WorldWideScience

Sample records for current study tests

  1. Eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyang Beom; Kim, Young Hwan [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Eddy current testing has been widely used for non destructive testing of steam generator tubes. In order to retain reliability in ECT, the following subjects were carried out in this study: numerical modeling and analysis of defects by using BC and RPC probes in SG tube, preparation of absolute coil impedance plane diagram by FEM. Signal interpretation of the eddy current signals obtained from nuclear power plants.

  2. Parametric study of rectangular coil for Eddy Current Testing of lamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng Fei; Zeng, Zhi Wei [School of Aerospace Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2016-04-15

    Eddy current testing (ECT) is an important nondestructive testing technology for the inspection of flaws in conductive materials. However, this widely used technology is not suitable for inspecting lamination when a conventional pancake coil is used because the eddy current (EC) generated by the pancake coil is parallel to the lamination and will not be perturbed. A new method using a rectangular coil placed vertical to the work piece is proposed for lamination detection. The vertical sections of the rectangular coil induce ECs that are vertical to the lamination and can be perturbed by the lamination. A parametric study of a rectangular coil by finite element analysis was performed in order to examine the capability of generating vertical EC sent data 1221-1237.

  3. Predictive study of the poloidal field coil insert behaviour under pulsed current tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J. L.; Nicollet, S.; Pauty, N.

    2008-02-01

    Within the ITER Poloidal Field conductor design validation, the Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) has been manufactured and will be tested in the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) facility at JAEA Naka (Japan). In this test facility, the PFCI can be tested under ITER-relevant operating conditions, the field produced by the CSMC being varied to simulate the real situation of the PF coils in ITER. Predictive analyses have been performed in order to study the electromagnetic and thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the PFCI, under two scenarios proposed for pulsed current tests. During these scenarios, simulations have been performed with the THEA code, in which classical formulas for the AC losses in a cable have been introduced. The study focuses on the lower part of the winding, which is a 44 m long conductor including a joint. It covers the sample thermal-hydraulic behaviour with particular emphasis on the losses. Due to the overcompaction in the joint area, the total energy dissipated during a scenario can be equivalent in the joint and in the conductor, in spite of the reduced length of the joint (0.45 m). This particular point is discussed and has led to the analysis of the temperature margin in the joint.

  4. Study on signal processing in Eddy current testing for defects in spline gear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Tae Sug; Park, Ik Keun [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seou (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Eddy current testing (ECT) is commonly applied for the inspection of automated production lines of metallic products, because it has a high inspection speed and a reasonable price. When ECT is applied for the inspection of a metallic object having an uneven target surface, such as the spline gear of a spline shaft, it is difficult to distinguish between the original signal obtained from the sensor and the signal generated by a defect because of the relatively large surface signals having similar frequency distributions. To facilitate the detection of defect signals from the spline gear, implementation of high-order filters is essential, so that the fault signals can be distinguished from the surrounding noise signals, and simultaneously, the pass-band of the filter can be adjusted according to the status of each production line and the object to be inspected. We will examine the infinite impulse filters (IIR filters) available for implementing an advanced filter for ECT, and attempt to detect the flaw signals through optimization of system design parameters for detecting the signals at the system level.

  5. A Study on Measurement Error during Alternating Current Induced Voltage Tests on Large Transformers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuan; LI Yun-ge; CAO Xiao-long; LIU Ying

    2006-01-01

    The large transformer is pivotal equipment in an electric power supply system; Its partial discharge test and the induced voltage withstand test on large transformers are carried out at a frequency about twice the working frequency. If the magnetizing inductance cannot compensate for the stray capacitance, the test sample turns into a capacitive load and a capacitive rise exhibits in the testing circuit. For self-restoring insulation, a method has been recommended in IEC60-1 that an unapproved measuring system be calibrated by an approved system at a voltage not less than 50% of the rated testing voltage, and the result then be extrapolated linearly. It has been found that this method leads to great error due to the capacitive rise if it is not correctly used during a withstand voltage test under certain testing conditions, especially for a test on high voltage transformers with large capacity. Since the withstand voltage test is the most important means to examine the operation reliability of a transformer, and it can be destructive to the insulation, a precise measurement must be guaranteed. In this paper a factor, named as the capacitive rise factor, is introduced to assess the rise. The voltage measurement error during the calibration is determined by the parameters of the test sample and the testing facilities, as well as the measuring point. Based on theoretical analysis in this paper, a novel method is suggested and demonstrated to estimate the error by using the capacitive rise factor and other known parameters of the testing circuit.

  6. Remote field eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Y. M.; Jung, H. K.; Huh, H.; Lee, Y. S.; Shim, C. M

    2001-03-01

    The state-of-art technology of the remote field eddy current, which is actively developed as an electromagnetic non-destructive testing tool for ferromagnetic tubes, is described. The historical background and recent R and D activities of remote-field eddy current technology are explained including the theoretical development of remote field eddy current, such as analytical and numerical approach, and the results of finite element analysis. The influencing factors for actual applications, such as the effect of frequency, magnetic permeability, receiving sensitivity, and difficulties of detection and classification of defects are also described. Finally, two examples of actual application, 1) the gap measurement between pressure tubes and calandria tube in CANDU reactor and, 2) the detection of defects in the ferromagnetic heat exchanger tubes, are described. The future research efforts are also included.

  7. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  8. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Codina, Marta; Araujo, M Caridad; Attanasio, Orazio; Muñoz, Pablo; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), measuring early childhood development (ECD) with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests') are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3), Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II), Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2)) and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII), WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor)) in 1,311 children 6-42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III), taken as the 'gold standard'. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests' cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales' concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence below 19

  9. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Codina, Marta; Araujo, M. Caridad; Attanasio, Orazio; Muñoz, Pablo; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs), measuring early childhood development (ECD) with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests (‘short tests’) are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3), Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II), Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2)) and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII), WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor)) in 1,311 children 6–42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III), taken as the ‘gold standard’. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests’ cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales’ concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence

  10. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS: Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1 the frequency of self-test use, (2 the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3 the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4 the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5 the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6 the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Methods Mixed methods study with (1 a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2 semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3 the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. Conclusions The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self-testing

  11. Improving behaviour in self-testing (IBIS): Study on frequency of use, consequences, information needs and use, and quality of currently available consumer information (protocol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Ronda, Gaby; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2010-08-03

    Self-tests are available to consumers for more than 25 conditions, ranging from infectious diseases to cardiovascular risk factors. Self-tests are defined as in-vitro tests on body materials such as blood, urine, faeces, or saliva that are initiated by consumers to diagnose a particular disorder or risk factor without involving a medical professional. In 2006, 16% of a sample of Dutch Internet users had ever used at least one self-test and 17% intended to use a self-test in the future. The objectives of this study are to determine (1) the frequency of self-test use, (2) the consumers' reasons for using or not using a self-test, (3) the information that is used by self-testers in the different self-test stages and the consumers' interpretation of the quality of this information, (4) the consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour, (5) the information consumers report to need in the decision making process of using or not using a self-test, and in further management on the basis of the self-test result, and (6) the quality of the currently available consumer information on a selected set of self-tests. Mixed methods study with (1) a cross-sectional study consisting of a two-phase Internet-questionnaire, (2) semi-structured interviews with self-testers and consumers who intend to use a self-test, and (3) the assessment of the quality of consumer information of self-tests. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour will serve as the theoretical basis for the questionnaires and the interview topic guides. The self-testing area is still in a state of flux and therefore it is expected that self-test use will increase in the future. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study which combines quantitative and qualitative research to identify consumers' information needs and use concerning self-testing, and the consumers' actual follow-up behaviour based

  12. Modular High Current Test Facility at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tully, L K; Goerz, D A; Speer, R D; Ferriera, T J

    2008-05-20

    This paper describes the 1 MA, 225 kJ test facility in operation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The capacitor bank is constructed from three parallel 1.5 mF modules. The modules are capable of switching simultaneously or sequentially via solid dielectric puncture switches. The bank nominally operates up to 10 kV and reaches peak current with all three cabled modules in approximately 30 {micro}s. Parallel output plates from the bank allow for cable or busbar interfacing to the load. This versatile bank is currently in use for code validation experiments, railgun related activities, switch testing, and diagnostic development.

  13. Electronic Voltage and Current Transformers Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for testing electronic instrument transformers is described, including electronic voltage and current transformers (EVTs, ECTs with both analog and digital outputs. A testing device prototype is developed. It is based on digital signal processing of the signals that are measured at the secondary outputs of the tested transformer and the reference transformer when the same excitation signal is fed to their primaries. The test that estimates the performance of the prototype has been carried out at the National Centre for High Voltage Measurement and the prototype is approved for testing transformers with precision class up to 0.2 at the industrial frequency (50 Hz or 60 Hz. The device is suitable for on-site testing due to its high accuracy, simple structure and low-cost hardware.

  14. A mobile test facility based on a magnetic cumulative generator to study the stability of the power plants under impact of lightning currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Zavalova, V. E.; Kozlov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    The report presents the results of the development and field testing of a mobile test facility based on a helical magnetic cumulative generator (MCGTF). The system is designed for full-scale modeling of lightning currents to study the safety of power plants of any type, including nuclear power plants. Advanced technologies of high-energy physics for solving both engineering and applied problems underlie this pilot project. The energy from the magnetic cumulative generator (MCG) is transferred to a high-impedance load with high efficiency of more than 50% using pulse transformer coupling. Modeling of the dynamics of the MEG that operates in a circuit with lumped parameters allows one to apply the law of inductance output during operation of the MCG, thus providing the required front of the current pulse in the load without using any switches. The results of field testing of the MCGTF are presented for both the ground loop and the model load. The ground loop generates a load resistance of 2-4 Ω. In the tests, the ohmic resistance of the model load is 10 Ω. It is shown that the current pulse parameters recorded in the resistive-inductive load are close to the calculated values.

  15. A mobile test facility based on a magnetic cumulative generator to study the stability of the power plants under impact of lightning currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Zavalova, V. E., E-mail: zavalova@fites.ru; Kozlov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The report presents the results of the development and field testing of a mobile test facility based on a helical magnetic cumulative generator (MCGTF). The system is designed for full-scale modeling of lightning currents to study the safety of power plants of any type, including nuclear power plants. Advanced technologies of high-energy physics for solving both engineering and applied problems underlie this pilot project. The energy from the magnetic cumulative generator (MCG) is transferred to a high-impedance load with high efficiency of more than 50% using pulse transformer coupling. Modeling of the dynamics of the MEG that operates in a circuit with lumped parameters allows one to apply the law of inductance output during operation of the MCG, thus providing the required front of the current pulse in the load without using any switches. The results of field testing of the MCGTF are presented for both the ground loop and the model load. The ground loop generates a load resistance of 2–4 Ω. In the tests, the ohmic resistance of the model load is 10 Ω. It is shown that the current pulse parameters recorded in the resistive-inductive load are close to the calculated values.

  16. Foreign Language Testing: A Current View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteson, Valerie L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes second language testing methods including discrete-point tests, integrative tests, criterion-referenced testing, FSI test of oral proficiency, tests of functional ability. No way has yet been found to reliably measure communicative competence in second languages. (BK)

  17. Testing of 3-meter Prototype Fault Current Limiting Cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Lindsay, David T [ORNL; Tolbert, Jerry Carlton [ORNL; Willen, Dag [Ultera; Lentge, Heidi [Ultera; Thidemann, Carsten [Ultera; Carter, Bill [AMSC

    2009-01-01

    Two 3-m long, single-phase cables have been fabricated by Ultera from second generation (2G) superconductor supplied by American Superconductor. The first cable was made with two layers of 2G tape conductor and had a critical current of 5,750 A while the second cable had four layers and a critical current of 8,500 A. AC loss was measured for both cables at ac currents of up to 4 kArms. Ultera performed initial fault current studies of both cables in Denmark with limited currents in the range from 9.1 to 44 kA. Results from these tests will provide a basis for a 25-m long, three-phase, prototype cable to be tested at ORNL early next year and a 300-m long, fault current limiting, superconducting cable to be installed in a ConEd substation in New York City.

  18. Study of tau-neutrino production by measuring Ds -> tau events in 400 GeV proton interactions: Test of lepton universality in neutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, S; Ariga, T; Kodama, K; Nakamura, M; Sato, O; CERN. Geneva. SPS and PS Experiments Committee; SPSC

    2016-01-01

    The muon-neutrino charged-current (CC) cross section has been measured by many experiments. However, there has been only one measurement of the tau-neutrino CC cross section by the DONuT experiment with a systematic uncertainty larger than 50%, mainly due to uncertainties in the Ds differential production cross section in high energy proton interaction. The evaluation of the tau-neutrino cross section would provide a test of lepton universality in neutrino CC interactions, which has never been well tested for tau-neutrinos. In this new program, we propose to study tau-neutrino production (Ds production fraction x decay branching ratio of Ds -> tau) and the energy distribution by analyzing Ds -> tau events in 400 GeV proton interactions. By employing the state-of-the-art emulsion particle detector technologies, we will analyze 10^8 proton interactions and detect the double kink topology of Ds -> tau -> X decays. Accomplishing this new measurement, we will re-evaluate the tau-neutrino cross section with the dat...

  19. Current Research/Development in Language Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oller, John W., Jr.

    A discussion of language testing looks at the relationship between the processes of language learning and language testing, particularly from the point of view of pragmatics theory. It outlines some of the theory of Charles Sanders Pierce and its role in the evolution of linguistic theory, as well as the work of other theorists concerning the…

  20. Current studies on megapode phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, T.G.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic relationships between megapodes and other birds are reviewed, and it is concluded that the available evidence supports a sistergroup relationship between megapodes and all other galliforms. Current studies in this direction are discussed. The resolvement of intr

  1. International current of the genotoxicity testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HayaM

    2002-01-01

    One of the goals of the genetic toxicology is to assess the risk to humans that derives from genotoxic agents.The risk involves both somatic and germ cells,with damage to the former resulting in cancer and damage to the latter in adverse effects that could be transmitted through generations.It is necessary to consider not only direct effects,but also effects that are the result of analtered environment.To perform an accurate risk assessment.it is necessary to evaluate genotoxic hazards in ways that are appropriate both methodologically and strategically.In establishing a genotoxicity assay system,international cooperation is important because it enables us to incorporate the thoughts of specialists everywhere and to learn of specific regional concerns.Here I will introduce the “Guidance on a Strategy for Testing of Chemicals for Mutagenicity” recently reported by the UK Committee on Mutagenicity (COM) and also I will briefly summarize the activities of the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Test Procedures(IWGTP).The first and the second workshops focused on methodology.we started to include the strategic issues as well as procedures in the third workshop.Starting with the 3rd IWGT,the workshop will become an activity of the International Association of EMSs.

  2. Eddy Current Testing, RQA/M1-5330.17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of classroom training handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, instructional material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on eddy current testing. The subject is presented under the following headings: Introduction, Eddy Current Principles, Eddy Current Equipment, Eddy Current Methods,…

  3. Los Angeles and Long Beach Harbors Model Study. Report 5. Tidal Verification and Base Circulation Tests. Appendix B: Surface-Current Pattern Mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    BEACH HARBORS SURFACE CURRENT PATTERNS BASEz TEST SPRING TIDE HOUR 4 PLATE 85 4’. ’I / ’,~4 $ N 4 A".1 1 A. 9 . wit , - -- p cCCALES -IN FEET VELOCITYSCALE...PATTERNS rn A e- r- r -e-- SPRING TIDE HOUR 16 PLATE B17 ? ~ \\ ~ ii -- I-’ ~v ’I #~k 4 1< ’~ £ ~ I-. * 9 *1 4 440 A 4.00P cSCLE ;N EE if - - ~ *1 V 5- 5

  4. Study on Current Tests of 145 kV Circuit Breakers for Capacitor Bank Current Switching%145kV断路器开合电容器组电流试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄实; 崔博源; 姚斯立; 李志兵; 刘浩军

    2012-01-01

    The standard selection, test method, parameters of test circuit, and test requirement for the current tests of 145 kV circuit breakers for capacitor bank switching are researched, and the test situation is introduced. The performance of 145 kV circuit breakers for capacitor bank switching is examined by using the conclusion of this research to ensure their security and reliability.%笔者研究了145 kV断路器开合电容器组电流试验的标准选用、试验方法、试验回路参数、试验要求等,并介绍了试验情况.研究成果的应用使得145 kV投切电容器组断路器的开合电容器组性能得到了型式试验考核,为工程的安全可靠运行提供了保障.

  5. [Current studies in myotonic dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimeng; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2014-03-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a genetic, progressive, multisystemic disease with muscular disorder as its primary symptom. There are two types of DM (DM1 and DM2) caused by mutations in different genes, and in Japan, DM occurs with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the disease is RNA toxicity caused by transcripts of aberrantly elongated CTG or CCTG repeats located in the 3' untranslated region or in the intron. The current treatments for DM is limited to symptomatic care. In this review, we will discuss several new therapeutic strategies based on recent studies of RNA toxicity.

  6. Simulation of Cracks Detection in Tubes by Eddy Current Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Bennoud

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The eddy current testing can be used such as a perfect tool to characterize defects in conducting materials. However, in the latest years, an important progress was made in the development of software for the eddy current testing simulations. Evaluation of the NDT modeling tools is the principal goal of this study. Main concerns of the aeronautic industry and the potential contribution of modeling are discussed and illustrated. Simulation by finite element method is realized with the aim to calculate the electromagnetic energy of interaction between coil and tested part that enables to deduce the impedance response. The objective of this work is the development of a code for efficient resolution of an electromagnetic problem modeling, especially, for the analysis of probe response due to the eddy current process. The validation of developed code was made. The obtained results converge quickly towards the solution given by the (FEMM code with an average error of 0.018 for real parts of impedance and 0.004 for imaginary parts. The presented results in this work serve to illustrate that the proposed method is practical and they are also of some intrinsic interest especially in the control of aluminum tubes used in aeronautics.

  7. 脉冲涡流无损检测提离效应研究%Study of Lift - Off Effects for Pulsed Eddy Current Nondestructive Testing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海霞; 王畅; 杨宾峰; 张军潮; 张辉

    2011-01-01

    In the course of pulsed eddy current testing, the incline of the probe or the roughness of the surface of the tested object will lead to the lift - off effects, which have a bad influence on the result of pulsed eddy current (PEC) nondestructive testing.Based on the analysis of the operating principle of PEC, two different simulation models with the excitation coils of columniform and rectangle structures are established by ANSYS finite element simulation software and the simulations on the specimen of ferromagnetic and non -ferromagnetic materials are done respectively.Through the analysis of the eddy current and rotated magnetic field, the influence effect of response signal with the variation of the lift - off distance and the reason is given.Finally, the results of simulation are verified by experiment methods.The results of the experimental work confirm the correctness of simulation, which will lay the foundation for the elimination of lift - off effects.%在脉冲涡流检测过程中,由于探头倾斜或被测对象表面不光滑会产生提离效应,提离效应严重影响着脉冲涡流无损检测的结果.本文在分析脉冲涡流检测技术工作原理的基础上,采用ANSYS有限元仿真软件建立了激励线圈为圆柱形和矩形两种结构的模型,并分别针对有裂纹缺陷的铁磁性(钢)和非铁磁性(铝)试件进行了仿真研究,通过分析试件中感应涡流和扰动磁场的变化,给出了不同情况下检测信号随提离变化的规律,并从原理上给出了解释.最后,通过实验的方法对仿真结果进行了验证,实验结果表明了仿真结果的正确性,从而为进一步的消除提离效应提供了有价值的参考依据.

  8. Defect detection in conducting materials using eddy current testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz force eddy current testing (LET is a novel nondestructive testing technique which can be applied preferably to the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic moving conductors. The LET is compared (similar testing conditions with the classical eddy current testing (ECT. Numerical FEM simulations have been performed to analyze the measurements as well as the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic conductors. The results are compared with measurements to test the feasibility of defect identification. Finally, the use of LET measurements to estimate of the electrical conductors under test are described as well.

  9. Comparative performance of image fusion methodologies in eddy current testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Thirunavukkarasu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Image fusion methodologies have been studied for improving the detectability of eddy current Nondestructive Testing (NDT. Pixel level image fusion has been performed on C-scan eddy current images of a sub-surface defect at two different frequencies. Multi-resolution analysis based Laplacian pyramid and wavelet fusion methodologies, statistical inference based Bayesian fusion and Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion methodologies have been studied towards improving the detectability of defects. The performance of the fusion methodologies has been compared using image metrics such as SNR and entropy. Bayesian based fusion methodology has shown better performance as compared to other methodologies with 33.75 dB improvement in the SNR and an improvement of 3.22 in the entropy.

  10. Cooling performance test of the superconducting fault current limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, H.; Hong, Y. J.; Ko, J.; In, S.; Kim, H. B.; Park, S. J. [Korea Institute ofMachinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.; Kim, H. R. [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) is an electrical power system device that detects the fault current automatically and limits the magnitude of the current below a certain safety level. The SFCL module does not have any electrical resistance below the critical temperature, which facilitates lossless power transmission in the electric power system. Once given the fault current, however, the superconducting conductor exhibits extremely high electrical resistance, and the magnitude of the current is accordingly limited to a low value. Therefore, SFCL should be maintained at a temperature below the critical temperature, which justifies the cryogenic cooling system as a mandatory component. This report is a study which reported on the cooling system for the 154 kV-class hybrid SFCL owned by Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO). Using the cryocooler, the temperature of liquid nitrogen (LN2) was lowered to 71 K. The cryostat was pressurized to 5 bars to improve the dielectric strength of nitrogen and suppress nitrogen bubble foaming during operation of SFCL. The SFCL module was immersed in the liquid nitrogen of the cryostat to maintain the superconducting state. The performance test results of the key components such as cryocooler, LN2 circulation pump, cold box, and pressure builder are shown in this paper.

  11. Testing Benjamin Graham’s net current asset value model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongsoo An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically test one of Graham’s investment methods based on the net current asset value (NCAV. The NCAV is truly unique, and conservative, and commonly known as the net-net method.  The ratio of the net current asset value to market value (NCAV/MV was employed in this study to test a stock’s performance comparing to the performance of S&P 500 as the market index. We used all stocks in Portfolio123 whose raw data were supplied by Compustat, Standard & Poors, Capital IQ, and Reuters for the period of January 2, 1999 to August 31, 2012. The overall results show that the firms with high net current asset values outperform the market. These results are strong in the up market. It can be argued that the firms with a high NCAV/MV ratio are likely to move toward their fundamental value and generate high excess return because its stock prices are now undervalued. The implications of the study are: (a a positive NCAV/MV ratio may be a good indicator of the underpriced security; (b investing in the growth period and avoiding the downturn period leads investors to earn much higher returns from the firms with a high NCAV/MV ratio; and (c The NCAV/MV strategy requires a longer holding period of the portfolio in order to generate excess returns.

  12. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  13. A superconducting transformer system for high current cable testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godeke, A; Dietderich, D R; Joseph, J M; Lizarazo, J; Prestemon, S O; Miller, G; Weijers, H W

    2010-03-01

    This article describes the development of a direct-current (dc) superconducting transformer system for the high current test of superconducting cables. The transformer consists of a core-free 10,464 turn primary solenoid which is enclosed by a 6.5 turn secondary. The transformer is designed to deliver a 50 kA dc secondary current at a dc primary current of about 50 A. The secondary current is measured inductively using two toroidal-wound Rogowski coils. The Rogowski coil signal is digitally integrated, resulting in a voltage signal that is proportional to the secondary current. This voltage signal is used to control the secondary current using a feedback loop which automatically compensates for resistive losses in the splices to the superconducting cable samples that are connected to the secondary. The system has been commissioned up to 28 kA secondary current. The reproducibility in the secondary current measurement is better than 0.05% for the relevant current range up to 25 kA. The drift in the secondary current, which results from drift in the digital integrator, is estimated to be below 0.5 A/min. The system's performance is further demonstrated through a voltage-current measurement on a superconducting cable sample at 11 T background magnetic field. The superconducting transformer system enables fast, high resolution, economic, and safe tests of the critical current of superconducting cable samples.

  14. Comparison of current perception threshold electrical testing to clinical sensory testing for lingual nerve injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziccardi, Vincent B; Dragoo, Joel; Eliav, Eli; Benoliel, Rafael

    2012-02-01

    We performed a retrospective study of lingual nerve injury assessment comparing the techniques of current perception threshold testing versus clinical sensory testing. We designed and implemented a cross-sectional study and enrolled a patient sample with lingual nerve injuries presenting for treatment to the principal investigator. The predictor variables were clinical sensory testing modalities (ie, temperature, nocioception, vibration, 2-point discrimination, brush stroke, and von Frey monofilament perception). The primary outcome variable was the electrical current perception thresholds of the tongue dorsum (neurometer measurements at 5, 250, and 2,000 Hz). Comparisons were established with the ipsilateral affected and contralateral unaffected lingual nerve distributions. The associations between the clinical sensory testing and current perception threshold measurements were assessed using correlation coefficients, with the level of statistical significance set at P thresholds at 2,000 Hz and the 2-point discrimination, reaction to brushing, reaction to vibration, and von Frey fiber thresholds, between the electrical stimulation thresholds at 250 Hz to the nociceptive and thermal thresholds, and between the electrical stimulation thresholds at 5 Hz to thermal stimuli. The significant correlations observed in the present study indicate that current perception threshold can be a complementary or alternative tool in the assessment and evaluation of lingual nerve injuries. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of counter current flow limitation model of MARS-KS and SPACE codes under Dukler's air/water flooding test conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woong; Kim, Min Gil; Lee, Jeong Ik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bang, Young Seok [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In particular, CCFL(the counter current flow limitation) occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus and steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to have flows in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model will be evaluated with MARS-KS based on two-phase two-field governing equations and SPACE code based on two-phase three-field governing equations. This study will be conducted by comparing MARS-KS code which is being used for evaluating the safety of a Korean Nuclear Power Plant and SPACE code which is currently under assessment for evaluating the safety of the designed nuclear power plant. In this study, comparison of the results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate from two code to the famous Dukler's CCFL experimental data are presented. This study will be helpful to understand the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations, and further improving the accuracy of system analysis codes. In the nuclear reactor system, CCFL is an important phenomenon for evaluating the safety of nuclear reactors. This is because CCFL phenomenon can limit injection of ECCS water when CCFL occurs in components such as hot leg, downcomer annulus or steam generator inlet plenum during LOCA which is possible to flow in two opposite directions. Therefore, CCFL is one of the thermal-hydraulic models which has significant effect on the reactor safety analysis code performance. In this study, the CCFL model was evaluated with MARS-KS and SPACE codes for studying the difference between system analysis codes with different governing equations, models and correlations. This study was conducted by comparing MARS-KS and SPACE code results of liquid upflow and liquid downflow rate for different gas flow rate to the famous Dukler

  16. Current limitations of SNP data from the public domain for studies of complex disorders: a test for ten candidate genes for obesity and osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Peng

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public SNP databases are frequently used to choose SNPs for candidate genes in the association and linkage studies of complex disorders. However, their utility for such studies of diseases with ethnic-dependent background has never been evaluated. Results To estimate the accuracy and completeness of SNP public databases, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 41 SNPs in 10 candidate genes for obesity and/or osteoporosis in a large American-Caucasian sample (1,873 individuals from 405 nuclear families by PCR-invader assay. We compared our results with those from the databases and other published studies. Of the 41 SNPs, 8 were monomorphic in our sample. Twelve were reported for the first time for Caucasians and the other 29 SNPs in our sample essentially confirmed the respective allele frequencies for Caucasians in the databases and previous studies. The comparison of our data with other ethnic groups showed significant differentiation between the three major world ethnic groups at some SNPs (Caucasians and Africans differed at 3 of the 18 shared SNPs, and Caucasians and Asians differed at 13 of the 22 shared SNPs. This genetic differentiation may have an important implication for studying the well-known ethnic differences in the prevalence of obesity and osteoporosis, and complex disorders in general. Conclusion A comparative analysis of the SNP data of the candidate genes obtained in the present study, as well as those retrieved from the public domain, suggests that the databases may currently have serious limitations for studying complex disorders with an ethnic-dependent background due to the incomplete and uneven representation of the candidate SNPs in the databases for the major ethnic groups. This conclusion attests to the imperative necessity of large-scale and accurate characterization of these SNPs in different ethnic groups.

  17. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  18. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  19. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  20. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Vázquez-Sánchez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  1. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  2. Model of Current Threshold for Perception in Testing Electrical Safety Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓飞; 张朝晖; 李东; 刘国忠; 赵旭

    2010-01-01

    A generalized mathematical model of human body current threshold for perception was established and the current flowing through human body could be arbitrary cyclical waveforms.The relationship between human body current threshold for perception and current frequency, true root mean square(RMS) value and influence factor was described.A test system was established based on electroencephalogram(EEG) to study the relationship between human body current threshold for perception and current waveform, frequency ...

  3. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies: Methodology and Results

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Codina, Marta; Araujo, María Caridad; Attanasio, Orazio P.; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2016-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs) measuring early childhood development (ECD) with standard tests in large scale surveys (i.e. evaluations of interventions) is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests') are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examine the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners -the Ages and Stages Questionnaires ...

  4. Point-of-care-testing of standing posture with Wii balance board and Microsoft Kinect during transcranial direct current stimulation: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Arindam; Chugh, Sanjay; Banerjee, Alakananda; Dutta, Anirban

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is a promising tool for facilitating motor function. NIBS therapy in conjunction with training using postural feedback may facilitate physical rehabilitation following posture disorders (e.g., Pusher Syndrome). The objectives of this study were, 1) to develop a low-cost point-of-care-testing (POCT) system for standing posture, 2) to investigate the effects of anodal tDCS on functional reach tasks using the POCT system. Ten community-dwelling elderly (age >50 years) subjects evaluated the POCT system for standing posture during functional reach tasks where their balance score on Berg Balance Scale was compared with that from Center-of-Mass (CoM) - Center-of-Pressure (CoP) posturography. Then, in a single-blind, sham-controlled study, five healthy right-leg dominant subjects (age: 26.4 ± 5.3 yrs) were evaluated using the POCT system under two conditions - with anodal tDCS of primary motor representations of right tibialis anterior muscle and with sham tDCS. The maximum CoP-CoM lean-angle was found to be well correlated with the BBS score in the elderly subjects The anodal tDCS strongly (p = 0.0000) affected the maximum CoP excursions but not the return reaction time in healthy. It was concluded that the CoM-CoP lean-line could be used for posture feedback and monitoring during tDCS therapy in conjunction with balance training exercises.

  5. A Cross-sectional Study of Current Doctors' Performance in a Modified Version of a Medical School Admission Aptitude Test: The UKCAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmur, James P; Lone, Nazir I; Stone, Oliver D; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-05-01

    The 2-hour long United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) is used by many universities in the United Kingdom as part of their selection process for undergraduate medical and dentistry degrees. We aimed to compare the performance of senior doctors in primary and secondary care and across a range of specialties, in a modified version of the medical school entrance examination-the mUKCAT. Lay people were also included in the study. Despite its widespread use, this is the first study that examines the performance of senior clinicians in the UKCAT.The study used a prospective cross-sectional design. It used mock questions from the UKCAT website to generate an mUKCAT that was anticipated to take 15 minutes to complete. In all, 167 doctors at consultant, general practitioner (GP), or specialty trainee grade and 26 lay people took part.The overall mean mUKCAT score of all participants was 2486 (69.1%). Of the total cohort, 126 (65.3%) scored above our designated threshold of 2368 and were deemed to have passed the mUKCAT. Excluding lay people, 113 (67.7%) of the 167 doctors scored above that threshold. Medical specialty was associated with overall score (P = 0.003), with anesthetists/intensive care physicians scoring highest (n = 20, mean score 2660) and GPs scoring lowest (n = 38, mean score 2302). Academics outperformed nonacademics (mean score of academics, n = 44 vs nonacademics, n = 123: 2750 vs 2406; P < 0.001). Those clinicians in senior management positions scored lower than those in "standard" roles (mean score of senior management, n = 31 vs standard roles, n = 136: 2332 vs 2534, mean difference 202, 95% confidence interval 67-337, P = 0.004).In the situational judgement section, there was no evidence that specialty was associated with score (P = 0.15). Academics exhibited greater situational judgement than their nonacademic colleagues (academics vs nonacademics: 69.8 vs 63.6%; P = 0.01).The majority of senior

  6. Who and how many of the potential users would be willing to pay the current or a lower price of the HIV self-test? The opinion of participants in a feasibility study of HIV self-testing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Belza-Egozcue, María J; Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; Hoyos, Juan; Ruiz-García, Mónica; de la Fuente, Luis

    2014-05-01

    We estimate the proportion of participants willing to pay the US price (€30) or €20 for an HIV self-test and analyse their associated factors. In a street-based testing program, 497 participants in a feasibility self-test study answered the question, "What would be the maximum price you would be willing to pay for a similar test to this one so you can use it at your convenience?" Only 17.9% would pay ≥€30, while 40.0%, ≥€20. In the logistic regression, paying more was associated with being tested outside the campuses and having paid or been paid for sex. In Spain, self-testing would not have an impact unless it became more affordable to potential users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  7. Eddy current testing probe optimization using a parallel genetic algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolapchiev Ivaylo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the developed parallel version of Michalewicz's Genocop III Genetic Algorithm (GA searching technique to optimize the coil geometry of an eddy current non-destructive testing probe (ECTP. The electromagnetic field is computed using FEMM 2D finite element code. The aim of this optimization was to determine coil dimensions and positions that improve ECTP sensitivity to physical properties of the tested devices.

  8. Testing Literature: The Current State of Affairs. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    A synthesis of the report, "The Current State of Assessment in Literature," (produced by the Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature), this digest discusses methods of evaluating students' knowledge of literature. The digest argues that, by and large, the tests that now exist in the United States do not live up to the standards set by…

  9. MC-128 current commutator for silicon strip detector tests

    CERN Document Server

    Anghinolfi, Francis; Chilingarov, A G; Kollegov, M; Ledenev, E K A; Ledenev, E Kuper A

    1996-01-01

    The MC-128 is a CAMAC module designed to simplify routine tests of multichannel semiconductor detectors. It was developed at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) Novosibirsk in collaboration with RD2 as part of the ATLAS SCT development program. The module provides 128 channels, offering sequential measurements of the currents flowing grom detector strips to a grounded Common Bus. Each input stays virtually connected to the Common Bus independently on whether its current is measured or not. Eight inputs are permanently connected to the Common Bus, allowing the connection of additional elements like guard ring structures. The total detector current can be measured as the current flowing through the Common Bus. Measurements are accessible via a CAMAC bus and in analog form via a front panel detector. Optionally, the MC 128 allows the measurement of the capacitance between each strip and the common (high voltage) electrode of the detector at 10 kHz frequency.

  10. Current Ground Test Options for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    About 20 different NTP engines/ reactors were tested from 1959 to 1972 as part of the Rover and Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) program. Most were tested in open air at test cell A or test cell C, at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Even after serious engine breakdowns of the reactor (e.g., Phoebus 1A), the test cells were cleaned up for other engine tests. The engine test stand (ETS) was made for high altitude (approximately 1 psia) testing of an NTP engine with a flight configuration, but still had the exhaust released to open air. The Rover/NERVA program became aware of new environmental regulations which would prohibit the release of any significant quantity of radioactive particulates and noble gases into the open air. The nuclear furnace (NF-1) was the last reactor tested before the program was cancelled in 1973, but successfully demonstrated a scrubber concept on how to filter the NTP exhaust. The NF-1 was demonstrated in the summer of 1972. The NF-1 used a 44MW reactor and operated each run for approximately 90 minutes. The system cooled the hot hydrogen exhaust from the engine with a water spray before entering a particle filter. The exhaust then passed through a series of heat exchangers and water separators to help remove water from the exhaust and further reduce the exhaust temperatures. The exhaust was next prepared for the charcoal trap by passing through a dryer and effluent cooler to bring exhaust temperatures close to liquid nitrogen. At those low temperatures, most of the noble gases (e.g., Xe and Kr made from fission products) get captured in the charcoal trap. The filtered hydrogen is finally passed through a flare stack and released to the air. The concept was overall successful but did show a La plating on some surfaces and had multiple recommendations for improvement. The most recent detailed study on the NTP scrubber concept was performed by the ARES Corporation in 2006. The concept is based on a 50,000 lbf thrust engine

  11. Molecular Testing of Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Current Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Kyung Jeon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathologic testing plays an important role for the diagnosis, prognostication and decision of treatment strategy in lymphoproliferative disease. Here, we briefly review the molecular tests currently used for lymphoproliferative disease and those which will be implicated in clinical practice in the near future. Specifically, this guideline addresses the clonality test for B- and T-cell proliferative lesions, molecular cytogenetic tests for malignant lymphoma, determination of cell-of-origin in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and molecular genetic alterations incorporated in the 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Finally, a new perspective on the next-generation sequencing for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic purpose in malignant lymphoma will be summarized.

  12. Cryogenic Test of High Temperature Superconducting Current Leads at Enea

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A; Chambouvet, P; Della Corte, A; Di Zenobio, A; Fiamozzi-Zignani, C; Mayorga, J; Napolitano, M; Turtu, S; Viola, R

    2006-01-01

    The LHC (Large Hadron Collider), the accelerator being constructed on the CERN site, involves the operation of more than 8000 superconducting magnets of various current ratings. Essential elements for the powering of these magnets are the HTS current leads. These devices provide the electrical link between the warm cables from/to the power converter and the low temperature superconducting bus bars bringing the current from/to the cryo-magnets. Thus they operate in a temperature range between room temperature and liquid helium temperature. The operation of the LHC will require more than 1000 HTS current leads operating at currents ranging from 600 A to 13000 A. Cryogenic tests of the series of 13000 A and 6000 A HTS current leads are made at ENEA in the framework of a CERN-ENEA collaboration. This report gives an overview of the experimental set-up built in ENEA. The set-up was designed following the typical criterion of a scientific experiment but it was dimensioned to satisfy the schedule of an i...

  13. Considerations for fault current testing of optical ground wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madge, R.C.; Barrett, J.S.; Maruice, C.G. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada). Research Div.)

    1992-10-01

    Optical Ground Wires (OPGW) are being used more frequently by utilities. However, fault current testing of OPGW has not been fully examined. In this paper, peak component temperatures are measured for both 10 m and 60 m spans. The cable temperature decay time is measured, and is compared against a numerical model of convection and conduction losses. A numerical model is developed to predict the peak cable tension following a hit. This model can be used to establish appropriate initial cable tensions to simulate full-span faults. The issue of dynamic stresses in the form of cable whipping is reviewed. Lastly, various cable termination procedures are tested.

  14. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Ali, Kharudin; Razali, Ramdan

    2016-02-26

    Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper.

  15. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhuji Rifai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper.

  16. Alternative methods in toxicity testing: the current approach

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Gabrielle Luck de; Campos,Maria Augusta Amaral; Valente,Maria Anete Santana; Silva,Sarah Cristina Teixeira; França,Flávia Dayrell; Chaves,Miriam Martins; Tagliati, Carlos Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Alternative methods are being developed to reduce, refine, and replace (3Rs) animals used in experiments, aimed at protecting animal welfare. The present study reports alternative tests which are based on the principles of the 3Rs and the efforts made to validate these tests. In Europe, several methodologies have already been implemented, such as tests of irritability, cell viability, and phototoxicity as well as in vitro mathematical models together with the use of in silico tools. This is a...

  17. Development of a current-controlled defibrillator for clinical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M; Schönegg, M; Schöchlin, J; Bolz, A

    2002-01-01

    The work presented here is only a part of the development for a new current-controlled defibrillator. In the diploma thesis "Development and construction of a current-controlled defibrillator for clinical tests" the most important part was the control and safety of the defibrillator. To ensure a safe circuit design, a risk-analysis and a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) were necessary. Another major part was the programming of a microcontroller in embedded C and a programmable logic device in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Description Language (VHDL). The circuit had to be constructed, and the defibrillator was optically decoupled from the laptop for safety reasons. The waveform-data can be transmitted to the microcontroller from the laptop, and the logged data is then transmitted back.

  18. Design Aspects and Test of an Inductive Fault Current Limiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsénio Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic shielding inductive fault current limiters with high temperature superconducting tapes are considered as emerging devices that provide technology for the advent of modern power grids. The development of such limiters requires magnetic iron cores and leads to several design challenges regarding the constitutive parts of the limiter, namely the primary and secondary windings. Preliminary tests in a laboratory scale prototype have been carried out considering an assembly designed for simplicity in which the optimization of the magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary was not the main focus. This work addresses the design configuration of an inductive current limiter prototype regarding the assembly of the primary and secondary windings in the core. The prototype is based on a closed magnetic core wound by a primary, built from a normal electric conductor, and a short-circuited secondary, built from first generation superconducting tape. Four different design configurations are considered. Through experimental tests, the performance of such prototype is discussed and compared, in terms of normal and fault operation regimes. The results show that all the configurations assure effective magnetic shielding at normal operation regime, however, at fault operation regime, there are differences among configurations.

  19. Test results of the 18 kA EDIPO HTS current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesche, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.wesche@psi.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bagnasco, Maurizio; Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Felder, Roland; Guetg, Marc; Holenstein, Manuel; Jenni, Markus; March, Stephen; Roth, Felix; Vogel, Martin [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association Euratom - Confederation Suisse, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    For the new test facility EDIPO (European DIPOle), to be hosted by CRPP, two 18 kA HTS current leads were manufactured and successfully tested. The HTS module, made of AgMgAu/Bi-2223 tapes, is cooled only by heat conduction to the cold end, while the copper part is cooled by forced flow helium gas. The current leads were tested at low voltage up to the maximum current of 18 kA. The helium mass flow rates required for stable operation at various currents were determined. In addition to the steady state operation, the transient behavior in the case of a loss of flow was studied experimentally. The test results provide an estimate of the operational limits of the EDIPO HTS current leads.

  20. Urine drug testing: current recommendations and best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Graves T; Burton, Allen W; Schade, Cristy M; Passik, Steve

    2012-07-01

    The precise role of urine drug testing (UDT) in the practice of pain medicine is currently being defined. Confusion exists as to best practices, and even to what constitutes standard of care. A member survey by our state pain society revealed variability in practice and a lack of consensus. The authors sought to further clarify the importance of routine UDT as an important part of an overall treatment plan that includes chronic opioid prescribing. Further, we wish to clarify best practices based on consensus and data where available. A 20-item membership survey was sent to Texas Pain Society members. A group of chronic pain experts from the Texas Pain Society undertook an effort to review the best practices in the literature. The rationale for current UDT practices is clarified, with risk management strategies outlined, and recommendations for UDT outlined in detail. A detailed insight into the limitations of point-of-care (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, test cups, test strips) versus the more sensitive and specific laboratory methods is provided. Our membership survey was of a limited sample size in one geographic area in the United States and may not represent national patterns. Finally, there is limited data as to the efficacy of UDT practices in improving compliance and curtailing overall medication misuse. UDT must be done routinely as part of an overall best practice program in order to prescribe chronic opioid therapy. This program may include risk stratification; baseline and periodic UDT; behavioral monitoring; and prescription monitoring programs as the best available tools to monitor chronic opioid compliance.

  1. Reactor coolant pump testing using motor current signatures analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burstein, N.; Bellamy, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes reactor coolant pump motor testing carried out at Florida Power Corporation`s Crystal River plant using Framatome Technologies` new EMPATH (Electric Motor Performance Analysis and Trending Hardware) system. EMPATH{trademark} uses an improved form of Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA), technology, originally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, for detecting deterioration in the rotors of AC induction motors. Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) is a monitoring tool for motor driven equipment that provides a non-intrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment. The base technology was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the affects of aging and service wear specifically on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plant safety systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of electric machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. The motor current variations, resulting from changes in load caused by gears, pulleys, friction, bearings, and other conditions that may change over the life of the motor, are carried by the electrical cables powering the motor and are extracted at any convenient location along the motor lead. These variations modulate the 60 Hz carrier frequency and appear as sidebands in the spectral plot.

