WorldWideScience

Sample records for current study attempts

  1. STUDY OF SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadeesan Madras Sundararajan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is a major mental illness whose sufferers have been found to have lesser longevity than general population. The most common cause for premature death in schizophrenia is suicide. There are very few Indian studies on suicide in persons suffering from schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the frequency of suicide attempt in schizophrenia to compare and study the clinical and sociodemographic profile of suicide attempters and non-attempters in schizophrenia and to analyse and study the various risk factors of suicide attempts in persons suffering from schizophrenia. METHODS A sample of 100 consecutive patients attending review OPD of a government tertiary care hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters and analysed using the SAPS (Scale for Assessment of Positive Symptoms, SANS (Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms, Calgary depression scale, and Beck’s suicide intent scale. RESULTS People suffering from schizophrenia are at a high risk for making suicidal attempts (27% especially when the illness is acute and severe in early stages when accompanied by depressive symptoms. Demographic profile such as age, sex, education, occupation, socio-economic status, marital status, and family type were not significantly related to suicide attempts. Family history of suicide was a significant factor in patients with suicide attempts. Majority of the attempts were of medium-to-high intent, hanging being the commonest method, and were attributed to most commonly delusions and depressive symptoms.

  2. Trait impulsivity in suicide attempters: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doihara, Chiho; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Ohyama, Nene; Yamada, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Makiko; Iwamoto, Yohko; Odawara, Toshinari; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2012-10-01

    Suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide. To investigate trait impulsivity among suicide attempters, 93 attempters admitted to an emergency department and 113 healthy controls were evaluated using the Japanese version of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11J). Impulsivity was analyzed in relation to clinical data in the attempters. Total BIS-11J, attention impulsiveness, and motor impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in the attempters than in the controls. Both total BIS-11J and non-planning impulsiveness scores were significantly higher in attempters with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders among the diagnostic groups. Control of impulsivity should be considered as one of the targets for suicide prevention. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  3. How do clinicians and suicide attempters understand suicide attempt impulsivity? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimkeviciene, Jurgita; O'Gorman, John; De Leo, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Inconsistencies in the definition of impulsive suicide attempts hamper research integration. To expand the currently limited data on how this construct is used in clinical practice, researchers interviewed eight suicide attempters to create timelines of their suicide process, then had seven experienced clinicians review these timelines. Thematic analysis of the patient and clinician data revealed three themes: "thinking out," build-up, and unclear intentionality. The results imply that assessing build-up of agitation and exhaustion symptoms can contribute to understanding acuteness of suicide risk. In addition, uncertainty about one's intentions during the attempt should not be equated to low intent to die.

  4. Behind impulsive suicide attempts: indications from a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyder, Marianne; De Leo, Diego

    2007-12-01

    A considerable proportion of suicide attempts are made on impulse. However, knowledge of characteristics of impulsive attempters is still limited. The present study investigated some of these characteristics and aimed to identify the pattern (if any) of suicidal ideation before an impulsive attempt. Data from a randomized and stratified population of 5130 individuals from Brisbane, Australia, were analysed. Computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) were adopted to recruit subjects. Those reporting previous suicidal behaviour were sent a questionnaire by mail. One hundred and twelve subjects reported a suicide attempt. One quarter of these described a pattern consistent with an impulsive attempt. Most impulsive attempters experienced suicidal thoughts before their attempt. They were less likely to believe that their attempt would cause death, and less likely to experience depression. Impulsive attempters did not differ significantly from non-impulsive attempters in regards to age, gender, and motivations for the attempt. Surprisingly, no differences in mean scores of trait impulsivity between impulsive and non-impulsive attempters were found. In addition, the majority of suicide attempters (whether impulsive or not) experienced the suicidal process as fluctuating and not as developing along a continuum. The number of attempters who validly entered the study limited our ability to identify potential confounders. Due to the retrospective nature of the survey, the reliability of the information collected may have been affected by recall biases. In addition, as the surveys were administered by mail, it is possible that some questions may have been misinterpreted. The presence of suicidal feelings prior to an attempt constitutes an opportunity for intervention also in impulsive attempters. However, the identification of impulsiveness requires more research efforts.

  5. Involuntary Euthanasia and Current Attempts to Define Persons with Mental Retardation as Less Than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusthaus, Evelyn W.

    1985-01-01

    The author examines current attempts to define mentally retarded persons as less than human and suggests that these ideologies are being used to justify euthanasia practices and to formulate euthanasia policies. (CL)

  6. Comparison of suicide attempts in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwari, Girish H; Vankar, Ganpat K; Parikh, Minakshi N

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) are among the most common psychiatric diagnoses associated with suicide. There is a dearth of published research systematically comparing suicidal behavior in schizophrenia and MDD. The present study aimed to compare suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD. In this hospital-based, cross-sectional study, 50 outpatients each of schizophrenia and MDD were evaluated for their sociodemographic characteristics. In subjects with a history of suicide attempt(s), additional information related to the attempt(s) was obtained. Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) was used to assess the suicidal intent and Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to measure the current suicidal risk. Thirty-four percent and 44% of patients with schizophrenia and MDD, respectively, attempted suicide. The attempters in schizophrenia compared to those in MDD were younger and more likely to be single (unmarried, separated or divorced). Suicidal intent was stronger in schizophrenia, while the attempters with MDD were more often preoccupied with a death wish and reported that stressful life events influenced the attempt. There were no differences in the attempt methods of the two groups. Current suicidal risk was higher in attempters compared to the non-attempters in schizophrenia as well as MDD. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia and MDD have similar features, with quite a few notable differences, which have been discussed at length in the present paper. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Suicide Neurosis--A Study of Sixty Young Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnian, R. Rawlin; Johnson, Shelonitda

    Suicide and deviance are related because loss in social interaction is a consequence of deviance and an antecedent to suicide. This study examined the cognitive and affective experiences of suicidal individuals for evidence of neurosis. Sixty young attempted suicides with a history of a serious suicidal attempts attending the suicide prevention…

  8. STUDY OF FACTORS AFFECTING SUICIDE ATTEMPTS IN PERSONS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilingam Somasundaram Ravindran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Schizophrenia has been called a ‘Life-shortening disease’, because many sufferers die early than general population and suicide accounts for a significant proportion of those dying prematurely. Suicide attempts in schizophrenia has been an intriguing area of research work for mental health professionals. Indian research on suicide attempts in schizophrenia have been few. OBJECTIVES The objectives were to study the suicidal behaviour in schizophrenia, to compare and study the positive and negative symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicide intent in schizophrenic population with suicide attempt compared to nonattempters, along with socio-demographic parameters. METHODS A sample of 60 consecutive patients attending OPD of a Private tertiary care Hospital in Chennai were selected. Those who had a diagnosis of schizophrenia were screened for the presence of past suicide attempts. They were divided into two groups as suicide attempters and non-attempters, and analysed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS, Beck’s hopelessness scale (BHS, and Suicide intent scale (SIS. RESULTS Among the disorders schizophrenia is rated the second most common reason for suicide attempts (53.3%, especially when associated with positive symptoms, depressive features and significant hopelessness. Demographic parameters like age, sex, educational status, occupation, economic status, and marital status were not found to be significant factors linked to the suicide attempts, however family history of suicide had a significant association in schizophrenic suicide attempts. Suicidal intent severity was medium to high among most of the attempters; poisoning was the commonest method; and were found to be due to positive symptoms and depressive symptoms in the schizophrenic illness course.

  9. Impulsive aggression, delay discounting, and adolescent suicide attempts: effects of current psychotropic medication use and family history of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Jeffrey A; Reynolds, Brady; McBee-Strayer, Sandra M; Sheftall, Arielle H; Ackerman, John; Stevens, Jack; Mendoza, Kristen; Campo, John V; Brent, David A

    2015-03-01

    Impulsive-aggressive behaviors have been consistently implicated in the phenomenology, neurobiology, and familial aggregation of suicidal behavior. The purpose of this study was to extend previous work by examining laboratory behavioral measures of delayed reward impulsivity and impulsive aggression in adolescent suicide attempters and never-suicidal comparison subjects. Using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) and the Delay Discounting Task (DDQ), the authors examined delay discounting and impulsive aggression in 40 adolescent suicide attempters, ages 13-18, and 40 never-suicidal, demographically matched psychiatric comparison subjects. Overall, suicide attempters and comparison subjects performed similarly on the PSAP and DDQ. There was a significant group by current psychotropic medication use interaction (p=0.013) for mean aggressive responses on the PSAP. Group comparisons revealed that attempters emitted more aggressive responses per provocation than comparison subjects, only in those not on psychotropic medication (p=0.049), whereas for those currently treated with psychotropic medication, there were no group differences (p>0.05). This interaction effect was specific to current antidepressant use. Among all subjects, family history of suicidal behavior (suicide or suicide attempt) in first degree relatives was significantly correlated with both delay discounting (r=-0.22, p=0.049), and aggressive responding (r=0.27, p=0.015). Family history of suicidal behavior was associated with delay discounting, but not with aggressive responding on the PSAP, after controlling for relevant covariates. In this study, impulsive-aggressive responding was associated with suicide attempt only in those not being treated with antidepressants. Future work to replicate and extend these findings could have important therapeutic implications for the treatment of depressed suicide attempters, many of whom are affected by impulsive aggression.

  10. A genome-wide association study of attempted suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willour, Virginia L.; Seifuddin, Fayaz; Mahon, Pamela B.; Jancic, Dubravka; Pirooznia, Mehdi; Steele, Jo; Schweizer, Barbara; Goes, Fernando S.; Mondimore, Francis M.; MacKinnon, Dean F.; Perlis, Roy H.; Lee, Phil Hyoun; Huang, Jie; Kelsoe, John R.; Shilling, Paul D.; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Purcell, Shaun; Smoller, Jordan W.; Craddock, Nicholas; DePaulo, J. Raymond; Schulze, Thomas G.; McMahon, Francis J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Potash, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The heritable component to attempted and completed suicide is partly related to psychiatric disorders and also partly independent of them. While attempted suicide linkage regions have been identified on 2p11–12 and 6q25–26, there are likely many more such loci, the discovery of which will require a much higher resolution approach, such as the genome-wide association study (GWAS). With this in mind, we conducted an attempted suicide GWAS that compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes of 1,201 bipolar (BP) subjects with a history of suicide attempts to the genotypes of 1,497 BP subjects without a history of suicide attempts. 2,507 SNPs with evidence for association at p<0.001 were identified. These associated SNPs were subsequently tested for association in a large and independent BP sample set. None of these SNPs were significantly associated in the replication sample after correcting for multiple testing, but the combined analysis of the two sample sets produced an association signal on 2p25 (rs300774) at the threshold of genome-wide significance (p= 5.07 × 10−8). The associated SNPs on 2p25 fall in a large linkage disequilibrium block containing the ACP1 gene, a gene whose expression is significantly elevated in BP subjects who have completed suicide. Furthermore, the ACP1 protein is a tyrosine phosphatase that influences Wnt signaling, a pathway regulated by lithium, making ACP1 a functional candidate for involvement in the phenotype. Larger GWAS sample sets will be required to confirm the signal on 2p25 and to identify additional genetic risk factors increasing susceptibility for attempted suicide. PMID:21423239

  11. [A phenomenological study of suicide attempts in elders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Mi Young; Kim, Yun Jeong

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the meaning and essence of suicide for elderly people who had previously attempted suicide as an older person. Giorgi's descriptive phenomenology was used for analysis. The researchers carried out in-depth interviews, recordings and memos individually with four elders. The elders were individuals who had attempted suicide sometime in the past 5 yr. They were interviewed from 5 to 10 times using open-ended questions and a semi-structural format. Demographic data were also collected. The meaning of suicide before a suicide attempt in older people had four core components: conflict with family, powerlessness and despair in their life with a drop in self-esteem, using internal and external resources to resolve their troubles and awareness of imminent crisis. These results of this study will increase understanding of suicide in older people by defining their subjective experience of suicide attempts and applying grounded data in the development of programs that provide concrete intervention strategies to prevent suicide in elderly people.

  12. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  13. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  14. Classification of attempted suicide by cluster analysis: A study of 888 suicide attempters presenting to the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeyoung; Kim, Bora; Kim, Se Hyun; Park, C Hyung Keun; Kim, Eun Young; Ahn, Yong Min

    2018-08-01

    It is essential to understand the latent structure of the population of suicide attempters for effective suicide prevention. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups among Korean suicide attempters in terms of the details of the suicide attempt. A total of 888 people who attempted suicide and were subsequently treated in the emergency rooms of 17 medical centers between May and November of 2013 were included in the analysis. The variables assessed included demographic characteristics, clinical information, and details of the suicide attempt assessed by the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Cluster analysis was performed using the Ward method. Of the participants, 85.4% (n = 758) fell into a cluster characterized by less planning, low lethality methods, and ambivalence towards death ("impulsive"). The other cluster (n = 130) involved a more severe and well-planned attempt, used highly lethal methods, and took more precautions to avoid being interrupted ("planned"). The first cluster was dominated by women, while the second cluster was associated more with men, older age, and physical illness. We only included participants who visited the emergency department after their suicide attempt and had no missing values for SIS or C-SSRS. Cluster analysis extracted two distinct subgroups of Korean suicide attempters showing different patterns of suicidal behaviors. Understanding that a significant portion of suicide attempts occur impulsively calls for new prevention strategies tailored to differing subgroup profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Social Determinants of Health and Attempt to Change Unhealthy Lifestyle: A Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Mina; Palenik, Charles John; Abdollahifard, Gholamreza; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    A healthy lifestyle is important because of its long-term benefits; however, there is a paucity of information concerning health choices among Iranians. We evaluated personal health behaviors, attempts to change unhealthy behaviors, and factors affecting attempts at change. The design of this cross-sectional study was to assemble a representative cadre of >18-year-old adults in Shiraz, Iran, using a multistage cluster sampling technique. Validated questionnaires collected participant's demographic information, such as weight, height, cigarette smoking history, physical activity, and attempts at lifestyle changes during the previous year. To determine predictors of attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle and to identify confounders, we applied single and multivariable logistic regression methods, respectively. A confidence interval of 95% was calculated for each odds ratio. The prevalence of attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle was 42%, 64.8%, and 27.8%, respectively, for losing weight, being more physically active, and smoking cessation. Unemployment, low levels of education, and decreased socioeconomic status have important roles in attempts to change lifestyle conditions. Low socioeconomic status was a risk factor for quitting smoking. Occupation (unemployed/homemaker) and low level of education were two significant factors for being more physically active. The prevalence of inadequate physical activity and being overweight or obese was considerable in Shiraz, Iran. Attempts to change unhealthy lifestyle were less than ideal. Social determinants of health factors including unemployment and low levels of education and socioeconomic status play important roles in attempts to change current lifestyles.

  16. The patient suicide attempt – An ethical dilemma case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jie

    2015-12-01

    Results: In Mr Green's case, the nurse chose to share the information of Mr Green's suicide attempt with other health care professionals. The nursing team followed the self-harm and suicide protocol of the hospital strictly, they maintained the effective communication with Mr Green, identified the factors which cause patient's suicide attempt, provided the appropriate nursing intervention to deal will these risk factors and collaborated with other health care professionals to prefect the further care. The patient transferred to a palliative care service with no sign of suicide attempt and other self-harm behaviors and passed away peacefully 76 days after discharged with his relatives and pastors accompany.

  17. Current Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Success Home > Explore Research > Current Research Studies Current Research Studies Email Print + Share The Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation ... conducted online. Learn more about IBD Partners. Clinical Research Alliance The Clinical Research Alliance is a network ...

  18. A Suicide Attempt Using Zinc Phosphide (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenur Sumer Coskun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc phosphide is a toxin that is added to wheat for use in rodent control and is the active ingredient of rodenticide. A 17 year-old male attempted suicide by drinking pesticide [Zinc PHOSPHIDE (Zn3P2] and was subsequently admitted to the emergency department: the patient’s general condition was poor, he was unconscious and vomiting, the skin had a garlic odor and advanced acidosis was present. The patient was treated symptomatically, followed by mechanical ventilation, and was transferred to a psychiatric clinic on the fifth day.

  19. An attempt at MHD mode control by feedback modulation of L.H. driven current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlange, F.; Vallet, J.C

    1986-01-01

    MHD activity in Tokamak discharges with lower hybrid current drive has distinct features which can be used to stabilize tearing modes. A way of reducing the m=2 tearing mode was recently proposed, consisting in driving more current at the 0 point of the islands than at the X point, by means of amplitude modulated lower hybrid waves. The way it was tested in Petula is presented here

  20. Effect of Psychiatric Intervention in Attempted Suicide: A Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Steven; Bagley, Christopher

    1971-01-01

    All patients presenting at the casualty department of King's College Hospital during the first six months of 1968 with deliberate self-poisoning or self-injury were followed up. Of 211 patients 204 (97%) were traced after a mean interval of 18 months (range one to two years). Despite official hospital policy, 22% had not been seen by a psychiatrist before discharge; these 44 untreated patients were compared with the remaining 160 who had received either brief (one or two interviews) or more prolonged psychiatric and social help. Subsequent suicidal attempts occurred significantly more often among untreated than among treated patients, prolonged treatment being associated with the best prognosis. The same trend was observed in respect of actual suicide, though the numbers were small and differences did not reach statistical significance. These findings held good when the untreated and treated groups were controlled for other variables which were found to be correlated with outcome. These results indicate that psychiatric intervention is associated with a significant reduction in subsequent suicidal behaviour. PMID:5100261

  1. Overview of the current attempts toward the medical treatment of cataract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kador, P.F.

    1983-04-01

    A variety of agents are currently available that claim to either prevent, delay, or reverse cataracts associated with aging (senile cataracts), radiation, or diabetes and galactosemia (sugar cataracts). Senile cataract therapy includes formulation containing inorganic salts, nutritional supplements, natural product extracts, sulfhydryl, and sulfonic acid containing compounds and miscellaneous redox and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Agents associated with the treatment of radiation cataracts include antioxidants and free radial scavengers. Aldose reductase inhibitors have been effective in the prevention of sugar cataracts. A summary of these agents and their potential ocular effects are presented.

  2. Overview of the current attempts toward the medical treatment of cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kador, P.F.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of agents are currently available that claim to either prevent, delay, or reverse cataracts associated with aging (senile cataracts), radiation, or diabetes and galactosemia (sugar cataracts). Senile cataract therapy includes formulation containing inorganic salts, nutritional supplements, natural product extracts, sulfhydryl, and sulfonic acid containing compounds and miscellaneous redox and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory compounds. Agents associated with the treatment of radiation cataracts include antioxidants and free radial scavengers. Aldose reductase inhibitors have been effective in the prevention of sugar cataracts. A summary of these agents and their potential ocular effects are presented

  3. Depressive Symptoms and Clinical Status during the Treatment of Adolescent Suicide Attempters (TASA) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Benedetto; Brent, David A.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Emslie, Graham; Wells, Karen; Walkup, John T.; Stanley, Barbara; Bukstein, Oscar; Kennard, Betsy D.; Compton, Scott; Coffey, Barbara; Cwik, Mary F.; Posner, Kelly; Wagner, Ann; March, John S.; Riddle, Mark; Goldstein, Tina; Curry, John; Capasso, Lisa; Mayes, Taryn; Shen, Sa; Gugga, S. Sonia; Turner, J. Blake; Barnett, Shannon; Zelazny, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the course of depression during the treatment of adolescents with depression who had recently attempted suicide. Method: Adolescents (N = 124), ages 12 to 18 years, with a 90-day history of suicide attempt, a current diagnosis of depressive disorder (96.0% had major depressive disorder), and a Children's Depression Rating…

  4. Attempts to Prevent Falls and Injury: A Prospective Community Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinsch, Sibylle; And Others

    1992-01-01

    At 16 senior centers, studied effectiveness of exercise and cognitive-behavioral programs, compared to discussion control program, in reducing falls and injuries among 230 older adults. After one year of programs, observed no significant difference in time to first fall among groups. Secondary outcome measures such as strength, balance, fear of…

  5. Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity and attempted suicide in rural China: A paired case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang-Yang; Wang, Xin-Ting; Qiu, Hui-Min; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to clarify the relationship between functional and dysfunctional impulsivity and attempted suicide in rural China. Data of this study came from the investigation of 407 suicide attempters and their paired non-suicide attempters matched with the same gender, age (±3 years) and residence area in six counties in rural Shandong, China. Suicide attempters accounted for a lower proportion on high functional impulsivity, but a higher proportion on high dysfunctional impulsivity than non-suicide attempters. Dysfunctional impulsivity in the male denoted a significant risk factor for attempted suicide, even after adjustment for psychiatric disorder and demographic factors. Suicide attempters with high dysfunctional impulsivity had a higher percent of family suicide history than those with low dysfunctional impulsivity. High functional impulsivity was a significant protective factor for attempted suicide in the group aged 35-59 years, but a significant risk factor in the group aged 15-34 years. Suicide attempters with low functional impulsivity had poorer economic status and older age than those with high functional impulsivity. Our findings support the key roles of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in attempted suicide among rural residents of China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors of suicide mortality among multiple attempters: A national registry study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ming; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Lee, Ming-Been; Wu, Chia-Yi; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chen, Wei J

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of suicide mortality among multiple attempters. This study aims to investigate the predictors of suicidal mortality in a prospective cohort of attempters in Taiwan, focusing on the time interval and suicide method change between the last two nonfatal attempts. The representative data retrieved from the National Suicide Surveillance System (NSSS) was linked with National Mortality Database to identify the causes of death in multiple attempters during 2006-2008. Cox-proportional hazard models were applied to calculate the hazard ratios for the predictors of suicide. Among the 55,560 attempters, 6485 (11.7%) had survived attempts ranging from one to 11 times; 861 (1.5%) eventually died by suicide. Multiple attempters were characterized by female (OR = 1.56, p suicidal death were identified as male, older age (≥ 45 years), shorter interval and not maintaining methods of low lethality in the last two nonfatal attempts. Receipt of nationwide aftercare was associated with lower risk of suicide but the effect was insignificant. The time interval of the last two nonfatal attempts and alteration in the lethality of suicide method were significant factors for completed suicide. Risk assessment involving these two factors may be necessary for multiple attempters in different clinical settings. Effective strategies for suicide prevention emphasizing this high risk population should be developed in the future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Guillaume

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN. Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED. METHOD: Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563. Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. RESULTS: AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9, with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5, and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6. BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. CONCLUSION: There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  8. Characteristics of suicide attempts in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Sébastien; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Genty, Catherine; Bringer, Jacques; Courtet, Philippe; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Compared to other eating disorders, anorexia nervosa (AN) has the highest rates of completed suicide whereas suicide attempt rates are similar or lower than in bulimia nervosa (BN). Attempted suicide is a key predictor of suicide, thus this mismatch is intriguing. We sought to explore whether the clinical characteristics of suicidal acts differ between suicide attempters with AN, BN or without an eating disorders (ED). Case-control study in a cohort of suicide attempters (n = 1563). Forty-four patients with AN and 71 with BN were compared with 235 non-ED attempters matched for sex, age and education, using interview measures of suicidal intent and severity. AN patients were more likely to have made a serious attempt (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-7.9), with a higher expectation of dying (OR = 3.7,95% CI 1.1-13.5), and an increased risk of severity (OR = 3.4,95% CI 1.2-9.6). BN patients did not differ from the control group. Clinical markers of the severity of ED were associated with the seriousness of the attempt. There are distinct features of suicide attempts in AN. This may explain the higher suicide rates in AN. Higher completed suicide rates in AN may be partially explained by AN patients' higher desire to die and their more severe and lethal attempts.

  9. Familial pathways to early-onset suicide attempt: a 5.6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A; Melhem, Nadine M; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J John

    2015-02-01

    Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75-13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37-12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94-16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29-56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder. Parental history of a suicide attempt conveys a nearly 5-fold increased odds of suicide attempt

  10. Use of emergency department electronic medical records for automated epidemiological surveillance of suicide attempts: a French pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Marie-Hélène; Tvardik, Nastassia; Gicquel, Quentin; Bouvry, Côme; Poulet, Emmanuel; Potinet-Pagliaroli, Véronique

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an expert system based on automated processing of electronic health records (EHRs) could provide a more accurate estimate of the annual rate of emergency department (ED) visits for suicide attempts in France, as compared to the current national surveillance system based on manual coding by emergency practitioners. A feasibility study was conducted at Lyon University Hospital, using data for all ED patient visits in 2012. After automatic data extraction and pre-processing, including automatic coding of medical free-text through use of the Unified Medical Language System, seven different machine-learning methods were used to classify the reasons for ED visits into "suicide attempts" versus "other reasons". The performance of these different methods was compared by using the F-measure. In a test sample of 444 patients admitted to the ED in 2012 (98 suicide attempts, 48 cases of suicidal ideation, and 292 controls with no recorded non-fatal suicidal behaviour), the F-measure for automatic detection of suicide attempts ranged from 70.4% to 95.3%. The random forest and naïve Bayes methods performed best. This study demonstrates that machine-learning methods can improve the quality of epidemiological indicators as compared to current national surveillance of suicide attempts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The characteristics of serious suicide attempters in Japanese adolescents- comparison study between adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawashima Yoshitaka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial

  12. Suicide ideation and attempt in a community cohort of urban Aboriginal youth: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Joanne N; Anderson, Ian P; Gee, Graham J; Thorpe, Reg; Rowley, Kevin G; Reilly, Rachel E; Thorpe, Alister; Stewart, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    There has been increasing attention over the last decade on the issue of indigenous youth suicide. A number of studies have documented the high prevalence of suicide behavior and mortality in Australia and internationally. However, no studies have focused on documenting the correlates of suicide behavior for indigenous youth in Australia. To examine the prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt and the associated factors for a community1 cohort of Koori2 (Aboriginal) youth. Data were obtained from the Victorian Aboriginal Health Service (VAHS) Young People's Project (YPP), a community initiated cross-sectional data set. In 1997/1998, self-reported data were collected for 172 Koori youth aged 12-26 years living in Melbourne, Australia. The data were analyzed to assess the prevalence of current suicide ideation and lifetime suicide attempt. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify closely associated social, emotional, behavioral, and cultural variables at baseline and Cox regression modeling was then used to identify associations between PCA components and suicide ideation and attempt. Ideation and attempt were reported at 23.3% and 24.4%, respectively. PCA yielded five components: (1) emotional distress, (2) social distress A, (3) social distress B, (4) cultural connection, (5) behavioral. All were positively and independently associated with suicide ideation and attempt, while cultural connection showed a negative association. Suicide ideation and attempt were common in this cross-section of indigenous youth with an unfavorable profile for the emotional, social, cultural, and behavioral factors.

  13. Prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiande; Dong, Yonghai; Chen, Xiaodan; Liu, Yun; Ma, Dongyang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Mao, Xiangqun; Chen, Ting; He, Wei

    2015-08-01

    According to World Health Organization, for every committed suicide there were 20 suicide attempts at least. In the last decade, despite the increasing awareness on suicide attempts among adolescents in China, there has been no comprehensive system reporting vital statistics. Consequently, the prevalence of suicide attempts reported in some studies ranged variedly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts to fill this gap. Two reviewers independently screened potentially relevant cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts through PubMed-Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using the core terms 'suicid*'/'suicide attempt*'/'attempted suicide' and 'adolescen*'/'youth'/'child*'/'student*' and 'China'/'Chinese' in the article titles, abstracts and keywords. Chi-square based Q test and I(2) statistic assessed the heterogeneity. Forest plot was used to display results graphically. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's test. In total, 43 studies with 200,124 participants met the eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was 2.94% (95% CI: 2.53%-3.41%). Substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates was revealed. Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence for males was 2.50% (95% CI: 2.08%-3.01%), and for females was 3.17% (95% CI: 2.56%-3.91%). In sum, abstracting across the literatures, the prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was moderate compared with other countries around the world. Necessary measures should be set out prevent them in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction by data mining, of suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae SM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sung Man Bae,1 Seung A Lee,2 Seung-Hwan Lee2,3 1Department of Counseling Psychology, The Cyber University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 2Clinical Emotion and Cognition Research Laboratory, Goyang, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Objective: This study aimed to develop a prediction model for suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.Methods: We conducted a decision tree analysis of 2,754 middle and high school students nationwide. We fixed suicide attempt as the dependent variable and eleven sociodemographic, intrapersonal, and extrapersonal variables as independent variables.Results: The rate of suicide attempts of the total sample was 9.5%, and severity of depression was the strongest variable to predict suicide attempt. The rates of suicide attempts in the depression and potential depression groups were 5.4 and 2.8 times higher than that of the non-depression group. In the depression group, the most powerful factor to predict a suicide attempt was delinquency, and the rate of suicide attempts in those in the depression group with higher delinquency was two times higher than in those in the depression group with lower delinquency. Of special note, the rate of suicide attempts in the depressed females with higher delinquency was the highest. Interestingly, in the potential depression group, the most impactful factor to predict a suicide attempt was intimacy with family, and the rate of suicide attempts of those in the potential depression group with lower intimacy with family was 2.4 times higher than that of those in the potential depression group with higher intimacy with family. And, among the potential depression group, middle school students with lower intimacy with family had a 2.5-times higher rate of suicide attempts than high school students with lower intimacy with family. Finally, in the non-depression group, stress level was the most powerful factor to

  15. [A cross-sectional study on suicide attempts in urban middle school students in Chengdu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-qun; Guo, Lan-ting

    2003-03-01

    To study the prevalence and associated factors of suicide attempt in middle school students. Five middle schools in Chengdu were randomly sampled in the study. A total of 1393 students between the ages of 11 and 18 finished a self-administered questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) and Egma Minnen av Bardodosnauppforstran (EMBU). Everyone who had suicide attempts was interviewed. Data were analysed by SPSS 8.0 (statistical package for the social science) program on computer. Thirty-six (2.6%) of the 1 393 students has the history of attempted suicide and the ratio of boys and girls was 1:2. Among the suicide attempters, 33.3% had recurrent events. The most common reason of suicide attempts in middle school stage was family conflicts (34.4%) with most common event as taking overdose tranquilizers or poisoning (50.0%). Risk factors of suicide attempt seemed to include hallucination, cigarette smoking, being bullied by peers, wanting to change sex, parents' remarriage, being female, father's refusal, being neglected in childhood and experiencing more events in the previous year. Protecting factor was found to have been family warmness. Suicide attempts were not uncommonly seen in middle school students. Clinicians and teaching staff should identify the risk factors and carry out intervention as early as possible.

  16. [Study on the school-related-factors of attempted suicide among rural middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiu-Ya; Tao, Fang-Biao; Hao, Jia-Hu; Xu, Shao-Jun; Su, Pu-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Hui

    2009-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine possible relationship between attempted suicide and underachievement, bullying, low life satisfaction and low self-concept at school. An anonymous self-report survey assessing demographic characteristics and the major risk factors of teenage attempted suicide was completed by students from 16 middle schools in grades seven to twelve in 4 counties of Anhui province (age 10 to 21 years). An anonymous questionnaire was used to rate attempted suicide, bullying involvement and learning performance. Attempted suicide was defined as: experiencing specific suicide actions at least one time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale and Children' s Self-concept Scale were used to evaluate satisfaction and self-conscience on and at respectively. In total, 10 894 respondents substantially completed the survey. Multiple logistic-regression analyses, controlling for socio-demographic variables, was used to analyze if underachievement, bullying, low school life satisfaction and low children' s self-conscience at school had been risk factors. 629 participants (5.8%) reported having made at least one attempted suicide within the last 12 months. Students being underachieved were significantly having more attempted suicide events than those excellent students (chi2 = 11.39, P = 0.023). Students being both bully-victims and practiced bully were significantly more than those being only practiced bully (28.7% vs. 15.8% , P bullying, lower school life satisfaction and low self conscience were risk factors for attempted suicide. Data from this study confirmed that school bullying and children' s self-conscience at school were significantly associated with attempted suicide among rural middle school students in Anhui province. It is of importance to improve the school' s environments to reduce the risk of attempted suicide among this group.

  17. A population-based longitudinal study of risk factors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Pagura, Jina; Enns, Murray W; Grant, Bridget; Sareen, Jitender

    2010-10-01

    No longitudinal study has examined risk factors for future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder in a nationally representative sample. The objective of this study was to investigate baseline sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid mental disorders, specific depressive symptoms, and previous suicidal behavior as potential risk factors for suicide attempts at 3 years follow-up. Data came from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions (NESARC), a large nationally representative longitudinal survey of mental illness in adults [Wave 1 (2001-2002); Wave 2 (2004-2005) n=34,653]. Logistic regression examined associations between risk factors present at Wave 1 and suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=169) among individuals with major depressive disorder at baseline assessment (n=6004). Risk factors for incident suicide attempts at Wave 2 (n=63) were identified among those with major depressive disorder at Wave 1 and no lifetime history of suicide attempts (n=5170). Results revealed specific comorbid anxiety, personality, and substance use disorders to be associated with incident suicide attempts at Wave 2. Comorbid borderline personality disorder was strongly associated with suicide attempts in all models. Several comorbid disorders were strongly associated with suicide attempts at Wave 2 even after adjusting for previous suicidal behavior, notably posttraumatic stress disorder (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.20; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.27-3.83) and dependent personality disorder (AOR=4.43; 95% CI 1.93-10.18). These findings suggest that mental illness comorbidity confers an increased risk of future suicide attempts in major depressive disorder that is not solely accounted for by past suicidal behavior.

  18. Suicide attempts and clinical severity of eating disorders : an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paulo P. P.; Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara César; Torres, António Roma; Brandão, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines whether eating disorders patients with suicide attempts present differences in disordered eating and clinical traits compared to those without suicide attempts. Method: 144 patients with eating disorders (65 anorexia nervosa and 79 bulimia nervosa) completed the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI; Garner, Omstead & Polivy, 1983), the Symptom Checklist - 90- Revised (SCL-90; Derrogatis, 1977), and a questionnaire to assess eating behaviors and attitudes, information reg...

  19. A 6-year longitudinal study of predictors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelenboom, Merijn; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Smit, Johannes H

    2018-06-13

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), represent a major source of risk for suicidality. However, knowledge about risk factors for future suicide attempts (SAs) within MDD is limited. The present longitudinal study examined a wide range of putative non-clinical risk factors (demographic, social, lifestyle, personality) and clinical risk factors (depressive and suicidal indicators) for future SAs among persons with MDD. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between a number of significant predictors and the incidence of a future SA. