Farahani, Behzad; Maadi, Mansooreh; Zamani, Farhad

    2016-03-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the optimal cutoff points for homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The baseline data of 5511 subjects aged ≥18years of a cohort study in northern Iran were utilized to analyze. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to determine the discriminatory capability of HOMA-IR and QUICKI in the diagnosis of MetS and NAFLD. Youden index was utilized to determine the optimal cutoff points of HOMA-IR and QUICKI in the diagnosis of MetS and NAFLD. The optimal cutoff points for HOMA-IR in the diagnosis of MetS and NAFLD were 2.0 [sensitivity=64.4%, specificity=66.8%] and 1.79 [sensitivity=66.2%, specificity=62.2%] in men and were 2.5 [sensitivity=57.6%, specificity=67.9%] and 1.95 [sensitivity=65.1%, specificity=54.7%] in women respectively. Furthermore, the optimal cutoff points for QUICKI in the diagnosis of MetS and NAFLD were 0.343 [sensitivity=63.7%, specificity=67.8%] and 0.347 [sensitivity=62.9%, specificity=65.0%] in men and were 0.331 [sensitivity=55.7%, specificity=70.7%] and 0.333 [sensitivity=53.2%, specificity=67.7%] in women respectively. Not only the optimal cutoff points of HOMA-IR and QUICKI were different for MetS and NAFLD, but also different cutoff points were obtained for men and women for each of these two conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amputee locomotion: Frequency content of prosthetic vs. intact limb vertical ground reaction forces during running and the effects of filter cut-off frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Dovin; Miller, Ross H; Baum, Brian S; Kwon, Hyun Joon; Shim, Jae Kun

    2017-07-26

    Compared to intact limbs, running-specific prostheses have high resonance non-biologic materials and lack active tissues to damp high frequencies. These differences may lead to ground reaction forces (GRFs) with high frequency content. If so, ubiquitously applying low-pass filters to prosthetic and intact limb GRFs may attenuate veridical high frequency content and mask important and ecologically valid data from prostheses. To explore differences in frequency content between prosthetic and intact limbs we divided signal power from transtibial unilateral amputees and controls running at 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5m/s into Low (25Hz) frequency bandwidths. Faster speeds tended to reduce the proportion of signal power in the Low bandwidth while increasing it in the High and Non-biologic bandwidths. Further, prostheses had lower proportions of signal power at the High frequency bandwidth but greater proportions at the Non-biologic bandwidth. To evaluate whether these differences in frequency content interact with filter cut-offs and alter results, we filtered GRFs with cut-offs from 1 to 100Hz and calculated vertical impact peak (VIP). Changing cut-off had inconsistent effects on VIP across speeds and limbs: Faster speeds had significantly larger changes in VIP per change in cut-off while, compared to controls, prosthetic limbs had significantly smaller changes in VIP per change in cut-off. These findings reveal differences in GRF frequency content between prosthetic and intact limbs and suggest that a cut-off frequency that is appropriate for one limb or speed may be inappropriate for another. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M.; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Methods Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. Results The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI’s AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28’s AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. Conclusions The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis. PMID:27603313

  4. Modelling of Rigid Walled Enclosure Couple to a Flexible Wall using Matlab and Ansys APDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Azmir, N. A.; Ismon, M.; Madlan, M. A.; Yahya, M. N.; Zainulabidin, M. H.; Sani, M. S. M.; Noh, M. F. M.

    2017-10-01

    Generally, solutions to improve the noise problems in enclosure are to redesign or modifying the system such as increasing the thickness of the wall panels, enhancing the elasticity of the structure, and increase the damping mechanism of the wall structure. In this paper, the application of vibroacoustic modelling of enclosure coupled to a flexible wall was presented. The sound pressure characteristics of rigid walled enclosure, such as natural frequency and mode shape were determined using two approaches which are finite element simulation of Ansys® and mathematical model. The mathematical equations derived in Matlab® such as rigid walled enclosure and rigid walled enclosure coupled to flexible wall were used to validate finite element analysis (FEA). The result indicates that the theory and FEA display in a good agreement. Thus, proved that the FE model was accurate and can be applied in further research such as sound pressure and noise attenuation in enclosure.

  5. Earthquake resistant structural walls: Test of walls with and without openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiu, K. N.; Daniel, J. I.; Aristizabal-Ochoa, J. D.; Fiorato, A. E.; Corley, W. G.

    1981-07-01

    Two one-third scale, six-story wal specimens were subjected to inelastic load reversals representing severe earthquake forces exerted by double acting hydraulic rams, located on both sides of the wall specimens, and applied to the top of each wall. The specimens were designed of earthquake resistant reinforced concrete wall elements in coupled wall systems based on the 1976 Uniform Building Code. The loading was calculated using a modified DRAIN two-dimensional computer program with two actual earthquake records used as input ground motion data. One specimen was a solid wall and the other included six openings simulating windows. When data was normalized by yield capacities, the resonse of the two walls to the inelastic loading was similar. The presence of window openings had little effect on the deformation characteristics of the sample walls in response to the cyclic loads.

  6. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Andrade, Armèle Dornelas de; Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. Determinar os pontos de corte de resposta ao broncodilatador do VEF1, VEF0,75, VEF0,5 e FEF25-75% em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis e gerar valores de referência para o VEF0,75. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base comunitária em crianças de 3-5 anos de idade. Pré-escolares saudáveis foram selecionados por um questionário padronizado. Foi realizada espirometria antes e depois do uso de broncodilatador. Foram definidos os pontos de corte dessa resposta como o percentil 95 de variação em cada parâmetro. Foram recrutadas 266 crianças, e 160 (60,0%) foram capazes de gerar manobras expiratórias aceitáveis e reprodut

  7. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  8. A comparison of the cut-off effects for twisted mass, overlap and Creutz fermions at tree-level of perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Kujawa, Agnieszka [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Gonzalez Lopez, Jenifer [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we investigate the cutoff effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for three different lattice regularizations of fermions - maximally twisted mass Wilson, overlap and Creutz fermions. We show that all three kinds of fermions exhibit the expected O(a{sup 2}) scaling behaviour in the lattice spacing. Moreover, the size of these cutoff effects for the considered quantities i.e. the pseudoscalar correlation function C{sub PS}, the mass m{sub PS} and the decay constant f{sub PS} is comparable for all of them. (orig.)

  9. Definition of new cut-offs of BMI and waist circumference based on body composition and insulin resistance: differences between children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Pourhassan, M; Braun, W; Geisler, C; Müller, M J

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m-2). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATtotal, SATtrunk) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Bivariate as well as partial correlations and regression analyses were used. Cut-off values of BMI and WC related to regional fat depots and HOMA-IR were analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve. In adults, TAT, SATtotal and SATtrunk increased linearly with increasing BMI and WC, whereas they followed a cubic function in children and adolescents with a steep increase at BMI and WC ≥1 standard deviation score and VAT at WC ≥2 standard deviation score. Sex differences were apparent in adults with women having higher masses of TAT and SAT and men having higher VAT. Using established BMI or WC cut-offs, correspondent masses of TAT, SATtotal, SATtrunk and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood. In all age groups, there were positive associations between BMI, WC, SATtrunk, VAT and HOMA-IR. When compared with normative cut-offs of BMI or WC, HOMA-IR-derived cut-offs of regional fat depots were lower in all age groups. Associations between BMI, WC and regional fat depots varied between children, adolescents, young and older adults. When compared with BMI-derived and WC-derived values, an insulin resistance-derived cut-off corresponded to lower masses of regional fat depots. Thus, established BMI and WC cut-offs are not appropriate to assess metabolic disturbances associated with obesity

  10. The cut-off values of anthropometric variables for predicting mild cognitive impairment in Malaysian older adults: a large population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Huiloo Won,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin,3 Mohd Azahadi Omar,4 Rosdinom Razali,5 Suzana Shahar2 1Nutrition Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 3Biomedical Science Program, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 4Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Older adults are at risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and simple anthropometric measurements can be used to screen for this condition. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the cut-off values of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC for predicting the risk of MCI in older Malaysian adults.Methods: A total of 2,240 Malaysian older adults aged ≥60 years were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population based cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the cut-off values of BMI and WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MCI. Age, gender, years of education, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, depression, and medical conditions were used as confounding factors in this analysis.Results: A BMI cut-off value of 26 kg/m2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.725; sensitivity 90.5%; specificity 38.8% was appropriate in identifying the risk of getting MCI in both men and women. The optimum WC cut-offs for likelihood of MCI were 90 cm (AUC 0.745; sensitivity 78.0%; specificity 59.8% for men and 82 cm (AUC 0.714; sensitivity 84.3%; specificity 49.7% for women. The optimum calf circumference (CC cut-off values for identifying MCI were 29 cm (AUC 0.731; sensitivity 72.6%; specificity

  11. [The optimal cut-off value of waist-to-height ratio for detecting severe central obesity and low body weight adult Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ya-guang; Li, Ying; Guo, Min; Tian, Ye; Li, Xiang; Li, Shu-hong; Wu, Yang-feng; Zhao, Lian-cheng

