WorldWideScience

Sample records for current world literature

  1. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast...... historical material these essays, by a diverse group of scholars, examine the pioneers of world literature and the roles played by translation, migration and literary institutions in the circulation and reception of both national and cosmopolitan literatures....

  2. Affective World Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilslev, Annette Thorsen

    The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly, the disserta......The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...

  3. The 'New' World Literature: A Review Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell McDougall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Works discussed: Theo D'haen, The Routledge Concise History of World Literature (Routledge, 2011; Theo D'haen, David Damrosch & Djelal Kadir, eds. The Routledge Companion to World Literature (Routledge, 2011; Theo D'haen, Cesar Dominguez & Mads Rosendahl Thomsen eds., World Literature: A Reader (Routledge, 2012; Elke Sturm-Trigonakis, Comparative Cultural Studies and the New Weltliteratur (Purdue University Press, 2013; Emily Apter, Against World Literature: On the Politics of Untranslatability (Verso, 2013; Robert Dixon and Bridget Rooney, Scenes of Reading. Is Australian Literature a World Literature? (Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2013; David Damrosch. ed. World Literature in Theory (Wiley-Blackwell, 2014

  4. Solar home systems. Insights from developing countries of the world. A literature survey of current issues and topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, S.N.

    1999-08-01

    The study presents an overview of the main issues discussed and topics in regards and with relevance to Solar Home Systems. The main issues are grouped and discussed in five topics: financing, institutional arrangements, market opportunities, information and communication, and standards and quality control. Major challenges as far as projects are concerned, whether public or private, are highlighted, in particular regarding aspects of financing and institutional mechanisms. The up-front costs make Solar Home Systems out of reach for the greater number of people who need them most. On the other hand, sourcing private finance for renewable energy technologies in general, and Solar Home Systems in particular, has often been very difficult because of the perceived risks. Even if these funds would be available, weak institutional links often undermine project success. However, a handful of success stories exist today and could possibly be replicated elsewhere in the developing world. The subject of information dissemination needs to be revisited and clearly set in perspective. Several countries and organisations have now developed standards and technical norms, but universality and applicability are issues still at hands. 61 refs

  5. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  6. Renaissance and Italian Literature in World Literature Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Anne

    1977-01-01

    Shows how the giants of the Renaissance, from Dante to Shakespeare and Cervantes, can be taught so that they illustrate the dialectic of the cultural experience that produced them, and how the masterpieces of Italian literature can be used to suggest both national and universal qualities. (Editor/RK)

  7. Lesbian Literature: A Third World Feminist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherrie Moraga

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available "A Baseline From Which to Build a Political Understanding: The Background and Goals of the Course." Barbara Smith: I'd taught Black women's literature, interdisciplinary courses on Black women and talked about Lesbianism as an "out" lesbian in my "Introduction to Women's Studies" courses, but I really wanted to do a Lesbian lit course. Lesbian literature had never been offered by the Women's Studies program at the University of Massachusetts in Boston, although the program is almost ten years old. There was a gay literature course that had been co-taught by a gay man and a lesbian, but its orientation was quite a bit different from what I had in mind.

  8. What Cities Enclose: A Geoliterary Approach to World Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzi E. Martínez Guerrero

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available After its reappearance on the literary scope, world literature has become such an inevitable paradigm in contemporary reflections, that, as expressed by Theo D’Haen (2012, “no other approach to literary studies has known as spectacular a success in the new millennium”. Paradoxically, this has also caused an entrance into an ongoing cycle of metadiscursive reformulation, which has distanced the concept from its own definition, methodology and boundaries. Towards grasping world literature spectrum, the present proposal encompasses certain theoretical notions around 21st century literature, by following the representation of urban space in The Museum of Innocence (Orhan Pamuk and Jerusalém (Gonçalo M. Tavares as samples for contemporary concerns seen from a geoliterary angle.   Keywords: urban space; world literature; city; geoliterature; contemporary literature; semi-periphery.

  9. Predicting future discoveries from current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrič, Ingrid; Cestnik, Bojan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in biomedicine is a time-consuming process starting from the basic research, through preclinical testing, towards possible clinical applications. Crossing of conceptual boundaries is often needed for groundbreaking biomedical research that generates highly inventive discoveries. We demonstrate the ability of a creative literature mining method to advance valuable new discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature. When emerging ideas from scientific literature are put together as fragments of knowledge in a systematic way, they may lead to original, sometimes surprising, research findings. If enough scientific evidence is already published for the association of such findings, they can be considered as scientific hypotheses. In this chapter, we describe a method for the computer-aided generation of such hypotheses based on the existing scientific literature. Our literature-based discovery of NF-kappaB with its possible connections to autism was recently approved by scientific community, which confirms the ability of our literature mining methodology to accelerate future discoveries based on rare ideas from existing literature.

  10. Text World Theory and real world readers: From literature to life in a Belfast prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    Cognitive stylistics offers a range of frameworks for understanding (amongst other things) what producers of literary texts 'do' with language and how they 'do' it. Less prevalent, however, is an understanding of the ways in which these same frameworks offer insights into what readers 'do' (and how they 'do' it). Text World Theory (Werth, 1999; Gavins, 2007; Whiteley, 2011) has proved useful for understanding how and why readers construct mental representations engendered by the act of reading. However, research on readers' responses to literature has largely focused on an 'idealised' reader or an 'experimental' subject-reader often derived from within the academy and conducted using contrived or amended literary fiction. Moreover, the format of traditional book groups (participants read texts privately and discuss them at a later date) as well as online community forums such as Goodreads, means that such studies derive data from post-hoc, rather than real-time textual encounters and discussions. The current study is the first of its kind in analysing real-time reading contexts with real readers during a researcher-led literary project ('read.live.learn') in Northern Ireland's only female prison. In doing so, the study is unique in addressing experimental and post hoc bias. Using Text World Theory, the paper considers the personal and social impact of reader engagement in the talk of the participants. As such, it has three interrelated aims: to argue for the social and personal benefits of reading stylistically rich literature in real-time reading groups; to demonstrate the efficacy of stylistics for understanding how those benefits come about, and to demonstrate the inter-disciplinary value of stylistics, particularly its potential for traversing traditional research parameters.

  11. Current status of the world's research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, B.

    1999-01-01

    Data from the IAEA's Research Reactor Database (RRDB) provides information with respect to the status of the world's research reactors. Some summary data are given. Recent initiatives by the IAEA regarding communications and information flow with respect to research reactors are discussed. Future plans and perspectives are also introduced. (author)

  12. A literature review of demand studies in world oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, F.; Tayyebi Jazayeri, S.M.

    2004-04-01

    The literature on world oil market demands was reviewed, summarized and organized into seven major groupings. The objective was to model economic behaviour before and after price shocks. In particular, the paper demonstrated how the price elasticity of demand in world oil markets is estimated. It also showed how the relationship between energy and oil consumption and income are estimated. The income elasticity of demand was also estimated, and empirical estimates of the elasticity of aggregate output regarding crude oil and energy prices were presented. The paper also referred to the transportation sector and estimates of the changing nature of seasonal factors. The review showed that there is much heterogeneity of econometric results. The literature showed that demand increased considerably in response to the price shocks of the 1970s, but these shocks were reversed in the 1980s when the increase in demand did not correspond with the decrease in price. Some of the literature is driven by the belief that there must be a stable, non-linear model that fits the data both before and after price shocks. The authors question whether this could be true and propose an alternative hypothesis that there is a different model that pertains to economic behaviour after price shocks. 15 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  13. [Current situation of accidents in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Zinser, José Valente

    2010-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of traffic accidents is of concern. About 1.2 million people die every year on the roadways and about 20 to 50 million suffer from non-lethal trauma. Countries with low or medium incomes have higher rates of lethality by traffic accidents (21.5 and 19.5 per 100,000 habitants, respectively) than countries with higher incomes (10.3 per 100,000). It is estimated that the cost of traffic accidents in countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), escalate to rates that are between 2-5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). According to data from the health sector in Mexico, these rates are equivalent to 1.3 of GDR The WHO foresees that traffic accident traumas will rise to be the third cause of mortality in 2030. Because of the high complexity of the transport sector, it is necessary that the Transport and Communication Ministry works in a multidisciplinary and intersectorial fashion to ensure that the land transportation systems operate effectively in accordance with national economic development and the quality of life of the Mexican people.

  14. Mantle cell lymphoma-current literature overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejcic, Ivica; Petkovic, Ivan; Vrbic, Svetislav; Filipovic, Sladjana; Balic, Mirjana; Cvetanovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a distinct subtype of lymphoma identified as a particular entity in the early 1990s. The prognosis of MCL is generally poor, and is considered one of the worst among all B-cell lymphomas. In general, conventional chemotherapy is only palliative and the median duration of remissions is only 1-2 years. With the exception of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), current treatment approaches are not curative and the corresponding survival curve is characterized by a relatively steep and continuous decline, with a median survival of about 4 years and watch and wait strategy. Optimal first-line therapy in MCL is not established yet. Very intensive regimens, including autologous (auto-SCT) and allo-SCT, seem to be required to improve the outcome. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only therapy that can achieve a plateau in the survival curve, but, however, it is not applicable in most of the cases due to the patients' older age when the disease mostly occurs. Molecular knowledge of MCL has progressed and therefore a large number of molecular targeted therapies have been introduced in relapsed and refractory disease.

  15. The Evaluation of World Literature Courses in Turkish Language Teaching Departments Based on Conceptual Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Basak

    2016-01-01

    In this study, World Literature course that are given in Turkish Language Teaching Departments of the universities in Turkey have been evaluated within the scope of "World Literature" that was used by Goethe in the 1820s and developed afterwards. With the purpose of conducting this evaluation, course contents of World Literature of…

  16. Cutaneous drug reaction case reports: from the world literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Skin disorders are the most common adverse reactions attributed to drugs. Any skin disorder can be imitated, induced or aggravated by drugs. To help you keep up-to-date with the very latest skin reactions occurring with both new and established drugs, this section of the journal brings you information selected from the adverse drug reaction alerting service Reactions Weekly. Reactions Weekly is the complete drug safety alerting service and summarizes information selected from over 1600 biomedical journals. This newsletter is produced by Adis International and is available in a variety of formats. Please contact your nearest Adis office for subscription details. The use of tradenames, identified by ['~'] or the use of a registered ((R)) or trade mark ( trade mark ), is for product identification purposes only and does not imply endorsement. The following case reports are selected from the very latest to be published in the world dermatology literature. Any claim of a first report has been verified by a search of AdisBase (a proprietary database of Adis International) and Medline. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) Adverse Drug Reactions database is also searched. This database, maintained by the Uppsala Monitoring Centre in Sweden, is the largest and most comprehensive adverse drug reaction source in the world, with information obtained from National Centers of 65 affiliate countries. Each case report is assessed for seriousness using the FDA MedWatch definition of serious (patient outcome is: death; life-threatening; hospitalization; disability; congenital anomaly; or requires intervention to prevent permanent impairment or damage).

  17. World Literature in the Age of Globalization: Reflections on an Anthology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Wail S.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the evolution of the most authoritative and widely used textbook in world literature courses in the United States, "The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces." Questions if the "Norton Anthology" has provided educators who are committed to the teaching of world literature from non-Eurocentric perspectives with a…

  18. Creating Value through Virtual Teams: A Current Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Takeoka Chatfield

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, virtual teams (VT as ICT-enabled emergent network organisation forms have gained international validity by innovative organisations, with a corresponding surge of interest in understanding how organisations can leverage VT to create business value. Despite growing deliberations in VT literature on managing VT, tasks and outcomes, however, creating business value through VT remains an unresolved theoretical and pragmatic conundrum. A review of prior relevant literature is essential to advancing knowledge. The paucity of published review articles seems to have impeded the field’s accumulation of VT knowledge. This research, therefore, reviews the current literature on case studies of VT to address the question: What are organisational challenges in creating business value through VT in the organisation? The key challenges found in the literature are effective communication, knowledge sharing, trust, and interpersonal skills in the new virtual boundary-less environment. Drawing on the IT business value model, we also discuss their resource-based implications.

  19. How to Use Current Medical Literature and APA Format Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Robin

    Directives and guidance in obtaining current medical literature are provided in this publication with special emphasis given to locating material in the Portland, Oregon area. The uses and types of periodical indexes are identified and periodical index citation examples are indicated. Explanations are offered on: (1) how to conduct an effective…

  20. Maailmakirjanduse mõõtmisest meil ja mujal / Conceptualizations of World Literature in Estonia and Elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Lukas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Teesid: Artikkel käsitleb maailmakirjanduse mõiste mahu ja sisu muutumist alates selle esilekerkimisest 19. sajandi algupoolel kuni tänapäeva käsitlusviisideni ja dilemmadeni, mille ees seisab võrdlev kirjandusteadus – distsipliin, mis peab maailmakirjandust oma uurimisobjektiks. Juttu tuleb ka väikese kirjanduse spetsiifilisest suhestumisest maailmakirjandusega ning maailmakirjanduse uurimisest ja õpetamisest Tartu ülikoolis alates selle rajamisest 1632 kuni eriala institutsionaliseerumiseni taasiseseisvunud Eestis – maailmakirjanduse õppetoolina.   In the current era of globalization when the borders of national literature have become exceedingly vulnerable, cultural identities more and more hybrid and the term world literature is applied to global translations into English, a comparative literary scholar might ask a question: would it be possible to perceive of a literary world analogously to the world of music? Would it be possible that as Bach does not need to be interpreted within the context of German music or Pärt within the context of Estonian music, works of literature relate to each other within the global field of literature and are no longer related to their linguistic and cultural contexts? In order to come to a „bigger picture“, to achieve a more extensive level of generalization, might it be possible to give up the linguistic, historical and cultural contextualization of works of literature? What would a small literature win or lose in such situation? In the present article the concept of world literature and its’ historical conditions – as an object of comparative literary studies – will be explained using the example of Estonian literature. In order to do so, an overview of the history of comparative literary studies at the University of Tartu will be provided. At the University of Tartu, the study of comparative literature was initiated much earlier than systematic study of Estonian literature or its

  1. An Exploratory Survey of Digital Libraries on the World Wide Web: Art and Literature of the Early Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Suzanne J.

    This study assessed the ongoing development of digital libraries (DLs) on the World Wide Web. DLs of art and literature were surveyed for selected works from the early Italian Renaissance in order to gain insight into the current trends prevalent throughout the larger population of DLs. The following artists and authors were selected for study:…

  2. Preference for Popular and World Music: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Reviews of literature on music preference may provide music educators with a variety of research on information, techniques, and methods to implement in the music classroom. Calls to widen the types of music used in curricula seem to underscore the importance of research exploring preference using music other than, and in addition to, Western art…

  3. Redesigning Journal Clubs to Staying Current with the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Roland N; Wood, G Christopher; Swanson, Joseph M; Brown, Rex O

    2017-11-06

    Staying current with the literature is of paramount importance to the pharmacist engaged in an evidence-based clinical practice. Given the expanding roles and responsibilities of today's pharmacists combined with exponential growth in new medical and health sciences literature, staying current has become an extremely daunting task. Traditional journal clubs have focused upon their role as a training vehicle for teaching critical reading skills to residents. However, schools of pharmacy are now required to provide instruction in biostatistics, research design, and interpretation. We present a paradigm shift in the traditional journal club model whereby a collection of periodicals is screened and a short synopsis of the pertinent articles is provided. The associated tasks for screening and presenting of the primary literature are shared among a group of clinicians and trainees with similar practice interests resulting in a more reasonable workload for the individual. This journal club method was effective in identifying a significant majority of articles judged to be pertinent by independent groups of clinicians in the same practice arenas. Details regarding the shared core practice and knowledge base elements, journal club format, identification of journals, and evaluation of the success of the journal club technique are provided.

  4. Current situation of wind energy in the world and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alper Kaplan, Yusuf; San, Ismail [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anadolu University (Turkey)], email: yakaplan@anadolu.edu.tr, email: isan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current situation of wind power in Turkey and in the world by evaluating installed wind power using current data. It also looks at the political conditions of Turkey in relation to the current installed wind energy power in Turkey compared with that of certain developed countries. The problems encountered are also illustrated as a basis for proposing solutions. Turkey's wind energy potential is 48,000 MW but installed wind power was only 1,329 MW as of 2011. Wind energy is at present one of the most cost-competitive renewable energy technologies in the world when technical, geographical and social issues are taken into consideration. Economic sources should be researched. The development of current potential and the market entry of renewable energy resources requires a legal and regulatory framework that support suitable mechanisms. Local support is recommended together with tax exemptions. Long-term fixed-price guarantees should also be considered by government.

  5. Investigation on Current Status of World Nuclear Education and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. Y.; Min, M. J.; Noh, B. C.

    2010-04-01

    All over the world, the interest of nuclear energy is increasing and the expectations of it are getting more as one of the most practical alternative energy resources. However, since 1990s, as a lot of nuclear specialists are being retired, now the problem of manpower shortage is taken into consideration for all of us and will be continued until 2011. In this point of view, the good quality of the professional nuclear training and education systems and the nuclear education centers are requested in order to breed and supply the next generation nuclear scientists and engineers. Thus, the objective of this study is to explore the current status of world nuclear education for both of nuclear power countries and potential nuclear power utilization countries in the near future. This report introduces the importance of nuclear energy, the current status of world nuclear power plants operation and the contribution of nuclear energy. Besides, it also includes the nuclear energy development plan of potential nuclear developing countries in the near future. In addition, this study also explores the nuclear training and education systems of the nuclear development countries and the current status of nuclear education in various fields such as government, industries, nuclear power plants ect. Especially, as considering the status of nuclear education classified such as Asia, the Americas, East and West Europe, the Middle East and Africa, it shows the different characteristics of nuclear education systems in each regions aimed to identify the good practices on the nuclear education systems. Finally, through observation of international cooperation and networks of the various nuclear organizations, this will be contributed to the development of nuclear education for member states and be suggested the various of the direction of development for nuclear education in Korea. The report presents in the basis of the recent status data of the world nuclear education systems collected

  6. Urdu literature at the World Forum: Nobel Prize for literature and Urdu/Hindi recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Qadeer, Altaf

    2017-01-01

    Urdu language is well-known for literary beauty and other linguistic as well as social factors. Over centuries Urdu/Hindi has gone through many cultural, political and linguistic changes. Urdu language has also changed in some ways of spoken and written forms. Despite the long history and literary power of Urdu, no Urdu author received a Nobel Prize in literature. Some data is presented about the trends in awarding Nobel Prize for literature. This article analyzes and highlights pathways for ...

  7. Variation Theory and the Reception of Chinese Literature in the English-speaking World

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Shunqing

    2015-01-01

    In his article "Variation Theory and Reception of Chinese Literature in the English-Speaking World" Shunqing Cao introduces "variation theory" he developed and suggests that the framework can be applied in studying the dissemination and reception of Chinese literature in the English-speaking world. Cao argues that cultural and literary differences produce variations in literary exchanges among different cultures and variation theory concentrates on these variations. With unique perspectives o...

  8. Knowledge Management and World Class Manufacturing: an initial approach based on a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Carvalho Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents the partial results of an ongoing research on the proposal of a methodology for the integration between Knowledge Management (KM and World Class Manufacturing (WCM. The initial investigation of theoretical and conceptual nature aimed at developing a comprehensive and current vision on KM, WCM, and how (or "whether" these constructs relate to one another. The primary sources for the literature review were Web of Science, Scopus, Emerald, Ebsco, SciELO and Spell, and the time frame was 2000 to 2016. The analysis of the selected papers showed that, although the initial WCM model evolved into a "new WCM" in the 2000s, the literature is still focused on the broad conceptual aspects and basic methods and tools, such as Total Quality Process, Total Productive Maintenance and Just-in-Time, conceived in the Toyota Production System, which shows the need for more studies focused on the current scenario of companies associated with the "new WCM" and its Methods and Tools. Only one article explicitly addressing the interaction between KM theories with WCM was found in the databases surveyed, thus reinforcing the lack of theoretical approximation of these constructs.

  9. Veganism and osteoporosis: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Annabelle M

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the current literature regarding calcium and Vitamin D deficiencies in vegan diets and the possible relationship to low bone mineral density and incidence for fracture. Prominent databases were searched for original research publications providing data capable of answering these questions: (i) Do vegans have lower-than-recommended levels of calcium/Vitamin D? (ii) Do vegans have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts? (iii) Are vegans at a greater risk for fractures than non-vegans? The findings gathered consistently support the hypothesis that vegans do have lower bone mineral density than their non-vegan counterparts. However, the evidence regarding calcium, Vitamin D and fracture incidence is inconclusive. More research is needed to definitively answer these questions and to address the effects of such deficiencies on the medical and socioeconomic aspects of life.

  10. The Role of Diasporas in the Current World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D. Loshkariov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's intention is to access the impact that diasporas have on world politics. The notion “diaspora” implies a transnational migrant community, which maintains material and emotional bonds with territory of origin and simultaneously adapts to limitations and possibilities of host society. The emotional component of a community entails psychosocial complex that includes the group solidarity and certain myths about the territory of origin. Taking into account the specifics of a given community, diasporas meet in general all the requirements of a non-state actor that have been elaborated in the current studies on the world politics. In particular, a diasporas exist independently and participates in the transnational interactions. Moreover, there are several situations which enhance diaspora’s ability to interfere. These situations may include the unsatisfactory status of the given community, migrants’ desire to improve certain political or economic conditions in the territory of origin, the prerequisites for changes in the relationships between the hostland and the homeland, urgent crises in the country of origin. In addition, diasporal influence depends on demographic and geographic characteristics of the particular community. Diasporas achieve their goals on global, regional and national levels mainly by influencing state’s institutions. However, some developments have been evolved that can facilitate a substantive diasporas’ involvement in the world political processes, involvement without dependence on state’s capabilities. Elite of the community plays a crucial role in the resource management. The elite presents “the controlling centre” that forges a strategy of action and makes transactions of resources. Stability within “the controlling centre” can be named as an indicator of diaspora’s ability to manage the potential available.

  11. Connecting the Canon to Current Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…

  12. New beginnings in Zulu literature | Mathonsi | Current Writing: Text ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay seeks to present and explore new works in Zulu literature. We consider what is innovative about these works in terms of the changes that have taken place in South Africa generally and in Zulu society in particular. Although we focus on Zulu literature, our observations will be found to have general applicability ...

  13. Current Overview of Mushroom Production in the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royse, Daniel J.; Baars, J.J.P.; Tan, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Edible, medicinal, and wild mushrooms are the three major components of the global mushroom industry. World production of cultivated, edible mushrooms has increased more than 30‐fold since 1978. China is the main producer of cultivated, edible mushrooms. Lentinus edodes is now the world's leading

  14. NATIONAL IMAGE OF THE WORLD AS AN ETHNOPOETICAL CATEGORY IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheshunova S. V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the usage of the term "national image of the world" in literary studies by analogy with the term "language picture of the world" used in linguistics, as well as specifies a range of components of national image of the world in Russian literature of the 19th—20th centuries. Examples from the novels "In the Forests" and "On the Hills" by Pavel Melnikov-Pechersky, the novel "Nanny from Moscow" by Ivan Shmelyov and especially the novel "The Red Wheel" by Alexander Solzhenitsyn are given to illustrate the key points of this article.

  15. Medical Consequences of Marijuana Use: A Review of Current Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Adam J.; Conley, James W.; Gordon, Joanne M.

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of legalization of marijuana for medicinal and recreational purposes, and the increase use of marijuana, healthcare providers will be increasingly confronted with marijuana users as patients in clinical environments. While there is vast literature regarding the societal and mental health harms associated with marijuana use, there is a paucity of reviews of the potential consequences of marijuana use on physical health or medical conditions. We examine the recent literature on ...

  16. Deep Reading: Building a Schematic Bridge across World Mythology and Multicultural Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Dale

    2002-01-01

    The study of mythology that passes on stories is cultural reproduction. By focusing primarily on classical Greek and Roman mythology, teachers handicap students' ability to enter into dialogue about more diverse literature, thus limiting their ability to live more fully in today's diverse, multicultural world. A bibliographic case study of the…

  17. Factors Affecting Nontraditional African American Students' Participation in Online World Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrills, J. Maria Sweeney

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how communication preferences, learning preferences, and perceptions about online learning affect nontraditional African American students' participation in online world literature courses at a historically Black university (HBCU) in the southeastern United States. An instrumental case study was…

  18. What Is Real-World Data? A Review of Definitions Based on Literature and Stakeholder Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makady, Amr; de Boer, Anthonius; Hillege, Hans; Klungel, Olaf; Goettsch, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite increasing recognition of the value of real-world data (RWD), consensus on the definition of RWD is lacking.  Objectives: To review definitions publicly available for RWD to shed light on similarities and differences between them.  Methods: A literature review and stakeholder

  19. Teaching About Women in Hispanic Literature: Current Methods and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Carol

    Awareness of a new and altered method of teaching literature, similar to that described by Adrienne Rich, grew from the experience of teaching a small introductory course in twentieth century Hispanic women writers to students with diverse language, cultural, and economic backgrounds. Although about half the students were native Spanish speakers,…

  20. Why are current world food prices so high? : a memo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.A.H.; Nowicki, P.L.; Meijl, van H.

    2008-01-01

    World agricultural prices are very volatile which is due to traditional characteristics of agricultural markets such as inelastic (short run) supply and demand curves. A combination of record low global inventory levels, weather induced supply side shocks, surging outside investor influence, record

  1. Current status and a short history of grey literature. Focusing on the international conference on grey literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    'Grey literature' is a loosely defined term whose application is rather complex, but it is also an important source of information for academic researchers. Today, the spread of the Internet has led to changes not only in the circulation but also in the role and definition of 'grey literature'. This article therefore presents a short history of the definition of 'grey literature', with central focus on topics discussed by the International Conference on Grey Literature. After this, the current status and future prospects of 'grey literature' in the digital society are described. Finally, the article introduces the JAEA Library's activities on 'grey literature', particularly the acquisition of proceedings and the editing and dissemination of the JAEA Reports (technical reports of JAEA). (author)

  2. Rethinking project management: A structured literature review with a critical look at the brave new world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a structured review of the rethinking project management (RPM) literature based on the classification and analysis of 74 contributions and in addition takes a critical look at this brave new world. Through the analysis, a total of 6 overarching categories emerged......: contextualization, social and political aspects, rethinking practice, complexity and uncertainty, actuality of projects and broader conceptualization. These categories cover a broad range of different contributions with diverse and alternative perspectives on project management. The early RPM literature dates back...

  3. Central Asia in a globalizing world: current trends and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Ziadullaev, Nabi

    2006-01-01

    On the threshold of the 21st century, the strategic importance of the new sovereign states of Central Asia, endowed with huge oil, gas, uranium, gold and other mineral reserves, sharply increased. The newly formed states sought to become independent from Russia and to develop political and economic contacts with other countries on a parity basis. In a short period, they established diplomatic relations with most countries of the world, became members of the United Nations and other internatio...

  4. Telehealth in the developing world: current status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott RE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Richard E Scott,1,2 Maurice Mars11Department of TeleHealth, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; 2NT Consulting - Global e-Health Inc., Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: In a setting of constant change and confusing terminology, telehealth continues to gain ground in both developed and developing countries within the overarching milieu of e-health. Evidence shows telehealth has been used in essentially all countries of the world, but is embedded in few. Uses and needs of telehealth vary between the developed and developing world; the latter struggles with both communicable diseases and noncommunicable diseases, and with very few resources. Common clinical applications include teleconsultation, telecardiology (transmission of ECGs, teleradiology, and teledermatology. Many telehealth projects exist throughout Latin America and the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa, but there is little published evidence and only isolated examples of sustained programs, although several sustained humanitarian networks exist. Application of mobile solutions (m-health is on the rise in many developing countries. Telehealth is still not integrated into existing health care systems globally. Reasons vary: lack of proven large-scale operations, poor evidence base, inadequate implementation, lack of attention to the “soft side” of implementation (readiness, change management, and many others. For the developing world, reasons can be more pragmatic, including limited resources, unreliable power, poor connectivity, and high cost for the poverty stricken – those most in need. Telehealth is poised to improve health and health care in the developing world, driven by both altruistic and profit motives. But to have the desired effect, telehealth must address very specific and evidence-based health “needs” of each facility, region, or country; the shortage of health workers and specialist services; and the required skills upgrading and training

  5. World chicken meat market – its development and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vladimirovna Belova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The global meat market and primarily the chicken meat market represents a very dynamically developing area. The objective of the present article is the analysis of the chicken meat market in the world in order to identify the basic development trends associated with the development of production of and trade in chicken meat, and also in order to identify the individual entities controlling the global chicken meat market. In methodological terms, the article analyzes the development of production of, consumption of and trade (export and import in chicken meat in the years 1961–2009. The main sources of data necessary for the processing of the individual analyses are the FAOSTAT and UN COMTRADE databases. The results of the conducted analysis show the following findings. World production of poultry meat increased from 7.5 million tons to more than 86 million tons. The global market reacted in a flexible manner, in which there was an increase in volumes of executed trade from 271 thousand tons/year in the year 1961 to more than 10.7 million tons/year in the year 2010. Further, the value of world trade in chicken meat within the analyzed period increased from approximately USD 169 million to approximately USD 16 billion. If we analyze the global chicken meat market, it may be stated that it is very concentrated. The analysis of the global market further shows that Brazil, the USA and China represent, in terms of global production, consumption and trade, the main driving force on the chicken meat market. These three countries have a share in global production of approximately 46%, their share in global consumption ranges at a level of over 40%. The share of these countries in global export ranges at a level exceeding 50%.

  6. Robotic Buccal Ureteroplasty: a Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorf, Benjamin; Lee, Ziho; Kidd, Laura; Kaplan, Joshua; Harris, Andrew; Metro, Michael; Liu, Jeffrey; Eun, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of the literature on buccal mucosal ureteroplasty for ureteral stricture disease, with a specific focus on the application of the robotic platform to buccal ureteroplasty. In our review, we highlight the results of Zhao et al. from the New York University School of Medicine Department of Urology, as well as our own results from Temple University Hospital. Zhao et al. published the first series of four patients who underwent robotic buccal ureteroplasty. Mean stricture length was 3.0 cm, and at a mean follow-up of 15 months, all repairs remained patent. We also describe our results in 10 patients who underwent robotic buccal ureteroplasty at Temple University Hospital. Median stricture length was 3.0 cm, and at a median follow-up of 5 months, all repairs remain patent. Robotic buccal ureteroplasty offers a promising option for repair of complex ureteral strictures.

  7. Current aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR HUGO LOPES DE ANDRADE

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder with variable prevalence, affecting about one in every 15 women worldwide. The diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome requires at least two of the following criteria: oligoovulation and/or anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical evidence of hyperandrogenism and morphology of polycystic ovaries. Women with PCOS appear to have a higher risk of developing metabolic disorders, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders. The aim of this article was to present a review of the literature by searching the databases Pubmed and Scielo, focusing on publications related to polycystic ovaries, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and therapeutic aspects, as well as its association with cardiovascular and arterial hypertensive disorders.

  8. The World Distribution of Income and Income Inequality: A Review of the Economics Literature*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas Heshmati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review covers a range of measures and methods frequently employed in the empirical analysis of global income inequality and global income distribution. Different determinant factors along with the quantification of their impacts and empirical results from different case studies are presented. A number of issues crucial to the study of global income inequality are also addressed. These are the concepts, measurement and decomposition of inequality, the world distribution of income and inequality measured at different levels of aggregation:global, international and intra-national. We analyze income at each of these levels, discuss the benefits and limitations of each approach and present empirical results found in the literature and compare them with those based on the World Income Inequality Database. Research on world income inequality supports increased awareness of the problem, its measurement and quantification, the identification of causal factors and policy measures that affect global income inequality.

  9. Aortopathy associated with congenital heart disease: A current literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Francois

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients born with congenital heart disease, dilatation of the aorta is a frequent feature at presentation and during follow-up after surgical intervention. This review provides an overview of the pathologies associated with aortopathy, and discusses the current knowledge on pathophysiology, evolution, and treatment guidelines of the aortic disease associated with congenital heart defects.

  10. Aortopathy associated with congenital heart disease: A current literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    In patients born with congenital heart disease, dilatation of the aorta is a frequent feature at presentation and during follow-up after surgical intervention. This review provides an overview of the pathologies associated with aortopathy, and discusses the current knowledge on pathophysiology, evolution, and treatment guidelines of the aortic disease associated with congenital heart defects

  11. [Current situation of the most frequent zoonosis in the world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Castro, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Zoonoses are at the present time more important than ever due to their magnitude and impact. The international trade in animals, products and sub products, as well as the intense travel of people around the world, represent risks of dissemination of infectious diseases, and are the reason for a new age of emerging and reemerging zoonotic diseases. Under these conditions, public health and animal health authorities are obliged to work together in order to get more efficient control programs. In this paper the actual situation of some important emerging and reemerging zoonoses is analyzed, including: anthrax, rabies, tuberculosis, brucellosis, cysticercosis, echinococcosis, hanta virus, Hendra and Nipah virus. Particular attention is given to leptospirosis, due to the fact that it is considered by WHO and OIE as the widest spread zoonotic disease in the world. Zoonoses caused by ingestion of animal food products are discussed. They are responsible for the death of almost 2.2 million people. Bacteria of genus salmonella and campylobacter are considered. Some recommendations are given for the control and prevention of zoonoses, emphasizing the "One Health" concept.

  12. Patellofemoral Arthroplasty: Current Concepts and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanu, Gabriele; Rosso, Federica; Bertolo, Corrado; Dettoni, Federico; Blonna, Davide; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Rossi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Patellofemoral osteoarthritis (PFOA) can be associated with anterior knee pain, stiffness, and functional impairment. Some authors report that PFOA affects approximately 9% of patients older than 40 years with a greater prevalence in females. Etiology of PFOA is multifactorial and is related to the presence of abnormal stresses at the PF joint due to knee- and patient-related factors. The need for a joint preserving treatment by isolated replacement of the injured compartment of the knee led to the development of PF arthroplasty (PFA). When a correct PF replacement is performed, PFA preserves physiologic tibiofemoral joint, thus allowing patients for a rapid recovery with a high satisfaction. The outcomes for PFA are quite variable with a trend toward good to excellent results, mainly owing to the improvement in surgical techniques, patient selection, and implant design. The development of the second generation of PFA improved the outcomes, which is attributed to the different trochlear designs. Recently, encouraging results have been provided by the association of PFA and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). In many studies, the main cause of PFA failure is progression of tibiofemoral OA. The aim of this brief review of literature is to summarize the clinical features, indications and contraindications, surgical techniques, complications, and outcomes of PFA. PMID:29270562

  13. Deaf Utopias? Reviewing the Sociocultural Literature on the World's "Martha's Vineyard Situations"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusters, Annelies

    2010-01-01

    Martha's Vineyard--an island off the East Coast of the United States--is known as a community where "everyone signed" for several hundred years, a utopia in the eyes of many Deaf people. Currently, there exist around the world a number of small similar "shared signing communities," for example, in Mexico, Bali, Israel, and…

  14. The current medical education system in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Nobuo; Suzuki, Toshiya; Tohda, Shuji

    2011-07-04

    To contribute to the innovation of the medical education system in Japan, we visited 35 medical schools and 5 institutes in 12 countries of North America, Europe, Australia and Asia in 2008-2010 and observed the education system. We met the deans, medical education committee and administration affairs and discussed about the desirable education system. We also observed the facilities of medical schools.Medical education system shows marked diversity in the world. There are three types of education course; non-graduate-entry program(non-GEP), graduate-entry program(GEP) and mixed program of non-GEP and GEP. Even in the same country, several types of medical schools coexist. Although the education methods are also various among medical schools, most of the medical schools have introduced tutorial system based on PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning to create excellent medical physicians. The medical education system is variable among countries depending on the social environment. Although the change in education program may not be necessary in Japan, we have to innovate education methods; clinical training by clinical clerkship must be made more developed to foster the training of the excellent clinical physicians, and tutorial education by PBL or TBL and simulation-based learning should be introduced more actively.

  15. Magnetic resonance neurography. Current perspectives and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Avneesh [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Radiology and Orthopedic Surgery and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Johns Hopkins University, Adjunct Faculty, Baltimore, MD (United States); Madhuranthakam, Ananth J. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Advanced Imaging Research Institute, Dallas, TX (United States); Andreisek, Gustav [University of Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls. Finally, the emerging utility of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging is discussed and future directions are highlighted. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic resonance neurography. Current perspectives and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, Avneesh; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Andreisek, Gustav

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic resonance neurography (also called MRN or MR neurography) refers to MR imaging dedicated to the peripheral nerves. It is a technique that enhances selective multiplanar visualisation of the peripheral nerve and pathology by encompassing a combination of two-dimensional, three-dimensional and diffusion imaging pulse sequences. Referring physicians who seek imaging techniques that can depict and diagnose peripheral nerve pathologies superior to conventional MR imaging are driving the demand for MRN. This article reviews the pathophysiology of peripheral nerves in common practice scenarios, technical considerations of MRN, current indications of MRN, normal and abnormal neuromuscular appearances, and imaging pitfalls. Finally, the emerging utility of diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging is discussed and future directions are highlighted. (orig.)

  17. Low-Frequency Pulsed Current Versus Kilohertz-Frequency Alternating Current: A Scoping Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Frasson, Viviane Bortoluzzi

    2018-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of low-frequency pulsed current versus kilohertz-frequency alternating current in terms of evoked force, discomfort level, current intensity, and muscle fatigability; to discuss the physiological mechanisms of each neuromuscular electrical stimulation type; and to determine if kilohertz-frequency alternating current is better than low-frequency pulsed current for clinical treatment. Articles were obtained from PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and SPORTSDiscus databases using the terms Russian current or kilohertz current or alternating current or pulsed current or Aussie current and torque or discomfort or fatigue or current intensity, and through citation tracking up to July 2017. Two independent reviewers selected studies comparing the use of the 2 neuromuscular electrical stimulation currents. Studies describing maximal current intensity tolerated and the main effects of the 2 different current types on discomfort, muscle force, and fatigability were independently reviewed. Data were systematized according to (1) methodology; (2) electrical current characteristics; and (3) outcomes on discomfort level, evoked force, current intensity, and muscle fatigability. The search revealed 15 articles comparing the 2 current types. Kilohertz-frequency alternated current generated equal or less force, similar discomfort, similar current intensity for maximal tolerated neuromuscular electrical stimulation, and more fatigue compared with low-frequency pulsed current. Similar submaximal levels of evoked force revealed higher discomfort and current intensity for kilohertz-frequency alternated current compared with low-frequency pulsed current. Available evidence does not support the idea that kilohertz-frequency alternated current is better than low-frequency pulsed current for strength training and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  18. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (II): Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Chang Joon; Ko, Won Il

    2007-06-01

    Japan needs to import around 80% of its energy requirements. In 1966, the first nuclear power plant began operation, nuclear energy has been a national strategic priority since 1973. Currently, 55 reactors provide around 30% of the country's electricity. Japanese energy policy has been conducted by the energy security and minimization of dependence of energy imports. The main factors regarding nuclear power are: - Continue to have nuclear power as a main factor of electricity production. - Recycle uranium and plutonium, and start domestic reprocessing from 2005. - Continue to develop fast breeder reactors to increase uranium utilization. - Promote the nuclear transparency to the public, emphasizing safety and non-proliferation. Also, the prospects of Asia's nuclear energy growth has been reviewed

  19. Partnership Studies: A New Methodological Approach to Literary Criticism in World Literatures, Languages and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Riem Natale

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes the innovative research undertaken by the Partnership Studies Group based at the University of Udine (Italy, which, since 1998, has been investigating the possible configurations of a partnership model within contemporary world literatures, language, and education. Partnership Studies draw upon non-binary and trans-disciplinary paradigms as propounded by Riane Eisler, and have been demonstrating their strength and potentialities as epistemological and methodological instruments of transcultural consciousness and awareness, capable of fostering harmonious understanding and relations of reciprocity rather than domination among different cultures.

  20. The Literature and Music as Expression of Feelings, with Repercussions on the World of Law.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Basto Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to relate through music and literature, aspects of life that we keep stored in our mind, in our memories, with repercussions on the world of law. Often trail up the path, often painful, to equate the succession of assets left by loved ones. However, in many cases we can not restore peace in the family emotionally weakened. Are not only economical interests thwarted that the law, through its legal and judicial apparatus does not reach. Unlike the literature, it can not interpret or even it ease the pain that you feel with the absence of those who left forever. The judicial or extra-judicial mediation is an alternative for conflict resolution, especially of familial nature. After all, how can the right fill the gap left on the table in the lunch hours? "That table is missing him and miss him it hurts me" (Sergio Bittencourt. After a passing time of persons dear to us, we just learned to live with longing, with the image that remains fresh in our minds, often through music, literature, the smells left on his emotional estate assets. The literature and the music are also ways to demonstrate political protest, they interpreting the degree of social vulnerability face to social challenges.

  1. Images of the Second World War in Austrian Literature after 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Müller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The author examines selected examples of post-1945 Austrian literature, asking what pictures of the Second World War they imparted and what role they played when, certainly from 1948 on, a certain image of history began to take shape in Austria against the background of the Cold War. This image involved a fade-out in particular of the racist nature of the war, and it had a collectively exonerating and distorting impact. Attention is paid to the stories and novels of former participants in the war and National Socialists, such as, for example, Erich Landgrebe, Erich Kern, Hans Gustl Kernmayr, Kurt Ziesel. A contrast is seen in the anti-war novel, Letzte Ausfahrt (Last Exit (1952 by the former soldier Herbert Zand, who turns against the dominant image of history, as well as in Ingeborg Bachmann's use of war memories as a topic. The texts are read as a reservoir of selective memory: on the one hand they are critical, individual counter-memories and on the other hand, they make a positive contribution to the formation of the aforesaid collective image. One may say that a war of perception was fought around the Second World War; it was undoubtedly won in the immediate post-war years by those literary works that legitimized or at least trivialized the war. The critical voices of Herbert Zand, Gerhard Fritsch, and Ingeborg Bachmann were unfortunately the quieter ones and were not particularly successful in their time.

  2. Avoiding and Treating Blindness From Fillers: A Review of the World Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleznay, Katie; Carruthers, Jean D A; Humphrey, Shannon; Jones, Derek

    2015-10-01

    As the popularity of soft tissue fillers increases, so do the reports of adverse events. The most serious complications are vascular in nature and include blindness. To review the cases of blindness after filler injection, to highlight key aspects of the vascular anatomy, and to discuss prevention and management strategies. A literature review was performed to identify all the cases of vision changes from filler in the world literature. Ninety-eight cases of vision changes from filler were identified. The sites that were high risk for complications were the glabella (38.8%), nasal region (25.5%), nasolabial fold (13.3%), and forehead (12.2%). Autologous fat (47.9%) was the most common filler type to cause this complication, followed by hyaluronic acid (23.5%). The most common symptoms were immediate vision loss and pain. Most cases of vision loss did not recover. Central nervous system complications were seen in 23.5% of the cases. No treatments were found to be consistently successful in treating blindness. Although the risk of blindness from fillers is rare, it is critical for injecting physicians to have a firm knowledge of the vascular anatomy and to understand key prevention and management strategies.

  3. Emerging optical techniques in advanced cystoscopy for bladder cancer diagnosis: A review of the current literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cauberg Evelyne, C. C.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; de Reijke, Theo M.

    2011-01-01

    The current standard for the diagnosis and followup of bladder cancer remains white light cystoscopy, despite its well-known limitations. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on three optical diagnostics that have been developed to improve the performance of white light

  4. International Literature Review on WHODAS II (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici, Stefano

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This review is a critical analysis regarding the study and utilization of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II as a basis for establishing specific criteria for evaluating relevant international scientific literature.The WHODAS II is an instrument developed by the World Health Organisation in order to assess behavioural limitations and restrictions related to an individual’s participation, independent from a medical diagnosis. This instrument was developed by the WHO’s Assessment, Classification and Epidemiology Group within the framework of the WHO/NIH Joint Project on Assessment and Classification of Disablements. To ascertain the international dissemination level of for WHODAS II’s utilization and, at the same time, analyse the studies regarding the psychometric validation of the WHODAS II translation and adaptation in other languages and geographical contests. Particularly, our goal is to highlight which psychometric features have been investigated, focusing on the factorial structure, the reliability, and the validity of this instrument. International literature was researched through the main data bases of indexed scientific production: the Cambridge Scientific Abstracts – CSA, PubMed, and Google Scholar, from 1990 through to December 2008.The following search terms were used:“whodas”, in the field query, plus “title” and “abstract”.The WHODAS II has been used in 54 studies, of which 51 articles are published in international journals, 2 conference abstracts, and one dissertation abstract. Nevertheless, only 7 articles are published in journals and conference proceedings regarding disability and rehabilitation. Others have been published in medical and psychiatric journals, with the aim of indentifying comorbidity correlations in clinical diagnosis concerning patients with mental illness. Just 8 out of 51 articles have studied the psychometric properties of the WHODAS II. The

  5. [Problems of work world and its impact on health. Current financial crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasina, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Health and work are complex processes. Besides, they are multiple considering the forms they take. These two processes are linked to each other and they are influenced by each other. According to this, it is possible to establish that work world is extremely complex and heterogeneous. In this world, "old" or traditional risks coexist with "modern risks", derived from the new models of work organization and the incorporation of new technologies. Unemployment, work relationships precariousness and work risks outsourcing are results of neoliberal strategies. Some negative results of health-sickness process derived from transformation in work world and current global economic crisis have been noticed in current work conditions. Finally, the need for reconstructing policies focusing on this situation derived from work world is suggested.