  2. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  3. Studies of Current Dependent Effects at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A S; Huttel, E; Pérez, F; Pont, M; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The ANKA electron storage ring is operated at energies between 0.5 and 2.5 GeV. A major requirement for a synchrotron light source, such as ANKA, is to achieve a high beam current. A multitude of mostly impedance related effects depend on either bunch or total beam current. This paper gives an overview over the various beam studies performed at ANKA in this context, specifically the observation of current dependent detuning, the determination of the bunch length change with current from a measurement of the ratio between coherent and incoherent synchrotron tune and an assessment of the effective longitudinal loss factor from the current dependent horizontal closed orbit distortion.

  4. Regeneration Study Test Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data (2 excel files) consist of the analytical test results on water sample collected from the two adsorption media tanks of the arsenic removal system during the...

  5. Cognitive mechanisms of mindfulness: A test of current models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbel, Ben; Mahar, Doug

    2015-12-15

    Existing models of mindfulness describe the self-regulation of attention as primary, leading to enhanced decentering and ability to access and override automatic cognitive processes. This study compared 23 experienced and 21 non-meditators on tests of mindfulness, attention, decentering, and ability to override automatic cognitive processes to test the cognitive mechanisms proposed to underlie mindfulness practice. Experienced meditators had significantly higher mindfulness and decentering than non-meditators. No significant difference between groups was found on measures of attention or ability to override automatic processes. These findings support the prediction that mindfulness leads to enhanced decentering, but do not support the cognitive mechanisms proposed to underlie such enhancement. Since mindfulness practice primarily involves internally directed attention, it may be the case that cognitive tests requiring externally directed attention and timed responses do not accurately assess mindfulness-induced cognitive changes. Implications for the models of mindfulness and future research are discussed.

  6. Alternatives to animal testing: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Manfred; Grune, Barbara; Seiler, Andrea; Butzke, Daniel; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Pirow, Ralph; Adler, Sarah; Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the Center for Alternative Methods to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), an international symposium was held at the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) in Berlin. At the same time, this symposium was meant to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of the book "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique" by Russell and Burch in 1959 in which the 3Rs principle (that is, Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement) has been coined and introduced to foster the development of alternative methods to animal testing. Another topic addressed by the symposium was the new vision on "Toxicology in the twenty-first Century", as proposed by the US-National Research Council, which aims at using human cells and tissues for toxicity testing in vitro rather than live animals. An overview of the achievements and current tasks, as well as a vision of the future to be addressed by ZEBET@BfR in the years to come is outlined in the present paper.

  7. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of eddy current testing (ECT for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on the BMI mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to move the probe on the mock-up. Each motion-axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. In the mock-up test, the probe was properly contacted with most of the weld surfaces. The artificial stress corrosion cracking of approximately 6 mm in length and the electrical-discharge machining slit of 0.5 mm in length, 1 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width given on the weld surface were detected. From the probe output voltage, it was estimated that the average probe tilt angle on the surface under scanning was 2.6°.

  8. Test results of 12/18 kA ReBCO coated conductor current leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Surin, M. I.; Naumov, A. V.; Novikov, M. S.; Novikov, S. I.; Ilin, A. A.; Polyakov, A. V.; Scherbakov, V. I.; Shutova, D. I.

    2017-07-01

    A pair of hybrid current leads (brass + stacked & soldered ReBCO tapes) rated for 12 kA in steady state and for up to 18 kA at pulsed over current conditions was designed, developed and tested at NRC ;Kurchatov Institute; (NRC ;KI;). During the experiment at LN2 temperature, the current leads (CLs) were successfully charged with 18 kA at 100 A/s ramp rate. To date, as far as we know, this is the highest current capacity achieved for 2G HTS current leads. The feasibility of ;stack-and-soldering technique; for 10 kA+ class coated conductor CLs for accelerators and fusion was demonstrated. This paper gives an overview of the leads design and presents the preliminary test results. Detailed studies of magnetic properties and current sharing process for the stacked and staggered HTS joints are also reported.

  9. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs.

  10. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    boundary layers to influence the ambient larger-scale flow. We have studied these issues through ocean model simulations, adjoint sensitivity...circulation be monitored from pressure gauges, temperature sensors, current meters, or other measurements near the feature? • The influence of the

  11. Current problems regarding abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klajn-Tatić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Current ethical and legal issues with regard to abortion, prenatal genetic testing and managing pregnancy are discussed in this paper. These problems are considered from the legal theory point of view as well as from the standpoint of the Serbian Law, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, European Court of Human Rights, legal regulations of several EU countries, the USA, Japan, and their judicial practice. First, the pregnancy termination standards that exist in Serbia are introduced. Then the following issues are explained separately: the pro life and pro choice approaches to abortion; abortion according to the legal approach as a way of survival; the moral and legal status of the fetus; prenatal genetic testing, and finally matters regarding managing pregnancy today. Moral and legal principals of autonomy, namely freedom of choice of the individual, privacy and self-determination give women the right to terminate unwanted pregnancies. In addition, the basic question is whether the right of the woman to abortion clashes with the rights of others. Firstly, with the right of the "fetus to life". Secondly, with the right of the state to intervene in the interest of protecting "the life of the fetus". Third, with the rights of the woman’s partner. The fetus has the moral right to life, but less in relation to the same right of the woman as well as in relation to her right to control her life and her physical and moral integrity. On the other hand, the value of the life of the fetus increases morally and legally with the maturity of gestation; from the third trimester, the interest of the state prevails in the protection of the "life of the fetus" except when the life or health of the pregnant woman are at risk. As regards the rights of the woman’s partner, namely the husband’s opinion, there is no legal significance. The law does not request his participation in the decision on abortion because

  12. Current clinical trials testing combinations of immunotherapy and radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Marka; Kohrt, Holbrook; Levy, Ronald; Jones, Jennifer; Camphausen, Kevin; Dicker, Adam; Demaria, Sandra; Formenti, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical evidence of successful combinations of ionizing radiation with immunotherapy has inspired testing the translation of these results to the clinic. Interestingly, the preclinical work has consistently predicted the responses encountered in clinical trials. The first example came from a proof-of-principle trial started in 2001 that tested the concept that growth factors acting on antigen-presenting cells improve presentation of tumor antigens released by radiation and induce an abscopal effect. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor was administered during radiotherapy to a metastatic site in patients with metastatic solid tumors to translate evidence obtained in a murine model of syngeneic mammary carcinoma treated with cytokine FLT-3L and radiation. Subsequent clinical availability of vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors has triggered a wave of enthusiasm for testing them in combination with radiotherapy. Examples of ongoing clinical trials are described in this report. Importantly, most of these trials include careful immune monitoring of the patients enrolled and will generate important data about the proimmunogenic effects of radiation in combination with a variety of immune modulators, in different disease settings. Results of these studies are building a platform of evidence for radiotherapy as an adjuvant to immunotherapy and encourage the growth of this novel field of radiation oncology.

  13. [Current registry studies of acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltkamp, R; Jüttler, E; Pfefferkorn, T; Purrucker, J; Ringleb, P

    2012-10-01

    Study registries offer the opportunity to evaluate the effects of new therapies or to observe the consequences of new treatments in clinical practice. The SITS-MOST registry confirmed the validity of findings from randomized trials on intravenous thrombolysis concerning safety and efficacy in the clinical routine. Current study registries concerning new interventional thrombectomy techniques suggest a high recanalization rate; however, the clinical benefit can only be evaluated in randomized, controlled trials. Similarly, the experiences of the BASICS registry on basilar artery occlusion have led to the initiation of a controlled trial. The benefit of hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction has been demonstrated by the pooled analysis of three randomized trials. Numerous relevant aspects are currently documented in the DESTINY-R registry. Finally, the recently started RASUNOA registry examines diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurring during therapy with new oral anticoagulants.

  14. Assessment of 'dry skin': current bioengineering methods and test designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Wigger-Alberti, W; Elsner, P

    2001-01-01

    Dry skin is a frequent problem in dermatology and a sign of dysfunction of the epidermis, especially of the stratum corneum as the morphological equivalent of the skin barrier. It may occur as an individual disposition or as the leading symptom of atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis. Besides the visual examination of the skin, various bioengineering methods have been developed to assess the different pathological and adaptive changes in the skin. In addition to the assessment of skin humidity, barrier function and desquamation, the quantification of skin surface topography and the mechanical properties of skin are suitable methods to characterize a dry skin condition. For clinical assessment of moisturizing products and emollients the parameters of investigation have to be defined and integrated in an adapted study design depending on the composition and content of the active agent in the test product. Newly developed cosmetic products have to be investigated for safety and efficacy. Modern bioengineering methods are suitable to fulfill these challenges.

  15. Transport currents measured in ring samples: test of superconducting weld

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Claus, H.; Chen, L.; Paulikas, A. P.; Veal, B. W.; Olsson, B.; Koshelev, A.; Hull, J.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2001-02-01

    The critical current densities in bulk melt-textured YBa 2Cu 3O x and across superconducting “weld” joints are measured using scanning Hall probe measurements of the trapped magnetic field in ring samples. With this method, critical current densities are obtained without the use of electrical contacts. Large persistent currents are induced in ring samples at 77 K, after cooling in a 3 kG field. These currents can be determined from the magnetic field they produce. At 77 K a supercurrent exceeding 2000 A (about 10 4 A/cm 2) was induced in a 2 cm diameter ring; this current produces a magnetic field exceeding 1.5 kG in the bore of the ring. We demonstrate that when a ring is cut, and the cut is repaired by a superconducting weld, the weld joint can transmit the same high supercurrent as the bulk.

  16. Intercomparison tests of moored current measurements in the upper ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Weller, Robert A.; Briscoe, Melbourne G.; Davis, Russ E.; McCullough, James R.

    1981-01-01

    During the August-September 1977 Mixed Layer Experiment (Mile) and the July-September 1978 Joint Air-Sea Interaction (Jasin) project, moored current measurements were made in the upper ocean with Savonius rotor and vane vector-averaging current meters (VACM), dual orthogonal propeller vector-measuring current meters (VMCM), and dual orthogonal acoustic travel-time vector-averaging current meters (ACM). Wind speeds and significant wave heights reached 20ms-1 and 5 m. The influence of mooring motion upon ACM, VACM, and VMCM measurements are described. In the mixed layer above about 30 m depth where mean currents are relatively large, the effect of a surface-following buoy upon ACM, VACM, and VMCM velocity fluctuations at frequencies less than 0.3 cph was negligible; at frequencies above 4 cph, the VACM data contained the largest amount of mooring induced contamination. Below the mixed layer at depths greater than about 75 m, a subsurface mooring should be used; however, when a surface-following buoy was used, then VMCM data better approximated the spectrum of the fluctuations than VACM data. A spar-buoy should not be used to measure currents at depths as deep as 80 m. The frequency-dependent differences between VACM and VMCM and between VACM and ACM measurements are described. At frequencies less than 0.3 cph, the differences between the VACM and ACM or the VMCM records were not significant with 95% confidence limits, were always positive, and above 80 m depth were less than 20%. At frequencies above 4 cph, the VACM-VMCM differences were about 5 times larger than the VACM-ACM differences.

  17. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  18. A study of model bivalve siphonal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Janet K.; O'Riordan, Catherine A.; Nepf, Heidi M.

    1990-01-01

    We carried out experiments studying the hydrodynamics of bivalve siphonal currents in a laboratory flume. Rather than use living animals, we devised a simple, model siphon pair connected to a pump. Fluorescence-based flow visualization was used to characterize siphon-jet flows for several geometric configurations and flow speeds. These measurements show that the boundary-layer velocity profile, siphon height, siphon pair orientation, and size of siphon structure all affect the vertical distribution of the excurrent flow downstream of the siphon pair and the fraction of excurrent that is refiltered. The observed flows may effect both the clearance rate of an entire population of siphonate bivalves as well as the efficiency of feeding of any individual. Our results imply that field conditions are properly represented in laboratory flume studies of phytoplankton biomass losses to benthic bivalves when the shear velocity and bottom roughness are matched to values found in the field. Numerical models of feeding by a bivalve population should include an effective sink distribution which is created by the combined incurrent-excurrent flow field. Near-bed flows need to be accounted for to properly represent these benthic-pelagic exchanges. We also present velocity measurements made with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) for a single configuration (siphons flush with bed, inlet downstream) that show that the siphonal currents have a significant local effect on the properties of a turbulent boundary layer.

  19. Variation of Eddy Current Density Distribution and its Effect on Crack Signal in Eddy Current Non-Destructive of Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Janousek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with variation of eddy current density distribution along material depth and investigates an effect of the variation on a crack signal in eddy current non-destructive testing. Four coaxial rectangular tangential coils are used to induce eddy currents in a tested conductive object. The exciting coils are driven independently by phase-shifted AC currents; a ratio of amplitudes of the exciting currents is continuously changed to vary the distribution of eddy current density along material depth under a circular pick-up coil positioned in centre between the exciting coils. Dependences of a crack signal amplitude and its phase on the ratio are evaluated and special features are extracted. It is revealed that the dependences are strongly influenced by depth of a crack, and thus the extracted features can enhance evaluation of a detected crack.

  20. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  1. Limitations of eddy current testing in a fast reactor environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Bowler, John R.

    2016-02-01

    The feasibility of using eddy current probes for detecting flaws in fast nuclear reactor structures has been investigated with the aim of detecting defects immersed in electrically conductive coolant including under liquid sodium during standby. For the inspections to be viable, there is a need to use an encapsulated sensor system that can be move into position with the aid of visualization tools. The initial objective being to locate the surface to be investigated using, for example, a combination of electromagnetic sensors and sonar. Here we focus on one feature of the task in which eddy current probe impedance variations due to interaction with the external surface of a tube are evaluated in order to monitor the probe location and orientation during inspection.

  2. Current challenges and opportunities in nonclinical safety testing of biologics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Sven; Baumann, Andreas; de Haan, Lolke; Hinton, Heather J; Moggs, Jonathan; Theil, Frank-Peter; Wakefield, Ian; Singer, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Nonclinical safety testing of new biotherapeutic entities represents its own challenges and opportunities in drug development. Hot topics in this field have been discussed recently at the 2nd Annual BioSafe European General Membership Meeting. In this feature article, discussions on the challenges surrounding the use of PEGylated therapeutic proteins, selection of cynomolgus monkey as preclinical species, unexpected pharmacokinetics of biologics and the safety implications thereof are summarized. In addition, new developments in immunosafety testing of biologics, the use of transgenic mouse models and PK and safety implications of multispecific targeting approaches are discussed. Overall, the increasing complexity of new biologic modalities and formats warrants tailor-made nonclinical development strategies and experimental testing.

  3. Current trends in safety testing and toxicological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbinden, G.

    1982-06-01

    The paper reviews current concepts of toxicological evaluation of new drugs and other chemicals. Instead of completing a predetermined check-list toxicologists now consider the potential adverse effects of the substances under actual conditions of use. They then design experimental models which have a high probability to predict the toxic effects. Moreover, the enhanced susceptibilities of special risk populations is more and more taken into consideration.

  4. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  5. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  6. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  7. Quantitative Sensory Testing and Current Perception Threshold Testing in Patients With Chronic Pain Following Lower Extremity Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Mari A; Greenspan, Joel D; Johantgen, Meg; Von Rueden, Kathryn; O'Toole, Robert V; Dorsey, Susan G; Renn, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a significant problem for patients with lower extremity injuries. While pain hypersensitivity has been identified in many chronic pain conditions, it is not known whether patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fracture report pain hypersensitivity in the injured leg. To quantify and compare peripheral somatosensory function and sensory nerve activation thresholds in persons with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures with a cohort of persons with no history of lower extremity fractures. This was a cross-sectional study where quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing were conducted on the injured and noninjured legs of cases and both legs of controls. A total of 14 cases and 28 controls participated in the study. Mean time since injury at the time of testing for cases was 22.3 (standard deviation = 12.1) months. The warmth detection threshold ( p = .024) and nerve activation thresholds at 2,000 Hz ( p sensory nerve function at the site of injury in patients with chronic pain following lower extremity fractures using quantitative sensory testing and current perception threshold testing.

  8. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  9. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    Offer Tools for Nuclear Testing—and Solving Nuclear Mysteries ,” Washington Post, November 1, 2011, p. 1. Horovitz, Liviu, “A Detour Strategy for the...Today, October 2009, pp. 46-52. Kimball, Daryl, “Reconsidering the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: Sorting Fact from Fiction ,” Arms Control Association

  11. Increase of energy efficiency of testing of traction electric machines of direct and pulsating current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Afanasov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the effect of the load current of traction electric machines when tested for heating on the total electricity consumption for the test are presented. It is shown that increase of load current at the heating test permits to significantly reduce the consumption of electrical energy, and reduce the testing time without reducing its quality.

  12. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-22

    limitations to operate at the angle of attack the vehicle was programmed to fly for the speed and altitude of the flight. Detailed analysis conducted by the...that could possibly support the hypersonic and space transit flight test TM requirements are InmarSat [34], Iridium [35], Orbcomm [36], ViaSat [37...global-xpress-us-government/ [35] Iridium Satellite network - https://gigaom.com/2012/08/27/how- iridium -took-a- chance-on-spacex-and-won/ [36

  13. Current developments in container design testing for the Konrad repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelzke, Holger; Nieslony, Gregor; Noack, Volker; Hagenow, Peter; Kovacs, Oliver [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2012-05-15

    In 2002, the Konrad repository was licensed as a repository for radioactive waste generating no heat. That permit subsequently became the object of litigation and was confirmed by a court of last resort as late as in 2007. The Federal Office of Radiation Protection (BfS) then started planning and converting the former iron ore mine into a repository. The licensed repository volume is 303,000 m{sup 3} based on estimates of expected waste arisings. The mine proper would offer a much larger volume. However, cask emplacement can be started only after completion of the repository which, according to the present status, will not be before the end of this decade. Nevertheless, there is great interest even now in conditioning and packaging for repository storage of the radioactive waste planned for Konrad, which also requires casks type tested by the Federal Institute of Materials Testing (BAM) and approved by the BfS. The key items in the license for the repository are comprehensive requirements to be met by waste forms and casks. As far as continuous revision of repository requirements and consideration of materials hazardous to water are concerned, it is assumed that the key requirements applying to type tests of casks with respect to waste forms and casks will be affected by this either not at all or only very slightly. (orig.)

  14. In vitro tests for teratogens: desirable endpoints, test batteries and current status of the micromass teratogen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, O P

    1993-01-01

    Information from in vitro tests can be usefully used as a component of the risk/hazard assessment process. In vivo studies will be required to confirm the in vitro data. If the in vitro test system is designed around endpoints that reflect changes following in vivo toxic insult then it may be possible to modify the in vitro system to account for some of the discrepancies observed between in vivo and in vitro outcomes. When the discrepancy can be accounted for by low bioavailability in vivo, pharmacokinetic studies may be required to determine the relevance of the in vitro toxic concentrations. Reproductive hazard, especially teratogenicity, has been the subject of intensive in vitro test development. The observation of teratogenicity may affect the development of new products more significantly than any other type or category of reproductive toxicity. The micromass test, involving culture of differentiating rat embryo limb and midbrain cells exposed to test agents, may be useful as part of a battery of in vitro tests for teratogens. The most recent protocol for the micromass test is described, followed by a summary of validation and mechanistic studies confirming its usefulness. The test is robust in its transfer to new laboratories. Interlaboratory variability is small.

  15. 大容量高速限流开关的设计与试验研究%Design and Test Study of Large Capacity High Speed Current Limit Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 朱峰

    2011-01-01

    针对现有保护设备难以满足大容量电力系统短路保护要求的问题,研制了一种基于爆炸活塞式高速开断器和灭弧熔断器的混合型限流保护装置,设计了额定640V/2500A的工程样机,并进行了高速开断器的分断试验和整机的限流试验。试验结果表明,该保护装置限流效果显著,全分断时fHJ仪为2.5ms,大大提高了电力系统的安全性。%Aiming at the problem that the existing protection equipment is difficult to meet large capacity power system short circuit protective requirements problem, this paper researched a kind of high speed break-off device based on explosive piston type and arc blow-out fuse mixed type, current limit protection device, designing rated voltage 640 V/2 500 A engineering sample machine. The break-off test and whole machine current limit test were carried out for high speed breaker. Test result shows that the protective device current limit effect is obvious and the total break-offtime is only 2.5 ms, which greatly raises safety of the power system.

  16. Nationwide survey for current clinical status of amniocentesis and maternal serum marker test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Hidehiko; Yamada, Shigehito; Fujii, Yosuke; Sawai, Hideaki; Arimori, Naoko; Yamanouchi, Yasuko; Ozasa, Yuka; Kanai, Makoto; Sago, Haruhiko; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Takada, Fumio; Masuzaki, Hideaki; Matsubara, Yoichi; Hirahara, Fumiki; Kugu, Koji

    2016-10-01

    Prenatal testing has been provided in Japan over the past several decades. However, it is difficult to assess the clinical status of amniocentesis (AC) and maternal serum markers (MSM) because obstetricians can perform these tests without registration. This study aims to investigate the current clinical status of AC and MSM in Japan. We conducted a questionnaire study that was intended for a total of 5622 Japanese obstetrics/gynecology facilities during October 2013 to January 2014. The response rate was 40.8% (2295/5622). Of the 2295 facilities, 864 performed MSM (37.7%), 619 performed AC (27.0%) and 412 performed both (18.0%). The average number of MSM tests was 2.0 per month (range 0-52), and the average number of AC tests was 2.4 per month (range 0-30). Involvement of genetic professionals, such as clinical geneticists (CGs) and certified genetic counselors (CGCs), contribute to a content-rich explanation and management of difficult issues and lengthened the explanation time. Nevertheless, relatively few facilities employed these specialists (MSM: 96/864 and AC: 128/619). This is the first study to highlight the current clinical status of AC and MSM tests in Japan. Active involvement of CGs and CGCs can provide more appropriate genetic counseling for prenatal tests.

  17. Corrosion investigations, Tracy Red Bluff, California, and Boulder City, Nevada, ehv direct current tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backstrom, T.E.

    1965-01-01

    Evaluation of corrosion on buried metalwork, by the introduction of large direct currents into the ground, was studied during ehv dc transmission investigations in the Tracy-Red Bluff, California and the Boulder City, Nevada areas. Tests made on two types of electrodes showed that ehv dc ground return at test current levels would: (1) promote serious corrosion of buried metalwork within approximately 1/2-mile radius of the electrode with a ground mat electrode and mild corrosion with a deep-well electrode; (2) promote negligible-to-serious corrosion of buried pipelines within 1/2 to 3 mile radius of either a ground mat or deep-well electrode, depending on (a) distance of the pipelines from the electrode, (b) geometry of the two electrode-pipeline systems, and (c) horizontal extent of the pipelines; (3) impress negligible-to-mild corrosion of buried pipelines beyond a 3-mile radius of the electrode depending upon geometry of the electrode-pipeline system. Results show normal corrosion prevention techniques will be adequate to prevent corrosion of buried metalwork, if electrode is properly located. Use of ground return for only 8 to 24 hours per year on the ehv intertie, although with currents 2 to 3 times higher than test currents, will cause stray current damage of only a fraction of that expected with continuous operations.

  18. Development and evaluation of an automated system for testing current meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Saretta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Current meters are equipment widely used for estimating flow velocity in rivers and streams. Periodic calibrations of current meters are important to ensure the quality of measurements, but the required testing facilities are complex and only available in a few institutions. However, advances in electronics and automation may contribute to developing simple and reliable calibration systems. Thus, this study aimed to develop an automated system for testing current meters, which consisted of a trapezoidal channel, a step motor, a tow car and a management system, composed of a supervisory application and microprocessed modules to control the motor and the data acquisition. Evaluations of the displacement velocity showed that it matched the reference value up to 1.85 m s-1 for a vertical-axis current meter and 2.3 m s-1 for a horizontal-axis one. The developed system showed reliability during tests, for both current meter movement and data acquisition. The management of the system based on the developed modules and the supervisory application improved its user interface, turning all the procedure into a simple task.

  19. [Current perspectives on genome-based diagnostic tests in Pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Son, R Guillermo; León, P Luis

    2015-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis is essential in the clinical management of individual patients. Some children with complex medical conditions are subjected to numerous testing, known as "diagnostic odyssey", which often gives no conclusive results. In recent years, a revolution in genomic medicine is underway with the use of technologies that promise to increase the ability to make a diagnosis and reduce the time involved. The main advantages and limitations of genomic diagnosis, as opposed to usual methodologies are reviewed with an emphasis on Pediatrics. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Recent Advances in Studies of Current Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanter, Yaroslav M.

    This is a brief review of recent activities in the field of current noise intended for newcomers. We first briefly discuss main properties of shot noise in nanostructures, and then turn to recent developments, concentrating on issues related to experimental progress: non-symmetrized cumulants and quantum noise; counting statistics; super-Poissonian noise; current noise and interferometry

  1. Bioactive molecules: current trends in discovery, synthesis, delivery and testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Beng Kang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Important bioactive molecules are moleculesthat are pharmacologically active derived from naturalsources and through chemical synthesis. Over the yearsmany of such molecules have been discovered throughbioprospective endeavours. The discovery of taxol fromthe pacific yew tree bark that has the ability in stabilisingcellular microtubules represents one of the hallmarks ofsuccess of such endeavours. In recent years, the discoveryprocess has been aided by the rapid developmentof techniques and technologies in chemistry andbiotechnology. The progress in advanced genetics andcomputational biology has also transformed the wayhypotheses are formulated as well as the strategies for drugdiscovery. Of equal importance is the use of advanceddrug delivery vehicles in enhancing the efficacy andbioavailability of bioactive molecules. The availability ofsuitable animal models for testing and validation is yetanother major determinant in increasing the prospect forclinical trials of bioactive molecules.

  2. Advanced test accelerator: a high-current induction linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, E.G.; Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1982-11-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a linear induction accelerator being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The aim of the ATA, together with its associated physics program is the research and development necessary to resolve whether particle-beam propagation is possible. Since the accelerator is the tool needed to do the basic propagation experiment, many of its design parameters are specified by the physics. The accelerator parameters are: 50 MeV, 10 kA, 70 ns pulse width (FWHM), and a 1 kHz rep-rate during a ten-pulse burst. In addition, beam quality and pulse-to-pulse repeatability must be excellent. The unique features of the accelerator are the 10 kA beam and the 1 kHz burst frequency.

  3. Hypertelescopes: potential science gains, current testing and prospects in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeyrie, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the way of giant dilute telescopes, the hypertelescope is a many-aperture interferometer, which provides direct high resolution images with efficient light concentration. Pending future versions in space, a prototype terrestrial hypertelescope is under test in a high valley of the southern Alps. A moving focal gondola, suspended 101 m above small static mirrors, is driven under computer control with millimeter accuracy. The coude focus at ground level has been qualified by observing a Vega image focused by one of the mirrors and transmitted through the gondola. Upgrades under way for multi-beam interference include full autoguiding, the installation of several cameras on the gondola and adaptive optics for cophasing. Science observing is expected to begin in a few years, and other potential sites are considered for a larger meta-aperture, in the kilometer range. Future space versions, utilizing a 10-1000 km flotilla of small mirrors, are also considered and proposed to NASA and ESA, but require different technical developments.

  4. Ovarian reserve tests in the prediction of the fertile lifespan and current fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depmann, M

    2016-01-01

    Widely used ovarian reserve tests do not predict age at menopause or current fertility This thesis assesssed the capacity of ovarian reserve tests in the prediction of the fertile life span and current fertility. Ovarian reserve tests of interest were anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), the antral follicl

  5. Ovarian reserve tests in the prediction of the fertile lifespan and current fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depmann, M

    2016-01-01

    Widely used ovarian reserve tests do not predict age at menopause or current fertility This thesis assesssed the capacity of ovarian reserve tests in the prediction of the fertile life span and current fertility. Ovarian reserve tests of interest were anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), the antral

  6. Dual Purpose Simulation: New Data Link Test and Performance Limit Testing of Currently Deployed Data Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    While the results of this paper are similar to those of [I], in this paper technical difficulties present in [I] are eliminated, producing better results, enabling one to more readily see the benefits of Prioritized CSMA (PCSMA). A new analysis section also helps to generalize this research so that it is not limited to exploration of the new concept of PCSMA. Commercially available network simulation software, OPNET version 7.0, simulations are presented involving an important application of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) over the Very High Frequency Data Link Mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for essentially all incoming and outgoing nonstop air-traffic for just three United States cities: Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Detroit. The simulation involves 111 Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations, 32 airports distributed throughout the U.S., which are either sources or destinations for the air traffic landing or departing from the three cities, and also 1,235 equally equipped aircraft-taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. Collision-less PCSMA is successfully tested and compared with the traditional CSMA typically associated with VDL-2. The performance measures include latency, throughput, and packet loss. As expected, PCSMA is much quicker and more efficient than traditional CSMA. These simulation results show the potency of PCSMA for implementing low latency, high throughput and efficient connectivity. Moreover, since PCSMA outperforms traditional CSMA, by simulating with it, we can determine the limits of performance beyond which traditional CSMA may not pass. So we have the tools to determine the traffic-loading conditions where traditional CSMA will fail, and we are testing a new and better data link that could replace it with relative ease. Work is currently being done to drastically expand the number of flights to make the simulation more

  7. Design, modification and test of the conduction cooled high-current current leads for the superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Quanling; Cheng, Da; Xu, Fengyu; Yang, Xiangchen; Wang, Ting; Wei, Xiaotao

    2017-09-01

    Conduction cooled current leads, which bring the current from the room temperature terminal down to the cryogenic environment, were used in common recently in large scale superconducting accelerators for its low cost, sample design and low heat load. In practice, the current lead is designed contained in a stainless steel tube. The heat load can be incepted in steps by thermal anchors, where one end is attached to the stainless steel tube, while the other end is connected with the cold shield of the cryomodule. Since the limitation of the welding technique, a thicker stainless steel tube needs to be used, and hence the thermal anchors cannot provide enough pressure to deform the tube enough to be in direct contact with the current lead, which may lead to temperature instability and bring extra heat load to the cryogenic system. An excellent option of epoxy filled current lead can realize the fully contact and reduce the heat load effectively. This paper will present the process of the current lead design, optimization, numerical simulation and cryogenic test, the test results show that the current lead can keep in a stable operation and low heat load.

  8. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  9. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G.; Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm2 and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  10. FDTD Simulation of Transfer Impedance of Calibration Current Target for ESD Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Tsuyoshi; Taka, Yoshinori; Mori, Ikuko; Fujiwara, Osamu; Ishigami, Shinobu; Yamanaka, Yukio

    Transient electromagnetic fields caused by electrostatic discharges (ESDs) are known to cause a serious failure in high-tech information devices. From this perspective, an international standard for ESD testing or IEC 61000-4-2 has been specified, in which a detailed waveform of the discharge current to be injected onto equipment under test (EUT) by an ESD-gun is prescribed, and is also required for contact discharges onto a calibration current target called Pellegrini target, which is specially designed so that the waveform of an injected current and its observed voltage coincides. However, the coincidence relationship should not hold at high frequencies due to parasitic components which the target has. In this study, we constructed an FDTD model of the Pellegrini target, and calculated its transfer impedance by simulating the injected current onto the target and the corresponding output voltage in combination with an FDTD model being previously developed for an ESD-gun. As a result, we found that the target has a transfer impedance of almost 1-j0 Ω at less than a few hundred MHz, though it has resonance phenomena around 2-3 GHz, which was validated by measuring scattering parameters of the target through a transmission line with a network analyzer. Using the FDTD-calculated transfer impedance, we reconstructed injected current waveforms for contact and air discharges of an ESD-gun from their observed voltages to reveal that the injected current waveform is almost identical to the observed voltage waveform for the contact discharge, while the injected currents for the air discharges have smaller peaks and longer rise times than the observed voltages do due to the presence of resonance properties of the transfer impedance.

  11. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CURRENT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas Delev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to address problems of liquidity and in particular the values and factors that influenced the values of the coefficient of total liquidity sixty Bulgarian public companies for the period 2013 - 2007 year. In the analysis it was found that some businesses fail to achieve favorable values of the ratio between current assets and current liabilities. It was found that plants have a low level of total liquidity, which can create problems in repayment of short-term liabilities. It can be seen that there are companies with very high liquidity, which is not so good phenomenon, ie the retention of a high level of resources required. Businesses should conduct a thorough analysis and implement appropriate measures to correct adverse changes. The financial management of the companies surveyed had worked towards improving the state of the enterprise, thereby seeking to reduce liquidity risk.

  12. Recommendation for modifying current cytotoxicity testing standards for biodegradable magnesium-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiali; Witte, Frank; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng; Yang, Ke; Yang, Yuansheng; Zhao, Dewei; Meng, Jian; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Chan, Kaiming; Qin, Ling

    2015-07-01

    As one of the most promising medical metal implants, magnesium (Mg) or its alloys have shown significant advantages over other candidates attributed to not only their excellent biodegradability and suitable mechanical properties but also their osteopromotive effects for bone applications. Prior to approval mandated by the governmental regulatory body, the access to the medical market for Mg-based implants requires a series of testing for assurance of their safety and efficacy via preclinical evaluations and clinical tests including phase 1 and 2 evaluations, and phase 3 of multi-center randomized double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, as the most widely used protocols for biosafety evaluation of medical devices, current ISO 10993 standards should be carefully reevaluated when directly applying them to predict potential health risks of degradable Mg based biomaterials via cytotoxicity tests due to the huge gap between in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, instead of a direct adoption, modification of current ISO standards for in vitro cytotoxicity test is desirable and justified. The differences in sensitivities of cells to in vitro and in vivo Mg ions and the capability of in vivo circulation system to dilute local degradation products were fully considered to propose modification of current ISO standards. This paper recommended a minimal 6 times to a maximal 10 times dilution of extracts for in vitro cytotoxicity test specified in ISO 10993 part 5 for pure Mg developed as potential orthopedic implants based on literature review and our specifically designed in vitro and in vivo tests presented in the study. Our work may contribute to the progress of biodegradable metals involved translational work. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing and analysis of tube voltage and tube current in the radiation generator for mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hong Ryang; Hong, Dong Hee [Dept. of Health Care, Hanseo University, Seosan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Beom Hui [Dept. of Radiological Science, Seonam University, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Breast shooting performance management and quality control of the generator is applied to the amount of current IEC(International Electrotechnical Commission) 60601-2-45 tube voltage and tube current are based on standards that were proposed in the analysis of the test results were as follows. Tube voltage according to the value of the standard deviation by year of manufacture from 2001 to 2010 as a 42-3.15 showed the most significant, according to the year of manufacture by tube amperage value of the standard deviation to 6.38 in the pre-2000 showed the most significant , manufactured after 2011 the standard deviation of the devices, the PAE(Percent Average Error) was relatively low. This latest generation device was manufactured in the breast of the tube voltage and tube diagnosed shooting the correct amount of current to maintain the performance that can be seen. The results of this study as the basis for radiography diagnosed breast caused by using the device's performance and maintain quality control, so the current Food and Drug Administration 'about the safety of diagnostic radiation generator rule' specified in the test cycle during three years of self-inspection radiation on a radiation generating device ensure safety and performance of the device using a coherent X-ray(constancy) by two ultimately able to keep the radiation dose to the public to reduce the expected effect is expected.

  14. Design and Tests on the 30 to 600 A HTS Current Leads for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, A

    1997-01-01

    Some 800 correction magnets of the Large Hadron Collider will be individually powered. Each of them needs a pair of current leads. To reduce the heat leak through these leads, the current has been chosen as low as reasonably possible, 30 to 600 A. For the same reason CERN started in-house a development of current leads using commercial bulk BSCCO-2212 material.This paper discusses the design and the test results of this lead. We tested several prototypes, measured the heat leak through the lead, studied and tested what happens if the lead is brought to critical temperature causing it to quench.

  15. Status of series production and test of the HTS current leads for Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.heller@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Buscher, Klaus-Peter [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Drotziger, Sandra; Fietz, Walter H.; Kienzler, Andreas; Lietzow, Ralph [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Mönnich, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Richter, Thomas [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rummel, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Urbach, Elisabeth [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► KIT is responsible for design, production and test of the HTS current leads for W7-X. In total 14 current leads with a max. current of 18.2 kA are required. ► Final acceptance test of the current leads performed at KIT using a test cryostat connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. ► In general the performance of the leads is excellent and reproducible. ► Problems during series production and test related to electrical insulation, leak tightness, contact resistance between current lead and bus bar joint box. -- Abstract: The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). In total 14 current leads with a maximum current of 18.2 kA are required. Special feature is the upside-down orientation of the current leads because of the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. One further important requirement is the Paschen tight electrical insulation of current leads and the connection to the bus bar system. Due to some very specific manufacturing steps, budget and time restrictions, it has been mutually decided between the project partners to manufacture most of the components in house, except the HTS stacks which have been produced and delivered by industry. As the semi-finished parts were manufactured in the central workshop of KIT, the assembly of the current leads was performed in the ITEP (Institute for Technical Physics). The final acceptance test of the current leads is performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. The paper describes the status of the manufacturing of the current leads. In addition attention is given to specific problems that occurred during the manufacturing and testing.

  16. Corrosion Assessment of Steel Bars Used in Reinforced Concrete Structures by Means of Eddy Current Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alcantara, Naasson P; da Silva, Felipe M; Guimarães, Mateus T; Pereira, Matheus D

    2015-12-24

    This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study on the use of Eddy Current Testing (ECT) to evaluate corrosion processes in steel bars used in reinforced concrete structures. The paper presents the mathematical basis of the ECT sensor built by the authors; followed by a finite element analysis. The results obtained in the simulations are compared with those obtained in experimental tests performed by the authors. Effective resistances and inductances; voltage drops and phase angles of wound coil are calculated using both; simulated and experimental data; and demonstrate a strong correlation. The production of samples of corroded steel bars; by using an impressed current technique is also presented. The authors performed experimental tests in the laboratory using handmade sensors; and the corroded samples. In the tests four gauges; with five levels of loss-of-mass references for each one were used. The results are analyzed in the light of the loss-of-mass and show a strong linear behavior for the analyzed parameters. The conclusions emphasize the feasibility of the proposed technique and highlight opportunities for future works.

  17. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

  18. Inversion of thicknesses of multi-layered structures from eddy current testing measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄平捷; 吴昭同

    2004-01-01

    Luquire et al. ' s impedance change model of a rectangular cross section probe coil above a structure with an arbitrary number of parallel layers was used to study the principle of measuring thicknesses of multi-layered structures in terms of eddy current testing voltage measurements. An experimental system for multi-layered thickness measurement was developed and several fitting models to formulate the relationships between detected impedance/voltage measurements and thickness are put forward using least square method. The determination of multi-layered thicknesses was investigated after inversing the voltage outputs of the detecting system. The best fitting and inversion models are presented.

  19. Inversion of thicknesses of multi-layered structures from eddy current testing measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ping-jie(黄平捷); WU Zhao-tong(吴昭同)

    2004-01-01

    Luquire et al.'s impedance change model of a rectangular cross section probe coil above a structure with an arbitrary number of parallel layers was used to study the principle of measuring thicknesses of multi-layered structures in terms of eddy current testing voltage measurements. An experimental system for multi-layered thickness measurement was developed and several fitting models to formulate the relationships between detected impedance/voltage measurements and thickness are put forward using least square method. The determination of multi-layered thicknesses was investigated after inversing the voltage outputs of the detecting system. The best fitting and inversion models are presented.

  20. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  1. Non-destructive testing of composite materials used in military applications by eddy current thermography method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiderski, Waldemar

    2016-10-01

    Eddy current thermography is a new NDT-technique for the detection of cracks in electro conductive materials. It combines the well-established inspection techniques of eddy current testing and thermography. The technique uses induced eddy currents to heat the sample being tested and defect detection is based on the changes of induced eddy currents flows revealed by thermal visualization captured by an infrared camera. The advantage of this method is to use the high performance of eddy current testing that eliminates the known problem of the edge effect. Especially for components of complex geometry this is an important factor which may overcome the increased expense for inspection set-up. The paper presents the possibility of applying eddy current thermography method for detecting defects in ballistic covers made of carbon fiber reinforced composites used in the construction of military vehicles.

  2. Eddy Current, Magnetic Particle and Hardness Testing, Aviation Quality Control (Advanced): 9227.04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This unit of instruction includes the principles of eddy current, magnetic particle and hardness testing; standards used for analyzing test results; techniques of operating equipment; interpretation of indications; advantages and limitations of these methods of testing; care and calibration of equipment; and safety and work precautions. Motion…

  3. Current Trends in English Language Testing. Conference Proceedings for CTELT 1997 and 1998, Vol. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine A., Ed.

    Papers from the 1997 and 1998 Current Trends in English Language Testing (CTELT) conferences include: "Computer-Based Language Testing: The Call of the Internet" (G. Fulcher); "Uses of the PET (Preliminary English Test) at Sultan Qaboos University" (R. Taylor); "Issues in Foreign and Second Language Academic Listening…

  4. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  5. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  6. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  7. NASA's Beachside Corrosion Test Site and Current Environmentally Friendly Corrosion Control Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.; Calle, Luz Marina; Johnston, Frederick; Montgomery, Eliza L.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    NASA began corrosion studies at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term corrosion protective coatings for carbon steel. KSC's Beachside Corrosion Test Site (BCTS), which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring, environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acid ic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous studies have identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosive environment at the launch pad. This paper presents a historical overview of over 45 years of corrosion and coating evaluation studies and a description of the BCTS's current capabilities. Additionally, current research and testing programs involving chromium free coatings, environmentally friendly corrosion preventative compounds, and alternates to nitric acid passivation will be discussed.

  8. Operation Tests for SN Transition Superconducting Fault Current Limiter in the Power System Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Hideyuki; Torii, Shinji; Kumano, Teruhisa; Sakaki, Hisayoshi; Kubota, Hiroshi; Yasuda, Kenji

    One of important problems to be solved in Japanese trunk transmission systems is the reduction of short circuit capacity. As this countermeasure, double buses are split into two buses in some substations. In recent years, dispersed generators are introduced in lower voltage classes due to the introduction of the electricity deregulation. In such a distribution system as many dispersed generators are introduced, it is a possibility that the fault current becomes beyond the breaking capacity at the occurrence of short circuit. Introduction of superconducting fault current limiters into a power system is very effective as one of the means to solve the above-mentioned problem, and we have studied on the effective introduction method of them and setting method of their parameters. This paper describes the results of the operation tests for SN transition type of a superconducting fault current limiter using 3 phases of FCL modules against various kinds of system faults or inrush current in the Power System Simulator installed at CRIEPI.

  9. A Novel Crowbar Impulse Current Circuit for Testing the Switch-Type SPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Xueling; CHEN Jingliang; SUN Wei

    2008-01-01

    A crowbar impulse current circuit for testing the switch-type surge protective device (SPD) is presented. The crowbar circuit consists of a computer control circuit, a trigger voltage pulse generator, a main discharging switch, and a crowbar pseudospark switch. The active trigger technology was studied in the crowbar impulse current circuit. The circuit monitors the main discharging current and generates a trigger signal at a proper time for the crowbar pseudospark switch operation. The trigger characteristics of the main discharge switch and the crowbar pseudospark switch were investigated. By monitoring the preset applied capacitor voltage, the gap distance of the main discharging switch could be adjusted to ensure a discharging delay time less than 2 μs. Equipped with a surface flashover trigger device made of high relative perimittivity dielectric material BaTiO3 (εr = 3460), the discharge delay time of the crowbar pseudospark switch is less than 85 ns, and the minimum operating voltage is less than 1% of its self-breakdown voltage. With a storage capacitor of 9 μF , an inductor of 18 μH and a crowbar pseudospark switch, a load of 30 mΩ and an applied capacitor voltage of 40 kV, an impulse current wave form of maximum 25 kA was generated with a rise time and time to half peak value of 17.2/μs and 336 μs respectively.

  10. Pulsed Excitation in Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing of Conductive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Janousek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with eddy current non-destructive testing of conductive materials. Basic principle of the method is explained. Two types of eddy current excitation, the harmonic one and the pulsed one, are discussed. The characteristics, advantages as well as disadvantages of the two excitation methods are compared. It is explained that the pulsed excitation gives more complex information about a tested object. Experimental results of the pulsed eddy current testing of a defect in an Aluminium plate are presented

  11. Development of eddy current testing system using magnetic saturation in ferromagnetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Je Joong; Ahn, Hyung Keun; Shin, Yong Hoon [Sae An Engineering Corperation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong Man [Kunjang College, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-15

    Ferromagnetic materials have difficulties of eddy current test using traditional eddy current equipment due to their electric character of high permeability and anomalous magnetic flux. Development of on-line eddy current test equipment for ferromagnetic materials is a goal of this research. as the first step for it, in this paper, a prove for ferromagnetic materials was developed and practical test was performed with it at a manufactory. For magnetic saturation of inside of ferromagnetic material, DC power supply was used. As increasement of applied voltage, signals of defects were distinguished.