    2013-07-01

    To explore the optimal cut-off values of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for detecting the severe central obesity and low body weight in adult Chinese population. A total of 30 630 participants aged 35-59 years from different areas in mainland China were surveyed for cardiovascular diseases risk factors in two independent cross-sectional studies that carried out in 1992-1994 and 1998, respectively. Indices, such as sensitivity, specificity for hypertension, abnormal glucose, high serum total cholesterol, low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol and clustering of risk factors (number ≥ 2) were calculated to evaluate the efficacy individual cut-off point of WHtR. The cut-off point value for obvious central obesity was fixed on the point whose specificity of the point was gathered more than 90%. And the cut-off point value to indicate low weight was determined by the percentile distribution of WHtR, at which the 5th percentile of point, both in male and female population. Based on the principle of convenient and practical for use, the optimal cut-off point values of WHtR for low weight and obvious central obesity were determined. The cut-off values of WHtR to detect severe central obesity were 0.54 and 0.57 for men and women, respectively. Additionally, the cut-off points of WHtR for each of the 4 cardiovascular risk factors to evaluate the severity separately ranged from 0.54 to 0.55 in male, and ranged from 0.57 to 0.58 in female. The 5th percentile of WHtR, which was the point value of WHtR to indicate low body weight, was 0.40 in both male and female population. Our data suggest that the optimal cut-off value of WHtR for defining severe central obesity and low body weight should be 0.57 and 0.40, respectively.

  12. Simplified scoring of the Actionable 8-item screening questionnaire for neurogenic bladder overactivity in multiple sclerosis: a comparative analysis of test performance at different cut-off points

    OpenAIRE

    Jongen, Peter; Blok, Bertil; Heesakkers, John P.; Heerings, Marco; Lemmens, Wim A.; Donders, Rogier

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Actionable questionnaire is an 8-item tool to screen patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) for neurogenic bladder problems, identifying those patients who might benefit from urological referral and bladder-specific treatment. The original scoring yields a total score of 0 to 24 with cut-off point 6. A simplified scoring, yielding a total score of 0 to 8 with cut-off point 3, has been developed in urogynaecological patients, but has not been investigated in MS. Meth...

  13. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  14. Cell Wall Remodeling Enzymes Modulate Fungal Cell Wall Elasticity and Osmotic Stress Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Iuliana V; Walker, Louise A; Schiavone, Marion; Lee, Keunsook K; Martin-Yken, Hélène; Dague, Etienne; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A; Brown, Alistair J P

    2015-07-28

    The fungal cell wall confers cell morphology and protection against environmental insults. For fungal pathogens, the cell wall is a key immunological modulator and an ideal therapeutic target. Yeast cell walls possess an inner matrix of interlinked β-glucan and chitin that is thought to provide tensile strength and rigidity. Yeast cells remodel their walls over time in response to environmental change, a process controlled by evolutionarily conserved stress (Hog1) and cell integrity (Mkc1, Cek1) signaling pathways. These mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways modulate cell wall gene expression, leading to the construction of a new, modified cell wall. We show that the cell wall is not rigid but elastic, displaying rapid structural realignments that impact survival following osmotic shock. Lactate-grown Candida albicans cells are more resistant to hyperosmotic shock than glucose-grown cells. We show that this elevated resistance is not dependent on Hog1 or Mkc1 signaling and that most cell death occurs within 10 min of osmotic shock. Sudden decreases in cell volume drive rapid increases in cell wall thickness. The elevated stress resistance of lactate-grown cells correlates with reduced cell wall elasticity, reflected in slower changes in cell volume following hyperosmotic shock. The cell wall elasticity of lactate-grown cells is increased by a triple mutation that inactivates the Crh family of cell wall cross-linking enzymes, leading to increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic shock. Overexpressing Crh family members in glucose-grown cells reduces cell wall elasticity, providing partial protection against hyperosmotic shock. These changes correlate with structural realignment of the cell wall and with the ability of cells to withstand osmotic shock. The C. albicans cell wall is the first line of defense against external insults, the site of immune recognition by the host, and an attractive target for antifungal therapy. Its tensile strength is conferred by

  15. Polyphosphorylated fungal cell wall glycopeptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonetti, S.J.; Black, B.; Gander, J.E.

    1987-05-01

    Penicillium charlesii secretes a 65 kDa peptidophosphogalactomannan (pPGM) containing 10 phosphodiester residues and 10 galactofuranosyl-containing galactin chains attached to a linear mannan; the polysaccharides is attached to a 3 kDa seryl- and threonyl-rich peptide. The authors have now isolated and partially characterized a form of pPGM released from mycelia of P. charlesii treated at 50/sup 0/C for 15, 30, 60 or 120 min. Two- to 3-fold more pPGM was released by heat treatment than is secreted. Crude pPGM, released by heat, was fractionated on DE-52 and was fractionated into two major fractions on the basis of its difference in negative charge. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy of these two fractions provided spectra very similar to that of secreted pPGM previously reported from this laboratory. /sup 1/H-decoupled /sup 31/P NMR showed major signals at 1.47, and 0.22 ppm and minor signals at 1.32, 1.15, 1.00, 0.91 and 0.76 ppm. These signals are upfield from phosphomonoesters and are in the region observed for (6-O-phosphorylcholine)- and (6-O-phosphorylethanolamine)-..cap alpha..-D-mannopyranosyl residues which are 0.22 and 0.90 ppm, respectively. These polymers contain 30 phosphodiester residues per molecule of 70 kDa mass compared with 10 phosphodiesters in secreted pPGM. Acid phosphatase and alkaline protease were the only lytic enzymes released by heat treatment. The evidence suggests that much of the pPGM is derived from cell walls; and that the polysaccharide is highly phosphorylated.

  16. Retaining Walls Made of Precast Cylindrical Valuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ungureanu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Retaining walls are large category of engineering structures of multiple uses, having an essential safety ensuring role. The structural systems are varied because the situations and requirements derived from both site conditions and other criteria are varied. The paper enlarges upon retaining walls systems that use an outstanding amount of precast units and multiple cylindrical vault type structural systems supported by abutments [1], [2]. The paper proposes extending the structural system to retaining walls and develops certain specific issues. Some considerations regarding structural design are made.

  17. OCCUPY WALL STREET VS. RHETORIC OF FEAR

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Vargas, Henry

    2014-01-01

    The response of Obama´s Administration to Occupy Wall Street movement is an instanceof institutional rhetoric of fear. For this reason, this paper offers a rhetorical approachof some of texts used by Occupy Wall Street and the interaction of this movement andAmerican Government. La respuesta de la Administración Obama al movimiento Occupy Wall Street es un claroejemplo de la aplicación de la retórica del miedo. Debido a esto, el presente artículo pretendeofrecer una aproximación retórica d...

  18. Magnetic confinement of repelling Bloch walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyari, E.; Thomas, H.

    1992-01-01

    In a ferromagnet with orthorhombic magneto-crystalline anisotropy, two repelling 180° domain walls (π kinks) can be pushed together to form a 360° domain wall (2π kink) by applying a magnetic field in the easy direction. We show that such a magnetically confined static 360° plane domain wall with Bloch-like structure, connecting two semi-infinite domains with parallel spin orientation, is linearly stable only below a critical strength Bc of the applied field. At B = Bc it becomes unstable with respect to a mode with spin component along the hard direction.

  19. Heterogeneity of left ventricular wall thickening mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen; Nguyen, Tom C; Malinowski, Marcin; Daughters, George T; Miller, D Craig; Ingels, Neil B

    2008-08-12

    Myocardial fibers are grouped into lamina (or sheets) 3 to 4 cells thick. Fiber shortening produces systolic left ventricular (LV) wall thickening primarily by laminar extension, thickening, and shear, but the regional variability and transmural distribution of these 3 mechanisms are incompletely understood. Nine sheep had transmural radiopaque markers inserted into the anterior basal and lateral equatorial LV. Four-dimensional marker dynamics were studied with biplane videofluoroscopy to measure circumferential, longitudinal, and radial systolic strains in the epicardium, midwall, and endocardium. Fiber and sheet angles from quantitative histology allowed transformation of these strains into transmural contributions of sheet extension, thickening, and shear to systolic wall thickening. At all depths, systolic wall thickening in the anterior basal region was 1.6 to 1.9 times that in the lateral equatorial region. Interestingly, however, systolic fiber shortening was identical at each transmural depth in these regions. Endocardial anterior basal sheet thickening was >2 times greater than in the lateral equatorial region (epicardium, 0.16+/-0.15 versus 0.03+/-0.06; endocardium, 0.45+/-0.40 versus 0.17+/-0.09). Midwall sheet extension was >2 times that in the lateral wall (0.22+/-0.12 versus 0.09+/-0.06). Epicardial and midwall sheet shears in the anterior wall were approximately 2 times higher than in the lateral wall (epicardium, 0.14+/-0.07 versus 0.05+/-0.03; midwall, 0.21+/-0.12 versus 0.12+/-0.06). These data demonstrate fundamentally different regional contributions of laminar mechanisms for amplifying fiber shortening to systolic wall thickening. Systolic fiber shortening was identical at each transmural depth in both the anterior and lateral LV sites. However, systolic wall thickening of the anterior site was much greater than that of the lateral site. Fiber shortening drives systolic wall thickening, but sheet dynamics and orientations are of great

  20. Artificial Rock Climbing Walls--Innovative Adventure Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarian, Aram

    1989-01-01

    The history, advantages, and disadvantages of artificial rock climbing walls (used to instruct individuals in the sport of rock climbing) are discussed. Additional topics include designing an artificial wall, types of walls, various uses, and risk management. (IAH)