  6. The literature of Slovenian political emigrants in Argentina after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Uršula Geršak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War many political emigrants escaped from Slovenia to Argentina, among them leaders and soldiers of the home guard (belogardisti, sympathizers of the fascist forces, opponents of communism and their families, who were persecuted by the Yugoslav socialist regime. Among them were many intellectuals and artists, typically of right-wing political conviction and of Christian faith. In Argentina, they founded a hermetic community that kept the Slovenian language and traditional values, and hoped that one day they could return. People in the former Yugoslavia knew nothing about them or their activities or indeed about events after the war from the point of view of the Other. This paper reviews the historical circumstances that led to the emigration, the organization of the émigré community and their cultural life in Argentina, their literature, mainly novels and their ensconcement in another time and space, which is the time and space of memory and an idealized homeland. They were culturally very active and wrote mostly in Slovenian. It was not until the second generation and after Slovenia‘s independence when they published several works in Spanish. Mostly they wrote historical novels, memoirs, dealing with unhealed wounds years after the Second World War, exile, life in refugee camps, post-war killings. Many of the works are ideologically laden, moralistic and idealizing life in Slovenia before the War. Due to their close community, literary works are often subject to some kind of ‚(self censorship‘. Nevertheless, after Slovenia‘s independence, albeit with a delay, some of their works, because of their aesthetic and cultural values have become part of the national literatary canon and school textbooks.

  7. Current redistribution in resistor networks: Fat-tail statistics in regular and small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jörg; Bernasconi, Jakob

    2017-03-01

    The redistribution of electrical currents in resistor networks after single-bond failures is analyzed in terms of current-redistribution factors that are shown to depend only on the topology of the network and on the values of the bond resistances. We investigate the properties of these current-redistribution factors for regular network topologies (e.g., d-dimensional hypercubic lattices) as well as for small-world networks. In particular, we find that the statistics of the current redistribution factors exhibits a fat-tail behavior, which reflects the long-range nature of the current redistribution as determined by Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

  8. A Computing Environment to Support Repeatable Scientific Big Data Experimentation of World-Wide Scientific Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Kulesz, James J [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Kruse, Kara L [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    A principal tenant of the scientific method is that experiments must be repeatable and relies on ceteris paribus (i.e., all other things being equal). As a scientific community, involved in data sciences, we must investigate ways to establish an environment where experiments can be repeated. We can no longer allude to where the data comes from, we must add rigor to the data collection and management process from which our analysis is conducted. This paper describes a computing environment to support repeatable scientific big data experimentation of world-wide scientific literature, and recommends a system that is housed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to provide value to investigators from government agencies, academic institutions, and industry entities. The described computing environment also adheres to the recently instituted digital data management plan mandated by multiple US government agencies, which involves all stages of the digital data life cycle including capture, analysis, sharing, and preservation. It particularly focuses on the sharing and preservation of digital research data. The details of this computing environment are explained within the context of cloud services by the three layer classification of Software as a Service , Platform as a Service , and Infrastructure as a Service .

  9. Dementia in a retired world boxing champion: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, L A; Smith, G G; Reyes, P F

    2009-01-01

    Dementia in retired boxers, also referred to as "dementia pugilistica" (DP), is usually attributed to repeated concussive and subconcussive blows to the head. We report the case of a former world boxing champion whose progressive cognitive decline could be ascribed to DP, cerebral infarcts and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. This case demonstrates that dementia in retired boxers may be caused and/or exacerbated by etiologic factors other than DP. We correlated the clinical features with the histochemical and immunohistochemical changes observed on autopsy brain material from a retired boxer, reviewed the literature on boxing-related dementia, and compared our findings with previous reports on DP. Neuropathologic examination revealed numerous neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), rare neuritic plaques (NPs), multiple cerebral infarcts, fenestrated septum pellucidum, atrophic and gliotic mamillary bodies, and pale substantia nigra and locus ceruleus. Our neuropathologic data confirmed the notion that dementia in retired boxers could be due to several factors such as DP, multiple cerebral infarcts and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Our findings illustrate the need to comprehensively examine former boxers with dementia as well as carefully evaluate the neuropathologic changes that may cause or contribute to the patient's cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Such an approach is crucial in order to provide prompt and more definitive therapies.

  10. The current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilkilic, Cumali; Aydin, Hueseyin; Behcet, Rasim

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase in world energy demand, the depletion of conventional energy sources and the pollution caused by conventional fuels have increased the importance of developing new and renewable energy sources. Additionally, technological developments have resulted in increased energy demand for the entire world, including Turkey, especially for electrical energy. At present, wind energy is receiving considerable attention. This report focuses on the current status of wind energy in Turkey and in the world. An overview of wind energy in Turkey is presented, and its current status, application, support mechanisms and associated legislation in Turkey are described. Wind energy and its status in the world are also addressed. It can be concluded from this analysis that wind energy utilization in Turkey and throughout world has sharply increased. Turkey has an abundance of wind energy sources. - Research highlights: →The importance of wind energy utilization. →Wind energy status, potential, applications, legislations and supports in Turkey. →An overview of wind energy the world.

  11. The Use of Current Media in Literature and Composition at the Community College Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Jody

    Current media--films, videos, television programs, advertising in both print and television, and newspaper and magazine articles--can be successfully employed in college literature and composition classes, enhancing the learning environment by involving those students who might otherwise show disinterest. For example, a unit on pornography,…

  12. The Use of Virtual Worlds in Management Education: An Investigation of Current Practices in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Amarolinda Zanela; Freitas, Angilberto; Machado, Lisiane; da Silva Freitas, José Carlos, Jr.; Graziola, Paulo Gaspar; Schlemmer, Eliane

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, research on management education does not take into account the role of Information Technology as a key resource to support teaching and learning processes. In this article, the authors explore the current applications of Three Dimensional Virtual Worlds (3DVW) for Management education. The authors researched the educational…

  13. What Is Real-World Data? A Review of Definitions Based on Literature and Stakeholder Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makady, Amr; de Boer, Anthonius; Hillege, Hans; Klungel, Olaf; Goettsch, Wim

    Despite increasing recognition of the value of real-world data (RWD), consensus on the definition of RWD is lacking. To review definitions publicly available for RWD to shed light on similarities and differences between them. A literature review and stakeholder interviews were used to compile data from eight groups of stakeholders. Data from documents and interviews were subjected to coding analysis. Definitions identified were classified into four categories: 1) data collected in a non-randomized controlled trial setting, 2) data collected in a non-interventional/non-controlled setting, 3) data collected in a non-experimental setting, and 4) others (i.e., data that do not fit into the other three categories). The frequency of definitions identified per category was recorded. Fifty-three documents and 20 interviews were assessed. Thirty-eight definitions were identified: 20 out of 38 definitions (53%) were category 1 definitions, 9 (24%) were category 2 definitions, 5 (13%) were category 3 definitions, and 4 (11%) were category 4 definitions. Differences were identified between, and within, definition categories. For example, opinions differed on the aspects of intervention with which non-interventional/non-controlled settings should abide. No definitions were provided in two interviews or identified in 33 documents. Most of the definitions defined RWD as data collected in a non-randomized controlled trial setting. A considerable number of definitions, however, diverged from this concept. Moreover, a significant number of authors and stakeholders did not have an official, institutional definition for RWD. Persisting variability in stakeholder definitions of RWD may lead to disparities among different stakeholders when discussing RWD use in decision making. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The English Department in the Arab World Re-Visited: Language, Literature, or Translation? A Student's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharabsheh, Aladdin; Al-Azzam, Bakri; Obeidat, Marwan M.

    2009-01-01

    The remarkably prolonged controversial issue of which academic component among language, linguistics, literature and translation must be given the priority and take precedence over the other in the English departments in the Arab World during the college years has not only preoccupied a number of specialists and scholars in the field for a…

  15. What Is Real-World Data (RWD)? : A Review of Definitions Based on Literature and Stakeholder Interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makady, Amr; de Boer, Anthonius; Hillege, Hans; Klungel, Olaf; Goettsch, Wim

    Background: Despite increasing recognition of the value of real-world data (RWD), consensus on the definition of RWD is lacking. Objectives: To review definitions publicly available for RWD to shed light on similarities and differences between them. Methods: A literature review and stakeholder

  16. Arterial hypertension and gout: the current state of the problem (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmina A.P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An important aspect of the family doctor's work is the management of patients with comorbid pathology. Pathogenetic mechanisms of interrelation, as well as the bi-directionality of the association of arterial hypertension and gout are actively studied. By data analysis of literature, in many developed countries of the world there are shortcomings in the management of patients with gout at the primary stage. There is a need to improve the quality of management and prescription of combinations of basic therapy drugs for the treatment of patients with hypertension in combination with gout at the primary stage.

  17. How is depression experienced around the world? A systematic review of qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroz, E E; Ritchey, M; Bass, J K; Kohrt, B A; Augustinavicius, J; Michalopoulos, L; Burkey, M D; Bolton, P

    2017-06-01

    To date global research on depression has used assessment tools based on research and clinical experience drawn from Western populations (i.e., in North American, European and Australian). There may be features of depression in non-Western populations which are not captured in current diagnostic criteria or measurement tools, as well as criteria for depression that are not relevant in other regions. We investigated this possibility through a systematic review of qualitative studies of depression worldwide. Nine online databases were searched for records that used qualitative methods to study depression. Initial searches were conducted between August 2012 and December 2012; an updated search was repeated in June of 2015 to include relevant literature published between December 30, 2012 and May 30, 2015. No date limits were set for inclusion of articles. A total of 16,130 records were identified and 138 met full inclusion criteria. Included studies were published between 1976 and 2015. These 138 studies represented data on 170 different study populations (some reported on multiple samples) and 77 different nationalities/ethnicities. Variation in results by geographical region, gender, and study context were examined to determine the consistency of descriptions across populations. Fisher's exact tests were used to compare frequencies of features across region, gender and context. Seven of the 15 features with the highest relative frequency form part of the DSM-5 diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, many of the other features with relatively high frequencies across the studies are associated features in the DSM, but are not prioritized as diagnostic criteria and therefore not included in standard instruments. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria of problems with concentration and psychomotor agitation or slowing were infrequently mentioned. This research suggests that the DSM model and standard instruments currently based on the DSM may not adequately

  18. Cholesterol Point-of-Care Testing for Community Pharmacies: A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Lauren; Tran, Deanna

    2017-08-01

    To summarize the literature on cholesterol point-of-care tests (POCTs). This article would serve as a resource to assist community pharmacists in developing cholesterol point-of-care (POC) pharmacy services. A literature search was performed in MEDLINE Ovid, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database using the following medical subject headings (MeSH) terms: point-of-care test, cholesterol, blood chemical analysis, rapid testing, collaborative practice, community pharmacy, and ambulatory care. Additional resources including device manufacturer web sites were summarized to supplement the current literature. All human research articles, review articles, meta-analyses, and abstracts published in English through September 1, 2014, were considered. A total of 36 articles were applicable for review. Information was divided into the following categories to be summarized: devices, pharmacists' impact, and operational cost for the pharmacy. The current literature suggests that POCTs in community pharmacies assist with patient outcomes by providing screenings and referring patients with dyslipidemia for further evaluation. The majority of studies on cholesterol POC devices focused on accuracy, revealing the need for further studies to develop best practices and practice models with successful reimbursement. Accuracy, device specifications, required supplies, and patient preference should be considered when selecting a POC device for purchase.

  19. A World without Prisons: Teaching Confinement Literature and the Promise of Prison Abolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Marc Lamont

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author shows how "confinement literature" serves as a site of possibility for reimagining the role, purpose, and function of prisons in society. Confinement literature refers to any work of fiction or nonfiction that deals with the fundamental issue of human captivity. This article, like all of the authors'…

  20. The social world of Australian practice nurses and the influence of medical dominance: an analysis of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Hallinan, Christine

    2009-12-01

    In Australia, the number of practice nurses is growing at a rapid rate. On the nursing landscape, this group of nurses stand out because of their relationship with the Australian Government who both fund them, and concern themselves with their continuing professional development. This paper provides a construction of the social world of Australian practice nurses, identifying stakeholders in the business of practice nursing. Literature produced by the various social world segments is analysed for the influence of medical dominance on the role, image, power and politics of practice nurses.

  1. World petrochemical outlook: Is the current weakness a trend or an aberration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggett, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    While the focus of this conference is methanol, a review of the general petrochemical industry might be enlightening and valuable to understanding the methanol market. Methanol is certainly a commodity with similarities to hydrocarbons such as gasoline and similarities to base petrochemicals such as ethylene. Methanol stands with one foot in the fuels market via MTBE and the other in the chemicals business for acetic acid and formaldehyde, among many others. Is the world petrochemical market moving into a new trend of weak prices and profits or is the strong growth seen in 1994 and 1995 continuing and the current situation an aberration? In order to determine whether the current market is a trend or aberration, the author looks at issues that he believes caused the current situation and then considers where the world's economies and petrochemical markets are heading. The issues discussed are: unusually high price increase in a short period; inventory increase/decrease because of price changes; reduction in demand caused by high prices; increase in capacity caused by high prices; changes in growth of world economies; and political/economic issues in China

  2. The current status of proton therapy in the world, the European Union and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzicka, J.

    2011-01-01

    Proton therapy is considered to be very promising cancer treatment modality, and therefore many countries of the world are trying to (regardless of the high investment costs) to build their own atomic centre (or other proton centres if they operate already some). Proton therapy allows better control of therapeutic doses of radiation to which the patient is exposed. Proton irradiation of the tumor can kill more cancer cells while minimizing damage of healthy tissue. Currently there is about 33 facilities in operation in the world where proton therapy can be carried out. Proton therapy complex with new, highly sophisticated equipment is also being constructed in Slovakia - in The Central Military Hospital in Ruzomberok. The project is in its final stage of implementation. The paper describes the current status of proton therapy in the world, the European Union (EU) and Slovakia. In conclusion principally new Proton therapy unit complex built in Slovakia with similar facilities currently existing in EU countries (old 15 member states) is compared (especially from technical and medical aspects). (author)

  3. [The current and future organisational structure of the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo León, F; Ruiz Mercader, J; Sabater Sánchez, R; Rodríguez Ferri, E F; Crespo Azofra, L

    2003-12-01

    The authors analyse the organisational structure of the OIE (World organisation for animal health), highlighting the roles of the Central Bureau, the Specialist Commissions, Regional Commissions, working groups and ad hoc groups, Regional Representations, Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres. The paper also includes some suggestions as to how the OIE could work more closely with its 'customers', that is, the Member Countries. These suggestions are based on current theories of organisational flexibility, and take into account not only the current organisational structure of the OIE, but also the Strategic Plan and the Working Plan, which were adopted at the 69th General Session of the OIE International Committee in 2001.

  4. Loss of cultural world heritage and currently inhabited places to sea-level rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzeion, Ben; Levermann, Anders

    2014-01-01

    The world population is concentrated near the coasts, as are a large number of Cultural World Heritage sites, defined by the UNESCO. Using spatially explicit sea-level estimates for the next 2000 years and high-resolution topography data, we compute which current cultural heritage sites will be affected by sea-level rise at different levels of sustained future warming. As indicators for the pressure on future cultural heritage we estimate the percentage of each country’s area loss, and the percentage of current population living in regions that will be permanently below sea level, for different temperature levels. If the current global mean temperature was sustained for the next two millennia, about 6% (40 sites) of the UNESCO sites will be affected, and 0.7% of global land area will be below mean sea level. These numbers increase to 19% (136 sites) and 1.1% for a warming of 3 K. At this warming level, 3–12 countries will experience a loss of more than half of their current land surface, 25–36 countries lose at least 10% of their territory, and 7% of the global population currently lives in regions that will be below local sea level. Given the millennial scale lifetime of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, our results indicate that fundamental decisions with regard to mankind’s cultural heritage are required. (paper)

  5. Taxonomic Review of Classical and Current Literature on the Perennial American Family Forest Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Straka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in American forest policy has been the small forest ownership problem. Early in the twentieth century, it was called the farm forestry problem, later, the nonindustrial private forest problem, and today, the family forest problem. Family forest owners are thought to manage their lands in a suboptimal manner resulting in low forest productivity relative to other ownership groups. This can lead to future timber supply problems. The exact nature of the problem, especially its social and economic basis, was a common subject of early forestry research studies. This article includes many of the major nonindustrial private forest or family forest studies, from early to current, and classifies them both by themes used by other authors and categories that relate to major research areas in the current literature. A major focus of this literature deals with promoting management on family forest holdings and possible land management incentives and disincentives. Natural trends in family forest ownership, like parcelization, also impact upon forest management opportunities. By developing a taxonomy that classifies these studies by research objective, methodology, owner motivation, and problem definition, this article serves to organize the family forest literature in a manner that provides a temporal framework for better understanding the historical motivation for and development of family forest research in the United States.

  6. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal

    2009-10-01

    To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN). We searched the published English literature and the PubMed(()) for published series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy' (RPN) using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. The search yielded 15 major selected series of 'robotic partial nephrectomy'; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s), as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T(1)) renal neoplasm(s). It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.

  7. Compilation of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrant, M.M.; Ottinger, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents an overview of the features that affect the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings currently certified by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The report is based on a review of current literature on seals, closures, and leakage for radioactive material packagings. Federal regulations that relate to the sealing capability of radioactive material packagings, as well as basic equations for leakage calculations and some of the available leakage test procedures are presented. The factors which affect the sealing capability of a closure, including the properties of the sealing surfaces, the gasket material, the closure method and the contents are discussed in qualitative terms. Information on the general properties of both elastomer and metal gasket materials and some specific designs are presented. A summary of the seal material, closure method, and leakage tests for currently certified packagings with large diameter seals is provided. 18 figs., 9 tabs

  8. The Phenomenon of Financial Economics: Russia and the World Are in Current Global Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine P. Akinina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the current situation on the global financial arena, analyzing the chain of cause and effect of the origins of the economic crisis and providing its possible logical outcomes. We are trying to prove here that the way the world economic situation develops will lead to either further growth or stagnation of national economies and define their position in the global business, financial, and social spheres.

    We provide an analysis of the serious transformations financial economics have been undergoing at the end of the 20th and beginning of the 21st centuries. All these changes, such as the development of international fusions on financial markets, the creation of new financial instruments, products and services, and others, have been caused largely by (and also have led to significant events in the global political arena. However, regardless of the transformations, world leadership remains in the hands of US government and business and that of their closest partners, while those societies that are not willing to support the “Americanized” world order end up on the blacklist of the World Bank, the IMF, and other international financial institutions.

    Finally, the article provides our views of the possible ways of dealing with the global economic stagnation. We highlight the importance of the strong and careful supervision of any global as well as national financial activities, the education of the public on the issues of wise investments, and the dangers of living on credit.

  9. Postural Control Impairments in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Critical Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memari, Amir Hossein; Ghanouni, Parisa; Shayestehfar, Monir; Ghaheri, Banafsheh

    2014-01-01

    Context: Motor impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been frequently reported. In this review, we narrow our focus on postural control impairments to summarize current literature for patterns, underlying mechanisms, and determinants of posture in this population. Evidence Acquisition: A literature search was conducted through Medline, ISI web of Knowledge, Scopus and Google Scholar to include studies between 1992 and February 2013. Results: Individuals with ASD have problems in maintaining postural control in infancy that well persists into later years. However, the patterns and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Conclusions: Examining postural control as an endophenotype or early diagnostic marker of autism is a conceptual premise which should be considered in future investigations. At the end of the review, methodological recommendations on the assessment of postural control have also been provided. PMID:25520765

  10. Dutton, Davies, and Imaginative Virtual Worlds: The Current State of Evolutionary Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Carroll

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a commentary comparing the evolutionary perspectives of Denis Dutton’s The Art Instinct (2009 and Stephen Davies’s The Artful Species (2012. Their topics thus necessarily overlap, but their books have different purposes and a different feel. Davies’s book is an academic exercise. He has no real arguments or claims of his own. Dutton wishes to demonstrate that evolutionary psychology can provide a satisfying naturalistic explanation of aesthetic experience. Neither Davies nor Dutton fully succeeds in his ambition. Davies extends his scepticism well beyond a sensible account of the state of current knowledge about human evolution, and Dutton fails to recognize underlying theoretical differences in his main sources of theoretical inspiration. The limitations in these two works do not define the boundaries of current knowledge in evolutionary aesthetics. The most advanced and adequate concept in the evolutionary humanities is the idea that humans evolved the capacity to create imaginative virtual worlds and use those worlds to guide human behaviour. Both books being considered in this essay approach the idea of imaginative virtual worlds and almost grasp it. Before taking up that topic, the paper shall discuss two subsidiary issues: Dutton’s effort to incorporate sexual selection, and Davies’s sceptical negations about all evolutionary knowledge.

  11. Improving menstrual hygiene management in emergency contexts: literature review of current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLeeuwen, Crystal; Torondel, Belen

    2018-01-01

    Management of menstruation in contexts of humanitarian emergencies can be challenging. A lack of empirical research about effective interventions which improve menstrual hygiene management (MHM) among female populations in humanitarian emergencies and a lack of clarity about which sectors within a humanitarian response should deliver MHM interventions can both be attributable to the lack of clear guidance on design and delivery of culturally appropriate MHM intervention in settings of humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this review was to collate, summarize, and appraise existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the current scenario of MHM in emergency contexts in order to describe the breadth and depth of current policies, guidelines, empirical research, and humanitarian aid activities addressing populations' menstrual needs. A structured-search strategy was conducted for peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify studies, published reports, guidelines, and policy papers related to menstrual response in emergency humanitarian contexts. Of the 51 articles included in the review, 16 were peer-reviewed papers and 35 were gray literature. Most of the literature agreed that hardware interventions should focus on the supply of adequate material (not only absorbent material but also other supportive material) and adequate sanitation facilities, with access to water and private space for washing, changing, drying, and disposing menstrual materials. Software interventions should focus on education in the usage of materials to manage menstruation hygienically and education about the female body's biological processes. There was clear agreement that the needs of the target population should be assessed before designing any intervention. Although there is insight about which factors should be included in an effective menstrual hygiene intervention, there is insufficient empirical evidence to establish which interventions are most effective in

  12. Current State of Development of Electricity-Generating Technologies: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Lenzen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity is perhaps the most versatile energy carrier in modern economies, and it is therefore fundamentally linked to human and economic development. Electricity growth has outpaced that of any other fuel, leading to ever-increasing shares in the overall mix. This trend is expected to continue throughout the following decades, as large—especially rural—segments of the world population in developing countries start to climb the “energy ladder” and become connected to power grids. Electricity therefore deserves particular attention with regard to its contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, which is reflected in the ongoing development of low-carbon technologies for power generation. The focus of this updated review of electricity-generating technologies is twofold: (a to provide more technical information than is usually found in global assessments on critical technical aspects, such as variability of wind power, and (b to capture the most recent findings from the international literature. This report covers eight technologies. Seven of these are generating technologies: hydro-, nuclear, wind, photovoltaic, concentrating solar, geothermal and biomass power. The remaining technology is carbon capture and storage. This selection is fairly representative for technologies that are important in terms of their potential capacity to contribute to a low-carbon world economy.

  13. Working and caring for a child with chronic illness: A review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, A M; Newcombe, P A; Haslam, D M

    2018-05-01

    Advances in medical knowledge have contributed to the increase in the number of children living with some form of long-term chronic illness or condition. As a consequence of these advancements, treatments that are more accessible and easier to administer, usually within a child's home, have been developed. However, this may mean that parents take on greater treatment responsibility and require extra time and energy to meet these tasks, additional to other responsibilities. This review paper aims to summarize and critique existing literature on working parents of children with a chronic condition, by focusing on patterns of parent work, the challenges experienced, and the flow-on consequences to well-being. Employing a narrative, meta-synthesis of the current literature, this review identified 3 key themes related to working parents of children with chronic illness. The paper first identifies that although employment is less common, these parents are not necessarily nonworking. Second, these parents experience numerous challenges including balancing work and family, time constraints, stress, and feelings of "doing it all." And third, the above challenges lead to additional impacts on parental quality of life. This review summarizes what is currently known about work patterns, challenges, and consequences in parents of children with chronic conditions. Employment is clearly impacted for these parents. Although workplace challenges have been extensively researched, other challenges (eg, personal and family) and impacts on their well-being have not. This review discusses the present standing of this research. It outlines the strengths and limitations of the current literature, makes recommendations for future research, and suggests theoretical and practical implications of the further findings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effect of physical activity on mood - a review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Łakomski

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of physical activity on human health has many benefits. Equally important in improving physical fitness and normalizing cardiovascular system seems to be the impact of exercise on mood of patients. Physical activity improves well-being, satisfaction and self-confidence. However, the condition of effective therapeutic intervention is due to its regularity, since only systematic exercises allow to maintain the beneficial effects of physical activity. Otherwise, the results achieved are only temporary. This article aims to review the current literature and show the most important aspects of motion therapy in improving the psychophysical condition of patients.

  15. Factors influencing purchase intent in virtual worlds : a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleize, Danielle; Antheunis, Marjolijn

    2016-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have identified several factors that seem to play a role in determining purchase intent in virtual worlds; three-dimensional online environments in which users interact while represented by their avatars. So far however, a clear overview of these factors is lacking, and

  16. Seeking Accurate Cultural Representation: Mahjong, World War II, and Ethnic Chinese in Multicultural Youth Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Minjie

    2009-01-01

    The sheer amount of American children's and young adult literature, boasting an outpouring of 5,000 titles every year, often amazes a person who is new to this field. Not only is a large proportion of these books of high printing and binding quality, but, at a quick glance, among them is also a pleasant diversity of genre, format, targeted age…

  17. Reading for a Better World: Teaching for Social Responsibility with Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Teaching for social responsibility should be one of the vital aims of our schools. Young adult literature offers an authentic, meaningful, and critical way to teach for social responsibility. This article offers an overview of the different elements of social responsibility and some young adult novels and graphic novels that could be used to teach…

  18. Seven Reasons for the Highly Effective Teacher to Use Literature to Teach World Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Augusta; Gonzalez, Talia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents seven of the author's most compelling reasons for highly effective teachers to use literature in the classroom. They are: (1) As a hook to stimulate students; (2) To present culturally relevant material; (3) To thematically connect with different units and other subjects; (4) To improve reading comprehension and vocabulary;…

  19. Current literature and imaging techniques of aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, P.J.; Burke, C.J.; Saha, S.; Moonim, M.; George, M.; Desai, A.; Houghton, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) are a recognized complication of metal-on-metal bearing hip prostheses. There is an impending concern regarding the future investigation and management of patients who have received such implants. The current literature is discussed, and the current guidelines for management of these patients in the UK are reviewed. The various imaging techniques available, such as computed tomography, metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound are discussed and evaluated with respect to the assessment of patients with suspected ALVAL. The histopathological findings are discussed with images of the tissue changes provided. Images of the radiological findings are also provided for all general radiological methods. ALVAL and its radiological presentation is an important issue that unfortunately may become a significant clinical problem

  20. Robot-assisted pyeloplasty: review of the current literature, technique and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Iqbal; Hemal, Ashok K

    2010-04-01

    To review the global select data on the current technique, perioperative outcome and literature on the robot-assisted pyeloplasty (RAP). The published English literature (PubMed) was extensively searched using the key words; robot, robot-assisted pyeloplasty, laparoscopy, laparoscopic pyeloplasty and ureteropelvic junction obstruction. The selected studies were then reviewed, tracked and analyzed in order to determine the current role, outcome and status of robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. The search yielded about 25 published series on RAP comprising about 740 cases with a mean operative time, estimated blood loss, crossing vessel prevalence, hospital stay,perioperative complication rate and follow up duration of 194 min, 50 mL, 47%, 2.3 days, 6% and 14.9 months respectively. The initial peri-operative results and intermediate follow up of cases of repair of the ureteropelvic junction obstruction with robot-assisted pyeloplasty appear to be favorable and comparable to that of open pyeloplasty, while long term outcome data is still awaited. The da Vinci surgical robotic system is a promising surgical armamentarium in the hands of the modern day urologist for the minimally invasive definitive surgical management of both primary and secondary ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

  1. Current status of food irradiation in the world. Trend in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2002-01-01

    This review describes the current status of food irradiation in the world and particularly, its trends in Asia, based on the report of the economic scale investigation on the irradiation in United States and Japan (2001) and on the information of 12th International Meeting on Radiation Processing in France in 2001 and on personal communications. International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation promotes its activities of irradiation globally and 46 countries are affiliated. Food irradiation is allowed in 52 countries. In 1999, 257,000 t of food is irradiated in the world, of which 1/3 is due to spice. The facilities for the irradiation have such sources as 60 Co and 137 Cs γ-rays, electron beam of <10 MeV and X-ray with <5 MeV. Detection methods of irradiated foods are summarized by the project of Analytical Detection Methods for Irradiation Treatment of Foods. The US is the most advanced country in the irradiation and, in Japan, only irradiation of potato is permitted. The detailed present status is also described of Bangladesh, China (the irradiation is most widely conducted in the world), India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam. Recently Australia and New Zealand have started the irradiation. (K.H.)

  2. Robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy: Current review of the technique and literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To visit the operative technique and to review the current published English literature on the technique, and outcomes following robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (RPN. Materials and Methods: We searched the published English literature and the PubMed (TM for published series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′ (RPN using the keywords; robot, robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic surgery. Results: The search yielded 15 major selected series of ′robotic partial nephrectomy′; these were reviewed, tracked and analysed in order to determine the current status and role of RPN in the management of early renal neoplasm(s, as a minimally invasive surgical alternative to open partial nephrectomy. A review of the initial peri-operative outcome of the 350 cases of select series of RPN reported in published English literature revealed a mean operating time, warm ischemia time, estimated blood loss and hospital stay, of 191 minutes, 25 minutes, 162 ml and 2.95 days, respectively. The overall computed mean complication rate of RPN in the present select series was about 7.4%. Conclusions: RPN is a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive surgical alternative to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for early stage (T 1 renal neoplasm(s. It has acceptable initial renal functional outcomes without the increased risk of major complications in experienced hands. Prospective randomised, controlled, comparative clinical trials with laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN are the need of the day. While the initial oncological outcomes of RPN appear to be favourable, long-term data is awaited.

  3. Surgical management of adolescent varicocele: Systematic review of the world literature

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    Omer A Raheem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, idiopathic varicocele is the most commonly diagnosed pre-pubertal andrological condition. The clinical presentation of varicocele may vary from dull and dragging unilateral or bilateral testicular pain to visible varicose veins lying over the hemiscrotum. Over the last decade, significant strides were made in managing symptomatic varicoceles, particularly minimal invasive procedures and surgeries. We sought to review the published literature in a systematic manner to gain an overview and streamline the presentations and main treatment modalities.

  4. An overview of biomedical literature search on the World Wide Web in the third millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prince; Goel, Roshni; Jain, Chandni; Kumar, Ashish; Parashar, Abhishek; Gond, Ajay Ratan

    2012-06-01

    Complete access to the existing pool of biomedical literature and the ability to "hit" upon the exact information of the relevant specialty are becoming essential elements of academic and clinical expertise. With the rapid expansion of the literature database, it is almost impossible to keep up to date with every innovation. Using the Internet, however, most people can freely access this literature at any time, from almost anywhere. This paper highlights the use of the Internet in obtaining valuable biomedical research information, which is mostly available from journals, databases, textbooks and e-journals in the form of web pages, text materials, images, and so on. The authors present an overview of web-based resources for biomedical researchers, providing information about Internet search engines (e.g., Google), web-based bibliographic databases (e.g., PubMed, IndMed) and how to use them, and other online biomedical resources that can assist clinicians in reaching well-informed clinical decisions.

  5. The Regularities of the Cyclical Development of the World Economy in the Current Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revyakin Georgy V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying and describing the key tendencies in the cyclical development of the world economy. In order to allocate the cyclical component in the dynamics of the world-wide GDP growth, a time series decomposition was performed using the Hodrick-Prescott filter and the relationship of economic cycles to the dynamics of different indicators of economic conditions was analyzed. The persistent relationship between inflation, unemployment and the current phase of the economic cycle have been identified and described. The truth of the Phillips curve has been empirically demonstrated: existence of an inverse relationship between the rate of inflation and the level of unemployment. A new classification of branches of economy has been provided according to their susceptibility to the current phase of the economic cycle. According to this criterion, all branches of economy have been divided into the cyclical and the non-cyclical sectors. A hypothesis that there is a direct relationship between the average annual growth rate of GDP and the structure of the national economy has been suggested.

  6. Improving menstrual hygiene management in emergency contexts: literature review of current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanLeeuwen C

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Crystal VanLeeuwen, Belen Torondel Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK Abstract: Management of menstruation in contexts of humanitarian emergencies can be challenging. A lack of empirical research about effective interventions which improve menstrual hygiene management (MHM among female populations in humanitarian emergencies and a lack of clarity about which sectors within a humanitarian response should deliver MHM interventions can both be attributable to the lack of clear guidance on design and delivery of culturally appropriate MHM intervention in settings of humanitarian emergencies. The objective of this review was to collate, summarize, and appraise existing peer-reviewed and gray literature that describes the current scenario of MHM in emergency contexts in order to describe the breadth and depth of current policies, guidelines, empirical research, and humanitarian aid activities addressing populations’ menstrual needs. A structured-search strategy was conducted for peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify studies, published reports, guidelines, and policy papers related to menstrual response in emergency humanitarian contexts. Of the 51 articles included in the review, 16 were peer-reviewed papers and 35 were gray literature. Most of the literature agreed that hardware interventions should focus on the supply of adequate material (not only absorbent material but also other supportive material and adequate sanitation facilities, with access to water and private space for washing, changing, drying, and disposing menstrual materials. Software interventions should focus on education in the usage of materials to manage menstruation hygienically and education about the female body’s biological processes. There was clear agreement that the needs of the target population should be assessed before designing any intervention. Although there is insight about which factors should be

  7. The prevalence of neck pain in the world population: a systematic critical review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of neck pain (NP) in the world population and to identify areas of methodological variation between studies. A systematic search was conducted in five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, OSH-ROM, and PsycINFO), followed by a screening...... prevalence, Scandinavian countries reported more NP than the rest of Europe and Asia. Prevalence estimates were not affected by age, quality score, sample size, response rate, and different anatomical definitions of NP. NP is a common symptom in the population. As expected, the prevalence increases...

  8. A narrativa que constitui mundos: a literatura de Mircea Eliade (The narrative that constitutes worlds: the literature of Mircea Eliade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Chaves de Souza

    2012-03-01

    and texts and articles about the author, we conclude that the existential literature has a fundamental function in Eliade’s life and it is an efficient tool to investigate and present to the world the meanings about the human being within the world. Key words: Mircea Eliade. Literature. Narrative. World. Constitution.

  9. Electricity generation in the world and Ukraine: Current status and future developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Zvorykin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation is the key factor for advances in industry, agriculture, technology and the level of living. Also, strong power industry with diverse energy sources is very important for country independence. In general, electricity can be generated from: 1 non-renewable energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear; and 2 renewable energy sources such as hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal, solar, and wave power. However, the major energy sources for electricity generation in the world are: 1 thermal power – primarily using coal (~40% and secondarily natural gas (~23%; 2 “large” hydro power plants (~17% and 3 nuclear power from various reactor designs (~11%. The rest of the energy sources for electricity generation is from using oil (~4% and renewable sources such as biomass, wind, geothermal and solar (~5%, which have just visible impact in selected countries. In addition, energy sources, such as wind and solar, and some others, like tidal and wave-power, are intermittent from depending on Mother Nature. And cannot be used alone for industrial electricity generation. Nuclear power in Ukraine is the most important source of electricity generation in the country. Currently, Ukrainian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs generate about 45.5% of the total electricity followed with coal generation ‒ 38%, gas generation 9.6% and the rest is based on renewable sources, mainly on hydro power plants – 5.9%. Nuclear-power industry is based on four NPPs (15 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs including the largest one in Europe ‒ Zaporizhzhya NPP with about 6,000 MWel gross installed capacity. Two of these 15 reactors have been built and put into operation in 70-s, ten in 80-s, one in 90-s and just two in 2004. Therefore, based on an analysis of the world power reactors in terms of their maximum years of operation (currently, the oldest reactors are ~45-year old several projections have been made for future of the nuclear-power industry

  10. Current status of nuclear power in the United States and around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKlveen, J W

    1990-09-01

    Nuclear energy's share of the world electricity market has been growing over the past 35 years. In 1989, eight generating units entered commercial operation abroad and three new units were licensed in the U.S. In early 1990, Mexico became the 26th country to produce electricity from nuclear power. Currently the 426 operating reactors supply one sixth of the world's total electrical capacity. Fourteen countries have now operated nuclear plants for 20 or more years. Since 1980, France has been the leader in the use of nuclear power and currently generates three quarters of its electricity from 54 nuclear plants. The U.S. has 112 nuclear plants, the largest number of any country in the world. These plants satisfy almost 20 percent of U.S. electrical energy requirements. Last year Three Mile Island, the would-be icon for everything that is wrong with the nuclear industry was rated as the most efficient nuclear plant in the world. The worldwide trend toward acceptance of nuclear is improving slightly, but many political and societal issues need to be resolved. Whereas recent polls indicate that a majority of the people realize nuclear must be a major contributor to the energy mix of the future, many are reluctant to support the technology until the issue of waste disposal has been resolved. Fears of another Chernobyl, lack of capital, and a new anti-nuclear campaign by Greenpeace will keep the nuclear debate alive in many countries. Additional stumbling blocks in the U.S. include the need to develop a new generation of improved reactor designs which emphasize passive safety features, standardized designs and a stream-lined federal licensing process. Nuclear power is really not dead. Even environmentalists are starting to give it another look. A nuclear renaissance will occur in the U.S. How soon or under what conditions remain to be seen. The next crisis in the U.S. will not be a shortage of energy, rather a shortage of electricity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. The Use of Medicinal Marijuana for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal marijuana has already been legalized in over 23 states with more considering legalization. Despite the trend toward legalization, to date, there has been no systematic review of the existing literature for the efficacy of medicinal marijuana for many of the conditions for which it is proposed to treat. This study seeks to understand the current literature regarding the use of medicinal marijuana in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Data Sources: PubMed and PsycINFO databases were searched until April 2014 for articles outlining outcomes of case files, control studies, and observational studies regarding the efficacy of medicinal marijuana in treating PTSD. Various combinations of the following search terms were used: marijuana, medicinal marijuana, cannabis, cannabinoid, PTSD, efficacy, trial, and neurobiology. Study Selection: Full text of each article was reviewed, and those directly addressing the question of efficacy of medicinal marijuana on PTSD symptomatology were included. Data were extracted from a total of 46 articles. Results: Analysis revealed that most reports are correlational and observational in basis with a notable lack of randomized, controlled studies. Many of the published studies suggest a decrease in PTSD symptoms with marijuana use. Though the directionality of cannabis use and PTSD could not be fully differentiated at this time, there appears to also be a correlation between PTSD and problematic cannabis use. Despite this finding, there is a growing amount of neurobiological evidence and animal studies suggesting potential neurologically based reasons for the reported efficacy. Conclusions: Posttraumatic stress disorder is 1 of the approved conditions for medicinal marijuana in some states. While the literature to date is suggestive of a potential decrease in PTSD symptomatology with the use of medicinal marijuana, there is a notable lack of large-scale trials, making any final conclusions difficult

  12. Micropapillary bladder cancer: current treatment patterns and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Daniel L; Flaig, Thomas W; Hansel, Donna E; Milowsky, Matthew I; Grubb, Robert L; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat A; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Koppie, Theresa M; McConkey, David J; Dinney, Colin P; Hoffman, Vanessa A; Droller, Michael J; Messing, Edward; Kamat, Ashish M

    2014-08-01

    No guidelines exist for the management of micropapillary bladder cancer (MPBC) and most reports of this variant of urothelial carcinoma are case series comprising small numbers of patients. We sought to determine current practice patterns for MPBC using a survey sent to the Society of Urologic Oncology (SUO) and to present those results in the setting of a comprehensive review of the existing literature. A survey developed by the Translational Science Working Group of the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network-sponsored Think Tank meeting was distributed to members of the SUO. The results from 118 respondents were analyzed and presented with a literature review. Most survey respondents were urologists, with 80% considering bladder cancer their primary area of interest. Although 78% of the respondents reported a dedicated genitourinary pathologist at their institution, there were discrepant opinions on how a pathologic diagnosis of MPBC is determined as well as variability on the proportion of MPBC that is clinically significant. Among them, 78% treat MPBC differently than conventional urothelial carcinoma, with 81% reporting that they would treat cT1 MPBC with upfront radical cystectomy. However, the respondents had split opinions regarding the sensitivity of MPBC to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, which affected utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive disease. The management of MPBC is diverse among members of the SUO. Although most favors early cystectomy for cT1 MPBC, there is no consensus on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive MPBC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mindfulness interventions in the workplace: A critique of the current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Stephanie D; Tuckey, Michelle R

    2017-04-01

    There is growing research interest regarding the significance of mindfulness in the workplace. Within this body of knowledge, research investigating the effects of mindfulness interventions on employee health and well-being has strong practical implications for organizations. A sound understanding of the current state of the workplace mindfulness intervention literature will help inform the suitability of these interventions within the workplace domain, and how to improve the conduct and communication of intervention-oriented research. Accordingly, in this article, we systematically review 40 published articles of mindfulness interventions in the workplace to identify ways in which these interventions could be improved, and how to overcome methodological concerns that threaten study validity. Studies selected for review were published peer-reviewed, primary empirical research studies written in English, with a focus on a workplace mindfulness intervention. We discuss a range of issues evident within this body of literature, including conceptualizations of mindfulness; the adaptation of protocols to work settings; internal validity in relation to random allocation and control conditions; the use of manipulation checks; attrition, adherence, acceptability, and maintenance of interventions; utilizing objective cognitive measures; examining organizational and well-being outcomes; and establishing boundary conditions. Overall, this review provides a resource to inform scholars to advance this line of inquiry and practitioners who are considering implementing a mindfulness intervention for employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy: current state of the field, review of the literature and clinical trial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A S; Fox, C K; Rudser, K D; Gross, A C; Ryder, J R

    2016-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of medications recently approved to treat obesity among adults, few agents have been formally evaluated in children or adolescents for this indication. Moreover, there is a paucity of guidance in the literature addressing best practices with regard to pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trial design, and only general recommendations have been offered by regulatory agencies on this topic. The purposes of this article are to (1) offer a background of the current state of the field of pediatric obesity medicine, (2) provide a brief review of the literature summarizing pediatric obesity pharmacotherapy clinical trials, and (3) highlight and discuss some of the unique aspects that should be considered when designing and conducting high-quality clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of obesity medications in children and adolescents. Suggestions are offered in the areas of target population and eligibility criteria, clinical trial end-point selection, trial duration, implementation of lifestyle modification therapy and recruitment and retention of participants. Efforts should be made to design and conduct trials appropriately to ensure that high-quality evidence is generated on the safety and efficacy of various medications used to treat pediatric obesity.

  15. The current state of Lean implementation in health care: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poksinska, Bozena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the current state of implementation of Lean production in health care. The study focuses on the definition of Lean in health care and implementation process, barriers, challenges, enablers, and outcomes of implementing Lean production methods in health care. A comprehensive search of the literature concerning the implementation of Lean production in health care was used to generate a synthesis of the literature around the chosen research questions. Lean production in health care is mostly used as a process improvement approach and focuses on 3 main areas: (1) defining value from the patient point of view, (2) mapping value streams, and (3) eliminating waste in an attempt to create continuous flow. Value stream mapping is the most frequently applied Lean tool in health care. The usual implementation steps include conducting Lean training, initiating pilot projects, and implementing improvements using interdisciplinary teams. One of the barriers is lack of educators and consultants who have their roots in the health care sector and can provide support by sharing experience and giving examples from real-life applications of Lean in health care. The enablers of Lean in health care seem not to be different from the enablers of any other change initiative. The outcomes can be divided into 2 broad areas: the performance of the health care system and the development of employees and work environment.

  16. Short fiber-reinforced composite restorations: A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Gargoum, Ausama; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo

    2018-02-25

    A newly-recommended method for restoring large cavities is the biomimetic approach of using short fiber-reinforced composite (SFRC) as dentine-replacing material. The aim of the current review was to present an overview of SFRC and to give the clinician a detailed understanding of this new material and treatment strategy based on available-literature review. A thorough literature search was done up to December 2017. The range of relevant publications was surveyed using PubMed and Google Scholar. From the search results, articles related to our search terms were only considered. The search terms used were "short fiber-reinforced composite", "everX posterior", and "fiber-reinforced composite restorations". Of the assessed articles selected (N = 70), most were laboratory-based research with various test specimen designs prepared according to the ISO standard or with extracted teeth; only four articles were clinical reports. A common finding was that by combining the SFRC as a bulk base with conventional composite, the load-bearing capacity and failure mode of the material combination were improved, as compared to plain conventional composite restoration. In the reviewed studies, the biomimetic restoration technique of using SFRC showed promising characteristics, and therefore, might be recommended as an alternative treatment option for large cavities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Heather A; Jung, Leah; Murphy, Tanya K

    2011-10-01

    Tic disorders impact quality of life, but when they are co-occurring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, the combined impact takes a toll on psychosocial functioning and adds another layer of complexity to treatment approaches. A review of the current literature supports evidence of a unique relationship between comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and tic disorders, emphasizing the intricate phenotype and impairment associated with these co-occurring conditions. The complexity of these symptoms requires careful diagnosis and appropriate treatment as determined by the level of impairment and can include pharmacotherapy, behavioral interventions, or a combination of therapies. To achieve the greatest benefits in improving quality of life and eliminating further comorbidity, an ideal treatment plan would include a comprehensive evaluation as well as a hierarchical treatment approach involving education of the child, family, and teachers; careful medication management; and cognitive and behavioral training.

  18. Current Debates on Variability in Child Welfare Decision-Making: A Selected Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Keddell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers selected drivers of decision variability in child welfare decision-making and explores current debates in relation to these drivers. Covering the related influences of national orientation, risk and responsibility, inequality and poverty, evidence-based practice, constructions of abuse and its causes, domestic violence and cognitive processes, it discusses the literature in regards to how each of these influences decision variability. It situates these debates in relation to the ethical issue of variability and the equity issues that variability raises. I propose that despite the ecological complexity that drives decision variability, that improving internal (within-country decision consistency is still a valid goal. It may be that the use of annotated case examples, kind learning systems, and continued commitments to the social justice issues of inequality and individualisation can contribute to this goal.

  19. Cervical spondylolysis: three cases and a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Poong Gee; Yoon, Do Heum; Shin, Hyun Chul; Kim, Keung Nyun; Yi, Seong; Lee, Dong Yup; Yang, Moon Sul; Ha, Yoon

    2010-02-01

    Case report. To describe a rare case of cervical spondylolysis with an adjacent secondary dysplastic change, and to review the current literature regarding cervical spondylolysis. Three patients presented with minor trauma history and radiographical C6 level spondylolysis. Cervical spines were analyzed with plain radiography, multidetector computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. In all 3 patients, plain radiographs revealed a bilateral cleft of the C6 articular mass. The patients presented with long-term minimal discomfort of the posterior neck. In 2 patients, a trauma event increased the pain and produced neurologic deficits. In addition, an adjacent dysplastic change was present on imaging studying in 2 of the patients, 1 of whom also presented with a cord signal change above the spondylolytic level. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of cases of spondylolysis are important. In addition, surgical plans for cervical spondylolysis should be considered if the adjacent levels are unstable or fragile.

  20. Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis Syndrome: Current Literature Review with a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Demirtaş

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodic Fever, Aphthous Stomatitis, Pharyngitis and Cervical Adenitis syndrome (PFAPA is a frequently seen, important medical condition, which must be kept in mind in periodic fever etiology. Although its etiology is not clearly understood, autoimmune etiology is suspected due to response to steroids. There is no specific test for the diagnosis of disease. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and physical examination. Although medical treatment is the first choice for the management of the disease, tonsillectomy take over in treatment options for termination of attacks and permanent results. We have presented a patient that was performed tonsillectomy in our clinic for frequent attacks despite recurrent medical therapy with diagnosis of PFAPA with review of current literature.

  1. Hypertrophic pachymeningitis: Current criteria for diagnosis and differentiation (Clinical case and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Mendelevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a 44-year-old male patient with an about 6-year history of hypertrophic pachymeningitis. The major clinical symptoms were characterized by headache, exophthalmos, and blindness in one eye. The data for differential diagnosis of the disease are given. The current literature on the clinical manifestations of hypertrophic pachymeningitis, its differential diagnosis, and the results of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is reviewed. Diagnostic difficulties at the stage of a clinical observation are due to the nonspecificity of neurological manifestations and the need for a comprehensive examination to detect a somatic disease. MRI can diagnose the disease-specific phenomenon of damage to the meninges, which calls for further careful differentiation. Clinicians must be familiar with alternative differential diagnosis, as a rapid specific therapeutic approach will help avoid long-term or irreversible neurological complications.

  2. Historical Overview to Farm Accounting Literature in Turkey and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KILLI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector has always maintained its importance due to meet the food needs of human population, providing inputs to other sectors, creation of value added and employment. In spite of its relative importance in the economy of many countries and its growing interrelationships with other sectors, agriculture sector has not received much attention from accounting researchers and practitioners until publication of IAS 41:Agriculture. Considering the historical development of agricultural accounting, especially in Europe the work done in the UK, Germany and Switzerland is seen as an example for other European and world countries. In this study, aimed to examine the historical development process of the study on agricultural accounting in Europe, the United States and Turkey. .

  3. Social Network Analysis on Lean Production and World Class Manufacturing: how are associated in the literature?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Antiqueira Goes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to conduct a Systematic Literature Review (SLR to identify how to configure the publications that relate WCM and Lean Production issues. Therefore, a search on the Brazilian metasearch portal called CAPES Periodicals was conducted focusing on articles of the last five years. They were identified after screening and filtering a total of 42 articles, which were analyzed. The construction of the network analysis has identified that the issues are still in an initial phase of association, with the characteristic part of decentralizes networks, with some points of greatest association. It was also identified that the theme Lean Production has greater representation between the two topics due its higher use by authors.

  4. Geomagnetically Induced Currents Around the World During the 17 March 2015 Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Pradipta, R.; Weygand, J. M.; Piersanti, M.; Pulkkinen, Antti Aleksi; Moldwin, M. B.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2016-01-01

    Geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) represent a significant space weather issue for power grid and pipeline infrastructure, particularly during severe geomagnetic storms. In this study, magnetometer data collected from around the world are analyzed to investigate the GICs caused by the 2015 St. Patricks Day storm. While significant GIC activity in the high-latitude regions due to storm time substorm activity is shown for this event, enhanced GIC activity was also measured at two equatorial stations in the American and Southeast Asian sectors. This equatorial GIC activity is closely examined, and it is shown that it is present both during the arrival of the interplanetary shock at the storm sudden commencement (SSC) in Southeast Asia and during the main phase of the storm approximately 10 h later in South America. The SSC caused magnetic field variations at the equator in Southeast Asia that were twice the magnitude of those observed only a few degrees to the north, strongly indicating that the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) played a significant role. The large equatorial magnetic field variations measured in South America are also examined, and the coincident solar wind data are used to investigate the causes of the sudden changes in the EEJ approximately 10 h into the storm. From this analysis it is concluded that sudden magnetopause current increases due to increases in the solarwind dynamic pressure, and the sudden changes in the resultant magnetospheric and ionospheric current systems, are the primary drivers of equatorial GICs.

  5. An Investigation of the Variety and Complexity of Statistical Methods Used in Current Internal Medicine Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Roshni; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines require internal medicine residents to develop skills in the interpretation of medical literature and to understand the principles of research. A necessary component is the ability to understand the statistical methods used and their results, material that is not an in-depth focus of most medical school curricula and residency programs. Given the breadth and depth of the current medical literature and an increasing emphasis on complex, sophisticated statistical analyses, the statistical foundation and education necessary for residents are uncertain. We reviewed the statistical methods and terms used in 49 articles discussed at the journal club in the Department of Internal Medicine residency program at Texas Tech University between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. We collected information on the study type and on the statistical methods used for summarizing and comparing samples, determining the relations between independent variables and dependent variables, and estimating models. We then identified the typical statistics education level at which each term or method is learned. A total of 14 articles came from the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 11 from the New England Journal of Medicine, 6 from the Annals of Internal Medicine, 5 from the Journal of the American Medical Association, and 13 from other journals. Twenty reported randomized controlled trials. Summary statistics included mean values (39 articles), category counts (38), and medians (28). Group comparisons were based on t tests (14 articles), χ2 tests (21), and nonparametric ranking tests (10). The relations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed with simple regression (6 articles), multivariate regression (11), and logistic regression (8). Nine studies reported odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and seven analyzed test performance using sensitivity and specificity calculations

  6. The Impact of Sarcopenia on Survival and Complications in Surgical Oncology: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOGLEKAR, SAVITA; NAU, PETER N.; MEZHIR, JAMES J.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the subclinical loss of skeletal muscle and strength and has been extensively studied in both the cancer and surgical literature. Specifically, sarcopenia has gained significant recognition as an important prognostic factor for both complications and survival in cancer patients. Herein, we review the current literature to date highlighting the specific impact of sarcopenia in patients undergoing oncologic procedures. PMID:26310812

  7. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  8. Intercultural Communicative Competence: A Brief Review of Current Thinking and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Kermani Kojour

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to review current thinking and understanding of the issue of Intercultural Communicative Competence (ICC especially in foreign language education contexts. There are serious stances on the part of scholars in foreign language contexts, which must be given some serious thinking and consideration in order to uncover the hidden agendas regarding ICC. After all, it seems still unclear in English as a Foreign Language (EFL contexts whether to try to improve the way of thinking regarding the perspective of current intercultural communicative competence, whether there should be a separation of the cultural values from the target language and only integrate language learners’ native culture with the target language. Given the development of technology and globalization, what is the right thing to do? This is a serious issue which needs much attention and contemplation by the interested scholars. By presenting the existing gaps in the literature, the paper maneuvers on the challenging notes on benefiting from culture in English Language Teaching (ELT and, on the other hand, dividing language and culture by merely elaborating on the communicative aspect of language learning and teaching. The study puts the audience into question that although recent views are focusing on taking English as an international means of communication, there exist serious beliefs regarding the separation of language and culture, which demands more thinking and probably serious revisions.

  9. Mindfulness-Based Mobile Applications: Literature Review and Analysis of Current Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Objective Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. Methods We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. Results The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria–a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of “walking meditation,” and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools

  10. Mindfulness-based mobile applications: literature review and analysis of current features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Inmaculada; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; García-Campayo, Javier

    2013-11-01

    Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine. The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases. Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications (MBMAs) is scarce. Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs. We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. The literature search resulted in 11 eligible matches, two of which completely met our selection criteria-a pilot study designed to evaluate the feasibility of a MBMA to train the practice of "walking meditation," and an exploratory study of an application consisting of mood reporting scales and mindfulness-based mobile therapies. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs. Of these, 8% (4/50) did not work, thus we only gathered information about language, downloads, or prices. The most common operating system was Android. Of the analyzed apps, 30% (15/50) have both a free and paid version. MBMAs were devoted to daily meditation practice (27/46, 59%), mindfulness training (6/46, 13%), assessments or tests (5/46, 11%), attention focus (4/46, 9%), and mixed objectives (4/46, 9%). We found 108 different resources, of which the most used were reminders, alarms, or bells (21/108, 19.4%), statistics tools (17/108, 15.7%), audio tracks (15/108, 13

  11. Perioperative antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing endoscopic urologic surgery: where do we stand with current literature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naspro, Richard; Lerner, Lori B; Rossini, Roberta; Manica, Michele; Woo, Henry H; Calopedos, Ross J; Cracco, Cecilia M; Scoffone, Cesare M; Herrmann, Thomas R; de la Rosette, Jean J; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; DA Pozzo, Luigi F

    2018-04-01

    The number of patients on chronic anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy requiring endoscopic urological surgery is increasing worldwide. Therefore, there is a strong demand to standardize the perioperative treatment of this cohort of patients, both from a surgical and cardiological point of view, balancing the risks of bleeding versus thrombosis, and the important possible clinical and medical legal repercussions therein. Although literature is scarce and the quality of evidence quite low, in line with other surgical specialties, guidelines and recommendations for the management of urological patients have begun to emerge. The aim of this review is to analyze current available literature and evidence on the most common endoscopic procedures performed in this high-risk group of patients, focusing on the perioperative management. In particular, to analyze the most frequently performed endoscopic procedures for the treatment of benign prostate enlargement (transurethral resection of the prostate, Thulium, Holmium and greenlight laser prostatectomy), bladder cancer (transurethral resection of the bladder), upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, and nephrolithiasis. Despite the lack of randomized studies, regardless of individual patient considerations, studies would support continuation of acetylsalicylic acid, which is recommended by cardiologists, in patients with intermediate/high risk of coronary thrombosis. In contrast, multiple studies found that bridging with light weight molecular weight heparin can potentially lead to more bleeding than continuation of the anticoagulant(s) and antiplatelet therapy, and caution with bridging is advised. All urologists should familiarize themselves with emerging guidelines and recommendations, and always be prepared to discuss specific cases or scenarios in a dedicated multidisciplinary team.

  12. A study of current world telecommunications and a projection of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, Costas

    1992-09-01

    Telecommunications today are important factors in economic and social progress. The last decades of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st have been characterized as the Information Age. Telecommunications, the movement of information through distances, is absolutely critical to the economic and military survival of nations. This thesis is an attempt to predict the future of telecommunications, by studying and analyzing the past and present. First it examines the meaning of telecommunications today and some basics of information transmission. The current status of telecommunications is then presented, by examining the regional profiles as they are divided by the International Telecommunications Union. A number of statistical studies are given, which present a thorough picture of current world telecommunications. In an effort to predict future industry trends, the competition among the three largest telecommunications markets, U.S.A., Japan and the European Community, is also considered by looking at their present telecommunications industry, the efforts they make to improve their technology, and their plans for future investment. Finally, some major technological trends including BISDN, the use of fiber technology in the communications loop, and the use of solitons are examined. The new Metropolitan Area Network Protocol, FDDI-2 is also reviewed.

  13. Retail sector distribution chains for malaria treatment in the developing world: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Kara G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Methods Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. Results A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Conclusions Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for

  14. Retail sector distribution chains for malaria treatment in the developing world: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patouillard, Edith; Hanson, Kara G; Goodman, Catherine A

    2010-02-11

    In many low-income countries, the retail sector plays an important role in the treatment of malaria and is increasingly being considered as a channel for improving medicine availability. Retailers are the last link in a distribution chain and their supply sources are likely to have an important influence on the availability, quality and price of malaria treatment. This article presents the findings of a systematic literature review on the retail sector distribution chain for malaria treatment in low and middle-income countries. Publication databases were searched using key terms relevant to the distribution chain serving all types of anti-malarial retailers. Organizations involved in malaria treatment and distribution chain related activities were contacted to identify unpublished studies. A total of 32 references distributed across 12 developing countries were identified. The distribution chain had a pyramid shape with numerous suppliers at the bottom and fewer at the top. The chain supplying rural and less-formal outlets was made of more levels than that serving urban and more formal outlets. Wholesale markets tended to be relatively concentrated, especially at the top of the chain where few importers accounted for most of the anti-malarial volumes sold. Wholesale price mark-ups varied across chain levels, ranging from 27% to 99% at the top of the chain, 8% at intermediate level (one study only) and 2% to 67% at the level supplying retailers directly. Retail mark-ups tended to be higher, and varied across outlet types, ranging from 3% to 566% in pharmacies, 29% to 669% in drug shops and 100% to 233% in general shops. Information on pricing determinants was very limited. Evidence on the distribution chain for retail sector malaria treatment was mainly descriptive and lacked representative data on a national scale. These are important limitations in the advent of the Affordable Medicine Facility for Malaria, which aims to increase consumer access to artemisinin

  15. Current Status of the MOOC Movement in the World and Reaction of the Turkish Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Hakan Aydin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript intends to elaborate the current status of MOOC movement in the world and to reveal the results of a survey study in which the Turkish higher education institutions’ reactions to this movement was investigated. The survey was actually a part of a larger survey study that, as a deliverable of the EU funded HOME project, was conducted to contribute to the literature by providing an insight about European perspectives on MOOCs, to gain a better understanding of the strategic reasons why a higher education institution is or isn’t involved in MOOCs, and to compare these reasons with the results of similar studies in U.S. After a brief background and history of MOOC movement, following sections of the manuscript present the details (methodology and results of the survey study on the Turkish HE institutions’ strategies regarding adaptation of MOOCs. The final part of the manuscript consists of discussions and conclusions drawn in the light of the results of the study.

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review of Scientific Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Santacroce, Rita; Cinosi, Eduardo; Carlucci, Maria; Marini, Stefano; Acciavatti, Tiziano; di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2017-09-01

    New treatment options such as noninvasive brain stimulation have been recently explored in the field of substance use disorders (SUDs), including transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In light of this, we have performed a review of the scientific literature to assess efficacy and technical and methodological issues resulting from applying tDCS to the field of SUDs. Our analysis highlighted the following selection criteria: clinical studies on tDCS and SUDs (alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine). Study selection, data analysis, and reporting were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Exclusion criteria were as follows: clinical studies about tDCS among behavioral addiction; review and didactic articles; physiopathological studies; and case reports. Eighteen scientific papers were selected out of 48 articles. Among these, 16 studied the efficacy of tDCS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and 8 suggested the efficacy of tDCS in reducing substance craving. In light of these data, it is premature to conclude that tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a very efficient technique in reducing craving. Small sample size, different stimulation protocols, and study duration were the main limitations. However, the efficacy of tDCS in treating SUDs requires further investigation.

  17. Gender trends in dental practice patterns. A review of current U.S. literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, T A

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews three recent reports of national gender trends in dental practice patterns. Although the three independent cross-sectional studies were conducted at different points in time, used different sampling strategies, and used similar but independent survey instruments, findings were consistent across studies. In summary: Women dentists are less likely to be married and have fewer children. Women are more likely to assume child rearing and household responsibilities. Women are less likely to be practice owners. Women worked slightly fewer hours per week and weeks per year, and were more likely to take a leave of absence for illness or child rearing. However, women dentists demonstrate a far greater professional work commitment than was previously reported in the literature. Women earn significantly less income from the practice of dentistry, even after controlling for age, practice ownership, hours worked per week, and other personal characteristics. The most current "Gender Wage Gap" estimates range from 57.7% for specialists to 75.4% for general practitioners (8). delta.

  18. Thin Versus Thick Description: Analyzing Representations of People and Their Life Worlds in the Literature of Communication Sciences and Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A; Devanga, Suma; Mosier, Hillary

    2015-11-01

    Evidence-based practice relies on clinicians to translate research evidence for individual clients. This study, the initial phase of a broader research project, examines the textual resources of such translations by analyzing how people with acquired cognitive-communication disorders (ACCD) and their life worlds have been represented in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD) research articles. Using textual analysis, we completed a categorical analysis of 6,059 articles published between 1936 and 2012, coding for genre, population, and any evidence of thick representations of people and their life worlds, and a discourse analysis of representations used in 56 ACCD research articles, identifying thin and thick representations in 4 domains (derived from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health) and across article sections. The categorical analysis identified a higher percentage of ACCD articles with some evidence of thick representation (30%) compared with all CSD articles (12%) sampled. However, discourse analysis of ACCD research articles found that thick representations were quite limited; 34/56 articles had thin representational profiles, 19/56 had mixed profiles, and 3/56 had thick profiles. These findings document the dominance of thin representations in the CSD literature, which we suggest makes translational work more difficult. How clinicians translate such evidence will be addressed in the next research phase, an interview study of speech-language pathologists.

  19. Micro worlds versus boundary objects in group model building; evidence from the literature on problem definition and model conceptulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagonel, Aldo A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Engineering & Analysis; Andersen, David F. [University in Albany, NY (United States). The Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy

    2007-03-01

    Based upon participant observation in group model building and content analysis of the system dynamics literature, we postulate that modeling efforts have a dual nature. On one hand, the modeling process aims to create a useful representation of a real-world system. This must be done, however, while aligning the clients’ mental models around a shared view of the system. There is significant overlap and confusion between these two goals and how they play out on a practical level. This research clarifies these distinctions by establishing an ideal-type dichotomy. To highlight the differences, we created two straw men: “micro world” characterizes a model that represents reality and “boundary object” represents a socially negotiated model. Using this framework, the literature was examined, revealing evidence for several competing views on problem definition and model conceptualization. The results are summarized in the text of this article, substantiated with strikingly polarized citations, often from the same authors. We also introduce hypotheses for the duality across the remaining phases of the modeling process. Finally, understanding and appreciation of the differences between these ideal types can promote constructive debate on their balance in system dynamics theory and practice.

  20. World-record current in the MgB2 superconductor

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    In the framework of the High-Luminosity LHC project, experts from the CERN Superconductors team recently obtained a world-record current of 20 kA at 24 K in an electrical transmission line consisting of two 20-metre long cables made of Magnesium Diboride (MgB2) superconductor. This result makes the use of such technology a viable solution for long-distance power transportation.   The 20-metre long electrical transmission line containing the two 20 kA MgB2 cables. “The test is an important step in the development of cold electrical power transmission systems based on the use of MgB2,” says Amalia Ballarino, head of the Superconductors and Superconducting Devices section in the Magnet, Superconductors and Cryostat group of the Technology Department, and initiator of this project. “The cables and associated technologies were designed, developed and tested at CERN. The superconducting wire is the result of a long R&D effort that started ...

  1. A review of current strategy for rabies prevention and control in the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneela Garg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The control of Rabies, a zoonotic viral disease is a major public challenge in several developing countries. Current approaches for rabies control are overwhelmingly directed towards provision of effective post exposure prophylaxis (PEP to animal bite victims. The enormous costs involved in rabies prophylaxis is an important factor precluding its universal application in all animal bite victims especially in those residing in resource constrained settings. The intradermal route of administration has been shown to be cost effective except in peripheral regions with fewer animal bite cases. Nevertheless, rabies control program with their expected emphasis on human rabies prophylaxis have neglected canine vaccination. The feasibility of canine rabies vaccination depends primarily upon allocation of resources through political commitment and effective public private partnerships. However, in large parts of the world including India formal dog ownership constitutes a small minority of the overall canine population while state funded canine vaccination drives often fail to impress policy makers who struggle to maintain budgets for adequate coverage of rabies PEP for animal bite victims. The key to rabies control may therefore rest upon a one health approach with development of newer vaccine technology which is cost effective for vaccination in both, man and animal.

  2. Primary tonsillar lymphomas according to the new World Health Organization classification: to report 87 cases and literature review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadianpanah, Mohammad; Daneshbod, Yahya; Ramzi, Mani; Hamidizadeh, Nasrin; Dehghani, Seyed Javad; Bidouei, Farzad; Khademi, Bijan; Ahmadloo, Niloofar; Ansari, Mansour; Omidvari, Shapour; Mosalaei, Ahmad; Dehghani, Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    The present study aimed to define the natural history, World Health Organization (WHO) classification, prognostic factors, and treatment outcome of 87 patients with primary lymphoma of the palatine tonsil and literature review and analysis. Between 1990 and March 2008, 87 consecutive patients diagnosed with primary lymphoid malignancy of the palatine tonsil. All pathologic specimens were reviewed and reclassified according to the recent WHO classification. To investigate the association of tonsillar lymphomas with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), in situ hybridization was performed for 24 tonsillar lymphomas (23 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBC) and one classic Hodgkin's disease) and ten normal tonsils as control group. In literature review, we found 26 major related series including 1,602 patients with primary tonsillar lymphoma. The median age of our patients was 52 years (range 11-86 years). There were 39 women and 48 men with a median follow-up of 67 months for living patients. The vast majority (95%) of patients had B-cell phenotype. DLBC was the most frequent histology. In situ hybridization revealed none of 23 DLBC to be positive for EBV. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 78.9% and 86%, respectively. In the literature review and by analyzing the data collection from 26 major reported series, the median age was 55 years and male/female ratio was 1.3:1. Intermediate grade tumors consisted of 72% of all tonsillar lymphomas and B-cell lymphomas constituted 82% of all cell immunophenotypes. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 61% and 67%, respectively. The vast majority of tonsillar lymphomas are of B-cell origin and with intermediate to high-grade histology. These neoplasms tend to present in early stage disease and to have favorable outcome. WHO classification predicts more accurately treatment outcome of patients with tonsillar lymphoma. The association of DLBC in the palatine tonsil with EBV infection is infrequent.

  3. Precipitation response to the current ENSO variability in a warming world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfils, C.; Santer, B. D.; Phillips, T. J.; Marvel, K.; Leung, L.

    2013-12-01

    The major triggers of past and recent droughts include large modes of variability, such as ENSO, as well as specific and persistent patterns of sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTAs; Hoerling and Kumar, 2003, Shin et al. 2010, Schubert et al. 2009). However, alternative drought initiators are also anticipated in response to increasing greenhouse gases, potentially changing the relative contribution of ocean variability as drought initiator. They include the intensification of the current zonal wet-dry patterns (the thermodynamic mechanism, Held and Soden, 2006), a latitudinal redistribution of global precipitation (the dynamical mechanism, Seager et al. 2007, Seidel et al. 2008, Scheff and Frierson 2008) and a reduction of local soil moisture and precipitation recycling (the land-atmosphere argument). Our ultimate goal is to investigate whether the relative contribution of those mechanisms change over time in response to global warming. In this study, we first perform an EOF analysis of the 1900-1999 time series of observed global SST field and identify a simple ENSO-like (ENSOL) mode of SST variability. We show that this mode is well spatially and temporally correlated with observed worldwide regional precipitation and drought variability. We then develop concise metrics to examine the fidelity with which the CMIP5 coupled global climate models (CGCMs) capture this particular ENSO-like mode in the current climate, and their ability to replicate the observed teleconnections with precipitation. Based on the CMIP5 model projections of future climate change, we finally analyze the potential temporal variations in ENSOL to be anticipated under further global warming, as well as their associated teleconnections with precipitation (pattern, amplitude, and total response). Overall, our approach allows us to determine what will be the effect of the current ENSO-like variability (i.e., as measured with instrumental observations) on precipitation in a warming world. This

  4. Social Work Literature Searching: Current Issues with Databases and Online Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Tony; Taylor, Brian; McColgan, Mary; McQuilkan, Janice

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the performance of a range of search facilities; and to illustrate the execution of a comprehensive literature search for qualitative evidence in social work. Context: Developments in literature search methods and comparisons of search facilities help facilitate access to the best available evidence for social workers.…

  5. Diversity Management Interventions and Organizational Performance: A Synthesis of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ellen Foster; Dreachslin, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature focused on diversity management and its implications for career experiences and perceptions, team dynamics, customer service, and other dimensions of organizational performance, a significant gap remains. To address the gap, this article reviews the managing diversity literature published between January 2000…

  6. Energy planning and management Current situation in the World, Turkey and ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onaygil, Sermin

    2006-01-01

    efficiency measures applied in the end-use sectors such as, industrial processes, heating and electrical home appliances. When energy intensity values of some countries are compared, it can be easily seen that Turkey, having the energy intensity of 0.38, consumes more energy than Japan having the value of 0.09, US with that of 0.25, world mean as 0.29 and even if Greece, Turkeys neighbor, as 0.20. Since Turkey is in the pre-accession period for being a member to European Union (EU), the harmonization with the EU legislation is carried out in every sector negotiated together with EU, including energy. The purposes of EU energy policy can be summarized as to improve competitiveness, energy supply security, energy efficiency, market share of renewable energy sources and to contribute protection of the environment. In each progress report prepared by EU for Turkey, it is stated that in order to harmonize with the related EU legislation and to decrease the energy intensity, Turkey should enact a framework energy efficiency law. Considering this suggestion, Draft Law on Energy Efficiency was prepared by taking the opinions of all related government and private sector representatives and it is waiting for ratification in Turkish Grand National Assembly. It is indicated that world energy consumption shall increase twice in 2050 as compared to 2005 while it is required to decrease this consumption to half for protecting the current climate of the world. Therefore, in order to prevent the adverse effects of climate change by means of economical measures, energy must be used 4 times efficient than it is used today. Within this framework, the major and inevitable measure is stated as the rational use of energy by each country considering their national situations including energy, economy and environment points of view. Generally, such studies are conducted by neutral and institutional organizations like Russian Energy Efficiency Center, Energy Conservation Center of Japan and Ukraine

  7. Types and Severity of Medication Errors in Iran; a Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Mansouri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Medication error (ME is the most common single preventable cause of adverse drug events which negatively affects patient safety. ME prevalence is a valuable safety indicator in healthcare system. Inadequate studies on ME, shortage of high-quality studies and wide variations in estimations from developing countries including Iran, decreases the reliability of ME evaluations. In order to clarify the status of MEs, we aimed to review current available literature on this subject from Iran. We searched Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCOHOST and also Persian databases (IranMedex, and SID up to October 2012 to find studies on adults and children about prescription, transcription, dispensing, and administration errors. Two authors independently selected and one of them reviewed and extracted data for types, definitions and severity of MEs. The results were classified based on different stages of drug delivery process. Eighteen articles (11 Persian and 7 English were included in our review. All study designs were cross-sectional and conducted in hospital settings. Nursing staff and students were the most frequent populations under observation (12 studies; 66.7%. Most of studies did not report the overall frequency of MEs aside from ME types. Most of studies (15; 83.3% reported prevalence of administration errors between 14.3%-70.0%. Prescribing error prevalence ranged from 29.8%-47.8%. The prevalence of dispensing and transcribing errors were from 11.3%-33.6% and 10.0%-51.8% respectively. We did not find any follow up or repeated studies. Only three studies reported findings on severity of MEs. The most reported types of and the highest percentages for any type of ME in Iran were administration errors. Studying ME in Iran is a new area considering the duration and number of publications. Wide ranges of estimations for MEs in different stages may be because of the poor quality of studies with diversity in definitions, methods, and populations

  8. Radiology Physician Extenders: A Literature Review of the History and Current Roles of Physician Extenders in Medical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Vicki L; Flanagan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the literature review was to assess the origins of radiology physician extenders and examine the current roles found in the literature of advanced practice physician extenders within medical imaging. Twenty-six articles relating to physician assistants (PAs), nurse practitioners (NPs), radiologist assistants (RAs), and nuclear medicine advanced associates (NMAAs) were reviewed to discern similarities and differences in history, scope of practice, and roles in the medical imaging field. The literature showed PAs and NPs are working mostly in interventional radiology. PAs, NPs, and RAs perform similar tasks in radiology, including history and physicals, evaluation and management, preprocedure work-up, obtaining informed consent, initial observations/reports, and post-procedure follow-up. NPs and PAs perform a variety of procedures but most commonly vascular access, paracentesis, and thoracentesis. RAs perform gastrointestinal, genitourinary, nonvascular invasive fluoroscopy procedures, and vascular access procedures. The review revealed NMAAs are working in an advanced role, but no specific performances of procedures was found in the literature, only suggested tasks and clinical competencies. PAs, NPs, and RAs are currently the three main midlevel providers used in medical imaging. These midlevel providers are being used in a variety of ways to increase the efficiency of the radiologist and provide diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures to patients. NMAAs are being used in medical imaging but little literature is available on current roles in clinical practice. More research is needed to assess the exact procedures and duties being performed by these medical imaging physician extenders.

  9. Globalisation as the Carrier of the Current Changes in the Modern World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lončar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of the globalization process, meaning of the term globalization and influences that globalization has on world economy, politics and human community in general. It makes the point that globalization has negative and positive aspects, but it certainly brings big changes. The developed part of the world uses very well global conditions, in the same time playing the role of the main carrier of the globalization processes. With the development of informatics and communication technology world is becoming much smaller so that connection between two subjects in different parts of the world is made in a few minutes. Creation of economic and politic integrations is also one of the causes and consequences of globalization.

  10. Postoperative Adverse Events Inconsistently Improved by the World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist: A Systematic Literature Review of 25 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Elzerie; McKenna, Chloe; Bartlett, Lynne; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Ho, Yik-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) has been widely implemented in an effort to decrease surgical adverse events. This systematic literature review examined the effects of the SSC on postoperative outcomes. The review included 25 studies: two randomised controlled trials, 13 prospective and ten retrospective cohort trials. A meta-analysis was not conducted as combining observational studies of heterogeneous quality may be highly biased. The quality of the studies was largely suboptimal; only four studies had a concurrent control group, many studies were underpowered to examine specific postoperative outcomes and teamwork-training initiatives were often combined with the implementation of the checklist, confounding the results. The effects of the checklist were largely inconsistent. Postoperative complications were examined in 20 studies; complication rates significantly decreased in ten and increased in one. Eighteen studies examined postoperative mortality. Rates significantly decreased in four and increased in one. Postoperative mortality rates were not significantly decreased in any studies in developed nations, whereas they were significantly decreased in 75 % of studies conducted in developing nations. The checklist may be associated with a decrease in surgical adverse events and this effect seems to be greater in developing nations. With the observed incongruence between specific postoperative outcomes and the overall poor study designs, it is possible that many of the positive changes associated with the use of the checklist were due to temporal changes, confounding factors and publication bias.

  11. Isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery. Review of the world literature and guidelines for surgical repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibi, J G; Rastan, H; Nazarian, I; Paydar, M; Aryanpour, I; Siassi, B

    1978-05-01

    A 10-month-old boy is presented who had isolated unilateral absence of the right pulmonary artery. He suffered from hemoptysis and severe congestive heart failure. The patient underwent prosthetic anastomosis of the right to the main pulmonary artery. Although the hemodynamic response was favorable, his oxygenation did not improve due to diffuse pulmonary arteriovenous fistulae of the affected lung. The patient succumbed 3 months after operation due to massive uncontrollable hemoptysis from the right lung. Isolated unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery is a rare lesion. In our review of the world literature as of November 1976, 47 cases (including this report) of the unilateral absence of the pulmonary artery have been reported. Of these 25.5% had pulmonary hypertension and only 4 cases underwent successful repair of the lesion. Though repair of this defect can be carried out, the result may not be always gratifying. Our experience with this case has led us to consider a lung biopsy before proceeding to the surgical repair of the lesion. If the affected lung shows arteriovenous abnormalities the operation should not be recommended.

  12. Counselor's Information Service. A Quarterly Annotated Bibliography of Current Literature on Educational and Vocational Guidance. Volume 32, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    B'nai B'rith, Washington, DC. Career and Counseling Services.

    This quarterly annotated bibliography of current literature on educational and vocational guidance describes various pamphlets, guides and brochures which provide occupational information, educational, vocational and personal guidance, guidance administration and procedures, information on student aids and aids for the teacher. Additional guidance…

  13. Sexuality Education and Implications for Quality of Care for Individuals with Adult Onset Disability: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseder, Kate; Webb, Sheridan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the need for sexuality education for individuals with adult onset physical disabilities as it relates to quality of life and to identify current trends in the provision of sexuality education by health care providers relating to quality of care. Data Sources: Literature review from January 1986 to December 2016. Study…

  14. Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Cancer Patients in Malaysia: A review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husna Ahmad Ainuddin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring quality of life provides information helpful for cancer patients. However, facts about the quality of life and its associated factors among cancer patients in Malaysia are inconclusive. The aim of this review of literature is to evaluate the quality of life of cancer patients and its associated factors. Based on this review of the literature, it identified 24 studies. Associated factors effecting quality of life of cancer patients include socio-demographic, health related, psychological and cancer treatment. In conclusion, there is a need for further research to focus on developing effective interventions to enhance the patients' quality of life.

  15. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Antiarrhythmic Medications: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Waseem; Qureshi, Waqas; Farooq, Ali; Sohail, Umair; Khatoon, Salma; Pervaiz, Sarah; Narra, Pratyusha; Hasan, Syeda M; Ali, Farman; Ullah, Aman; Guttmann, Steven

    2017-09-03

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are commonly prescribed cardiac drugs. Due to their receptor mimicry with several of the gastrointestinal tract receptors, they can frequently lead to gastrointestinal side effects. These side effects are the most common reasons for discontinuation of these drugs by the patients. Knowledge of these side effects is important for clinicians that manage antiarrhythmic drugs. This review focuses on the gastrointestinal side effects of these drugs and provides a detailed up-to-date literature review of the side effects of these drugs. The review provides case reports reported in the literature as well as possible mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal side effects.

  16. Structural changes in the world energy supply - adaptations up to current and future challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1985-03-11

    In this analysis of world energy markets in which he pays particular attention to mineral oil, and with a background of world economic problems which have not yet been solved, the author presents a piece of modern economic history in which he also highlights the political aspects of the supply of crude oil. The world-wide contraction in oil consumption which followed two price escalations, has been caused, it is held by structural factors and is therefore of a long-term nature. Of course, in the foreseeable future, oil will easily remain the most important energy-carrier. However, it will be of less importance for Western Europe and Japan than for North America, trading states and developing countries. Nevertheless, diversification should be encouraged as quickly as possible. This does include natural gas still but for the long-term also coal and atomic energy. The author pleads for world-wide trade relations based on coal and gas in order to complement the fully integrated world oil markets. Similarly atomic energy should be developed as quickly as possible.

  17. Modal shift and high-speed rail : a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report provides a review of scholarly literature with direct relevance to the topic of modal shift and high-speed rail (HSR). : HSR systems are usually planned on the expectation that they will attract riders who would have chosen other modes (s...

  18. Does current provision of undergraduate education prepare UK medical students in ENT? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary R; Bacila, Irina A; Swamy, Meenakshi

    2016-04-15

    To systematically identify and analyse all published literature relating to the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery, as perceived by medical students and clinicians in the UK. Systematic literature review. 5 major databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC, Cochrane and Web of Science. The literature search was conducted from February to April 2015. Primary research or studies that report on the provision of undergraduate education for preparedness in ENT, from the perspective of medical students and clinicians in the UK. The timescale of searches was limited from 1999 onwards (ie, the past 15 years). The literature search was conducted by 2 independent reviewers. Search terms used involved the combination and variation of 5 key concepts, namely: medical student, clinician, ENT, undergraduate medical education and UK. A data extraction form was designed for and used in this study, based on guidelines provided by the UK National Health Service (NHS) Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Textual narrative synthesis was used for data analysis. A total of 7 studies were included in the final review. 4 main themes were identified: confidence in managing patients, teaching delivery, student assessment and duration of rotations. A consistent finding in this review was that the majority of final year medical students and junior doctors did not feel adequately prepared to practise ENT. Important factors influencing preparedness in ENT included the duration of clinical rotations, the opportunity for hands-on learning and formal assessment. The findings of this review suggest the need for further development of the ENT undergraduate curricula across the UK. However, there is insufficient evidence from which to draw strong conclusions; this in itself is beneficial as it highlights a gap in the existing literature and supports the need for primary research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  19. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  20. Open Access, Open Source and Digital Libraries: A Current Trend in University Libraries around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the open access and open source movement in the digital library world. Design/methodology/approach: A review of key developments in the open access and open source movement is provided. Findings: Open source software and open access to research findings are of great use to scholars in developing…

  1. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume 8, Number 1. A Digest of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    magnetic fields at the cellular level of the nervous 0663 FALSE CLAIMS FOR MAGNETOTHERAPY (LETTER system have been studied in giant axons of lobsters, TO...of studies of EM field effects on different any usefulness of magnetotherapy . The units used mammals are reviewed. Effects observed in humans for...findings perceptions when the head is exposed to pulse-modu- in the literature concerning magnetotherapy often lated MW energy above a certain intensity

  2. Definition of "persistent vomiting" in current medical literature: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Mostafa Ebraheem; Elshafay, Abdelrahman; Kansakar, Aswin Ratna; Mehyar, Ghaleb Muhammad; Dang, Nguyen Phan Hoang; Mattar, Omar Mohamed; Iqtadar, Somia; Mostafa, Mostafa Reda; Hai, Vu Ngoc; Vu, Tran Le-Huy; Ghazy, Ahmed Abdelmotaleb; Kaboub, Fatima; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Hirayama, Kenji

    2017-11-01

    Persistent vomiting is mentioned as a symptom of a large variety of systemic disorders. It is commonly used interchangeably with chronic, recurrent, or intractable vomiting and widely used as a warning sign of severe illness in dengue infection. However, it has been poorly defined in the medical literature. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review a definition of persistent vomiting in the medical literature. A systematic search was done through; PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Scopus, VHL, WHO-GHL, Grey Literature Report, POPLINE, and SIGLE for the last 10 years. Consensus on the definition was considered to be reached if at least 50% of studies described the same definition using the Delphi consensus technique. Of 2362 abstracts reviewed, 15 studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Three studies used the same definition. Another 2 studies defined it as vomiting of all foods and fluid in 24 hours. Three studies defined persistent vomiting in the units of days or weeks. Four studies used the number of episodes: ≥2 episodes 15 minutes apart, >3 episodes in 12 hours, and >3 episodes within 24 hours. No consensus for the definition was found among authors. This is a point of concern that needs to be addressed by further studies.

  3. "A Prostitution Alike of Matter and Spirit": Anti-War Discourses in Children's Literature and Childhood Culture before and during World War I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    Histories of the First World War have regularly implicated children's literature in boys' eagerness to enlist in the first two years of that conflict. While undoubtedly the majority of children's books, comics and magazines did espouse nationalistic, jingoistic and martial attitudes, there were alternative stories and environments. Looking at the…

  4. TREATMENT OF ULCER GASTRODUODENAL BLEEDINGS: CURRENT STATE OF THE PROBLEM (A LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Antonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The problem of ulcer gastro-duodenal bleeding therapy is one of the most essential in urgent surgery. The bleeding is the most serious complication of peptic ulcer desease. It is observed in 15– 20% cases when patients have peptic ulcer diagnosis determined. In general the issues of bleeding therapy in gastroduodenal sphere are surveyed imperfectly. Some patulous endoscopic hemostasis methods don’t fully meet safety and confidence reqirements that preserves high level of general and post-operational lethality in our country and in the rest of the world

  5. Yellow Nail Syndrome: Report of Two Cases and a Brief Review of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Silva Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    We present two cases of undiagnosed YNS until the current admissions, despite several years of investigation. The authors wish to draw attention to this syndrome, of which diagnosis is clinical and of exclusion.

  6. Marijuana and Breastfeeding: Applicability of the Current Literature to Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourh, Jasminder; Rowe, Hilary

    2017-12-01

    With recent legalization of marijuana in numerous U.S. states, the risk of marijuana exposure via breast milk is a rising concern. This review analyzes the available human and animal literature regarding maternal use of marijuana during lactation. The findings can be categorized into four areas of analysis: effects of marijuana on the mother, transfer into milk, transfer to the offspring, and effects on the offspring. Human and animal data have reported decreased prolactin levels as well as potential maternal psychological changes. Animal and human studies have reported transfer into milk; levels were detected in animal offspring, and metabolites were excreted by both human and animal offspring. Further, animal data have predominately displayed motor, neurobehavioral, and developmental effects, whereas human data suggested possible psychomotor outcomes; however, some studies reported no effect. Despite these results, many human studies were marred by limitations, including small sample sizes and confounding variables. Also, the applicability of animal data to the human population is questionable and the true risk of adverse effects is not entirely known. There are large gaps in the literature that need to be addressed; in particular, studies need to focus on evaluating the short- and long-term consequences of maternal marijuana use for the infant and the potential for different risks based on the frequency of maternal use. Until further evidence becomes available, practitioners need to weigh the benefits of breastfeeding for mother and child, with the potential influence of marijuana on infant development when determining the infant's most suitable form of nutrition.

  7. Development and future perspective of nuclear power plants. Current status and future prospect of world nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi NPS accidents occurred on 11 March 2011 brought about great effects on nuclear development not only in Japan but also in the world. In Japan restart of operation of periodically inspected nuclear power plants (NPPs) could not be allowed except Oi NPPs two units and most parties except Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) pledged to possibly phasing out nuclear power at House of Councillors election in July and public opinion was mostly against nuclear power after the accident. LDP clearly stated that, with the inauguration of new government last December, Japan would not pursuing the policy of the prior government of possibly phasing out nuclear power by the 2030s, but would instead make a 'zero-base' review of energy policy. Germany decided to close eight reactors immediately and remaining nine by the end of 2022. For many countries, nuclear power would play an important role in achieving energy security and sustainable development goals. In 2011 NPPs 6 units started operation with 2 units under construction, and in 2012 NPPs 3 units started operation with 7 units under construction. At present there are now over 400 NPPs operating in 31 countries and world trend seemed nuclear development was continued and number of countries newly deploying NPPs was increasing as much as eighteen. This article presented current status and future prospect of world NPPs in details. Japan would like to share its experiences and information obtained from the accident with the world and also promote NPPs overseas to meet the world's expectations. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided pancreaticobiliary intervention in patients with surgically altered anatomy and inaccessible papillae: A review of current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Aaron; Kistler, Charles Andrew; Wrobel, Piotr; Yang, Juliana F.; Siddiqui, Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    The management of pancreaticobiliary disease in patients with surgically altered anatomy is a growing problem for gastroenterologists today. Over the years, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the treatment of pancreaticobiliary disease. Patient anatomy has become increasingly complex due to advances in surgical resection of pancreaticobiliary disease and EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice when endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography failed cannulation or when the papilla is inaccessible such as in gastric obstruction or duodenal obstruction. The current article gives a comprehensive review of the current literature for EUS-guided intervention of the pancreaticobiliary tract in patients with altered surgical anatomy. PMID:27386471

  9. Mouse models in liver cancer research: A review of current literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Martijn WH; Nijkamp, Maarten W; Rinkes, Inne HM Borel

    2008-01-01

    Primary liver cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Due to differences in prevalence of etiological factors the incidence of primary liver cancer varies among the world, with a peak in East-Asia. As this disease is still lethal in most of the cases, research has to be done to improve our understanding of the disease, offering insights for possible treatment options. For this purpose, animal models are widely used, especially mouse models. In this review, we describe the different types of mouse models used in liver cancer research, with emphasis on genetically engineered mice used in this field. We focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as this is by far the most common type of primary liver cancer, accounting for 70%-85% of cases. PMID:19058325

  10. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaloids are well known phytoconstituents for their diverse pharmacological properties. Alkaloids are found in all plant parts like roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. Solasodine occurs as an aglycone part of glycoalkloids, which is a nitrogen analogue to sapogenins. Solanaceae family comprises of a number of plants with variety of natural products of medicinal significance mainly steroidal lactones, glycosides, alkaloids and flavanoids. It is a steroidal alkaloid based on a C27 cholestane skeleton. Literature survey reveals that solasodine has diuretic, anticancer, antifungal, cardiotonic, antispermatogenetic, antiandrogenic, immunomodulatory, antipyretic and various effects on central nervous system. Isolation and quantitative determination was achieved by several analytical techniques. Present review highlights the pharmacological activity of solasodine, with its analytical and tissue culture techniques, which may be helpful to the researchers to develop new molecules for the treatment of various disorders in the future.

  11. LMFBR safety. 6. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1977)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1978-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development. Selected bibliographic information on LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the year 1977. The bibliography consists of approximately 198 abstracts covering research and development, operating experience, and design practices. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  12. A review of the current literature on aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This work reviews the current knowledge of aetiology and measurement methods of halitosis. DATA: Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour emanating from the breath. The condition is multifactorial and may involve both oral and non-oral conditions. SOURCES: A private, monthly with

  13. Renewable energy sources for the world's poor: a review of current international development assistance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, J. H.

    1979-10-01

    Foreign assistance funding of the creation, testing, and use of renewable energy sources concerning worldwide efforts to provide energy for Third World development is examined. Donor agencies and developing nations give serious attention to technologies that have been considered exotic and marginal: small-scale hydroelectric generation, solar water heating and distillation, biomass conversion to methane gas and alcohol, wind power, photovoltaic-powered small-scale irrigation, and village-level solar-powered absorption refrigeration. An initial effort to assist in the international coordination of donor activity and in the sharing of information generated by foreign-assistance projects that use renewable energy sources is reported. The report mainly provides information about specific development projects. It contains only a few of the projects that have been approved and funded by 1 June 1979. (MCW)

  14. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-15

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982.

  15. Current Status of World Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology (I): Canada and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Ko, Won Il

    2007-05-01

    Canada produces about one third of the world's uranium mine output, most of it from two new mines. After 2007 Canadian production is expected to increase further as more new mines come into production. About 15% of Canada's electricity comes from nuclear power, using indigenous technology, and 18 reactors provide over 12,500 MWe of power. Mexico has two nuclear reactors generating almost 5% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1989. There is some government support for expanding nuclear energy to reduce reliance on natural gas. Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one tenth of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. Brazil has two nuclear reactors generating 4% of its electricity. Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1982

  16. Older Adults’ Current and Potential Uses of Information Technologies in a Changing World: A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hall, Amanda K.; Thielke, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Technologies have become a major force in people’s lives. They change how people interact with the environment, even as the environment changes. We propose that technology use in the setting of changing environments is motivated by essential needs and tensions experienced by the individual. We apply three developmental and behavioral theories (Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model) to explain technology-related behaviors among older adults. We consider how technology use has addressed and can address major ecological changes, in three areas: health promotion, natural disasters, and disparities. We propose that considering these theories can help researchers and developers ensure that technologies will help promote a healthier world for older adults. PMID:26215298

  17. Literature and History--A Focus on the Era of the Great Depression and World War II (1929-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, John; Sandmann, Alexa

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography and suggested teaching activities for units on the Great Depression and World War II. The materials support inquiry into the causes of the Great Depression and World War II and how these events transformed U.S. society. The annotated bibliography includes novels, memoirs, biographies, and political studies. (MJP)

  18. Interrelationships of periodontitis and diabetes: A review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Chun Chang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and periodontitis are common chronic diseases in the world, and abundant epidemiological evidence implies a bidirectional relationship between the two diseases. It appears that diabetes is a risk factor for greater periodontal destruction, whereas managing periodontitis can also contribute to better glycemic control. The underlying regulatory mechanisms are also bidirectional. The hyperglycemic status may directly alter subgingival microbial compositions, impair cellular function, and change collagen metabolism. The formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs can further modify the extracellular matrix, and establishment of cellular receptor binding can amplify inflammation. Moreover, periodontitis also induces hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. This cyclical relationship converges via overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Thus, this article highlights the importance of maintaining periodontal health to eliminate systemic complications and meticulous metabolic control to prevent further periodontal destruction. From a systemic aspect, targeting proinflammatory cytokines or receptors of AGEs could be a potential modality for treating periodontitis.

  19. Disorders of orgasm in women: a literature review of etiology and current treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Bokarius, Anna; Jeffrey, Jessica K; Davis, Michael C; Bakhta, Yekaterina

    2010-10-01

    Disorders of orgasm in women, defined as the persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm, affect up to a quarter of the female population. To review existing research findings on the etiology and treatments of disorders of orgasm in women to provide a useful reference tool for clinicians who evaluate and treat patients with these conditions. PubMed and PsycINFO search for articles published between 1980 and 2009 using the keywords "orgasm*,"anorgasmia," and "female*,"woman," or "women," in addition to "female orgasmic disorder" and "disorders of orgasm in women." Findings on the etiological factors and effects of a variety of treatment interventions on improving disorders of orgasm in women. Results.  Literature on prevalence and causes of disorders of orgasm in women is abundant, yet more reports of successful treatments are needed. Nevertheless, many promising approaches have been suggested, and data support several potential treatments such as bupropion, sildenafil, estrogen, and testosterone among others. Although more research is needed to better understand and manage disorders of orgasm in women, significant progress is being made. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  20. Effects of colchicine on pericardial diseases: a review of the literature and current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Raza Shah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine, extracted from the colchicum autumnale plant, used by the ancient Greeks more than 20 centuries ago, is one of the most ancient drugs still prescribed even today. The major mechanism of action is binding to microtubules thereby interfering with mitosis and subsequent modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. Colchicine has long been of interest in the treatment of cardiovascular disease; however, its efficacy and safety profile for specific conditions have been variably established in the literature. In the subset of pericardial diseases, colchicine has been shown to be effective in recurrent pericarditis and post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS. The future course of treatment and management will therefore highly depend on the results of the ongoing large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of colchicine for the primary prevention of several postoperative complications and in the perioperative period. Also, given the positive preliminary outcomes of colchicine usage in pericardial effusions, the future therapeutical use of colchicine looks promising. Further study is needed to clarify its role in these disease states, as well as explore other its role in other cardiovascular conditions.

  1. Interprofessional education and distance education: A review and appraisal of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Livia R M; Alzghari, Saeed K; Lee, Young R; Long, William G; Marquez, Robyn

    2017-07-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is becoming essential for students and healthcare professionals. An evolving approach to implement it is via distance education. Distance education can provide a viable solution to deliver IPE in a variety of settings. A literature search on PubMed and Academic Search Complete databases was conducted, revealing 478 articles ranging from the years of 1971-2015. The articles were screened for relevance using the following inclusion criteria: 1) Is this study implementing IPE? 2) Is this study utilizing the instructional delivery method of distance education? 3) Does this study contain students from two or more healthcare professions? Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were systematically analyzed to identify data relevant for this review. Findings from this review provide a description of the teaching methods involved in distance education in promoting IPE and an assessment of the continuing use of distance education to foster IPE. Success varied depending upon on the distance-based instructional model utilized to facilitate IPE. Incorporating distance education to implement IPE can be an opportunity to develop team collaboration and communication skills among students. Teaching models presented in this review have the potential to be adapted to methods that leverage the power of evolving technology. Further research is needed to understand which distance education instructional delivery models best maximize the IPE experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A critical overview of the current myofascial pain literature - March 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan; Hooks, Todd; Finnegan, Michelle; Grieve, Rob

    2016-04-01

    The worldwide interest in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) and trigger points (TrPs) is reflected in the increasing number of publications. In this overview of the literature, we included 26 studies, case reports and review articles by authors from 18 different countries. Several research groups are exploring the characteristic of TrPs such as Chen and colleagues, who continued their work on the quantification of the taut bands. Meng and colleagues studied the relationships between TrPs and central sensitization, while Yu and colleagues examined the electrophysiological characteristics that occur as a result of active TrPs. Several researchers used objective measurements to determine clinical outcomes, such as Koppenhaver and colleagues who measured objective changes in the function and nociceptive sensitivity of lumbar multifidus muscle subjects with low back pain. Turo and colleagues quantified muscle tissue changes after dry needling in chronic myofascial pain using elastography. Multiple studies explored various treatment options for TrPs, such as dry needling, injections with lidocaine or granisetron, traditional Thai massage, self-myofascial release, kinesiotaping, and monochromatic infrared photo energy, among others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Balancing selection on immunity genes: review of the current literature and new analysis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, Myriam; Živković, Daniel; Stephan, Wolfgang; Hutter, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Balancing selection has been widely assumed to be an important evolutionary force, yet even today little is known about its abundance and its impact on the patterns of genetic diversity. Several studies have shown examples of balancing selection in humans, plants or parasites, and many genes under balancing selection are involved in immunity. It has been proposed that host-parasite coevolution is one of the main forces driving immune genes to evolve under balancing selection. In this paper, we review the literature on balancing selection on immunity genes in several organisms, including Drosophila. Furthermore, we performed a genome scan for balancing selection in an African population of Drosophila melanogaster using coalescent simulations of a demographic model with and without selection. We find very few genes under balancing selection and only one novel candidate gene related to immunity. Finally, we discuss the possible causes of the low number of genes under balancing selection. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  4. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-02-24

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included.

  5. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  6. Breast reconstruction with anatomical implants: A review of indications and techniques based on current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardani, Marco; Bertozzi, Nicolò; Grieco, Michele Pio; Pesce, Marianna; Simonacci, Francesco; Santi, PierLuigi; Raposio, Edoardo

    2017-09-01

    One important modality of breast cancer therapy is surgical treatment, which has become increasingly less mutilating over the last century. Breast reconstruction has become an integrated part of breast cancer treatment due to long-term psychosexual health factors and its importance for breast cancer survivors. Both autogenous tissue-based and implant-based reconstruction provides satisfactory reconstructive options due to better surgeon awareness of "the ideal breast size", although each has its own advantages and disadvantages. An overview of the current options in breast reconstruction is presented in this article.

  7. LMFBR safety. 4. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1974--1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-03-21

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1974 through 1975. The bibliography consists of approximately 1554 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  8. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  9. LMFBR safety. 3. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1972--1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1972 through 1974. The bibliography consists of approximately 1380 abstracts covering research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included

  10. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  11. Neurocognitive Processes and Pediatric Obesity Interventions: Review of Current Literature and Suggested Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L

    2016-06-01

    Childhood obesity is a significant problem in the United States, but current childhood obesity prevention approaches have limited efficacy. Self-regulation processes organize behavior to achieve a goal and may shape health behaviors and health outcomes. Obesity prevention approaches that focus on the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms that underlie self-regulation early in life may therefore lead to better outcomes. This article reviews the development of executive functioning (EF), identifies influences on EF development, discusses aspects of EF relating to increased risk for childhood obesity, and considers how EF-weight associations may change across development. Implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. LMFBR safety. 2. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1970--1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-11-22

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1970 through 1972. The bibliography consists of approximately 1620 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  13. LMFBR safety. 5. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature (1975--1976)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1977-06-08

    The current status of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA), are discussed. Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development and safety of the breeder reactor is presented for the period 1975 through 1976. The bibliography consists of approximately 1618 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Keyword, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  14. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-08-16

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness.

  15. LMFBR safety. 1. Review of current issues and bibliography of literature, 1960--1969

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.R.; Keilholtz, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the current status of liquid-metal fast breeder (LMFBR) development and one of the principal safety issues, a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Bibliographic information on worldwide LMFBRs relative to the development of the breeder reactor as a safe source of nuclear power is presented for the period 1960 through 1969. The bibliography consists of 1560 abstracts covering early research and development and operating experiences leading up to the present design practices that are necessary for the licensing of breeder reactors. Key-word, author, and permuted-title indexes are included for completeness

  16. A Literature Investigation about Electrospinning and Nanofibers: Historical Trends, Current Status and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Marcio L F; Araújo, Evando S; Cordeiro, Erlon R; de Oliveira, Ariadne H P; de Oliveira, Helinando P

    2015-01-01

    The development of new fibrilar materials based on electrospinning (ES) technique has a notable history of nearly four centuries of discoveries and results. The eletrospinning manufacturing is one of the most widely reported methods for nanofiber (NF) manufacturing, providing security, high quality and productivity. In spite of the first patent about electrospinning has been applied in April 5(th), 1900 by John Francis Cooley, a historical perspective (since 1600s) about this amazing discovery represents an important step for future applications. Nanofibers have been considered one of the top interesting fundamental study objects for academicians, and greatest intriguing business materials for modern industry. As a consequence, lucrative organizations and companies have explored the relevance of nanofibers. In this paper, the quantity of published manuscripts and patent inventions is presented and the correlation of research activities to the production of new electrospinning materials is shown. China and the United States have been leading in electrospinning and nanofibers development. The company triumph is mostly dependent on applications improvement relevant for broader business society. A dramatic rise of interest in nanofibers produced by electrospinning technique has been confirmed due to the publication data, author's affiliation, keywords, and essential characterization procedures. Is has been shown that the number of publications on electrospinning and nanofibers researches from academic institutions is higher than industrial laboratories. More than 1,891 patents using the term "electrospinning" and 2,960 with the term "nanofibers" according to the European Patent Office at title or abstract have been filed around the world up to 2013. These numbers just continue to increase along with worldwide ES-related sales. Curiously, for the same period 11,973 electrospinning documents and 18,679 nanofibers-related (mainly manuscripts) were published considering

  17. Improved cardiac function and exercise capacity following correction of pectus excavatum: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maagaard, Marie; Heiberg, Johan

    2016-09-01

    Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) often describe improvements in exercise stamina following corrective surgery. Studies have investigated the surgical effect on physiological parameters; still, no consensus has yet been reached. Therefore, the aim of this literature review was to describe the cardiac outcome after surgical correction, both at rest and during exercise. In February 2016, a detailed search of the databases PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE was performed. We assessed clinical studies that described cardiac outcomes both before and after surgical correction of PE. We only included studies reporting either pre-defined echocardiographic or exercise test parameters. No exclusion criteria or statistical analyses were applied. Twenty-one full-text articles, published between 1972 and 2016, were selected, with cohort-ranges of 3-168 patients, mean age-ranges of 5-33 years, and mean follow-up-ranges from immediately to 4 years after surgery. Twelve studies described resting cardiac parameters. Four studies measured cardiac output, where one described 36% immediate increase after surgery, one reported 15% increase after Nuss-bar removal and two found no difference. Three studies demonstrated improvement in mean stroke volume ranges of 22-34% and two studies found no difference. Fifteen studies investigated exercise capacity, with 11 considering peak O 2 pr. kg, where five studies demonstrated improvements with the mean ranging from 8% to 15% after surgery, five studies demonstrated no difference, and one saw a decrease of 19% 3 months after Nuss-bar implantation. A measurable increase in exercise capacity exists following surgery, which may be caused by multiple factors. This may be owed to the relief of compressed cardiac chambers with the increased anterior-posterior thoracic dimensions, which could facilitate an improved filling of the heart. With these results, the positive physiological impact of the surgery is emphasized and the potential gain in cardiac

  18. Platelet Preparations for Use in Facial Rejuvenation and Wound Healing: A Critical Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony P; Azzi, James

    2015-08-01

    In facial plastic surgery, the potential for direct delivery of growth factors from platelet preparations has been of particular interest for use in facial rejuvenation, recovery after facial surgery, and wound healing. A literature search was conducted through PubMed for the terms PRP, PRFM, platelet-rich plasma, platelet-rich fibrin matrix, platelet preparations, platelet therapy, growth factors, platelet facial, platelet facial rejuvenation, platelet wound healing, platelet plastic surgery. Articles pertaining to the use of platelet preparations in facial surgery and wound healing in plastic surgery after 2001 were included. Thirteen in vitro studies showed use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) had a significant effect on cellular activity. Twenty-four out of 28 animal studies exhibited favorable results with use of a platelet preparation, including five of six studies that showed enhanced fat graft survival with addition of a platelet preparation. Twenty-three case series and clinical trials were identified, only two of which showed no differences. Twenty-one reported favorable results with use of various platelet preparations. A total of 47 studies used PRP, four studies evaluated Leukocyte-rich PRP, and fourteen studies used PRFM. The vast majority of studies examined show a significant and measurable effect on cellular changes, wound healing, and facial esthetic outcomes with use of platelet preparations, both topical and injectable. One must also consider possible publication bias against null results that may have had an influence on the data that were available for review. However, the preponderance of studies suggests that platelet preparations might represent an as-of-yet untapped adjunct in facial plastic surgery.

  19. Comparison of the Standard of Air Leakage in Current Metal Duct Systems in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yuhui; Wang, Jiqian; Feng, Lu; Li, Xingwu; Hu, Chunlin; Shi, Junshe; Xu, Qingsong; Qiao, Leilei

    2018-01-01

    Based on the requirements of air leakage of metal ducts in Chinese design standards, technical measures and construction standards, this paper compares the development history, the classification of air pressure levels and the air tightness levels of air leakage standards of current Chinese and international metal ducts, sums up the differences, finds shortage by investigating the design and construction status and access to information, and makes recommendations, hoping to help the majority of engineering and technical personnel.

  20. Cord Blood Banking in the Arab World: Current Status and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. ABOUT THE STATE OF THE WORLD WHEAT MARKET AT THE CURRENT STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorelyy M.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the Phillips curve in the historical aspect. In the article there is a mention that there were examples when the Phillips curve was not confirmed. Then the author goes on to describe the post-crisis economic situation. The author refers to the food problem as a global problem, which has been designated in the papers of the Club of Rome. Then the author characterizes world wheat production for the period 2003-2013. The author gives an example that shows the volatility of the wheat market (CBOT. The author explains why he uses quotations of forward contracts, and not in the spot market. The author scrutinizes the quotations of CBOT wheat futures contracts in the paper. The author substantiates the need for an econometric model in the research process of futures CBOT wheat prices. The author justifies the chosen scientific approach that defines the methods of research and research model. The author uses econometric approach in the paper. The author uses linear regression as a method of the research. The author creates the equation of linear regression using the software. The author makes a conclusion that there is a certain linear relationship between the price of the futures contract CBOT wheat and the level of unemployment in the United States during the period. The author verifies the effect of Phillips curve. Results of this paper allow the analyst to make informed pricing decisions on the organized market of wheat trade in the medium term.

  2. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps

  3. Unilateral hearing loss in children: a retrospective study and a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Anna-Katharina; Friedhoff, Johannes; Bohnert, Andrea; Breitfuss, Achim; Hess, Markus; Müller, Frank; Strauch, Anke; Röhrs, Marianne; Wiesner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Despite the introduction of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS), unilateral hearing loss (UHL) is sometimes recognized late. This diagnostic delay has adverse repercussions, given the importance of binaural hearing for the development of normal auditory processing. It is incorrect to maintain that unilateral hearing is the minimum requirement for adequate speech development and that hearing aid provision is consequently unnecessary. In our retrospective study, hearing aid provision resulted in improved directional and selective hearing (quiet and noisy environments) and, compared with their chronically ill counterparts, the children in our study displayed superior health-related quality of life (HRQoL) scores in all areas. On the basis of the results, the authors conclude that even mild hearing losses (from an auditory threshold of 30 to 40 dB) should have the opportunity for hearing aid provision. A selective literature review was conducted in PubMed and textbooks and with reference to national and international guidelines. Early diagnosis and treatment of UHL have a positive effect on verbal-cognitive, linguistic, communicative, and socio-emotional development, as demonstrated by neurophysiological studies. Among the treatment modalities with differing effects on the quality of binaural hearing, cochlear implants are now used increasingly in children with hearing loss bordering on deafness. Published evidence and clinical experience support early diagnosis and treatment. Wherever feasible, hearing aid provision before or at the end of the first year of life is recommended for children with UHL. What is Known: • Almost 30 years ago, poor academic performance was reported in children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL). • Despite improvements in treatment options, it is traditionally held that unilateral hearing is the minimum requirement for adequate speech development and hearing aid provision is unnecessary. What is New: • Academic and behavioral

  4. Procalcitonin as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in diabetic foot infection. A current literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Pantzaris, Nikolaos-Dimitrios; Platanaki, Christina; Antonopoulou, Nikolina; Gogos, Charalampos

    2018-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are a very common cause of mortality and morbidity. The distinction between infected and non-infected DFU remains a very challenging task for clinicians in everyday practice. Even when infection is documented, the spectrum of diabetic foot infection is wide, ranging from cellulitis and soft tissue infection to osteomyelitis. Procalcitonin (PCT), a well-established sepsis biomarker, has been used in the diagnosis of several infections including osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes mellitus. This review gathers and presents all the relevant data, up until now, regarding the use of PCT as an assessment tool in diabetic patients with foot infection. Current evidence suggests that PCT levels could aid clinicians in distinguishing infected from non-infected DFUs as well as in the distinction between soft tissue infection and bone involvement, but further and larger studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  5. Developing an Integrated Conceptual Framework of Pro-Environmental Behavior in the Workplace through Synthesis of the Current Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faye V. McDonald

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have begun to bridge the gap between general and workplace pro-environmental behavior by adapting specific existing behavioral models to the workplace environment. This conceptual article proposes a different approach by synthesizing the current general and workplace literature to develop a new model of the antecedents to pro-environmental behavior. Guided by this approach, this paper combines the insights of the current general and workplace models to develop an integrated framework of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. In doing so, an overview of the current general and workplace literatures will be provided as well as their similarities and differences highlighted. The proposed framework will provide further insights into the antecedents of workplace pro-environmental behavior and identify common findings across the different existing workplace models. This theory can be the basis for further research in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the antecedents of pro-environmental behavior in the workplace. Lastly, implications for specific interventions to develop targeted Human Resource Management practices and work towards achieving environmental sustainability will be discussed.

  6. The Current Business and Economics Driven Discourse and Education: Perspectives from Around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L van der Walt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets the tone for the 2017 BCES Conference in that it confronts the educators and educationists assembled at the opening ceremony with some of the manifestations of the current business and economics driven orientation to life in general and to education in particular. It demonstrates how and to what extent the neoliberal life-view or orientation has so far colonized the minds of educators and educationists and affected their occupational environment. The paper concludes with a brief critical discussion of neoliberal tenets and their effects on education based on professional pedagogical insight into the human being, societal relationships and education.

  7. Ectomycorrhizal host specificity in a changing world: can legacy effects explain anomalous current associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Lotus; Nguyen, Nhu H; Kennedy, Peter G

    2018-02-07

    Despite the importance of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi in forest ecosystems, knowledge about the ecological and co-evolutionary mechanisms underlying ECM host associations remains limited. Using a widely distributed group of ECM fungi known to form tight associations with trees in the family Pinaceae, we characterized host specificity among three unique Suillus-host species pairs using a combination of field root tip sampling and experimental bioassays. We demonstrate that the ECM fungus S. subaureus can successfully colonize Quercus hosts in both field and glasshouse settings, making this species unique in an otherwise Pinaceae-specific clade. Importantly, however, we found that the colonization of Quercus by S. subaureus required co-planting with a Pinaceae host. While our experimental results indicate that gymnosperms are required for the establishment of new S. subaureus colonies, Pineaceae hosts are locally absent at both our field sites. Given the historical presence of Pineaceae hosts before human alteration, it appears the current S. subaureus-Quercus associations represent carryover from past host presence. Collectively, our results suggest that patterns of ECM specificity should be viewed not only in light of current forest community composition, but also as a legacy effect of host community change over time. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Recurrent Direct Current Cardioversion Induced Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Smyrlis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM, also called broken heart syndrome and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an increasingly reported syndrome generally characterized by transient systolic dysfunction of the apical and or mid segments of the left ventricle that mimics myocardial infarction, in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease. Typically patients present within a few hours of exposure to physical or emotional stress. However, the mechanism by which these stressors result in myocardial dysfunction is unclear. Proposed factors include catecholamine excess and coronary vasospasm1. We present the case of a 61-year-old female who experienced acute pulmonary edema secondary to stress cardiomyopathy, on two occasions immediately after undergoing elective direct current cardioversion (DCCV for atrial fibrillation (Afib. After an urgent hospitalization for management of acute left ventricular failure, she made a complete clinical and echocardiographic recovery. The incidence, clinical implications and prognosis of DCCV induced SCM is unknown. Given DCCV for Afib is a common outpatient procedure and DCCV induced SCM can lead to acute clinical deterioration it is important that physicians are vigilant about this newly recognized DCCV complication.

  9. Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data from current meter casts in a world wide distribution from 1970-12-06 to 1991-10-01 (NODC Accession 9700218)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind direction/velocity and current direction/velocity data were collected using current meter casts in a world wide distribution from December 6, 1970 to October 1,...

  10. Road safety in a globalised and more sustainable world: current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Stijn; Risser, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Although many countries have had considerable success in reducing traffic injuries over recent decades, there are still some fundamental problems in this area. At the same time, there is increasing focus on road safety research and policy development in the context of globalisation, sustainability, liveability and health. This special section presents a selection of papers that were presented at the annual ICTCT workshop held on the 8th and 9th of November 2012 in Hasselt, Belgium, and accepted for publication in Accident Analysis and Prevention following the journal's reviewing procedure. The aim of the ICTCT workshop was to analyse road safety facts, data and visions for the future in the wider context of current issues and future challenges in road safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. OVERVIEW OF THE INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM “NAPOLEONIC MYTHS IN WORLD CULTURE: EPISTEMOLOGY, AXIOLOGY, AND REPRESENTATIONS IN LITERATURE, HISTORIOGRAPHY, AND ART”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena D. Galtsova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present publication is an overview of the international symposium “Napoleonic Myths in World Culture: Epistemology, Axiology, and Representation in Literature, Historiography, and Art,” held at IWL RAS on October 3–5, 2016. It was chaired by IWL RAS together with Pasquale Paoli Corsica University, Moscow Center of the French-Russian Studies (CEFR, Institute of World History RAS, Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow State University, and Committee on French Literature and Intellectual Culture of the Council “History of World Literature” at RAS Presidium. Over 40 literary historians, historians, sociologists, philosophers, and art historians gave their papers at the symposium. The aim of the symposium was to study interdisciplinary representations of Napoleonic myths and detect various mechanisms that enabled transform a hero (or anti-hero of his time into a fantasy that keeps recurring in the cultural consciousness, both in the depths of the human psyche and on the surface of social life. Napoleon is a hero of a “modern myth” that developed only about two hundred years ago. Therefore, one can claim that Napoleonic myth is a myth in the process of its development. The study of the mechanisms of this process is a relevant task for the humanities. The overview discusses certain cognitive dominants that reflect contemporary tendencies of the scholarly reflection on the process of development, functioning, and spread of Napoleonic myths in the world culture of the past two centuries.

  12. OBSERVATIONS (NEW AND OLD ON THE ARMED FORCES IN THE THE ATLANTIC WORLD: CURRENT AND FUTURE THREATS AND CHALLENGES IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDERICK M. NUNN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Confrontations with threats and challenges to the existence of governments and societies have marked the flow of time throughout history. Present and future threats associated, as they are, with historical and traditional challenge are, in many places, of such complexity that they already require new forms of relations between civilian authorities and the leadership of professional institutions dedicated to defense and security. These new relations will have to be based on an understanding of the processes of democratization and globalization as much as on the complex nature of conflicts that affect the security, sovereignty and stability of 21st century nation-states. As formidable as they appear, these threats and challenges may be considered current reiterations of others that mark our histories. In the Atlantic World, nowhere more so than in Latin America, the literature of the military profession has always demonstrated the recognition of lessons of the past applied to problems of the presentation aid in preparation for the future. A principal reason for this is that said literature is in and of itself the product of civil-military collaborations.

  13. Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) infection of the liver mimicking malignancy: Presentation of a new case and review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoulis, Nikolaos; Zerbinis, Helen; Simatos, Georgios; Nisiotis, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis or "pinworm" infection of the liver is an extremely rare condition with only five cases previously reported in literature. It is characterized by the presence of granulomas in the liver with a necrotic core, containing adult helminthes or their ova. Because of the relatively mild symptomatology associated with this disease, prior to the arrival of modern imaging methods hepatic enterobiasis was an incidental intra-operative finding during abdominal surgery for other conditions. In recent years however, with high-resolution abdominal imaging readily available and the improved safety of hepatic resection, a lower threshold for treating suspicious hepatic nodules aggressively with surgery is being adopted. We present the second case in international literature, where E. vermicularis of the liver was mistaken for malignancy and led to hepatic resection and perform a literature review of the five previously documented cases of hepatic enterobiasis. Our report identifies certain trends in this condition's aetiology and clinical behaviour, but due to its rarity definitive answers cannot yet be established. We do not advocate a change in the current approach of suspicious hepatic nodules, but we do feel that better understanding of the mechanisms involved with hepatic enterobiasis could, in the future, prevent unnecessary surgery.

  14. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat...... to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated...... heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed...

  15. Acute Myeloid Leukemıa: Current and Emerging Therapies and Market Consideration in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir GÜRSOY

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is an aggressive, fast-growing cancer beginning inside bone marrow and spreading into the blood system, most often occurring in immature white blood cells. It has the lowest five-year survival rate among other types of leukemia and if left untreated, it can be fatal. Even though there have been significant improvements in the treatment of other related subtypes, AMLtargeted therapy development have been limited. The current market for AML drugs cannot fill the high unmet needs in terms of drug safety and efficacy, and the growing aging population presents increased opportunities for new drugs. Considering these driving forces, it is believed that promising opportunities exist for new entrants to capture value from underserved segments of the market. It is estimated that the market size for AML drugs in 2020 will reach US$1.67 billion with an average annual growth of nearly 23%. Therefore, it is highly recommended for pharmaceutical companies to invest in this area of drug development as soon as possible in order to maximize gains from their investments as novel therapeutics enter the AML market at a rapid pace.

  16. Current status of the East Sea Ecosystem in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Chung IL; Kwak, Jung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The East/Japan Sea (hereafter the East Sea) is changing quickly. Warming and structural changes in the East Sea have been reported by CREAMS, an acronym of ″Circulation Research of the East Asian Marginal Seas″, which began in 1993 as an international research program to understand the water mass structure and circulation in the East Sea (Kim and Kim, 1996; Kim, 1997; Kim et al., 2001, 2002). A subsequent research program of the EAST-I, an acronym of ″the East Asian Seas Time-series″, was launched by PICES (North Pacific Marine Science Organization) and financially supported by the Korean government, allowing us to deepen our knowledge about rapidly changing processes in the East Sea (Chang et al., 2010). Although there has been considerable progress in developing a mechanistic understanding of the East Sea ecosystem responses to disturbances, more comprehensive studies are needed to address the impacts of the frequency and intensity of disturbances on marine ecosystems. The most important question of the research has been: how do environmental changes affect structural and functional biodiversity? Recently launched research on ″Long-term change of structure and function in marine ecosystems of Korea″, which has been supported by the Korean government since 2011, has given an unprecedented insight into the ecosystem dynamics in the East Sea. It therefore seems an appropriate time to devote a special issue to the topic of ″Current status of the East Sea ecosystem in a changing world″.

  17. Managing severe behavioral symptoms of a patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis: case report and findings in current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina Lima Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric symptoms emerge in the early stages of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and patients often seek treatment in psychiatric departments before visiting any other general medical services. Numerous articles about anti-NMDAR encephalitis have been published in the scientific community worldwide, but few emphasize the role of psychiatry in symptom management.Case description: We describe the case of a patient with anti- -NMDAR encephalitis seen in our service and discuss the management of behavioral symptoms based on current scientific literature. High doses of atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines were used to control agitation, and trazodone was administered to treat insomnia.Comments: Consultation-liaison psychiatry may help the healthcare team adjust the management of neuropsychiatric complications that might affect inpatients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

  18. Tracheal cuff pressure monitoring in the ICU: a literature review and survey of current practice in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talekar, C R; Udy, A A; Boots, R J; Lipman, J; Cook, D

    2014-11-01

    The application of tracheal cuff pressure monitoring is likely to vary between institutions. The aim of this study was therefore to review current evidence concerning this intervention in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to appraise regional practice by performing a state-wide survey. Publications for review were identified through searches of PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane (1977 to 2014). All studies in English relevant to critical care and with complete data were included. Survey questions were developed by small-group consensus. Public and private ICUs across Queensland were contacted, with responses obtained from a representative member of the medical or nursing staff. Existing literature suggests significant variability in tracheal cuff pressure monitoring in the ICU, particularly in the applied technique, frequency of assessment and optimal intra-cuff pressures. Twenty-nine respondents completed the survey, representing 80.5% (29/36) of ICUs in Queensland. Twenty-eight out of twenty-nine respondents reported routinely monitoring tracheal cuff function, primarily employing cuff pressure measurement (26/28). Target cuff pressures varied, with 3/26 respondents aiming for 10 to 20 cmH2O, 10/26 for 21 to 25 cmH2O, and 13/26 for 26 to 30 cmH2O. Fifteen out of twenty-nine reported they had no current guideline or protocol for tracheal cuff management and only 16/29 indicated there was a dedicated area in the clinical record for reporting cuff intervention. Our results indicate that many ICUs across Queensland routinely measure tracheal cuff function, with most utilising pressure monitoring devices. Consistent with existing literature, the optimum cuff pressure remains uncertain. Most, however, considered that this should be a routine part of ICU care.

  19. Chondrosarcoma of right 1st rib presenting as neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome; A 13th case report in world literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravisagar Patel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic outlet syndrome [TOS] caused by a tumor of the rib is rare and has been reported only 12 times in the literature over the past one and one-half centuries, with the majority of cases due to osteochondroma. We report a case of chondrosarcoma of right 1st rib causing neurogenic TOS that was resected via posterolateral thoracotomy and biopsy confirmed a grade I chondrosarcoma. In the treatment of chondrosarcoma, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are less effective, and appropriate surgery is needed.

  20. Mansonella ozzardi and its vectors in the New World: an update with emphasis on the current situation in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccurt, C P

    2017-10-25

    Mansonella ozzardi (Nematoda: Onchocercidae) is a little studied filarial nematode. This human parasite, transmitted by two families of dipteran vectors, biting midges (most of them members of the genus Culicoides) and blackflies (genus Simulium), is endemic to the Neotropical regions of the New World. With a patchy geographical distribution from southern Mexico to north-western Argentina, human infection with M. ozzardi is highly prevalent in some of the Caribbean islands, along riverine communities in the Amazon Basin, and on both sides of the border between Bolivia and Argentina. Studies conducted in Haiti between 1974 and 1984 allowed the first complete description of the adult worm and permitted clarification of the taxonomic position of this filarial species. This paper reports the known geographical distribution of M. ozzardi in Neotropical regions of the Americas, and focuses on the current situation in Haiti where this filariasis remains a completely neglected public health problem.

  1. Recency or Relevance: A Quest for Pedagogical Framework in Teaching Philippine and World Literature in Senior High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bañez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pedagogical questions on whether recency or relevance of literary texts, and the importance of generic academic over discipline-based learning objectives as the core of literature instruction are increasingly becoming the interest of debates in senior high school education. Hence, this study determined the degree of importance of literary instruction in preparation for college education and workplace challenges as assessed by 38 Grade 11 students at Malvar Senior High School, Philippines during the school year 2016-2017. By employing the survey type of descriptive research with a self-made questionnaire, it was found out that the respondents assessed both recency and relevance as important consideration in selecting literary texts. They also perceived that discipline-based/work-oriented learning objectives, especially those that focus on honing their human relation skills, were relevant in preparing themselves for college education and workplace responsibilities. Moreover, the respondents preferred language-based activities that tend to provide the former opportunities and develop other complex skills which are important in tertiary education and workplace challenges. With these, revitalizing the literature instruction in the senior high school is highly recommended in this study.

  2. The world of physics a small library of the literature of physics from antiquity to the present

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Jefferson H

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-one years ago Simon & Schuster published James R. Newman's excellent The World of Mathematics. The present anthology on physics is much along the same lines. Most of the pages are devoted to excerpts from over 100 of the most important writers on physics topics. Each item is preceded by editorial commentary. The selections avoid extensive use of mathematics; they are accessible to nonspecialists but are by no means "easy reading." The editorial comments are generally helpful, although errors and omissions are occasionally conspicuous. The first half of volume 1 is perhaps overweighted with the ideas of ancient and medieval thinkers, not all of whom were closely tied to the development of physical science. Nevertheless, the set as a whole provides an enjoyable and comprehensive look at physics.

  3. APPLICATION OF PARAMETER CONTINUATION METHOD FOR INVESTIGATION OF VIBROIMPACT SYSTEMS DYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR. PROBLEM STATE. SHORT SURVEY OF WORLD SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Bazhenov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Authors in their works study vibroimpact system dynamic behaviour by numerical parametric continuation technique combined with shooting and Newton-Raphson’s methods. The technique is adapted to two-mass two-degree-of-freedom vibroimpact system under periodic excitation. Impact is simulated by nonlinear contact interaction force based on Hertz’s contact theory. Stability or instability of obtained periodic solutions is determined by monodromy matrix eigenvalues (multipliers based on Floquet’s theory. In the present paper we describe the state of problem of parameter continuation method using for nonlinear tasks solution. Also we give the short survey of numerous contemporary literature in English and Russian about parameter continuation method application for nonlinear problems. This method is applied for vibroimpact problem solving more rarely because of the difficulties connected with repeated impacts.

  4. Current and future prospects for heat recovery from waste in European district heating systems: A literature and data review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Urban; Münster, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Municipal solid waste has seen increasing annual volumes for many decades in contemporary Europe and constitutes, if not properly managed, an environmental problem due to local pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, waste is also an alternative fuel for power and heat generation; energy recovery from waste represents an effective measure to reduce landfilling and avoid disposal emissions while simultaneously reducing the equivalent demand for primary energy supply. A key factor for obtaining the full synergetic benefits of this energy recovery is the presence of local heat distribution infrastructures, without which no large-scale recovery and utilisation of excess heat is possible. In this paper, which aims to estimate municipal solid waste volumes available for heat recovery in European district heating systems in 2030, a literature and data review is performed to establish and assess current and future EU (European Union) waste generation and management. Main conclusions are that more heat can be recovered from current Waste-to-Energy facilities operating at low average heat recovery efficiencies, that efficient incineration capacity is geographically concentrated, and that waste available for heat recovery in 2030 is equally determined by total generation volumes by this year as by future EU deployment levels of district heating. - Highlights: • European municipal solid waste time series data analysed from 1995 to 2012. • Review of modelling approaches to assess future European waste generation. • Weather corrected district heat data for EU Member States in 1995 and 2012. • Low average heat recovery efficiency in current European waste incineration. • Future heat recovery efficiencies as determinant as future generation volumes.

  5. Current issues in the transport of radioactive waste and spent fuel: work by the World Nuclear Transport Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H-J.; Bonnardel-Azzarelli, B. [World Nuclear Transport Inst., London (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Various kinds of radioactive waste are generated from nuclear power and fuel cycle facilities. These materials have to be treated, stored and eventually sent to a repository site. Transport of wastes between these various stages is crucial for the sustainable utilization of nuclear energy. The IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (SSR-6) have, for many decades, provided a safe and efficient framework for radioactive materials transport and continue to do so. However, some shippers have experienced that in the transport of certain specific radioactive wastes, difficulties can be encountered. For example, some materials produced in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities are unique in terms of composition or size and can be difficult to characterize as surface contaminated objects (SCO) or homogeneous. One way WNTI (World Nuclear Transport Institute) helps develop transport methodologies is through the use of Industry Working Groups, bringing together WNTI members with common interests, issues and experiences. The Back-End Transport Industry Working Group focuses on the following issues currently. - Characterization of Waste: techniques and methods to classify wastes - Large Objects: slightly contaminated large objects (ex. spent steam generators) transport - Dual Use Casks: transportable storage casks for spent nuclear fuels, including the very long term storage of spent fuel - Fissile Exceptions: new fissile exceptions provisions of revised TS-R-1 (SSR-6) The paper gives a broad overview of current issues for the packaging and transport of radioactive wastes and the associated work of the WNTI. (author)

  6. Are Metals Emitted from Electronic Cigarettes a Reason for Health Concern? A Risk-Assessment Analysis of Currently Available Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos E. Farsalinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have found that metals are emitted to the electronic cigarette (EC aerosol. However, the potential health impact of exposure to such metals has not been adequately defined. The purpose of this study was to perform a risk assessment analysis, evaluating the exposure of electronic cigarette (EC users to metal emissions based on findings from the published literature. Methods: Two studies were found in the literature, measuring metals emitted to the aerosol from 13 EC products. We estimated that users take on average 600 EC puffs per day, but we evaluated the daily exposure from 1200 puffs. Estimates of exposure were compared with the chronic Permissible Daily Exposure (PDE from inhalational medications defined by the U.S. Pharmacopeia (cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and nickel, the Minimal Risk Level (MRL defined by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (manganese and the Recommended Exposure Limit (REL defined by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (aluminum, barium, iron, tin, titanium, zinc and zirconium. Results: The average daily exposure from 13 EC products was 2.6 to 387 times lower than the safety cut-off point of PDEs, 325 times lower than the safety limit of MRL and 665 to 77,514 times lower than the safety cut-off point of RELs. Only one of the 13 products was found to result in exposure 10% higher than PDE for one metal (cadmium at the extreme daily use of 1200 puffs. Significant differences in emissions between products were observed. Conclusions: Based on currently available data, overall exposure to metals from EC use is not expected to be of significant health concern for smokers switching to EC use, but is an unnecessary source of exposure for never-smokers. Metal analysis should be expanded to more products and exposure can be further reduced through improvements in product quality and appropriate choice of materials.

  7. Current measurements from acoustic doppler current profilers (ADCP) in the southwest Atlantic Ocean from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 1991-01-03 to 1992-11-26 (NODC Accession 0087597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data from the ADCP instruments of BE/335 and BW/333 from January 3, 1991 to November 26, 1992 collected as part of the World Ocean Circulation...

  8. Hurdles to the global antipolio campaign in Pakistan: an outline of the current status and future prospects to achieve a polio free world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Tariq; Qazi, Javaria

    2013-08-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative to eradicate polio completely by the year 2000 has been successful, except for three endemic and some non-endemic countries. Pakistan, one of the three endemic polio reservoirs, is posing a serious threat to the success of the initiative. Currently, the expanded programme on immunisation has been geared to win the race over polio virus in Pakistan. After the remarkable decrease in polio cases from 198 in 2011 to only 58 in 2012, Pakistan seemed to be at the verge of success. However, hurdles continue to retard the campaign. The war against terrorism, misconceptions about polio vaccine, religious misinterpretations, frustration among vaccinators, lack of awareness, social considerations, natural calamities, inaccessibility, and inefficient vaccines and so on are continually rupturing the foundations of the worldwide initiative in the country. Weak health management is found at the hub of majority of the challenges. Stricter policies, well managed and supervised plans and strategic actions, risk analysis and enhanced communication may help giving the final punch to polio virus in the country. Analysis suggested that there is some literature available on the challenges to polio elimination, yet there is not a single publication up to date that considers all the possible hurdles in a single manuscript. This paper sorts out the breaches that hamper the goal of eliminating polio from Pakistan. We have evaluated all the possible barriers and explained them with a perspective that will help develop area specific strategies against polio virus and thus eradicate polio virus from the world.

  9. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney-Lang, E.; Auyeung, B.; Escudero, J.

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. • BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. • A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. • Indirect studies discovered

  10. Expanding the (kaleido)scope: exploring current literature trends for translating electroencephalography (EEG) based brain-computer interfaces for motor rehabilitation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney-Lang, E; Auyeung, B; Escudero, J

    2016-12-01

    Rehabilitation applications using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) have recently shown encouraging results for motor recovery. Effective BCI neurorehabilitation has been shown to exploit neuroplastic properties of the brain through mental imagery tasks. However, these applications and results are currently restricted to adults. A systematic search reveals there is essentially no literature describing motor rehabilitative BCI applications that use electroencephalograms (EEG) in children, despite advances in such applications with adults. Further inspection highlights limited literature pursuing research in the field, especially outside of neurofeedback paradigms. Then the question naturally arises, do current literature trends indicate that EEG based BCI motor rehabilitation applications could be translated to children? To provide further evidence beyond the available literature for this particular topic, we present an exploratory survey examining some of the indirect literature related to motor rehabilitation BCI in children. Our goal is to establish if evidence in the related literature supports research on this topic and if the related studies can help explain the dearth of current research in this area. The investigation found positive literature trends in the indirect studies which support translating these BCI applications to children and provide insight into potential pitfalls perhaps responsible for the limited literature. Careful consideration of these pitfalls in conjunction with support from the literature emphasize that fully realized motor rehabilitation BCI applications for children are feasible and would be beneficial. •  BCI intervention has improved motor recovery in adult patients and offer supplementary rehabilitation options to patients. •  A systematic literature search revealed that essentially no research has been conducted bringing motor rehabilitation BCI applications to children, despite advances in BCI. •  Indirect studies

  11. 75 FR 70691 - World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC, Premedia Chicago Division, Currently Known as Quad/Graphics, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,142] World Color Mt. Morris... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on May 24, 2010, applicable to workers of World Color Mt... that on July 2, 2010, World Color Mt. Morris, IL LLC was purchased by Quad/Graphics, Inc. and is...

  12. Changes in the world rivers' discharge projected from an updated high resolution dataset of current and future climate zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Monia; di Paola, Arianna

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, an updated global map of the current climate zoning and of its projections, according to the Köppen-Geiger classification, is first provided. The map at high horizontal resolution (0.5° × 0.5°), representative of the current (i.e. 1961-2005) conditions, is based on the Climate Research Unit dataset holding gridded series of historical observed temperature and precipitation, while projected conditions rely on the simulated series, for the same variables, by the General Circulation Model CMCC-CM. Modeled variables were corrected for their bias and then projections of climate zoning were generated for the medium term (2006-2050) and long term (2056-2100) future periods, under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Results show that Equatorial and Arid climates will spread at the expenses of Snow and Polar climates, with the Warm Temperate experiencing more moderate increase. Maps of climate zones are valuable for a wide range of studies on climate change and its impacts, especially those regarding the water cycle that is strongly regulated by the combined conditions of precipitation and temperature. As example of large scale hydrological applications, in this work we tested and implemented a spatial statistical procedure, the geographically weighted regression among climate zones' surface and mean annual discharge (MAD) at hydrographic basin level, to quantify likely changes in MAD for the main world rivers monitored through the Global Runoff Data Center database. The selected river basins are representative of more than half of both global superficial freshwater resources and world's land area. Globally, a decrease in MAD is projected both in the medium term and long term, while spatial differences highlight how some areas require efforts to avoid consequences of amplified water scarcity, while other areas call for strategies to take the opportunity from the expected increase in water availability. Also the fluctuations of trends between the

  13. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes; Cho, Sung-Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma

  14. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles (United States); Cho, Sung Ki [Div. of Interventional Radiology, Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Div. of Hepatology, Dept. of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  15. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, UCLA Medical Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Cho, Sung-Ki [Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351 (Korea, Republic of); Saab, Sammy [Division of Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Yttrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy with glass microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: Current and updated literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanic, Lourdes; Cho, Sung Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma

  17. Yttrium-90 Selective Internal Radiation Therapy with Glass Microspheres for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Current and Updated Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Alanis, Lourdes; Cho, Sung-Ki; Saab, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary liver cancer and it represents the majority of cancer-related deaths in the world. More than 70% of patients present at an advanced stage, beyond potentially curative options. Ytrrium-90 selective internal radiation therapy (Y90-SIRT) with glass microspheres is rapidly gaining acceptance as a potential therapy for intermediate and advanced stage primary hepatocellular carcinoma and liver metastases. The technique involves delivery of Y90 infused glass microspheres via the hepatic arterial blood flow to the appropriate tumor. The liver tumor receives a highly concentrated radiation dose while sparing the healthy liver parenchyma due to its preferential blood supply from portal venous blood. There are two commercially available devices: TheraSphere® and SIR-Spheres®. Although, Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres improves median survival in patients with intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and has the potential to downstage hepatocellular carcinoma so that the selected candidates meet the transplantable criteria, it has not gained widespread acceptance due to the lack of large randomized controlled trials. Currently, there are various clinical trials investigating the use of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma and the outcomes of these trials may result in the incorporation of Y90-SIRT with glass microspheres into the treatment guidelines as a standard therapy option for patients with intermediate and advanced stage hepatocellular carcinoma.

  18. MANAGEMENT OF DIABETES DURING AIR TRAVEL: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW OF CURRENT RECOMMENDATIONS AND THEIR SUPPORTING EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, James; Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles H; Belalcazar, L Maria

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with diabetes are increasingly seeking pretravel advice, but updated professional recommendations remain scant. We performed a systematic review on diabetes management during air travel to summarize current recommendations, assess supporting evidence, and identify areas of future research. A systematic review of the English literature on diabetes management during air travel was undertaken utilizing PubMed and MEDLINE. Publications regarding general travel advice; adjustment of insulin and noninsulin therapies; and the use of insulin pumps, glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors at altitude were included. Gathered information was used to create an updated summary of glucose-lowering medication adjustment during air travel. Sixty-one publications were identified, most providing expert opinion and few offering primary data (47 expert opinion, 2 observational studies, 2 case reports, 10 device studies). General travel advice was uniform, with increasing attention to preflight security. Indications for oral antihyperglycemic therapy adjustments varied. There were few recommendations on contemporary agents and on nonhypoglycemic adverse events. There was little consensus on insulin adjustment protocols, many antedating current insulin formulations. Most publications advocated adjusting insulin pump time settings after arrival; however, there was disagreement on timing and rate adjustments. Glucometers and subcutaneous glucose sensors were reported to be less accurate at altitude, but not to an extent that would preclude their clinical use. Recommendations for diabetes management during air travel vary significantly and are mostly based on expert opinion. Data from systematic investigation on glucose-lowering medication adjustment protocols may support the development of a future consensus statement. CSII = continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (device) DPP-4 = dipeptidyl peptidase 4 EGA = error grid analysis GDH = glucose dehydrogenase GOX = glucose

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head: a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Gunalp; Mutluoglu, Mesut; Ersen, Omer; Yildiz, Senol

    2016-01-01

    To review the current literature on the use of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy in the treatment of osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). We searched PubMed, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), EMBASE, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL and MEDLINE through April 2015. We hand-searched relevant textbooks, conference proceedings and the reference lists of review articles and clinical studies Randomized controlled trials (RCT) and observational studies (cohort study, case-control study, case series) that reported the outcome of patients who received HBO₂therapy for ONFH were included. Only English-language articles were included. Study quality was not used as an exclusion criterion. Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted data and presented to other authors. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. We identified eight clinical studies; two randomized controlled trials (RCTs); one historically controlled study; and five case series. The majority of the studies were small-scale, heterogeneous and methodologically weak. In four of the studies HBO₂therapy was combined with other treatment modalities, making it impossible to draw firm conclusions on the specific effects of HBO₂therapy. Hip survivorship in studies wherein HBO₂therapy was used alone was 95.5% in Steinberg Stage I lesions, 89% in Steinberg Stage II lesions and 100% in Ficat Stage II lesions. There is a room for HBO₂therapy in the management ONFH. Further RCTs, however, are required to better elucidate the role of HBO₂therapy in the treatment of ONFH.

  20. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of vulvovaginitis in girls: a current approach and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyitler, İlke; Kavukcu, Salih

    2017-04-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in children and young girls. Some of the factors which cause vulvovaginitis include hypoestrogenism, the anatomical proximity of rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. We made a literature search with Pubmed, Medline and Cochrane database from January 2002 to May 2015 in English language using the key words vulvovaginitis, children, clinical, diagnosis and treatment. Vulvovaginitis in girls is usually caused by non-specific factors and hygiene measures, bioyoghurt and avoidance of chemical irritants are generally useful. Weight control if necessary and prevention of voiding dysfunction are effective. Vaginal flora is important in girls and results should be interpreted with clinical features to decide whether an isolated microorganism is part of the normal microflora or is the cause of symptomatic vulvovaginitis. Specific treatment is generally considered in case of a detected pathogen microorganism. Isolation of a sexually transmitted organism requires further investigation. Persistent disease may not always indicate a foreign body but it must be taken into account. Girls and parents are encouraged psychologically in all steps of evaluation, diagnosis and treatment. Probiotics, nanotechnology and petroleum jelly are other important treatment options used in vulvovaginitis. In this review, we present current approach to the presentation and management of vulvovaginitis in childhood. This disorder requires a comprehensive evaluation in all steps of diagnosis, differential diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation generates a transient increase of small-world in brain connectivity: an EEG graph theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Riccardo; Miraglia, Francesca; Granata, Giuseppe; Romanello, Roberto; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2018-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique able to modulate cortical excitability in a polarity-dependent way. At present, only few studies investigated the effects of tDCS on the modulation of functional connectivity between remote cortical areas. The aim of this study was to investigate-through graph theory analysis-how bipolar tDCS modulate cortical networks high-density EEG recordings were acquired before and after bipolar cathodal, anodal and sham tDCS involving the primary motor and pre-motor cortices of the dominant hemispherein 14 healthy subjects. Results showed that, after bipolar anodal tDCS stimulation, brain networks presented a less evident "small world" organization with a global tendency to be more random in its functional connections with respect to prestimulus condition in both hemispheres. Results suggest that tDCS globally modulates the cortical connectivity of the brain, modifying the underlying functional organization of the stimulated networks, which might be related to changes in synaptic efficiency of the motor network and related brain areas. This study demonstrated that graph analysis approach to EEG recordings is able to intercept changes in cortical functions mediated by bipolar anodal tDCS mainly involving the dominant M1 and related motor areas. Concluding, tDCS could be an useful technique to help understanding brain rhythms and their topographic functional organization and specificity.

  2. Identifying Measures Used for Assessing Quality of YouTube Videos with Patient Health Information: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel; Lau, Annie Ys

    2013-02-28

    Recent publications on YouTube have advocated its potential for patient education. However, a reliable description of what could be considered quality information for patient education on YouTube is missing. To identify topics associated with the concept of quality information for patient education on YouTube in the scientific literature. A literature review was performed in MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and PsychINFO. Abstract selection was first conducted by two independent reviewers; discrepancies were discussed in a second abstract review with two additional independent reviewers. Full text of selected papers were analyzed looking for concepts, definitions, and topics used by its authors that focused on the quality of information on YouTube for patient education. In total, 456 abstracts were extracted and 13 papers meeting eligibility criteria were analyzed. Concepts identified related to quality of information for patient education are categorized as expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures. These include (in descending order): (1) quality of content in 10/13 (77%), (2) view count in 9/13 (69%), (3) health professional opinion in 8/13 (62%), (4) adequate length or duration in 6/13 (46%), (5) public ratings in 5/13 (39%), (6) adequate title, tags, and description in 5/13 (39%), (7) good description or a comprehensive narrative in 4/13 (31%), (8) evidence-based practices included in video in 4/13 (31%), (9) suitability as a teaching tool in 4/13 (31%), (10) technical quality in 4/13 (31%), (11) credentials provided in video in 4/13 (31%), (12) enough amount of content to identify its objective in 3/13 (23%), and (13) viewership share in 2/13 (15%). Our review confirms that the current topics linked to quality of information for patient education on YouTube are unclear and not standardized. Although expert-driven, popularity-driven, or heuristic-driven measures are used as proxies to estimate the quality of video information

  3. The Great British Medalists Project: A Review of Current Knowledge on the Development of the World's Best Sporting Talent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Tim; Hardy, Lew; Güllich, Arne; Abernethy, Bruce; Côté, Jean; Woodman, Tim; Montgomery, Hugh; Laing, Stewart; Warr, Chelsea

    2016-08-01

    The literature base regarding the development of sporting talent is extensive, and includes empirical articles, reviews, position papers, academic books, governing body documents, popular books, unpublished theses and anecdotal evidence, and contains numerous models of talent development. With such a varied body of work, the task for researchers, practitioners and policy makers of generating a clear understanding of what is known and what is thought to be true regarding the development of sporting talent is particularly challenging. Drawing on a wide array of expertise, we address this challenge by avoiding adherence to any specific model or area and by providing a reasoned review across three key overarching topics: (a) the performer; (b) the environment; and (c) practice and training. Within each topic sub-section, we review and calibrate evidence by performance level of the samples. We then conclude each sub-section with a brief summary, a rating of the quality of evidence, a recommendation for practice and suggestions for future research. These serve to highlight both our current level of understanding and our level of confidence in providing practice recommendations, but also point to a need for future studies that could offer evidence regarding the complex interactions that almost certainly exist across domains.

  4. Fracture liaison services for osteoporosis in the Asia-Pacific region: current unmet needs and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y -F; Huang, C -F; Hwang, J -S; Kuo, J -F; Lin, K -M; Huang, H -C; Bagga, S; Kumar, A; Chen, F -P; Wu, C -H

    2018-04-01

    The analysis aimed to identify the treatment gaps in current fracture liaison services (FLS) and to provide recommendations for best practice establishment of future FLS across the Asia-Pacific region. The findings emphasize the unmet need for the implementation of new programs and provide recommendations for the refinement of existing ones. The study's objectives were to evaluate fracture liaison service (FLS) programs in the Asia-Pacific region and provide recommendations for establishment of future FLS programs. A systematic literature review (SLR) of Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (2000-2017 inclusive) was performed using the following keywords: osteoporosis, fractures, liaison, and service. Inclusion criteria included the following: patients ≥ 50 years with osteoporosis-related fractures; randomized controlled trials or observational studies with control groups (prospective or retrospective), pre-post, cross-sectional and economic evaluation studies. Success of direct or indirect interventions was assessed based on patients' understanding of risk, bone mineral density assessment, calcium intake, osteoporosis treatment, re-fracture rates, adherence, and mortality, in addition to cost-effectiveness. Overall, 5663 unique citations were identified and the SLR identified 159 publications, reporting 37 studies in Asia-Pacific. These studies revealed the unmet need for public health education, adequate funding, and staff resourcing, along with greater cooperation between departments and physicians. These actions can help to overcome therapeutic inertia with sufficient follow-up to ensure adherence to recommendations and compliance with treatment. The findings also emphasize the importance of primary care physicians continuing to prescribe treatment and ensure service remains convenient. These findings highlight the limited evidence supporting FLS across the Asia-Pacific region, emphasizing the unmet need for new programs and/or refinement of

  5. DETECTION AND REPORTING OF RANAVIRUS IN AMPHIBIANS: EVALUATION OF THE ROLES OF THE WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH AND THE PUBLISHED LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Yvonne; Meredith, Anna; Price, Stephen J

    2017-07-01

    Pathogens of wildlife can have direct impacts on human and livestock health as well as on biodiversity, as causative factors in population declines and extinctions. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) seeks to facilitate rapid sharing of information about animal diseases to enable up-to-date risk assessments of translocations of animals and animal products. The OIE also produces manuals of recommended methods to standardize diagnostic testing. Ranaviruses are important amphibian pathogens that may have spread through international trade, and infections became notifiable to OIE in 2009. We surveyed and reviewed published literature for data on sampling, diagnostic testing, and reporting of ranavirus during 2009-14. We also investigated attitudes and awareness of the OIE and its recommendations for best practice. We found that sampling effort is uneven and concentrated in the northern hemisphere. We also identified citizen science projects that have the potential to improve the quantity and quality of data on the incidence of ranavirus infection and the circumstances surrounding disease outbreaks. We found reporting of infection to be inconsistent: reporting was split between the published literature (where it was subject to a 2-yr lag) and the OIE with little overlap, results of negative diagnostic tests were underreported, and scientific researchers lacked awareness of the role of the OIE. Approaches to diagnostic screening were poorly harmonized and heavily reliant on molecular methods. These flaws in the mechanisms of ranavirus detection and reporting hamper the construction of a comprehensive disease information database.

  6. Audiologia do envelhecimento: revisão da literatura e perspectivas atuais Audiology and aging: literature review and current horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Peixoto Veras

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura sobre a perda auditiva associada ao envelhecimento e suas implicações, numa perspectiva atual. REVISÃO DA LITERATURA: Nos estudos realizados no Brasil, a presbiacusia vem sendo apontada como causa mais freqüente da deficiência auditiva em pessoas idosas, implicando em uma dificuldade de compreensão durante a comunicação verbal. Estudos internacionais também mostram alta prevalência da perda auditiva em pessoas idosas. DISCUSSÃO: Segundo pesquisas recentes, à medida que o quantitativo da população idosa vem aumentando, também aumenta a prevalência da presbiacusia que interfere na qualidade de vida do idoso. Mesmo entre os profissionais de saúde, ainda é grande o desconhecimento em relação às vantagens e ganhos que a reeducação auditiva específica para idosos com perda auditiva pode oferecer. CONCLUSÃO: Os artigos aqui analisados mostraram que os serviços de saúde da rede pública, que envolvem médicos e fonoaudiólogos, devem estabelecer diretrizes para o desenvolvimento de programas de diagnóstico, aquisição de aparelhos de amplificação sonora individual e, principalmente, de reeducação auditiva para os idosos portadores de presbiacusia, para que eles possam participar e desfrutar das relações sociais, mantendo uma boa qualidade de vida. Entretanto, no Brasil, os estudos e pesquisas nesta área estão apenas começando.AIM: to review the literature on aging-related hearing loss and its current impacts. LITERATURE REVIEW: In studies carried out in Brazil, presbycusis has been blamed for being the most frequent cause of hearing loss in the elderly, causing verbal communication impairment. International studies also show the high prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly. DISCUSSION: According to recent investigations, as the number of elderly people increase, the prevalence of presbycusis interfering in the life quality of this population also increases. Even among health care

  7. Features of Mobile Diabetes Applications: Review of the Literature and Analysis of Current Applications Compared Against Evidence-Based Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Årsand, Eirik; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    = 101) were (1) insulin and medication recording, 63 (62%), (2) data export and communication, 61 (60%), (3) diet recording, 47 (47%), and (4) weight management, 43 (43%). From the literature search (n = 26), the most prevalent features were (1) PHR or Web server synchronization, 18 (69%), (2) insulin and medication recording, 17 (65%), (3) diet recording, 17 (65%), and (4) data export and communication, 16 (62%). Interestingly, although clinical guidelines widely refer to the importance of education, this is missing from the top functionalities in both cases. Conclusions While a wide selection of mobile applications seems to be available for people with diabetes, this study shows there are obvious gaps between the evidence-based recommendations and the functionality used in study interventions or found in online markets. Current results confirm personalized education as an underrepresented feature in diabetes mobile applications. We found no studies evaluating social media concepts in diabetes self-management on mobile devices, and its potential remains largely unexplored. PMID:21979293

  8. Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society (RESNA) position on the application of wheelchair standing devices: 2013 current state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicianno, Brad E; Morgan, Amy; Lieberman, Jenny; Rosen, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    This article, approved by the Rehabilitation Engineering & Assistive Technology Society of North America Board of Directors on December 23, 2013, shares typical clinical applications and provides evidence from the literature supporting the use of wheelchair standers.

  9. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from UNKNOWN From World-Wide Distribution from 19390416 to 19840111 (NODC Accession 8700122)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains an "Atlas of Selected "Modern" Good Quality Deep Data for the World Oceans (excluding the Arctic). This atlas was compiled by Scripps and...

  10. The long-term supply/demand trend of world energy and the current oil situation in the Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    1996-01-01

    Total world primary energy consumption excluding the FSU increased by 2.9% in 1995, which is somewhat above the 10 year average rate of 2.4%. This reflected strong economic growth in most parts of the world. The increase in demand confirmed the recovery of the link between the economic growth and consumption of primary energy, which broke down in the period of oil crises. Oil demand in the Asian Emerging Market Economies has continued to be very strong. Oil demand has doubled in a decade in this region and is now one sixth of world consumption. Malaysia was the fastest growing oil market in the world in 1995 at 15.5%. In volume terms, S. Korea grew the most in the world by 170,000 b/d, closely followed by China and India. Because of the fast growing oil demand, many energy economists expect a tight supply situation in the Asian oil market in the early 21st Century. However, recent technological developments would be able to supply crude oil appropriate for an increase in oil demand. (author)

  11. Consideration of Culture and Context in School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: A Review of Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lindsay M.; O'Keeffe, Breda V.; Sugai, George

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature related to culture and student behavior reveals a number of interesting observations that are not surprising. First, culture is a difficult construct to define and has been defined variably over the years. Second, schools are becoming increasingly diverse, and evidence-based behavior management practices have been…

  12. Commentary on Current Practices and Future Directions for the Assessment of Child and Adolescent Intelligence in Schools around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, W. Joel; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    As documented in this special issue, all over the world hard choices must be made in education, government, business, and medicine. Intelligence tests, used intelligently and with appropriate ethical safeguards, are one tool of many that help make hard choices work out well, or at least better than the next-best alternative (Kaufman, Raiford,…

  13. Current status on behavioral and biological markers of PTSD: a search for clarity in a conflicting literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2013-06-01

    Extensive research has identified stereotypic behavioral and biological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), such as heightened autonomic activity, an exaggerated startle response, reduced basal cortisol levels and cognitive impairments. We have reviewed primary research in this area, noting that factors involved in the susceptibility and expression of PTSD symptoms are more complex and heterogeneous than is commonly stated, with extensive findings which are inconsistent with the stereotypic behavioral and biological profile of the PTSD patient. A thorough assessment of the literature indicates that interactions among myriad susceptibility factors, including social support, early life stress, sex, age, peri- and post-traumatic dissociation, cognitive appraisal of trauma, neuroendocrine abnormalities and gene polymorphisms, in conjunction with the inconsistent expression of the disorder across studies, confounds attempts to characterize PTSD as a monolithic disorder. Overall, our assessment of the literature addresses the great challenge in developing a behavioral and biomarker-based diagnosis of PTSD. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The impact of clinical trial monitoring approaches on data integrity and cost--a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Bihlet, Asger Reinstrup; Kalakou, Faidra; Andersen, Jeppe Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring is a costly requirement when conducting clinical trials. New regulatory guidance encourages the industry to consider alternative monitoring methods to the traditional 100 % source data verification (SDV) approach. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of publications on different monitoring methods and their impact on subject safety data, data integrity, and monitoring cost. The literature search was performed by keyword searches in MEDLINE and hand search of key journals. All publications were reviewed for details on how a monitoring approach impacted subject safety data, data integrity, or monitoring costs. Twenty-two publications were identified. Three publications showed that SDV has some value for detection of not initially reported adverse events and centralized statistical monitoring (CSM) captures atypical trends. Fourteen publications showed little objective evidence of improved data integrity with traditional monitoring such as 100 % SDV and sponsor queries as compared to reduced SDV, CSM, and remote monitoring. Eight publications proposed a potential for significant cost reductions of monitoring by reducing SDV without compromising the validity of the trial results. One hundred percent SDV is not a rational method of ensuring data integrity and subject safety based on the high cost, and this literature review indicates that reduced SDV is a viable monitoring method. Alternative methods of monitoring such as centralized monitoring utilizing statistical tests are promising alternatives but have limitations as stand-alone tools. Reduced SDV combined with a centralized, risk-based approach may be the ideal solution to reduce monitoring costs while improving essential data quality.

  15. Current status and prospects of France's nuclear sector and France's vision of the nuclear renaissance throughout the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugat, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Industrial companies are merging of forging alliances, and are competing for the securing of a stable supply of uranium resources; different states are discussing in order to establish partnership or cooperation agreements, on both the bilateral or multilateral side. in other words, the nuclear scene is more changing and active than ever. This burst of activity is motivated by the renewed interest in the nuclear energy throughout the world. In order to meet the expectation of more and more people wanting to have access to energy, nuclear energy has to face important challenges: the highest level of safety is required, the nuclear waste must be dealt with in a responsible and sustainable way, and the trust and acceptance of the public must be consolidated. France, being a long time supporter of nuclear energy is of course an actor of this Renaissance, and is strengthening its nuclear sector in order to meet the criteria expressed above. i will detail in my speech what are the steps taken in france in order to do so, and share my view of what should be a sustainable development of nuclear energy in the world, providing electricity while keeping a clean record on safety and non proliferation matters. We are clearly at a turning point in the history of nuclear energy, perfectly illustrated by the shift in the position of a quite large number of environmentalists, considering now nuclear as a sound option in order to produce base load energy without emitting greenhouse effect gas. Given the constraints at stake, it seems clear that more and more countries will turn to nuclear for their energy needs. It is up to us, the advanced countries in this field, gathered here today in Korea, to help this happen. It is up to us to lead the way, and show the world that electricity can be produced from nuclear with the highest standards of safety at competitive come along with no additional threat regarding non proliferation issues. All the major nuclear countries, including of

  16. Porous metal cones: gold standard for massive bone loss in complex revision knee arthroplasty? A systematic review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divano, Stefano; Cavagnaro, Luca; Zanirato, Andrea; Basso, Marco; Felli, Lamberto; Formica, Matteo

    2018-04-18

    Revision knee arthroplasty is increasing, and in that case, bone loss management is still a challenging problem. In the last years, the body of literature and interest surrounding porous metal cones has grown, but few systematic evaluations of the existing evidence have been performed. The aim of our systematic review is to collect and critically analyze the available evidence about metal cones in revision knee arthroplasty especially focusing our attention on indications, results, complications, and infection rate of these promising orthopaedic devices. We performed a systematic review of the available English literature, considering the outcomes and the complications of tantalum cones. The combinations of keyword were "porous metal cones", "knee revision", "bone loss", "knee arthroplasty", "periprosthetic joint infection", and "outcome". From the starting 312 papers available, 20 manuscripts were finally included. Only one included study has a control group. The main indication for metal cones is type IIb and III defects according AORI classification. Most of the papers show good clinical and radiological outcomes with low rate of complications. The examined studies provide encouraging clinical and radiological short-to-mid-term outcomes. Clinical studies have shown a low rate of aseptic loosening, intraoperative fractures, infection rate and a lower failure rate than the previous treatment methods. Higher quality papers are needed to draw definitive conclusions about porous metal cones.

  17. Typhoid fever causing haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a non-endemic country - first case report and review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, Paula; Olbrich, Peter; Falcón-Neyra, Lola; Lucena, Jose Manuel; Aznar, Javier; Neth, Olaf

    2018-06-07

    Development of secondary haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) in the context of typhoid fever (TF) is a very rare but serious complication. Description of the first pediatric case of typhoid fever acquired in a non-endemic area complicated by sHLH. A systematic literature review of sHLH in the context of TF was performed with extraction of epidemiological, clinical and laboratory data. The literature search revealed 17 articles (22 patients). Fifteen patients were eligible for data analysis (53.4% children). All patients had fever and pancytopenia. Transaminases and LDH were frequently elevated (46.6%). Salmonella typhi was detected mainly by blood culture (64.3%). All the patients received antibiotics whereas immunomodulation (dexamethasone) was used in two cases. A high suspicion index for this condition is needed even in non-endemic areas. The addition of immunmodulation to standard antimicrobial therapy should be considered in selected cases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitral valve prolapse: an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death-a current review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spartalis, Michael; Tzatzaki, Eleni; Spartalis, Eleftherios; Athanasiou, Antonios; Moris, Demetrios; Damaskos, Christos; Garmpis, Nikolaos; Voudris, Vassilis

    2017-12-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common valve abnormality in general population. Despite the general belief of a benign disorder, several articles since the 1980s report sudden cardiac death (SCD) in MVP patients, with a substantial percentage of asymptomatic young individuals. The problem is to detect those patients at increased risk and implement methods that are suitable to prevent cardiac arrest. This review investigates the correlation between MVP and SCD, the understanding of the pathophysiology, the strategies for detecting those at risk and treatment options. A complete literature survey was performed using PubMed database search to gather available information regarding MVP and SCD. A total of 33 studies met selection criteria for inclusion in the review. MVP is an underrated cause of arrhythmic SCD. The subset of patients with malignant MVP who may be at greater risk for SCD is characterized by young women with bileaflet MVP, biphasic or inverted T waves in the inferior leads, and frequent complex ventricular ectopic activity with documented ventricular bigeminy or ventricular tachycardia (VT) and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) configurations of outflow tract alternating with fascicular origin or papillary muscle. MVP is a common condition in the general population and is often encountered in asymptomatic individuals. The existing literature continues to generate significant controversy regarding the association of MVP with ventricular arrhythmias and SCD. Early echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are essential, as is a greater understanding of the potential electrophysiological processes of primary arrhythmogenesis and the evaluation of the genetic substrate.

  19. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications of Personalized Genomic Medicine Research: Current Literature and Suggestions for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Shawneequa L; Abudu, Rachel; Mehlman, Maxwell J; Singer, Mendel E; Neuhauser, Duncan; Caga-Anan, Charlisse; Wiesner, Georgia L

    2016-11-01

    This review identifies the prominent topics in the literature pertaining to the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) raised by research investigating personalized genomic medicine (PGM). The abstracts of 953 articles extracted from scholarly databases and published during a 5-year period (2008-2012) were reviewed. A total of 299 articles met our research criteria and were organized thematically to assess the representation of ELSI issues for stakeholders, health specialties, journals, and empirical studies. ELSI analyses were published in both scientific and ethics journals. Investigational research comprised 45% of the literature reviewed (135 articles) and the remaining 55% (164 articles) comprised normative analyses. Traditional ELSI concerns dominated the discourse including discussions about disclosure of research results. In fact, there was a dramatic increase in the number of articles focused on the disclosure of research results and incidental findings to research participants. Few papers focused on particular disorders, the use of racial categories in research, international communities, or special populations (e.g., adolescents, elderly patients, or ethnic groups). Considering that strategies in personalized medicine increasingly target individuals' unique health conditions, environments, and ancestries, further analysis is needed on how ELSI scholarship can better serve the increasingly global, interdisciplinary, and diverse PGM research community. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Research on road traffic noise and human health in India: Review of literature from 1991 to current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the literature on research conducted during the last two decades on traffic noise impacts in India. Road traffic noise studies in India are fewer and restricted only to the metropolitan areas. The studies over the years have also focused on the monitoring, recording, analysis, modeling, and to some extent mapping related themes. Negligible studies are observed in areas of physiological and sleep research exposure-effect context. Most impact studies have been associated with annoyance and attitudinal surveys only. Little scientific literature exists related to effects of traffic noise on human physiology in the Indian context. The findings of this review search and analysis observe that very little studies are available relating to traffic noise and health impacts. All of them are subjective response studies and only a small portion of them quantify the exposure-effect chain and model the noise index with annoyance. The review of papers showed that road traffic noise is a cause for annoyance to a variety of degree among the respondents. A generalization of impacts and meta-analysis was not possible due to variability of the study designs and outputs preferred.

  1. Does deforestation promote or inhibit malaria transmission in the Amazon? A systematic literature review and critical appraisal of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker Lima, Joanna M; Vittor, Amy; Rifai, Sami; Valle, Denis

    2017-06-05

    Considerable interest in the relationship between biodiversity and disease has recently captured the attention of the research community, with important public policy implications. In particular, malaria in the Amazon region is often cited as an example of how forest conservation can improve public health outcomes. However, despite a growing body of literature and an increased understanding of the relationship between malaria and land use / land cover change (LULC) in Amazonia, contradictions have emerged. While some studies report that deforestation increases malaria risk, others claim the opposite. Assessing malaria risk requires examination of dynamic processes among three main components: (i) the environment (i.e. LULC and landscape transformations), (ii) vector biology (e.g. mosquito species distributions, vector activity and life cycle, plasmodium infection rates), and (iii) human populations (e.g. forest-related activity, host susceptibility, movement patterns). In this paper, we conduct a systematic literature review on malaria risk and deforestation in the Amazon focusing on these three components. We explore key features that are likely to generate these contrasting results using the reviewed articles and our own data from Brazil and Peru, and conclude with suggestions for productive avenues in future research.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Antidoping control in Brazil: history, current situation, and prospects for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Pereira dos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Ribeiro, Sergio Luiz Galan; Santos, Azenildo Moura

    2014-07-01

    Brazil will soon host two major sporting events: the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Given the importance of antidoping control during these competitions, it is important that the scientific community receive a status update on antidoping control in Brazil. In this brief communication, the authors present the status of antidoping control in Brazil from an historical perspective, both the benefits and difficulties to be faced by antidoping control during these events, and the legacy resulting from the efficacy of the drug testing performed during these competitions.

  3. The Law of Entropy – the Most Economical of All Natural Laws. Current Manifestations of World Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niţă DOBROTĂ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The last three centuries have witnessed a specific social evolution, one much more dynamical than those of the previous era. The general vector of this dynamics is represented by the progress in technology and science that had taken place in all arrays of social action, a phenomenon largely manifested throughout Western European countries and North America. It is against this general setup that the world saw the formation and development of both European national communities and of the capitalist market economies, two of the historical causes that lead to the fall of the feudal social and economical system.

  4. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From World-Wide Distribution from 18940101 to 19931231 (NODC Accession 9400068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SCUDS (Surface CUrrent Data Summary) Data from Robert Rushton collected between 1894 and 1993 was submitted by Richard Enkoji of NAVOCEANO (US Naval Oceanographic...

  5. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from UNKNOWN From World-Wide Distribution from 19850101 to 19851231 (NODC Accession 8900039)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is a backup of the 1985 tropical pacific subsurface (XBT/ MBT) thermal data. The current direction, salinity and temperature for Tropical Ocean Global...

  6. CURRENT - DIRECTION and Other Data from UNKNOWN From World-Wide Distribution for 1901-01-01 (NCEI Accession 8800294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The originator's tape contains Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) surface current basic file data collected by France, Japan, United States, Britain, and Holland...

  7. Quantum corrections to ward identities of chronological AVV- and AAA-current correlators for nondegenerate many-fermion systems in the four-dimensional world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucheryavij, V.Yi.

    1994-01-01

    The explicit form of nontrivial quantum corrections to Ward identities for AVV- and AAA-current correlators in the four-dimensional world for nondegenerate many-fermion systems of general type is obtained. The characteristics of all nontrivial quantum corrections for nondegenerate two-flavour fermion systems are classified and described. In particular, the well-known results follow from ours for the trivial quantum corrections (anomalies) in the case of the degenerate spectrum of fermion masses

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging for assessing hamstring injuries: clinical benefits and pitfalls – a review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenky M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Max Greenky, Steven B Cohen Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rothman Institute, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Hamstring injuries are common injuries in all levels of athletics. Hamstring injuries can cause prolonged absence from sports and have a notorious rate of reinjury. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is being increasingly utilized following a hamstring injury. Physicians are being increasingly asked to utilize MRI to predict clinical outcomes, including time frame for return to play and risk of reinjury. In spite of numerous studies in this area, no clear consensus exists. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the literature and evidence regarding the role of MRI in treating hamstring injuries. Keywords: hamstring injury, MRI, return to play

  9. Categorization of psychoactive substances into "hard drugs" and "soft drugs": a critical review of terminology used in current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Peter; Kosticova, Michaela; Pecenak, Jan; Turcek, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Precise terminology and definitions are important components of scientific language. Although the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" are used widely by professionals, neither the International Classification of Diseases nor the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual classify psychoactive substances into the categories "hard" and "soft." To analyze the occurrence of the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" in recent scientific literature and to establish the degree of consensus in labeling psychoactive substances as "hard" or "soft." A critical review of scientific papers listed in PubMed and Scopus between 2011 and 2015. Three hundred thirty-four articles were initially identified as potentially relevant for review, 132 of which were included in the final analysis. One hundred twenty-four articles used the term "hard drugs" and 84.7% provided examples of substances considered "hard." Forty-four articles used the term "soft drugs" and 90.9% provided examples of substances considered "soft." Citations of relevant articles supporting categorization as "hard" or "soft" were not given in 90% of the articles. The authors often provided no or only very sparse information on their reasons for considering specific drugs as "hard" or "soft." Although it initially appeared that there is substantial agreement as to which psychoactive substances should be regarded as "hard" and "soft," closer inspection shows that the dividing line is blurred without clear criteria for categorization. At this time, it remains uncertain whether these terms should persist in the scientific literature. We therefore recommend these terms should be avoided or, if used, be clearly and precisely defined.

  10. A review of the Irish road networks infrastructure barriers to older peoples mobility: current policy and literature

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Valerie; Caufield, Brian; Ahern, Aoife

    2012-01-01

    Over the next thirty years in Ireland, the population aged over 65 is estimated to grow considerably. The maturation of the ‘baby boom’ generation will transform the demographics of the country. In our current and future aging society, transport and mobility are key factors in facilitating active aging. In general, older people now travel more than before, have higher levels of car ownership and are more likely to continue to drive for longer. Modal shift to more sustainable modes of transpor...

  11. Role of Motorcycle Running Lights in Reducing Motorcycle Crashes during Daytime; A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Seyed Rasoul; Hossayni, Seyed Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to other transportation modes, riding motorcycle is prone to accidents. Motorcyclists are more exposed to physical injury than the car drivers. Many multi-vehicle motorcycles crashes occur, there is right-of- way violation takes place in which another vehicle turns in fronts of a motorcycle, or a sudden cross of path of an on-coming motorcycle. One main factor which leads to high rate of motorcycle crashes is lack of conspicuity of motorcycles by other road users especially during day time traffic. This paper highlights previous studies on the implementation of motorcycle DRLs, focusing on the efficacy of the DRLs to improve motorcycle conspicuity. This paper reviews the impacts of DRL by motorcyclists on multi-vehicle motorcycle crash. The three categories of effects of motorcycle DRLs were reviewed. All literature, supporting that operating headlights during daytime appears to be an influential and effective approach to reduce rate of collision by improving motorcycle’s conspicuity in traffic. The motorcycle DRLs managed to reduce about 4 to 20% of motorcycle crash risk. This paper also recommends that motorcycle DRLs must be used globally, especially in countries with high motorcycle accidents to improve the safety of the riders as well as their pillion riders. PMID:27162907

  12. Historical dynamics and current environmental effects explain the spatial distribution of species richness patterns of New World monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vallejos-Garrido

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Why biodiversity is not uniformly distributed on the Earth is a major research question of biogeography. One of the most striking patterns of disparity in species distribution are the biodiversity hotspots, which generally do not fit with the distribution of relevant components of the Neotropical biota. In this study, we assess the proximal causes of the species-richness pattern of one of the most conspicuous groups of Neotropical mammals, the New World monkeys the Platyrrhini. We test two complementary hypotheses: (1 there is a historical source-sink dynamic (addressed using macroevolutionary and macroecological approaches; (2 the large number of species in the Amazon basin is due to the constraints imposed by environmental variables occurring outside this area. Methods We first characterize spatial patterns of species richness and biodiversity hotspots using a new, objective protocol based on probabilities. Then we evaluate the source-sink hypothesis using BioGeoBEARS analysis and nestedness analysis of species richness patterns. Complementarily, to measure how often different species pairs appear in the same sites, we used null models to estimate the checkerboard score index (C-score. Finally, we evaluate the relationship between several climatic variables and species richness through ordinary least squares (OLS and spatial autoregressive (SAR models, and the potential environmental constraints on the pattern. Results We found one significant cluster of high values for species richness in the Amazon basin. Most dispersal events occurred from the Amazonian subregion to other Neotropical areas. Temperature (T, discrepancy (BR, and NODF indexes show a significant nesting in the matrix ordered by species richness and available energy. The C-score observed was significantly smaller than the null expectation for all sites in the Neotropics where there are records of platyrrhine species. Ten climatic variables comprised the best

  13. Looking under Kachru's (1982, 1985 three circles model of World Englishes: the hidden reality and current challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Schmitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the pioneering model of World Englishes formulated by Kachru in the early 1980s that allocates the presence of English into three concentric circles: first of all, the inner circle (Great Britain, the USA where the language functions as an L1 (or native language; secondly, the outer circle (India, Nigeria where the language was forced upon the subjugated people by Britain; thirdly, the expanding circle (China, Brazil where English is studied as a foreign language. Researchers in the area of language studies tend to put too much store in Kachru's model expecting it to expose the different circles: (i the proficiency level of the speakers, (ii the variation that exists in the different dialects of the language, and (iii how the many users appropriate the language to perform their daily routine. Pung (2009 suggests "going beyond" the three circle model with his proposal of a Conical Model of English (CME, while Park and Wee (2009, p.402 state that models have no "magical efficacy in challenging dominant ideologies of English" and that change in the world is not brought about by models but my people. Based on Park and Lee's caution with regard to models, and in lieu of Pung's "going beyond" the well-known Kachruvian model, the thrust of this article is to look specifically under the inner circle, that is, the supposed "native speaker domain". It will be argued in this paper that the circles function as a palimpsest erasing and ignoring what happened in the past linguistically, historically and culturally before the appearance of English in the spaces that the language occupies at the present time in the inner, outer, and expanding circles. An examination of days gone-by, with a focus on Kachru's inner circle, can present a mirror to examine: (i bilingual (multilingual biases, (ii migration of peoples and treatment of immigrants, (iii respect (or lack of for the linguistic and cultural rights of minorities, and (iv the hegemony of

  14. Creativity and Quantum Physics: a New World View Unifying Current Theories of Creativity and Pointing Toward New Research Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kimberly Ann

    1990-01-01

    Divisions in definitions of creativity have centered primarily on the working definition of discontinuity and the inclusion of intrinsic features such as unconscious processing and intrinsic motivation and reinforcement. These differences generally result from Cohen's two world views underlying theories of creativity: Organismic, oriented toward holism; or mechanistic, oriented toward cause-effect reductionism. The quantum world view is proposed which theoretically and empirically unifies organismic and mechanistic elements of creativity. Based on Goswami's Idealistic Interpretation of quantum physics, the quantum view postulates the mind -brain as consisting of both classical and quantum structures and functions. The quantum domain accesses the transcendent order through coherent superpositions (a state of potentialities), while the classical domain performs the function of measuring apparatus through amplifying and recording the result of the collapse of the pure mental state. A theoretical experiment, based on the 1980 Marcel study of conscious and unconscious word-sense disambiguation, is conducted which compares the predictions of the quantum model with those of the 1975 Posner and Snyder Facilitation and Inhibition model. Each model agrees that while conscious access to information is limited, unconscious access is unlimited. However, each model differently defines the connection between these states: The Posner model postulates a central processing mechanism while the quantum model postulates a self-referential consciousness. Consequently, the two models predict differently. The strength of the quantum model lies in its ability to distinguish between classical and quantum definitions of discontinuity, as well as clarifying the function of consciousness, without added assumptions or ad-hoc analysis: Consciousness is an essential, valid feature of quantum mechanisms independent of the field of cognitive psychology. According to the quantum model, through a

  15. Quantification of Global Left Ventricular Function: Comparison of Multidetector Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A Meta-analysis and Review of the Current Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vleuten, P.A. van der; Willems, T.P.; Goette, M.J.; Tio, R.A.; Greuter, M.J.; Zijlstra, F.; Oudkerk, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cardiac morbidity and mortality are closely related to cardiac volumes and global left ventricular (LV) function, expressed as left ventricular ejection fraction. Accurate assessment of these parameters is required for the prediction of prognosis in individual patients as well as in entire cohorts. The current standard of reference for left ventricular function is analysis by short-axis magnetic resonance imaging. In recent years, major extensive technological improvements have been achieved in computed tomography. The most marked development has been the introduction of the multidetector CT (MDCT), which has significantly improved temporal and spatial resolutions. In order to assess the current status of MDCT for analysis of LV function, the current available literature on this subject was reviewed. The data presented in this review indicate that the global left ventricular functional parameters measured by contemporary multi-detector row systems combined with adequate reconstruction algorithms and post-processing tools show a narrow diagnostic window and are interchangeable with those obtained by MRI

  16. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  17. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma: A review of current literature in respect to the time and type of previous gynecological surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaś, Edyta; Książek, Mariusz; Raś, Renata; Skręt, Andrzej; Skręt- Magierło, Joanna; Dmoch- Gajzlerska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disorder that affects women with a history of uterine leiomyoma, which is found to metastasise within extrauterine sites. The aetiology of BML remains unexplained. Because BML is rare, and most publications contain descriptions of single cases, no statistically determined time relations were found between the primary and secondary surgeries, which may have aetiological implications. Objectives To determine age before BML surgery, age during diagnosis of BML, type of prior surgery, and location of metastasis based on the literature. Methods A systematic review of four databases (Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane) covering articles published from 1 January 1965 to 10 April 2016. The inclusion criteria were full-text articles in English and articles containing case reports. Articles in languages other than English (39), articles containing incomplete data (14), i.e. no information regarding the time of surgery and/or the site of metastasis, articles bereft of case studies (25), and articles with access only to summaries, without access to the complete text (10) were excluded. Of 321 titles identified, only 126 articles met the aforementioned criteria. Results and conclusions The mean age during primary surgery and BML diagnosis was 38.5 years and 47.3 years, respectively. The most common surgery was total hysterectomy. The most frequent site of metastasis was the lungs; other organs were affected less frequently.The site of metastases and their number were not related to the longer time span between the patient’s initial surgery and occurrence of metastasis. The analysed data, such as the age during primary surgery, age during BML diagnosis, site and type of metastasis, do not provide us a clear answer. Thus, BML pathogenesis is most probably complex in nature and requires further multidirectional research. PMID:28426767

  18. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra: a review of the current literature and clinical outcomes following steroid injection or surgical intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holm Emil Kongsted

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bertolotti’s syndrome (BS refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV, and low back pain (LBP. Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes in previous trials and case reports for these treatments in patients with LBP and LSTV. A PubMed search was conducted. We included English studies of patients diagnosed with LSTV treated with steroid injection, laminectomy, spinal fusion or resection of the transitional articulation. Of 272 articles reviewed 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Their level of evidence were graded I–V and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Only 1 study had high evidence level (II. The remainders were case series (level IV. Only 5 studies used validated clinical outcome measures. A total of 79 patients were reported: 31 received treatment with steroid injections, 33 were treated with surgical resection of the LSTV, 8 received lumbar spinal fusion, and 7 cases were treated with laminectomy. Surgical management seems to improve the patient’s symptoms, especially patients diagnosed with “far out syndrome” treated with laminectomy. Clinical outcomes were more heterogenetic for patient’s treated with steroid injections. The literature regarding BS is sparse and generally with low evidence. Non-surgical management (e.g., steroid injections and surgical intervention could not directly be compared due to lack of standardization in clinical outcome. Generally, surgical management seems to improve patient’s clinical outcome over time, whereas steroid injection only improves the patient’s symptoms temporarily. Further studies with larger sample size and higher evidence are warranted for the clinical guidance in the treatment of BS.

  19. Symptomatic lumbosacral transitional vertebra: a review of the current literature and clinical outcomes following steroid injection or surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Emil Kongsted; Bünger, Cody; Foldager, Casper Bindzus

    2017-01-01

    Bertolotti's syndrome (BS) refers to the possible association between the congenital malformation lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV), and low back pain (LBP). Several treatments have been proposed including steroid injections, resections of the LSTV, laminectomy, and lumbar spinal fusion. The aim of this review was to compare the clinical outcomes in previous trials and case reports for these treatments in patients with LBP and LSTV. A PubMed search was conducted. We included English studies of patients diagnosed with LSTV treated with steroid injection, laminectomy, spinal fusion or resection of the transitional articulation. Of 272 articles reviewed 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Their level of evidence were graded I-V and the clinical outcomes were evaluated. Only 1 study had high evidence level (II). The remainders were case series (level IV). Only 5 studies used validated clinical outcome measures. A total of 79 patients were reported: 31 received treatment with steroid injections, 33 were treated with surgical resection of the LSTV, 8 received lumbar spinal fusion, and 7 cases were treated with laminectomy. Surgical management seems to improve the patient's symptoms, especially patients diagnosed with "far out syndrome" treated with laminectomy. Clinical outcomes were more heterogenetic for patient's treated with steroid injections. The literature regarding BS is sparse and generally with low evidence. Non-surgical management (e.g., steroid injections) and surgical intervention could not directly be compared due to lack of standardization in clinical outcome. Generally, surgical management seems to improve patient's clinical outcome over time, whereas steroid injection only improves the patient's symptoms temporarily. Further studies with larger sample size and higher evidence are warranted for the clinical guidance in the treatment of BS. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  20. Are current cost-effectiveness thresholds for low- and middle-income countries useful? Examples from the world of vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newall, A T; Jit, M; Hutubessy, R

    2014-06-01

    The World Health Organization's CHOosing Interventions that are Cost Effective (WHO-CHOICE) thresholds for averting a disability-adjusted life-year of one to three times per capita income have been widely cited and used as a measure of cost effectiveness in evaluations of vaccination for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). These thresholds were based upon criteria set out by the WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, which reflected the potential economic returns of interventions. The CHOICE project sought to evaluate a variety of health interventions at a subregional level and classify them into broad categories to help assist decision makers, but the utility of the thresholds for within-country decision making for individual interventions (given budgetary constraints) has not been adequately explored. To examine whether the 'WHO-CHOICE thresholds' reflect funding decisions, we examined the results of two recent reviews of cost-effectiveness analyses of human papillomavirus and rotavirus vaccination in LMICs, and we assessed whether the results of these studies were reflected in funding decisions for these vaccination programmes. We found that in many cases, programmes that were deemed cost effective were not subsequently implemented in the country. We consider the implications of this finding, the advantages and disadvantages of alternative methods to estimate thresholds, and how cost perspectives and the funders of healthcare may impact on these choices.

  1. The Real World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, John Sears

    1981-01-01

    Relates personal experiences about what constitutes the "real world." Shows how experiences from philosophy, history, literature, art, and the movies add meaning to "reality." Stresses a compromise of imagination and sensation to make the real world palatable. (RL)

  2. Reading the Word and Reading the World: Introducing Extensive Literature Reading Programs in Awassa College of Teacher Education and Its Partner Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Paul Michael

    2011-01-01

    Extensive literature reading is a controversial area within EFL, both in terms of its effectiveness, and potential contribution to linguistic and cultural imperialism. This article considers the role of extensive literature reading in L2 acquisition from both innatist and critical perspectives. Set in the context of a development project at Awassa…

  3. An explanation of workplace-based assessments in postgraduate dental training and a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, H K; Kalsi, J S; Fisher, N L

    2013-11-01

    Workplace-based assessments (WBAs) are trainee-led formative assessments that measure the highest level of competence of the ability to do a task. So far WBAs are the only available assessment tools to measure performance integrated into practice. Over the years, WBAs have become an integral part of dental foundation and specialty training. The numerous WBAs available can be broadly categorised into three types. The first type involves observation of clinical encounters, for example mini-clinical evaluation exercises; direct observation of procedural skills; and dental evaluation of performance and procedure-based assessments. The second type involves discussion of clinical cases, such as case-based discussions. Finally, the third type includes the mini-peer assessment tool, team assessment of behaviour, 360° assessments and multi-source feedback, and all involve receiving feedback from a combination of colleagues, staff and patients. This article describes the WBAs currently used in postgraduate dental training and explores their strengths, weaknesses, perceived value by trainees and trainers and how these tools can be used in a reliable and valid way.

  4. Analysis of the world epidemiological situation among vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections and the current situation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga-Ćwiertnia, Katarzyna; Bulanda, Małgorzata

    2018-01-01

    Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains have become an important hospital pathogen due to their rapid spread, high mortality rate associated with infections and limited therapeutic options. Vancomycin resistance is predominantly mediated by VanA or VanB phenotypes, which differ as regards maintaining sensitivity to teicoplanin in the VanB phenotype. The majority of VREfm cases in the United States, Europe, Korea, South America and Africa are currently caused by the VanA phenotype. However, the epidemics in Australia and Singapore are chiefly brought about by the VanB phenotype. The rate of VREfm isolate spread varies greatly. The greatest percentage of VREfm is now recorded in the USA, Ireland and Australia. Supervision of VRE is implemented to varying degrees. Therefore, the epidemiological situation in some countries is difficult to assess due to limited data or lack thereof.

  5. Current approaches to improve the anticancer chemotherapy with alkylating agents: state of the problem in world and Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iatsyshyna A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkylating agents are frequently used in many established anticancer chemotherapies. They alkylate the genomic DNA at various sites. Alkylation of the guanine at the O6-position is cytotoxic, it has the strongest mutagenic potential, as well as can cause the tumor development. Alkyl groups at the O6-position of guanine are removed by the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT. The effectiveness of alkylating chemotherapy is limited by MGMT in cancer cells and adverse toxic side effects in normal cells. Different approaches consisting in the modulation of the MGMT expression and activity are under development now to improve the cancer chemotherapy. They include two main directions, in particular, the increase in chemosensitivity of cancer cells to alkylating drugs and the protection of normal cells from the toxic side effects of chemotherapy. This review is focused on current attempts to improve the alkylating chemotherapy of malignant tumours worldwide and state of the issue in Ukraine

  6. Herbal Medicines: challenges in the modern world. Part 5. status and current directions of complementary and alternative herbal medicine worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enioutina, Elena Yu; Salis, Emma R; Job, Kathleen M; Gubarev, Michael I; Krepkova, Lubov V; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2017-03-01

    Herbal medicine (HM) use is growing worldwide. Single herb preparations, ethnic and modern HM formulations are widely used as adjunct therapies or to improve consumer wellbeing. Areas covered: This final part in the publication series summarizes common tendencies in HM use as adjunct or alternative medicine, education of healthcare professionals and consumers, current and proposed guidelines regulating of production. We discuss potential HM-HM and HM-drug interactions that could lead to severe adverse events in situations where HMs are taken without proper medical professional oversight. Expert commentary: A number of serious problems have arisen with the steady global increase in HM use. HM interaction with conventional drugs (CD) may result in inadequate dosing of CD or adverse reactions; HM-HM interaction within herbal supplements could lead to toxicity of formulations. Inadequate education of clinicians and patients regarding medicinal properties of HMs must be addressed regionally and globally to ensure consumer safety.

  7. Research and innovation in the `exploring our world´ project (6-12. The example of `exploring current and historical societies´ in initial teacher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Estepa Giménez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present how they research and innovate in Initial Teacher Education programmes throught the `Exploring our world´ project (6-12. Along the article aspects related to the why, what for and how to teach of the curricular project are analysed by means of the example of `Exploring current and historical societies´. Trainees´ productions on this Field of Research are presented, in which they deal with the three afore-mentioned elements throught the design of didactic units that form part, like a portfolio, of the group reseach file.

  8. Zika virus: Epidemiology, current phobia and preparedness for upcoming mass gatherings, with examples from World Olympics and Pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis

    2016-01-01

    To describe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming Mass Gathering (MG) events. Electronic databases of PubMed, WHO, CDC, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Google, and Cochrane library were extensively searched for ZIKV. Articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant articles were utilized. ZIKV is an emerging Flavivirus which was first isolated from Uganda in 1947. It is transmitted mainly through bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Sexual, perinatal and blood-borne transmissions are implicated. ZIKV is incriminated to cause microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The spiky spread of ZIKV and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries which host big MGs with endogenous ZIKV circulation. This put millions of international travelers and local inhabitants at risk of acquiring ZIKV, especially in absence of vaccine until now. Brazil Olympic and Paralympics Games, and Muslims Hajj in Saudi Arabia are important upcoming MGs. Regarding Brazil, swiftly epidemic of ZIKV causes phobia and provokes claims and counter-claims about possible postponing or cancellation of such events. Intensifying ZIKV epidemiological surveillance (sentinel, syndromic, environmental, laboratory and electronic), and conduction of educational programs are required. Controlling Aedes vector (chemically & biologically) is essential. Multidisciplinary cooperation is required to win the war against ZIKV.

  9. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in 2007-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarson, Thomas R; Acs, Annabel; Ludwig, Craig; Panton, Ulrik H

    2018-06-08

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). CVD's prevalence has been growing over time. To estimate the current prevalence of CVD among adults with T2DM by reviewing literature published within the last 10 years (2007-March 2017). We searched Medline, Embase, and proceedings of major scientific meetings for original research documenting the prevalence of CVD in T2DM. CVD included stroke, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, heart failure, ischemic heart disease, cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular death. No restrictions were placed on country of origin or publication language. Two reviewers independently searched for articles and extracted data, adjudicating results through consensus. Data were summarized descriptively. Risk of bias was examined by applying the STROBE checklist. We analyzed data from 57 articles with 4,549,481 persons having T2DM. Europe produced the most articles (46%), followed by the Western Pacific/China (21%), and North America (13%). Overall in 4,549,481 persons with T2DM, 52.0% were male, 47.0% were obese, aged 63.6 ± 6.9 years old, with T2DM duration of 10.4 ± 3.7 years. CVD affected 32.2% overall (53 studies, N = 4,289,140); 29.1% had atherosclerosis (4 studies, N = 1153), 21.2% had coronary heart disease (42 articles, N = 3,833,200), 14.9% heart failure (14 studies, N = 601,154), 14.6% angina (4 studies, N = 354,743), 10.0% myocardial infarction (13 studies, N = 3,518,833) and 7.6% stroke (39 studies, N = 3,901,505). CVD was the cause of death in 9.9% of T2DM patients (representing 50.3% of all deaths). Risk of bias was low; 80 ± 12% of STROBE checklist items were adequately addressed. Globally, overall CVD affects approximately 32.2% of all persons with T2DM. CVD is a major cause of mortality among people with T2DM, accounting for approximately half of all deaths over the study period. Coronary artery

  10. Use of {sup 99m}Tc 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile in minimally invasive radioguided surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: A narrative review of the current literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denmeade, Kristie A [Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Department, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales (Australia); Constable, Chris [Brain and Mind Research Institute, University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Reed, Warren M [Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound Department, Bankstown-Lidcombe Hospital, Bankstown, New South Wales (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    The use of technetium-99m 2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ({sup 99m}Tc MIBI) for assistance in minimally invasive radioguided surgery (MIRS) is growing in popularity as a safe, effective, and proficient technique used for parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) treatment. Previously, the preferred treatment for PHPT was bilateral neck exploration (BNE), a very invasive, costly, and lengthy procedure. However, as a large majority (80–85% of cases of PHPT) are attributed to a single parathyroid adenoma (PA), a simpler more direct technique such as MIRS is a far better option. The following article is an exploration of the current literature concerning varied protocols utilizing {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS for patients undergoing treatment of PHPT. This technique boasts many advantageous outcomes for patients suffering from PHPT. These include a reduction in cost, operating time, and patient recovery; less evidence of post-surgical hypocalcaemia, less pain, and complications; superior cosmetic results; same-day discharge; and the possibility of local anaesthesia which is particularly beneficial in elderly patients. Better outcomes for patients with deep or ectopic PAs, reduced intra-operative complications, and improved cosmetic outcomes for patients who have previously undergone thyroid and/or parathyroid surgery are also advantageous. Of the literature reviewed it was also found that no patients suffered any major surgical complications such as laryngeal nerve palsy or permanent hypoparathyroidism using {sup 99m}Tc MIBI for assistance in MIRS.

  11. Cogan's syndrome is a new nosological entity in the current classification of systemic vasculitides: A clinical case and a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Beketova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of the typical variant of Cogan's syndrome (CS, a new nosological entity in the current classification of systemic vasculitides (SV, which belongs to a group of variable vasculitides. The literature review highlights in detail the problems of the diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease.CS is characterized by inflammatory eye involvement (interstitial keratitis, uveitis, and episcleritis and hearing problems (sensorineural hearing loss, vestibular disorders with the possible development of vasculitis at other sites, aortitis, and aortic or mitral lesions. A systemic lesion involving the ears and eyes necessitates to rule out granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's and to make a differential diagnosis with a wide range of diseases. The given data underline the need for the interdisciplinary collaboration of rheumatologists, otorhinolaryngologists, audiologists, oculists, and cardiologists in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this form of SV. 

  12. The role of imaging in the diagnosis and management of thoracolumbar burst fractures: current concepts and a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Noordeen, H.; Taylor, B.A.; Bayley, I.

    1996-01-01

    The burst fracture of the spine was first described by Holdsworth in 1963 and redefined by Denis in 1983 as being a fracture of the anterior and middle columns of the spine with or without an associated posterior column fracture. This injury has received much attention in the literature as regards its radiological diagnosis and also its clinical managment. The purpose of this article is to review the way that imaging has been used both to diagnose the injury and to guide management. Current concepts of the stability of this fracture are presented and our experience in the use of magnetic resonance imaging in deciding treatment options is discussed. (orig.). With 18 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abri, Seif S; Abaidani, Idris Al; Fazlalipour, Mehdi; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Memish, Ziad A; Hewson, Roger; Petersen, Eskild; Mala, Peter; Nhu Nguyen, Tran Minh; Rahman Malik, Mamunur; Formenty, Pierre; Jeffries, Rosanna

    2017-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR), with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae) in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif S. Al-Abri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR, with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV.

  15. Political Psychology in Russia: Current Issues in International Studies (Interview with Nikolay Kosolapov, Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Andreevna Chmyreva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interview with Professor N. Kosolapov is devoted to the most urgent and complex problems of modern international relations and world politics, reveals the current state of political psychology in Russia and abroad, as well as the evolution of the science. As estimated by N. Kosolapov, the viability of political-psychological projects in Russia has fallen sharply compared to 1990's. They are not fully used in the development of political strategies, as well as in the process of operational decision making and its realization. In the interview are marked the obstacles to the emergence of theoretical and applied research in Russia, as well as key milestones for future development of political psychology. It also touches upon the most important questions of psychology of leadership within the framework of modern Russian and international practice, the political process as a whole, shows the differences in the approaches of European and Russian scientific schools in the analysis of political leadership. The author’s vision of key issues of contemporary international relations is of particular interest: we are witnessing the fact that American global leadership is experiencing an acute crisis, which contributes to the escalation of inter-state conflicts. However, the positive effect of the international crisis for our country is that it led the elites to reconsider their own ideological guidance with respect to Russia's role in world politics and forced to fight for the «new position».

  16. The state of health care provision and extent of mental health in the prisons of the Arab world: A literature review and commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharaibeh, Numan; El-Khoury, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Relevant literature was searched using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google in addition to Arabic search engines for information. Due to the shortage of scholarly articles on the subject, we broadened our search to publications from human rights organisation and articles in the mainstream press. We estimated the total carceral population in the member countries of the Arab league at 338,500 prisoners, over 46,000 of whom could be suffering from severe mental illness. We relied on indirect indicators of mental health services such as the quality of medical care in general, accounts of prison conditions by prisoners and their families, and the abundant literature on human rights abuses. Despite a grim overall picture, we highlight signs of improvement in recent years. Psychiatrists working in Arabic prisons face a number of challenges.We comment on directions for the future in the field of correctional psychiatry in the Arab countries including from the perspective of research.

  17. Sea surface temperature (SST) and surface current data collected from the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race (VOR) from 2011-11-05 to 2012-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0130694)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Navigation, surface current, sea surface temperature, wind, and atmospheric pressure data collected by the Mar Mostro during the around-the-world Volvo Ocean Race...

  18. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) from 1992-02-26 to 1993-04-14 (NODC Accession 9700264)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS. Data were collected by Oregon State University (OSU) as part of the World Ocean Circulation...

  19. Among Patients Undergoing Ablative Treatment for Oral Cancer, Does the Provision of Oral Rehabilitation Improve the Quality of Life? A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Vahe; Ball, Dimity; Harrison, Rebecca; Ameerally, Phillip

    2016-05-01

    The impact of oral cancer and its treatment is well documented; therefore, oral rehabilitation (OH; eg, with prosthetics, osseointegrated implants, etc) can be indicated to restore some level of form, function, and well-being. The purpose of this study was to review the current literature and evaluate the impact of OH on quality of life (QoL) after ablative surgery. A systematic literature search was conducted using EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO. The study population was composed of all articles published from 2000 to 2015. To be included, studies had to use validated, specific head and neck QoL measurements (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Head and Neck Module or University of Washington QoL Questionnaire). Only 8 articles met these inclusion criteria. In this review, OH was the primary predictor variable and QoL was the primary outcome variable. The 8 articles reviewed used a range of designs, including 1 randomized controlled trial, 3 prospective cohort studies, 3 case series, and 1 single-measurement cross-sectional descriptive study. Sample sizes were small (n = 26 to 102), and there was limited randomization and control of intervention and comparator groups. The overall level of evidence was weak. All studies showed a link between OH and QoL, but the results varied in significance (P < .01 to P = .95). Overall, there appears to be improvement in QoL to varying degrees after OH. However, a more systematic use of QoL measurements is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mapping world-wide science at the paper level.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klavans, Richard (SciTech Strategies, Inc., Berwyn, PA); Boyack, Kevin W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in mapping a highly representative set of the world-wide scientific literature. The process described in this article extends existing work in this area in three major ways. First, we argue that a separate structural analysis of current literature vs. reference literature is required for R&D planning. Second, visualization software is used to improve coverage of the literature while maintaining structural integrity. Third, quantitative techniques for measuring the structural integrity of a map are introduced. Maps with high structural integrity, covering far more of the available literature, are presented.

  1. In a world without faith and dominated by ambition: Representations of Brazil and the Portuguese in the First Half of the Eighteen Century European Travel Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues, Ângela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a reflection on Atlantic history, I intend to reread the travel literature written by Europeans who stayed briefly at the Brazilian shore, so as to learn about the Portuguese empire -and particularly Brazil- from the inside and understand how the Portuguese and Luso-Brazilians of the colony were perceived. Travelers registered their impressions based on their own principles, and in some cases exaggerated the cultural differences they observed. This rereading makes it possible to evaluate the differences between a Europe constituted by nations, kingdoms and empires, and Mediterranean Europe. The travel literature, which did not have Brazil as final destination, could have disproportionate and unsuspected repercussions. The accounts showed Portugal and its colonies as similar to Spain and very different from the rest of Europe, at a period of affirmation of the national States and aggressive imperial external policies aimed at the South Atlantic.Desde una reflexión en torno a la historia atlántica, pretendo releer la literatura de viajes escrita por europeos que permanecieron brevemente en el litoral brasileño, para así conocer el Imperio Portugués -y muy particularmente Brasil- desde adentro y comprender cómo eran percibidos los portugueses y luso-brasileños de la colonia. Los viajeros registraban sus impresiones a partir de sus propios principios, exagerando en algunos casos las diferencias culturales observadas. Esta relectura permite evaluar las diferencias entre una Europa constituida por naciones, reinos e imperios; y la Europa Mediterránea. La literatura de viajes, cuyo destino final no era Brasil, podía tener repercusiones desproporcionadas e insospechadas. Los relatos mostraban a Portugal y sus colonias similar a España y muy diferente del resto de Europa, en un período de afirmación de los estados nacionales y agresivas políticas externas imperialista que apuntaban al Atlántico Sur.

  2. THE ROLE OF THE BOOK AND READING IN PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT: THE CLASSICS OF CHILDREN’S LITERATURE, THE FIRST EXPERIENCE OF LITERATURE AND THE FIRST WINDOW ONTO THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Deghenghi Olujić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to place emphasis on the role of books and reading on our everyday experience and the cultural and humanising influence they have on the development of the young. How can one prevent the danger that books and reading might diminish to the point of oblivion among the young? These are some of the primary questions posed by this work, those questions which have originated from the belief that the roles of books and reading cannot be substituted in personal Development. Because children are not born with the desire to read, so that this is something which must be implemented in early childhood (a claim made by many pedagogues, the work of Daniel Pennac, especially Come un romanzo, in which this author offers useful advice in order to enact this process, has informed our analysis. This is a task which is expected of a child’s parents and must be realised within the family circle, and can only be transferred to schools and other learning institutions at a later stage. The works of children’s literature at their best are a guarantor for personal development and education, and are also an aid in the inception of the process of reading beginning in early childhood and continuing to adolescence.

  3. Smoke inhalation injury in a pregnant patient: a literature review of the evidence and current best practices in the setting of a classic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderique, Ensign Joseph D; Gebre-Giorgis, Abel A; Stewart, Dane H; Feldman, Michael J; Pozez, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    For smoke inhalation injury of a pregnant woman, one must treat two patients and be aware of the potential effects of carbon monoxide (CO) and cyanide (CN) poisoning on both the mother and the fetus. In a pregnant woman, the size and age of the fetus and the degree of poisoning allow for tremendous variability in the toxicity of CO and CN and their respective treatment options. The authors will review a case of a 32-year-old woman who was at 37 weeks of gestation and admitted to the Evans-Haynes Burn Center after a house fire and received hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) for suspected CN poisoning. In addition, a review of the literature, current guidelines, and treatment options of inhalation injury during pregnancy will be discussed. The authors will focus only on the toxic components of smoke inhalation injury rather than the mechanical components from heat and particulate damage. Literature review clearly identifies that the treatment of pregnant women with inhalation injury remains a controversial subject. The use of hydroxocobalamin (Cyanokit) as a treatment modality for potential CN poisoning in a pregnant patient has not been reported in the literature. Animal studies have shown that combined CO and CN poisoning are more lethal than either one alone and at lower concentrations. Due to the synergistic effects of CO and CN, and because these two toxins concentrate at even higher levels in the fetus than the mother, the authors will clarify the urgent seriousness of prompt administration of hydroxocobalamin in a pregnant patient with suspected smoke inhalation injury. This case review details the treatment of a 32-year-old woman who was at 36 weeks of gestation on admission to the Evans-Haynes Burn Center. The authors will report her injuries and the course of treatment. Although burned and presenting with concomitant smoke inhalation injury, both the woman and her child fared well with no significant complications due to the smoke inhalation at 6 months of follow

  4. Our World Their World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  5. Optimizing fitness for duty and post-combat clinical services for military personnel and combat veterans with ADHD-a systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, most often diagnosed in childhood, and characterized by hyperactivity and inattention that negatively impacts one's ability to function and fulfill social and personal obligations. Individuals with past history of ADHD may enlist in the military under certain conditions, however the full impact of military training and deployment of later in life ADHD symptoms is unclear. It is of particular interest how military experience may affect ADHD in remission and if such individuals might be at elevated risk for relapse of ADHD symptoms. We performed a systematic review f the available literature including the Department of Defense (DOD) guidelines for both eligibility to enlist and fitness for deployment based on reported history and current symptomatology of ADHD. The after care for veterans with ADHD relapse is inconsistent and presents with number of challenges. We evaluate the DOD policies regarding the implications of ADHD for fitness for military service and post-combat mental health. The full extend of the interaction between pre-existing ADHD and post-combat PTSD are not fully understood. The development of comprehensive and clear algorithms for diagnosing and treating ADHD in the military before and after deployment will have a strong positive impact on the quality of care delivered to soldiers and veterans.

  6. Optimizing fitness for duty and post-combat clinical services for military personnel and combat veterans with ADHD—a systematic review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyan Ivanov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD is a developmental disorder, most often diagnosed in childhood, and characterized by hyperactivity and inattention that negatively impacts one's ability to function and fulfill social and personal obligations. Individuals with past history of ADHD may enlist in the military under certain conditions, however the full impact of military training and deployment of later in life ADHD symptoms is unclear. It is of particular interest how military experience may affect ADHD in remission and if such individuals might be at elevated risk for relapse of ADHD symptoms. Method: We performed a systematic review f the available literature including the Department of Defense (DOD guidelines for both eligibility to enlist and fitness for deployment based on reported history and current symptomatology of ADHD. Results: The after care for veterans with ADHD relapse is inconsistent and presents with number of challenges. We evaluate the DOD policies regarding the implications of ADHD for fitness for military service and post-combat mental health. Conclusion: The full extend of the interaction between pre-existing ADHD and post-combat PTSD are not fully understood. The development of comprehensive and clear algorithms for diagnosing and treating ADHD in the military before and after deployment will have a strong positive impact on the quality of care delivered to soldiers and veterans.

  7. Understanding Cultural Influences on Dietary Habits in Asian, Middle Eastern, and Latino Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of Current Literature and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Natalie; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2017-10-23

    This review focuses on evaluating and identifying gaps in the current literature regarding culturally specific dietary influences for patients with type 2 diabetes. As this topic has previously been examined in African American populations, we chose to focus on four other distinct populations (Hispanic, Middle Eastern, Western Pacific, South Asian). Given the rapid increase in global rates of type 2 diabetes and high rates of diabetes among certain ethnic groups, it is important to understand how culturally adapted strategies in diabetes management have been described in different regions and populations. The specific role of nutrition in controlling diabetes is tied to cultural habits and customs. Variation in cultural practices, including diet, create unique environments in which patients with diabetes must navigate. The role of family, particularly among Hispanics, is crucial to cultural adaptations of diabetes management. Incorporating alternative medicine, namely observed in Chinese and Indian populations, also guided diabetes care strategies. Language barriers, health literacy, and acculturation were all unique factors affecting cultural approaches to diabetes management in these four populations. Understanding such cultural determinants is crucial to addressing diabetes disparities and improving outcomes.

  8. Alte und neue Problemaspekte der Figur. Zu einem medienübergreifenden Versuch einer Begriffsbestimmung der Figur [Jens Eder / Fotis Jannidis / Ralf Schneider (Hg.: Characters in Fic­tional Worlds. Understanding Imaginary Beings in Literature, Film, and Other Media. Berlin 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lăcan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rezension zu / Review of:Jens Eder / Fotis Jannidis / Ralf Schneider (Hg.: Characters in Fic­tional Worlds. Understanding Imaginary Beings in Literature, Film, and Other Media. Berlin 2010

  9. The World Airpower Compendium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, Mark

    1996-01-01

    In today's rapidly changing world a current, accurate, and easily accessible data base of all the world's airpower assets is valuable to military students, educators, and war gaming professionals alike...

  10. The Gift of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Hristov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The traumatic question “what has Bulgarian literature given to the world” acquired particular intensity in periods of crisis such as the Balkan Wars, and after 1989 and the subsequent Bulgarian EU accession. It is generally accepted that the value that Bulgarian literature transmits to the world lies in the identity it represented. The goal of the paper is to show that Bulgarian literature was constituted as a gift responding to the gift of world literature, yet ever unable to repay the debt incurred by its initial gift, and trying to alleviate its indebtedness by means of a specific language of exchange. Hristov believes that studying the literature on the value of Bulgarian literature will demonstrate that the notions of identity, recognition, value, translation, national and world literature have been inscribed in a scriptural economy blending gift and exchange in a peculiar way. He hopes that this economy emerged as a modification of the scriptural economy in which the notion of world literature had been embedded, and that it has been globalised into a universal literary economy.

  11. General trends in world biogeographic literature: a preliminary bibliometric analysis Tendencias generales en la literatura biogeografica mundial: un análisis bibliométrico preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Morrone

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Records with the search string biogeograph* were collected from the Science Citation Index (SCI. A total of 3456 records were downloaded for the 1945-2006 period from titles of articles and reviews, and 10,543 records were downloaded for 1991-2006, taking into consideration also abstracts and keywords. Temporal trends of publications, geographical and institutional distribution of the research output, authorship, and core journals were evaluated. There were as many as 122 countries carrying out biogeographic research; in the most recent period, USA is the top producing country, followed by the United Kingdom, Australia, France, Germany, Spain, and Canada. There were 17,493 authors contributing to the field. During 1991-2006 there were 4098 organizations with authors involved in biogeographic research; institutions with higher number of papers are the Natural History Museum (United Kingdom, the University of California, Berkeley (USA, the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (France, the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Mexico, the American Museum of Natural History (USA and the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia. Research articles are spread over a variety of journals, with the Journal of Biogeography, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Molecular Ecology, and Biological Journal of the Linnean Society being the core journals. From 28,759 keywords retrieved those with the highest frequency were evolution, phylogeny, diversity, mitochondrial DNA, pattern(s, systematics, and population(s. We conclude that publications on biogeography have increased substantially during the last years, especially since 1998. The preferred journal for biogeographic papers is the Journal of Biogeography. Most frequent keywords seem to indicate that biogeography fits well within both evolutionary biology and ecology, with molecular biology and phylogenetics being important factors that drive their current development.Se recolectaron registros con la

  12. Iranians' contribution to world literature on neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Farzad; Mohammadhassanzadeh, Hafez; Shokraneh, Farhad; Valinejadi, Ali; Johari, Karim; Saemi, Nazanin; Zali, Alireza; Mohaghegh, Niloofar; Ashayeri, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse Iranian scientific publications in the neuroscience subfields by librarians and neuroscientists, using Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) via Web of Science data over the period, 2002-2008. Data were retrieved from the SCIE. Data were collected from the 'subject area' of the database and classified by neuroscience experts into 14 subfields. To identify the citation patterns, we applied the 'impact factor' and the 'number of publication'. Data were also analysed using HISTCITE, Excel 2007 and SPSS. Seven hundred and thirty-four papers have been published by Iranian between 2002 and 2008. Findings showed a growing trend of neuroscience papers in the last 3 years with most papers (264) classified in the neuropharmacology subfield. There were fewer papers in neurohistory, psychopharmacology and artificial intelligence. International contributions of authors were mostly in the neurology subfield, and 'Collaboration Coefficient' for the neuroscience subfields in Iran was 0.686 which is acceptable. Most international collaboration between Iranians and developed countries was from USA. Eighty-seven percent of the published papers were in journals with the impact factor between 0 and 4; 25% of papers were published by the researchers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Progress of neuroscience in Iran is mostly seen in the neuropharmacology and the neurology subfields. Other subfields should also be considered as a research priority by health policymakers. As this study was carried out by the collaboration of librarians and neuroscientists, it has been proved valuable for both librarians and policymakers. This study may be encouraging for librarians from other developing countries. © 2012 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2012 Health Libraries Group.

  13. World-First Innovations in an Open Innovation Context

    OpenAIRE

    Hochleitner, Franciane Paz; Arbussà i Reixach, Anna; Coenders, Germà

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to the current literature on open innovation by analysing the effects of open innovation activities on the introduction of new-to-the-world innovations versus imitation. We base our analysis on data provided by the Eurostat Community Innovation Survey (CIS) carried out in Germany in 2012, which for the first time made a distinction between world-first innovation and imitation. We use both logit models and CHAID trees. The results of both analyses show that traditional i...

  14. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  15. Electronic Scientific Data & Literature Aggregation: A Review for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoff, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The advent of large-scale digital repositories, along with the need for sharing useful data world-wide, demands change to the current information structure. The merging of digital scientific data with scholarly literature has the potential to fulfill the Semantic Web design principles. This paper will identify factors leading to integration of…

  16. The Use of Dexamethasone in Support of High-Altitude Ground Operations: Review of the Literature & Current Training of U.S. Special Operations Medical Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    capacity even in normoxic conditions. For example, high dosages of dexamethasone are used in aerobic endurance sports to enhance physical performance. This...is why the World Anti- Doping Agency prohibits the administration of any glucosteroids during competitions [25]. Fischler and colleagues [24...Medicine; 2004. Technical Note TN04-05. 4. Bärtsch P, Saltin B. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness. Scand J Med Sci Sports

  17. Successful penile reimplantation and systematic review of world ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Observation: To report on a case of successful macrosurgical penile reimplantation, discuss the etiologies, surgical techniques and outcomes of world literature on penile reimplantation and an update of current trends in penile surgery. A 40 year-old male, father of 3 children and a proprietor of a nursery school with no prior ...

  18. Fluorine--a current literature review. An NRC and ATSDR based review of safety standards for exposure to fluorine and fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prystupa, Jeff

    2011-02-01

    A review of the literature of the element fluorine and its bonded-form, fluoride, was undertaken. Generally regarded as safe, an expanding body of literature reveals that fluoride's toxicity has been unappreciated, un-scrutinized, and hidden for over 70 years. The context for the literature search and review was an environmental climate-change study, which demonstrated widespread fluoride contamination by smokestack emissions from coal-fired electricity-generating plants. The objective of this review is to educate and inform regarding the ubiquitous presence and harmful nature of this now ever-present corrosive and reactive toxin. Methods include examination of national health agency reviews, primarily the National Research Council (NRC), Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR), standard medical toxicology references, text books, as well as reports and documents from both private and public research as well as consumer-based NGOs. Study criteria were chosen for relevancy to the subject of the toxicity of fluoride. Fluoride is the extreme electron scavenger, the most corrosive of all elements, as well as the most-reactive. Fluoride appears to attack living tissues, via several mechanisms. Fluoride renders strong evidence that it is a non-biological chemical, demonstrating no observed beneficial function or role in organic chemistry, beyond use as a pesticide or insecticide. Fluorine has a strong role to play in industry, having been utilized extensively in metals, plastics, paints, aluminium, steel, and uranium production. Due to its insatiable appetite for calcium, fluorine and fluorides likely represent a form of chemistry that is incompatible with biological tissues and organ system functions. Based on an analysis of the affects of fluoride demonstrated consistently in the literature, safe levels have not been determined nor standardized. Mounting evidence presents conflicting value to its presence in biological settings and applications. Evidence

  19. Conduct of Occupational Health During Major Disasters: A Comparison of Literature on Occupational Health Issues in the World Trade Center Terrorist Attack and the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hiroyuki; Mori, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Workers who respond to large-scale disasters can be exposed to health hazards that do not exist in routine work. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for preparing for and responding to such problems, but published information is still insufficient. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health issues and occupational health activities at the World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attack and at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident to investigate how occupational health activities during disasters should be conducted. Seven studies about the WTC attack were extracted and categorized into the following topics: "in relation to emergency systems including occupational health management"; "in relation to improvement and prevention of health effects and occupational hygiene"; and "in relation to care systems aimed at mitigating health effects." Studies about the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident have been used in a previous review. We conclude that, to prevent health effects in workers who respond to large-scale disasters, it is necessary to incorporate occupational health regulations into the national response plan, and to develop practical support functions that enable support to continue for an extended period, training systems for workers with opportunities to report accidents, and care systems to mitigate the health effects.

  20. Antinuclear and third world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Haegu

    1986-02-01

    The first part of this book is about antinuclear, which describes nuclear and nuclear war, the lesson out of history, an idea of neutron bomb and antinuclear through life and thoughts. The second part of this book includes the relationship between human and antinuclear, threat of nuclear, third world and popular literature, for conversion of Japan, an atomic experience and literature and experience and testimony in Nagasaki.

  1. [Factors Associated with Suicide in Adolescents and Young People Self-Identified as Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual: Current State of the Literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda Roa, Carlos Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    A framework within sexual and reproductive health is presented to understand the mental health issues of the population of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents and young people. Different ways of understanding the nature of internalized homophobia were developed. On the other hand, in suicidology studies it is understood that the risk of suicide consists of the steps of ideation, planning and attempted suicide, and that there is an increased risk of suicide in the LGB population. Numerous factors have been associated with suicide risk in this population, one of the main internalized homophobia and other mental health problems. By means of a literature review, to establish the possible relationship between internalized homophobia and ideation and attempted suicide in the LGB population, as well as to identify the mental health problems associated to suicide risk in sexually diverse communities. Articles in English and Spanish, mainly within the last five years, were reviewed. They included articles in peer reviewed journals, and databases, such as Google Scholar, Redalyc, Byreme, Ovid, Science Direct, Taylor and Francis, MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO, and Ebsco. It was found in the available literature that internalized homophobia is associated with suicide ideation and attempts in adults. A state of science of the major mental health problems associated with suicide risk in young LGB people reported contradictory findings. While some studies showed an association between depression, anxiety and distress and suicidal ideation and attempts, in others, the data do not allow such a conclusion. The theoretical framework presents the most important conceptualizations of suicide risk and emphasizes the social type. It identifies issues of suicide prevention, protective factors that contribute towards this, as well as elements of psychotherapy for LGB consultants. It concludes and discusses the importance of studying the sexually diverse as regards determining factors

  2. Literature and Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Literary authors have frequently called on elements of cartography to ground fictional space, to visualize sites, and to help readers get their bearings in the imaginative world of the text. Today, the convergence of digital mapping and globalization has spurred a cartographic turn in literature...... but represents a set of relations and tensions that raise questions about representation, fiction, and space. Is literature even mappable? In exploring the cartographic components of literature, the contributors have not only brought literary theory to bear on the map but have also enriched the vocabulary...... fictions....

  3. Secondhand Smoke Is an Important Modifiable Risk Factor in Sickle Cell Disease: A Review of the Current Literature and Areas for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Christy Sadreameli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that causes significant morbidity and mortality related to chronic hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and resultant end-organ damage. Tobacco smoke exposure (TSE through secondhand smoke exposure in people with SCD of all ages and through primary smoking in adolescents and adults is associated with significantly increased morbidity, with increased rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations for painful vaso-occlusive crises and acute chest syndrome (ACS. Secondhand smoke is also associated with pulmonary function abnormalities in children with SCD who are already at risk for pulmonary function abnormalities on the basis of SCD. TSE is emerging as one of the few modifiable risk factors of SCD. This review discusses the current state of the evidence with respect to TSE and SCD morbidity, discusses potential mechanisms, and highlights current gaps in the evidence and future research directions.

  4. Compassionate care in radiography recruitment, education and training: A post-Francis Report review of the current literature and patient perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleiker, J.; Knapp, K.M.; Hopkins, S.; Johnston, G.

    2016-01-01

    Compassion is elemental in the care of a patient during their medical imaging (MI) procedure and is highly topical in the light of the Francis Report. The patient–practitioner interaction is an amalgam of context, communication and individual differences, and whilst compassion is a term in common parlance in the media, policy and radiographers' professional documents, its meaning and manifestation in radiography recruitment, education and practice are less clearly articulated. A review of the existing literature was undertaken, including a small scale study exploring patients' experiences in diagnostic medical imaging. Themes from the study included communication; competence; emotions; attitudes and relationships, but notably absent was any mention of compassion per se. Radiography research would benefit from further exploratory work into the nature of compassionate patient care in the unique context of the medical imaging encounter; offering an evidence-based contribution to radiography in the light of the Francis Report. - Highlights: • An increased focus on compassion was recommended in the Francis Report. • Best compassionate care is a requirement in radiographers' Code of Professional Conduct. • The meaning of compassionate patient care in radiography is not well understood. • Equally neither is the expression of compassion in radiography. • Research into compassion will contribute to evidence-based practice in radiography.

  5. [CPM--Continuous Passive Motion: treatment of injured or operated knee-joints using passive movement. A meta-analysis of current literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, P

    2004-04-01

    There is still a controversial discussion in literature about the use of motor driven splints in knee surgery--as the principle of continuous passive motion, CPM. For this reason it seemed useful for an evaluation to look through the papers which were published since 1990. It was obvious, that negative results were published often before this year, but this papers are still quoted standard works. In medical data bases subito-doc.de, medscape.com, medica.de and zbmed.de 230 papers were found by search CPM, continuous passive motion and arthromot. Coincidentally there was a search for authors who were already quoted in other papers. 36 papers concerning CPM after knee surgery were utilized. The role of CPM regarding the range of motion, swelling, duration of hospital stay, use of analgesics, costs, postoperative manipulations, wound healing and thrombo embolic complications was evaluated. Although the results of this partial retrospective, partial prospective, sometimes randomized or double blinded studies are in contradiction, there can only be found a trend to better results. New clinical studies for evidence based guidelines in the handling of continuous passive motion after knee surgery are necessary.

  6. Demonstrations of Agency in Contemporary International Children's Literature: An Exploratory Critical Content Analysis across Personal, Social, and Cultural Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Janelle B.

    2015-01-01

    International children's literature has the potential to create global experiences and cultural insights for young people confronted with limited and biased images of the world offered by media. The current inquiry was designed to explore, through a critical content analysis approach, international children's literature in which characters…

  7. Help-seeking behavior among women currently leaking urine in Nigeria: is it any different from the rest of the world?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojengbede OA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Babatunde O Adedokun,1 Imran O Morhason-Bello,2 Oladosu A Ojengbede,2 Ngozi S Okonkwo,1 Charles Kolade21Department of Epidemiology, Medical Statistics, and Environmental Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, College of Medicine/University College Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, NigeriaObjective: We examined help-seeking behaviors and factors influencing their choice of hospital care in women currently leaking urine.Materials and methods: This study was part of a multistage community survey conducted among 5001 women in Nigeria who participated in the Ibadan Urinary Incontinence Household Survey. Help-seeking behavior was analyzed among 139 respondents currently leaking urine within the population surveyed.Results: The mean age of those currently leaking urine was 35.7 years (standard deviation = 15.8. Only 18 (12.9% had ever sought help, of which 15 had received hospital care. Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of seeking hospital care was higher among less educated women (odds ratio [OR] = 4.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–13.89 and among those with severe incontinence (OR = 4.20, 95% CI: 1.24–14.29. Reasons mentioned for not seeking hospital care include a belief that the condition is not life-threatening (51.2%, do not believe there is treatment (18.2%, lack of funds (1.7%, too shy to disclose (2.5%, afraid of complications (1.7%, other (2.5%, and no reason (22.3%.Conclusion: This study shows that very few women, currently experiencing urinary incontinence have sought medical care (approximately 1 in 10; and that the barriers identified are similar to those identified in previous studies, except that these women lack the necessary funds to seek care.Keywords: urinary incontinence, help (health-seeking behavior, women, Nigeria

  8. Integration of public health and primary care: A systematic review of the current literature in primary care physician mediated childhood obesity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Smith, Patti; Carlton, Erik L; Duncan, Kenric; Gentry, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity, with its growing prevalence, detrimental effects on population health and economic burden, is an important public health issue in the United States and worldwide. There is need for expansion of the role of primary care physicians in obesity interventions. The primary aim of this review is to explore primary care physician (PCP) mediated interventions targeting childhood obesity and assess the roles played by physicians in the interventions. A systematic review of the literature published between January 2007 and October 2014 was conducted using a combination of keywords like "childhood obesity", "paediatric obesity", "childhood overweight", "paediatric overweight", "primary care physician", "primary care settings", "healthcare teams", and "community resources" from MEDLINE and CINAHL during November 2014. Author name(s), publication year, sample size, patient's age, study and follow-up duration, intervention components, role of PCP, members of the healthcare team, and outcomes were extracted for this review. Nine studies were included in the review. PCP-mediated interventions were composed of behavioural, education and technological interventions or a combination of these. Most interventions led to positive changes in Body Mass Index (BMI), healthier lifestyles and increased satisfaction among parents. PCPs participated in screening and diagnosing, making referrals for intervention, providing nutrition counselling, and promoting physical activity. PCPs, Dietitians and nurses were often part of the healthcare team. PCP-mediated interventions have the potential to effectively curb childhood obesity. However, there is a further need for training of PCPs, and explain new types of interventions such as the use of technology. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function-Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Omar; Beckett, Morgan Q; James, Aaron W; Loehr, Megan N; Lewis, Taylor G; Hassan, Tahmin; Janardhanan, Rajesh

    2017-01-01

    Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV) function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV) and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR.

  10. Real-Time Three-Dimensional Echocardiography: Characterization of Cardiac Anatomy and Function—Current Clinical Applications and Literature Review Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Q. Beckett

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Our review of real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE discusses the diagnostic utility of RT3DE and provides a comparison with two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE in clinical cardiology. A Pubmed literature search on RT3DE was performed using the following key words: transthoracic, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, real-time, and left ventricular (LV function. Articles included perspective clinical studies and meta-analyses in the English language, and focused on the role of RT3DE in human subjects. Application of RT3DE includes analysis of the pericardium, right ventricular (RV and LV cavities, wall motion, valvular disease, great vessels, congenital anomalies, and traumatic injury, such as myocardial contusion. RT3DE, through a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, allows for increasingly accurate volume and valve motion assessment, estimated LV ejection fraction, and volume measurements. Chamber motion and LV mass approximation have been more accurately evaluated by RT3DE by improved inclusion of the third dimension and quantification of volumetric movement. Moreover, RT3DE was shown to have no statistical significance when comparing the ejection fractions of RT3DE to cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR. Analysis of RT3DE data sets of the LV endocardial exterior allows for the volume to be directly quantified for specific phases of the cardiac cycle, ranging from end systole to end diastole, eliminating error from wall motion abnormalities and asymmetrical left ventricles. RT3DE through TTE measures cardiac function with superior diagnostic accuracy in predicting LV mass, systolic function, along with LV and RV volume when compared with 2DE with comparable results to CMR.

  11. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) in platinum-based treatment of non-small cell lung cancer with special emphasis on carboplatin: a review of current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilmar, A.; Sorensen, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    on carboplatin based on the current literature. Research on the development of a reliable methodology is warranted followed by validation in large, prospective, randomized trials as ERCC1 may possibly play an important role as tumour marker in tailored chemotherapy for NSCLC Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5......-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) has shown potential as a predictive marker in patients with NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Carboplatin has gained widespread use in the treatment of advanced NSCLC and its mechanisms of action are likely similar to that of cisplatin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature...... review on ERCC1 was conducted as predictor in NSCLC patients receiving platinum-based treatment with emphasis on carboplatin. English language publications from January 1996 to February 2008 were eligible and data on methodology and outcome were recorded. RESULTS: Eight preclinical articles, 25 clinical...

  12. Current recommendations on the estimation of transition probabilities in Markov cohort models for use in health care decision-making: a targeted literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olariu E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elena Olariu,1 Kevin K Cadwell,1 Elizabeth Hancock,1 David Trueman,1 Helene Chevrou-Severac2 1PHMR Ltd, London, UK; 2Takeda Pharmaceuticals International AG, Zurich, Switzerland Objective: Although Markov cohort models represent one of the most common forms of decision-analytic models used in health care decision-making, correct implementation of such models requires reliable estimation of transition probabilities. This study sought to identify consensus statements or guidelines that detail how such transition probability matrices should be estimated. Methods: A literature review was performed to identify relevant publications in the following databases: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and PubMed. Electronic searches were supplemented by manual-searches of health technology assessment (HTA websites in Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and the UK. One reviewer assessed studies for eligibility. Results: Of the 1,931 citations identified in the electronic searches, no studies met the inclusion criteria for full-text review, and no guidelines on transition probabilities in Markov models were identified. Manual-searching of the websites of HTA agencies identified ten guidelines on economic evaluations (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, and UK. All identified guidelines provided general guidance on how to develop economic models, but none provided guidance on the calculation of transition probabilities. One relevant publication was identified following review of the reference lists of HTA agency guidelines: the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research taskforce guidance. This provided limited guidance on the use of rates and probabilities. Conclusions: There is limited formal guidance available on the estimation of transition probabilities for use in decision-analytic models. Given the increasing importance of cost

  13. Neonicotinoids in the Canadian aquatic environment: a literature review on current use products with a focus on fate, exposure, and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J C; Dubetz, C; Palace, V P

    2015-02-01

    Developed to replace organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids are structurally similar to nicotine. The three main neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam, are being re-evaluated by Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA). An important aspect of the re-evaluation is the potential for effects in non-target organisms, including aquatic organisms. Leaching into surface waters is one of the major concerns surrounding extensive use of neonicotinoids, especially in close proximity to water bodies. The PMRA has classified IMI as 'persistent' with a 'high' leaching potential. Globally, neonicotinoids have been detected in a variety of water bodies, typically at concentrations in the low μg/L range. While IMI has been included in some monitoring exercises, there are currently very few published data for the presence of CLO and THM in Canadian water bodies. The majority of neonicotinoid toxicity studies have been conducted with IMI due to its longer presence on the market and high prevalence of use. Aquatic insects are particularly vulnerable to neonicotinoids and chronic toxicity has been observed at concentrations of IMI below 1 μg/L. Acute toxicity has been reported at concentrations below 20 μg/L for the most sensitive species, including Hyalella azteca, ostracods, and Chironomus riparius. Fish, algae, amphibians, and molluscs are relatively insensitive to IMI. However, the biological effects of THM and CLO have not been as well explored. The Canadian interim water quality guideline for IMI is 0.23 μg/L, but there is currently insufficient use, fate, and toxicological information available to establish guidelines for CLO and THM. Based on concentrations of neonicotinoids reported in surface waters in Canada and globally, there is potential for aquatic invertebrates to be negatively impacted by neonicotinoids. Therefore, it is necessary to address knowledge gaps to inform decisions around guidelines

  14. Uncovering the real outcomes of active renal stone treatment by utilizing non-contrast computer tomography: a systematic review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokas, Theodoros; Habicher, Martin; Junker, Daniel; Herrmann, Thomas; Jessen, Jan Peter; Knoll, Thomas; Nagele, Udo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the stone-free rates (SFRs) and stone clearance rates (SCRs) of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL), retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), and percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PCNL) according to non-contrast computer tomography (NCCT) findings. Original articles were identified from PubMed. After exclusion of ineligible papers, twenty-three studies with 2494 cases were included in the review. Six SWL, five RIRS and eight PCNL studies were selected. Additionally, four comparative articles were identified. SWL presents SFRs ranging 35-61.3 % and SCRs for residuals <4 mm being 43.2-92.9 %. RIRS studies report SFRs of 34.8-59.7 % and SCRs for residuals <4 mm ranging 48-96.7 %. Finally, PCNL presents SFRs of 20.8-100 % and SCRs for residuals <4 mm being 41.5-91.4 %. According to the comparative studies, SFRs are 17-61.3 % for SWL, 50 % for RIRS, and 95-100 % for PCNL. According to NCCT findings, it seems that PCNL provides better SFRs than ESWL and RIRS. However, further research with comparable and complete preoperative parameters and outcomes could reduce the heterogeneity of current data.

  15. The effect of aggression management training programmes for nursing staff and students working in an acute hospital setting. A narrative review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckemann, B; Zeller, A; Hahn, S; Dassen, T; Schols, J M G A; Halfens, R J G

    2015-01-01

    Patient aggression is a longstanding problem in general hospital nursing. Staff training is recommended to tackle workplace aggression originating from patients or visitors, yet evidence on training effects is scarce. To review and collate current research evidence on the effect of aggression management training for nurses and nursing students working in general hospitals, and to derive recommendations for further research. Systematic, narrative review. Embase, MEDLINE, the Cochrane library, CINAHL, PsycINFO, pubmed, psycArticles, Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection were searched for articles evaluating training programs for staff and students in acute hospital adult nursing in a 'before/after' design. Studies published between January 2000 and September 2011 in English, French or German were eligible of inclusion. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed with the 'Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies'. Main outcomes i.e. attitudes, confidence, skills and knowledge were collated. Nine studies were included. Two had a weak, six a moderate, and one a strong study design. All studies reported increased confidence, improved attitude, skills, and knowledge about risk factors post training. There was no significant change in incidence of patient aggression. Our findings corroborate findings of reviews on training in mental health care, which point to a lack of high quality research. Training does not reduce the incidence of aggressive acts. Aggression needs to be tackled at an organizational level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heat wave exposure in India in current, 1.5 °C, and 2.0 °C worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sourav; Kumar, Rohini; Stone, Dáithí A.

    2017-12-01

    Heatwaves with large impacts have increased in the recent past and will continue to increase under future warming. However, the implication for population exposure to severe heatwaves remains unexplored. Here, we characterize maximum potential human exposure (without passive/active reduction measures) to severe heatwaves in India. We show that if the global mean temperature is limited to 2.0 °C above pre-industrial conditions, the frequency of severe heatwaves will rise by 30 times the current climate by the end-21st century. In contrast, the frequency is projected to be about 2.5 times more (than the low-warming scenario of 2 °C) under conditions expected if the RCP8.5 ‘business-as-usual’ emissions scenario is followed. Under the 2.0 °C low-warming target, population exposure to severe heatwaves is projected to increase by about 15 and 92 times the current level by the mid and end-21st century respectively. Strategies to reduce population growth in India during the 21st century may provide only limited mitigation of heatwave exposure mostly late in the century. Limiting global temperatures to 1.5 °C above preindustrial would reduce the exposure by half relative to RCP8.5 by the mid-21st century. If global temperatures are to exceed 1.5 °C then substantial measures will be required to offset the large increase in exposure to severe heatwaves in India.

  17. Is there an empirical link between impulsivity and suicidality in bipolar disorders? A review of the current literature and the potential psychological implications of the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Hannah B; Meyer, Thomas D

    2013-08-01

    Suicide is highly prevalent among individuals with bipolar disorder and understanding the factors that increase risk for suicide may help to develop targeted interventions to prevent attempts. Impulsivity is thought to be an influential factor associated with suicidality and is also discussed as a key construct of bipolar disorder. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the current evidence to examine the association between impulsivity and suicidality in bipolar disorder. PsycInfo, Medline, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for articles published up until March 2012. Papers were included if they assessed an adult sample of individuals with bipolar disorders, focused on suicidality (ideation with intent to die, suicide attempts, or completion), and used a validated measure to determine impulsivity. Sixteen papers were identified. Contrary to widespread belief, we found (i) a very inconsistent picture of results including positive, negative, and insignificant associations between impulsivity and suicidality; and (ii) some studies do not take into account important aspects such as state-trait or measurement issues. The link between suicidality and impulsivity is less straightforward than often assumed. Drawing clear conclusions about the association is hampered by factors such as inconsistencies in defining suicidality, measuring impulsivity, and differentiating between impulsivity as a personality trait and impulsivity as a state (e.g., a consequence of substance use or premeditation of the attempt). We suggest that the association is less direct and that psychological models (e.g., Joiner's theory of suicidality) can help foster a more in-depth understanding regarding the relationship. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Violence in Children's Literature Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Maureen

    Because violence is an inescapable reality of the world, this paper asks the question, "Does violence have any place in children's literature?" For centuries, children's literature has encompassed stories in which the virtuous were rewarded and evildoers suffered retribution. Historically, violence was frequently part of punishment.…

  19. World lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Waser Jürgen; Fuchs Raphael; Ribicic Hrvoje; Schindler Benjamin; Blöschl Günther; Gröller Eduard

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present World Lines as a novel interactive visualization that provides complete control over multiple heterogeneous simulation runs. In many application areas decisions can only be made by exploring alternative scenarios. The goal of the suggested approach is to support users in this decision making process. In this setting the data domain is extended to a set of alternative worlds where only one outcome will actually happen. World Lines integrate simulation visualization and...

  20. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: Utilization of Oral Medicine-specific software for support of clinical care, research, and education: current status and strategy for broader implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailo, Vlaho; Firriolo, Francis John; Tanaka, Takako Imai; Varoni, Elena; Sykes, Rosemary; McCullough, Michael; Hua, Hong; Sklavounou, Alexandra; Jensen, Siri Beier; Lockhart, Peter B; Mattsson, Ulf; Jontell, Mats

    2015-08-01

    To assess the current scope and status of Oral Medicine-specific software (OMSS) utilized to support clinical care, research, and education in Oral Medicine and to propose a strategy for broader implementation of OMSS within the global Oral Medicine community. An invitation letter explaining the objectives was sent to the global Oral Medicine community. Respondents were interviewed to obtain information about different aspects of OMSS functionality. Ten OMSS tools were identified. Four were being used for clinical care, one was being used for research, two were being used for education, and three were multipurpose. Clinical software was being utilized as databases developed to integrate of different type of clinical information. Research software was designed to facilitate multicenter research. Educational software represented interactive, case-orientated technology designed for clinical training in Oral Medicine. Easy access to patient data was the most commonly reported advantage. Difficulty of use and poor integration with other software was the most commonly reported disadvantage. The OMSS presented in this paper demonstrate how information technology (IT) can have an impact on the quality of patient care, research, and education in the field of Oral Medicine. A strategy for broader implementation of OMSS is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Current scenario

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...

  2. Command World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Leah Y; Lange, Douglas S; Sebastyn, Jerome T; Roof, William H

    2006-01-01

    .... The Command World scenario was expressly designed as a crisis action planning exercise in order to replicate the communications, collaboration, and information requirements inherent in a military...

  3. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  4. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  5. Precarious Worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesgaard, Mads Anders

    2016-01-01

    The role played by Denmark in the triangular slave trade and colonial chattel slavery is rarely part of the tale told about Danish literature. This article investigates the reflections of this history in Denmark and discusses how this particular colonial history and its relationship to literature...

  6. Psychogeriatric inpatient unit design: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrohotoff, John T; Llewellyn-Jones, Robert H

    2011-03-01

    In many parts of the world the provision of psychogeriatric inpatient units (PGUs) remains limited. More units will be required over coming decades given rapid population aging. Medline (1950-2010), psycINFO (1806-2009), EMBASE (1980-2009) and CINAHL (1982-2009) were searched for papers about PGU design. Selected non-peer reviewed literature such as government reports and unpublished academic dissertations were also reviewed. Data were also obtained from the literature related to general adult psychiatry inpatient units where there was limited information from studies of units designed for older people. Over 200 papers were reviewed and 130 were included. There are few good quality studies to guide the design of acute PGUs and much of the existing literature is based on opinion and anecdote or, at best, based on observational studies. Randomized controlled studies comparing different designs and assessing outcomes are virtually non-existent. Several studies have identified violence and trauma resulting from hospitalization as significant problems with current acute PGU care. Despite its limitations the available literature provides useful guidance on how PGU design can optimize patient and staff safety and improve clinical outcomes. There are significant problems with current acute PGUs, and patient mix on existing units is an important issue. Future research should examine patient and staff perceptions of different PGU ward environments, the relationship between ward design and clinical outcomes, the effects of segregating patients with challenging behaviors in dementia and the benefits or otherwise of gender segregation.

  7. Current Trends in Danish Children's Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    2008-01-01

    En beskrivelse af tendenser i aktuel dansk børnelitteratur med fokus på tekstbøger for større børn inden for fantasy, hverdagsrealisme og kriminallitteratur Udgivelsesdato: Autume......En beskrivelse af tendenser i aktuel dansk børnelitteratur med fokus på tekstbøger for større børn inden for fantasy, hverdagsrealisme og kriminallitteratur Udgivelsesdato: Autume...

  8. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  9. Reading Popular Islamic Literature: Continuity And Change In Indonesian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rokib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, literature on Islamic themes has become increasingly popular in Indonesia. It is commonly categorized as Islamic literature identified by Islamic texts and symbols on the book cover and its content. The literary works have been popular as reflected in the record sales figures. Previously, some literary works dealing with Islamic themes failed to gain public attention. Interestingly, those works are not mentioned by people as Islamic literature. This paper aims to discuss some questions on why are some literary works on Islamic theme mentioned as Islamic while others are not? Is there Islamic literature within Indonesian literature? What are the differences between Islamic literature and kitab literature (sastra kitab written by Muslim scholars in the Malay world? By exploring the social context of reader responses toward selected literary works on Islam, this study reveals that the label of Islamic literature is created to confront opposite themes in Indonesian literature. The term Islamic literature remains a problematic and debatable issue related to literature based on Islamic themes in both old and modern Indonesian literature.

  10. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  11. INIS: Nuclear Grey Literature Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savić, Dobrica

    2016-01-01

    As one of the world's largest collections of published information on the peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, INIS represents an extraordinary example of world cooperation. Currently, as INIS members, 130 countries and 24 international organizations share and allow access to their valuable nuclear information resources, preserving them for future generations and offering a freely available nuclear knowledge repository. Since its creation in 1970, INIS has collected and provided access to more than 3.8 million bibliographic references to publications, documents, technical reports, non-copyrighted documentation, and other grey literature, as well as over a million full texts. Public interest throughout the years in accessing the INIS Collection has been remarkable. This paper deals with the challenges faced by INIS in its endeavour to increase the use, accessibility, usability and expandability of its on-line repository. It also describes document collection, the features and characteristics of implementing a new search engine, as well as the lessons learned. (author)

  12. [Current tuberculosis mortality world-wide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefliger, E; Rieder, H L

    1992-04-21

    The mortality rate still is an important index for assessment of tuberculosis. Statistical records are kept on the mortality rate on a worldwide basis--more than in the case of other tuberculosis parameters. They allow us to make valuable comparisons. They are also useful because the mortality is closely related to the morbidity. The present thesis is based on comparative figures from the 1989 volume of the WHO Health Statistics Annual. Various countries have been specially selected by the publisher--and subsequently also by us--for sake of clarity. The figures vary strongly within these countries, which was to be expected. The mortality rate varies in Europe (for each 100,000 residents) e.g. from 0.2 in the Netherlands to 8.15 in the Soviet Union. In the Americas the rates vary from 0.4 for Canada to 12.9 for Ecuador. In the Western Pacific region the mortality rates vary from 0.35 for Australia to 14.65 for China. On a worldwide basis, the share of deaths from tuberculosis among all causes of death varies from 0.02% in the Netherlands to 2.10% in the Republic of Korea. The relation of tuberculosis deaths with regard to sexes in Switzerland: 75.7% men, 24.3% women, which is more or less the European average. The lower the mortality rate for tuberculosis are, the lower the difference between the sexes appears to be. Similar facts are found with regard to the distribution of tuberculosis deaths according to age groups: the lower the tuberculosis rate, the more tuberculosis is found in older age groups. The tuberculosis deaths are percentage-wise similarly distributed to the respiratory organs and the other tuberculosis forms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Current nuclear programmes in third world countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, Anna.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1964, when China became the fifth declared nuclear weapons state NWS (joining the US, Soviet Union, Britain and France), no other state has openly declared a nuclear capacity. But four states - Israel, South Africa, India and Pakistan - are now believed to have such a capacity. This chapter will briefly document the nuclear weapons programmes of these four 'threshold' countries which possess the industrial infrastructure to enable them to produce nuclear weapons' but assiduously refrain from publicly expressing any interest in acquiring such weapons. The chapter will go on to discuss those states which are not on the threshold but which are attempting to become nuclear-capable through building the necessary technology or acquiring it on the international market. The political motivation for these countries to 'go nuclear', and the assistance they have received in this endeavour from the NWSs themselves, will also be discussed. (author)

  14. Twenty-five-year-old Woman with Bilateral Borderline Ovarian Tumour Desiring to Preserve Fertility - Case Report and Literature Review on the Current State of Fertility Preservation in Women with Borderline Ovarian Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S; Lotz, L; Heusinger, K; Hoffmann, I; Dittrich, R; Beckmann, M W

    2016-11-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are semimalignant tumours occurring unilaterally or bilaterally with a peak incidence among women of reproductive age. Since the affected women often wish to preserve fertility, particular precautions must be taken when counselling the patient and obtaining consent prior to planning an individual treatment. Options for preserving fertility include an organ-sparing surgical procedure and cryopreservation of oocytes and/or ovarian tissue. In this article, we report on a 25-year-old patient with a bilateral seromucinous borderline tumour who desired all fertility-preserving options. In order to perform the procedure without delay, we opted to perform luteal phase stimulation prior to oocyte retrieval. We conclude by discussing the current literature on the state of fertility preservation in the treatment of borderline ovarian tumours.

  15. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  16. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  17. Educational Online Technologies in Blended Tertiary Environments: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuapawa, Kimberley N.

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of the literature surrounding five popular media-rich educational online technologies (EOTs) currently being used by educationalists to support blended learning within tertiary environments. This review considers the following EOTs: 1) connective media, 2) interactive gaming, 3) virtual worlds, 4) web conferencing and 5) learning…

  18. World energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Three major concerns face mankind's future: the impending energy crisis as caused by the depletion of the world's fossil fuel reserves, world atmospheric pollution as caused by the burning of these fuels, and mankind's destruction if the vast energy contained in nuclear weapons stockpiles is released in a global conflict. This paper describes an ambitious, combined solution to these problems by the use of deep underground detonations of thermonuclear devices/bombs to provide a virtually pollution free, world energy source into the far distant future, while achieving a significant increase in mutual trust between the superpowers and all nations. The key is believed to be thermonuclear geothermal stimulation to produce the electrical power needed for a hydrogen economy

  19. Intertextuality in the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Albay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Literature is not the product of a specific nation; rather it is a combination of the experiences of all nations. So to speak, there is inheritance amongst the literary texts all over the world literature. Thinking of the global changes and technological development, it is quite easy to see the issue of interaction between the nations which is called “intertextuality”. This concept appears in a literary work within different interactions. Especially the religions, trade, wars, social and or economic movement, internet and technology have significant roles in this because this interaction is provided through these factors in the society. Now that, the society is mirrored up in the literature, these affects necessarily will be seen in the literature and the scholars deal with finding formic, contently and stylistic resemblances among the cultures and literary areas in a literary work. In this study, two aspects of these interactions in the literature will be handled as theme-based and form-based. The stylistic resemblances will be treated under the form-based part.

  20. Black women’s ‘two-ness’ in african-american literature: can black and white worlds join together? = A dualidade de mulheres negras na literatura afro-americana: os mundos negro e branco podem se unir?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Endoença Martins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how black women keep contacts with both black and white worlds in novels written by African-American female writers. In Toni Morrison’s (1970 The Bluest Eye, Pecola Breedlove keeps contact with the white world through her assimilationist behavior; in Alice Walker’s (1982 The Color Purple, Celie freezes herself in the black world by playing the role of the nationalist Negro; finally, in Lorraine Hansberry’s (1987 A Raisin in the Sun, Mama Younger joins black and white worlds together when she develops a catalyst agenda, as she moves to a white neighborhood.O artigo discute como mulheres negras mantêm contato com os mundos negro e branco em romances de escritoras afroamericanas. Em O Olho Mais Azul, de Toni Morrison (1970, Pecola Breedlove se alia ao mundo branco pelo comportamento assimilacionista; em A Cor Púrpura, de Alice Walker (1982, Celie se isola no mundo negro ao assumir o papel do Negro nacionalista; por fim, em Uma Cereja ao Sol, de Lorraine Hansberry (1987, Mama Younger aproxima o mundo negro e branco quando se torna catalista, indo morar num bairro branco.

  1. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  2. World armament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolle, H.

    1977-01-01

    Summary of consequences on: Armament expenditure of the world, arms trade, arms race and nuclear weapon arsenals, nuclear weapon proliferation, nuclear safety controls, nuclear carrier systems, international nuclear trade, nuclear weapon accidents, chemical wars, war law, ecological wars, armament limitations. (HP) [de

  3. Spinning worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, H.

    2017-01-01

    The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1

  4. Assessing the quality, efficacy, and effectiveness of the current evidence base of active self-care complementary and integrative medicine therapies for the management of chronic pain: a rapid evidence assessment of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Roxana; York, Alexandra; Lee, Courtney; Crawford, Cindy; Buckenmaier, Chester; Schoomaker, Eric; Crawford, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures that are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review. This article provides an introduction and background to the review, summarizes the methodological processes involved, details the initial results, and identifies strengths and weakness of the review. Specific results of the review as well as overall recommendations for moving this field of research forward are detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. O "Grande Mundo": mundanismo e sociabilidade na literatura academicista brasileira durante o Pré-Modernismo * "The Big World": worldliness and sociability in academic brazilian literature during Pre-Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURÍCIO SILVA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo analisa o contexto cultural do Pré-Modernismo brasileiro, destacando alguns aspectos estéticos e literários da Literatura Brasileira. Além disso, este artigo analisa as possíveis relações entre autores Pré-Modernistas e a Academia Brasileira de Letras, durante a passagem do século XIX para o XX.Palavras-chave: Pré-Modernismo – Literatura Brasileira – Mundanismo – Historiografia Literária. Abstract: The present article analyses the cultural context of Brazilian Pre-Modernism, and points out some aesthetic and literary aspects of Brazilian Literature. Furthermore, the present article analyzes the relationship between the Pre-Modernist writers and the Brazilian Academy of Letters, detaching the institutionalizations issues on the turn-of-the-century.Keywords: Pre-Modernism – Brazilian Literature – Worldliness – Literary Historiography.

  6. Quantum Worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Barrett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p45 Because of the conceptual difficulties it faces, quantum mechanics provides a salient example of how alternative metaphysical commitments may clarify our understanding of a physical theory and the explanations it provides. Here we will consider how postulating alternative quantum worlds in the context of Hugh Everett III’s pure wave mechanics may serve to explain determinate measurement records and the standard quantum statistics. We will focus on the properties of such worlds, then briefly consider other metaphysical options available for interpreting pure wave mechanics. These reflections will serve to illustrate both the nature and the limits of naturalized metaphysics.

  7. Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K, Peng K

    1980-12-01

    The disparity between the consumption patterns of industrialized and Third World countries reflects an increase in the numbers of people living in poverty who have yet to achieve basic needs. Third World planning, encouraged by transnational companies, too often model their development goals on importing artificial life styles. This exploits poor nations by creating unrealistic demands as well as by creating a market for products that are unacceptable elsewhere. The health and environmental effects of these practices prompted the formation of consumers' association of Penang (CAP), which is trying to make people aware of the need to give basic needs the highest priority. The CAP handles complaints, tests products, and studies the socio-economic-environmental implications of development as well as conducting a far-ranging educational program. Its procedures can be adapted by any country to examine consumer awareness and to press for social reform. (DCK)

  8. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...... among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge...

  9. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  10. Sexual violence by occupational forces during and after World War II: influence of experiencing and witnessing of sexual violence on current mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Glück, Tobias M; Tran, Ulrich S; Zeilinger, Elisabeth L

    2012-08-01

    Wartime rape is an atrocity with long-lasting impacts not only on victims but whole societies. In this brief report, we present data on experience and witness of sexual violence during World War II (WWII) and subsequent time of occupation and on indicators of mental health in a sample of elderly Austrians. Interviews of 298 elderly Austrians from a larger epidemiological study on WWII traumatization were analyzed for the impact of experience and witness of sexual violence during the wartime committed by occupational forces. Interviews comprised a biographical/historical section and psychological measures (BSI, TLEQ, PCL-C). Participants were recruited in all nine provinces of Austria with respect to former zones of occupation (Western Allied/Soviet). Twelve persons reported direct experience of sexual violence, 33 persons witnessed such atrocities. One third of the victims and 18.2% of the witnesses reported post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD full/subthreshold). Sexual violence occurred more often in the former Soviet zone. Victims and witnesses displayed higher odds of post-traumatic symptoms and symptoms of depression and phobic fear than non-victims. Furthermore, witnesses displayed higher levels of aggression compared to victims and non-witnesses. Our results corroborate previous findings that wartime rape has long-lasting effects over decades on current mental health and post-traumatic distress in victims and witnesses. We recommend integration of psychotraumatological knowledge on consequences of sexual violence on mental health into geriatric care and the education of dedicated personnel.

  11. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  12. Reservoir sedimentation; a literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloff, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    A survey of literature is made on reservoir sedimentation, one of the most threatening processes for world-wide reservoir performance. The sedimentation processes, their impacts, and their controlling factors are assessed from a hydraulic engineering point of view with special emphasis on

  13. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  14. Cancer pain management-current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Thapa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer pain is still one of the most feared entities in cancer and about 75% of these patients require treatment with opioids for severe pain. The cancer pain relief is difficult to manage in patients with episodic or incidental pain, neuropathic pain, substance abuse and with impaired cognitive or communication skills. This non-systematic review article aims to discuss reasons for under treatment, tools of pain assessment, cancer pain and anxiety and possibly carve new approaches for cancer pain management in future. The current status of World Health Organization analgesic ladder has also been reviewed. A thorough literature search was carried out from 1998 to 2010 for current status in cancer pain management in MEDLINE, WHO guidelines and published literature and relevant articles have been included.

  15. Recreating the World(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseli do Prado Siqueira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Created in 2007 , the project extension Itinerant Workshops : recreating the world ( s of the Catholic University of Minas Gerais , Campus Poços de Caldas is an inseparable experience in research of teaching and extension. With this title " recreating worlds " seek to express the experience that has been possible for us to live over the years of execution of this project . Our experience is theoretically referenced by understanding that German thinkers Meister Eckhart (1260-1327 and Martin Heidegger (1889-1976 shows us about what is the man in they on existence. Such an understanding is expressed in the phenomenon of serenity ( Gelassenheit , let it be understood as simply what we are . Our research on this phenomenon Gelassenheit (Serenity , guide the relationships we establish with the external community , where we understand that the existence of man in his essential condition , is a shared existence. The other is imposed on us and we never fail to be sympathetic to their fears and anxieties , because these same fears and anxieties are also ours possibilities . This relationship of consideration makes us all ( teachers , students , community solidarity in our existential angst before the unexpected, the unknown . It is when we can see ourselves through another , in what we truly are and can be.

  16. Krieg und Literatur War and Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi N. Theis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt heißt der Band 19 der Schriften-Reihe des Erich-Maria-Remarque-Archivs, in dem es um Ingeborg Bachmann und die deutschsprachige Literatur 1945-1980 geht. Der Band enthält die Beiträge zu einem Symposion, das am 14.-15. Januar 2005 an der Universität Nottingham stattgefunden hat. Im Mittelpunkt stand die Frage, welche Strategien im Umgang mit Nationalsozialismus, Holocaust, zweitem Weltkrieg, Kaltem Krieg oder Vietnamkrieg und auch dem deutschen Kolonialismus bei Bachmann und anderen deutschsprachigen Autoren zu finden sind. Anlass zur Tagung war die in Wien und Salzburg konzipierte Ausstellung Schreiben gegen den Krieg: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973. In insgesamt dreizehn Beiträgen wird im vorliegenden Band die literarische Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema Gewalt und Krieg beleuchtet.Volume 19 of the series published by the Erich-Maria-Remarque Archive is entitled “Writing against War and Violence” (“Schreiben gegen Krieg und Gewalt” and approaches Ingeborg Bachmann and German language literature from 1945 to 1980. The volume contains contributions based on a symposium that took place at the University of Nottingham on January 14-15, 2005. Central to the symposium was the question as to which strategies Bachmann and other German language authors utilized in their approach to National Socialism, the Holocaust, the Second World War, the Cold War, or the Vietnam War, as well as German colonialism. The impetus for the conference was the exhibition Writing Against the War: Ingeborg Bachmann, 1926-1973 conceived in Vienna and Salzburg. In the volume at hand, thirteen contributions in total illuminate literary confrontations with the themes of war and violence.

  17. Implementation effectiveness of revised (post-2010) World Health Organization guidelines on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV using routinely collected data in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumede-Moyo, Sehlulekile; Filteau, Suzanne; Munthali, Tendai; Todd, Jim; Musonda, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    To synthesize and evaluate the impact of implementing post-2010 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines on attainment of PMTCT targets. Retrospective and prospective cohort study designs that utilized routinely collected data with a focus on provision and utilization of the cascade of PMTCT services were included. The outcomes included the proportion of pregnant women who were tested during their antenatal clinic (ANC) visits; mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate; adherence; retention rate; and loss to follow-up (LTFU). Of the 1210 references screened, 45 met the inclusion criteria. The studies originated from 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The highest number of studies originated from Malawi (10) followed by Nigeria and South Africa with 7 studies each. More than half of the studies were on option A while the majority of option B+ studies were conducted in Malawi. These studies indicated a high uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing ranging from 75% in Nigeria to over 96% in Zimbabwe and South Africa. High proportions of CD4 count testing were reported in studies only from South Africa despite that in most of the countries CD4 testing was a prerequisite to access treatment. MTCT rate ranged from 1.1% to 15.1% and it was higher in studies where data were collected in the early days of the WHO 2010 PMTCT guidelines. During the postpartum period, adherence and retention rate decreased, and LTFU increased for both HIV-positive mothers and exposed infants. Irrespective of which option was followed, uptake of antenatal HIV testing was high but there was a large drop off along later points in the PMTCT cascade. More research is needed on how to improve later components of the PMTCT cascade, especially of option B+ which is now the norm throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Academic Library Services in Virtual Worlds: An Examination of the Potential for Library Services in Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Jenna; Porter, Marjorie; Miller, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on libraries is abundant with articles about the uses and the potential of new interactive communication technology, including Web 2.0 tools. Recently, the advent and use of virtual worlds have received top billing in these works. Many library institutions are exploring these virtual environments; this exploration and the…

  19. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  20. Bariatric surgery and pregnancy: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ferrand Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has currently reached epidemic proportions, both in Chile and in the world. This condition is associated to a variety of maternal complications in all stages of the vital cycle and during pregnancy. Medical treatment has not proved successful thus resulting in an increase in bariatric surgery in recent years, even when it is not first line treatment. This literature review aims to report updated results of surgical treatment for obesity before and during pregnancy with respect to fertility, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension. It also looks into the possible effects of surgery on fetal development, and its relation to premature delivery, fetal macrosomy, low birth weight and neural tube defects, as well as effects on maternal and fetal outcomes, mainly in nutrition. Lastly, we suggest some recommendations that arise from this review on the role of contraception, nutrition and time between surgery and pregnancy.

  1. The Content of Literature in the High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Dwight L.

    The content of a literature program defined in terms of the structure of literature is proposed. A three-layer definition of structure is suggested which considers (1) the substance of literature, including man and his gods, man and the natural world, man and other men, and man and himself; (2) mode in literature, including the romantic, comic,…

  2. Travel Writing in Children and Adolescent's Literature in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Maryam; Bagheri, Narges; Mahmoodi, Masoomeh

    2016-01-01

    Today children's literature and its place have attracted in the collection of literature, according to many writers the world. Making fun of the text by writer is best way to communicate with the Children and Adolescents. Travel writing is considered as an interdisciplinary literature combined by literature, history, geography and sociology. It is…

  3. A Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the first reference guide to the political, cultural and economic histories that form the subject-matter of postcolonial literatures written in English. The focus of the Companion is principally on the histories of postcolonial literatures in the Anglophone world - Africa, the Middle East...

  4. Tenable world strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, D.L. (New Hampshire Univ. (USA). Inst. for Policy and Social Science Research)

    1991-10-01

    The Author presents several arguments explaining and backing the mechanics of a world strategy of zero growth. First, attention is brought to Aurelio Peccei's concerns regarding the short-sightedness of the energy and economic policies of industrialized nations. In his book (entitled 'Verso l'Abisso'), written almost 25 years ago, he correctly predicted the severity and timing of current global environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect and acid rain. Urgent and concerted action by world governments is recommended to contain and and remedy damage being caused by a diverse mix of integrated factors - over-population, uncontrolled food production, pollution, over-production by industry, and the improper use of energy and other natural resources. The Author sets guidelines for the creation of a world of steady-state growth in which an equilibrium is reached between overall standards of living and population dynamics. To meet this goal of global man/environment peaceful coexistence, he strongly urges the creation and instillation of a new set of values through the placing of emphasis on the research and development of cultural, psychological, institutional and moral philosophies which, in the last century, have been almost entirely supplanted world-wide by growing materialistic ideals and the pursuit of technological perfection.

  5. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  6. WORLD TRAINING SAILING BOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Yeroshkina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In scientific article is researched tendencies, which took place in historical process of the world segmentation of sailing tall ships and their influence on modern composition on whole word’s training sailing boats. By variety parameters modern composition of ships was done the estimation of most biggest tall sailing ships. Complete technical description of the powerful sailing tall ships was done on the present day. Identified and given the technical possibilities for further exploitation of  Ukrainian training sailing boats. Assesses the current state of the sailing fleet in terms of economic costs and expenses of Crimea’s occupation and continuous war on eastern region of Ukraine.Key words: training sailing boats, world segment of sailing boats, sailing boats. JEL: L 92

  7. World energy outlook 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    The World Energy Outlook 2006 sets out the IEA's latest projections of world energy supply and demand to 2030 for oil, gas, coal, renewables, nuclear and electricity, plus projections on energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. The publication is in three parts. Part A: The reference scenario has chapters entitled: Key assumptions; Global Energy Trends; Oil market outlook; Gas market outlook; Coal market outlook; and Power sector outlook. Part B: The alternative policy scenario contains chapters on: Mapping a new energy future; Assessing the cost-effectiveness of alternative policies; Deepening the analysis results by sector; and Getting to and going beyond the alternative policy scenario. Part C: Focus on key topics contains: The impact of higher energy prices; Current trends in oil and gas investment; Prospects for nuclear power; The outlook for biofuels; Energy for coking in developing countries; and Focus on Brazil. 224 figs., 84 tabs., 5 annexes.

  8. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Karippacheril, John George; Magazine, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader's work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice. PMID:27729695

  9. Critical appraisal of published literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goneppanavar Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With a large output of medical literature coming out every year, it is impossible for readers to read every article. Critical appraisal of scientific literature is an important skill to be mastered not only by academic medical professionals but also by those involved in clinical practice. Before incorporating changes into the management of their patients, a thorough evaluation of the current or published literature is an important step in clinical practice. It is necessary for assessing the published literature for its scientific validity and generalizability to the specific patient community and reader′s work environment. Simple steps have been provided by Consolidated Standard for Reporting Trial statements, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network and several other resources which if implemented may help the reader to avoid reading flawed literature and prevent the incorporation of biased or untrustworthy information into our practice.

  10. Compilation of ocean circulation and other data from ADCP current meters, CTD casts, tidal gauges, and other instruments from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University and other institutions as part of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and other projects from 24 November 1985 to 30 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000649)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Compilation of ocean circulation and other data were collected from a World-Wide distribution by Oregon State University (OSU) and other institutions as part of...

  11. The World energy issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  12. Technology-assisted education in graduate medical education: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Jwayyed, Sharhabeel; Stiffler, Kirk A; Wilber, Scott T; Southern, Alison; Weigand, John; Bare, Rudd; Gerson, Lowell W

    2011-01-01

    Studies on computer-aided instruction and web-based learning have left many questions unanswered about the most effective use of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Objective We conducted a review of the current medical literature to report the techniques, methods, frequency and effectiveness of technology-assisted education in graduate medical education. Methods A structured review of MEDLINE articles dealing with "Computer-Assisted Instruction," "Internet or World W...

  13. Social Media in IS Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of ‘digital living’ is to a high extent influenced by the introduction of new media into society. Especially, social media are affecting the digital world of today and are setting the agenda for social connectedness in private, public and commercial networks. Based in an initial...... desire to explore a research agenda for the workings of social media in network structures a look into the literature on social media within the field of Information Systems sparked an interest in exploring a new research perspective for social media. Reviewing the IS literature it is apparent...... that the perspective of the ‘media’ as an artifact of social media has been neglected in existing literature. Based in this, this paper proposes research possibilities for investigating the ‘media’ of social media as well as some theoretical considerations that could aid the investigation. Finally, potential outcomes...

  14. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy: Up-to-date and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobone, Maurizio; Citton, Marilisa; Nitti, Donato

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery represents one of the most challenging areas in digestive surgery. In recent years, an increasing number of laparoscopic pancreatic procedures have been performed and laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) has gained world-wide acceptance because it does not require anastomosis or other reconstruction. To date, English literature reports more than 300 papers focusing on LDP, but only 6% included more than 30 patients. Literature review confirms that LDP is a feasible and safe procedure in patients with benign or low grade malignancies. Decreased blood loss and morbidity, early recovery and shorter hospital stay may be the main advantages. Several concerns still exist for laparoscopic pancreatic adenocarcinoma excision. The individual surgeon determines the technical conduction of LDP, with or without spleen preservation; currently robotic pancreatic surgery has gained diffusion. Additional researches are necessary to determine the best technique to improve the procedure results. PMID:23082049

  15. IGT calculates world reserves of fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has published the IGT World Reserves Survey, giving their latest tabulation of world reserves of fossil fuels and uranium. The report contains 120 Tables and 41 Figures. Estimates are provided for proved reserves, resources, current production, and life indexes of the non-renewable energy sources of the US and of the world as a whole. World regional data are also provided in many cases. The data are summarized here. 2 figures, 5 tables

  16. Virtual Worlds for Virtual Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoten, Diana; Lutters, Wayne

    The members and resources of a virtual organization are dispersed across time and space, yet they function as a coherent entity through the use of technologies, networks, and alliances. As virtual organizations proliferate and become increasingly important in society, many may exploit the technical architecture s of virtual worlds, which are the confluence of computer-mediated communication, telepresence, and virtual reality originally created for gaming. A brief socio-technical history describes their early origins and the waves of progress followed by stasis that brought us to the current period of renewed enthusiasm. Examination of contemporary examples demonstrates how three genres of virtual worlds have enabled new arenas for virtual organizing: developer-defined closed worlds, user-modifiable quasi-open worlds, and user-generated open worlds. Among expected future trends are an increase in collaboration born virtually rather than imported from existing organizations, a tension between high-fidelity recreations of the physical world and hyper-stylized imaginations of fantasy worlds, and the growth of specialized worlds optimized for particular sectors, companies, or cultures.

  17. Structured Literature Review of digital disruption literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesti, Helle; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Digital disruption is a term/phenomenon frequently appearing in innovation management literature. However, no academic consensus exists as to what it entails; conceptual nor theoretical. We use the SLR-method (Structured Literature Review) to investigate digital disruption literature. A SLR......-study conducted in 2017 revealed some useful information on how disruption and digital disruption literature has developed over a specific period. However, this study was less representative of papers addressing digital disruption; which is the in-depth subject of this paper. To accommodate this, we intend...... to conduct a similar SLR-study assembling a body literature having digital disruption as the only common denominator...

  18. Ethnohermeneutics in a postmodern world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin W. Geertz

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last three decades a growing amount of literature has accumulated that, to quote from the title of a recent collection of essays, can aptly be summed up with the words: The Empire Writes Back. This literature addresses Western literature and science and definitively rejects much of that literature and its stereotypes. It shows how power is at the center of Western literature, and it therefore addresses issues of hegemony, language, place and displacement, racism and sexism, and it attempts to address a common post-colonial theory. This critical literature, sometimes extreme but usually insightful, coincided with the postmodern crisis in ethnography and other cultural sciences that have also assimilated literary theory. Some of the greatest philosophers, sociologists, psychologists, historians, and cultural scientists are either ignorant of world history or adamantly ethnocentric. Ethnohermeneutics is an appeal to professionalism in dealing with these cultures, especially in requiring the basics of the study of any other religion, namely, historical insight, linguistic knowledge.

  19. vWorld Capability Development Support: Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    Miller, A. (2010). A Use Case Analysis for Learning in 3D MUVE: A Model Based on Key eLearning Activities. Retrieved from: http://www.icvl.eu/2010...1/d/8/ScienceSimWP_CCEFinal.pdf 26. von Kapri, A., Ullrich, S., Brandherm, B., & Prendinger, H. (2009). Global lab: an interaction, simulation...Prendinger, H. (2009). Global lab: an interaction, simulation, and experimentation platform based on” second life” and” opensimulator”. Proceedings of

  20. The Academic Life: Small Worlds, Different Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, William

    2010-01-01

    "The Academic Life: Small Worlds, Different Worlds" represented an impressive investigation of the largest and most complex national academic community in the world, which seriously attempted a detailed representation of the variations in its form. Its ethnographic orientation to understanding the internal academic life through exploratory…

  1. World Bioenergy 2012. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-11-01

    The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed

  2. World nuclear performance report 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    World Nuclear Association recently published the 2017 edition of the World Nuclear Performance Report. The report presents key metrics that illustrate current performance, both of reactors currently operating and those under construction. The article highlights some of the most important findings of the report. The pace of new build will need to accelerate if nuclear energy is going to make a growing contribution to the global electricity generation mix, a requirement of many projections of future scenarios that aim to meet the objective of limiting the rise average temperatures to below two degrees Celsius, while at the same time meeting the growing worldwide demand for electricity.

  3. Thyroid Disease Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniakas, Anastasios; Davies, Louise; Zafereo, Mark E

    2018-06-01

    Thyroid disease is one of the most common pathologies in the world, with two of the most clinically important subgroups being iodine deficiency and thyroid goiter, and thyroid cancer. This review looks at the current state of thyroid disease in the world and evaluates the future direction in terms of thyroid disease treatment and prevention. Several of the most impactful epidemiologic studies are presented and analyzed, as well as a brief overview of the current socioeconomic burden of disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. World nuclear performance report 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-08-15

    World Nuclear Association recently published the 2017 edition of the World Nuclear Performance Report. The report presents key metrics that illustrate current performance, both of reactors currently operating and those under construction. The article highlights some of the most important findings of the report. The pace of new build will need to accelerate if nuclear energy is going to make a growing contribution to the global electricity generation mix, a requirement of many projections of future scenarios that aim to meet the objective of limiting the rise average temperatures to below two degrees Celsius, while at the same time meeting the growing worldwide demand for electricity.

  5. Literature Teaching in ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To show the importance of literature teaching in English language teaching (ELT),this paper explores the relations between language, culture and literature,examines the present problems in literature teaching and possible solutions are suggested as well.

  6. Automated Medical Literature Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hawking

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The constantly growing publication rate of medical research articles puts increasing pressure on medical specialists who need to be aware of the recent developments in their field. The currently used literature retrieval systems allow researchers to find specific papers; however the search task is still repetitive and time-consuming. Aims In this paper we describe a system that retrieves medical publications by automatically generating queries based on data from an electronic patient record. This allows the doctor to focus on medical issues and provide an improved service to the patient, with higher confidence that it is underpinned by current research. Method Our research prototype automatically generates query terms based on the patient record and adds weight factors for each term. Currently the patient’s age is taken into account with a fuzzy logic derived weight, and terms describing blood-related anomalies are derived from recent blood test results. Conditionally selected homonyms are used for query expansion. The query retrieves matching records from a local index of PubMed publications and displays results in descending relevance for the given patient. Recent publications are clearly highlighted for instant recognition by the researcher. Results Nine medical specialists from the Royal Adelaide Hospital evaluated the system and submitted pre-trial and post-trial questionnaires. Throughout the study we received positive feedback as doctors felt the support provided by the prototype was useful, and which they would like to use in their daily routine. Conclusion By supporting the time-consuming task of query formulation and iterative modification as well as by presenting the search results in order of relevance for the specific patient, literature retrieval becomes part of the daily workflow of busy professionals.

  7. On European Religious Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Since ancient time,literature has being a hot topic that scholars concern.Latin religious literature is the mainstream of medieval literature.This paper analyzes medieval literature from three aspects which are the religious cultural background,main characteristics and achievements.What’s more,the thesis summarizes its influence to literature afterwards,and provides suggestion to the contemporary literature in China.

  8. Public dialogues on flood risk communication: Literature review : Literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orr, Paula; Forrest, Steven; Brooks, Katya; Twigger-Ross, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This literature review summarises the state of knowledge on communicating the risk of flooding to the public as of January 2014. The review considers how different audiences respond to risk communication and the factors which influence that response. The current systems and techniques for flood risk

  9. Cyberbullying among Youth: A Comprehensive Review of Current International Research and Its Implications and Application to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Wanda; Faucher, Chantal; Jackson, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Cyberbullying research is rapidly expanding with many studies being published from around the world in the past five or six years. In this article we review the current international literature published in English, with particular attention to the following themes: The relationship of cyberbullying to the more traditional face-to-face bullying,…

  10. WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey

    OpenAIRE

    Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2008-01-01

    WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...

  11. Remote sensing education and Internet/World Wide Web technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Egbert, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Remote sensing education is increasingly in demand across academic and professional disciplines. Meanwhile, Internet technology and the World Wide Web (WWW) are being more frequently employed as teaching tools in remote sensing and other disciplines. The current wealth of information on the Internet and World Wide Web must be distilled, nonetheless, to be useful in remote sensing education. An extensive literature base is developing on the WWW as a tool in education and in teaching remote sensing. This literature reveals benefits and limitations of the WWW, and can guide its implementation. Among the most beneficial aspects of the Web are increased access to remote sensing expertise regardless of geographic location, increased access to current material, and access to extensive archives of satellite imagery and aerial photography. As with other teaching innovations, using the WWW/Internet may well mean more work, not less, for teachers, at least at the stage of early adoption. Also, information posted on Web sites is not always accurate. Development stages of this technology range from on-line posting of syllabi and lecture notes to on-line laboratory exercises and animated landscape flyovers and on-line image processing. The advantages of WWW/Internet technology may likely outweigh the costs of implementing it as a teaching tool.

  12. The Literature on Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Gary D.; Brooks, Bonnie S.

    This is a bibliographical compilation of much of the literature pertinent to the current drug emphasis which has appeared since c. 1960. It is divided into two general sections: (1) books and pamphlets; and (2) articles. In all, there are 13 books and pamphlets on LSD, three on marihuana, and 52 of a more general nature. Articles are more…

  13. Faculty Perspectives of Faculty Persona in a Virtual World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Immersive virtual worlds provide a new way to deliver online courses or parts of online and face-to-face courses. There is a growing body of research on online learning, and the data on virtual worlds is also increasing. However, literature concerning professors' experiences with specific aspects of virtual worlds is limited. For example,…

  14. Bengal Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  15. Mathematics and Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2016-01-01

    In both China and the West, mathematics is closely connected with literature. The maths thought implied in Chinese and western literature is worth our study, and the maths thought in the field of literature is also appear in aesthetics and philoso-phy, so literature, mathematics, aesthetics and philosophy become a network of interconnected.

  16. Physics in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Physics offers a cross-discipline perspective to understanding other subjects. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of physics in literature that physics and astronomy teachers can use to give students an indication of the relevance of science as depicted in the humanities. It is not possible to cite the thousands of examples available. I have tried to select authors whom students would be reading in high school and in college undergraduate English classes: in particular Joseph Conrad, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Shakespeare, H. G. Wells, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Norman Mailer, and an author currently in vogue, Dan Brown. I am sure many reading this article will come up with their own examples.

  17. Strategic Planning towards a World-Class University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoh, E. J.; Ratu, D.; Manongko, A.; Taroreh, J.; Preston, G.

    2018-02-01

    Strategic planning with a focus on world-class university status is an option that cannot be avoided by universities today to survive and succeed in competition as a provider of higher education. The objective of this research is to obtain exploratory research results on the strategic plans of universities that are prepared to generate world-class university status. This research utilised exploratory qualitative research method and data was collected by in-depth interviews method. Interview transcripts were analyzed by using thematic content analysis through NVivo software analysis and manual systems. The main finding of interview shows that most interviewees agreed that UNIMA has been engaged in strategic planning. Contribution from faculties and schools are acknowledged and inform the planning process. However, a new model of strategic planning should be adopted by UNIMA due to the shift towards a “corporate university”. The finding results from documents, literature review and interview were the addition of world-class university characteristics and features to current strategic planning of UNIMA and how to upgrade by considering to use the characteristics and features towards world-class university.

  18. World wide spatial capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rijurekha; Quercia, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales) and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion). Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where). They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK). We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  19. ARABELLE - A world record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarque, F.

    1998-01-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1500 MW turbine started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It reached full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR programme. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work, which started in the 1980s. The main characteristics and design features of ARABELLE are described in this paper

  20. World championship in negotiation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolinski, Remigiusz; Kesting, Peter

    2013-01-01

    for negotiation pedagogy.These benefits include: the high level of student commitment generated by participation in a competition, which enhances the quality of negotiation; the opportunity that the competitions give students to experience authentic cultural diversity; and the networking opportunities......The last decade has seen the emergence of several new negotiation competitions around the world.We think the two major drivers of this development are a general trend toward the increasing internationalization of higher education and a recognition of the specific benefits of competitions...... for students and instructors that the competitions create.This article focuses on the role that negotiation competitions can play in negotiation pedagogy. We first present an overview of the currently most important international negotiation competitions.This is followed by an outline of the specific benefits...

  1. Building online worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    The fantasy genre has proven to be extremely durable in creating blockbuster successes across multiple media platforms, such as books, films, tabletop and especially online computer games. Currently 85 % of all Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) are situated in fantasy...... universes (Van Geel, 2012). This paper will focus on the far most popular fantasy-MMORPG to date, namely World of Warcraft (Blizzard, 2004) as a lens to examine the different potentials of the fantasy genre spanning across various media platforms. Using the concept of “worldness”, traditionally understood...... as a specific textual quality (Klastrup, 2009; Krzywinska, 2008; Pearce, 2009), I argue that understanding it as an experiential quality of the engagement with and reception of a fantasy media text, opens up for a boarder understanding of the fantasy function as a blockbuster genre: The fantasy media matrix...

  2. ARABELLE - A world record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarque, F [Steam Turbine Group, GEC AIsthom Power Generation, Newbold Road, Rugby, Warwickshire CV2I 2NH (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-01

    On the 30th of August 1996 at the CHOOZ power station in the Ardennes, the first 1500 MW turbine started up under nuclear steam and connected to the grid. It reached full power in the spring of 1997, followed shortly afterwards by a second identical machine. This turbine, known as ARABELLE, is currently the most powerful in the world, with a single line rotating at 1500 rpm. It has been entirely designed, manufactured and installed by the teams of GEC ALSTHOM, within the framework of the Electricite de France N4 PWR programme. It represents a new type of nuclear turbine, the fruit of much research and development work, which started in the 1980s. The main characteristics and design features of ARABELLE are described in this paper.

  3. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  4. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  5. World nuclear outlook 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries

  6. World nuclear outlook 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries

  7. The Concept of Islamic Literature and Islamization of Literature through the Different ages(Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanāullah al Azhari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Islamic literature is a term referring to the school of thought who believes that a good literary work should view God, man and the world through the lens of Islam. It is conceived that the style of such literature must be of high quality with the Qur’ān, Ḥadith and the legacy of the Islamic scholars being its model. Islamic literature is a universal literature and can be written in any language. However, most of what has been written on the theory and practice of Islamic literature is in Arabic. This study discusses the model of Islamic literature in era of Islam, Umayyad period, Abbasid period, and Modern world. Topics of Islamic literature in modern times are dealing with the moral values in the Qur’ān and the Sunnah of the Prophet, peace be upon him. It discusses Jurisprudence in worship Biography of the Prophet and Praise of the Prophet and his companions God bless them all. The deep knowledge of Arabic language and Islamic literature solves the social and cultural problems around the world.

  8. Football injury: a literature review *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, John J.

    1979-01-01

    A great deal of concern is recently being expressed relative to the playing of tackle football by adolescent Canadians. The purpose of this literature review is to try to summarize the important data from the available world literature. Very few Canadian statistics are available. Most of the data comes from United States experience. Tackle football injury is examined from various perspectives: 1. Equipment 2. Mechanisms of injury 3. Types of injury, with some emphasis on epiphyseal injury 4. Prevention 5. Comparison with other sports Although no “hard and fast” conclusion is drawn, the paper tends to show that: 1. Football is dangerous 2. Football is damaging to many body systems 3. Prevention of injury is difficult under present conditions 4. Alternate games, such as soccer and rugby seem to provide the same benefits with less catastrophic injuries

  9. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    willing to make investments themselves or to attract sufficient capital to keep up the necessary pace of investment. Upstream investment has been rising rapidly in the last few years, but much of the increase is due to surging costs. Expanding production in the lowest-cost countries - most of them in OPEC - will be central to meeting the world's oil needs at reasonable cost. The prospect of accelerating declines in production at individual oilfields is adding to these uncertainties. The findings of an unprecedented field-by-field analysis of the historical production trends of 800 oilfields indicate that decline rates are likely to rise significantly in the long term, from an average of 6.7% today to 8.6% in 2030. WEO-2008 also analyses policy options for tackling climate change after 2012, when a new global agreement - to be negotiated at the UN Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen next year - is due to take effect. This analysis assumes a hybrid policy approach, comprising a plausible combination of cap-and-trade systems, sectoral agreements and national measures. On current trends, energy-related CO2 emissions are set to increase by 45% between 2006 and 2030, reaching 41 Gt. Three-quarters of the increase arises in China, India and the Middle East, and 97% in non-OECD countries as a whole. Stabilising greenhouse gas concentration at 550 ppm of CO2-equivalent, which would limit the temperature increase to about 3 deg C, would require emissions to rise to no more than 33 Gt in 2030 and to fall in the longer term. The share of low-carbon energy - hydropower, nuclear, biomass, other renewables and fossil-fuel power plants equipped with carbon capture and storage (CCS) - in the world primary energy mix would need to expand from 19% in 2006 to 26% in 2030. This would call for $4.1 trillion more investment in energy-related infrastructure and equipment than in the Reference Scenario - equal to 0.2% of annual world GDP. Most of the increase is on the demand side, with 17 US

  10. World Energy Outlook 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-07

    will be willing to make investments themselves or to attract sufficient capital to keep up the necessary pace of investment. Upstream investment has been rising rapidly in the last few years, but much of the increase is due to surging costs. Expanding production in the lowest-cost countries - most of them in OPEC - will be central to meeting the world's oil needs at reasonable cost. The prospect of accelerating declines in production at individual oilfields is adding to these uncertainties. The findings of an unprecedented field-by-field analysis of the historical production trends of 800 oilfields indicate that decline rates are likely to rise significantly in the long term, from an average of 6.7% today to 8.6% in 2030. WEO-2008 also analyses policy options for tackling climate change after 2012, when a new global agreement - to be negotiated at the UN Conference of the Parties in Copenhagen next year - is due to take effect. This analysis assumes a hybrid policy approach, comprising a plausible combination of cap-and-trade systems, sectoral agreements and national measures. On current trends, energy-related CO2 emissions are set to increase by 45% between 2006 and 2030, reaching 41 Gt. Three-quarters of the increase arises in China, India and the Middle East, and 97% in non-OECD countries as a whole. Stabilising greenhouse gas concentration at 550 ppm of CO2-equivalent, which would limit the temperature increase to about 3 deg C, would require emissions to rise to no more than 33 Gt in 2030 and to fall in the longer term. The share of low-carbon energy - hydropower, nuclear, biomass, other renewables and fossil-fuel power plants equipped with carbon capture and storage (CCS) - in the world primary energy mix would need to expand from 19% in 2006 to 26% in 2030. This would call for $4.1 trillion more investment in energy-related infrastructure and equipment than in the Reference Scenario - equal to 0.2% of annual world GDP. Most of the increase is on the demand

  11. Mapping of residential radon in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinskia, Jan M.; Chambers, Douglas B.

    2008-01-01

    We have created a database of national radon levels around the world building on initial information from the surveys conducted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) from 2001 through 2007 for its 2006 Annex E on radon. We have conducted a systematic review of all original documents contributing information to the database, and of have collected all other relevant documents to enhance this database. Among the sources of data, in addition to the recent UNSCEAR surveys, the UNSCEAR 2000 Report, and 'An overview of radon surveys in Europe', the following sources were searched for keywords (indoor and radon): Medline, tables of content of Radiation Protection Dosimetry, tables of content of Radiation Measurements, and the Web. Initially for the purpose of data quality objectives (DQO) we used following valuation order to classify the reliability of the references: journal publication, conference proceedings, internal report, UNSCEAR Surveys, Who 2006 Survey, Personal communication. However, we realized that for the purpose of assessing the reliability of the national indoor radon levels the above classification did not work well given that most of the information had been published in 'gray literature' and that some of this literature was of very high quality. Therefore we treated journal publications, conference proceedings, and internal reports equally as long as they were publicly and relatively easily available (on the web for example). We evaluated each reference in terms of level of evidence for using national Average Radon Level reported in the reference (sufficient evidence, limited evidence, and inadequate evidence). Currently the database contains information on national indoor levels from 67 countries (out of 193 recognized by Who). These 67 countries represent 76% of the world's population and 71% of its land mass. Radon information varies by continent with only three African countries (out of 53) and 34

  12. World enrichment requirements to 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The primary enrichment suppliers-Eurodif, Techsnabexport, Urenco, and the US DOE - are positioning themselves to take advantage of the post - 1995 market. Overall, unfilled requirements represent about 40 percent of world requirements in the year 2000. The USA will be the primary market, as US utilities' unfilled enrichment requirements account for over 60 percent of the world's total unfilled requirements. The enrichment market is moving toward more global competition, as each supplier tries to maintain its current regional market base and then to capture additional market share in other regions

  13. Why Make the World Move?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Evan Green

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The next horizons of human-computer interaction promise a whirling world of digital bytes, physical bits, and their hybrids. Are human beings prepared to inhabit such cyber-physical, adaptive environments? Assuming an optimistic view, this chapter offers a reply, drawing from art and art history, environmental design, literature, psychology, and evolutionary anthropology, to identify wide-ranging motivations for the design of such “new places” of human-computer interaction. Moreover, the author makes a plea to researchers focused in the domain of adaptive environments to pause and take a longer, more comprehensive, more self-reflective view to see what we’re doing, to recognize where we are, and to possibly find ourselves and others within our designed artifacts and systems that make the world move.

  14. First Case of Trichoderma longibrachiatum CIED (Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device)-Associated Endocarditis in a Non-immunocompromised Host: Biofilm Removal and Diagnostic Problems in the Light of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tascini, Carlo; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Barletta, Valentina; Di Paolo, Antonello; Leonildi, Alessandro; Zucchelli, Giulio; Corte, Laura; Colabella, Claudia; Roscini, Luca; Consorte, Augusta; Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Menichetti, Francesco; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma species are saprophytic filamentous fungi producing localized and invasive infections that are cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients, causing up to 53% mortality. Non-immunocompromised patients, undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, are other targets of this fungus. Current molecular diagnostic tools, based on the barcode marker ITS, fail to discriminate these fungi at the species level, further increasing the difficulty associated with these infections and their generally poor prognosis. We report on the first case of endocarditis infection caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum in a 30-year-old man. This patient underwent the implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in 2006, replaced in 2012. Two years later, the patient developed fever, treated successfully with amoxicillin followed by ciprofloxacin, but an echocardiogram showed large vegetation onto the ventricular lead. After CIED extraction, the patient had high-grade fever. The culturing of the catheter tip was positive only in samples deriving from sonication according to the 2014 ESCMID guidelines, whereas the simple washing failed to remove the biofilm cells from the plastic surface. Subsequent molecular (ITS sequencing) and microbiological (macromorphology) analyses showed that the vegetation was due to T. longibrachiatum. This report showed that T. longibrachiatum is an effective threat and that sonication is necessary for the culturing of vegetations from plastic surfaces. Limitations of the current barcode marker ITS, and the long procedures required by a multistep approach, call for the development of rapid monophasic tests.

  15. Henry David Thoreau's Spiritual World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马云

    2013-01-01

    Henry David Thoreau was wholeheartedly in love with nature and he devoted almost all his life time to observation, appreciation and study of nature. Thus he formed a deep understanding of nature. In 1845, Thoreau began a two-year and two-month residence at Walden Pond. His life was lonely but full of fragrance. He wanted to live meaningfully, confront the essential facts of life and live a simple life. Based on the review of the literature related to this topic, this paper aims to study Henry David Thoreau’s spiritual world, especially reflected in his famous book-Walden.

  16. World energy tendencies: social and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichs, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    The current world energy situation is the result of the combination of diverse economic, political, technological, social and environmental tendencies that conform a crisis panorama for the high price of the hydrocarbons and especially in the petroleum. Under the current conditions the necessity of a global energy restructuring is imposed that changes the current patterns of generation and energy consumption significantly

  17. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  18. MAJOR PROJECTS THAT INFLUENCE WORLD TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1869, with the opening of the Suez Canal, world trade entered a new era of development. The commercial routes linking the Far East to the western countries were shortened considerably as compared to the maritime corridor around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1914, the opening of the Panama Canal sealed the new deal in world trade, opening for business the shortest commercial routes around the world. After 145 years from the inauguration of the Suez Canal, world trade is on the eve of a new expansion. Two major projects: the expansion of both the Suez and Panama canals, planned to be completed in the next two years, will double their transit capacity. This paper does a comparative analysis of these two strategic projects, underlining the main benefits for Egypt, Panama and world trade, based on the available statistical data, reports and literature in the field.

  19. Natural-gas world reserves and world resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eickhoff, G.; Rempel, H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural gas is extracted in nearly 80 countries, 12 of which have a share of four fifths in the world extraction and 15 of which have a share of four fifths in the world consumption. The natural-gas world reserves can cover the present annual demand for years beyond the middle of the coming century. According to current assessments, the resources which presently cannot be extracted economically, the expected additional resources, and the extractable share in the potential of unconventional natural gas amount to more than ten times the reliable world reserves of natural gas. From the geological and technical points of view the world natural-gas extraction will not decrease or cease in the near future. However, the more expensive development of unconventional deposits which are located far away from the end-user will have to be preferred over the medium term on account of the exhaustion of the known deposits whose exploitation is comparatively cheap. (orig./UA) [de

  20. World Hunger: Teaching about World Hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of world hunger in the classroom. Controversial questions and map skills for students are discussed as well as activities for home economics and science classes. A list of resource materials is included. (AM)

  1. Teaching about Women in World History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret Smith

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the subject of teaching about women in world history in K-12 schools and in programs of social studies teacher education. It includes a review of the place of gender in teaching about world history to current and future teachers at Teachers College, Columbia University. This informal research serves as the platform for a set…

  2. Analysis of Population Dynamics in World Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gress

    2011-01-01

    Population dynamics is an important topic in current world economy. The size and growth of population have an impact on economic growth and development of individual countries and vice versa, economic development influences demographic variables in a country. The aim of the article is to analyze historical development of world population, population stock change and relations between population stock change and economic development.

  3. Reflections on "Real-World" Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Tom; Swift, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Reflections on the history of real-world (applied) community psychologists trace their participation in the field's official guild, the Society for Community Research and Action (SCRA), beginning with the Swampscott Conference in 1965 through the current date. Four benchmarks are examined. The issues these real-world psychologists bring to the…

  4. Learning from Dealing with Real World Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an example of using real world issues as tools for science teaching and learning. Using real world issues provides students with experiences in learning in problem-based environments and encourages them to apply their content knowledge to solving current and local problems.

  5. The written word: literature and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibort, Phillip M

    2004-01-01

    Explore what the current literature is saying about great leaders and leadership. Among the learnings: silence can hurt your organization, story telling is critical for inspiring employees and great leaders must be fearless.

  6. Continuous auditing: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cruz de Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent fraud scandals involving highly known corporations like Enron, WorldCom, and Xerox have eroded public confidence in financial reporting. At the same time, the auditing profession has suffered a big hit. In this scenario, Continuous Auditing (CA seems to have emerged as a response to recover the credibility of the auditing profession as well as meeting Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX requirements. This study, that adopts an exploratory approach, analyzes the existing literature on this topic. First, we address the concepts, models and implications of CA. After, throughout a search on the journals indexed at the CAPES's Basis, a literature review is conducted. A total of 57 articles were selected. We analyze authorship, affiliation, publications, year and type of research of papers that have addressed CA. Findings evidence that most articles addressing CA are non-empirical and adopt a conceptual approach. Also, there is an increasing tendency of continuous auditing studies. Rutgers University seems to be the World's leading research center on CA. This study aims to contribute to the Accounting Science by evidencing possibilities for research and publication in CA.

  7. World Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... introduce large-scale mDiabetes services using mobile phones. World Diabetes Day 2017 Feature: Senegal mobile phone project Fact sheet: diabetes World Antibiotic Awareness Week 13 November 2017 – Antibiotic resistance ...

  8. Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Evidence from Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Muhammad; Nawaz, Yasir

    2018-01-01

    Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines. The most relevant and current published papers between 2000–2016 were included in this study. The research papers that contain the data related to child malnutrition in Pakistan were assessed. A total of 28 articles was reviewed and almost similar methodologies were used in all of them. Most of the researchers conducted the cross sectional quantitative and descriptive studies, through structured interviews for identifying the causes of child malnutrition. Only one study used the mix method technique for acquiring data from the respondents. For the assessment of malnutrition among children, out of 28 papers, 20 used the World Health Organization (WHO) weight for age, age for height, and height for weight Z-score method. Early marriages, large family size, high fertility rates with a lack of birth spacing, low income, the lack of breast feeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the reviewed literature. There is a dire need of qualitative and mixed method researches to understand and have an insight into the underlying factors of child malnutrition in Pakistan. PMID:29734703

  9. Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Evidence from Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has one of the highest prevalences of child malnutrition as compared to other developing countries. This narrative review was accomplished to examine the published empirical literature on children’s nutritional status in Pakistan. The objectives of this review were to know about the methodological approaches used in previous studies, to assess the overall situation of childhood malnutrition, and to identify the areas that have not yet been studied. This study was carried out to collect and synthesize the relevant data from previously published papers through different scholarly database search engines. The most relevant and current published papers between 2000–2016 were included in this study. The research papers that contain the data related to child malnutrition in Pakistan were assessed. A total of 28 articles was reviewed and almost similar methodologies were used in all of them. Most of the researchers conducted the cross sectional quantitative and descriptive studies, through structured interviews for identifying the causes of child malnutrition. Only one study used the mix method technique for acquiring data from the respondents. For the assessment of malnutrition among children, out of 28 papers, 20 used the World Health Organization (WHO weight for age, age for height, and height for weight Z-score method. Early marriages, large family size, high fertility rates with a lack of birth spacing, low income, the lack of breast feeding, and exclusive breastfeeding were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the reviewed literature. There is a dire need of qualitative and mixed method researches to understand and have an insight into the underlying factors of child malnutrition in Pakistan.

  10. World wide spatial capital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijurekha Sen

    Full Text Available In its most basic form, the spatial capital of a neighborhood entails that most aspects of daily life are located close at hand. Urban planning researchers have widely recognized its importance, not least because it can be transformed in other forms of capital such as economical capital (e.g., house prices, retail sales and social capital (e.g., neighborhood cohesion. Researchers have already studied spatial capital from official city data. Their work led to important planning decisions, yet it also relied on data that is costly to create and update, and produced metrics that are difficult to compare across cities. By contrast, we propose to measure spatial capital in cheap and standardized ways around the world. Hence the name of our project "World Wide Spatial Capital". Our measures are cheap as they rely on the most basic information about a city that is currently available on the Web (i.e., which amenities are available and where. They are also standardized because they can be applied in any city in the five continents (as opposed to previous metrics that were mainly applied in USA and UK. We show that, upon these metrics, one could produce insights at the core of the urban planning discipline: which areas would benefit the most from urban interventions; how to inform planning depending on whether a city's activity is mono- or poly-centric; how different cities fare against each other; and how spatial capital correlates with other urban characteristics such as mobility patterns and road network structure.

  11. The World of Nothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery A. Kayukov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of knowledge about the world of nothingness. J. Boehme pointed to the fact that the world of Nothing is everlasting emptiness, where and wherein the material world could emerge. But the thing is that the world of absolute emptiness did not vanish at the moment of beginning of the world, quite the reverse, it has somehow been permanently enlarging. What will happen next is still a question. Perhaps our world will begin to be moving back on a new spiral of development, perhaps a real transition to the world of nothing will have appeared in this subtle place. For the present it is clear that these two worlds have not touched each other in mutually beneficial communication so far, and everything from our world passes into the world of nothing, and in general, the world of nothing ontologically appears to be much more existential than the world of apparent reality. What can give us some kind of key point at least, be some kind of organon in interaction with these two worlds - with the world of Nothing in which there is no matter and which cannot be perceived by any senses, and with the world of matter in which all senses are unstable and changeable? In our opinion, the only beacon and the instrument of knowledge can be the mind. To understand this phenomenon, by benefiting from a comparative methodology, this study investigates opinions of a number of philosophers, J. Boehme, G.V.F. Hegel, M. Heidegger, and J.P. Sartre, on the existence of the world of nothing.

  12. Semantic Game Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutenel, T.

    2012-01-01

    The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different

  13. Seven Pitfalls in Organisation Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aarum Andersen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Current organisation literature is rife with several incorrect and confusing assertions which continually create problems for students and researchers alike. Seven of these unfortunate beliefs are presented here and provocatively called ‘pitfalls’. The aim of this article is to draw attention to some of these theoretically incorrect assertions and how they can be avoided in scholarly work. The implications for managers are also presented.

  14. Geant4 in Scientific Literature

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, M G; Bell, Z W; Dressendorfer, P V

    2009-01-01

    The Geant4 reference paper published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods A in 2003 has become the most cited publication in the whole Nuclear Science and Technology category of Thomson-Reuter's Journal Citation Reports. It is currently the second most cited article among the publications authored by two major research institutes, CERN and INFN. An overview of Geant4 presence (and absence) in scholarly literature is presented; the patterns of Geant4 citations are quantitatively examined and discussed.

  15. Photographic Tourism Research: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Virdee, Inderpal

    2017-01-01

    This study reviews the current photographic tourism literature to identify what fields within tourism have been studied by researchers, the contexts, the samples used, the sampling methods employed, the photographic methods and supporting methods used, the data analysis techniques applied and the countries studied. A set of 115 relevant academic articles were selected and assessed using content analysis. The findings showed that overall publications in the field of photographic tourism increa...

  16. The Fourth International Network of Twin Registries: Overview from Osaka/Research Reviews: Familial Fraternal Twinning; Twin Study of Masculine Faces; Physical Aggression and Epigenetics; Prenatal Education for Parents of Twins/Current Events: 2016 Guinness Book of World Records; Oldest Living Male Twins; Twins Reunited at Sixty-Nine; Panda Twins; Twins.com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    The 4th International Network of Twin Registries (INTR) Consortium Meeting took place in Osaka, Japan, September 28-29, 2015. The venue was the Osaka Medical Center for Medical Innovation and Translational Research. An overview of presentations and other activities is provided. Next, 1930s research on familial fraternal twinning, preference for masculine faces, physical aggression and epigenetics, and a prenatal education program for parents of multiples are described. Current twin-related events include the 2016 Guinness Book of World Records (GWR), the oldest living male twins, newly reunited twins, the birth of panda twins and a controversial twin-based website.

  17. Neurocognitive Poetics: methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive- affective bases of literature reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Jacobs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, aesthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neurocognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialised journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott & Jacobs, 2011. In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.

  18. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2002 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 65 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 28 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  19. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2007/2008 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from electric power companies and other nuclear organizations around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 18 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; effect of the Niigata-ken chuetsu-oki earthquake; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities, and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  20. Nuclear Power Plants in the World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc. (JAIF) used every year to summarize a trend survey on the private nuclear power plants in the world in a shape of the 'Nuclear power plants in the world'. In this report, some data at the end of 2003 was made up on bases of answers on questionnaires from 81 electric power companies and other nuclear organizations in 33 countries and regions around the world by JAIF. This report is comprised of 19 items, and contains generating capacity of the plants; current status of Japan; trends of generating capacity of operating the plants, the plant orders and generating capacity of the plants; world nuclear capacity by reactor type; status of MOX use in the world; location of the plants; the plants in the world; directory of the plants; nuclear fuel cycle facilities; and so forth. (J.P.N.)

  1. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  2. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  3. Cyber Literature: A Reader – Writer Interactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathu Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyber Literature is a term known since the coming of the internet which brings a convenience, changing habit and world view. This study is a survey-based on respondents’ opinion about the existence of cyber literature on social media; of its benefit and impact to the reader. This study limits to the poems on Facebook group. The reason is simple; it favors the short form. For the study of a reader-writer interactivity in cyber literature is more likely on poetry. The approach is reader response literary theory with focus on the reader-writer interactivity on Facebook. This research aimed at uncovering the motivation of readers to response the uploaded text, the reasons why they love it and what its advantages. The results showed that cyber literature is successfully to introduce a new literary genre as well as to raise motivation and creativity of authors to make use the internet space.

  4. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…

  5. Anecdotes and Afterthoughts: Literature as a Teacher's Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlik, Edward, III

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is a journey away from the "outer world" of teaching and into the "inner world" of spiritual, emotional, and oftentimes deeply personal realities, conflicts, and contradictions that lie beneath it. Integrating my life as an educator with excerpts from literature creates a variety of reflective entry…

  6. Adam Smith and the Teaching of English Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Franklin E.

    1985-01-01

    Adam Smith used selections from English literature in his classroom during the eighteenth century because he believed that vernacular literature could provide a ready context for the teaching of ideological, social, and moral lessons. He believed that higher education should prepare students for the real business of the real world. (RM)

  7. Studying Real-World Perceptual Expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong eShen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant insights into visual cognition have come from studying real-world perceptual expertise. Many have previously reviewed empirical findings and theoretical developments from this work. Here we instead provide a brief perspective on approaches, considerations, and challenges to studying real-world perceptual expertise. We discuss factors like choosing to use real-world versus artificial object domains of expertise, selecting a target domain of real-world perceptual expertise, recruiting experts, evaluating their level of expertise, and experimentally testing experts in the lab and online. Throughout our perspective, we highlight expert birding (also called birdwatching as an example, as it has been used as a target domain for over two decades in the perceptual expertise literature.

  8. Magnetic brane-worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D; Hervik, Sigbjorn

    2002-01-01

    We investigate brane-worlds with a pure magnetic field and a perfect fluid. We extend earlier work to brane-worlds and find new properties of the Bianchi type I brane-world. We find new asymptotic behaviours on approach to singularity and classify the critical points of the dynamical phase space. It is known that the Einstein equations for the magnetic Bianchi type I models are in general oscillatory and are believed to be chaotic, but in the brane-world model this chaotic behaviour does not seem to be possible

  9. World History Workshop (1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    history appeared tenuous. While the study of American history was viewed as necessary to "indoctrinate kids ," world history is unable to make such a...world" which is hard to avoid in world history, where one examines China in 1500, China in 1800, and so on. A pedagogical goal in the new course was to...the historian to make intelligent decisions about what information he is going to talk about. Viewing world history as a scenario also has a pedagogic

  10. Urananite leaching: literature survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, G.F.; Bryant, E.A.; Williams, K.E.

    1979-04-01

    A literature survey was undertaken to provide background materials for a series of experiments involving the interaction of spent uranium dioxide fuel with various environments. Notes and references pertaining to the basic properties of UO/sub 2/ as produced and after reactor exposure are presented. The use of computerized literature searches is illustrated with specific topics related to leaching experiments. 57 references.

  11. Literature database aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The booklet is to help with the acquisition of original literature either after a conventional literature search or in particular after a database search. It bridges the gap between abbreviated (short) and original (long) titel. This, together with information on the holdings of technical/scientific libraries, facilitates document delivery. 1500 short titles are listed alphabetically. (orig.) [de

  12. Cinema and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvik, Charles Vernon

    The cinema stemmed from aesthetic and formal quests within printed literature, and restored to literature the traditions of performance which had been submerged by traditions of print. The literary identity of the cinema has been obscured by a lack of visible similarities between the cinema and modern writing. Differences between modern writing…

  13. Literature review, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jens; Linneberg, Mai Skjøtt; Nielsen, Robert Green

    2001-01-01

    Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing......Gives an overvie of the situation with respect to organic and conversion markets in Denmark based on exsisting literature. The following subjects are covered. National Policies. Agricultural Production. Conversion. Agricultural Marketing...

  14. Urananite leaching: literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, G.F.; Bryant, E.A.; Williams, K.E.

    1979-04-01

    A literature survey was undertaken to provide background materials for a series of experiments involving the interaction of spent uranium dioxide fuel with various environments. Notes and references pertaining to the basic properties of UO 2 as produced and after reactor exposure are presented. The use of computerized literature searches is illustrated with specific topics related to leaching experiments. 57 references

  15. Empowering Students through Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Grace-Ann Gorga

    2000-01-01

    A literary club formed a community of readers among underserved and nontraditional community college students. Members meet to discuss literature and host authors' visits. The environment enables students to share their perspectives and develop deeper understanding of literature and of themselves. (SK)

  16. Theology and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A collection of essays published in the journal Literature and Theology based on selected papers from the 2012 international conference of the International Society of Religion, Literature and Culture: Cultures of Transition: Presence, Absence, Memory, held at the Faculty of Theology in Copenhagen...

  17. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  18. PACS for the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Mendel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital imaging is now firmly ensconced in the developed world. Its widespread adoption has enabled instant access to images, remote viewing, remote consultation, and the end of lost or misplaced film. Unfortunately, the current paradigm of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS, with advanced technology inseparable from high complexity, high purchase costs, and high maintenance costs, is not suited for the low-income developing world. Like the simple, easy to repair, 1950’s American cars still running on the streets of Havana, the developing world requires a PACS (DW-PACS that can perform basic functions and survive in a limited-resource environment. The purpose of this article is to more fully describe this concept and to present a blueprint for PACS tailored to the needs and resources of the developing world. This framework should assist both users looking for a vendor-supplied or open-source solutions and developers seeking to address the needs of this emerging market.

  19. Neurology and literature 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, I

    2014-05-01

    Good literary fiction has the potential to move us, extend our sense of life, transform our prospective views and help us in the face of adversity. A neurological disorder is likely to be the most challenging experience a human being may have to confront in a lifetime. As such, literary recreations of illnesses have a doubly powerful effect. Study the synergies between neurology and fictional literature with particular reference to narrative based medicine (NBM). Doctors establish boundaries between the normal and the abnormal. Taking a clinical history is an act of interpretation in which the doctor integrates the science of objective signs and measurable quantities with the art of subjective clinical judgment. The more discrepancy there is between the patient's experience with the illness and the doctor's interpretation of that disease, the less likely the doctor-patient interaction is to succeed. NBM contributes to a better discernment of the meanings, thus considering disease as a biographical event rather than just a natural fact. Drawing from their own experience with disease, writers of fiction provide universal insights through their narratives, whilst neuroscientists, like Cajal, have occasionally devoted their scientific knowledge to literary narratives. Furthermore, neurologists from Alzheimer to Oliver Sacks remind us of the essential value of NBM in the clinic. Integrating NBM (the narrative of patients) and the classic holistic approach to patients with our current paradigm of evidence based medicine represents a challenge as relevant to neurologists as keeping up with technological and scientific advances. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Evolution of Modularity Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis...... identified structure within the literature, which revealed how the research area evolved between 1990 and 2015. Based on this search, the paper establishes the basis for analyzing the structure of modularity literature. Findings Factors were identified within the literature, demonstrating how it has evolved...... from a primary focus on the modularity of products to a broader view of the applicability of modularity. Within the last decade, numerous research areas have emerged within the broader area of modularity. Through core-periphery analysis, eight emerging sub-research areas are identified, of which one...

  1. Primary Identity in Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    In our times, literary criticism, as well as larger political and cultural developments, is characterized by identity politics, meaning that our discourses are structured around the notion of different socially identifiable populations in society. In relation to literature, this results in our...... viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss......, in relation to Frye’s works, the idea that the primary identities of characters in literature were and, to a considerable extent, continue to be those of family-member identities. As such, literature should not be appropriated to a political context too readily. Whereas viewing characters in terms of...

  2. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  3. Recurrent meningitis--a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janocha-Litwin, Justyna; Simon, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses epidemiology, aetiology and the most important predisposing factors associated with recurrent meningitis, as well as the possibilities to prevent this particularly challenging clinical problem. The frequency of recurrent meningitis is estimated to be 2-9%. However, the case fatality is lower compared to a single episode of meningitis. The main causes of recurrent meningitis are considered to be: head injury, congenital or acquired (post-traumatic or post-surgical) cranial or spinal defects, chronic intracranial inflammation, complement system dysfunction, as well as congenital and acquired humoral or cellular immunodeficiency.

  4. Stroke in SSA: Review of current literature concerning the incidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... C, Pancioli A, Jauch E, Shukla R, Broderick J. Stroke in a Biracial ... and Obstetrics. 1998. 61(1). 1-8. SASPI. Secondary prevention of stroke- results from. 20. ... Durand M, Sheehy O, Jean-Guy B, LeLorier J, Tremblay. 29.

  5. Female Genital Mutilation: A Literature Review of the Current Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: FGM/C, legislation, national plans of action, health policies and Africa. Résumé. Cet article .... from about US $40 to $400 in Niger, $47 in. Ethiopia, and $140 ... instance, health care professionals are trained to identify and treat ...

  6. Vitamin D and alcohol: A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardelli, Vitor Soares; Lago, Mariana Pimentel Pádua do; Silveira, Dartiu Xavier da; Fidalgo, Thiago Marques

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D is associated with bone mineral density, and its deficiency is a global health problem. In psychiatry, low vitamin D levels have been associated with schizophrenia, depression, psychotic symptoms, and, more recently, alcohol use disorders. Alcohol use disorders are among the most prevalent mental disorders worldwide. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the association between alcohol use and vitamin D serum levels. The PubMed, SCIELO, and Lilacs databases were searched for this systematic review. We assessed all articles published from 1976 to December 2015, and we examined the associated reference lists to retrieve articles that appeared to fulfill our criteria. Of 932 articles, 49 met our inclusion criteria. The majority of the papers (71.4%) were cross-sectional studies. Alcohol intake was found to be positively associated with vitamin D status in 15 articles and negatively associated with vitamin D in 18 articles; no association was found in 16 articles. Heterogeneous results were found in our review, with a similar number of papers indicating a positive association, a negative association or the absence of any association between alcohol use and vitamin D levels. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the studies in which a positive association was found were more recent papers that involved considerably larger sample sizes than those in other studies. The older studies compared vitamin D levels in alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients, in contrast to more recent studies, which focused on more specific populations. In addition, most of the selected papers were from high latitude countries, where exposure to sunlight tends to be lower than in tropical countries. The data concerning vitamin D levels in patients with alcohol use disorders remain controversial. Additional research using a standardized methodology is necessary to demonstrate the real impact of alcohol consumption on vitamin D serum levels as well as on the health status of alcohol users. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Equestrian sport-related injuries: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlik, Heather S

    2010-01-01

    Equestrian sports continue to grow in popularity in the Unites States and abroad, with an estimated 30 million people riding horses annually in the United States alone. Approximately one in five of these riders will suffer a serious injury during their riding career, requiring medical care and potentially hospitalization. Riding carries with it an implicit risk of injury associated with the unpredictability of the animals, the rider's head being positioned approximately 9 feet off the ground, and traveling unrestrained at speeds up to 40 mph. This article reviews common equestrian injuries, epidemiology, mechanism of injury, risk factors, and prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the more dangerous aspects of the sport.

  8. Review of current literature related to GSI-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    EG and G Idaho is evaluating the structural integrity of Reactor Pressure Vessel Supports as part of its resolution of NRC Generic Safety Issue (GSI) 15, 'Radiation effects on Reactor Vessel Supports'. Structural analyses have been performed by the NRC, ORNL, LLNL, Portland General Electric Co., and several consultants. Two methods of analyses were used. This paper contains a short discussion of the analyses and the merits of the two analysis methods. (author)

  9. A review of the current literature on management of halitosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, A.M. van den; Feenstra, L.; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    Halitosis is an unpleasant or offensive odour, emanating from the oral cavity. In approximately 80% of all cases, halitosis is caused by microbial degradation of oral organic substrates. Major degradation products are volatile sulphur-containing compounds. In this review, the available management

  10. Support management in schizophrenia: a systematic review of current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompili M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Maurizio Pompili,1 Franco Montebovi,1 Alberto Forte,1 Mario Palermo,1 Henry Stefani,1 Ludovica Telesforo,1 Sandra Campi,1 Gloria Giordano,1 Lucia Longo,1 Dorian A Lamis,2 Gianluca Serafini,1 Paolo Girardi11Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Functions, Suicide Prevention Center, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USABackground: Schizophrenia is generally considered a chronic disorder characterized by psychotic symptoms and relatively stable neurocognitive and interpersonal deficits. Antipsychotic medication has proven beneficial in reducing psychotic symptoms, but is often not enough to treat cognitive or functional impairments. Residual cognitive impairments are barriers to a patient’s full recovery from schizophrenia. Rehabilitation is an alternative and important approach which may be useful, and encompasses a variety of treatments including social skills training and psychoeducational and cognitive behavioral treatments.Objective: To investigate the efficacy of psychosocial treatments in schizophrenia, evaluating its effects in the short and long term, comparing psychosocial treatments with pharmacotherapy, and assessing the effects of treatment and the main indications for use in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: A careful MEDLINE®, Excerpta Medica, PsycLIT®, PsycINFO®, and Index Medicus search was performed to identify all papers and book chapters in English for the period 1970–2012.Results: Findings from the studies included in this qualitative analysis suggest that social skills therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, family intervention therapy, cognitive remediation therapy, and other nonpharmacological therapeutic strategies may be beneficial for patients with significant functional and symptomatic impairments.Conclusion: Schizophrenic patients treated with nonpharmacological techniques have more rapid remission and relapse less frequently than patients treated only pharmacologically.Keywords: schizophrenia, support management, nonpharmacological treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy

  11. Building a Nonviolent Organization: Religious Leadership in a Violent World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the role of leaders in building nonviolent organizations and the role of organizations in cultivating habits of peace, thereby preparing people as peacemakers in a violent world. Leadership literature asks how to build healthy organizations; conflict literature asks how to make global peace. Both ask how…

  12. Fermentation. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  13. The Two World Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Ross E.

    2008-01-01

    In the arenas where the two world histories have taken shape, educators vigorously debate among themselves intellectual, pedagogical, and policy issues surrounding world history as a school subject. The people in each arena tend to share, despite internal disagreements, a common set of premises and assumptions for ordering the discussion of world…

  14. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  15. World Energy Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, G.; Schilling, H.D.

    1979-01-01

    After making some general remarks about goals, tasks, and works of the World Energy Conference the topics and the frame of the 11th World Energy Conference which will take place in Munich from 8th to 12th September 1980 are outlined. This conference is held under the general topic 'energy for our world' and deals with the reciprocal relation between energy supply, environment, and society. The main part of the publication presented here is the German version of the most important sections of the investigation 'World Energy-Looking Ahead to 2020' by the Conservation Commission (CC) of the World Energy Conference. Added to this is the German original brief version of a report by the Mining-Research Company (Bergbau-Forschung GmbH) to the CC which deals with the estimation of the world's coal resources and their future availability. This report was presented on the 10th World Energy Conference in Istanbul together with the corresponding reports concerning the other energy sources. Finally, an introduction to the technical programme for the 11th World Energy Conference 1980 is given. (UA) [de

  16. World Society and Globalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…

  17. China in World Industrialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    XU, Yi; van Leeuwen, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Combining the sectoral accounting method of the System of National Accounts (SNA) with new statistical materials from the United Nations, as well as historical research into various countries around the world, this paper arrives at an estimate of value added of Chinese and world industries between

  18. Scriptures of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue of "Research and Creative Activity" features 10 articles on Indiana University faculty members whose work on various campuses continues to broaden and advance knowledge about "Scriptures of the World" and their meaning in human life. The articles are as follows: "Why Scriptures of the World Still Matter…

  19. World War II Homefront.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  20. Representing Large Virtual Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kol, T.R.

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquity of large virtual worlds and their growing complexity in computer graphics require efficient representations. This means that we need smart solutions for the underlying storage of these complex environments, but also for their visualization. How the virtual world is best stored and how