  12. Is Current Account of Turkey Sustainable ? Evidence from Nonlinear Unit Root Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Taştan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, current account sustainability of Turkey is analyzed in a nonlinear framework. Various nonlinear unit root tests have been used to test for structural break, sign and size nonlinearity. We have tested structural break and size nonlinearity separately and structural break-sign and size-sign nonlinearities simultaneously. Only considering the size nonlinearity, we have found that the current account of Turkey is sustainable. Thus, the size nonlinearity, in other words the speed of reversion to equilibrium, is essential for the current account sustainability of Turkey. We have also found that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium is symmetric, while considering size and sign nonlinearities simultaneously.

  13. Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozekicioglu Seda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.

  14. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  15. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  16. Characterization of Heat Treated Titanium-Based Implants by Nondestructive Eddy Current and Ultrasonic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ilven; Ekinci, Sinasi; Oktay, Enver

    2014-06-01

    This study presents nondestructive characterization of microstructure and mechanical properties of heat treated Ti, Ti-Cu, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium-based alloys and 17-4 PH stainless steel alloy for biomedical implant applications. Ti, Ti-Cu, and 17-4 PH stainless steel based implants were produced by powder metallurgy. Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as bulk wrought specimens. Effects of sintering temperature, aging, and grain size on mechanical properties were investigated by nondestructive and destructive tests comparatively. Ultrasonic velocity in specimens was measured by using pulse-echo and transmission methods. Electrical conductivity of specimens was determined by eddy current tests. Determination of Young's modulus and strength is important in biomedical implants. Young's modulus of specimens was calculated by using ultrasonic velocities. Calculated Young's modulus values were compared and correlated with experimental values.

  17. Study of high current commutation by explosive switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuba, S.; Kakudate, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Miyamoto, M.; Morita, T.; Kubota, A.; den, M.

    1993-01-01

    The study presents the basic experimental data obtained with a large current opening switch for current commutation using explosives. It is shown that currents up to a maximum of 40 kA can be completely interrupted within 30 microsec. The mechanism of current interruption using a thin conductor plate and methods of measuring interrupting current with a pickup coil and taking photographs with a high-speed camera (one frame per microsec) are discussed.

  18. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  19. Leakage Current Optimization Techniques During Test Based on Don't Care Bits Assignment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wang; Yu Hu; Yin-He Han; Xiao-Wei Li; You-Sheng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that test power consumption may exceed that during functional operation. Leakage power dissipation caused by leakage current in Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) circuits during test has become a significant part of the total power dissipation. Hence, it is important to reduce leakage power to prolong battery life in portable systems which employ periodic self-test, to increase test reliability and to reduce test cost. This paper analyzes leakage current and presents a kind of leakage current simulator based on the transistor stacking effect.Using it, we propose techniques based on don't care bits (denoted by Xs) in test vectors to optimize leakage current in integrated circuit (IC) test by genetic algorithm. The techniques identify a set of don't care inputs in given test vectors and reassign specified logic values to the X inputs by the genetic algorithm to get minimum leakage vector (MLV).Experimental results indicate that the techniques can effectually optimize leakage current of combinational circuits and sequential circuits during test while maintaining high fault coverage.

  20. Are Current Accounts of Asian Economies Mean-reverting?: Nonlinear Unit Root Test Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonghan Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the mean reverting property of current account in the financial crisis-affected 5 counties of southeast Asia using nonlinear unit root tests of Park and shintani(2004. Our approach is based on the idea that a conventional unit root test has lower power in detecting the nonlinear mean reverting behavior if the current account follows a nonlinear mean reversion process. We obtained following empirical results. First, for the pre-crisis period (1981Q1-1996Q4, the current accounts of Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines are mean-reverting but those of Korea and Thailand are not mean-reverting. Second, for the full sample period (1981Q1-2003Q4, the ADF test fails to reject the unit root of the current account in all countries except Philippines. However, unit root is rejected in favor of nonlinear mean reversion except Thailand. This nonlinear unit root test result implies that crisis-affected Asian countries except Thailand have sustainable paths of current accounts. Third, when the current accounts of East Asian countries are nonlinear mean-reverting, the mean reverting process can be well described by the ESTAR model, instead of the DTAR or DLSTAR model. The nonlinear unit root test results imply smooth nonlinear mean-reversion behaviors of East Asian current accounts. Finally, the shape of estimated impulse response functions becomes steeper as the size of shock increases, which is the very characteristic of the nonlinear process.

  1. Technological insights: Combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing-current results and further implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Nam Nguyen; Gerson Ricardo Souza Domingues; Frank Lammert

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on current aspects of the novel technology of combined impedance manometry for esophageal motility testing. It presents methodological features, summarizes current results and discusses implications for further research. The combined technique assesses simultaneously bolus transport and associated peristalsis, thus allowing detailed analysis of the relationships between bolus transit and esophageal motility. Recent studies demonstrate that combined impedance manometry provides important additional information about esophageal motility as compared to conventional manometry: (1) monitoring of bolus transport patterns, (2) calculation of bolus transit parameters, (3) evaluation of bolus clearance,(4) monitoring of swallow associated events such as air movement and reflux, and (5) investigation of the relationships between bolus transit and LES relaxation.Studies with healthy subjects have identified several useful parameters for comprehensive assessment of eosphageal function. These parameters were found to be pathological in patients with classical achalasia,mild GERD, and ineffective esophageal motility. The technology of combined impedance manometry provides an important new tool for esophageal function testing,advancing both clinical and basic research. However,several important issues remain to be standardized to make the technique suitable for widely clinical use.

  2. [Use of Freiburg monosyllabic test words in the contemporary German language : Currentness of the test words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, T

    2016-08-01

    The Freiburg monosyllabic test has a word inventory based on the word frequency in written sources from the 19th century, the distribution of which is not even between the test lists. The median distributions of word frequency ranking in contemporary language of nine test lists deviate significantly from the overall median of all 400 monosyllables. Lists 1, 6, 9, 10, and 17 include significantly more very rarely used words; lists 2, 3, 5, and 15, include significantly more very frequently used words. Compared with the word frequency in the contemporary spoken German language, about 45 % of the test words are practically no longer used. Due to this high proportion of extremely rarely or no longer used words, the word inventory is no longer representative of the contemporary German language-neither for the written, nor for the spoken language. Highly educated persons with a large vocabulary are thereby favored. The reference values for normal-hearing persons should therefore be reevaluated.

  3. Current Limitations and Recommendations to Improve Testing for the Environmental Assessment of Endocrine Active Substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K; Biever, Ronald C; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-01-01

    evaluate whether a chemical possesses endocrine activity and whether this activity can result in adverse outcomes either to humans or the environment. Current test systems include in silico, in vitro and in vivo techniques focused on detecting potential endocrine activity, and in vivo tests that collect...... apical data to detect possible adverse effects. These test systems are currently designed to robustly assess endocrine activity and/or adverse effects in the estrogen, androgen, and thyroid hormone signaling pathways; however, there are some limitations of current test systems for evaluating endocrine...... methods currently do not exist, and addressing key endocrine pathways of possible concern in addition to those associated with estrogen, androgen and thyroid signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. Pulsed direct and constant direct currents in the pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat chloride test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Carla Cristina Souza; Servidoni, Maria de Fatima; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Canavezi, Paulo Jose Coelho; Vinagre, Adriana Mendes; Costa, Eduardo Tavares; Ribeiro, Antonio Fernando; Ribeiro, Maria Angela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Toro, Adyleia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Pavan, Celia Regina; Rondon, Michelle Vivine Sá Dos Santos; Lorena, Sonia Leticia Silva; Vieria, Francisco Ubaldi; Ribeiro, Jose Dirceu

    2014-12-13

    The classic sweat test (CST) is the golden standard for cystic fibrosis (CF) diagnosis. Then, our aim was compare the production and volume of sweat, and side effects caused by pulsed direct current (PDC) and constant direct current (CDC). To determine the optimal stimulation time (ST) for the sweat collection. To verify the PDC as CF diagnosis option. Prospective study with cross-sectional experimental intervention. Experiment 1 (right arm): PDC and CDC. ST at 10 min and sweat collected at 30 min. Currents of 0.5; 0.75; 1.0 and 1.5 mA and frequencies of 0, 200, 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied. Experiment 2 (left arm): current of 1.0 mA, ST at 5 and 10 min and sweat collected at 15 and 30 min with frequencies of 0; 200; 1,000 and 5,000 Hz applied Experiments 1 and 2 were performed with current density (CD) from 0.07 to 0.21 mA/cm2. Experiment 3: PDC was used in typical CF patients with two CFTR mutations screened and or with CF diagnosis by rectal biopsy and patients with atypical CF. 48 subjects (79.16% female) with average of 29.54 ± 8.87 years old were enrolled. There was no statistical difference between the interaction of frequency and current in the sweat weight (p = 0.7488). Individually, positive association was achieved between weight sweat and stimulation frequency (p = 0.0088); and current (p = 0.0025). The sweat production was higher for 10 min of stimulation (p = 0.0023). The sweat collection was better for 30 min (p = 0.0019). The skin impedance was not influenced by ST and sweat collection (p > 0.05). The current frequency was inversely associated with the skin impedance (p < 0.0001). The skin temperature measured before stimulation was higher than after (p < 0.0001). In Experiment 3 (29 subjects) the PDC showed better kappa index compared to CDC (0.9218 versus 0.5205, respectively). The performance of the CST with CDC and PDC with CD of 0.14 to 0.21 mA/cm2 showed efficacy in steps of stimulation and collection of sweat, without side effects. The optimal

  5. Quantitative sensory test for primary restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease using the current perception threshold test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Keun Tae; Do, So Young; Lim, Jung-Geun; Lee, So Young; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2017-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder, and it is especially aggravated at night. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diurnal sensory dysfunction in primary RLS/WED using the current perception threshold (CPT) test, compared to healthy controls. Thirty primary RLS/WED subjects and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The severity of RLS/WED and sleep problems were evaluated in all subjects. Peripheral polyneuropathy was excluded through neurological examination and nerve conduction study. We used the Neurometer(®) system for the CPT test and applied three different parameters (2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz), to stimulate both big toes. The CPT test was performed twice, once during the asymptomatic daytime period and again in the evening, when the patients were symptomatic. The mean ages of the RLS/WED group and controls were 50.5 ± 11.7 (22; 73.3% female), and 46.3 ± 11.4 (24; 80.0% female), respectively. The mean international RLS/WED study group severity scale score was 28.6 ± 4.25. There was no significant difference in the current perception thresholds between the RLS/WED patients and controls in daytime. However, the RLS/WED patients had lower mean CPT measurements for all three stimulation protocols in the evening (2000 Hz: 393.2 ± 93.7 vs 430.8 ± 79.6, 250 Hz: 172.0 ± 48.4 vs 198.5 ± 38.2, and 5 Hz: 98.0 ± 34.1 vs 124.6 ± 31.3), while the healthy controls showed no difference. RLS patients showed a lower CPT in the evening. The diurnal variation of hyperalgesia in RLS/WED patients indicates a central (circadian) sensory processing disturbance rather than a peripheral disturbance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Durability Study of SOFCs Under Cycling Current Load Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Frandsen, Henrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cell applications, the cells must be able to withstand varying operating conditions. Anode supported solid oxide fuel cells were tested under cycling current load in order to determine the durability and possibly identify degradation mechanisms. At 750 °C and a cycling between zero and 0.......75 A cm-2, the cell voltage degradation rate was similar to tests with the corresponding high constant current density. However, by analyzing the impedance spectra it was found that anode degradation was becoming more important when going from constant to cycling conditions. Running the cycling load tests...... at 850 °C, the cells degraded similarly as under the corresponding constant current load whereas, in some cases, cells failed mechanically after a few hundred hours. These cells did not experience severe additional degradation due to the cycling of the current density until the point of failure...

  7. [Current status of the predictive genetic testing for hereditary neurological diseases in Shinshu University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keiko; Sekijima, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Kunihiro; Mizuuchi, Asako; Yamashita, Hiromi; Tamai, Mariko; Ikeda, Shu-ichi; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu

    2013-01-01

    The current status of predictive genetic testing for late-onset hereditary neurological diseases in Japan is largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed data from 73 clients who visited the Division of Clinical and Molecular Genetics, Shinshu University Hospital, for the purpose of predictive genetic testing. The clients consisted of individuals with family histories of familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP; n=30), Huntington's disease (HD; n=16), spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD; n=14), myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1; n=9), familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1 (ALS1; n=3), and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=1). Forty-nine of the 73 (67.1%) clients were in their twenties or thirties. Twenty-seven of the 73 (37.0%) clients visited a medical institution within 3 months after becoming aware of predictive genetic testing. The most common reason for requesting predictive genetic testing was a need for certainty or to reduce uncertainty and anxiety. The decision-making about marriage and having a child was also a main reason in clients in the twenties and thirties. The numbers of clients who actually underwent predictive genetic testing was 22 of 30 (73.3%) in FAP, 3 of 16 (18.8%) in HD, 6 of 10 (60.0%) in SCD, 7 of 9 (77.8%) in DM1, and 0 of 3 (0%) in ALS1 (responsible gene of the disease was unknown in 4 SCD patients and an AD patient). The percentage of test usage was lower in untreatable diseases such as HD and SCD than that in FAP, suggesting that many clients changed their way of thinking on the significance of testing through multiple genetic counseling sessions. In addition, it was obvious that existence of disease-modifying therapy promoted usage of predictive genetic testing in FAP. Improvement of genetic counseling system to manage predictive genetic testing is necessary, as consultation concerning predictive genetic testing is the main motivation to visit genetic counseling clinic in many at-risk clients.

  8. Performance test of the cryogenic cooling system for the superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong-Ju; In, Sehwan; Yeom, Han-Kil; Kim, Heesun; Kim, Hye-Rim

    2015-12-01

    A Superconducting Fault Current Limiter is an electric power device which limits the fault current immediately in a power grid. The SFCL must be cooled to below the critical temperature of high temperature superconductor modules. In general, they are submerged in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen for their stable thermal characteristics. To cool and maintain the target temperature and pressure of the sub-cooled liquid nitrogen, the cryogenic cooling system should be designed well with a cryocooler and coolant circulation devices. The pressure of the cryostat for the SFCL should be pressurized to suppress the generation of nitrogen bubbles in quench mode of the SFCL. In this study, we tested the performance of the cooling system for the prototype 154 kV SFCL, which consist of a Stirling cryocooler, a subcooling cryostat, a pressure builder and a main cryostat for the SFCL module, to verify the design of the cooling system and the electric performance of the SFCL. The normal operation condition of the main cryostat is 71 K and 500 kPa. This paper presents tests results of the overall cooling system.

  9. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, Alexander, E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov; Alessi, James G., E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward N., E-mail: pikin@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-01-09

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm{sup 2} and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  10. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  11. Assessment of Current Practice for Tank Testing of Small Marine Energy Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter

    Discussion Report. Equitable Testing and Evaluation of Marine Energy Extraction Devices in terms of Performance, Cost and Environmental Impact. The report is a contribution by Aalborg University (AAU) to the deliverable on Assessment of current practice for tank testing of small marine energy...

  12. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human sk

  13. Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current nondestructive testing for retired crankshafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Chen; Hua, Lin; Wang, Xiaokai; Wang, Zhou; Qin, Xunpeng; Fang, Zhou [Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To verify the validity of the Coupling method of magnetic memory and eddy current (CMMEC) testing for crankshafts, we use this technique to test a 12-cylinder V-design diesel crankshaft. First, the stress distribution in the crankshaft was obtained under 12 working conditions using a Finite element (FE) model that complied with the commercial FE code ABAQUS. Second, Magnetic memory testing (MMT) and Eddy current testing (ECT) were adopted to detect the regions of stress concentration in the crankshaft and the specific location of cracks based on simulation results. Lastly, magnetic particle testing was conducted to detect and display the corresponding crack to verify the CMMEC testing results. The MMT and ECT results can provide basis and guidance for the remanufacture and life evaluation of retired crankshafts.

  14. Realisation and instrumentation of high current power station for superconducting cables testing; Realisation et instrumentation d'une station fort courant pour le test de cables supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnaud, S

    2000-05-01

    This report deals with the designing of a high current station able to test electric properties of superconductors. This test station will be used for testing the superconducting wires of large hadron collider detectors in CERN. The high current test station will have to generate high intensity continuous current in a magnetic field of 0 to 5 tesla and in temperature conditions of 4.2 K. The length of wire samples submitted to the uniform magnetic field is 300 mm and the installation is fitted with equipment able to measure the magnetic field perpendicular to either faces of the wire. The peculiarity of this station is to use a superconducting transformer in order to generate the high current. The first part of this work recalls important notions concerning superconductivity. The second part presents the high current station by describing the superconducting transformer and the sample-holder. We have studied the designing of a transformer able to yield a secondary current whose intensity reaches 100 kA, such intensity generates powerful electromagnetic forces (566 kN/m) in case of defect, so the sample-holder has to be carefully design to bear them. The third part presents the cryogenic component of the station, the instrumentation of the sample-holder and the method used to measure secondary currents. In the last part we present the performance of a prototype transformer, this prototype is able to deliver a 22 kA secondary current for a 160 A primary current, the uncertainty on the measured value of the secondary current is about 3%.

  15. Current Sharing Temperature Test and Simulation with GANDALF Code for ITER PF2 Conductor Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaolei; Wu, Yu; Liu, Bo; Weng, Peide

    2011-10-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) conductor sample of the PF2 coil for ITER was tested in the SULTAN facility. According to the test results, the CICC conductor sample exhibited a stable performance regarding the current sharing temperature. Under the typical operational conditions of a current of 45 kA, a magnetic field of 4 T and a temperature of 5 K for PF2, the test result for the conductor current sharing temperature is 6.71 K, with a temperature margin of 1.71 K. For a comparison thermal-hydraulic analysis of the PF2 conductor was carried out using GANDALF code in a 1-D model, and the result is consistent with the test one.

  16. Testing for causality between the foreign direct investment, current account deficit, GDP and total credit: Evidence from G7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbas Yusuf Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, countries were analyzed between 1990 and 2011 in order to determine whether a causal relationship exists among current account deficit, GDP, foreign direct investment, and total credits of G7. Analysis took into account the cross-sectional dependence and was applied to test the causality among the variables form the panel. Firstly, panel unit root tests were used for determining stationary of variables. As a result of the panel unit root tests, it was found that GDP and foreign direct investment have a stationary structure and that total credits and current account deficit contain unit root. In order to see whether there is a long-term relationship among the variables or not, the panel co-integration test was used. As a result of the test, it was concluded that there is a co-integration relationship among the series. The possibility of a causal relationship was analyzed among the variables using the causality test developed by Elena Ivona Dumitrescu and Christophe Hurlin (2012. Results of the analysis showed a unidirectional causal relationship from current account deficit and foreign direct investment to GDP. Bidirectional causality was found between current account deficit and total credits. Finally, a unidirectional relationship was found from foreign direct investment to current account deficit and total credits.

  17. Nondestructive Testing Eddy Current Basic Principles RQA/M1-5330.12 (V-I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    As one in the series of programmed instruction handbooks, prepared by the U.S. space program, home study material is presented in this volume concerning familiarization and orientation on basic eddy current principles. The subject is presented under the following headings: Basic Eddy Current Concepts, Eddy Current Generation and Distribution,…

  18. Selective testing for thrombophilia in patients with first venous thrombosis : results from a retrospective family cohort study on absolute thrombotic risk for currently known thrombophilic defects in 2479 relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijfering, Willem M.; Brouwer, Jan-Leendert P.; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Bank, Ivan; Coppens, Michiel; Middeldorp, Saskia; Hamulyak, Karly; Prins, Martin H.; Bueller, Harry R.; van der Meer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Thrombophilia screening is controversial. In a retrospective family cohort, where probands had thrombosis and a thrombophilic defect, 2479 relatives were tested for thrombophilia. In antithrombin-, protein C-, and protein S-deficient relatives, annual incidences of venous thrombosis were 1.77% (95%

  19. Selective testing for thrombophilia in patients with first venous thrombosis: results from a retrospective family cohort study on absolute thrombotic risk for currently known thrombophilic defects in 2479 relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijfering, W.M.; Brouwer, J.L.P.; Veeger, N.J.; Bank, I.; Coppens, M.; Middeldorp, S.; Hamulyak, K.; Prins, M.H.; Buller, H.R.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    Thrombophilia screening is controversial. In a retrospective family cohort, where probands had thrombosis and a thrombophilic defect, 2479 relatives were tested for thrombophilia. In antithrombin-, protein C-, and protein S-deficient relatives, annual incidences of venous thrombosis were 1.77% (95%

  20. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Frontal Cortex Decreases Performance on the WAIS-IV Intelligence Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Kristin K.; Mellin, Juliann M.; Lustenberger, Caroline M.; Boyle, Michael R.; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V.; Frohlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA at each anode for 20 minutes) or active sham tDCS (2mA for 40 seconds), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2mA for 20 minutes). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. PMID:25934490

  1. The current and future status of the Concealed Information Test for field use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi eMatsuda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Concealed Information Test (CIT is a psychophysiological technique for examining whether a person has knowledge of crime-relevant information. Many laboratory studies have shown that the CIT has good scientific validity. However, the CIT has seldom been used for actual criminal investigations. One successful exception is its use by the Japanese police. In Japan, the CIT has been widely used for criminal investigations, although its probative force in court is not strong. In this paper, we first review the current use of the field CIT in Japan. Then, we discuss two possible approaches to increase its probative force: sophisticated statistical judgment methods and combining new psychophysiological measures with classic autonomic measures. On the basis of these considerations, we propose several suggestions for future practice and research involving the field CIT.

  2. Current antiplatelet agents: place in therapy and role of genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eugene

    2015-04-01

    Antiplatelet therapies play a central role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. While aspirin, a cyclo-oxygenase-1 inhibitor has been the cornerstone of antithrombotic treatment for several decades, P2Y12 receptor inhibitors cangrelor, clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor and protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist vorapaxar, have emerged as additional therapies to reduce the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. Recent clinical trials evaluating the role of these agents and major society guideline updates for use of antiplatelet therapies for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events will be examined. The latest studies regarding the appropriate duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention will be presented. The current state of genetic and platelet function testing will be reviewed.

  3. Analysis of Dissimilar Material Defect Based on Eddy Current Conductivity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofan; Li, Lifu

    In this experiment, the conductivity distribution of lack of penetration (LOP) in friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar materials has been tested, and has been compared with the conductivity distribution of the same kind of material, by using eddy current conductivity meter. CZ state and M state LY12 aluminum alloy has been studied. The results show that when the depth of LOP is small, the conductivity of M state is the highest, the conductivity decreases gradually to the weld center, reduce to the minimum until reach the CZ state base metal. When the depth of LOP is larger, the conductivity of the weld center decreases sharply with the depth of LOP increases gradually. Scilicet, the larger the depth of LOP, the lower the conductivity. The conductivity distribution of other areas is similar to the distribution when the depth of LOP is small.

  4. Development and Testing of High Current Hollow Cathodes for High Power Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Van Noord, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Office of the Chief Technologist In-Space Propulsion project is sponsoring the testing and development of high power Hall thrusters for implementation in NASA missions. As part of the project, NASA Glenn Research Center is developing and testing new high current hollow cathode assemblies that can meet and exceed the required discharge current and life-time requirements of high power Hall thrusters. This paper presents test results of three high current hollow cathode configurations. Test results indicated that two novel emitter configurations were able to attain lower peak emitter temperatures compared to state-of-the-art emitter configurations. One hollow cathode configuration attained a cathode orifice plate tip temperature of 1132 degC at a discharge current of 100 A. More specifically, test and analysis results indicated that a novel emitter configuration had minimal temperature gradient along its length. Future work will include cathode wear tests, and internal emitter temperature and plasma properties measurements along with detailed physics based modeling.

  5. Theoretical studies of non inductive current drive in compact toroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farengo, R; Lifschitz, AF; Caputi, KI; Arista, NR; Clemente, RA

    2002-01-01

    Three non inductive current drive methods that can be applied to compact toroids axe studied. The use of neutral beams to drive current in field reversed configurations and spheromaks is studied using a Monte Carlo code that includes a complete ionization package and follows the exact particle orbit

  6. Chaos Analysis of Discharge Current Based on Tracking Test of Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Boxue; ZHENG Xiaolei; DONG Dianshuai

    2009-01-01

    In tracking test,discharge is a complicated process and comparative tracking index(CTI)has wide variation.To evaluate tracking resistance,the chaos analysis of discharge current is presented based on the tracking test ofphenolic resin in accordance with IEC601 12.According to the characteristics of statistical self-similarity and complexity of discharge current,the largest Lyapunov exponent is calculated,and the 2-dimensional attractor ofdischarge current is reconstructed.Moreover,the attractors of discharge current and recurrence plots of different discharge states are reconstructed.The results indicate that the chaos attractors have different characteristics in evolutionary tracks,the topological structure and grain direction of recurrence plots show significant differences.The chaos attractor can describe the tracking process,the recurrence plot can identify the tracking state clearly,while its arithmetic is simple.

  7. An overview of current activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Klimas, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is a description of the United States Department of Energy's National Solar Thermal Test Facility, highlighting current test programs. In the central receiver area, research underway supports commercialization of molten nitrate salt technology, including receivers, thermal energy transport, and corrosion experiments. Concentrator research includes large-area, glass-metal heliostats and stretched-membrane heliostats and dishes. Test activities in support of dish-Stirling systems with reflux receivers are described. Research on parabolic troughs includes characterization of several receiver configurations. Other test facility activities include solar detoxification experiments, design assistance testing of commercially-available solar hardware, and non-DOE-funded work, including thermal exposure tests and. testing of volumetric and PV central receiver concepts.

  8. An overview of current activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, C. P.; Klimas, P. C.

    This paper is a description of the United States Department of Energy's National Solar Thermal Test Facility, highlighting current test programs. In the central receiver area, research underway supports commercialization of molten nitrate salt technology, including receivers, thermal energy transport, and corrosion experiments. Concentrator research includes large-area, glass-metal heliostats and stretched-membrane heliostats and dishes. Test activities in support of dish-Stirling systems with reflux receivers are described. Research on parabolic troughs includes characterization of several receiver configurations. Other test facility activities include solar detoxification experiments, design assistance testing of commercially-available solar hardware, and non-DOE-funded work, including thermal exposure tests and testing of volumetric and PV central receiver concepts.

  9. An overview of current activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C.P.; Klimas, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    This paper is a description of the United States Department of Energy`s National Solar Thermal Test Facility, highlighting current test programs. In the central receiver area, research underway supports commercialization of molten nitrate salt technology, including receivers, thermal energy transport, and corrosion experiments. Concentrator research includes large-area, glass-metal heliostats and stretched-membrane heliostats and dishes. Test activities in support of dish-Stirling systems with reflux receivers are described. Research on parabolic troughs includes characterization of several receiver configurations. Other test facility activities include solar detoxification experiments, design assistance testing of commercially-available solar hardware, and non-DOE-funded work, including thermal exposure tests and. testing of volumetric and PV central receiver concepts.

  10. High temperature superconducting current lead test facility with heat pipe intercepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenfeld, P.E.; Prenger, C.; Roth, E.W.; Stewart, J.A.

    1998-12-31

    A high temperature superconducting (HTS) current lead test facility using heat pipe thermal intercepts is under development at the Superconducting Technology Center at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The facility can be configured for tests at currents up to 1,000 A. Mechanical cryocoolers provide refrigeration to the leads. Electrical isolation is maintained by intercepting thermal energy from the leads through cryogenic heat pipes. HST lead warm end temperature is variable from 65 K to over 90 K by controlling heat pipe evaporator temperature. Cold end temperature is variable up to 30 K. Performance predictions in terms of heat pipe evaporator temperature as a function of lead current are presented for the initial facility configuration, which supports testing up to 200 A. Measurements are to include temperature and voltage gradient in the conventional and HTS lead sections, temperature and heat transfer rate in the heat pipes. as well as optimum and off-optimum performance of the conventional lead sections.

  11. Baseline and Verification Tests of the Electric Vehicle Associates’ Current Fare Station Wagon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    the EVA Current Fare Wagon. The EVA Current Fare Wagon is a 1980 Ford Fairmont station wagon which has been converted to an electric vehicle . The...standard Ford Fairmont station wagon which has been converted to an electric vehicle (Figures 1 anil 2). It is powered I% 22 6-V lead-acid batteries2...D-R132 549 BASELINE AND VERIFICATION TESTS OF THE ELECTRIC VEHICLE 112 ASSOCIATES’ CURRE..(U) ARMY MOBILITY EQUIPMENT RESEARCH AIND DEVELOPMENT

  12. The Application of Eddy Current Transducer for Testing Movement Locus of Shaker Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Pingyu; Lao Chuanjun; Zhang Wei; Li Xuejun

    2007-01-01

    Shaker screen is one of important equipments in the industry of oil, metallurgy, coal and timbering. The movement locus of shaker screen affects the capacity and efficiency of shaker screen to split the solid particle from crude ore directly .To test movement of shaker locus, two eddy current transducers are employed. A discussion of the usage of these eddy current transducer to test and acceleration sensors will be made. The experiment results from a real elliptic shaker screen have good agree with the design requirements.

  13. Single-tone and Polyharmonic Eddy Current Metal Detection and Non-Destructive Testing Education Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatoš, J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper describes the design of a measuring chain for polyharmonic metal detectors used for education in laboratory exercises at Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Measurement. The Measuring chain is composed of DDS signal generator, Digitiser and PC with software programmed in Labview. Eddy current principles or more specifically eddy current metal detectors are an important part of nondestructive testing, instrumentations and measurement. A short introduction to the background and principles of eddy current metal detectors are presented. Next part of the article deals with a brief description of the most common methods, as well as, non-traditional polyharmonic methods for eddy current metal detection. The following part contains an implementation of the proposed algorithms in LabVIEW graphical programming language. Finally, the created program for education of eddy current metal detectors and results obtained on the metal detector ATMID are discussed.

  14. Research on Eddy Current Testing System of the Carburized Layer Depth of 20CrMnTi Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiao-min; LI Na; WU Xin- wen; FANG Hua-bin

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the carbon distribution in the carburized layer of 20CrMnTi steel was studied. The relationship between the depth of a carburized layer and the surface carbon distribution was established. Eddy current testing system of the case depth of this carburized steel was built by using ANSYS software as second development platform.

  15. Navigating the current landscape of clinical genetic testing for inherited retinal dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kristy; Garg, Seema

    2015-04-01

    Inherited eye disorders are a significant cause of vision loss. Genetic testing can be particularly helpful for patients with inherited retinal dystrophies because of genetic heterogeneity and overlapping phenotypes. The need to identify a molecular diagnosis for retinal dystrophies is particularly important in the era of developing novel gene therapy-based treatments, such as the RPE65 gene-based clinical trials and others on the horizon, as well as recent advances in reproductive options. The introduction of massively parallel sequencing technologies has significantly advanced the identification of novel gene candidates and has expanded the landscape of genetic testing. In a relatively short time clinical medicine has progressed from limited testing options to a plethora of choices ranging from single-gene testing to whole-exome sequencing. This article outlines currently available genetic testing and factors to consider when selecting appropriate testing for patients with inherited retinal dystrophies.

  16. Current limitations and a path forward to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K.; Biever, Ronald C.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    issue of significant concern to for current EACS screening/testing programs involves resources in regard such as to cost, time, trained personnel, and animal use. This is especially problematic when considering the number of chemicals that some regulatory authorities need to assess. One way to address......, statistical power to detect biologically significant adverse effects, delivery and analytical measurement of test substances, availability of technical expertise, and study interpretation, including linking mechanistic and apical effects. Some of these areas can be addressed by the lessons learned and best...... screening/testing. Finally, a number of recommendations are provided for longer term research to address areas of uncertainty, including identifying potentially sensitive species for which test methods currently do not exist (e.g., invertebrates) and key endocrine pathways in addition to estrogen, androgen...

  17. A combined noise analysis and power supply current based testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ashok; Pulendra, Vani K.; Yellampalli, Siva

    2005-05-01

    A technique integrating the noise analysis based testing and the conventional power supply current testing of CMOS analog integrated circuits is presented for bridging type faults due to manufacturing defects. The circuit under test (CUT) is a CMOS amplifier designed for operation at +/- 2.5 V and implemented in 1.5 μm CMOS process. The faults simulating possible manufacturing defects have been introduced using the fault injection transistors. The amplifier circuit is analyzed and simulated in SPICE for its performance with and without fault injections. The faults in the CUT are identified by observing the variation in the equivalent noise voltage at the output of CUT. In power supply current testing, the current (IPS) through the power supply voltage, VDD is measured under the application of an AC input stimulus. The effect of parametric variation is taken into consideration by determining the tolerance limit using the Monte-Carlo analysis. The fault is identified if the power supply current, IPS lies outside the deviation given by Monte-Carlo analysis. Simulation results are in close agreement with the corresponding experimental values.

  18. 77 FR 39501 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  19. 75 FR 67749 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  20. 77 FR 5037 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  1. 76 FR 31969 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  2. Microwave testing of high-Tc based direct current to a single flux quantum converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Fischer, Gerd Michael; Ivanov, Z. G.

    1994-01-01

    Design, simulation, and experimental investigations of a direct current to a single flux quantum converter loaded with a Josephson transmission line and driven by an external 70 GHz microwave oscillator are reported. The test circuit includes nine YBaCuO Josephson junctions aligned on the grain b...

  3. Current research and potential applications of the Concealed Information Test: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gershon eBen-Shakhar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Research interest in psychophysiological detection of deception has significantly increased since the September 11 terror attack in the USA. In particular, the Concealed Information Test (CIT, designed to detect memory traces that can connect suspects to a certain crime, has been extensively studied. In this paper I will briefly review several psychophysiological detection paradigms that have been studied, with a focus on the CIT. The theoretical background of the CIT, its strength and weaknesses, its potential applications as well as research finings related to its validity, (based on a recent mata-analytic study, will be discussed. Several novel research directions, with a focus on factors that may affect CIT detection in realistic settings (e.g., memory for crime details; the effect of emotional stress during crime execution will be described. Additionally, research focusing on mal-intentions and attempts to detect terror networks using information gathered from groups of suspects using both the standard CIT and the searching CIT will be reviewed. Finally, implications of current research to the actual application of the CIT will be discussed and several recommendations that can enhance the use of the CIT will be made.

  4. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Henry; Alexander, Joshua; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal; Calle, Luz marina

    2010-01-01

    Electrokinetic Nanoparticle (EN) treatment was used as a rapid repair measure to mitigate chloride induced corrosion of reinforced concrete in the field. EN treatment uses an electric field to transport positively charged nanoparticles to the reinforcement through the concrete capillary pores. Cylindrical reinforced concrete specimens were batched with 4.5 wt % salt content (based on cement mass). Three distinct electrokinetic treatments were conducted using high current density (up to 5 A/m2) to form a chloride penetration barrier that was established in 5 days, as opposed to the traditional 6-8 weeks, generally required for electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE). These treatments included basic EN treatment, EN with additional calcium treatment, and basic ECE treatment. Field exposures were conducted at the NASA Beachside Corrosion Test Site, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA. The specimens were subjected to sea water immersion at the test site as a posttreatment exposure. Following a 30-day post-treatment exposure period, the specimens were subjected to indirect tensile testing to evaluate treatment impact. The EN treated specimens exhibited 60% and 30% increases in tensile strength as compared to the untreated controls and ECE treated specimens respectively. The surfaces of the reinforcement bars of the control specimens were 67% covered by corrosion products. In contrast, the EN treated specimens exhibited corrosion coverage of only 4%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed a dense concrete microstructure adjacent to the bars of the treated specimens as compared to the control and ECE specimens. Energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis of the polished EN treated specimens showed a reduction in chloride content by a factor of 20 adjacent to the bars. This study demonstrated that EN treatment was successful in forming a chloride penetration barrier rapidly. This work also showed that the chloride barrier was effective when samples were exposed to

  5. High Current ESD Test of Advanced Triple Junction Solar Array Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie

    2014-01-01

    Testing was conducted on an Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) coupon that was part of a risk reduction effort in the development of a high-powered solar array design by Space Systems Loral, LLC (SSL). The ATJ coupon was a small, 4-cell, two-string configuration of flight-type design that has served as the basic test coupon design used in previous SSL environmental aging campaigns. The objective of the present test was to evaluate the performance of the coupon after being subjected to induced electrostatic discharge (ESD) testing at two string voltages (100 V, 150 V) and four string currents (1.65 A, 2.0 A, 2.475 A, and 3.3 A). An ESD test circuit, unique to SSL solar array design, was built that simulates the effect of missing cells and strings in a full solar panel with special primary arc flashover circuitry. A total of 73 primary arcs were obtained that included 7 temporary sustained arcs (TSA) events. The durations of the TSAs ranged from 50 micro-seconds to 2.75 milli-seconds. All TSAs occurred at a string voltage of 150 V. Post-ESD functional testing showed that no degradation occurred due to the TSA events. These test results point to a robust design for application to a high-current, high-power mission.

  6. Test Results For a 25-m Prototype Fault Current Limiting HTS Cable for Project Hydra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Christopher M [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Tuncer, Enis [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has tested a 25-m long prototype High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cable with inherent Fault-Current Limiting (FCL) capability at its recently upgraded HTS cable test facility in Oak Ridge, TN. The HTS-FCL cable and terminations were designed and fabricated by Ultera, which is a joint venture of Southwire and nkt cables with FCL features and HTS wire provided by American Superconductor Corporation. The overall project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The ultimate goal of the 25-m HTS-FCL cable test program was to verify the design and ensure the operational integrity for the eventual installation of a ~ 200-m fully functional HTS-FCL cable in the Consolidated Edison electric grid located in downtown New York City. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable consisted of a three-phase (3- ) Triax design with a cold dielectric between the phases. The HTS-FCL cable had an operational voltage of 13.8 kV phase-to-phase and an operating current of 4000 Arms per phase, which is the highest operating current to date of any HTS cable. The 25-m HTS-FCL cable was subjected to a series of cryogenic and electrical tests. Test results from the 25-m HTS-FCL cable are presented and discussed.

  7. Study of a fibre optics current sensor for the measurement of plasma current in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuilpart, Marc; Vanus, Benoit; Andrasan, Alina; Gusarov, Andrei; Moreau, Philippe; Mégret, Patrice

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study the feasibility of using a fibre-optics current sensor (FOCS) for the measurement of plasma current in the future fusion reactor ITER. The sensor is based on a classical FOCS interrogator involving the measurement of the state of polarization rotation undergone by the light in presence of a magnetic field (Faraday effect) in an optical fibre surrounding the current and terminated by a Faraday mirror. We considered a uniformly spun optical fibre as the sensing element and we used the Stokes formalism to simulate the sensor. The objective of the simulations is to quantify the ratio LB/SP (beat length over the spun period of the spun fibre) enabling a measurement error in agreement with the ITER specifications. The simulator takes into account the temperature variations undergone by the measurement system under ITER operation. The simulation work showed that a LB/SP ratio of 19.2 is adequate.

  8. Industrial-Strength Model-Based Testing - State of the Art and Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Peleska

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As of today, model-based testing (MBT is considered as leading-edge technology in industry. We sketch the different MBT variants that - according to our experience - are currently applied in practice, with special emphasis on the avionic, railway and automotive domains. The key factors for successful industrial-scale application of MBT are described, both from a scientific and a managerial point of view. With respect to the former view, we describe the techniques for automated test case, test data and test procedure generation for concurrent reactive real-time systems which are considered as the most important enablers for MBT in practice. With respect to the latter view, our experience with introducing MBT approaches in testing teams are sketched. Finally, the most challenging open scientific problems whose solutions are bound to improve the acceptance and effectiveness of MBT in industry are discussed.

  9. Experimental study of the dynamics of a thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Daughton, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Hong, D.

    2016-05-01

    Many plasmas in natural settings or in laboratory experiments carry currents. In magnetized plasmas the currents can be narrow field-aligned filaments as small as the electron inertial length ≤ft(\\tfrac{c}{{ω }pe}\\right) in the transverse dimension or fill the entire plasma column. Currents can take the form of sheets, again with the transverse dimension the narrow one. Are laminar sheets of electric current in a magnetized plasma stable? This became an important issue in the 1960s when current-carrying plasmas became key in the quest for thermonuclear fusion. The subject is still under study today. The conditions necessary for the onset for tearing are known, the key issue is that of the final state. Is there a final state? One possibility is a collection of stable tubes of current. On the other hand, is the interaction between the current filaments which are the byproduct endless, or does it go on to become chaotic? The subject of three-dimensional current systems is intriguing, rich in a variety of phenomena on multiple scale sizes and frequencies, and relevant to fusion studies, solar physics, space plasmas and astrophysical phenomena. In this study a long (δz = 11 m) and narrow (δx = 1 cm, δy = 20 cm) current sheet is generated in a background magnetoplasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The current is observed to rapidly tear into a series of magnetic islands when viewed in a cross-sectional plane, but they are in essence three-dimensional flux ropes. At the onset of the current, magnetic field line reconnection is observed between the flux ropes. The sheet on the whole is kink-unstable, and after kinking exhibits large-scale, low-frequency (f ≪ f ci ) rotation about the background field with an amplitude that grows with distance from the source of the current. Three-dimensional data of the magnetic and electric fields is acquired throughout the duration of the experiment and the parallel resistivity is derived from it. The parallel

  10. Performance test of current lead cooled by a cryocooler in low temperature superconducting magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeon Suk, E-mail: ychoi@kbsi.re.kr; Kim, Myung Su

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The current lead with multi-contact connector in the joint was fabricated for performance test. •The electrical contact resistance in the joint was measured during magnet charging. •The resistances of the joint were 0.4–0.9 mΩ for 40–80 K. •The heat generation due to electrical contact resistance was reduced below 1 W by multiple spring louvers. -- Abstract: In a low temperature superconducting magnet system, heat leakage through current leads is one of the major factors in cryogenic load. The semi-retractable current lead is a good option because the conductive heat leakage can be eliminated after the excitation of the magnet. It is composed of a normal metal element, conducting the current from room temperature to intermediate temperature, and an HTS element, conducting the current down to liquid helium temperature. The normal metal element is disengaged from the HTS element through the multi-contact connector without disturbance to the insulating vacuum space and without requiring complete removal of the normal metal element. The intermediate block with a lockable set point is thermally connected to the first stage of cryocooler and carries current through a strip of louvered material. The electrical contact resistance of multi-contact connector in the intermediate block is measured during magnet charging process. The effects of current level as well as operating temperature on the heat generation in the joint block are also discussed.

  11. Test of the depression distress amplification model in young adults with elevated risk of current suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capron, Daniel W; Lamis, Dorian A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-11-30

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young adults and the rate of suicide has been increasing for decades. A depression distress amplification model posits that young adults with comorbid depression and anxiety have elevated suicide rates due to the intensification of their depressive symptoms by anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. The current study tested the effects of anxiety sensitivity subfactors as well as the depression distress amplification model in a very large sample of college students with elevated suicide risk. Participants were 721 college students who were at elevated risk of suicidality (scored>0 on the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation). Consistent with prior work, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, but not physical or social concerns, were associated with suicidal ideation. Consistent with the depression distress amplification model, in individuals high in depression, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns predicted elevated suicidal ideation but not among those with low depression. The results of this study corroborate the role of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns and the depression distress amplification model in suicidal ideation among a large potentially high-risk group of college students. The depression distress amplification model suggests a specific mechanism, anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns, that may be responsible for increased suicide rates among those with comorbid anxiety and depression.

  12. Current landscape and new paradigms of proficiency testing and external quality assessment for molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalman, Lisa V; Lubin, Ira M; Barker, Shannon; du Sart, Desiree; Elles, Rob; Grody, Wayne W; Pazzagli, Mario; Richards, Sue; Schrijver, Iris; Zehnbauer, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Participation in proficiency testing (PT) or external quality assessment (EQA) programs allows the assessment and comparison of test performance among different clinical laboratories and technologies. In addition to the approximately 2300 tests for individual genetic disorders, recent advances in technology have enabled the development of clinical tests that quickly and economically analyze the entire human genome. New PT/EQA approaches are needed to ensure the continued quality of these complex tests. To review the availability and scope of PT/EQA for molecular genetic testing for inherited conditions in Europe, Australasia, and the United States; to evaluate the successes and demonstrated value of available PT/EQA programs; and to examine the challenges to the provision of comprehensive PT/EQA posed by new laboratory practices and methodologies. The available literature on this topic was reviewed and supplemented with personal experiences of several PT/EQA providers. Proficiency testing/EQA schemes are available for common genetic disorders tested in many clinical laboratories but are not available for most genetic tests offered by only one or a few laboratories. Provision of broad, method-based PT schemes, such as DNA sequencing, would allow assessment of many tests for which formal PT is not currently available. Participation in PT/EQA improves the quality of testing by identifying inaccuracies that laboratories can trace to errors in their testing processes. Areas of research and development to ensure that PT/EQA programs can meet the needs of new and evolving genetic tests and technologies are identified and discussed.

  13. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A.

    2017-01-01

    The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient. PMID:28335399

  14. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Razali, Ramdan; Ali, Kharudin; Faraj, Moneer A

    2017-03-13

    The use of the eddy current technique (ECT) for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT) use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM). The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient.

  15. An Eddy Current Testing Platform System for Pipe Defect Inspection Based on an Optimized Eddy Current Technique Probe Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damhuji Rifai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the eddy current technique (ECT for the non-destructive testing of conducting materials has become increasingly important in the past few years. The use of the non-destructive ECT plays a key role in the ensuring the safety and integrity of the large industrial structures such as oil and gas pipelines. This paper introduce a novel ECT probe design integrated with the distributed ECT inspection system (DSECT use for crack inspection on inner ferromagnetic pipes. The system consists of an array of giant magneto-resistive (GMR sensors, a pneumatic system, a rotating magnetic field excitation source and a host PC acting as the data analysis center. Probe design parameters, namely probe diameter, an excitation coil and the number of GMR sensors in the array sensor is optimized using numerical optimization based on the desirability approach. The main benefits of DSECT can be seen in terms of its modularity and flexibility for the use of different types of magnetic transducers/sensors, and signals of a different nature with either digital or analog outputs, making it suited for the ECT probe design using an array of GMR magnetic sensors. A real-time application of the DSECT distributed system for ECT inspection can be exploited for the inspection of 70 mm carbon steel pipe. In order to predict the axial and circumference defect detection, a mathematical model is developed based on the technique known as response surface methodology (RSM. The inspection results of a carbon steel pipe sample with artificial defects indicate that the system design is highly efficient.

  16. High Current ESD Test of Advanced Triple Junction Solar Array Coupon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Hoang, Bao; Wong, Frankie

    2015-01-01

    A test was conducted on an Advanced Triple Junction (ATJ) coupon that was part of a risk reduction effort in the development of a high-powered solar array design by SSL. The ATJ coupon was a small, 4-cell, two-string configuration that has served as the basic test coupon design used in previous SSL environmental aging campaigns. The coupon has many attributes of the flight design; e.g., substrate structure with graphite face sheets, integrated by-pass diodes, cell interconnects, RTV grout, wire routing, etc. The objective of the present test was to evaluate the performance of the coupon after being subjected to induced electrostatic discharge testing at two string voltages (100 V, 150 V) and four array current (1.65 A, 2.0 A, 2.475 A, and 3.3 A). An ESD test circuit, unique to SSL solar array design, was built that simulates the effect of missing cells and strings in a full solar panel with special primary arc flashover circuitry. A total of 73 primary arcs were obtained that included 7 temporary sustained arcs (TSA) events. The durations of the TSAs ranged from 50 micros to 2.9 ms. All TSAs occurred at a string voltage of 150 V. Post-test Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator (LAPSS), Dark I-V, and By-Pass Diode tests showed that no degradation occurred due to the TSA events. In addition, the post-test insulation resistance measured was > 50 G-ohms between cells and substrate. These test results indicate a robust design for application to a high-current, high-power mission application.

  17. Design, Fabrication and Temperature Sensitivity Testing of a Miniature Piezoelectric-Based Sensor for Current Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Lao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid capacity, reliability, and efficient distribution of power have been major challenges for traditional power grids in the past few years. Reliable and efficient distribution within these power grids will continue to depend on the development of lighter and more efficient sensing units with lower costs in order to measure current and detect failures across the grid. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a miniature piezoelectric-based sensor for AC current measurements in single conductors, which are used in power transmission lines. Additionally presented in this paper are the thermal testing results for the sensor to assess its robustness for various operating temperatures.

  18. Critical Current Test of Liquid Hydrogen Cooled HTC Superconductors under External Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    High-Tc (HTC) superconductors including MgB2 will show excellent properties under temperature of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2:20K), which has large latent heat and low viscosity coefficient. In order to design and fabricate the LH2 cooled superconducting energy devices, we must clear the cooling property of LH2 for superconductors, the cooling system and safety design of LH2 cooled superconducting devices and electro-magnetic property evaluation of superconductors (BSCCO, REBCO and MgB2) and their magnets cooled by LH2. As the first step of the study, an experimental setup which can be used for investigating heat transfer characteristics of LH2 in a pool and also in forced flow (circulation loop with a pump), and also for evaluation of electro-magnetic properties of LH2 cooled superconductors under external magnetic field (up to 7 T). In this paper, we will show a short sketch of the experimental set-up, practical experiences in safety operation of liquid hydrogen cooling system and example test results of critical current evaluation of HTC superconductors cooled by LH2.

  19. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangping Kong; Zhe Zhang; Xianggen Yin; Zhenxing Li

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influenc...

  20. Research on the Equivalence Between Double Differential-mode Current Injection and Radiation Test Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xiaodong; WEI Guanghui; FAN Lisi; LU Xinfu; YANG Zhe

    2013-01-01

    There are the application scope limits for single differential-mode current injection test method,so in order to carry out injection susceptibility test for two-pieces equipment interconnected with both ends of a cable simultaneously,a double differential-mode current injection test method (DDMCI) is proposed.The method adopted the equivalence source wave theorem and Baum-Liu-Tesche (BLT)equation as its theory foundation.The equivalent corresponding relation between injection voltage and radiation electric field intensity is derived,and the phase relation between the two injection voltage sources is confirrned.The results indicate that the amplitude and phase of the equivalent injection voltage source is closely related to the S parameter of directional coupling device,the transmission line length,and the source vector in BLT equation,but has nothing to do with the reflection coefficient between the two equipment pieces.Therefore,by choosing the right amplitude and phase of the double injection voltage sources,the DDMCI test is equivalent to the radiation test for two interconnected equipment of a system.

  1. Transmission line component testing for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richard; Bell, G. L.; Deibele, C. E.; McCarthy, M. P.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Swain, D. W.; Barber, G. C.; Barbier, C. N.; Cambell, I. H.; Moon, R. L.; Pesavento, P. V.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Kung, C.

    2014-10-01

    High power RF testing is underway to evaluate transmission line components for the ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive System. The transmission line has a characteristic impedance Z0 = 50 Ω and a nominal outer diameter of 305 mm. It is specified to carry up to 6 MW at VSWR = 1.5 for 3600 s pulses, with transient voltages up to 40 kV. The transmission line is actively cooled, with turbulent gas flow (N2) used to transfer heat from the inner to outer conductor, which is water cooled. High voltage and high current testing of components has been performed using resonant lines generating steady state voltages of 35 kV and transient voltages up to 60 kV. A resonant ring, which has operated with circulating power of 6 MW for 1 hr pulses, is being used to test high power, low VSWR operation. Components tested to date include gas barriers, straight sections of various lengths, and 90 degree elbows. Designs tested include gas barriers fabricated from quartz and aluminum nitride, and transmission lines with quartz and alumina inner conductor supports. The latest results will be presented. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Current Challenges Towards the Development of a Blood Test for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Santiago

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’ disease (PD is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease worldwide. To date, there is no disease-modifying agent, and current medical treatment only provides symptomatic benefits. Early diagnosis of PD would be useful in clinical practice to identify patients for clinical trials, test potential drugs and neuroprotective agents and track their therapeutic effect. Considerable progress has been made in the discovery and validation of diagnostic biomarkers for PD. In particular, blood-based biomarkers have shown promise in identifying PD patients in samples from independent clinical trials. Evaluation of these biomarkers in de novo patients and individuals at risk for PD remains a top priority. Here, we review the current advances and challenges toward the clinical translation of these biomarkers into a blood-based test for PD.

  3. Simple and Universal Current Modulator Circuit for Indoor Mobile Free-Space-Optical Communications Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Hejduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of LED for illumination and communication together is more and more interesting with the increasing deployment of LEDs to our homes and industrial buildings. Modulation of this kind of light sources is difficult because of high voltage and current demands. Since the LED configurations and values of current and voltage are different, our universal modulator has to be able to operate even under these circumstances. This paper proposes simple and universal current modulator for LED lighting modulation for frequencies around 1MHz. Main objective is to allow initial testing of different types of High Power LEDs and different photodetector configurations and circuits in diffusive based Free-Space-Optical networks. In the experimental part we also compare results for some different types of LED light sources.

  4. High or low-side solid state relay with current limiting and operational testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolland, C. R.

    1984-07-01

    The switch comprises a circuit from a first output terminal via parallel MOS devices in series with current-sensing resistance to a second output terminal, with alternative high-side and low-side configurations having a load between the second terminal and ground, or the first terminal and the DC supply voltage. An input terminal for a digital control signal is coupled via an input diode and two Schmitt Trigger CMOS inverters to a control lead for the gates of the switch. A current overload or short circuit protection circuit coupled between the current-sensor and the input diode comprises two transistors coupled by a diode. A built-in test circuit for indicating the switch condition (on, off, shorted or open) comprises MOS transistors having their gates connected to voltage dividers at the two output terminals, and their drains connected to discrete indication terminals.

  5. Current practices and guidelines for clinical next-generation sequencing oncology testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel P. Strom

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been rapidly integrated into molecular pathology, dramatically increasing the breadth genomic of information available to oncologists and their patients. This review will explore the ways in which this new technology is currently applied to bolster care for patients with solid tumors and hematological malignancies, focusing on practices and guidelines for assessing the technical validity and clinical utility of DNA variants identified during clinical NGS oncology testing.

  6. Eddy current nondestructive testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample utilizing Walsh functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Hugo L.; Hildebrand, Bernard P.

    1978-01-01

    An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.

  7. Eddy current testing with high penetration; WS-Pruefungen mit grosser Eindringtiefe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das Niederfrequenz(NF)-Wirbelstrom(WS)-Verfahren wird eingesetzt, um eine grosse Eindringtiefe zu erzielen. Die erreichbare Tiefenreichweite wird u.a. durch die niedrigste Prueffrequenz bestimmt, die zusammen mit dem Wirbelstrom-Sensor realisiert werden kann. Bei Einsatz von induktiven Sensoren geht mit abnehmender Prueffrequenz der Messeffekt proportional zurueck (Induktionswirkung). Eine weitere Absenkung der Prueffrequenzen macht den Einsatz von andersartigen Sensoren notwendig, z.B. den GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), der eine gleichmaessige Messempfindlichkeit bis zum Gleichfeld besitzt. Das eingesetzte Mehrfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Pruefverfahren MFEC 3 des IZFP arbeitet mit drei gleichzeitig eingespeisten Prueffrequenzen. Dabei werden zwei Varianten von WS-Sensoren eingesetzt. Beide besitzen auf der Senderseite eine induktive Wicklung in der Art einer Tastsonde. Die Empfaengerseite ist entweder ebenfalls eine induktive Wicklung oder ein magnetfeldempfindlicher Widerstand (GMR). (orig./DGE)

  8. Eddy current testing with high penetration; WS-Pruefungen mit grosser Eindringtiefe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1999-08-01

    The low-frequency eddy current testing method is used when penetration into very deep layers is required. The achievable penetration depth is determined among other parameters by the lowest testing frequency that can be realised together with the eddy current sensor. When using inductive sensors, the measuring effect declines proportional to the lowering frequency (induction effect). Further reduction of testing frequency requires other types of sensors, as e.g. the GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), which achieves a constant measuring sensitivity down to the steady field. The multi-frequency eddy current testing method MFEC 3 of IZFP described here can be operated using three different scanning frequencies at a time. Two variants of eddy current probes are used in this case. Both have an inductive winding at their emitters, of the type of a measuring probe. The receiver end is either also an inductive winding, or a magnetic field-responsive resistance (GMR). (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das Niederfrequenz(NF)-Wirbelstrom(WS)-Verfahren wird eingesetzt, um eine grosse Eindringtiefe zu erzielen. Die erreichbare Tiefenreichweite wird u.a. durch die niedrigste Prueffrequenz bestimmt, die zusammen mit dem Wirbelstrom-Sensor realisiert werden kann. Bei Einsatz von induktiven Sensoren geht mit abnehmender Prueffrequenz der Messeffekt proportional zurueck (Induktionswirkung). Eine weitere Absenkung der Prueffrequenzen macht den Einsatz von andersartigen Sensoren notwendig, z.B. den GMR (Giant Magnetic Resistance), der eine gleichmaessige Messempfindlichkeit bis zum Gleichfeld besitzt. Das eingesetzte Mehrfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Pruefverfahren MFEC 3 des IZFP arbeitet mit drei gleichzeitig eingespeisten Prueffrequenzen. Dabei werden zwei Varianten von WS-Sensoren eingesetzt. Beide besitzen auf der Senderseite eine induktive Wicklung in der Art einer Tastsonde. Die Empfaengerseite ist entweder ebenfalls eine induktive Wicklung oder ein magnetfeldempfindlicher Widerstand (GMR). (orig./DGE)

  9. Study of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alpat, B.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Antreasyan, D.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Baschirotto, A.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Boucham, A.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brock, I. C.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Campanelli, M.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G. Cara; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chan, A.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A. P.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de La Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boeck, H.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dorne, I.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Dutta, S.; Easo, S.; Efremenko, Yu.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Fenyi, B.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gentile, S.; Gerald, J.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldstein, J.; Gong, Z. F.; Gougas, A.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, G.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jenkes, K.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamrad, D.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirkby, J.; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krenz, W.; Kuijten, H.; Kunin, A.; de Guevara, P. Ladron; Landi, G.; Lapoint, C.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lieb, E.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangla, S.; Marchesini, P.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; McNally, D.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; von der Mey, M.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A. J. W.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moore, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulik, T.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Muheim, F.; Nagy, E.; Nahn, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nippe, A.; Nisati, A.; Nowak, H.; Opitz, H.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H. K.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petrak, S.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Pinto, J. C.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Produit, N.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Ro, S.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sarkar, S.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, N.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shukla, J.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Strauch, K.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Tang, X. W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tuchscherer, H.; Tung, K. L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Völkert, R.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xu, J.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yao, X. Y.; Ye, J. B.; Yeh, S. C.; You, J. M.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; Ziegler, F.

    1997-02-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69+/-0.07 (stat.)+/-0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40+/-17% of the produced mesons are light-flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the π0 multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays.

  10. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  11. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  12. Critical evaluation of current developmental toxicity testing strategies: a case of babies and their bathwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Edward W; Ellis, Amy L; Tyl, Rochelle W; Foster, Paul M D; Scialli, Anthony R; Thompson, Kary; Kim, James

    2011-10-01

    This review is the second in a series of four papers emanating from a workshop entitled "Developmental Toxicology-New Directions," which was sponsored by the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute's (HESI) Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee. The present review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of current developmental safety testing approaches in an effort to identify those strengths that should be retained in the future versus the weaknesses that should be eliminated. Workshop participants considered the following to be key strengths of current testing approaches: the integrated biology of pregnant animal models including pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, the ability to detect low incidence malformations as well as maternally mediated toxicity, and the long history of use coupled with extensive historical data. A number of weaknesses were related to the resource-intensive nature of developmental toxicity testing (e.g., large number of animals, high costs, low throughput, the inability to keep pace with the demand for more toxicity data). Other weaknesses included the use of very high dose levels that often far exceed human exposure levels, the confounding influence of maternal toxicity, sparse understanding of basic developmental mechanisms and genetics of standard animal models relative to mouse or lower organisms, difficulties interpreting low incidence findings, and issues surrounding the interpretation of minor skeletal variations. An appreciation of these strengths and weaknesses is critical for the design of new approaches to developmental toxicity testing in the 21st century. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Change of the Microstructure of ZnO Arrester Block by Lightning Surge Current and Ageing Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Hee; Kang, Sung Man [Inha University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the change of the micro-structure of ZnO associated with lightning surge current and ageing test. In this work, a surge current generator which can produce 8/20 [{mu}s],6 [kA] impulse current is designed and fabricated to simulate the lightning impulse current. The residual voltage and leakage current flowing to ZnO blocks are observed. Also a compensation circuit was used in resistive current measurement. The micro-structures of ZnO arrester block were significantly changed by lightning surge current and accelerated temperature ageing test. (author). 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Multidimensional Adaptive Testing in Educational and Psychological Measurement: Current State and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Andreas; Seitz, Nicki-Nils

    2009-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of multidimensional adaptive testing (MAT) and evaluates its applicability in educational and psychological testing. The approach of Segall (1996) is described as a general framework for MAT. The main advantage of MAT is its capability to increase measurement efficiency. In simulation studies conceptualizing situations…

  15. The current situation and development of medical device testing institutes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Mu, Ruihong; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Chunren; Li, Deyu

    2017-04-01

    This article analyses the current situation and development of Chinese medical device testing institutes from the perspectives of the two most important functions - testing functions and medical device standardization functions. Areas Covered: The objective of the Chinese government regulations for medical device industry is to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medical devices for Chinese patients. To support the regulation system, the Chinese government has established medical device testing institutes at different levels for example, the national, provincial, and municipal levels. These testing institutes also play an important role in technical support during medical device premarket registration and post market surveillance, they are also the vital practitioners of Chinese medical device standardization. Expert Commentary: Chinese medical device testing institutes are technical departments established by government, and serve the regulatory functions of government agency. In recent years, with the rapid development of medical device industry as well as constantly increasing international and domestic medical device market, the importance of medical device testing institute is more prominent, However, there are still some problems unsolved, such as their overall capacity remains to be improved, construction of standardization is to be strengthened, etc.

  16. [Current neurophysiological tests and revised JSCN technical standards for clinical EEG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Yoji

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this lecture is to review the development of current neurophysiology and the revised standard of society for clinical EEG. 1. The improvement of neurophysiological tests. 1) EEG and evoked potential: EEG and evoked potential testing includes the routine EEG recording, EEG monitoring in surgical operation, all night sleep polygraph for the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome and many kinds of brain evoked potentials. Especially, the P300 component in the ERP(event-related evoked potential) is useful for the testing of essential brain functions. 2) EMG and evoked EMG: These tests are applied for the diagnosis of neurogenic, myogenic and neuromuscular junction disorder, and also the single fiber EMG using micro needle electrode is useful for the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity are calculated from the latency of evoked EMGs. Furthermore, the distribution of these conduction velocities in many nerve fibers is measured by the collision technique. 3) Other tests: Near-infrared spectroscopy for the testing of brain functions has made rapid progress, and the transcranial magnetic stimulation method has come to be used for evaluation of functional diseases in the pyramidal tract, cerebellum and the spinal cord. 2. The revised JSCN technical standards for clinical EEG. The revised recording conditions of ECI(electro cerebral inactivity: flat EEG) in brain death are the focus of this lecture.

  17. Study of eddy current power loss in an RCS vacuum chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shou-Yan; WANG Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS),power loss due to an eddy current on the metal vacuum chamber would cause heating of the vacuum chamber.It is important to study the effect for estimating eddy current induced power loss and temperature growth.Analytical formulas for eddy current power loss for various types of vacuum chambers are derived for dipole and quadrupole repectively.By using the prototype of dipole of CSNS/RCS,an experiment was done to test the analytical formula.The derived formulas were applied to calculating the eddy current power loss on some special structures of an RCS vacuum chamber.

  18. Zinc electrowinning: anode conditioning and current distribution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.A. [Cominco Research, Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    In the zinc electrowinning (EW) process, Pb-Ag anodes are widely used. Prior to their use in the EW process, anodes are conditioned to form a stable oxide layer that can evolve O{sub 2} without excessive Pb contamination of the cathode and MnO{sub 2} precipitation. The most widely used conditioning techniques are: passivation in a KF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolysis bath, chemical oxidation in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, and sandblasting. In this paper, a comparison of these treatments using flat and corrugated anodes is presented. Laboratory and industrial-scale tests carried out at Cominco's Trail and Cajamarquilla zinc plants indicated that flat anodes should be sandblasted or electrochemically passivated before their use in the Zn electrowinning process. Further, corrugated anodes should be sandblasted or chemically conditioned in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} -electrolyte. The beneficial effects of chemical conditioning are lost if the anode is non-corrugated. Flat, chemically conditioned anodes generate up to 10 times more mud than corrugated-chemically conditioned anodes. Because anode mud growth is evenly distributed on sandblasted anodes, short-circuit frequency may decrease and anode life may increase. Sandblasting does not appear to affect anode performance. Parallel to the industrial anode conditioning tests, current distribution measurements were made. Current flow measurements were used to correct troublesome electrodes and/or bad electrical contacts. In Cajamarquilla, this technique was used in four industrial electrowinning cells and energy consumption values lower than 3000 kWh/t Zn were obtained at current efficiencies as high as 95% and at current densities up to 450 A/m{sup 2}. (author)

  19. Studies Of Residual Flexibility And Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Bookout, Paul S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1995-01-01

    Collection of reports presents theoretical and experimental studies in which concept of residual flexibility applied to modal vibration testing and verification of mathematical models of vibrations of flexible structure constrained by another structure. "Residual flexibility" denotes that part of interface flexibility due to mode shapes out of frequency range of test. Studies directed toward assessing residual-flexibility approach as substitute for fixed-base vibrational testing of payloads installed in spacecraft.

  20. Development, computer simulation and performance testing in sodium of an eddy current flowmeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Prashant, E-mail: pacific@igcar.gov.i [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Suresh Kumar, S.; Nashine, B.K.; Veerasamy, R.; Krishnakumar, B.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2010-03-15

    Sodium is used as a coolant in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Sodium flow measurement is of prime importance both from the operational and safety aspects of a fast reactor. Various types of flowmeters namely permanent magnet, saddle type and eddy current flowmeters are used in FBRs. From the safety point of view flow through the core should be assured under all operating conditions. This requires a flow sensor which can withstand the high temperature sodium environment and can meet the dimensional constraints and be amenable to maintenance. Eddy current flowmeter (ECFM) is one such device which meets these requirements. It is meant for measuring flow in PFBR primary pump and also at the outlets of the fuel sub-assemblies to detect flow blockage. A simulation model of ECFM was made and output of ECFM was predicted for various flowrates and temperatures. The simulation model was validated by testing in a sodium loop. This paper deals with the design, simulation and tests conducted in sodium for the eddy current flowmeter for use in the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR).

  1. New respirator fit test panels representing the current U.S. civilian work force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ziqing; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2007-09-01

    The fit test panels currently used for respirator research, design, and certification are 25-subject panels developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and are based on data from the 1967 and 1968 anthropometric surveys of U.S. Air Force personnel. Military data do not represent the great diversity in face size and shape seen in civilian populations. In addition, the demographics of the U.S. population have changed over the last 30 years. Thus, it is necessary to assess and refine the LANL fit test panels. This paper presents the development of new respirator fit test panels representative of current U.S. civilian workers based on an anthropometric survey of 3,997 respirator users conducted in 2003. One panel was developed using face length and face width (bivariate approach) and weighting subjects to match the age and race distribution of the U.S. population as determined from the 2000 census. Another panel was developed using the first two principal components obtained from a set of 10 facial dimensions (age and race adjusted). These 10 dimensions are associated with respirator fit and leakage and can predict the remaining face dimensions well. Respirators designed to fit these panels are expected to accommodate more than 95% of the current U.S. civilian workers. Both panels are more representative of the U.S. population than the existing LANL panel and may be appropriate for testing both half-masks and full-face piece respirators. Respirator manufacturers, standards development organizations, and government respirator certification bodies need to select the appropriate fit test panel for their particular needs. The bivariate panel is simpler to use than the principal component analysis (PCA) panel and is most similar to the LANL panel currently used. The inclusion of the eight additional facial measurements allows the PCA panel to provide better criteria for excluding extreme face sizes from being used. Because the boundaries of the two new panels are

  2. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  3. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  4. A study of eddy current measurement (1986-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted in 1986 to evaluate a modified eddy current system for measuring copper thickness on Kapton. Results showed a measurement error of 0.42 {mu}in. for a thickness range of 165 to 170 {mu}in. and a measurement variability of 3.2 {mu}in.

  5. Cartography and Population Geography as Current Events: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The Sanders housing lawsuit in Pennsylvania provides a case study of how to incorporate current events into the teaching of cartography or population geography at the high school or college level. Settlement of the Sanders case resulted in the release of information about the segregation of public housing by race in the Pittsburgh area. The issues…

  6. Analytical magnetic torque calculations and experimental testing of radial flux permanent magnet-type eddy current brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang-Young; Jang, Seok-Myeong

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on analytical magnetic torque calculations and experimental tests of a radial flux permanent magnet (RFPM)-type eddy current brake (ECB). Analytical solutions for permanent magnet-generated magnetic fields that consider the eddy current reaction are obtained by using a magnetic vector potential and a two dimensional (2D) polar coordinate system. On the basis of these solutions, the analytical expressions for a magnetic torque are also derived. All analytical results are validated extensively by non-linear finite element calculations. In particular, magnetic torque measurements are obtained in tests to confirm the analyses. Finally, practical issues related to the analytical study of RFPM-type ECBs are fully discussed.

  7. A study of the test of supervisory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Louis G; Prien, Erich P; Burke, Tracie; Prien, Kristin O; Goodstein, Leonard D

    2007-02-01

    In supervisory selection and development it is important to assess individuals' supervisory competencies. In a field study, the Test of Supervisory Skills was validated against a surrogate criterion of supervisory performance, based upon position classification and supervisory experience. Subjects (N=2406), workers and applicants of both sexes, were recruited from multiple sources, tested, and the data analyzed to evaluate the usefulness of the test in human resource management applications. Both the current and prior results show significant relationships between scores on this test and various criteria of supervisory performance.

  8. Differential Thermostimulated Discharge Current Method for Studying Electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekishev, G. A.; Yovcheva, T. A.; Viraneva, A. P.; Gencheva, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    The thermostimulated discharge current method (TSDC) is widely used for the study of charge storage mechanisms in electrets. A new discharged technique, called differential, which consists in discharging a charged sample through an otherwise identical but uncharged one, has been proposed by J.-P. Reboul and A. Toureille. In the present paper a new version of the differential thermostimulated discharge current method is advanced. In contrast to the differential technique described earlier, the measuring cell allows to realize typical differential technique. In this case the measuring system records the difference of the thermostimulated currents of two samples which have been preliminary charged (or thermally treated) under the same or different conditions. Samples of 0.85 mm thick polymethylmethacrylate are used to demonstrate an operation of the developed differential TSDC method.

  9. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Kong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influence of controller parameters of converter on the fault current characteristics is analyzed emphatically. It builds a basis for the construction of relay protection which is suitable for the power gird with accession of DFIG.

  10. Non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, D.F.; Fan, C.; Ruan, J.Z. [Midwest Superconductivity Inc., Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A non-destructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUIDs and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUIDs. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  11. Assaying embryotoxicity in the test tube: current limitations of the embryonic stem cell test (EST) challenging its applicability domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeling, Christian; Hayess, Katrin; Peters, Annelieke K; Steemans, Margino; Spielmann, Horst; Luch, Andreas; Seiler, Andrea E M

    2012-05-01

    Testing for embryotoxicity in vitro is an attractive alternative to animal experimentation. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) is such a method, and it has been formally validated by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. A number of recent studies have underscored the potential of this method. However, the EST performed well below the 78% accuracy expected from the validation study using a new set of chemicals and pharmaceutical compounds, and also of toxicity criteria, tested to enlarge the database of the validated EST as part of the Work Package III of the ReProTect Project funded within the 6th Framework Programme of the European Union. To assess the performance and applicability domain of the EST we present a detailed review of the substances and their effects in the EST being nitrofen, ochratoxin A, D-penicillamine, methylazoxymethanol, lovastatin, papaverine, warfarin, β-aminopropionitrile, dinoseb, furosemide, doxylamine, pravastatin, and metoclopramide. By delineation of the molecular mechanisms of the substances we identify six categories of reasons for misclassifications. Some of these limitations might also affect other in vitro methods assessing embryotoxicity. Substances that fall into these categories need to be included in future validation sets and in validation guidelines for embryotoxicity testing. Most importantly, we suggest conceivable improvements and additions to the EST which will resolve most of the limitations.

  12. Bare PCB inspection system with SV-GMR sensor eddy-current testing probe

    OpenAIRE

    Chomsuwan, K.; Yamada, Sotoshi; Iwahara, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes bare printed circuit board (PCB) inspection based on eddy-current testing (ECT) technique with high scanning speed. A high-frequency ECT probe composed of a meander coil as an exciting coil and the spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) sensor was fabricated and is proposed. The ECT probe was designed based on crack inspection over flat surface, especially suitable for microdefect detection on high-density bare PCB. The ECT signal detected by the SV-GMR sensor was ac...

  13. Development, installation and testing of a large-scale tidal current turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thake, J.

    2005-10-15

    This report summarises the findings of the Seaflow project to investigate the feasibility of building and operating a commercial scale marine current horizontal axis tidal turbine and to evaluate the long-term economics of producing electricity using tidal turbines. Details are given of competitive tidal stream technologies and their commercial status, the selection of the site on the North Devon coast of the UK, and the evaluation of the turbine design, manufacture, testing, installation, commissioning, and maintenance of the turbine. The organisations working on the Seaflow project and cost estimations are discussed.

  14. Current controversies in turner syndrome: Genetic testing, assisted reproduction, and cardiovascular risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ackermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Turner syndrome (TS require close medical follow-up and management for cardiac abnormalities, growth and reproductive issues. This review summarizes current controversies in this condition, including: 1 the optimal genetic testing for Turner syndrome patients, particularly with respect to identification of Y chromosome material that may increase the patient's risk of gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma, 2 which patients should be referred for bilateral gonadectomy and the recommended timing of such referral, 3 options for assisted reproduction in these patients and associated risks, 4 the increased risk of mortality associated with pregnancy in this population, and 5 how best to assess and monitor cardiovascular risks.

  15. Tritium processing for the European test blanket systems: current status of the design and development strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricapito, I.; Calderoni, P.; Poitevin, Y. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Aiello, A.; Utili, M. [ENEA, Camugnano (Italy); Demange, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    Tritium processing technologies of the two European Test Blanket Systems (TBS), HCLL (Helium Cooled Lithium Lead) and HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed), play an essential role in meeting the main objectives of the TBS experimental campaign in ITER. The compliancy with the ITER interface requirements, in terms of space availability, service fluids, limits on tritium release, constraints on maintenance, is driving the design of the TBS tritium processing systems. Other requirements come from the characteristics of the relevant test blanket module and the scientific programme that has to be developed and implemented. This paper identifies the main requirements for the design of the TBS tritium systems and equipment and, at the same time, provides an updated overview on the current design status, mainly focusing onto the tritium extractor from Pb-16Li and TBS tritium accountancy. Considerations are also given on the possible extrapolation to DEMO breeding blanket. (authors)

  16. Design, Fabrication and Testing of a Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouge, M..; Schwenterly, S.W.; Hazelton, D. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this project was to conduct R&D on specified components and provide technical design support to a SuperPower team developing a high temperature superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL). ORNL teamed with SuperPower, Inc. on a Superconductivity Partnerships with Industry (SPI) proposal for the SFCL that was submitted to DOE and approved in FY 2003. A contract between DOE and SuperPower, Inc. was signed on July 14, 2003 to design, fabricate and test the SFCL. This device employs high temperature superconducting (HTS) elements and SuperPower's proprietary technology. The program goal was to demonstrate a device that will address a broad range of the utility applications and meet utility industry requirements. This DOE-sponsored Superconductivity Partnership with Industry project would positively impact electric power transmission reliability and security by introducing a new element in the grid that can significantly mitigate fault currents and provide lower cost solutions for grid protection. The project will conduct R&D on specified components and provide technical design support to a SuperPower-led team developing a SFCL as detailed in tasks 1-5 below. Note the SuperPower scope over the broad SPI project is much larger than that shown below which indicates only the SuperPower tasks that are complementary to the ORNL tasks. SuperPower is the Project Manager for the SFCL program, and is responsible for completion of the project on schedule and budget. The scope of work for ORNL is to provide R&D support for the SFCL in the following four broad areas: (1) Assist with high voltage subsystem R&D, design, fabrication and testing including characterization of the general dielectric performance of LN2 and component materials; (2) Consult on cryogenic subsystem R&D, design, fabrication and testing; (3) Participate in project conceptual and detailed design reviews; and (4) Guide commercialization by participation on the Technical Advisory Board (TAB

  17. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  18. Development, Testing and Installation of a Superconducting Fault Current Limiter for Medium Voltage Distribution Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Luciano; Bocchi, Marco; Ascade, Massimo; Valzasina, Angelo; Rossi, Valerio; Angeli, Giuliano; Ravetta, Cesare

    Since 2009 Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico (RSE S.p.A.) has been involved in the design of resistive-type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter (SFCL) for MV applications to be installed in the A2A Reti Elettriche S.p.A distribution grid in the Milano area. The project started with simulations, design and testing activities for a singlephase device; in this paper we report on the successive step, which is concerned with developing, testing and installation at the hosting utility of the final three-phase SFCL prototype. The result of this research activity is a resistive-type 9 kV/3.4 MVA SFCL device, based on first generation (1G) BSCCO tapes, developed by RSE in the framework of a R&D national project. Owing to the positive test results of partial discharge, dielectric and shortcircuit results the three-phase SFCL device is being to be installed in the A2A distribution grid in the Milano area and it is going to be soon energized starting a one-year long field-testing activity.

  19. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  20. Rationales for Testing in the Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkins, Francis P.

    1976-01-01

    Provides teachers with information relating to the technical aspects of test development within various content realms of the social studies. The author explains how tests can be employed to guide the direction of investigation as well as for diagnostic and evaluative purposes. (DB)

  1. Smart monitoring system based on adaptive current control for superconducting cable test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpaia, Pasquale [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1217 Geneva (Switzerland); Ballarino, Amalia; Montenero, Giuseppe [Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1217 Geneva (Switzerland); Daponte, Vincenzo [Technology Department, European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1217 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering, Polytechnic of Milan, 20133 Milano (Italy); Svelto, Cesare [Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering, Polytechnic of Milan, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    A smart monitoring system for superconducting cable test is proposed with an adaptive current control of a superconducting transformer secondary. The design, based on Fuzzy Gain Scheduling, allows the controller parameters to adapt continuously, and finely, to the working variations arising from transformer nonlinear dynamics. The control system is integrated in a fully digital control loop, with all the related benefits, i.e., high noise rejection, ease of implementation/modification, and so on. In particular, an accurate model of the system, controlled by a Fuzzy Gain Scheduler of the superconducting transformer, was achieved by an experimental campaign through the working domain at several current ramp rates. The model performance was characterized by simulation, under all the main operating conditions, in order to guide the controller design. Finally, the proposed monitoring system was experimentally validated at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in comparison to the state-of-the-art control system [P. Arpaia, L. Bottura, G. Montenero, and S. Le Naour, “Performance improvement of a measurement station for superconducting cable test,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.83, 095111 (2012)] of the Facility for the Research on Superconducting Cables, achieving a significant performance improvement: a reduction in the system overshoot by 50%, with a related attenuation of the corresponding dynamic residual error (both absolute and RMS) up to 52%.

  2. Test beam results of a heavily irradiated Current Injected Detector (CID)

    CERN Document Server

    Harkonen, J; Tuominen, E; Moilanen, H; Maenpaa, T; Verbitskaya, E; Eremin, V; Czellar, S; Dierlamm, A; Tuovinen, E; Lampen, T; Frey, M; Li, Z; Luukka, P

    2010-01-01

    A heavily irradiated (3 x 10(15) 1 MeV n(eq)/cm(2)) Current Injected Detector (CID) was tested with 225 GeV muon beam at CERN H2 beam line. In the CID concept the current is limited by the space charge. The injected carriers will be trapped by the deep levels and this induces a stable electric field through the entire bulk regardless of the irradiation fluence the detector has been exposed to. The steady-state density of the trapped charge is defined by the balance between the trapping and the emission rates of charge carriers (detrapping). Thus, the amount of charge injection needed for the electric field stabilization depends on the temperature. AC-coupled 16 cm(2) detector was processed on high resistivity n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon, and it had 768 strips, 50 mu m pitch, 10 mu m strip width and 3.9 cm strip length. The beam test was carried out using a silicon beam telescope that is based on the CMS detector readout prototype components, APV25 readout chips, and eight strip sensors made by Hamamat...

  3. Smart monitoring system based on adaptive current control for superconducting cable test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, Pasquale; Ballarino, Amalia; Daponte, Vincenzo; Montenero, Giuseppe; Svelto, Cesare

    2014-12-01

    A smart monitoring system for superconducting cable test is proposed with an adaptive current control of a superconducting transformer secondary. The design, based on Fuzzy Gain Scheduling, allows the controller parameters to adapt continuously, and finely, to the working variations arising from transformer nonlinear dynamics. The control system is integrated in a fully digital control loop, with all the related benefits, i.e., high noise rejection, ease of implementation/modification, and so on. In particular, an accurate model of the system, controlled by a Fuzzy Gain Scheduler of the superconducting transformer, was achieved by an experimental campaign through the working domain at several current ramp rates. The model performance was characterized by simulation, under all the main operating conditions, in order to guide the controller design. Finally, the proposed monitoring system was experimentally validated at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in comparison to the state-of-the-art control system [P. Arpaia, L. Bottura, G. Montenero, and S. Le Naour, "Performance improvement of a measurement station for superconducting cable test," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 095111 (2012)] of the Facility for the Research on Superconducting Cables, achieving a significant performance improvement: a reduction in the system overshoot by 50%, with a related attenuation of the corresponding dynamic residual error (both absolute and RMS) up to 52%.

  4. Reconstruction of stress corrosion cracks using signals of pulsed eddy current testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Xie, Shejuan; Chen, Zhenmao; Li, Yong; Wang, Xiaowei; Takagi, Toshiyuki

    2013-06-01

    A scheme to apply signals of pulsed eddy current testing (PECT) to reconstruct a deep stress corrosion crack (SCC) is proposed on the basis of a multi-layer and multi-frequency reconstruction strategy. First, a numerical method is introduced to extract conventional eddy current testing (ECT) signals of different frequencies from the PECT responses at different scanning points, which are necessary for multi-frequency ECT inversion. Second, the conventional fast forward solver for ECT signal simulation is upgraded to calculate the single-frequency pickup signal of a magnetic field by introducing a strategy that employs a tiny search coil. Using the multiple-frequency ECT signals and the upgraded fast signal simulator, we reconstructed the shape profiles and conductivity of an SCC at different depths layer-by-layer with a hybrid inversion scheme of the conjugate gradient and particle swarm optimisation. Several modelled SCCs of rectangular or stepwise shape in an SUS304 plate are reconstructed from simulated PECT signals with artificial noise. The reconstruction results show better precision in crack depth than the conventional ECT inversion method, which demonstrates the validity and efficiency of the proposed PECT inversion scheme.

  5. A multi-frequency impedance analysing instrument for eddy current testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W.; Dickinson, S. J.; Peyton, A. J.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the design of a high-performance multi-frequency impedance analysing instrument (MFIA) for eddy current testing which has been developed primarily for monitoring a steel production process using an inductive sensor. The system consists of a flexible multi-frequency waveform generator and a voltage/current measurement unit. The impedance of the sensor is obtained by cross-spectral analysis of the current and voltage signals. The system contains high-speed digital-to-analogue, analogue-to-digital converters and dual DSPs with one for control and interface and one dedicated to frequency-spectra analysis using fast Fourier transformation (FFT). The frequency span of the signal that can be analysed ranges from 1 kHz to 8 MHz. The system also employs a high-speed serial port interface (USB) to communicate with a personal computer (PC) and to allow for fast transmission of data and control commands. Overall, the system is capable of delivering over 250 impedance spectra per second. Although the instrument has been developed mainly for use with an inductive sensor, the system is not restricted to inductive measurement. The flexibility of the design architecture is demonstrated with capacitive and resistive measurements by using appropriate input circuitry. Issues relating to optimizing the phase of the spectra components in the excitation waveform are also discussed.

  6. Current methods for studying dynamic processes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipp, Nikolai D.; Blaunshtein, Natan Sh.; Erukhimov, Lev M.; Ivanov, Vladimir A.; Uriadov, Valerii P.

    Current experimental and theoretical data relevant to the study of dynamic processes in the ionospheric plasma using state-of-the-art methods are summarized. The methods used include linear FM sounding, partial radio wave reflection, oblique-incidence radio wave scattering, radio wave heating of the ionosphere, plasma injection, and computer simulation of physical processes. For each specific method, experimental data are compared against theoretical predictions and numerical calculations.

  7. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  8. Test Development Study On The Spatial Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan SEZEN YÜKSEL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial visualization, frequently used in many stages of daily life, is also an indispensable part of mathematics and geometry courses. There are many definitions of spatial visualization ability and various tests have been developed to measure this ability. The aim of this study is to develop a new test for determining the spatial visualization ability for students in higher education. For this purpose, a test including 29 items was prepared. The developed test’s pilot scheme was applied to 236 students of mathematics and mathematics education programs in different two state universities. The data obtained were analyzed by packaged software like Iteman 4, SPSS 17.0 and Lisrel8.7. The test, which was developed by discarding two items according to results of item analysis, validity and reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis, was finalized. The Cronbach α coefficient of test was calculated as .84 and RMSEA value of test was calculated as 0,032.

  9. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for reducing the impact of recurring errors in the

  10. Approach for removing ghost-images in remote field eddy current testing of ferromagnetic pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Q. W.; Shi, Y. B.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    In the non-destructive testing of ferromagnetic pipes based on remote field eddy currents, an array of sensing coils is often used to detect local defects. While testing, the image that is obtained by sensing coils exhibits a ghost-image, which originates from both the transmitter and sensing coils passing over the same defects in pipes. Ghost-images are caused by transmitters and lead to undesirable assessments of defects. In order to remove ghost-images, two pickup coils are coaxially set to each other in remote field. Due to the time delay between differential signals tested by the two pickup coils, a Wiener deconvolution filter is used to identify the artificial peaks that lead to ghost-images. Because the sensing coils and two pickup coils all receive the same signal from one transmitter, they all contain the same artificial peaks. By subtracting the artificial peak values obtained by the two pickup coils from the imaging data, the ghost-image caused by the transmitter is eliminated. Finally, a relatively highly accurate image of local defects is obtained by these sensing coils. With proposed method, there is no need to subtract the average value of the sensing coils, and it is sensitive to ringed defects.

  11. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  12. Review of the neutral-beam current requirements for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.D.; Coensgen, F.H.; Devoto, R.S.; Molvik, A.W.; Osher, J.F.; Shearer, J.W.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1978-08-04

    The techniques used to evaluate the beam-current requirements for MFTF are similar to those in previous studies but incorporate some improvements. In particular, we have enlarged the radial code BUILDUP to allow for a smaller radial grid and to improve the numerical accuracy; we have also improved the model of the atomic physics processes and the particle-equilibrium calculations. Also, a model of plasma containment that conserves energy as well as particles but does not include any effect of the expected drift-cyclotron loss-cone (DCLC) turbulence has been incorporated into the previous studies. We show that the DCLC turbulence increases the average ion energy and decreases the particle confinement time. Because these effects cancel to first order, the beam-current requirements are independent of the turbulence. We find that 24 of the present LBL source modules would sustain a plasma with an average beta of 0.46. This figure is within 10% of the MFTF goal and is within our calculational accuracies. We further show that the beam-current requirements for the large-diameter plasma are consistent with those of experiments to study the buildup of a field-reversed plasma.

  13. New respirator fit test panels representing the current Chinese civilian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weihong; Zhuang, Ziqing; Benson, Stacey; Du, Lili; Yu, Dan; Landsittel, Douglas; Wang, Limin; Viscusi, Dennis; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2009-04-01

    Respirator fit test panels provide an objective tool for selecting representative human test subjects based upon their facial characteristics for use in research, product development, testing and certification. Fit test panels were typically based upon anthropometric data such as the 1967-1968 survey of American military personnel. In this study, the objectives were to: (i) evaluate the applicability of the recently developed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) respirator fit test panels for Chinese workers and (ii) develop new respirator fit test panels using the Chinese survey data. Overall, 95% of the workers in the Chinese survey fall within the NIOSH bivariate and principal component analysis (PCA) panels, suggesting that these panels would also be appropriate for the Chinese population. However, distribution of the subject across the panels was not uniform; only 6.3% of survey participants fell into five cells of the bivariate panel and only 7.2% were found within three cells of the PCA panel. Therefore, new respirator fit test panels with subject dimensions and distributions specific to Chinese workers may be beneficial for certain applications. Two new respirator fit test panels were developed with the same techniques used to create the NIOSH panels. All measurements were weighted to match age and gender distributions of the Chinese population from the 2005 census. The bivariate approach used face length and face width measurements, and the PCA panel was developed using the first two principal components obtained from a set of 10 facial dimensions. Respirators designed to fit these Chinese worker-specific panels are also likely to accommodate >95% of Chinese workers.

  14. ATF2 tests and CLIC IR study

    CERN Document Server

    Angal-Kalinin, D; Jones, J; Scarfe, A; Tygier, S

    2013-01-01

    This task covered three separate subtasks dealing with ILC and CLIC beam delivery system and Interaction region studies as well as testing the tuning procedures at ATF2 final focus test facility. The proposed local chromaticity correction final focus system for both ILC as well as CLIC is being tested experimentally for the first time at ATF2, various tuning procedures have been applied to study the applicability of various procedures to the ILC and CLIC to optimize the interaction region. The CLIC IR region was studied in detail, and the impact and mitigation of CLIC detector solenoid effects on the beam orbit, coupling and extraction have been considered. The work programme of this task concentrated on central region integration of the ILC following the design changes proposed during the technical design phase of the ILC, participation in ATF2 beam tuning studies and CLIC interaction region studies.

  15. Development and Testing of a Transmission Voltage SuperLimiter™ Fault Current Limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanosky, Walter [American Superconductor Corporation, Devens, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes work by American Superconductor (AMSC), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nexans, Siemens and Southern California Edison on a 138kV resistive type high temperature superconductor (HTS) fault current limiter (FCL) under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Phase 1A encompassed core technology development and system design and was previously reported (see summary that follows in Section 1.1 of the Introduction). This report primarily discusses work performed during Phase 1B, and addresses the fabrication and test of a single-phase prototype FCL. The results are presented along with a discussion of requirements/specifications and lessons learned to aid future development and product commercialization.

  16. Combination of Maximin and Kriging Prediction Methods for Eddy-Current Testing Database Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilicz, Sandor; Lambert, Marc; Vazquez, Emmanuel; Gyimothy, Szabolcs, E-mail: sandor.bilicz@lss.supelec.fr

    2010-11-01

    Eddy-current testing (ECT) is a widely used nondestructive evaluation technique. The numerical simulation of ECT methods involves high complexity and computational load. However, one needs reliable solutions (within a reasonable CPU time) for these problems to be able to solve the related inverse problem. One possible approach is to build a configuration-specific database, consisting of well-chosen samples (corresponding input data - output signal pairs). Once the database has been constructed, the sought information can be retrieved practically in no time. However, the optimal choice of samples raises complex optimization problems. This paper presents a sampling method which aims to achieve databases being optimal in a certain sense. The goal of our approach is to spread out the output samples in the whole conceivable output domain. The method is formalized as a maximin problem which is solved step-by-step using the kriging prediction.

  17. Childhood maltreatment and college students' current suicidal ideation: a test of the hopelessness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, B E; Alloy, L B; Abramson, L Y; Rose, D T; Whitehouse, W G; Hogan, M E

    2001-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between childhood maltreatment and adult suicidality within the context of a coherent theoretical model. The current study evaluates the ability of the hopelessness theory of depression's (Abramson, Metalsky, & Alloy, 1989) etiological chain to account for this relation in a sample of 297 undergraduates. Supporting the model, emotional, but not physical or sexual, maltreatment was uniquely related to average levels of suicidal ideation across a 2.5-year follow-up. Further, students' cognitive styles and average levels of hopelessness partially mediated this relation. Although these results cannot speak to causality, they support the developmental model evaluated.

  18. Test Reactions to Study Efficiency of

    OpenAIRE

    Jasińska Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Effects of mixing on the course of fast chemical reactions are relatively well understood, especially in homogeneous systems. This enables to design and operate chemical reactors with the goal to achieve a high yield of a desired product and use systems of complex reactions as a chemical probe (chemical test reactions) to identify progress of mixing and quality of mixture. Recently, a number of studies have focused on the application of chemical test reactions to identify energy efficiency of...

  19. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  20. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  1. Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmann, Frank [Zenergy Power, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States); Lombaerde, Robert [Zenergy Power, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States); Moriconi, Franco [Zenergy Power, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States); Nelson, Albert [Zenergy Power, Inc., Burlingame, CA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Zenergy Power has successfully designed, built, tested, and installed in the US electrical grid a saturable reactor Fault Current Limiter. Beginning in 2007, first as SC Power Systems and from 2008 as Zenergy Power, Inc., ZP used DOE matching grant and ARRA funds to help refine the design of the saturated reactor fault current limiter. ZP ultimately perfected the design of the saturated reactor FCL to the point that ZP could reliably design a suitable FCL for most utility applications. Beginning with a very basic FCL design using 1G HTS for a coil housed in a LN2 cryostat for the DC bias magnet, the technology progressed to a commercial system that was offered for sale internationally. Substantial progress was made in two areas. First, the cryogenics cooling system progressed from a sub-cooled liquid nitrogen container housing the HTS coils to cryostats utilizing dry conduction cooling and reaching temperatures down to less than 20 degrees K. Large, round cryostats with warm bore diameters of 1.7 meters enabled the design of large tanks to hold the AC components. Second, the design of the AC part of the FCL was refined from a six legged spider design to a more compact and lighter design with better fault current limiting capability. Further refinement of the flux path and core shape led to an efficient saturated reactor design requiring less Ampere-turns to saturate the core. In conclusion, the development of the saturable reactor FCL led to a more efficient design not requiring HTS magnets and their associated peripheral equipment, which yielded a more economical product in line with the electric utility industry expectations. The original goal for the DOE funding of the ZP project Design, Test and Demonstration of Saturable Reactor High-Temperature Superconductor Fault Current Limiters was to stimulate the HTS wire industry with, first 1G, then 2G, HTS wire applications. Over the approximately 5 years of ZP's product development program, the amount of HTS

  2. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  3. Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V

    2007-05-01

    Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures.

  4. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  5. THE CURRENT PRACTICES FOR TESTING FOR HYPERGLYCAEMIA IN PREGNANCY (HIP IN THE MEDICAL COLLEGE INSTITUTIONS IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Divakar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to determine the current practices in the medical college institutions pan India for testing for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy (HIP to detect gestational diabetes and highlight areas that need additional attention in order to ensure adherence to current national guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS Questionnaires were used to obtain information regarding the testing strategy for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy. The questionnaires were filled out by the teaching faculty of the OB/GYN departments of 47 medical college institutions in India. The perceptions regarding the prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy in India and the needs for capacity building were assessed. RESULTS Forty seven respondents answered the questionnaires. The majority of respondents (95.83% reported that all pregnant women were offered (universal testing for hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and 37.5% reported that women were screened both in early and midtrimester of pregnancy. Most reported that testing for HIP took place once at booking, irrespective of the gestational age (39.58%. Thirty three (70.21% respondents reported using the single-step nonfasting method to diagnose hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, 21.28% of respondents reported using a glucometer to determine the concentration of blood glucose in plasma, while 68.08% reported using a lab analyser. The instructions for the testing were offered by consultants and postgraduates in a vast majority of cases (87.5%. The staff communicated with the women in a significantly less number of cases (12.5%. 65.96% of respondents felt that all women readily agreed to follow this advice. The majority of respondents (89.35% reported having noticed an increase in the number of women with hyperglycaemia. Furthermore, 91% of all the respondents felt there was a need to train medical personnel to test and manage hyperglycaemia. CONCLUSION Our study confirms the continued wide variability in testing for HIP in India with

  6. Test Reactions to Study Efficiency of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasińska Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of mixing on the course of fast chemical reactions are relatively well understood, especially in homogeneous systems. This enables to design and operate chemical reactors with the goal to achieve a high yield of a desired product and use systems of complex reactions as a chemical probe (chemical test reactions to identify progress of mixing and quality of mixture. Recently, a number of studies have focused on the application of chemical test reactions to identify energy efficiency of mixing, being a convenient way of comparing mixers and reactors in terms of their mixing efficiency. This review offers a presentation of chemical test reactions available in the literature and methods of applications of test reactions to identify the energy efficiency of mixing. Also methods to assess the extent of micromixing by measuring product distribution or segregation index, and to determine the time constant for mixing are presented for single phase homogeneous systems and two-phase liquid-liquid systems.

  7. Simulation studies of direct-current microdischarges for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Thomas Dominique

    The structure of direct-current microdischarges is investigated using a detailed two-dimensional multi-species continuum model. Microdischarges are direct-current discharges that operate at a relatively high pressure of about 100 Torr and geometric dimensions in the 10-100 micrometer range. Our motivation for the study of microdischarges comes from a potential application of these devices in microthrusters for small satellite propulsion. The Micro Plasma Thruster (MPT) concept consists of a direct-current microdischarge in a geometry comprising a constant area flow section followed by a diverging exit nozzle. A detailed description of the plasma dynamics inside the MPT including power deposition, ionization, coupling of the plasma phenomena with high-speed flow, and propulsion system performance is reported in this study. A two-dimensional model is developed as part of this study. The model consists of a plasma module coupled to a flow module and is solved on a hybrid unstructured mesh framework. The plasma module provides a self-consistent, multi-species, multi-temperature description of the microdischarge phenomena while the flow module provides a description of the low Reynolds number compressible flow through the system. The plasma module solves conservation equations for plasma species continuity and electron energy, and Poisson's equation for the self-consistent electric field. The flow module solves mass, bulk gas momentum and energy equations. The coupling of energy from the electrostatic field to the plasma species is modeled by the Joule heating term which appears in the electron and heavy species energy equations. Discretization of the Joule heating term on unstructured meshes requires special attention. We propose a new robust method for the numerical discretization of the Joule heating term on such meshes using a cell-centered, finite volume approach. A prototypical microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is studied to guide and validate the modeling

  8. Non-destructive testing of nanomaterials by using subminiature eddy current transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Katasonov, A. O.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.; Shevtsova, L. I.

    2017-02-01

    A sensor for studying nanomaterials has been developed on the basis of a transformer-type eddy-current transducer. The basic technical data are stated (the number of windings is 100-400 turns, and the value of the initial permeability of the core is µmax = 36000). Measurements technique which allows high-precision measuring the electrical conductivity in thin film Ce-Nb. The electrical conductivity of Niobium-Selenium varies from 3.3·105 to 3.7·105 MS/m in the ratio of four from 4 to 60 nm.

  9. Current Conceptual Challenges in the Study of Rhythm Processing Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eTranchant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher’s ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization.

  10. Baseline and verification tests of the electric vehicle associates' current fare station wagon. Final test report, March 27, 1980-November 6, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowgiallo, E.J. Jr.; Chapman, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The EVA Current Fare Wagon was manufactured by Electric Vehicle Associates, Incorporated (EVA) of Cleveland, Ohio. It is now available from Lectra Motors Corp. of Las Vegas, Nevada. The vehicle was tested under the direction of MERADCOM from 27 March 1980 to 6 November 1981. The tests are part of a Department of Energy project to assess advances in electric vehicle design. This report presents the performance test results on the EVA Current Fare Wagon. The EVA Current Fare Wagon is a 1980 Ford Fairmont station wagon which has been converted to an electric vehicle. The propulsion system is made up of a Cableform controller, a series-wound 30-hp Reliance Electric Motor, and 22 6-V lead-acid batteries. The Current Fare Wagon is also equipped with regenerative braking. Further details of the vehicle are given in the Vehicle Summary Data Sheet, Appendix A. The results of this testing are given in Table 1.

  11. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  12. Best practices for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie K; Hall, Robert L; O'Brien, Peter; Strauss, Volker; Vahle, John L

    2011-02-01

    The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) and American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASCVP) convened a Clinical Pathology in Carcinogenicity Studies Working Group to recommend best practices for inclusion of clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. Regulatory guidance documents and literature were reviewed, and veterinary pathologists from North America, Japan, and Europe were surveyed regarding current practices, perceived value, and recommendations for clinical pathology testing in carcinogenicity studies. For two-year rodent carcinogenicity studies, the Working Group recommends that clinical pathology testing be limited to collection of blood smears at scheduled and unscheduled sacrifices to be examined only if indicated to aid in the diagnosis of possible hematopoietic neoplasia following histopathologic evaluation. Additional clinical pathology testing is most appropriately used to address specific issues from prior toxicity studies or known test article-related class effects. Inadequate data were available to make a recommendation concerning clinical pathology testing for alternative six-month carcinogenicity assays using genetically modified mice, although the Working Group suggests that it may be appropriate to use the same approach as for two-year carcinogenicity studies since the study goal is the same.

  13. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  14. A study of airplane engine tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Victor R

    1920-01-01

    This report is a study of the results obtained from a large number of test of an Hispano-Suiza airplane engine in the altitude laboratory of the Bureau of Standards. It was originally undertaken to determine the heat distribution in such an engine, but many other factors are also considered as bearing on this matter.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the recovery of postural control after stroke : a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L.; de Heyning, van, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during 4 weeks on balance and gait parameters after stroke. Method: Thirty-one stroke patients were included in this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. The Tinetti test was used to assess functional balance and gait after stroke. Secondary measures, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), were register...

  16. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  17. High RF power test of a CFC antenna module for lower hybrid current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, S.; Seki, M.; Ikeda, Y.; Kiyono, K.; Suganuma, K.; Imai, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Goniche, M.; Bibet, Ph.; Brossaud, J.; Cano, V.; Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Froissard, P.; Rey, G. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1998-07-01

    A mock-up of a 3.7 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) antenna module was fabricated from Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) for the development of heat resistive low Z front facing the plasma. This 2 divided waveguide module is made from CFC plates and rods which are Cu-plated to reduce the RF losses. The withstand-voltage, the RF properties and the outgassing rates for long pulses and high RF power were tested at the Lower Hybrid test bed facility of Cadarache. A reference module made from Dispersion Strengthened Copper (DSC) was also fabricated. After the short pulse conditioning, long pulses with a power density ranging between 50 and 150 MW/m{sup 2} were performed with no breakdowns on the CFC module. It was also checked that the highest power density, up to 150 MW/m{sup 2}, could be transmitted when the waveguides are filled with H2 at a pressure of 5 x 10{sup -2} Pa. During a long pulse, the power reflection coefficient remains low in the 0.8-1.3 % range and no significant change in the reflection coefficient is measured after the thermal cycling provided by the long pulse operation. From thermocouple measurements, RF losses of the copper coated CFC and the DSC modules were compared. No significant differences were measured. From pressure measurements, it was found that the outgassing rate of Cu-plated CFC is about 6-7 times larger than of DSC at 300 deg.C. It is concluded that a CFC module is an attractive candidate for the hardening of the tip of the LHCD antenna. (author)

  18. In vitro testing to a panel of potential chemotherapeutics and current concepts of chemotherapy in benign meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balik, Vladimir; Sulla, Igor; Park, Hun Ho; Sarissky, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Treatment of benign meningiomas remains a challenge, especially when they involve the skull-base or when surgery and radiation fail. Moreover, a recent in vitro MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) study testing hydroxyurea, temozolomide and other targeting agents failed to identify drugs effective in their treatment; therefore the search for further more effective agents continues. We performed a thorough review of in vitro investigations, animal studies and human clinical trials and endeavoured to integrate our results of MTT assay into current concepts of chemotherapy in benign meningiomas. Our results demonstrated that other chemotherapeutics with various mechanisms of action have the potential to be incorporated into second line therapy. Our study shows for the first time that chemosensitivity/resistance may be associated with histopathological variants of benign meningiomas.

  19. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  20. Numerical Study on the Bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yulong; WANG Qi; SONG Jun; ZHU Xiande; GONG Xiaoqing; WU Fang

    2011-01-01

    A 1.5-layer reduced-gravity model forced by wind stress is used to study the bifurcations of the North Equatorial Current (NEC).The authors found that after removing the Ekman drift,the modelled circulations can serve well as a proxy of the SODA circulations on the σθ=25.0kgm-3 potential density surface based on available long-term reanalysis wind stress data.The modelled results show that the location of the western boundary bifurcation of the NEC depends on both zonal averaged and local zero wind stress curl latitude.The effects of the anomalous wind stress curl added in different areas are also investigated and it is found that they can change the strength of the Mindanao Eddy (ME),and then influence the interior pathway.

  1. Field Testing of High Current Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Mitigation in Reinforced Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Alexander, Joshua B.; Cardenas, Henry E.; Kupwade-Patil, Kunal

    2008-01-01

    This work examines field performance of nanoscale pozzolan treatments delivered el ctrokinetically to suppress chloride induced corrosion of concrete reinforcement. The particles are 20 nm silica spheres coated with 2 nm alumina particles that carry a net positive charge. Earlier work demonstrated that the alumina particles were stripped from the silica carriers and formed a dense phase with an interparticle spacing that is small enough to inhibit the transport of solvated chlorides. A D.C. field was used to inject the particles into the pores of concrete specimens, directly toward the mild steel bars that were embedded within each 3 inch diameter by 6 inch length concrete specimen. The voltage was held constant at 25 v per inch of concrete cover for a period of 7 days. These voltages permitted current densities as high as 3 A/sq m. During the final 3 days, a 1 molar solution of calcium nitrate tetrahydrate was used to provide a source of calcium to facilitate stronger and more densified phase formation within the pores. In a departure from prior work the particle treatments were started concurrent with chloride extraction in order to determine if particle delivery would inhibit chloride transport. Following treatment the specimens were immersed in seawater for 4 weeks. After this posttreatment exposure, the specimens were tested for tensile strength and the steel reinforcement was examined for evidence of corrosion. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to assess impact on microstructure.

  2. Current status of technology development for fabrication of Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, T., E-mail: tjk@igcar.gov.in [Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajendra Kumar, E. [TBM Division, Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Status of technology developments for Indian TBM to be installed in ITER is presented. • Procedure development for EB, laser and laser-hybrid welding of RAFM steel presented. • Filler wires for RAFM steel for TIG, NG-TIG and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. • Feasibility of production of channel plate by HIP technology has been demonstrated. - Abstract: Ever since India decided to install its Lead-Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) TBM in ITER, various technologies for fabrication of Indian TBM are being pursued by IPR and IGCAR, in collaboration with various research laboratories in India. Welding consumables for joining India specific RAFM steels (IN-RAFMS), procedures for hot isostatic pressing, electron beam welding, laser and laser-hybrid welding have been developed. Considering the complex nature and limited access available for inspection, innovative inspection procedures that involved use of phased array ultrasonic and C-scan imaging are also being pursued. This paper presents the current status of these developments and provides a roadmap for the future activities planned in realizing Indian TBM for testing in ITER.

  3. Application of Hilbert-Huang transform for defect recognition in pulsed eddy current testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baoling; Huang, Pingjie; Hou, Dibo; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Guangxin

    2015-07-01

    Defect recognition plays an important role in the structure integrity and health monitor of in-service equipment. However, it is difficult to recognise deep-layer defect or small-size defect in conductive structure during pulsed eddy current (PEC) testing. Aiming at the issue, this article proposes a method based on Hilbert-Huang transform which consists of two modules: data processing and defect recognition. In the data processing module, the PEC response signal is decomposed into a few of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. The IMFs whose variance contribution rates are bigger than 1% are chosen to reconstruct signal in order to remove noise. In the defect recognition module, the features based on specific frequency components of marginal spectrum (MS) of the reconstructed signals are extracted to discriminate those defects in surface and subsurface. Furthermore, the normalisation MS energy ratio is proposed to quantify defects which cannot be distinguished using peak value in time domain. Experiments show that the proposed method can achieve better de-noising effect and defect evaluation, which contributes to the recognition of those complicated defects such as deep-layered and small-sized defect.

  4. Current inverter interferences - test results of the SIDENA research project; Wechselrichterwechselwirkungen - Testergebnisse aus dem Forschungsprojekt SIDENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, C.; Funtan, P.; Kirchhof, J.; Nestle, D. [Institut fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik (ISET), Kassel (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Integration of decentral power supply systems in the electricity grid requires new safety and availability problems. The SIDENA project investigated interferences at the connection point and tested the integration of, at present, a maximum of 22 PV current inverters both on the AC and on the DC side. (orig.) [German] Mit zunehmender Einbindung von dezentralen netzgekoppelten Energieerzeugungsanlagen (DEA), z.B. PV-Anlagen, BHKW's, Brennstoffzellen u.a. in das elektrische Energieversorgungsnetz muessen die Fragen der Personen- und Anlagensicherheit sowie der Netzzuverlaessigkeit und -qualitaet neu ueberdacht werden. Die dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen (DEA), die beispielhaft ueber Wechselrichter ins oeffentliche Netz einspeisen, verursachen und erfahren Wirkungen an der Netzanschlussstelle, deren stoerende Ursachen zu klaeren sind. Bei diesen stoerenden Ursachen handelt es sich um Kompatibilitaetsprobleme der Netzabschalteinrichtungen (ENS) zum Netz, aber auch bei groesserer Anzahl an einem Netzanschlusspunkt untereinander. Die nachteiligen Wirkungen sind in der Mehrzahl zu haeufige unbegruendete Abschaltungen und damit eine unzuverlaessige Betriebsweise. Bei einer hoeheren Durchdringung der Netze mit DEA ist das von zunehmender Bedeutung. Im Rahmen des Projektes SIDENA ('Sicherheitsaspekte bei dezentralen netzgekoppelten Energieerzeugungsanlagen') werden daher unterschiedliche Wechselwirkungen am Netzanschlusspunkt untersucht und der Betrieb von derzeitig max. 22 PV-Wechselrichtern sowohl AC- als auch DC-seitig geprueft. (orig.)

  5. A test of the interpersonal theory of suicide in a large sample of current firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Carol; Buchman-Schmitt, Jennifer M; Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Joiner, Thomas E

    2016-06-30

    Recent research suggests that firefighters experience elevated rates of suicidal ideation and behaviors. The interpersonal theory of suicide may shed light on this finding. This theory postulates that suicidal desire is strongest among individuals experiencing perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness, and that the combination of suicide desire and acquired capability for suicide is necessary for the development of suicidal behaviors. We tested the propositions of the interpersonal theory in a large sample of current United States firefighters (N=863). Participants completed self-report measures of perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, fearlessness about death (FAD; a component of acquired capability), and career suicidal ideation and suicide attempt history. Regression models were used to examine the association between interpersonal theory constructs, career suicidal ideation severity, and the presence of career suicide attempts. In line with theory predictions, the three-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and FAD was significantly associated with career suicide attempts, beyond participant sex. However, findings were no longer significant after accounting for years of firefighter service or age. Contrary to predictions, the two-way interaction between perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness was not significantly related to career suicidal ideation severity. Applications of the theory to firefighters and future research are discussed.

  6. Testing Current and Developing Novel Therapies for NF1-Mutant Sarcomas in a Genetically Engineered Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    1   AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0067 TITLE: Testing Current and Developing Novel Therapies for NF1 -Mutant Sarcomas in a Genetically Engineered...Mar 2014 - 14 Mar 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Testing Current and Developing Novel Therapies for NF1 - Mutant Sarcomas in a Genetically Engineered...Patients with Neurofibromatosis type 1 ( NF1 ) are at increased risk for developing malignant tumors of the connective tissue called soft-tissue sarcomas

  7. [Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, Manfred; Renner, Gerolf

    2015-01-01

    Do Current German-Language Intelligence Tests Take into Consideration the Special Needs of Children with Disabilities? A review of 23 German intelligence test manuals shows that test-authors do not exclude the use of their tests for children with disabilities. However, these special groups play a minor role in the construction, standardization, and validation of intelligence tests. There is no sufficient discussion and reflection concerning the issue which construct-irrelevant requirements may reduce the validity of the test or which individual test-adaptations are allowed or recommended. Intelligence testing of children with disabilities needs more empirical evidence on objectivity, reliability, and validity of the assessment-procedures employed. Future test construction and validation should systematically analyze construct-irrelevant variance in item format, the special needs of handicapped children, and should give hints for useful test-adaptations.

  8. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: A numerical test of the additivity principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  9. Biochemical and immunological analysis of mould skin prick test solution: current status of standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kespohl, S; Maryska, S; Zahradnik, E; Sander, I; Brüning, T; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2013-11-01

    Sensitization prevalence to moulds reached from less than 10% in the general population to more than 25% in atopic and/or asthmatic subjects. To diagnose IgE-mediated mould sensitization, skin prick test (SPT) and specific IgE (sIgE) measurement are recommended. However, concordance of SPT and sIgE results is often less than 50% and standardization of the extracts is required to achieve reliable test results. The aim of our study was to analyse mould SPT solutions (SPTs) with respect to quantity and quality of protein, antigen and human IgE-binding content as a prerequisite for further in vivo studies. Commercial SPTs of Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum from six manufacturers as well as two in-house extracts from Aspergillus versicolor were investigated. Protein-, antigen- and IgE-binding contents were quantified by Bradford assay, sandwich ELISA and IgE-ImmunoCAP-inhibition tests. Protein composition and IgE and IgG binding were analysed by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, respectively. Median protein concentrations were similar in all mould SPT extracts (90-110 μg/mL). In contrast, antigen contents and IgE-binding capacity showed a high variability with median antigen values from 4 to 118 μg/mL and IgE inhibition results between 30 to 95%. Whereas almost all SPTs of A. alternata and A. versicolor showed complete sIgE inhibition with mean values > 80%, only three extracts for A. fumigatus, two extracts for C. herbarum and none of the tested extracts for P. chrysogenum exceeded 50% sIgE reduction. Quantitative amounts of protein, antigenic and IgE-binding structures were not comparable with the quality of the corresponding protein or immunoblot pattern, with the exception of A. alternata SPTs. Commercially available mould SPT extracts showed high variability raising the question of comparability and reliability of SPT results. Possible consequences for diagnostic test outcome will be investigated

  10. Current Sharing Temperature Test and Simulation with GANDALF Code for ITER PF2 Conductor Sample%Current Sharing Temperature Test and Simulation with GANDALF Code for ITER PF2 Conductor Sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少磊; 武玉; 刘勃; 翁佩德

    2011-01-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) conductor sample of the PF2 coil for ITER was tested in the SULTAN facility. According to the test results, the CICC conductor sample exhibited a stable performance regarding the current sharing temperature. Under the typical operational conditions of a current of 45 kA, a magnetic field of 4 T and a temperature of 5 K for PF2, the test result for the conductor current sharing temperature is 6.71 K, with a temperature margin of 1.71 K. For a comparison thermal-hydraulic analysis of the PF2 conductor was carried out using GANDALF code in a 1-D model, and the result is consistent with the test one.

  11. Virtual bench testing to study coronary bifurcation stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Francesco; Chiastra, Claudio; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Dubini, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Virtual bench testing is a numerical methodology which has been applied to the study of coronary interventions. It exploits the amazing growth of computer performance for scientific calculation and makes it possible to simulate very different and complex multiphysics environments and processes, including coronary bifurcation stenting. The quality of prediction from any computer model is very sensitive to the quality of the input data and assumptions. This also holds true in stent virtual bench testing. This paper reviews the state of the art in the field of bifurcation stenting modelling and identifies the current advantages and limitations of this methodology.

  12. Experimental Study on Current-Driven Domain Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Tanigawa, H.; Yano, K.; Kasai, S.

    2006-06-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion for a well-defined single DW in a micro-fabricated magnetic wire with submicron width was investigated by real-space observation with magnetic force microscopy. Magnetic force microscopy visualizes that a single DW introduced in a wire is displaced back and forth by positive and negative pulsed-current, respectively. Effect of the Joule heating, reduction of the threshold current density by shape control, and magnetic ratchet effect are also presented.

  13. Test of the Additivity Principle for Current Fluctuations in a Model of Heat Conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.

    2009-06-01

    The additivity principle allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional (1D) nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we confirm this conjecture in the 1D Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model of heat conduction for a wide current interval. The current distribution shows both Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes, and obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. We verify the existence of a well-defined temperature profile associated to a given current fluctuation. This profile is independent of the sign of the current, and this symmetry extends to higher-order profiles and spatial correlations. We also show that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  14. Study of toroidal current penetration during current ramp in JIPP T-IIU with fast response Zeeman polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, H.; Hiraki, N. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Toi, K. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The toroidal current penetration is studied in current ramp experiments of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field profile in the peripheral region of a plasma (0.5 {<=} {rho} {<=} 1.0) has been measured directly with a newly developed fast response Zeeman polarimeter. The experimental results indicate that an obvious skin effect of toroidal current density is clearly observed during both the current ramp-up and ramp-down experiments. The experimentally obtained toroidal current density profiles are well described by the profiles calculated on the assumption of the neoclassical electrical conductivity. Quasi-linear {Delta}`-analysis of tearing modes for the measured current density profile is consistent with time behaviour of coherent MHD modes such as m=4/n=1 or m=3/n=1 (m: poloidal mode number, n: toroidal mode number) often observed during the current ramp-up phase. The effect of these MHD modes on current penetration during the current ramp-up discharges is studied. (author)

  15. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  16. Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhi; Liu, Ting; Guo, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Thus, comprehensive metabolomic profiling of these metabolites is of key importance to help understand their biological activities, and other chemical biology features. In this context, this review will provide an update on the current technological platforms, and workflow associated with metabolomic studies on lotus seeds, as well as insights into the application of metabolomics for the improvement of food safety and quality, assisting breeding, and promotion of the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics of lotus seeds; meanwhile it will also help explore new perspectives and outline future challenges in this fast-growing research subject.

  17. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (nonlinear attribution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuchar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979–2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  18. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (non)linear attribution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks) besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  19. The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Which sex should care for offspring is a fundamental question in evolution. Invertebrates, and insects in particular, show some of the most diverse kinds of parental care of all animals, but to date there has been no broad comparative study of the evolution of parental care in this group. Here, we test existing hypotheses of insect parental care evolution using a literature-compiled phylogeny of over 2000 species. To address substantial uncertainty in the insect phylogeny, we use a brute force approach based on multiple random resolutions of uncertain nodes. The main transitions were between no care (the probable ancestral state) and female care. Male care evolved exclusively from no care, supporting models where mating opportunity costs for caring males are reduced-for example, by caring for multiple broods-but rejecting the "enhanced fecundity" hypothesis that male care is favored because it allows females to avoid care costs. Biparental care largely arose by males joining caring females, and was more labile in Holometabola than in Hemimetabola. Insect care evolution most closely resembled amphibian care in general trajectory. Integrating these findings with the wealth of life history and ecological data in insects will allow testing of a rich vein of existing hypotheses. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Patch testing with a new fragrance mix detects additional patients sensitive to perfumes and missed by the current fragrance mix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Rastogi, Suresh C

    2005-01-01

    The currently used 8% fragrance mix (FM I) does not identify all patients with a positive history of adverse reactions to fragrances. A new FM II with 6 frequently used chemicals was evaluated in 1701 consecutive patients patch tested in 6 dermatological centres in Europe. FM II was tested in 3 c...

  1. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juan Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…

  2. Development of eddy current testing probe for thick-walled metal plate and quantitative evaluation of cracks

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, K; Uchimoto, T; Takagi, T

    2003-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the crack detection of thick-walled non-magnetic metal plates by eddy current testing, which is difficult because of Kelvin skin effect generally. The purpose of this research is the development of an new eddy current testing probe for cracks in thick-walled plates and crack shapes quantitative evaluation. The probe was designed, based on the numerical computation using 3D fast eddy current code. The advantages of this new probe are strong eddy current on the back of specimens and gentle decrement of eddy current in the thickness direction. Through experiments, we confirmed that this probe can detect the back artificial defect with 0.5 mm thickness on IN-CONEL 718 specimen with 7.0 mm thickness. Reconstruction of crack shapes was performed based on the experimental results with the inverse problem code developed by authors. The length and depth of reconstructed defects approximately agree with those of real crack. (author)

  3. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency.

  4. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Antonio José Felix; Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas; Faria, Roberto Mendonça

    2009-12-01

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak β), an intermediate peak (peak α), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak ρ). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes.

  5. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Antonio Jose Felix [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Laboratory of Polymers and Renewable Materials, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Faria, Roberto Mendonca [USP, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak {beta}), an intermediate peak (peak {alpha}), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak {rho}). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes. (orig.)

  6. The evolution of parental care in insects: A test of current hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, James D J; Manica, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Which sex should care for offspring is a fundamental question in evolution. Invertebrates, and insects in particular, show some of the most diverse kinds of parental care of all animals, but to date there has been no broad comparative study of the evolution of parental care in this group. Here, we test existing hypotheses of insect parental care evolution using a literature-compiled phylogeny of over 2000 species. To address substantial uncertainty in the insect phylogeny, we use a brute force approach based on multiple random resolutions of uncertain nodes. The main transitions were between no care (the probable ancestral state) and female care. Male care evolved exclusively from no care, supporting models where mating opportunity costs for caring males are reduced—for example, by caring for multiple broods—but rejecting the “enhanced fecundity” hypothesis that male care is favored because it allows females to avoid care costs. Biparental care largely arose by males joining caring females, and was more labile in Holometabola than in Hemimetabola. Insect care evolution most closely resembled amphibian care in general trajectory. Integrating these findings with the wealth of life history and ecological data in insects will allow testing of a rich vein of existing hypotheses. PMID:25825047

  7. Test-retest studies in quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Petersen, M A; Bischoff, J M

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) investigates the graded psychophysical response to controlled thermal, mechanical, electrical or chemical stimuli, allowing quantification of clinically relevant perception and pain thresholds. The methods are ubiquitously used in experimental and clinical pain...... research, and therefore, the need for uniform assessment procedures has been emphasised. However, varying consistency and transparency in the statistical methodology seem to occur in the QST literature. Sixteen publications, evaluating aspects of QST variability, from 2010 to 2012, were critically reviewed...

  8. Current distribution mapping in insulated (Gd,Y)BCO based stabilizer-free coated conductor after AC over-current test for R-SFCL application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Soumen; Li, Xiao-Fen; Selvamanickam, Venkat; Rao, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Uniformity of critical current (Ic ) over long lengths of (GdY)-Ba-Cu-O ((Gd,Y)BCO)-based high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes after long periods of AC current excitation is an important criterion in their selection for resistive type superconducting fault current limiter (R-SFCL). The present work describes such critical current (Ic ) uniformity measurements performed over 1m long, stabilizer-free (SF), 12 mm wide, 2nd generation (2G) (Gd,Y)BCO based HTS tape. A non-destructive method using a static hall probe (Tapestar®) with moving HTS tape configuration was employed for estimation of Ic uniformity. Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) was then used to examine the weak superconducting regions (i.e. less Ic ) with a static HTS tape. Remanent field distribution on the HTS tape was measured to yield the critical current density distribution. Except for small degradation of Ic at some locations, these studies confirmed near-uniform critical current distribution over meter-long (Gd,Y)BCO tapes, both in virgin state and after exposure to AC over current.

  9. MODEL STUDY OF THE DOUBLE FED MACHINE WITH CURRENT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lyapin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling results of the double fed induction machine with current control in the rotor circuit. We show the most promising applications of electric drives on the basis of the double fed induction machine and their advantages. We present and consider functional scheme of the electric drive on the basis of the double fed induction machine with current control. Equations are obtained for creation of such machine mathematical model. Expressions for vector projections of rotor current are given. According to the obtained results, the change of the vector projections of rotor current ensures operation of the double fed induction machine with the specified values of active and reactive stator power throughout the variation range of sliding motion. We consider static characteristics of double fed machine with current control. Energy processes proceeding in the machine are analyzed. We confirm the operationpossibility of double fed induction machine with current controlin the rotor circuit with given values of active and reactive stator power. The presented results can be used for creation of mathematical models and static characteristics of double fed machines with current control of various capacities.

  10. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  11. HV substation earth grid commissioning using current injection test (CIT method: Worst case scenario determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, M. Nagrial, A. Hellany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing of the High Voltage (HV infrastructure creates a unique set of safety circumstances. The earthing system is one of the main elements to mitigate any unsafe conditions. Commissioning the earth grid certifies that the implemented system fulfills to the pertinent necessities. This paper endeavors to present vital information on how to perform the earth grid commissioning of an HV infrastructure. This paper will minutiae the minimum needs to guarantee the test will symbolize the actual fault case that the design was based on. A flow chart diagram is established and presented in this paper, which allows the determination of the most suitable injection route. The results of the case study are discussed, and the results are shown in this paper.

  12. Study of wavelet transform type high-current transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文科; 朱长纯; 刘君华; 张建军

    2002-01-01

    The wavelet transformation is applied to the high-current transformer.The high-current transformer elaborated in the paper is mainly applied to the measurement of AC/DC high-current.The principle of the transformer is the Hall direct-measurement principle.The transformer has the following three characteristics:firstly, the effect of the remnant field of the iron core on the measurement is decreased;secondly,because the temperature compensation is adopted,the transformer has good temperature charactreristic;thirdly,be-cause the wavelet transfomation technology is adopted,the transformer has the capacity of good antijanming.

  13. Revision of OECD Guidelines for Genotoxicity Testing: Current Status and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 30 years, assays have been developed to evaluate chemical genotoxicity. OECD Genotoxicity Test Guidelines (TG) describe assay procedures for regulatory safety testing. Since the last OECD TG revision (1997), there has been tremendous scientific and technological pro...

  14. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  15. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  16. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of frontal cortex decreases performance on the WAIS-IV intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Kristin K; Mellin, Juliann M; Lustenberger, Caroline M; Boyle, Michael R; Lee, Won Hee; Peterchev, Angel V; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates excitability of motor cortex. However, there is conflicting evidence about the efficacy of this non-invasive brain stimulation modality to modulate performance on cognitive tasks. Previous work has tested the effect of tDCS on specific facets of cognition and executive processing. However, no randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study has looked at the effects of tDCS on a comprehensive battery of cognitive processes. The objective of this study was to test if tDCS had an effect on performance on a comprehensive assay of cognitive processes, a standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) test. The study consisted of two substudies and followed a double-blind, between-subjects, sham-controlled design. In total, 41 healthy adult participants were included in the final analysis. These participants completed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) as a baseline measure. At least one week later, participants in substudy 1 received either bilateral tDCS (anodes over both F4 and F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA at each anode for 20 min) or active sham tDCS (2 mA for 40 s), and participants in substudy 2 received either right or left tDCS (anode over either F4 or F3, cathode over Cz, 2 mA for 20 min). In both studies, the WAIS-IV was immediately administered following stimulation to assess for performance differences induced by bilateral and unilateral tDCS. Compared to sham stimulation, right, left, and bilateral tDCS reduced improvement between sessions on Full Scale IQ and the Perceptual Reasoning Index. This demonstration that frontal tDCS selectively degraded improvement on specific metrics of the WAIS-IV raises important questions about the often proposed role of tDCS in cognitive enhancement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  18. Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Analysis of the Short-Time and Peak Withstand Current Tests in Substation Connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Capelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Power devices intended for high-voltage systems must be tested according to international standards, which includes the short-time withstand current test and peak withstand current test. However, these tests require very special facilities which consume huge amounts of electrical power. Therefore, mathematical tools to simulate such tests are highly appealing since they allow reproducing the electromagnetic and thermal behavior of the test object in a fast and economical manner. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM approach to simulate the transient thermal behavior of substation connectors is presented and validated against experimental data. To this end, a multiphysics 3D-FEM method is proposed, which considers both the connector and the reference power conductors. The transient and steady-state temperature profiles of both the conductors and connector provided by the 3D-FEM method prove its suitability and accuracy as compared to experimental data provided by short-circuit tests conducted in two high-current laboratories. The proposed simulation tool, which was proven to be accurate and realistic, may be particularly useful during the design and optimization phases of substation connectors since it allows anticipating the results of mandatory laboratory tests.

  19. Eddy Current Flaw Testing Probe with High Performance in Detecting Flaws during In-Service Inspection of Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kiyoshi; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi

    Eddy current flaw testing that uses changes in the impedance of the test coil as the electromagnetic field interacts with the test material is a non-destructive testing method. It can be used to inspect test material at high speed without bringing the test coil into contact with the test material. Therefore, it is widely used for product inspection. In the inspection of heat exchanger tubing in power plants and chemical plants, eddy current flaw testing is performed by using an inner probe, because of the structural restrictions of such plants. However, high levels of wobble noise and support plate noise occur in the conventional method using a rotating pancake coil. The authors therefore propose new minimal-noise eddy current inner probes. Two new types of probes have been developed: one for detecting axial flaws, and the other for detecting circumference flaws. These probes can detect flaws with a low level of noise. The phase of the flaw signal by the new probes changes according to the flaw depth. As a result, the signal phase by the new probes can be used for evaluating the depth of surface flaws.

  20. [The history of Mindfulness put to the test of current scientific data: unresolved questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousselard, M; Steiler, D; Claverie, D; Canini, F

    2014-12-01

    The first part of this paper describes the long history of the concept of Mindfulness. Contrary to the belief that Mindfulness only has Buddhist and Hindu origins, it is also rooted in Jewish, Islamic and Christian religions. Furthermore, western philosophers have described a mindful path to become more aware of thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Mindfulness can be considered as a universal human ability embodied to foster clear thinking and open-heartedness. As such, this form of being requires no particular religious or cultural belief system. The current acceptance of what a mindful path is, refers to a psychological quality that involves bringing one's complete attention to present experience on a moment-to-moment basis, in a particular way: in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally. Although such a definition is well accepted in France, the French translation for Mindfulness is not easy to use: being conscious and being aware are translated with the same French word. The French language fails to clearly separate the dimensional attributes of a mindful subject from the ways for developing mindfulness through formal meditation practice. In line with this conception, stability and assessments of Mindfulness mainly were examined. How this disposition allows the development of concentration, attention and acceptance moment by moment in a nonjudgmental way is described in the second part. Particular attention is paid to its positive effects in several aspects of mental and physical health. In particular, positive effects on the ability to cope with stress are described from a physiological point of view. Third, this article intends to present neurobiological aspects currently proposed to explain the benefits of Mindfulness meditation. Modifications of cerebral networks and neurobiological functioning are described in relation to expertise in meditation practice. The hypothesis of the role of meditation on neuroplasticity is also discussed. Furthermore, the

  1. DC/DC Converter Stability Testing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents study results on hybrid DC/DC converter stability testing methods. An input impedance measurement method and a gain/phase margin measurement method were evaluated to be effective to determine front-end oscillation and feedback loop oscillation. In particular, certain channel power levels of converter input noises have been found to have high degree correlation with the gain/phase margins. It becomes a potential new method to evaluate stability levels of all type of DC/DC converters by utilizing the spectral analysis on converter input noises.

  2. A Study of Oral Production Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑜

    2013-01-01

    Testing the ability to speak is a most important aspect of language testing. Testing of students’spoken English can bring in a positive washback for English teaching. However,it’s extremely difficult to test. This paper conducts a general analysis of oral production tests from overview,types and items of oral tests and scoring methods,which’s supposed to serve as an introduction to the issue under discussion.

  3. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments have had great success in monitoring the stratospheric ozone and in understanding the processes that control its daily to decadal scale variations. This field is now reaching its zenith with a number of satellite instruments from the US, Europe and Canada capping several decades of active research in this field. The primary public policy imperative of this research was to make reliable prediction of increases in biologically active surface UV radiation due to human activity. By contrast retrieval from satellite data of atmospheric constituents and photo-chemically active radiation that affect air quality is a new and growing field that is presenting us with unique challenges in measurement and data interpretation. A key distinction compared to stratospheric sensors is the greatly enhanced role of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces (CAS) in determining the quality and quantity of useful data that is available for air quality research. In our presentation we will use data from several sensors that are currently flying on the A-train satellite constellation, including OMI, MODIS, CLOUDSAT, and CALIPSO, to highlight that CAS can have both positive and negative effects on the information content of satellite measurements. This is in sharp contrast to other fields of remote sensing where CAS are usually considered an interference except in those cases when they are the primary subject of study. Our analysis has revealed that in the reflected wavelengths one often sees much further down into the atmosphere, through most cirrus, than one does in the emitted wavelengths. The lower level clouds provide a nice background against which one can track long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols. In addition, differences in trace gas columns estimated over cloudy and adjacent clear pixels can be used to measure boundary layer trace gases. However, in order to take full advantage of these features it will be necessary to greatly advance our understanding of

  4. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  5. The current landscape for direct-to-consumer genetic testing: legal, ethical, and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, Stuart; Javitt, Gail; Melzer, David

    2008-01-01

    This review surveys the developing market for direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests and examines the range of companies and tests available, the regulatory landscape, the concerns raised about DTC testing, and the calls for enhanced oversight. We provide a comparative overview of the situation, particularly in the United States and Europe, by exploring the regulatory frameworks for medical devices and clinical laboratories. We also discuss a variety of other mechanisms such as general controls on advertising and consumer law mechanisms.

  6. Performance test of current lead cooled by a cryocooler in low temperature superconducting magnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon Suk; Kim, Myung Su

    2013-11-01

    In a low temperature superconducting magnet system, heat leakage through current leads is one of the major factors in cryogenic load. The semi-retractable current lead is a good option because the conductive heat leakage can be eliminated after the excitation of the magnet. It is composed of a normal metal element, conducting the current from room temperature to intermediate temperature, and an HTS element, conducting the current down to liquid helium temperature. The normal metal element is disengaged from the HTS element through the multi-contact connector without disturbance to the insulating vacuum space and without requiring complete removal of the normal metal element. The intermediate block with a lockable set point is thermally connected to the first stage of cryocooler and carries current through a strip of louvered material. The electrical contact resistance of multi-contact connector in the intermediate block is measured during magnet charging process. The effects of current level as well as operating temperature on the heat generation in the joint block are also discussed.

  7. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bantle, J.A. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States). Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. (WYE Research and Educational Center, Queenstown, MD (United States)); Dawson, D.A. (Ashland Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Biology and Toxicology) (and others)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  8. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  9. Computerized Adaptive Testing. A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    in Willie S. Griggs, et al vs. Duke Power Company that the use of the Wonderlic Personnel Test and the Bennett Mechanical Aptitude Test was illegal...the Wonderlic Personnel Test and the Bennet Mechanical Aptitude Test. When Griggs and other employees brought a class action suit against Duke Power

  10. New drain current model for nano-meter MOS transistors on-chip threshold voltage test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, Jinbo; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional reliability tests use complicated equipment, like probe stations and semiconductor parameter analyzers, to measure changes in transistors' threshold voltages, which are both expensive and time consuming. This paper provides an idea to test the threshold voltage with existing low-to-moder

  11. A Historical Perspective and Current Views on the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Wayne J.; Lane, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" have evolved in the breadth and depth of coverage of issues in educational testing and measurement since their first publication in 1954. There were a number of substantive changes in the 1999 revision that addressed validity, fairness, accommodations, and compliance with the…

  12. The Role of the Family in Genetic Testing: Theoretical Perspectives, Current Knowledge, and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses conceptual challenges and theoretical approaches for examining the role of the family in responding and adapting to genetic testing for inherited conditions. Using a family systems perspective, family-based constructs that are relevant to genetic testing may be organized into three domains: family communication, organization…

  13. Current perspectives on recommendations for BRCA genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergote, Ignace; Banerjee, Susana; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; van Asperen, Christi; Marth, Christian; Vaz, Fatima; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Sehouli, Jalid; Colombo, Nicoletta

    2016-12-01

    Traditionally, BRCA genetic testing has been undertaken to identify patients and family members at future risk of developing cancer and patients have been referred for testing based on family history. However, the now recognised risk of ovarian cancer (OC) patients, even those with no known family history, harbouring a mutation in BRCA1/2, together with the first poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase inhibitor (PARPi; olaparib [Lynparza]) being licenced for the treatment of BRCA-mutated OC, has led to reconsideration of referral criteria for OC patients. Provided here is a review of the existing data and guidelines in the European Union, relating to recommendations, as well as considerations, for the referral of OC patients for BRCA genetic testing. Based on this review of newly updated guidance and up-to-date evidence, the following is recommended: all patients with invasive epithelial OC (excluding borderline or mucinous), including those with fallopian tube and peritoneal cancers, should be considered as candidates for referral for BRCA genetic testing, irrespective of age; genetic testing should ideally be offered at diagnosis, although patients can be referred at any stage; retrospective testing should be offered to patients in long-term follow-up because of the implications for family members and individual future breast cancer risk; and germline BRCA testing of a blood/saliva sample should initially be conducted and, if negative, tumour tissue should be tested (to identify non-germline [somatic] BRCA PARPi therapy candidates).

  14. Current perspectives on recommendations for BRCA genetic testing in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergote, Ignace; Banerjee, Susana; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, BRCA genetic testing has been undertaken to identify patients and family members at future risk of developing cancer and patients have been referred for testing based on family history. However, the now recognised risk of ovarian cancer (OC) patients, even those with no known family...... of the existing data and guidelines in the European Union, relating to recommendations, as well as considerations, for the referral of OC patients for BRCA genetic testing. Based on this review of newly updated guidance and up-to-date evidence, the following is recommended: all patients with invasive epithelial...... OC (excluding borderline or mucinous), including those with fallopian tube and peritoneal cancers, should be considered as candidates for referral for BRCA genetic testing, irrespective of age; genetic testing should ideally be offered at diagnosis, although patients can be referred at any stage...

  15. Study on the effect of humidity and dust on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Bo; Qi, Hui-Rong; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Shuai; Zhang, Tian-Chong; Yi, Fu-Ting; Ou-Yang, Qun; Chen, Yuan-Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of humidity and dust trapped in avalanche region on leakage current of bulk micro-MEGAS detector is studied. Pyralux PC1025 layers of DuPont are introduced in bulk technique and micro-MEGAS detector with pillars of 300{\\mu}m in diameter is fabricated. Leakage current is tested in air with different humidity. Silicon carbide powder and PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) powder are added as dust to avalanche region. Leakage current with and without powder is tested in air and results are depicted in the same figure. Test results indicate that leakage current increases with both storage humidity and test humidity, and also increases when powder is introduced in avalanche region.

  16. Teacher Attitudes About Standardized Testing and Test Preparation: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klager, Christopher R.

    This study looks at how science teachers' attitudes about standardized testing affect the types of test preparation practice they choose. Interviews, both before and after state testing, classroom observations during test preparation, and documents from test preparation contributed evidence used to create case studies about two teachers. Teacher attitudes related to pressure they felt to obtain high scores, test preparation ethics, and inexperience with state testing contributed to the decisions the teachers made about test preparation. Education for teachers about what test preparation practices are appropriate and the format of the test could help other teachers make informed decisions about test preparation practices.

  17. Study on Recovery Performance of High Tc Superconducting Tapes for Resistive Type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    kar, Soumen; Kulkarni, Sandeep; Dixit, Manglesh; Singh, Kuwar Pal; Gupta, Alok; Balasubramanyam, P. V.; Sarangi, S. K.; Rao, V. V.

    Recent advances in reliable production of long length high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes have resulted in commercial application of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in electrical utility networks. SFCL gives excellent technical performance when compared to conventional fault current limiters. The fast self-recovery from normal state to superconducting state immediately after the fault removal is an essential criterion for resistive type SFCL operation. In this paper, results on AC over-current testing of 1st generation (1G) Bi2223 tapes and 2nd generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors operating at 77 K are reported. From these results, the recovery time is estimated for different available HTS tapes in the market. The current limiting tests have also been performed to study the effective current limitation. Further, the recovery characteristics after the current limitation are quantitatively discussed for repetitive faults for different time intervals in the range of 100 ms to few seconds.

  18. Exploring end users' system requirements for a handheld computer supporting both sepsis test workflow and current IT solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Lasse Lefevre; Pape-Haugaard, Louise Bilenberg; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Hejlesen, Ole K

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic response associated with very high mortality. Early initiation of the correct antimicrobial therapy remains a cornerstone in the treatment of sepsis. Currently, a new microbiological test is under development, which aims to detect major, prevalent pathogens in positive blood cultures within an hour. Concurrently, a tablet-based data entry and reporting system will be developed to facilitate the workflow of the test. This study investigated the system requirements for the tablet-based data entry and reporting system in order to support the clinical workflow. By observing the workflow of the blood culture analysis and through interviews with medical laboratory technicians, four main system requirements were identified. The system requirements are; the ability to receive and send data to the laboratory information system, support for the use of barcodes, the ability to access a browser based instruction system, and communication of results between medical laboratory technicians and physicians. These system requirements will be used as a basis in the future development of the tablet-based data entry and reporting system.

  19. NEW ALGORITHM OF IDENTIFYING SHAPE OF FLAWS OR CRACKS IN EDDY CURRENT TESTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Hong-wei; MA Yi-chen; ZHANG Zhi-bin; WANG Ying-xi; CAO Jian-feng

    2005-01-01

    Eddy-current inverse technique is a very important method to reconstruct the shape of flaws or cracks. Using the domain derivative of the far-field pattern for eddy-current inverse problem with Dirichlet boundary condition, a new algorithm to recover the shape of cracks was constructed and some numerical examples were given.The algorithm demonstrates that the algorithm is feasible and correct for obtaining a reasonable reconstruction of a shape of flaws or cracks from the far-field measurements even though using less data of directions of incidence and observations for fewer wave numbers are gived.

  20. Eddy current testing of metallic sheets with defects using force measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining defects in structures using eddy current methods was investigated. The goal of this work is to demonstrate that the forces generated by the eddy currents and acting back on the magnet system can be used to detect defects in the object. Numerical simulations and experimental investigations have been performed. This novel technique has been found to be sensitive enough to detect even deep defects in an Aluminium bar moving relative to the field-generating magnet system.

  1. Assembly and testing of a composite heat pipe thermal intercept for HTS current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, M.A.; Daney, D.E.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Williams, P.M.; Boenig, H.J.

    1995-09-01

    We are building high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads for a demonstration HTS-high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system cooled by a cryocooler. The current leads are entirely conductively cooled. A composite nitrogen heat pipe provides efficient thermal communication, and simultaneously electrical isolation, between the lead and an intermediate temperature heat sink. Data on the thermal and electrical performance of the heat pipe thermal intercept are presented. The electrical isolation of the heat pipe was measured as a function of applied voltage with and without a thermal load across the heat pipe. The results show the electrical isolation with evaporation, condensation and internal circulation taking place in the heat pipe.

  2. Assembly and testing of a composite heat pipe thermal intercept for HTS current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, M.A.; Daney, D.E.; Prenger, F.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The authors are building high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads for a demonstration HTS high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system cooled by a cryocooler. The current leads are entirely conductively cooled. A composite nitrogen heat pipe provides efficient thermal communication, and simultaneously electrical isolation, between the lead and an intermediate temperature heat sink. Data on the thermal and electrical performance of the heat pipe thermal intercept are presented. The electrical isolation of the heat pipe was measured as a function of applied voltage with and without a thermal load across the heat pipe. The results show the electrical isolation with evaporation, condensation and internal circulation taking place in the heat pipe.

  3. Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic...... characterization of wind farm harmonic currents is analyzed. Specific issues addressed in the paper include the harmonic variation with the wind farm operating point and the random characteristics of their magnitude and phase angle....

  4. Canadian Registry of ICD Implant Testing procedures (CREDIT): current practice, risks, and costs of intraoperative defibrillation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Jeff S; Dorian, Paul; Mitchell, L Brent; Talajic, Mario; Philippon, Francois; Simpson, Chris; Yee, Raymond; Morillo, Carlos A; Lamy, Andre; Basta, Magdy; Birnie, David H; Wang, Xiaoyin; Nair, Girish M; Crystal, Eugene; Kerr, Charles R; Connolly, Stuart J

    2010-02-01

    There is uncertainty about the proper role of defibrillation testing (DT) at the time of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) insertion. A prospective registry was conducted at 13 sites in Canada between January 2006 and October 2007. To document the details of DT, the reasons for not conducting DT, and the costs and complications associated with DT. DT was conducted at implantation in 230 of 361 patients (64%). DT was more likely to be conducted for new implants compared with impulse generator replacements (71% vs 32%, P = 0.0001), but was similar for primary and secondary prevention indications (64% vs 63%, P = NS). Among patients not having DT, the reason(s) given were: considered unnecessary (44%); considered unsafe, mainly due to persistent atrial fibrillation (37%); lack of an anesthetist (20%); and, patient or physician preference (6%). When performed, DT consisted of a single successful shock > or = 10J below maximum device output in 65% of cases. A 10J safety-margin was met by 97% of patients, requiring system modification in 2.3%. Major perioperative complications occurred in 4.4% of patients having DT versus 6.6% of patients not having DT (P = NS). ICD insertion was $844 more expensive for patients having DT (P = 0.16), largely due to increased costs ($28,017 vs $24,545) among patients having impulse generator replacement (P = 0.02). DT was not performed in a third of ICD implants, usually due to a perceived lack of need or relative contraindication.

  5. The macular mapping test: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Leon N

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD is the leading cause of visual disability in people over 60 years of age in the developed world. The success of treatment deteriorates with increased latency of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the macular mapping test (MMT, and to investigate its potential as a screening tool. Methods The study population comprised of 31 healthy eyes of 31 participants. To assess reliability, four macular mapping test (MMT measurements were taken in two sessions separated by one hour by two practitioners, with reversal of order in the second session. MMT readings were also taken from 17 age-related maculopathy (ARM, and 12 AMD affected eyes. Results For the normal cohort, average MMT scores ranged from 85.5 to 100.0 MMT points. Scores ranged from 79.0 to 99.0 for the ARM group and from 9.0 to 92.0 for the AMD group. MMT scores were reliable to within ± 7.0 points. The difference between AMD affected eyes and controls (z = 3.761, p = Conclusion The reliability data shows that a change of 14 points or more is required to indicate a clinically significant change. This value is required for use of the MMT as an outcome measure in clinical trials. Although there was no difference between MMT scores from ARM affected eyes and controls, the MMT has the advantage over the Amsler grid in that it uses a letter target, has a peripheral fixation aid, and it provides a numerical score. This score could be beneficial in office and home monitoring of AMD progression, as well as an outcome measure in clinical research.

  6. Current and Future Tests of the Algebraic Cluster Model of12C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Moshe

    2017-07-01

    A new theoretical approach to clustering in the frame of the Algebraic Cluster Model (ACM) has been developed. It predicts, in12C, rotation-vibration structure with rotational bands of an oblate equilateral triangular symmetric spinning top with a D 3h symmetry characterized by the sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with a degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Our newly measured {2}2+ state in12C allows the first study of rotation-vibration structure in12C. The newly measured 5- state and 4- states fit very well the predicted ground state rotational band structure with the predicted sequence of states: 0+, 2+, 3-, 4±, 5- with almost degenerate 4+ and 4- (parity doublet) states. Such a D 3h symmetry is characteristic of triatomic molecules, but it is observed in the ground state rotational band of12C for the first time in a nucleus. We discuss predictions of the ACM of other rotation-vibration bands in12C such as the (0+) Hoyle band and the (1-) bending mode with prediction of (“missing 3- and 4-”) states that may shed new light on clustering in12C and light nuclei. In particular, the observation (or non observation) of the predicted (“missing”) states in the Hoyle band will allow us to conclude the geometrical arrangement of the three alpha particles composing the Hoyle state at 7.6542 MeV in12C. We discuss proposed research programs at the Darmstadt S- DALINAC and at the newly constructed ELI-NP facility near Bucharest to test the predictions of the ACM in isotopes of carbon.

  7. Current limitations and recommendations to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper existing regulatory frameworks and test systems for assessing potential endocrine-active chemicals are described, and associated challenges discussed, along with proposed approaches to address these challenges. Regulatory frameworks vary somewhat across organizatio...

  8. Tests of an alternating current propulsion subsystem for electric vehicles on a road load simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    The test results of a breadboard version of an ac electric-vehicle propulsion subsystem are presented. The breadboard was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center Road Load Simulator facility and tested under steady-state and transient conditions. Steady-state tests were run to characterize the system and component efficiencies over the complete speed-torque range within the capability of the propulsion subsystem in the motoring mode of operation. Transient tests were performed to determine the energy consumption of the breadboard over the acceleration and cruise portions of SAE J227 and driving schedules B, C, and D. Tests in the regenerative mode were limited to the low-gear-speed range of the two speed transaxle used in the subsystem. The maximum steady-state subsystem efficiency observed for the breadboard was 81.5 percent in the high-gear-speed range in the motoring mode, and 76 percent in the regenerative braking mode (low gear). The subsystem energy efficiency during the transient tests ranged from 49.2 percent for schedule B to 68.4 percent for Schedule D.

  9. 75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In notice...

  10. Assessment of Partially Conductive Cracks from Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing Signals using Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Janousek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a three-dimensional non-destructive evaluation of partially conductive cracks from eddy current testing signals. An SUS316L plate specimen containing a crack is non-destructively inspected by the eddy current method using numerical simulations. An extensive database of eddy current response signals is prepared while dimensional parameters of a crack together with its partial conductivity are varied in wide ranges. A Support Vector Machine classification algorithm is employed to solve the electromagnetic inverse problem. The acquired signals are employed for training the algorithm and for testing its performance. It is demonstrated that the Support Vector Machine algorithm is able to properly classify detected defects into proper classes with very high probability even the partial conductivity of a detected crack together with its width are unknown.

  11. Application of Self Nulling Eddy Current Probe Technique to the Detection of Fatigue Crack Initiation and Control of Test Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, M.; Nath, S.; Wincheski, B.; Fulton, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    A major part of fracture mechanics is concerned with studying the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. This typically requires constant monitoring of crack growth during fatigue cycles and the knowledge of the precise location of the crack tip at any given time. One technique currently available for measuring fatigue crack length is the Potential Drop method. The method, however, may be inaccurate if the direction of crack growth deviates considerably from what was assumed initially or the curvature of the crack becomes significant. Another popular approach is to optically view the crack using a high magnification microscope, but this entails a person constantly monitoring it. The present proposed technique uses an automated scheme, in order to eliminate the need for a person to constantly monitor the experiment. Another technique under development elsewhere is to digitize an optical image of the test specimen surface and then apply a pattern recognition algorithm to locate the crack tip. A previous publication showed that the self nulling eddy current probe successfully tracked a simulated crack in an aluminum sample. This was the impetus to develop an online real time crack monitoring system. An automated system has been developed which includes a two axis scanner mounted on the tensile testing machine, the probe and its instrumentation and a personal computer (PC) to communicate and control all the parameters. The system software controls the testing parameters as well as monitoring the fatigue crack as it propagates. This paper will discuss the experimental setup in detail and demonstrate its capabilities. A three dimensional finite element model is utilized to model the magnetic field distribution due to the probe and how the probe voltage changes as it scans the crack. Experimental data of the probe for different samples under zero load, static load and high cycle fatigue load will be discussed. The final section summarizes the major accomplishments

  12. Bench Test Modeling for Current and Future PCMO Fuel Economy Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark T.Devlin; Cheng C.Kuo; John M.Pietras; Zhang Yun

    2008-01-01

    The automotive and lubricant industries have been placing increased emphasis on the fuel economy benefits of today's modern passenger car motor oils.The current ILSAC GF-4 specification has more stringent requirements than previous ILSAC specifications,and the proposed future ILSAC GF-5 specification is looking at further improvements in the lubricant's fuel economy performance.To address these needs,Afton Chemical has developed correlations between the rheological and frictional properties of oils and fuel economy measured in engine and field tests.In this paper we will present correlations between lubricauts' physical properties and fuel economy measured in vehicles and enginetests.These tools have been used to develop current commercial oils which are being used extensively to meet today's OEM needs.

  13. Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Testing: Current and Emerging Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, Mollie A; Alessi, Stephanie; Allyse, Megan; Michie, Marsha; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal genetic testing (NIPT) for chromosomal aneuploidy involving the analysis of cell-free fetal DNA became commercially available in 2011. The low false-positive rate of NIPT, which reduces unnecessary prenatal invasive diagnostic procedures, has led to broad clinician and patient adoption. We discuss the ethical, legal, and social issues raised by rapid and global dissemination of NIPT. The number of women using NIPT is anticipated to expand, and the number of conditions being tested for will continue to increase as well, raising concerns about the routinization of testing and negative impacts on informed decision making. Ensuring that accurate and balanced information is available to all pregnant women and that access to NIPT is equitable will require policy guidance from regulators, professional societies, and payers. Empirical evidence about stakeholders' perspectives and experiences will continue to be essential in guiding policy development so that advances in NIPT can be used effectively and appropriately to improve prenatal care.

  14. The Current Landscape of Genetic Testing in Cardiovascular Malformations: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin John Landis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Human cardiovascular malformations (CVMs frequently have a genetic contribution. Through the application of novel technologies such as next generation sequencing, DNA sequence variants associated with CVMs are being identified at a rapid pace. While clinicians are now able to offer testing with next generation sequencing gene panels or whole exome sequencing to any patient with a CVM, the interpretation of genetic variation remains problematic. Variable phenotypic expression, reduced penetrance, inconsistent phenotyping methods, and the lack of high throughput functional testing of variants, contribute to these challenges. This article elaborates critical issues that impact the decision to broadly implement clinical molecular genetic testing in CVMs. Major benefits of testing include establishing a genetic diagnosis, facilitating cost-effective screening of family members who may have subclinical disease, predicting recurrence risk in offspring, enabling early diagnosis and anticipatory management of CV and non-CV disease phenotypes, predicting long term outcomes, and facilitating the development of novel therapies aimed at disease improvement or prevention. Limitations include financial cost, psychosocial cost, and ambiguity of interpretation of results. Multiplex families and patients with syndromic features are two groups where disease causation could potentially be firmly established. However, these account for the minority of the overall CVM population, and there is increasing recognition that genotypes previously associated with syndromes also exist in patients who lack non-CV findings. In all circumstances, ongoing dialogue between cardiologists and clinical geneticists will be needed to accurately interpret genetic testing and improve these patients’ health. This may be most effectively implemented by the creation and support of CV genetics services at centers committed to pursuing testing for patients.

  15. [Study of the stability of current plaster substitutes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wruhs, O

    1986-06-01

    In connection with company independent test series the clinically required usefulness of four different modern plaster substitutes were examined. A comparison of breakage resistance, deformation and relation of price versus stability of plaster bandages were considered. The advantage of using these materials, especially in case of prolonged cast immobilization, is-despite of higher financial costs - more appropriate because of lower weight, increased durability and hygienical comfort for the patients.

  16. Current limitations and a path forward to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coady, Katherine K.; Biever, Ronald C.; Denslow, Nancy D.

    issue of significant concern to for current EACS screening/testing programs involves resources in regard such as to cost, time, trained personnel, and animal use. This is especially problematic when considering the number of chemicals that some regulatory authorities need to assess. One way to address......To assess the hazards and risks of possible endocrine active chemicals (EACs) there is a need for robust, validated test methods that detect perturbation of endocrine pathways of concern and provide insights reliable information as to assess to potential adverse effects on apical endpoints. One...... practices developed through recent experiences conducting EAC screening/testing. Additionally, the collective assessment of EAC screening and testing data (e.g. compilation of historical control data) can be leveraged to refine test designs and performance criteria to maximize the power and utility of EAC...

  17. Dosage considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation in children: a computational modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Kilaru Kessler

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is being widely investigated in adults as a therapeutic modality for brain disorders involving abnormal cortical excitability or disordered network activity. Interest is also growing in studying tDCS in children. Limited empirical studies in children suggest that tDCS is well tolerated and may have a similar safety profile as in adults. However, in electrotherapy as in pharmacotherapy, dose selection in children requires special attention, and simple extrapolation from adult studies may be inadequate. Critical aspects of dose adjustment include 1 differences in neurophysiology and disease, and 2 variation in brain electric fields for a specified dose due to gross anatomical differences between children and adults. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI derived finite element modeling simulations of two healthy children, ages 8 years and 12 years, and three healthy adults with varying head size to compare differences in electric field intensity and distribution. Multiple conventional and high-definition tDCS montages were tested. Our results suggest that on average, children will be exposed to higher peak electrical fields for a given applied current intensity than adults, but there is likely to be overlap between adults with smaller head size and children. In addition, exposure is montage specific. Variations in peak electrical fields were seen between the two pediatric models, despite comparable head size, suggesting that the relationship between neuroanatomic factors and bioavailable current dose is not trivial. In conclusion, caution is advised in using higher tDCS doses in children until 1 further modeling studies in a larger group shed light on the range of exposure possible by applied dose and age and 2 further studies correlate bioavailable dose estimates from modeling studies with empirically tested physiologic effects, such as modulation of motor evoked potentials after stimulation.

  18. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the recovery of postural control after stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L; Van De Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during 4 weeks on balance and gait parameters after stroke. Thirty-one stroke patients were included in this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. The Tinetti test was used to assess functional balance and gait after stroke. Secondary measures, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), were registered to asses both motricity and trunk performance. All tests were administered at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received both sixteen 20-min sessions of tDCS and sixteen 20-min sessions of Sham stimulation. Application method between groups was changed after 4 weeks. A general linear repeated measures model was used to analyse the results of our study. Results revealed an effect on the total score of the Tinetti test (p = 0.049). No significant results were obtained for the RMA (p = 0.166) and the TIS (p = 0.479). This pilot study indicates that 16 tDCS-sessions could have a beneficial effect on balance and gait in stroke patients measured with the Tinetti test. However, further research is needed to elucidate these findings. Implications for Rehabilitation Sixteen sessions of tDCS is beneficial in the recovery of postural control in stroke patients. tDCS has to be applied as soon as possible to enhance beneficial effects.

  19. Prenatal testing for hemolytic disease of the newborn and fetal neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia - current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, Neil D

    2014-12-01

    Incompatibility of red cell and platelet antigens can lead to maternal alloimmunization causing hemolytic disease of the fetus & newborn and fetal neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia respectively. As the molecular background of these polymorphisms emerged, prenatal testing using initially fetal DNA obtained from invasively obtained amniotic fluid or chorionic villus was implemented. This evolved into testing using maternal plasma as source of fetal DNA, and this is in routine use as a safe non-invasive diagnostic that has no risk to the fetus of alloimmunization or spontaneous miscarriage. These tests were initially applied to high risk pregnancies, but has been applied on a mass scale, to screen fetuses in D-negative pregnant populations as national screening programs. Fetal neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia management has had comparatively small take up in non-invasive testing for causative fetal platelet alleles (e.g., HPA-1A), but mass scale genotyping of mothers to identify at risk HPA-1b1b pregnancies and their treatment with prophylactic anti-HPA-1A is being considered in at least one country (Norway).

  20. 78 FR 59946 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs,'' as amended... Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630. Laboratory Corporation of...: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory). Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories, 110 West Cliff...

  1. 78 FR 46996 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs'', as... Laboratory Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630 Laboratory...: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory) Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories, 110 West Cliff...

  2. 78 FR 39757 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs'', as... Laboratory Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630 Laboratory...: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory) Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories, 110 West Cliff...

  3. Test of different biomass into the IISc open-top co-current gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, P. [Xylowatt SA, Chatel-St-Denis (Switzerland); Hasler, P. [Verenum SA, Zuerich (Switzerland); Dasappa, S. [Indian Institute of Science, Combustion Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory, Bangalore (India)

    2001-07-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the efforts made to demonstrate the technical feasibility of combined heat and power generation using wood gasification. The report describes a project involving a small open-top gasifier based on a design realised by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc). The tests made with various wood fuels such as clean wood chips, waste-wood chips, pecan nut shells, crushed oak briquettes, wood pellets, coffee hull pellets and chicken litter pellets are described and the results of measurements made concerning particulate matter, tar and certain organic compounds are presented. The discussion of the results shows that certain types of biomass can easily be used as a fuel for the small gasifier whereas others, such as coffee hull pellets, are less suitable. The report suggests that other possible fuels, such as olive and apricot stones, sludge from waste water treatment plant or plastic residue from refuse treatment should be tested in the gasifier. These tests could also provide the opportunity of testing appropriate gas treatment equipment at the same time.

  4. 77 FR 45645 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-18707] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health... Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental... the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www.drugfreeworkplace.gov . FOR FURTHER...

  5. Test of different biomass into the IISc open-top co-current gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, P. [Xylowatt SA, Chatel-St-Denis (Switzerland); Hasler, P. [Verenum SA, Zuerich (Switzerland); Dasappa, S. [Indian Institute of Science, Combustion Gasification and Propulsion Laboratory, Bangalore (India)

    2001-07-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the efforts made to demonstrate the technical feasibility of combined heat and power generation using wood gasification. The report describes a project involving a small open-top gasifier based on a design realised by the Indian Institute of Science (IISc). The tests made with various wood fuels such as clean wood chips, waste-wood chips, pecan nut shells, crushed oak briquettes, wood pellets, coffee hull pellets and chicken litter pellets are described and the results of measurements made concerning particulate matter, tar and certain organic compounds are presented. The discussion of the results shows that certain types of biomass can easily be used as a fuel for the small gasifier whereas others, such as coffee hull pellets, are less suitable. The report suggests that other possible fuels, such as olive and apricot stones, sludge from waste water treatment plant or plastic residue from refuse treatment should be tested in the gasifier. These tests could also provide the opportunity of testing appropriate gas treatment equipment at the same time.

  6. Baseline and verification tests of the Electric Vehicle Associates' Current Fare Station Wagon. Final test report, 27 March 1980-6 November 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowgiallo, E.J. Jr; Chapman, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    The EVA Current Fare Station Wagon, an electric vehicle, was tested at MERADCOM as part of a Department of Energy project to characterize the state-of-the-art of electric vehicles. The current Fare Wagon was manufactured in Cleveland, Ohio by Electric Vehicle Associates' Incorporated. It is powered by 22 6-V lead-acid batteries driving a 30-hp d.c. series motor through an SCR controller. The motor drives the rear wheels through a manually operated 4-speed transmission. Regenerative braking was provided.

  7. A Comparative Study of Current and Potential Users of Mobile Payment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mobile payment (m-payment services have primarily focused on a single group of adopters. This study identifies the factors that influence an individual’s intention to use m-payment services and compares groups of current users (adopters with potential users (non-adopters. A research model that reflects the behavioral intention to use m-payment services is developed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling on a data set consisting of 529 potential users and 256 current users of m-payment services in Thailand. The results show that the factors that influence current users’ intentions to use m-payment services are compatibility, subjective norms, perceived trust, and perceived cost. Subjective norms, compatibility, ease of use, and perceived risk influenced potential users’ intentions to use m-payment. Subjective norms and perceived risk had a stronger influence on potential users, while perceived cost had a stronger influence on current users, in terms of their intentions to use m-payment services. Discussions, limitations, and recommendations for future research are addressed.

  8. A study of the current collecting sectors of a U-25B diagonal megnetohydrodynamic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V.V.; Panovka, M.Ya.; Semenov, V.D.; Sokolov, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of an experimental study and a calculated analysis of the operation of current collecting sectors of the U-25B magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The effect was studied of the parameters of the current, the coefficient of electrical loading, the disposition of the current collecting sectors (T) relative to the diagram of the magnetic field on the distribution of current along the length of the current collecting sectors. It is established that with optimal disposition of the current collecting sectors a uniform distribution of current is achieved. A simplified calculation model of the current collecting sector is developed. It is shown that the experimental and calculated relationships match well. The effect of the ballast resisters installed in the current collecting circuits on the distribution of current is examined. Their positive role in preventing current overloads on the frames and in supporting the uniform distribution of current is noted.

  9. The Study of the Geomagnetic Variation for Sq current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Du, A.

    2012-04-01

    The solar quiet variation (Sq) with a period of 24 hrs is a typical one of the quiet variations. Sq is generally caused by atmospheric tide-dynamo in ionosphere and it is controlled by the electric field, electric conductivity in ionosphere and neutral wind in middle-high altitude atmosphere. In our work, the geomagnetic field data observed by 90 ground-based observatories is used to analyze the local time variation of Sq. Sq is derived from five quiet-day geomagnetic data in every month by the FFT method. According to the pattern of geomagnetic X component in Sq, there is a prenoon-postnoon (before noon and after noon) asymmetry. This asymmetry is obvious in spring, summer and winter. The X component at 12:00-13:00 LT is about 5 nT larger than it at 11:00-12:00 LT. The ratio between the X component of daily variable amplitude and Y component of daily variable amplitude in middle and low (high) latitude regions in summer is greater (smaller) than that in winter. Used the sphere harmonic analysis method, the Sq equivalent current system is obtained. From the pattern of Sq current system, the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry may be caused by the electric field in the high latitude region. This electric field has two effects: the one is that the electric field from high latitude maps to the low latitude region; the other is this electric field penetrate to the middle latitude region directly. The combined action of these two effects makes the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry of Sq. The asymmetry also has an obvious seasonal effect. It may relate to the polar Sq and DP2 in the high latitude region.

  10. Comparative study between an alternating current (AC) and a direct current (DC) electrification of an urban railway

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Turu, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study will evaluate technically, energetic and economically the traction electrification network of the line Barcelona – Vallès operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) in the existing voltage system (1500 Vdc) and a new electrification under alternative current (25 kVac) will be proposed to be as well studied. The results obtained will be compared in order to obtain decision factors on which system best fits.

  11. Surface analysis of supercapacitor electrodes after long-lasting constant current tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänes, Alar; Eskusson, Jaanus; Lust, Enn

    2013-12-01

    FIB-SEM, XPS, TOF-SIMS and electrochemical methods have been used for the characterisation of physical properties and chemical composition of microporous carbide derived carbon electrodes, prepared from TiC at 950 °C (noted as TiC-CDC) after 40000 charge/discharge cycles. Changes in surface chemical composition of TiC-CDC electrodes, includes partial contamination with reaction intermediates (F2, CHO-, CN-, organic radicals), and Al current collectors, like partial dissolution of Al from positively charged electrode and deposition of Al onto the negatively charged TiC-CDC electrode surface, have been analysed.

  12. Optimizing polymerase chain reaction testing for the diagnosis of pertussis: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbefeville S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Arbefeville, Patricia Ferrieri Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: Nucleic acid testing has revolutionized the diagnosis of pertussis in the clinical microbiology laboratory and has become the main avenue of testing for pertussis infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is an important tool for timely diagnosis of pertussis and is more sensitive than culture. The most commonly amplified targets are the insertion-sequence (IS genes, which are found in multiple copies in the genome of Bordetella species. Some strains of Bordetella pertussis have more than 200 copies of IS481 in their genome. This high number of repeats allows RT-PCR assays to be very sensitive and makes nucleic acid testing two to three times more sensitive than culture. Despite these advantages, RT-PCR can give inaccurate results due to contamination or lack of specificity. Contamination can easily happen during specimen collection, DNA extraction, or nucleic acid amplification steps. To avoid contamination, laboratories need to have quality controls and good workflows in place. The poor specificity of the nucleic acid assays amplifying the IS genes is because they are found in various Bordetella species and, thus, not unique to a specific species. Bordetella holmesii, a more recently described Bordetella species found to be responsible for respiratory symptoms similar to pertussis in adolescents and adults, can be misidentified as B. pertussis in RT-PCR assays that amplify only the IS481 target. Use of multiple targets may improve specificity of RT-PCR assays for pertussis. In the past few years, the US Food and Drug Administration has cleared three commercial assays for the detection of B. pertussis in respiratory specimens. Several commercial assays and analyte-specific reagents, which are not US Food and Drug Administration cleared, are available for the detection of one

  13. A prediction method for the general corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 steam generator tube using eddy current testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Sang; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Deok Hyun; Hur, Do Haeng, E-mail: dhhur@kaeri.re.kr

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • A corrosion test for the tubes with different levels of eddy current noise was conducted. • A relationship between the corrosion rate and the eddy current noise of tubes was explored. • Corrosion rate was closely correlated to the tube noise of a rotating pancake probe. • Corrosion rate was not related to the tube noise measured using a bobbin probe. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to develop an eddy current testing method to predict the general corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 steam generator tubes. A corrosion test was conducted for tubes with different levels of eddy current noise in simulated primary water at 330 °C, and their corrosion behavior was correlated with the tube noise measured using bobbin and rotating probes. The corrosion behavior was closely correlated with the tube noise measured using a rotating probe. However, there was no correlation between the corrosion behavior and the tube noise measured using a bobbin probe. The tube noise value measured using a rotating pancake coil probe is suggested to be a significant parameter in estimating the general corrosion behavior of tubes.

  14. Transport Network Technologies – Study and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozorgebrahimi, K.; Channegowda, M.; Colmenero, A.

    Following on from the theoretical research into Carrier Class Transport Network Technologies (CCTNTs) documented in DJ1.1.1, this report describes the extensive testing performed by JRA1 Task 1. The tests covered EoMPLS, Ethernet OAM, Synchronous Ethernet, PBB-TE, MPLS-TP, OTN and GMPLS...

  15. Take Home Tests: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Larry J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Data gathered on three kinds of tests (closed-book, open-book, and take-home) covered possible differential achievement on knowledge and cognitive-skill items, student attitudes, and cheating. On take-home tests, scores on knowledge items were found to higher, anxiety level was lower, and cheating was not a problem. (MSE)

  16. Testing Cross-Talk Induced Delay Faults in Digital Circuit Based on Transient Current Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Youren; DENG Xiaoqian; CUI Jiang; YAO Rui; ZHANG Zhai

    2006-01-01

    The delay fault induced by cross-talk effect is one of the difficult problems in the fault diagnosis of digital circuit. An intelligent fault diagnosis based on IDDT testing and support vector machines (SVM) classifier was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the fault model induced by cross-talk effect and the IDDT testing method were analyzed, and then a delay fault localization method based on SVM was presented. The fault features of the sampled signals were extracted by wavelet packet decomposition and served as input parameters of SVM classifier to classify the different fault types. The simulation results illustrate that the method presented is accurate and effective, reaches a high diagnosis rate above 95%.

  17. [Current situation and ethical-social issues of pediatric genetic testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Many pediatric neurological disorders are caused by genetic factors. Therefore, genetic testing is often required for final diagnosis, prognosis prediction, and genetic counseling. Prior to performing genetic research, pediatric neurologists must obtain the approval of the Institutional Review Board. Moreover, according to the "Ethical Guidelines for Human Genome/Gene Analysis Research," anonymity of patient samples must be maintained. Although the guideline for genetic research are not generally applied for genetic testing in routine bedside medical care, the guideline adopted by the Japan Medical Association must be followed, because genetic information from a personal genome is patient-specific. Pediatric neurologists must also be aware of the policies adopted to obtain informed consent from children and patients who are incapable of making their own decisions. They should develop a strategy for collaboration with clinical geneticists and for making a prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee...... methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take...... on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated...

  19. Experimental Test of Alternating-Current Zeeman Interference Effect in Ramsey Separated Oscillating Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-Hai; WANG Feng-Zhi; YANG Dong-Hai

    2004-01-01

    An experimental test of ac Zeeman effect in an optically pumped caesium beam frequency standard is reported and analysed. An interference pattern of the atomic energy level shift as a function of the applied microwave field near the atomic transition frequency was observed. It was superimposed on the dispersion lineshape of a normal ac Zeeman effect. This effect was analysed with the atomic wavefunction phase analysing method.

  20. The Maximal Exercise Treadmill Stress Test, Current Uses and Limitations in Coronary Artery Disease,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Prinzmetal’s phenomenon). Further debate exists over the interpretation of other exer- cise-induced ECG changes, as reviewed by Sotobata (14...Disease: An Expensive Air Force Problem, Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 51: 1057-1063, September 1980. 3. Pinthoven, W. Weiteres uber das...Electrocardiographic p Stress Testing: The Debate Goes On (Probably), Adv. Cardtol. 27: 83-92, 1980. 23. Jones, Richard J., et al. Council on Scientific Affairs

  1. Readiness to Perform Testing: A Critical Analysis of the Concept and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Blanchard, the Technical Contract Monitor, for his contributions in clarifying the concept of Readiness to Perform Testing and Dr. David J. Schroeder, Dr...of fatigue or sleep deprivation ( Fischman and Schuster, 1980). FATIGUE AND SLEEP LOSS The effects of fatigue and sleep loss (including such areas as...perspective across dose and duration of use. Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving, 3, 19-24. Fischman , M. W., and Schuster, C. R. (1980). Cocaine effects in sleep

  2. High current 66 kV tests on high stability PFN discharge capacitors for CERN LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J

    1999-01-01

    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) is constructing a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to be installed in an existing 27 km circumference tunnel. The LHC will be equipped with fast pulsed magnet systems for injecting two counter-rotating hadron beams. Two pulsed systems, of 4 magnets and 4 pulse forming networks (PFNs) each, are required for this purpose. TRIUMF will build and test 5 resonant charging power supplies (RCPS) and nine PFNs and the associated thyratron switch units as part of the Canadian contribution to CERN LHC. Failures in the PFN capacitors may lead to incorrect beam deflections that may in turn damage LHC components. For this reason the reliability of the capacitors must be exceptionally high. Hence sample PFN capacitors were purchased and tested. The test procedure included discharging the PFN capacitors from 66 kV, into a 10.1 Ohm resistance, for 500,000 cycles, at a frequency of approximately 1 Hz. Subsequently the PFN capacitors were discharged from 66 kV into a 2.7 Ohm resist...

  3. Measuring equipment for controlling the anode current during training and testing of the X-ray tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Vasquez, N. O.; Kostrin, D. K.; Uhov, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the features of controlling of the anode current of the X-ray tubes during their training and testing are described. Requirements for developing of the control and measuring equipment are given. In detail are shown the approaches to the development of two types of microammeters with optical signal transmission: analog, with compensation of the nonlinearity of the transfer characteristics with the use of the optical negative feedback, and digital, in which the values of anodic current are transfered using a microcontroller.

  4. A Study on the Current Oil and Gas Price Formula and Its Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Won; Lee, Young Koo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest some improvements on current price formulas on oil and gas which have been pivotal roles in the process of Korean economic growth. This study first examines basic frames and transition of oil and gas pricing in Korea and then finds some suggestions on them by scrutinizing their theoretical backgrounds. This study finds several problems on oil and gas pricing formulas. (a) In a model that is now studied to evaluate the current domestic oil price, the costs associated with oil security such as oil stockpile are fully penetrated into oil price without their fair evaluations. There is no evaluation principle on the costs occurred in oil supply security. (b) The Rate Of Equity(ROE), a crucial factor in town-gas pricing which is strictly controlled, is directly connected to the average interest rate on saving accounts of domestic commercial banks. Some arguments may have rise about inclusion a risk factor on ROE in order to compensate the uncertainty of town-gas business. (c) New demand for natural gas which is generated by new technologies or machinery and tools can help reduce the costs occurred from seasonal imbalance between power sector and gas sector. So it is also important to decide how to include the beneficiary of cost reduction in town-gas pricing. In order to evaluate the proper price levels, this study tests energy supply security by adopting methodologies such as Herfindahl Index and Portfolio Variance Risk. They can help develop the method to effectively improve the energy security and include the proper energy security costs into energy prices. This study also provides some suggestions for betterment of current ROE decision rule in town-gas business and for improvement of current town-gas policy that government subsidizes newly developed demand for strengthening price competitiveness in the early stage. (author). 145 refs., 16 figs., 49 tabs.

  5. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  6. Retooling the Social Studies Classroom for the Current Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth K.; Wright, Vivian H.; Inman, Christopher T.; Matherson, Lisa H.

    2011-01-01

    Digital technologies have changed the way students read and communicate. Subsequently, teachers must use technology to engage their students in learning. This article illustrates the value of using Web 2.0 tools (blogs, wikis, and digital media-sharing) in the social studies classroom. Additionally, a social studies teacher shares insights into…

  7. A Review of Current Studies on Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思雅

    2012-01-01

      This paper introduces some previous studies on human capital, mainly regarding human capital’s properties and its relationship with corporate performance and capital structure. This study shows the importance of human capital and suggests that managers should pay more attention to employees.

  8. A Specification—Based Case Study from Test Class Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIULing; MIAOHuai-kou

    2001-01-01

    Testing is a standard method for verification of software performance.Producing efficinet and appropriate test case is an important aspect in testing.Specification-based testing presents a method to derive test data from software specification.Because of the precision and concision of specification.the test data derived from specification can test the software efficiently and entirely.This paper demonstrates a test class framework(TCF) on a file reading case study,specifiec using Z notation,This class framework defines test case sets,providing structure to the testing process.Flexbility is preserved so that many testing strategies can be used.

  9. Thermal eddy current testing of metallization quality of printed circuit boards (PCB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savushkin, D. G.; Polyahov, M. Y.; Chernov, L. A.

    2000-05-01

    Today the fissile thermal control methods are used often enough to evaluate the metallization quality of printed circuit boards. However, it is necessary to note that the existing difficulties while exciting a non-steady thermal wave. There was offered the thermal input, which allows us to supply heat through the upper edge of a metallizing tube and to register parameters of thermal disturbance from the opposite side. The thermal input represents a hollow metal cone where the thermal disturbance is suggested to be effectuated by eddy currents induced by a coil situated above the thermal input. The agitating current is a kind of radio pulse with a high frequency filling. The field frequency, thickness and the electromagnetic characteristics of the thermal input were selected so that the field couldn't propagate into space beneath the thermal input. It is possible to evaluate some parameters of the metallizing tube registering from the other side of the printed circuit board the thermal disturbance parameters (e.g. the arrival time of maximum and amplitude). The numerical calculations were made with a specially developed software with the purpose of obtaining the dependence of the arrival time of maximum and the thermal disturbance amplitude upon a printed circuit board metallization layer, the hole diameter, the board thickness, the metallization tube conductivity, the contact pad diameter. The heat exchange with the board material was not taken into account when making calculations because the thermal disturbance propagation time along the metallization tube is too short and this assumption does not make a considerable error.

  10. Electric current heating calibration of a laser holographic nondestructive test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.-K.; Kurtz, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Holographic NDT was used to measure small surface displacements controlled by electric heating by detecting the difference of the interference fringe patterns as viewed through the hologram on a real time basis. A perforated aluminum test plate, with the holes used to position thin metal foils, was used in the experiment. One of the foils was connected to an electric power source and small displacements of the foil were caused and controlled by Ohmic heating. An He-Ne laser was used to perform the holography.

  11. Review of current study methods for VRU safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Kamaluddin, Noor Azreena; Várhelyi, András

    written questionnaires (either online or paper-based), interviews may be performed (either face-to-face or via telephone) and people may be asked to report their accident via an app on their mobile device. The method for gaining self-reported information thus varies greatly – and so does the information...... that people are asked to give. In most studies, only the number of accidents in which the respondent was involved is relevant for the researcher. In other studies, respondents are asked about possible accident causation factors, and some studies deal with respondents’ recall of the accident details. In other...

  12. Specificity of the Acute Tryptophan and Tyrosine Plus Phenylalanine Depletion and Loading Tests I. Review of Biochemical Aspects and Poor Specificity of Current Amino Acid Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla A.-B. Badawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The acute tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine depletion and loading tests are powerful tools for studying the roles of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in normal subjects and those with behavioural disorders. The current amino acid formulations for these tests, however, are associated with undesirable decreases in ratios of tryptophan or tyrosine plus phenylalanine to competing amino acids resulting in loss of specificity. This could confound biochemical and behavioural findings. Compositions of current formulations are reviewed, the biochemical principles underpinning the tests are revisited and examples of unintended changes in the above ratios and their impact on monoamine function and behaviour will be demonstrated from data in the literature. The presence of excessive amounts of the 3 branched-chain amino acids Leu, Ile and Val is responsible for these unintended decreases and the consequent loss of specificity. Strategies for enhancing the specificity of the different formulations are proposed.

  13. Current approaches of genome-wide association studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Xu

    2008-01-01

    @@ With rapid advances in high-throughput genotyping technology and the great increase in information available on SNPs throughout the genuine, genuine-wide association(GWA) studies have now become feasible.

  14. Cost-of-Illness Studies: A Review of Current Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere Akobundu; Jing Ju; Lisa Blatt; C Daniel Mullins

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods...

  15. Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study Equipment Testing at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burks, BL

    2001-02-27

    This report provides a summary of the cold tests performed on the equipment to be used in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study. The testing was performed from June 1996 to May 1997 at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility located at the 7600 complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Testing of specific equipment grouped into the following sections: (1) Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm Testing, (2) Remotely Operated Vehicle Testing, (3) Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System and Balance of Plant Equipment Testing, (4) Camera and Lighting System Testing, and (5) Characterization End-Effector Testing. Each section contains descriptions of a series of tests that summarize the test objectives, testing performed, and test results. General conclusions from the testing are also provided.

  16. ROOT Analysis of 2004 H8 Test Beam Data & Studies of MDT Sense Wire Displacements

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    Tests are being carried out at the CERN H8 Test Facility on the subdetectors of ATLAS. Using MUTRAK, a tool developed by Dan Levin, data from test muon beam runs are converted to PAW plots and ntuples for easy analysis. ROOT classes are currently being developed to convert the PAW output of MUTRAK to ROOT files for more detailed analysis. Also studies are currently underway to understand the effect of sense wire displacements in Monitored Drift Tubes on drift time spectra. Concurrent tests using simulations in GARFIELD and Cosmic Ray MDT experiments are underway to study wire sags which may be up to 480 micrometers due to gravitational and electrostatic forces .

  17. The Course of Schizophrenia: E. Kraepelin's View and Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Müller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kraepelin's concept of dementia praecox and Bleuler's concept of the group of schizophrenias differ mainly under the aspect of course of the disorder. Follow-up studies play an important role for research regarding course, outcome and prognosis of psychiatric disorders, especially in terms of validation of psychiatric diagnosis and other psychiatric concepts, such as the concept of schizophrenic negative symptoms. Long-term studies also have their place in the description and evaluation of first treatment procedures. This paper will describe some general aspects of the long-term course and outcome of schizophrenic psychoses. The problem of relapses and relapse prevention will then be discussed. Especially data from recent studies will be considered in this overview.

  18. Evaluation of Measurement Uncertainty of Radiated EMC Tests in Arbitrary Field Generators using Surface Currents on DUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schrader

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for the evaluation of measurement uncertainty in radiated EMC tests. It is based on the measurement of surface current densities on a sphere, the results are compared to the surface current distribution on a sphere in a free-space environment obtained by numerical calculations. The free-space is considered to be a reference field generator. By this method we avoid burdening any systematic deviations of one particular (historic method to any of the others. We evaluate the ratio J/E of the measured surface current density J and the measured empty electrical field strength E for both the reverberation chamber and the semi-anechoic chamber.

  19. See Project for Testing Gravity in Space Current Status and New Estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, A D; Kolosnitsyn, N I; Konstantinov, M Yu; Melnikov, V N; Sanders, A J

    1999-01-01

    We describe some new estimates concerning the recently proposed SEE(Satellite Energy Exchange) experiment for measuring the gravitationalinteraction parameters in space. The experiment entails precision tracking ofthe relative motion of two test bodies (a heavy "Shepherd", and a light"Particle") on board a drag-free capsule. The new estimates include (i) thesensitivity of Particle trajectories and G measurement to the Shepherdquadrupole moment uncertainties; (ii) the measurement errors of G and thestrength of a putative Yukawa-type force whose range parameter $\\lambda$ may beeither of the order of a few metres or close to the Earth radius; (iii) apossible effect of the Van Allen radiation belts on the SEE experiment due totest body electric charging

  20. Solid-State Fault Current Limiter Development : Design and Testing Update of a 15kV SSCL Power Stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ram Adapa; Mr. Dante Piccone

    2012-04-30

    ABSTRACT The Solid-State Fault Current Limiter (SSCL) is a promising technology that can be applied to utility power delivery systems to address the problem of increasing fault currents associated with load growth. As demand continues to grow, more power is added to utility system either by increasing generator capacity or by adding distributed generators, resulting in higher available fault currents, often beyond the capabilities of the present infrastructure. The SSCL is power-electronics based equipment designed to work with the present utility system to address this problem. The SSCL monitors the line current and dynamically inserts additional impedance into the line in the event of a fault being detected. The SSCL is based on a modular design and can be configured for 5kV through 69kV systems at nominal current ratings of 1000A to 4000A. Results and Findings This report provides the final test results on the development of 15kV class SSCL single phase power stack. The scope of work included the design of the modular standard building block sub-assemblies, the design and manufacture of the power stack and the testing of the power stack for the key functional tests of continuous current capability and fault current limiting action. Challenges and Objectives Solid-State Current Limiter technology impacts a wide spectrum of utility engineering and operating personnel. It addresses the problems associated with load growth both at Transmission and Distribution class networks. The design concept is pioneering in terms of developing the most efficient and compact power electronics equipment for utility use. The initial test results of the standard building blocks are promising. The independent laboratory tests of the power stack are promising. However the complete 3 phase system needs rigorous testing for performance and reliability. Applications, Values, and Use The SSCL is an intelligent power-electronics device which is modular in design and can provide current

  1. Organ preconditioning: the past, current status, and related lung studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUH Shi-ping; YANG Pan-chyr

    2006-01-01

    Preconditioning (PC) has emerged as a powerful method for experimentally and clinically attenuating various types of organ injuries. In this paper related clinical and basic research issues on organ preconditioning issues were systemically reviewed.Since lung injuries, including ischemia-reperfusion and others, play important roles in many clinical results, including thromboembolism, trauma, thermal injury, hypovolemic and endotoxin shock, reimplantation response after organ transplantation, and many respiratory diseases in critical care. It is of interest to uncover methods, including the PCs, to protect the lung from the above injuries. However, related studies on pulmonary PC are relatively rare and still being developed, so we will review previous literature on experimental and clinical studies on pulmonary PC in the following paragraphs.

  2. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri; N; Utkin

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom ofthese animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  3. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah

    2007-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came...

  4. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah; Rouhani, Sherin; Saliba, Kevin J.; Shen, Crystal; Solomon, Tsione; Thomas, Serge L. Y.; Verloo, Patrick; Desai, Sanjay A.

    2009-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came together for a week of discussion and experimentation. In this article, the various models for altered transport are reviewed, together with the areas of consensus in the field and those that require a better understanding. PMID:17292372

  5. Current strategies to minimize toxicity of oxaliplatin: selection of pharmacogenomic panel tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francia, Raffaele; Siesto, Raffaella Stefania; Valente, Daniela; Del Buono, Andrea; Pugliese, Sergio; Cecere, Sabrina; Cavaliere, Carla; Nasti, Guglielmo; Facchini, Gaetano; Berretta, Massimiliano

    2013-11-01

    Oxaliplatin is an anticancer drug routinely used to treat colorectal, gastroesophageal, ovarian, breast, head/neck, and genitourinary cancers. Discontinuation of oxaliplatin treatment is mostly because of peripheral neuropathy, more often than for tumor progression, potentially compromising patient benefit. Several strategies to prevent neurotoxicity have so far been investigated. To overcome this life-threatening side effect, while taking advantage of the antineoplastic activities of oxaliplatin, we describe in detail recent findings on the underlying mechanisms of genetic variants associated with toxicity and resistance to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. A comprehensive panel of eight polymorphisms, previously validated as significant markers related to oxaliplatin toxicity, is proposed and discussed. In addition, the most common available strategies or methods to prevent/minimize the toxicity were described in detail. Moreover, an early outline evaluation of the genotyping costs and methods was taken in consideration. With the availability of individual pharmacogenomic profiles, the oncologists will have new means to make treatment decisions for their patients that maximize benefit and minimize toxicity. With this purpose in mind, the clinician and lab manager should cooperate to evaluate the advantages and limitations, in terms of costs and applicability, of the most appropriate pharmacogenomic tests for routine incorporation into clinical practice.

  6. The end of universality: new collectivities in current literary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Greene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how the literary studies reacted to the conceptual crises of universalism, especially after WWII. In order to replace a concept that refers to the ability of a literary work to transcend time and space, literary studies should focus on different and specific collectivities that, situated in time and space, read and interpret literary works. The author makes use of the concept of the obverse, in which two poems, from different historical moments and intellectual traditions are compared based on a common social-historical problem they are trying to solve.    O autor investiga sobre como os estudos literários reagiram à crise do conceito de universalismo, sobretudo depois da II Guerra Mundial. Para substituir um conceito que se refere à capacidade de uma obra literária transcender tempo e espaço, os estudos literários deveriam indagar sobre as diferentes coletividades específicas, no tempo e no espaço, que leem e dão significado à obra literária. Para isso, o autor se utiliza do conceito de “obverso”, em que dois poemas, de épocas e tradições intelectuais diferentes, são comparados a partir de um problema sócio-histórico que tentam resolver.      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  7. Design Study of Beijing XFEL Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, J P

    2005-01-01

    As R&D of X-ray Free Electron Laser facility in China, the construction of Beijing XFEL Test Facility (BTF) has been proposed. And the start to end simulation of BTF was made with codes PARMELA, ELEGANT and TDA. This paper presents the motivation, the scheme and the simulation results of BTF.

  8. Evaluation of Test-Driven Development: An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasmus, H.; Gross, H-G.

    2007-01-01

    Test-driven development is a novel software development practice and part of the Extreme Programming paradigm. It is based on the principle that tests should be designed and written for a module iteratively, while the code of the module is devised. This is the opposite of what is usual in current so

  9. Evaluation of Test-Driven Development: An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasmus, H.; Gross, H-G.

    2007-01-01

    Test-driven development is a novel software development practice and part of the Extreme Programming paradigm. It is based on the principle that tests should be designed and written for a module iteratively, while the code of the module is devised. This is the opposite of what is usual in current

  10. Evaluation of Test-Driven Development: An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasmus, H.; Gross, H-G.

    2007-01-01

    Test-driven development is a novel software development practice and part of the Extreme Programming paradigm. It is based on the principle that tests should be designed and written for a module iteratively, while the code of the module is devised. This is the opposite of what is usual in current so

  11. Study of variables for accelerating lifetime testing of SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploner, Alexandra; Hagen, Anke; Hauch, Anne

    at a generally accepted result. First accelerated testing approaches were performed under non-steady operation conditions (current cycling,temperature cycling) by different researchers [1, 2]. However, cycling conditions seemed to have no significant impact on degradation mechanisms. Furthermore, tests done...

  12. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes.

  13. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of descriptive varieties of philosophy of religion primarily concerned with understanding and the clarification of meaning rather than with the stereotypical tasks of propositional justification or critical evaluation. Three examples are discussed in the article: analytic traditions (Wittgensteinianism and ordinarylanguage philosophy, phenomenological perspectives involving reduction (bracketing and comparative philosophy of religion that works in tandem with the history of religion and comparative religion.

  14. Detection of plating defects using ultrasonic and eddy current test methods; Nachweis von Plattierungsfehlern mit Ultraschall- und Wirbelstromverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waidele, H.; Knoch, P. [MPA, Univ. Stuttgart (Germany); Gersinska, R. [BfS Salzgitter (Germany); Brenner, W.; Seidenkranz, T. [TUeV Sued (Germany); Csapo, G.; Just, T. [TUeV Nord (Germany); Weiss, R. [IzfP Saarbruecken (Germany); Rathgeb, W. [IntelligeNDT, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The validity of ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels was investigated in the context of a project funded by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). In the first phase, test specimens with natural defects were fabricated at MPA Stuttgart; in the second phase, plating defects were introduced in a MPA large-size vessel. Measurements showed that most plating defects will be detected by standard ultrasonic testing. The highest accuracy was achieved by a combination of ultrasonic and eddy current testing. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines vom Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz gefoerderten Vorhabens wurde die Aussagefaehigkeit von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefungen an austenitischen Plattierungen von Reaktordruckbehaeltern untersucht. In der ersten Phase des Vorhabens wurden an der MPA Stuttgart Testkoerper mit natuerlichen Fehlern im Plattierungsbereich gefertigt, in einer zweiten Phase wurden Plattierungsfehler in den MPA-Grossbehaelter eingebracht. Die Messungen haben gezeigt, dass die meisten Plattierungsfehler mit Ultraschall-Standardprueftechniken nachweisbar sind, wobei die groesste Aussagekraft bei einer Kombination von Ultraschall- und Wirbelstrompruefung gegeben ist. (orig.)

  15. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and College Students' Current Suicidal Ideation: A Test of the Helplessness Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Brandon E.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Rose, Donna T.; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the hopelessness theory of depression's etiological chain to account for this relation in a sample of 297 undergraduates. Results indicated that emotional, but not physical or sexual, maltreatment was uniquely related to average levels of suicidal ideation across a 2.5-year follow-up. (Author)

  17. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  18. 脉冲漏磁检测中的涡流效应%Eddy Current Effect in Pulsed Magnetic Flux Leakage Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费骏骉; 左宪章; 田贵云; 张云; 张韬

    2012-01-01

    In order to comprehend the characteristic of eddy current effect in pulsed magnetic flux leakage testing, this paper lays the foundation to further analyze pulsed magnetic flux leakage testing signal, builds simulating model of finite element in pulsed magnetic flux leakage testing, observes the distribution of transient magnetic field and induced eddy current in the test and analyzes and studies the features of characteristic quantity of induced eddy current and influential factors. The result shows that transient magnetic field and induced eddy current overall correspond with skin effect and affect each other in pulsed magnetic flux leakage testing. Induced eddy current has the feature of shallow penetrating depth and strong induction. Peak time of eddy current density has relative stronger resolution on depth direction. Electrical conductivity and magnetic conductivity affect the penetrating depth of induced eddy current and resolution of peak time of density on depth direction; pulsed stimulating ascendant time constant only affects the penetrating depth of induced eddy current, not relevant to resolution of peak time of density on depth direction.%为了解脉冲漏磁检测中涡流效应的特点,奠定进一步分析脉冲漏磁检测信号的基础,建立了脉冲漏磁检测的有限元仿真模型,观察了检测中瞬态磁场和感生涡流的分布,分析了感生涡流特征量的特点及影响因素。结果表明,脉冲漏磁检测中,瞬态磁场和感生涡流总体上符合集肤效应并相互影响,其中感生涡流具有渗透深度浅、感应强度大的特点,涡流密度峰值时间在深度方向上有较强的分辨率。电导率和磁导率影响感生涡流的渗透深度和密度峰值时间在深度方向上的分辨率;脉冲激励上升时间常数只影响感生涡流的渗透深度,而和密度峰值时间在深度方向上的分辨率无关。

  19. Breath Tests in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: From Research to Practice in Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, exhaled nitric oxide has been studied the most, and most researches have now focusd on asthma. More than a thousand different volatile organic compounds have been observed in low concentrations in normal human breath. Alkanes and methylalkanes, the majority of breath volatile organic compounds, have been increasingly used by physicians as a novel method to diagnose many diseases without discomforts of invasive procedures. None of the individual exhaled volatile organic compound alone is specific for disease. Exhaled breath analysis techniques may be available to diagnose and monitor the diseases in home setting when their sensitivity and specificity are improved in the future.

  20. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found ...

  1. Immunomodulatory therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: monoclonal antibodies, currently approved and in testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Jessica; Markovic-Plese, Silva

    2015-05-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), a CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease, is one of the most prevalent causes of chronic disability in young adults. Studies of the disease pathogenesis have identified multiple therapeutic targets. The number of approved disease modifying therapies has almost doubled within the past 5 years, which creates a challenge for medical professionals to stay abreast of their use in everyday practice. This manuscript provides an overview of available injectable, oral, and intravenous therapies for RRMS, and offers guidance in selecting an appropriate therapy. Focus is on the recently approved and emerging monoclonal antibody therapies, because they offer more selective and superior therapeutic efficacy compared with injectable and oral disease modifying therapies. We discuss the outlook for monoclonal antibodies and their role in RRMS treatment in the future.

  2. Modeling studies of the coastal/littoral current system off Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Henry A.

    2006-01-01

    Both theoretical and numerical modeling studies of the current system off western and southern Australia are conducted to characterize the features of the current system, their temporal variability, and their impact on the sound speed structure. The theoretical study examines why boundary current separation occurs off Cape Leeuwin creating an area of enhanced eddy generation. It is shown that the beta effect, vortex stretching, and streamline curvature all act to decelerate the current a...

  3. A Practical Study of the 66kV Fault Current Limiter (FCL) System with Rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Yoshio; Yuguchi, Kyosuke; Ohkuma, Takeshi; Hobara, Natsuro; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

    A fault current limiter (FCL) is extensively expected to suppress fault current, particularly required for trunk power systems heavily connected high-voltage transmission lines, such as 500kV class power system which constitutes the nucleus of the electric power system. By installing such FCL in the power system, the system interconnection is possible without the need to raise the capacity of the circuit breakers, and facilities can be configured for efficiency, among other benefits. For these reasons, fault current limiters based on various principles of operation have been developed both in Japan and abroad. In this paper, we have proposed a new type of FCL system, consisting of solid-state diodes, DC coil and bypass AC coil, and described the specification of distribution power system and 66kV model at the island power system and the superconducting cable power system. Also we have made a practical study of 66kV class, which is the testing items and the future subjects of the rectifier type FCL system.

  4. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-11-05

    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  5. Multi-centre testing and validation of current protocols for the identification of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, A P; Collins, C; García-Vásquez, A; Snow, M; Matejusová, I; Paladini, G; Longshaw, M; Lindenstrøm, T; Stone, D M; Turnbull, J F; Picon-Camacho, S M; Rivera, C Vázquez; Duguid, R A; Mo, T A; Hansen, H; Olstad, K; Cable, J; Harris, P D; Kerr, R; Graham, D; Monaghan, S J; Yoon, G H; Buchmann, K; Taylor, N G H; Bakke, T A; Raynard, R; Irving, S; Bron, J E

    2010-10-01

    Despite routine screening requirements for the notifiable fish pathogen Gyrodactylus salaris, no standard operating procedure exists for its rapid identification and discrimination from other species of Gyrodactylus. This study assessed screening and identification efficiencies under real-world conditions for the most commonly employed identification methodologies: visual, morphometric and molecular analyses. Obtained data were used to design a best-practice processing and decision-making protocol allowing rapid specimen throughput and maximal classification accuracy. True specimen identities were established using a consensus from all three identification methods, coupled with the use of host and location information. The most experienced salmonid gyrodactylid expert correctly identified 95.1% of G. salaris specimens. Statistical methods of classification identified 66.7% of the G. salaris, demonstrating the need for much wider training. Molecular techniques (internal transcribed spacer region-restriction fragment length polymorphism (ITS-RFLP)/cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequencing) conducted in the diagnostic laboratory most experienced in the analysis of gyrodactylid material, identified 100% of the true G. salaris specimens. Taking into account causes of potential specimen loss, the probabilities of a specimen being accurately identified were 95%, 87% and 92% for visual, morphometric and molecular techniques, respectively, and the probabilities of correctly identifying a specimen of G. salaris by each method were 81%, 58% and 92%. Inter-analyst agreement for 189 gyrodactylids assessed by all three methods using Fleiss' Kappa suggested substantial agreement in identification between the methods. During routine surveillance periods when low numbers of specimens are analysed, we recommend that specimens be analysed using the ITS-RFLP approach followed by sequencing of specimens with a "G. salaris-like" (i.e. G. salaris, Gyrodactylus thymalli) banding pattern

  6. Predictors of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship: prospective tests of the prototype hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roisman, Glenn I; Collins, W Andrew; Sroufe, L Alan; Egeland, Byron

    2005-06-01

    Although attachment theory suggests that childhood experiences with caregivers serve as a prototype for adult love relationships, few explicit tests of this hypothesis exist in the literature. Drawing on data from a longitudinal cohort followed from birth to young adulthood, this paper examined correlates and antecedents of young adults' representations of and behavior in their current romantic relationship. Young adults who experienced a secure relationship with their primary caregiver in infancy as assessed in the Strange Situation were more likely to (a) produce coherent discourse regarding their current romantic partnership in the context of the Current Relationship Interview (CRI) and (b) have a higher quality romantic relationship as observed in standard conflict and collaboration tasks. Infant security accounted for variation in CRI security above and beyond the observed quality of participants' current romantic relationship. In contrast, the association between infant and romantic security was partially mediated by individuals' self-reports about their romantic experiences, suggesting that one plausible mechanism by which early experiences with caregivers shape young adults' representations of their attachments with romantic partners is through adults' expectations for and perceptions of love relationships.

  7. Tidal current and sediment model test and study on channel and breakwater of the fifth excavated- in harbor of Caofeidian%曹妃甸挖入式五港池航道与防波堤工程潮流泥沙物理模型试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘小建; 张磊; 孙路

    2014-01-01

    After the completion of the Caofeidian fifth excavated-in harbor,the shoal area becomes a deepwater harbor by the surrounding reclamation or excavation, therefore the mainly problem is fine sediment deposition in harbor channel, for this purpose,the channel and breakwater of the fifth harbor project are researched in this paper by tidal current and sediment model test. Test shows that the Caofeidian fifth harbor and breakwater construction did not change the flow characteristics of deep groove, the macroscopic flow field of Caofeidian sea area had no effect;the water flow conditions of breakwater plan 2 and 3 are better,the plan 3 is slightly better than plan 2. Sediment test shows that the annual average depositional intensity is about 0.15 m/a,the annual maximum sediment thickness is 0.5~0.6 m/a,the difference of each scheme is little;line channel av-erage annual siltation intensity is 0.43 m/a, the maximum was 0.69 m/a;annual average linear channel siltation intensity is 0.39 m/a,maximum 0.55 m/a,straight channel is superior to that of line channel. From the analysis of flow and sediment test results,scheme 3 is better,followed by scheme 2. Test results can provide a scientific basis for the selection of design scheme.%曹妃甸挖入式五港池建成后,浅滩区被围填或开挖成深水港池,因此港池航道主要是细颗粒泥沙淤积问题,为此通过潮流泥沙物理模型试验对五港池防波堤及航道工程进行研究。试验表明,五港池港区及防波堤建设没有改变深槽水流特性,对曹妃甸海域宏观流场基本没有影响;防波堤方案2和方案3水流条件较好,其中方案3稍优于方案2。泥沙试验表明,港池年平均淤强为0.15 m/a左右,年最大回淤厚度为0.5~0.6 m/a,各方案差别不大;折线航道年平均淤积强度为0.43 m/a,最大为0.69 m/a;直线航道年平均淤积强度为0.39 m/a,最大为0.55 m/a,直线航道要明显优于折线航道。从水流

  8. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

  9. A reciprocating pin-on-plate test-rig for studying friction materials for holding brakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Drago, Nicola; Klit, Peder

    2014-01-01

    -on-plate test-rig for studying the evolution of wear by monitoring the pin height reduction using Eddy-current proximity sensors is presented. Moreover, a new mechanism for recording the friction force is suggested. Apart from the design of the test-rig, friction force and wear rate measurements for two...

  10. EAP Study Recommendations and Score Gains on the IELTS Academic Writing Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    The IELTS test is widely accepted by university admissions offices as evidence of English language ability. The test is also used to guide decisions about the amount of language study required for students to satisfy admissions requirements. Guidelines currently published by the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes…

  11. Current Experience in Testing Mitochondrial Nutrients in Disorders Featuring Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Rational Design of Chemoprevention Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pagano

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF and oxidative stress (OS. Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed “mitochondrial nutrients” (MN, such as α-lipoic acid (ALA, Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, and l-carnitine (CARN (or its derivatives have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a treated diseases; (b dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with “classical” antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed.

  12. Current Experience in Testing Mitochondrial Nutrients in Disorders Featuring Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Rational Design of Chemoprevention Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Giovanni; Aiello Talamanca, Annarita; Castello, Giuseppe; Cordero, Mario D.; d’Ischia, Marco; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Pallardó, Federico V.; Petrović, Sandra; Tiano, Luca; Zatterale, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    An extensive number of pathologies are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) and oxidative stress (OS). Thus, mitochondrial cofactors termed “mitochondrial nutrients” (MN), such as α-lipoic acid (ALA), Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and l-carnitine (CARN) (or its derivatives) have been tested in a number of clinical trials, and this review is focused on the use of MN-based clinical trials. The papers reporting on MN-based clinical trials were retrieved in MedLine up to July 2014, and evaluated for the following endpoints: (a) treated diseases; (b) dosages, number of enrolled patients and duration of treatment; (c) trial success for each MN or MN combinations as reported by authors. The reports satisfying the above endpoints included total numbers of trials and frequencies of randomized, controlled studies, i.e., 81 trials testing ALA, 107 reports testing CoQ10, and 74 reports testing CARN, while only 7 reports were retrieved testing double MN associations, while no report was found testing a triple MN combination. A total of 28 reports tested MN associations with “classical” antioxidants, such as antioxidant nutrients or drugs. Combinations of MN showed better outcomes than individual MN, suggesting forthcoming clinical studies. The criteria in study design and monitoring MN-based clinical trials are discussed. PMID:25380523

  13. Surface integral formulation of Maxwell's equations for simulation of non-destructive testing by eddy currents. Preliminary study on the implementation of the fast multipole method; Formulation integrale surfacique des equations de Maxwell pour la simulation de controles non destructifs par courant de Foucault. Etude preliminaire a la mise en oeuvre de la methode multipole rapide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T.

    2011-04-28

    To simulate numerically a non-destructive by eddy current testing (NDT-CF), the sensor response can be modeled through a semi-analytical approach by volume integral equations. Faster than the finite element method, this approach is however restricted to the study of plane or cylindrical parts (without taking into account the edge effects) because of the complexity of the expression of the dyadic Green function for more general configurations. However, there is an industrial demand to extend the capabilities of the CF model in complex configurations (deformed plates, edges effects...). We were thus brought to formulate the electromagnetic problem differently, by setting ourselves the goal of maintaining a semi-analytical approach. The surface integral equation (SIE) expresses the volume problem by an equivalent transmission one at the interfaces (2D) between homogeneous sub-domains. This problem is approached by a linear system (by the method of moments), whose number of unknowns is reduced due to the nature of the surfacic mesh. Therefore, this system can be solved by a direct solver for small configurations. That enabled us to treat several various positions of the sensor for only one inversion of the impedance matrix. The numerical results obtained using this formulation involve plates with consideration of edge effects such as edge and corner. They are consistent with results obtained by the finite element method. For larger configurations, we conducted a preliminary study for the adaptation of an acceleration method of the matrix vector product involved in an iterative solver (fast multipole method or FMM) to define the conditions under which the FMM calculation works correctly (accuracy, convergence...) in the NDT's domain. A special attention has been given to the choice of basis functions (which have to satisfy an Hdiv conforming property) and on the evaluation of near interactions (which are weakly singular). (author) [French] Pour simuler

  14. Economic evaluations and diagnostic testing: an illustrative case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghera, Sabina; Orlando, Rosanna; Roberts, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a clear process of synthesizing test accuracy data when conducting economic evaluations of diagnostic tests for health technology assessment (HTA) assessors and health economists. We appraised the methods advocated for using diagnostic test accuracy data in economic evaluations. We used a case study of fetal anemia in which data from a screening test are used in combination with a confirmatory test. We developed a step-by-step guide and consider two scenarios: when data on test accuracy from several studies are based on (i) the same test threshold for positivity and (ii) different test thresholds. We conclude that each approach has its strengths and limitations. We show that the optimal operating point of the test should be identified to determine the true cost-effectiveness of the test. We advocate that these issues require a multidisciplinary team of health economists, decision modelers and statisticians.

  15. A Framework for Testing Scientific Software: A Case Study of Testing Amsterdam Discrete Dipole Approximation Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongbing

    Software testing with scientific software systems often suffers from test oracle problem, i.e., lack of test oracles. Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation code (ADDA) is a scientific software system that can be used to simulate light scattering of scatterers of various types. Testing of ADDA suffers from "test oracle problem". In this thesis work, I established a testing framework to test scientific software systems and evaluated this framework using ADDA as a case study. To test ADDA, I first used CMMIE code as the pseudo oracle to test ADDA in simulating light scattering of a homogeneous sphere scatterer. Comparable results were obtained between ADDA and CMMIE code. This validated ADDA for use with homogeneous sphere scatterers. Then I used experimental result obtained for light scattering of a homogeneous sphere to validate use of ADDA with sphere scatterers. ADDA produced light scattering simulation comparable to the experimentally measured result. This further validated the use of ADDA for simulating light scattering of sphere scatterers. Then I used metamorphic testing to generate test cases covering scatterers of various geometries, orientations, homogeneity or non-homogeneity. ADDA was tested under each of these test cases and all tests passed. The use of statistical analysis together with metamorphic testing is discussed as a future direction. In short, using ADDA as a case study, I established a testing framework, including use of pseudo oracles, experimental results and the metamorphic testing techniques to test scientific software systems that suffer from test oracle problems. Each of these techniques is necessary and contributes to the testing of the software under test.

  16. Gummel Symmetry Test on charge based drain current expression using modified first-order hyperbolic velocity-field expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kirmender; Bhattacharyya, A. B.

    2017-03-01

    Gummel Symmetry Test (GST) has been a benchmark industry standard for MOSFET models and is considered as one of important tests by the modeling community. BSIM4 MOSFET model fails to pass GST as the drain current equation is not symmetrical because drain and source potentials are not referenced to bulk. BSIM6 MOSFET model overcomes this limitation by taking all terminal biases with reference to bulk and using proper velocity saturation (v -E) model. The drain current equation in BSIM6 is charge based and continuous in all regions of operation. It, however, adopts a complicated method to compute source and drain charges. In this work we propose to use conventional charge based method formulated by Enz for obtaining simpler analytical drain current expression that passes GST. For this purpose we adopt two steps: (i) In the first step we use a modified first-order hyperbolic v -E model with adjustable coefficients which is integrable, simple and accurate, and (ii) In the second we use a multiplying factor in the modified first-order hyperbolic v -E expression to obtain correct monotonic asymptotic behavior around the origin of lateral electric field. This factor is of empirical form, which is a function of drain voltage (vd) and source voltage (vs) . After considering both the above steps we obtain drain current expression whose accuracy is similar to that obtained from second-order hyperbolic v -E model. In modified first-order hyperbolic v -E expression if vd and vs is replaced by smoothing functions for the effective drain voltage (vdeff) and effective source voltage (vseff), it will as well take care of discontinuity between linear to saturation regions of operation. The condition of symmetry is shown to be satisfied by drain current and its higher order derivatives, as both of them are odd functions and their even order derivatives smoothly pass through the origin. In strong inversion region and technology node of 22 nm the GST is shown to pass till sixth

  17. Evaluation of the finger wrinkling test : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Barneveld, S.; van der Palen, J.; van Putten, M. J. A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Tilt table testing mainly evaluates the systemic cardiovascular part of the autonomic nervous system, while it is assumed that the finger wrinkling test assesses the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system. In this study we explored whether the finger wrinkling test could be a useful test fo

  18. Study Of Nondestructive Techniques For Testing Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D.; Kautz, H.; Draper, S.; Bansal, N.; Bowles, K.; Bashyam, M.; Bishop, C.

    1995-01-01

    Study evaluates some nondestructive methods for characterizing ceramic-, metal-, and polymer-matrix composite materials. Results demonstrated utility of two ultrasonic methods for obtaining quantitative data on microstructural anomalies in composite materials.

  19. MREIT experiments with 200μA injected currents: a feasibility study using two reconstruction algorithms, SMM and Harmonic BZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpinar, V E; Hamamura, M J; Degirmenci, E; Muftuler, L T

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is a technique that produces images of conductivity in tissues and phantoms. In this technique electrical currents are applied to an object and the resulting magnetic flux density is measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the conductivity distribution is reconstructed using these MRI data. Currently the technique is used in research environments, primarily studying phantoms and animals. In order to translate MREIT to clinical applications, strict safety standards need to be established, especially for safe current limits. However, there are currently no standards for safe current limits specific to MREIT. Until such standards are established, human MREIT applications need to conform to existing electrical safety standards in medical instrumentation, such as the IEC601. This protocol limits patient auxiliary currents to 100μA for low frequencies. However, published MREIT studies have utilized currents 10 to 400 times larger than this limit, bringing into question whether the clinical applications of MREIT are attainable under current standards. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of MREIT to accurately reconstruct the relative conductivity of a simple agarose phantom using 200μA total injected current and we tested the performance of two MREIT reconstruction algorithms. These reconstruction algorithms used are the iterative sensitivity matrix method (SMM) by Ider and Birgul in 1998 with Tikhonov regularization and the Harmonic BZ proposed by Oh et al in 2003. The reconstruction techniques were tested at both 200μA and 5mA injected currents to investigate their noise sensitivity at low and high current conditions. It should be noted that 200μA total injected current into a cylindrical phantom generates only 14.7μA current in imaging slice. Similarly, 5mA total injected current results in 367μA in imaging slice. Total acquisition time for 200μA and 5mA experiments were about one

  20. Equity perceptions and marital satisfaction in former and current marriage : A study among the remarried

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Mutsaers, W

    1999-01-01

    A study among 290 remarried individuals examined equity perceptions in the former and the current marriage. The results showed that equity in the former and the current marriage were not related to each other. In general, respondents perceived much more inequity in the former than in the current mar

  1. Design and Experimental Study of a Current Transformer with a Stacked PCB Based on B-Dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingang; Si, Diancheng; Tian, Tian; Ren, Ran

    2017-04-10

    An electronic current transformer with a B-dot sensor is proposed in this study. The B-dot sensor can realize the current measurement of the transmission line in a non-contact way in accordance with the principle of magnetic field coupling. The multiple electrodes series-opposing structure is applied together with differential input structures and active integrating circuits, which can allow the sensor to operate in differential mode. Maxwell software is adopted to model and simulate the sensor. Optimization of the sensor structural parameters is conducted through finite-element simulation. A test platform is built to conduct the steady-state characteristic, on-off operation, and linearity tests for the designed current transformer under the power-frequency current. As shown by the test results, in contrast with traditional electromagnetic CT, the designed current transformer can achieve high accuracy and good phase-frequency; its linearity is also very good at different distances from the wire. The proposed current transformer provides a new method for electricity larceny prevention and on-line monitoring of the power grid in an electric system, thereby satisfying the development demands of the smart power grid.

  2. Studies on IPTV over IMS test bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sundara Raja Raja Perumal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem is an architecturalframe work which allows the convergence ofWireless, Wire line networks and internet therebyserving the use of a global platform for the deliveryof IP multimedia applications. Thus IMS leads inthe greater support of Next Generation Networks(NGN. The cause for IMS a high level technology’sdesign and origin is mainly for the 3rd GenerationPartnership Projects (3GPP. The intension of thedesign and origin of such a subsystem is to enablethe service providers to create and deliver valueadded services to the users on heterogeneousnetwork. IMS is all about sending data (voice,video, files etc over an instrument using absolutelyany kind of networks. The system has beenconfigured to the real IP of 127.0.0.1 using the opensource tool of OpenIMSCore. IMS has beenconfigured between the hosts using OPEN IMSCORE test bed on an Open Source platform andinitiate the calls between several IMS clients and itsregistration was evaluated. The traffic parametersof SIP IMS parameter has been verified usingWireshark network analyzer.

  3. Studies on IPTV over IMS test bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sundara Raja Raja Perumal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem is an architectural frame work which allows the convergence of Wireless, Wire line networks and internet thereby serving the use of a global platform for the delivery of IP multimedia applications. Thus IMS leads in the greater support of Next Generation Networks (NGN. The cause for IMS a high level technology’s design and origin is mainly for the 3rd Generation Partnership Projects (3GPP. The intension of the design and origin of such a subsystem is to enable the service providers to create and deliver value added services to the users on heterogeneous network. IMS is all about sending data (voice, video, files etc over an instrument using absolutely any kind of networks. The system has been configured to the real IP of 127.0.0.1 using the open source tool of OpenIMSCore. IMS has been configured between the hosts using OPEN IMS CORE test bed on an Open Source platform and initiate the calls between several IMS clients and its registration was evaluated. The traffic parameters of SIP IMS parameter has been verified using Wireshark network analyzer.

  4. An epidemiologic critique of current microbial risk assessment practices: the importance of prevalence and test accuracy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A

    2004-09-01

    Data deficiencies are impeding the development and validation of microbial risk assessment models. One such deficiency is the failure to adjust test-based (apparent) prevalence estimates to true prevalence estimates by correcting for the imperfect accuracy of tests that are used. Such adjustments will facilitate comparability of data from different populations and from the same population over time as tests change and the unbiased quantification of effects of mitigation strategies. True prevalence can be estimated from apparent prevalence using frequentist and Bayesian methods, but the latter are more flexible and can incorporate uncertainty in test accuracy and prior prevalence data. Both approaches can be used for single or multiple populations, but the Bayesian approach can better deal with clustered data, inferences for rare events, and uncertainty in multiple variables. Examples of prevalence inferences based on results of Salmonella culture are presented. The opportunity to adjust test-based prevalence estimates is predicated on the availability of sensitivity and specificity estimates. These estimates can be obtained from studies using archived gold standard (reference) samples, by screening with the new test and follow-up of test-positive and test-negative samples with a gold standard test, and by use of latent class methods, which make no assumptions about the true status of each sampling unit. Latent class analysis can be done with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, and an example of their use in the evaluation of tests for Toxoplasma gondii in pigs is presented. Guidelines are proposed for more transparent incorporation of test data into microbial risk assessments.

  5. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology initiative was created in FY 1999 to reduce the uncertainty associated with vadose zone transport processes beneath waste sites at DOE's Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This information is needed not only to evaluate the risks from transport, but also to support the adoption of measures for minimizing impacts to the groundwater and surrounding environment. The principal uncertainties in vadose zone transport are the current distribution of source contaminants and the natural heterogeneity of the soil in which the contaminants reside. Oversimplified conceptual models resulting from these uncertainties and limited use of hydrologic characterization and monitoring technologies have hampered the understanding contaminant migration through Hanford's vadose zone. Essential prerequisites for reducing vadose transport uncertainly include the development of accurate conceptual models and the development or adoption of monitoring techniques capable of delineating the current distributions of source contaminants and characterizing natural site heterogeneity. The Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS) was conceived as part of the initiative to address the major uncertainties confronting vadose zone fate and transport predictions at the Hanford Site and to overcome the limitations of previous characterization attempts. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is managing the VZTFS for DOE. The VZTFS will conduct field investigations that will improve the understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. Ideally, these methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing infrastructure (i.e., more than 1,300 steel-cased boreholes). The objectives of the VZTFS are to conduct controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field sites at

  6. FY11 Facility Assessment Study for Aeronautics Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, John A.; Sydnor, George H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the approach and results for the Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) FY11 Facility Assessment Project. ATP commissioned assessments in FY07 and FY11 to aid in the understanding of the current condition and reliability of its facilities and their ability to meet current and future (five year horizon) test requirements. The principle output of the assessment was a database of facility unique, prioritized investments projects with budgetary cost estimates. This database was also used to identify trends for the condition of facility systems.

  7. Computer-aided design of multifrequency eddy-current tests for layered conductors with multiple property variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deeds, W E; Dodd, C V; Scott, G W

    1979-10-01

    Our program is part of a larger project designed to develop multifrequency eddy-current inspection techniques for multilayered conductors with parallel planar boundaries. To reduce the need to specially program each new problem, a family of programs that handle a large class of related problems with only minor editorial and interactive changes were developed. Programs for two types of cylindrical coil probes were developed: the reflection probe, which contains the driver and pickup coils and is used from one side of the specimen, and the through-transmission probe set, which places the driver and pickup coils on opposite sides of the conductor stack. The programs perform the following basic functions: (1) simulation of an ideal instrument's response to specific conductor and defect configurations, (2) control of an eddy-current instrument interfaced to a minicomputer to acquire and record actual instrument responses to test specimens, (3) construction of complex function expansions to relate instrument response to conductor and defect properties by using measured or computed responses and properties, and (4) simulation of a microcomputer on board the instrument by the interfaced minicomputer to test the analytical programming for the microcomputer. The report contains the basic equations for the computations, the main and subroutine programs, instructions for editorial changes and program execution, analyses of the main programs, file requirements, and other miscellaneous aids for the user.

  8. Study of Flavour Changing Neutral Currents in Top Quark Decays with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Karafasoulis, C; Vermisoglou, Grigorios; Benucci, Leonardo; Giammanco, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains the first realistic estimate for the CMS sensitivity to Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) in the top quark sector. The non Standard Model decays t -> Zq and t -> gamma q (q represents c or u quarks) have been studied at sqrts = 14 TeV exploiting leptonic decays of the Z boson and the photon. A realistic detector simulation has been adopted and the most relevant systematic effects have been addressed. The 5- sigma discovery limits for the two decays are BR(t-> qZ) =11.4 x 10^ -4 and BR(t -> gamma q ) =5.7 x 10^ -4, allowing some models of new physics to be tested.

  9. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Guimarães, Rachel Silvany Quadros; Jagersbacher, João Gabriel; Barretto, Thiago Lima; de Jesus-Silva, Jéssica Regina; Santos, Samantha Nunes; Argollo, Nayara; Lucena, Rita

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the possible benefits of transcranial direct current stimulation on left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not been performed. This study assesses the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD on neuropsychological tests of visual attention, visual and verbal working memory, and inhibitory control. An auto-matched clinical trial was performed involving transcranial direct current stimulation in children and adolescents with ADHD, using SNAP-IV and subtests Vocabulary and Cubes of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III). Subjects were assessed before and after transcranial direct current stimulation sessions with the Digit Span subtest of the WISC-III, inhibitory control subtest of the NEPSY-II, Corsi cubes, and the Visual Attention Test (TAVIS-3). There were 9 individuals with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) criteria. There was statistically significant difference in some aspects of TAVIS-3 tests and the inhibitory control subtest of NEPSY-II. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be related to a more efficient processing speed, improved detection of stimuli, and improved ability to switch between an ongoing activity and a new one.

  10. Increasing the Depth of Current Understanding: Sensitivity Testing of Deep-Sea Larval Dispersal Models for Ecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rebecca E; Nimmo-Smith, W Alex M; Howell, Kerry L

    2016-01-01

    Larval dispersal is an important ecological process of great interest to conservation and the establishment of marine protected areas. Increasing numbers of studies are turning to biophysical models to simulate dispersal patterns, including in the deep-sea, but for many ecologists unassisted by a physical oceanographer, a model can present as a black box. Sensitivity testing offers a means to test the models' abilities and limitations and is a starting point for all modelling efforts. The aim of this study is to illustrate a sensitivity testing process for the unassisted ecologist, through a deep-sea case study example, and demonstrate how sensitivity testing can be used to determine optimal model settings, assess model adequacy, and inform ecological interpretation of model outputs. Five input parameters are tested (timestep of particle simulator (TS), horizontal (HS) and vertical separation (VS) of release points, release frequency (RF), and temporal range (TR) of simulations) using a commonly employed pairing of models. The procedures used are relevant to all marine larval dispersal models. It is shown how the results of these tests can inform the future set up and interpretation of ecological studies in this area. For example, an optimal arrangement of release locations spanning a release area could be deduced; the increased depth range spanned in deep-sea studies may necessitate the stratification of dispersal simulations with different numbers of release locations at different depths; no fewer than 52 releases per year should be used unless biologically informed; three years of simulations chosen based on climatic extremes may provide results with 90% similarity to five years of simulation; and this model setup is not appropriate for simulating rare dispersal events. A step-by-step process, summarising advice on the sensitivity testing procedure, is provided to inform all future unassisted ecologists looking to run a larval dispersal simulation.

  11. Increasing the Depth of Current Understanding: Sensitivity Testing of Deep-Sea Larval Dispersal Models for Ecologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo-Smith, W. Alex M.; Howell, Kerry L.

    2016-01-01

    Larval dispersal is an important ecological process of great interest to conservation and the establishment of marine protected areas. Increasing numbers of studies are turning to biophysical models to simulate dispersal patterns, including in the deep-sea, but for many ecologists unassisted by a physical oceanographer, a model can present as a black box. Sensitivity testing offers a means to test the models’ abilities and limitations and is a starting point for all modelling efforts. The aim of this study is to illustrate a sensitivity testing process for the unassisted ecologist, through a deep-sea case study example, and demonstrate how sensitivity testing can be used to determine optimal model settings, assess model adequacy, and inform ecological interpretation of model outputs. Five input parameters are tested (timestep of particle simulator (TS), horizontal (HS) and vertical separation (VS) of release points, release frequency (RF), and temporal range (TR) of simulations) using a commonly employed pairing of models. The procedures used are relevant to all marine larval dispersal models. It is shown how the results of these tests can inform the future set up and interpretation of ecological studies in this area. For example, an optimal arrangement of release locations spanning a release area could be deduced; the increased depth range spanned in deep-sea studies may necessitate the stratification of dispersal simulations with different numbers of release locations at different depths; no fewer than 52 releases per year should be used unless biologically informed; three years of simulations chosen based on climatic extremes may provide results with 90% similarity to five years of simulation; and this model setup is not appropriate for simulating rare dispersal events. A step-by-step process, summarising advice on the sensitivity testing procedure, is provided to inform all future unassisted ecologists looking to run a larval dispersal simulation. PMID

  12. A Structured Design for Test Methodology: A Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a case study of a structured Design for Test (DFT) methodology that was adopted for our ASIC project used in High-Definition TV system. The methodology includes the following features, full-scan for chip test, test point insertion, test, path delay test, embedded SRAM Build-In Self Test (BIST), and also the implementation of IEEE 1149.1 Standard. The paper discusses details of the ASIC designs and technology. Our chip has a 2+ million transistors and large embedded memory, which brought us extra test challenge.

  13. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group...... of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding...... the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near...

  14. An expert consortium review of the EC-commissioned report "alternative (Non-Animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects - 2010"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, Thomas; Blaauboer, Bas J; Bosgra, Sieto

    2011-01-01

    The European cosmetics legislation foresees a review in 2011 and possible postponement of the 2013 marketing ban to enforce the testing ban for systemic and repeated-dose animal tests. For this purpose, a 119-page report commissioned by the European Commission was published recently. Here, a group...... of 17 independent experts from the US, Europe, and Japan was brought together to evaluate the report. The expert panel strongly endorsed the report and its conclusions. A number of important options not considered were identified; these do not, however, affect the overall conclusions regarding...... the current lack of availability of a full replacement, especially for the areas of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity testing, and reproductive toxicity, though a roadmap for change is emerging. However, some of these options may provide adequate data for replacement of some animal studies in the near...

  15. Optimal Trend Tests for Genetic Association Studies of Heterogeneous Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-06-09

    The Cochran-Armitage trend test is a standard procedure in genetic association studies. It is a directed test with high power to detect genetic effects that follow the gene-dosage model. In this paper, the author proposes optimal trend tests for genetic association studies of heterogeneous diseases. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the power gain of the optimal trend tests over the conventional Cochran-Armitage trend test is striking when the genetic effects are heterogeneous. The easy-to-use R 3.1.2 software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) code is provided. The optimal trend tests are recommended for routine use.

  16. Current problems of radiographic testing and radiation protection. Contributions; Aktuelle Fragen der Durchstrahlungspruefung und des Strahlenschutzes. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-01

    These seminar proceedings contain eight contributions in the form of summaries, some with PowerPoint slides, on the following topics: 1. Selected applications of radiographic testing in lightweight construction (T. Wenzel et al.); 2. X-ray computer tomography in lightweight construction (H.-J. Ullrich); 3. Testing of castings at Volkswagen using atline computer tomography (F. Hansen et al.), 4: Use of X-ray computer tomography for inspection of fibre-reinforced structures in the aerospace sector (T. Ullmann et al.); 5. New standards in digital radiography and for the phaseout of film radiography - from welding techniques to fibre composites (U. Ewert); 6. The current model approvals for nondestructive testing - what do the regulations require of the radiation protection supervisor and the radiation protection officer? (A. Lange); 7. Pulsed x-ray radiation - what measurement devices come into consideration? - current status and developments (F. Busch); 8. The revised EURATOM basic radiation protection standards - What changes await industrial radiography? [German] Diese Seminar-CD enthaelt acht Beitraege in Form von Kurzfassungen, zum Teil auch mit PowerPoint-Folien, zu folgenden Themen: 1. Ausgewaehlte Anwendungen der Durchstrahlungspruefung im Leichtbau (T. Wenzel et al.); 2. Roentgen-Computer-Tomographie im Leichtbau (H.-J. Ullrich); 3. Pruefung der Gussproduktion bei Volkswagen mit Hilfe der atline Computertomographie (F. Hansen et al.), 4: Einsatz der Roentgen-Computertomographie zur Untersuchung von Faserverbundstrukturen in der Luft- und Raumfahrt (T. Ullmann et al.); 5. Neue Standards zur Digitalen Radiographie und zum Filmersatz - von der Schweisstechnik bis zu Faserkompositen (U. Ewert); 6. Die aktuellen Muster-Genehmigungen in der ZfP - Was verlangen die Auflagen vom SSV und SSB? (A. Lange); 7. Gepulste Roentgenstrahlung - Welche Messgeraete waeren einsetzbar?. - Stand und Entwicklung (F. Busch); 8. Die neue EURATOM-Strahlenschutzgrundnorm - Welche

  17. Non-invasive diagnosis of H pylori infection: Evaluation of serological tests with and without current infection marker CIM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the performance of commercially available immunochromatographic (ICT) and immunoblot tests covering the current infection marker CIM and conventional ELISA for the diagnosis of Hpylori infection in adult dyspeptic patients. METHODS: Consecutive non-treated dyspeptic patients undergoing diagnostic endoscopy were tested for H pylori infection by culture, rapid urease test, and histology of gastric biopsy specimens. Serum from 61 H pylori infected and 21 non-infected patients were tested for anti-H pylori IgG antibodies by commercial ELISA (Accu Bind TM ELISA, Monobind, USA), ICT(Assure(R) H pylori Rapid Test, Genelabs Diagnostics, Singapore),and immunoblot (Helico Blot 2.1,Genelabs Diagnostics, Singapore) assays. ICT and immunoblot kits cover CIN among other parameters and their performance with and without CIM was evaluated separately. RESULTS: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV),negative predictive value (NPV),and accuracy of ELISA were 96.7%,42.8%,83.1%,81.8%,and 82.9%,of ICT were 90.1%,80.9%,93.2%,73.9%,and 87.8%,of ICE with CIM were 88.5%,90.4%,96.4%,73.0%,and 89.0%,of immunoblot were 98.3%,80.9%,93.7%,94.4%,and 93.9%,and of immunoblot with CIM were 98.3%,90.4%,96.7%,95.0%,and 96.3%,respectively.CONCLUSION:Immunoblot with CIM had the best performance. ICE with CIM was found to be more specific and accurate than the conventional ELISA and may be useful for non-invasive diagnosis of H pylori infection.

  18. Tests of a boundary layer model of field-aligned currents using S3-3 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattell, C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Somoza, M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Siscoe, G. [Boston Univ., Boston, MA (United States); Roeder, J. [Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Data obtained from the low altitude, polar orbiting S3-3 satellite are utilized to test the model of field-aligned currents and electric fields within the auroal zone developed by Siscoe and Maynard. This model, for which the cross polar cap potential drop is the input parameter, combines the boundary layer-driven field-aligned current model of Siscoe et al. for Region 1 with a model for Region 2 currents based on Vasyliunas. Many general features of the observations are reproduced by the model. The main discrepancies may be explained by two simplifications which were made in the model: (1) the time independence of the boundary layer, in particular, of the scale length of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, l; and (2) the uniform ionospheric conductivity. When the expected time dependence of l is taken into account, the disagreement between the model gradients, latitudinal extents, and maxima in the fields and those observed in S3-3 data in the poleward (Region 1) auroal zone is readily accounted for in the context of a refined boundary layer model. The fact that the observed Region 2 Currents are usually larger and narrower than the predicted currents may be due to the underestimate of the Region 1 current explained above and the fact that the ionospheric conductivity was constant. These results suggest that the two most important modifications needed to improve the model are the inclusion of local-time dependence in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling parameter (as was done by Phan et al.) and of latitude and local time dependence in the ionospheric conductivity. There is also some evidence that the low-latitude boundary layer (LBL) parameters have cross polar cap potential dependencies which must be included in a model of this type. The S3-3 field data used the convection reversal as a marker for the polar cap boundary, whereas the model used the polarward edge of the low-latitude boundary layer. 33 refs., 4 fig.

  19. Using Baseline Studies in the Investigation of Test Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Dianne; Horak, Tania

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the role of "baseline studies" in investigations of test impact and to illustrate the type of thinking underlying the design and implementation of such studies by reference to a recent study relating to a high-stakes test of English language proficiency. Baseline studies are used to describe an educational…

  20. Study for cryogenic testing the Super-FRS magnets of FAIR in a new test facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Derking, J H; Benda, V; Pirotte, O

    2015-01-01

    The Super-FRS magnets of the international Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) being built at GSI in Germany will be tested at a new cryogenic test facility currently under construction at CERN. During nominal operation the magnets will be cooled with liquid helium to 4.5 K. Over a period of three years in total 57 magnets will be tested of three different types. A study is performed to determine the cryogenic requirements for testing the Super-FRS magnets. The required operational parameters for the cool down, magnet test and warm up phases are determined and the results are discussed in this paper. For pre-cooling the magnets to 90 K with a rate of 1 Kcenterdoth-1, a maximum cooling power of 5.6 kW is required. Cooling down the magnets further to 4.5 K and filling will be performed with LHe within 24 h. For warming up the magnets a maximum heater power of 14 kW is needed. It is concluded that the planned test facility currently under construction at CERN fulfills the cryogenic requirements for t...

  1. Fault Modeling and Testing for Analog Circuits in Complex Space Based on Supply Current and Output Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the modeling of fault for analog circuits. A two-dimensional (2D fault model is first proposed based on collaborative analysis of supply current and output voltage. This model is a family of circle loci on the complex plane, and it simplifies greatly the algorithms for test point selection and potential fault simulations, which are primary difficulties in fault diagnosis of analog circuits. Furthermore, in order to reduce the difficulty of fault location, an improved fault model in three-dimensional (3D complex space is proposed, which achieves a far better fault detection ratio (FDR against measurement error and parametric tolerance. To address the problem of fault masking in both 2D and 3D fault models, this paper proposes an effective design for testability (DFT method. By adding redundant bypassing-components in the circuit under test (CUT, this method achieves excellent fault isolation ratio (FIR in ambiguity group isolation. The efficacy of the proposed model and testing method is validated through experimental results provided in this paper.

  2. Contact allergy to fragrances: current patch test results (2005-2008) from the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Frosch, Peter; Schnuch, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Contact sensitization to fragrances is common both in clinical and in population samples. The spectrum of allergens is broad and diverse, and to some extent covered by a set of screening agents. To examine the current frequency of contact sensitization to fragrance allergens in patients routinely patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis with the baseline series and special series. Between 2005 and 2008, 40 709 patients were patch tested in the departments of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology (http://www.ivdk.org). Results with selected fragrances were analysed. Of all patients tested with the German baseline series, 15.1% reacted positively to fragrance mix (FM) I (6.6% positive), FM II (4.6% positive) or Myroxylon pereirae resin (balsam of Peru, 6.8% positive). Among the single constituents of FM I, Evernia prunastri [oak moss absolute (abs.)] was the leading allergen, and amyl cinnamal the least frequent allergen. Among fragrances not included in FM I or FM II, Evernia furfuracea (tree moss abs.) was the most common allergen. For diagnostic purposes, it is necessary to combine several screening agents. The frequency of contact sensitization differs greatly between single fragrances. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. An Experimental Study on the Darrieus-Savonius Turbine for the Tidal Current Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyozuka, Yusaku

    The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops, a Darrieus turbine is hard to re-start until a fairly fast current is exerted on it. To improve the starting torque of the Darrieus turbine used for tidal power generation, a hybrid turbine, composed of a Darrieus turbine and a Savonius rotor is proposed. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a semi-circular section used for the Savonius bucket were measured in a wind tunnel. The torque of a two bucket Savonius rotor was measured in a circulating water channel, where four different configurations of the bucket were compared. A combined Darrieus and Savonius turbine was tested in the circulating water channel, where the effect of the attaching angle between Darrieus wing and Savonius rotor was studied. Finally, power generation experiments using a 48 pole electric generator were conducted in a towing tank and the power coefficients were compared with the results of experiments obtained in the circulating water channel.

  4. The EpiDerm test protocol for the upcoming ECVAM validation study on in vitro skin irritation tests--an assessment of the performance of the optimised test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandárová, Helena; Liebsch, Manfred; Gerner, Ingrid; Schmidt, Elisabeth; Genschow, Elke; Traue, Dieter; Spielmann, Horst

    2005-08-01

    During the past decade, several validation studies have been conducted on in vitro methods for discriminating between skin irritating and non-irritating chemicals. The reconstructed human skin models, EpiDerm and EPISKIN, provided the most promising results. Based on experience of the similar performance of the two skin models, it was suggested that a common test protocol and prediction model should be developed for the prediction of skin irritation potential with the two models. When the EPISKIN protocol was applied with the EpiDerm model, an acceptable specificity (80%) was achieved, whereas the sensitivity (60%) was low. In 2003, the EPISKIN protocol was further refined by extending the post-incubation period following exposure to test chemicals. This extension and additional technical improvements to the EpiDerm protocol were evaluated with 19 chemicals from the prevalidation study. With the new test design, high sensitivity (80%) and specificity (78%) were obtained. The statistical probability for correct classifications was high, so the test was considered to be ready for formal validation. However, since test optimisation had been conducted with the same test chemicals as were used in the ECVAM prevalidation study, it was decided that the optimisation of the protocol had to be verified with a new set of chemicals. Thus, in the current study, 26 additional chemicals (10 rabbit irritants and 16 non-irritants), which had previously been selected and tested by LOREAL with EPISKIN, were evaluated in three independent experiments with EpiDerm. With this unbalanced testing set, a specificity of 94%, and a sensitivity of 60% were obtained, while the positive and negative predictivity and accuracy remained almost unchanged (around 80%) in comparison to the in vivo rabbit data. Overall, 45 chemicals (20 irritants and 25 non-irritants) were tested according to the final protocol. The resulting high positive (82%) and negative predictive values (79%) confirmed the

  5. A study of test section configuration for shock tube testing of transonic airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for alleviating wall interference effects in a shock tube test section intended for testing two-dimensional transonic airfoils. The first method involves contouring the test section walls to match approximate streamlines in the flow. Contours are matched to each airfoil tested to produce results close to those obtained in a conventional wind tunnel. Data from a previous study and the present study for two different airfoils demonstrate that useful results are obtained in a shock tube using a test section with contoured walls. The second method involves use of a fixed-geometry slotted-wall test section to provide automatic flow compensation for various airfoils. The slotted-wall test section developed exhibited the desired performance characteristics in the approximate Mach number range 0.82 to 0.89, as evidenced by good agreement obtained between shock tube and wind tunnel results for several airfoil flows.

  6. Ageing tests study on wood-based sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Raquel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite lightweight wood panels are being increasingly used in construction in Spain. Their growing use should be accompanied by necessary guarantees based on studies of their properties. As it is prescriptive and in addition to others tests, in the present work is examinated the durability of these panels when exposed to the climatic conditions, a characteristic of great importance for wood products, according to Guide ETAG 016, the current standard defining the ageing tests to be used. However, due to the use class of this material, there are indications that the testing outlined in this Guide is inappropriate for assessing the ageing of wood-based sandwich panels. Alternative tests are here proposed that recreate rather better the real conditions under which these products are used. Covering the samples in a waterproof sheeting permeable to the outward movement of water vapour, which is in fact used in the installation, provided the best procedure for testing these panels.

    Los paneles sándwich de madera son un producto de creciente aplicación en la edificación de nuestro país. Este ascendente uso del material debe estar acompañado de las garantías necesarias avaladas por un estudio previo de sus prestaciones. Como es preceptivo y entre otros, se evalúa su durabilidad frente a las condiciones climatológicas, clave en los productos derivados de la madera, acorde a la normativa actual definida con tal fin, la Guía ETAG 016. Sin embargo, debido a la clase de uso del material, se ha detectado que dicha normativa tal y como está concebida no es capaz de valorar su envejecimiento adecuadamente. En este trabajo se proponen ensayos alternativos al establecido tras exhaustivos análisis que recrean las condiciones reales de uso y más acordes a los productos de madera. Se concluye que la incorporación de una lámina impermeable pero permeable al vapor de agua hacia el exterior, como las utilizadas en el montaje, aportan el mejor

  7. Evaluation of the finger wrinkling test: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barneveld, van S.; Palen, van der J.; Putten, van M.J.A.M

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tilt table testing mainly evaluates the systemic cardiovascular part of the autonomic nervous system, while it is assumed that the finger wrinkling test assesses the peripheral part of the autonomic nervous system. In this study we explored whether the finger wrinkling test could be a usefu

  8. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.;

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation and cognitive training in the rehabilitation of Alzheimer disease: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penolazzi, Barbara; Bergamaschi, Susanna; Pastore, Massimiliano; Villani, Daniele; Sartori, Giuseppe; Mondini, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we tested the cognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a case of probable Alzheimer disease (AD). The patient (male, 60 years, mild AD) underwent two cycles of treatments, separated by 2 months. In the first cycle, active stimulation (10 sessions, 2 mA for 20 min; anode over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) was followed by computerised tasks (CTs) specifically chosen to engage the most impaired cognitive processes in the patient (tDCS+CT condition). In the second cycle, which was structured as the first, CTs were administered after placebo stimulation (sham+CT condition). Effects on cognitive performance were evaluated not only by the CTs, but also by neuropsychological tests assessing global cognitive functioning. Statistical analyses revealed that whereas the tDCS+CT condition had few effects on the CTs, it induced a stability of the patient's global cognitive functioning lasting approximately 3 months, which was not achieved when the patient underwent sham+CT condition. Therefore, the synergetic use of tDCS and CTs appeared to slow down the cognitive decline of our patient. This preliminary result, although in need of further confirmation, suggests the potentiality of tDCS as an adjuvant tool for cognitive rehabilitation in AD.

  10. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo......RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows...... whereas under intermediate and high sediment rates there was consistent cumulative growth throughout a 15 d experiment. This highlights the importance of suspended sediment for S. spinulosa and also the suitability of the VoRT system for maintaining organisms with suspended matter requirements....

  11. A Novel High Sensitivity Sensor for Remote Field Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing Based on Orthogonal Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Xu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote field eddy current is an effective non-destructive testing method for ferromagnetic tubular structures. In view of conventional sensors’ disadvantages such as low signal-to-noise ratio and poor sensitivity to axial cracks, a novel high sensitivity sensor based on orthogonal magnetic field excitation is proposed. Firstly, through a three-dimensional finite element simulation, the remote field effect under orthogonal magnetic field excitation is determined, and an appropriate configuration which can generate an orthogonal magnetic field for a tubular structure is developed. Secondly, optimized selection of key parameters such as frequency, exciting currents and shielding modes is analyzed in detail, and different types of pick-up coils, including a new self-differential mode pick-up coil, are designed and analyzed. Lastly, the proposed sensor is verified experimentally by various types of defects manufactured on a section of a ferromagnetic tube. Experimental results show that the proposed novel sensor can largely improve the sensitivity of defect detection, especially for axial crack whose depth is less than 40% wall thickness, which are very difficult to detect and identify by conventional sensors. Another noteworthy advantage of the proposed sensor is that it has almost equal sensitivity to various types of defects, when a self-differential mode pick-up coil is adopted.

  12. Policy Studies: Teacher Competency Assessment and R&D Needs in Educational Testing and Evaluation. Research into Practice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva; Herman, Joan

    This report summarizes the results of two educational policy studies: (1) an analysis of current problems in teacher competency testing; and (2) an exploration of educational testing and evaluation research and development needs. In the first study, information on teacher competency testing was gathered from a literature review and meetings with…

  13. Reliability of clinical diagnosis and laboratory testing techniques currently used for identification of canine parvovirus enteritis in clinical settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAZ, Mirna; MARTÍNEZ, José Simón; QUIJANO-HERNÁNDEZ, Israel; FAJARDO, Raúl

    2016-01-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) is the main etiological agent of viral enteritis in dogs. Actually in literature, CPV-2 has been reported with clinical signs that vary from the classical disease, and immunochromatography test and PCR technique have been introduced to veterinary hospitals to confirm CPV-2 diagnosis and other infections. However, the reliability of these techniques has been poorly analyzed. In this study, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of veterinary clinical diagnosis, immunochromatography test and PCR technique. Our data indicate that variations in the clinical signs of CPV-2 complicate the gathering of an appropriate diagnosis; and immunochromatography test and PCR technique do not have adequate sensitivity to diagnose positive cases. PMID:27818461

  14. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method; Avaliacao de combustiveis nucleares tipo placa pelo metodo de correntes parasitas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-07-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  15. Physical examinations and laboratory tests in antenatal care visits in Denmark. Do reported practice and current official guidelines concord with results of literature reviews? A nationwide study of the public scheme of shared antenatal care in general practice, centres of midwifery and hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, F B; Andersen, K V; Andersen, A M

    1995-01-01

    To analyse physical examinations and laboratory tests reported in antenatal care visits in relation to official guidelines and reviews of appropriateness.......To analyse physical examinations and laboratory tests reported in antenatal care visits in relation to official guidelines and reviews of appropriateness....

  16. Expanding access to HIV viral load testing: a systematic review of RNA stability in EDTA tubes and PPT beyond current time and temperature thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Bonner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV viral load (VL testing is the gold standard for antiretroviral treatment monitoring, but many barriers exist to VL testing in resource-limited settings, including storage and transport limitations for whole blood and plasma. Data from various studies indicate that HIV RNA is stable beyond current recommendations. We conducted a systematic review to assess stability data of HIV RNA in whole blood and plasma across times and temperatures. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a pre-defined protocol, five databases were searched for studies where blood samples from HIV patients were stored at time and temperature points that exceeded manufacturer recommendations. RNA stability, the primary outcome, was measured by the difference in means compared to samples stored within established thresholds. RNA stability was defined as ≤0.5 log degradation. The search identified 10,716 titles, of which nine full-text articles were included for review. HIV RNA maintained stability in EDTA whole blood and plasma at all measured time points up to 168 hours when stored at 4°C, while stability was detected at 72 hours (95% confidence in whole blood at 25°C, with data points before and beyond 72 hours suggesting stability but not reaching statistical significance. For EDTA plasma stored at 30°C, stability was maintained up to 48 hours (95% confidence, with OLS linear regression estimates up to 127 hours, suggesting stability. Overall, quality of studies was moderate. Limitations included small sample sizes, few studies meeting inclusion criteria, and no studies examining RNA stability in low viremia (<3,000 copies/mL environments. CONCLUSIONS: Whole blood and plasma samples in EDTA may remain stable under conditions exceeding current manufacturer recommendations for HIV VL testing. However, given the limited number of studies addressing this question, especially at low levels of viremia, additional evaluations on HIV RNA stability in EDTA tubes and PPT in

  17. Current and future use of point-of-care tests in primary care : an international survey in Australia, Belgium, The Netherlands, the UK and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howick, Jeremy; Cals, Jochen W L; Jones, Caroline; Price, Christopher P; Plüddemann, Annette; Heneghan, Carl; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Buntinx, Frank; Hickner, John; Pace, Wilson; Badrick, Tony; Van den Bruel, Ann; Laurence, Caroline; van Weert, Henk C; van Severen, Evie; Parrella, Adriana; Thompson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the growing number of point-of-care (POC) tests available, little research has assessed primary care clinician need for such tests. We therefore aimed to determine which POC tests they actually use or would like to use (if not currently available in their practice). DESIGN: Cross-

  18. The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting ‘promising results’ for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor evoked potential (MEP testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.

  19. Transvertebral direct current stimulation paired with locomotor training in chronic spinal cord injury: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Elizabeth Salmon; Carrico, Cheryl; Raithatha, Ravi; Salyers, Emily; Ward, Andrea; Sawaki, Lumy

    2016-01-01

    This double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover case study combined transvertebral direct current stimulation (tvDCS) and locomotor training on a robot-assisted gait orthosis (LT-RGO). Determine whether cathodal tvDCS paired with LT-RGO leads to greater changes in function and neuroplasticity than sham tvDCS paired with LT-RGO. University of Kentucky (UK) HealthCare Stroke and Spinal Cord Neurorehabilitation Research at HealthSouth Cardinal Hill Hospital. A single subject with motor incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in 24 sessions of sham tvDCS paired with LT-RGO before crossover to 24 sessions of cathodal tvDCS paired with LT-RGO. Functional outcomes were measured with 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Spinal Cord Independence Measure-III (SCIM-III) mobility component, lower extremity manual muscle test (MMT), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Corticospinal changes were assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Improvement in 10MWT speed, SCIM-III mobility component, and BBS occurred with both conditions. 6MWT worsened after sham tvDCS and improved after cathodal tvDCS. MMT scores for both lower extremities improved following sham tvDCS but decreased following cathodal tvDCS. Corticospinal excitability increased following cathodal tvDCS but not sham tvDCS. These results suggest that combining cathodal tvDCS and LT-RGO may improve functional outcomes, increase corticospinal excitability, and possibly decrease spasticity. Randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these conclusions. This publication was supported by the National Center for Research Resources and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through Grant UL1TR000117, and the HealthSouth Cardinal Hill Stroke and Spinal Cord Endowment (1215375670).

  20. A Study on Test Technology to Diagnose the Power Apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. H.; Kang, Y. S.; Jeon, Y. K.; Lee, W. Y.; Kang, D. S.; Kyu, H. S.; Sun, J. H.; Jo, K. H. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Jung, J. S.; Mun, Y. T.; Lee, K. H.; Jung, E. H.; Kim, J. H. [Korea Water Resources Corporation (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    In this study, we have educated KOWACO(Korea Water Resources Corporation) specialists about the insulation diagnostic technology and trained them the insulation diagnostic test and estimation method of power apparatus. The main results of this study are as follows; A. Education of basic high-voltage engineering. B. Research of insulation characteristic and deterioration mechanism in power apparatus C. Discussion on high-voltage test standard specifications. D. Study on insulation deterioration diagnostics in power apparatus. E. Field testing of insulation diagnosis in power apparatus. F. Engineering of insulation diagnostic testing apparatus to diagnose power apparatus. KOWACO specialists are able to diagnose insulation diagnostic test of power apparatus through this study. As they have instruments to diagnose power apparatus, they can do the test and estimation of the power apparatus insulation diagnosis. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  1. Forced flow He vapor cooled critical current testing facility for measurements of superconductors in a wide temperature and magnetic field range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskys, Algirdas; Hopkins, Simon C.; Bader, Jakob; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2016-10-01

    As superconducting materials find their way into applications, there is increasing need to verify their performance at operating conditions. Testing of critical current with respect to temperature and magnetic field is of particular importance. However, testing facilities covering a range of temperatures and magnetic fields can be costly, especially when considering the cooling power required in the cryogenic system in the temperature range below 65 K (inaccessible for LN2). Critical currents in excess of 500 A are common for commercial samples, making the testing of such samples difficult in setups cooled via a cryocooler, moreover it often does not represent the actual cooling conditions that the sample will experience in service. This work reports the design and operation of a low-cost critical current testing facility, capable of testing samples in a temperature range of 10-65 K, with magnetic field up to 1.6 T and measuring critical currents up to 900 A with variable cooling power.

  2. Estimating the Impacts of Educational Interventions Using State Tests or Study-Administered Tests. NCEE 2012-4016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Robert B.; Unlu, Fatih; Price, Cristofer; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines the differences in impact estimates and standard errors that arise when these are derived using state achievement tests only (as pre-tests and post-tests), study-administered tests only, or some combination of state- and study-administered tests. State tests may yield different evaluation results relative to a test that is…

  3. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  4. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993 have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. Discussions. China’s usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. Conclusions. More human and material resources need to be invested in China’s usability research, particularly in HIT.

  5. The Study Of Low-Frequency Instabilities Of Current Sheaths Of Space Plasma Within The Quasi-Linear Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyahov, Vladimir; Neshchadim, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of the stability nonelectroneutral current sheets in the linear approximation [1-4] gives information only on the initial stage of development of perturbations when their amplitudes are small. Within the framework of the quasi-linear theory one can give an answer to the question of how long the initial perturbations can grow and how change the equilibrium state of the plasma current sheet under the reverse effect of these perturbations. We derive a system of nonlinear kinetic equation with self-consistent electromagnetic field in order to study the evolution of the distribution function of the background plasma current sheet in the approximation of low-frequency eigenmodes of instabilities. Evolution equation was obtained for the perturbation of the electromagnetic field and the instability growth rate in the current sheet. Algorithms were tested for solutions of the equations obtained. 1. Lyahov V.V., Neshchadim V.M. Kinetic theory of the current sheath. I. On polarization of an equilibrium current sheath// Advances in Space Research. -2012. -Vol. 50. -P. 318-326. 2. Lyahov V.V., Neshchadim V.M. Kinetic theory of the current sheath. II. Effect of polarization on the stability of a current sheath.// Advances in Space Research.-2013. -Vol. 51. -P. 730-741. 3. Lyahov V.V., Neshchadim V.M. The Effect of Polarization on the Stability of Current Sheaths in Space Plasma // EGU General Assembly 2013, held 7-12 April, 2013 in Vienna, Austria, id. EGU2013-1379, 04/2013, Bibliographic Code: 2013EGUGA..15.1379L 4. Lyahov V.V., Neshchadim V.M. About the eguilibrium and stability of nonelectroneutral current sheats // Advances in Space Research.-2014. -Vol. 54. -P. 901-907.

  6. Statistical Measures of Integrity in Online Testing: Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielicki, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on longitudinal study regarding integrity of testing in an online format as used by e-learning platforms. Specifically, this study explains whether online testing, which implies an open book format is compromising integrity of assessment by encouraging cheating among students. Statistical experiment designed for this study…

  7. Testing Home Study Advertising. NHSC Occasional Paper Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jack

    This document, which is intended for individuals responsible for advertising at National Home Study Council (NHSC) schools, explains how to test home study advertising. Presented first are the success stories of four NHSC schools that experienced significant enrollment increases and/or cost savings by testing their advertisements. Discussed next…

  8. Experimental study on a wide range of wave and current conditions of the WEPTOS Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    This report presents the results of an experimental study that was performed on small scale model that was a replication of the full-scale Weptos WEC intended for DanWEC. The tests were performed in the circular basin at FloWave at Edinburgh University in October 2014. The laboratory facilities h...... the capabilities to have simultaneously currents and waves from any possible direction and also to produce advanced wave specifications....

  9. Test-Taker Characteristics and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Path-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Hong, He-Ting Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among language proficiency, two selected test-taker characteristics (i.e., topical knowledge and anxiety), and integrated speaking test performance. Data collection capitalized on three sets of instruments: three integrated tasks derived from TOEFL-iBT preparation materials, the state anxiety inventory created…

  10. Test-Taker Characteristics and Integrated Speaking Test Performance: A Path-Analytic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Heng-Tsung Danny; Hung, Shao-Ting Alan; Hong, He-Ting Vivian

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the relationships among language proficiency, two selected test-taker characteristics (i.e., topical knowledge and anxiety), and integrated speaking test performance. Data collection capitalized on three sets of instruments: three integrated tasks derived from TOEFL-iBT preparation materials, the state anxiety inventory created…

  11. Test of Wheeled Mobility (TOWM) and a short wheelie test : a feasibility and validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliess-Douer, Osnat; Van der Woude, Lucas Hv; Vanlandewijck, Yves C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and validity of both the Test of Wheeled Mobility (TOWM) and a wheelie test. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: KU Leuven gymnasium. Subjects: Thirty male manual wheelchair users (age range 23-53 years) with spinal cord injury. Interventions: Participants pr

  12. Identification of steel bars immersed in reinforced concrete based on experimental results of eddy current testing and artificial neural network analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alcantara, Naasson

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental research on the use of eddy current testing (ECT) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in order to identify the gauge and position of steel bars immersed in concrete structures. The paper presents details of the ECT probe and concrete specimens constructed for the tests, and a study about the influence of the concrete on the values of measured voltages. After this, new measurements were done with a greater number of specimens, simulating a field condition and the results were used to generate training and validation vectors for multilayer perceptron ANNs. The results show a high percentage of correct identification with respect to both, the gauge of the bar and of the thickness of the concrete cover.

  13. A Study of Aerodynamics in Kevlar-Wall Test Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kenneth Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of Kevlar-wall test sections and specifically those containing two-dimensional, lifting models. The performance of the Kevlar-wall test section can be evaluated against the standard of the hard-wall test section, which in the case of the Stability Wind Tunnel (SWT) at Virginia Tech can be alternately installed or replaced by the Kevlar-wall test section. As a first step towards the evaluation of the Kevlar-wall test section aer...

  14. Application of the Blister Test in Study of Epoxy Adhesive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Xiong; Ingegerd Annergren

    2000-01-01

    Shaft-loaded blister test technique is used as an effective quantitative tool to measure adhesion strength. Investigation on conductive adhesive was done by modified blister test. It is found that shaftloaded blister test can be a good solution for the debonding of thin film adhesion. The intrinsic stable interface debonding process has been proved an attractive alternative to the conventional adhesion measurement techniques. In our study, epoxy matrix adhesive was studied using blister test technique in comparison with the traditional test-lap shear test. Adhesion strength was studied as a function of surface treatment and the metallization of substrate. It was found that surface conditions of substrate have significant impact on adhesion behaviour. The oxidation of surface is responsible for the poor adhesion. Activating chemical treatment and Plasma cleaning on substrate surface has been found to be a way of dreamatically improving adhesion strength of electronic conductive adhesive.

  15. Alternating current cloud point extraction on a microchip: a comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoki; Takemura, Azusa; Sato, Kae

    2012-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of alternating current cloud point extraction (ACPE) on a microchip. ACPE is an extraction technique for preconcentration of membrane-associated biomolecules. To characterize and optimize ACPE, we carried out ACPE experiments under various experimental conditions including amplitude and frequency of applied voltages, flow velocity, and concentration of surfactant, analyte, and salt. We found that ACPE has an amplitude threshold (15 V(p-p)), above which the extraction was more efficient. The dependence of the extraction on frequency (>5 MHz) was insignificant. Efficient extraction was achieved when the velocity of the test solution was 0.10∼0.67 mm s⁻¹ and the concentration of surfactant was 0.10∼1.0%. In contrast, the extraction was independent of the concentration of analytes (0.20∼20 μmol dm⁻³). The technique was applicable to solutions with a salt concentration of 0.050∼0.15 mol dm⁻³ under temperature control of the devices. Solution temperature in ACPE was also studied. These results provide guidelines for use of the ACPE technique in microfluidic chemical and biochemical analyses.

  16. Comparison of Galvanic Currents Generated Between Different Combinations of Orthodontic Brackets and Archwires Using Potentiostat: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Rabindra S; Shafiuddin, Bareera; Pasha, Azam; Vinay, K; Narayan, Anjali; Shetty, Smitha V

    2015-07-01

    Technological advances in wire selection and bracket design have led to improved treatment efficiency and allowed longer time intervals between appliance adjustments. The wires remain in the mouth for a longer duration and are subjected to electrochemical reactions, mechanical forces of mastication and generalized wear. These cause different types of corrosion. This study was done to compare the galvanic currents generated between different combinations of brackets and archwires commonly used in orthodontic practices. The materials used for the study included different commercially available orthodontic archwires and brackets. The galvanic current generated by individual materials and different combinations of these materials was tested and compared. The orthodontic archwires used were 0.019″ × 0.025″ heat-activated nickel-titanium (3M Unitek), 0.019″ × 0.025″ beta-titanium (3M Unitek) and 0.019″ × 0.025″ stainless steel (3M Unitek). The orthodontic brackets used were 0.022″ MBT laser-cut (Victory Series, 3M Unitek) and metal-injection molded (Leone Company) maxillary central incisor brackets respectively. The ligature wire used for ligation was 0.009″ stainless steel ligature (HP Company). The galvanic current for individual archwires, brackets, and the different bracket-archwire-ligature combinations was measured by using a Potentiostat machine. The data were generated using the Linear Sweep Voltammetry and OriginPro 8.5 Graphing and Data Analysis Softwares. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I comprised of five groups for open circuit potential (OCP) and galvanic current (I), whereas Phase II comprised of six groups for galvanic current alone. Mean, standard deviation and range were computed for the OCP and galvanic current (I) values obtained. Results were subjected to statistical analysis through ANOVA. In Phase I, higher mean OCP was recorded in stainless steel archwire, followed by beta-titanium archwire, heat-activated nickel

  17. Study of Co-Current and Counter-Current Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Through Packed Bed in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Shripad T.

    2002-11-01

    The main goal of the project is to obtain new experimental data and development of models on the co-current and counter-current gas-liquid two-phase flow through a packed bed in microgravity and characterize the flow regime transition, pressure drop, void and interfacial area distribution, and liquid hold up. Experimental data will be obtained for earth gravity and microgravity conditions. Models will be developed for the prediction of flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration, which are key parameters to characterize the packed bed performance. Thus the specific objectives of the proposed research are to: (1) Develop experiments for the study of the gas liquid two-phase flow through the packed bed with three different flow combinations: co-current down flow, co-current upflow and counter current flow. (2) Develop pore scale and bed scale two-phase instrumentation for measurement of flow regime transition, void distribution and gas-liquid interfacial area concentration in the packed bed. (3) Obtain database on flow regime transition, pressure drop, void distribution, interfacial area concentration and liquid hold up as a function of bed characteristics such as bed particle size, porosity, and liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension. (4) Develop mathematical model for flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration for co-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions.(4) Develop mathematical model for the flooding phenomena in counter-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions. The present proposal addresses the most important topic of HEDS-specific microgravity fluid physics research identified by NASA 's one of the strategic enterprises, OBPR Enterprise. The proposed project is well defined and makes efficient use of the ground-based parabolic flight research aircraft facility. The

  18. Automation Hooks Architecture Trade Study for Flexible Test Orchestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin A.; Maclean, John R.; Graffagnino, Frank J.; McCartney, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the conclusions of a technology and communities survey supported by concurrent and follow-on proof-of-concept prototyping to evaluate feasibility of defining a durable, versatile, reliable, visible software interface to support strategic modularization of test software development. The objective is that test sets and support software with diverse origins, ages, and abilities can be reliably integrated into test configurations that assemble and tear down and reassemble with scalable complexity in order to conduct both parametric tests and monitored trial runs. The resulting approach is based on integration of three recognized technologies that are currently gaining acceptance within the test industry and when combined provide a simple, open and scalable test orchestration architecture that addresses the objectives of the Automation Hooks task. The technologies are automated discovery using multicast DNS Zero Configuration Networking (zeroconf), commanding and data retrieval using resource-oriented Restful Web Services, and XML data transfer formats based on Automatic Test Markup Language (ATML). This open-source standards-based approach provides direct integration with existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analysis software tools.

  19. Demagnetization treatment of remanent composite microspheres studied by alternating current susceptibility measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, S.; Erné, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant

  20. Highly Automated Agile Testing Process: An Industrial Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Berłowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of an agile testing process in a medium size software project that is developed using Scrum. The research methods used is the case study were as follows: surveys, quantifiable project data sources and qualitative project members opinions were used for data collection. Challenges related to the testing process regarding a complex project environment and unscheduled releases were identified. Based on the obtained results, we concluded that the described approach addresses well the aforementioned issues. Therefore, recommendations were made with regard to the employed principles of agility, specifically: continuous integration, responding to change, test automation and test driven development. Furthermore, an efficient testing environment that combines a number of test frameworks (e.g. JUnit, Selenium, Jersey Test with custom-developed simulators is presented.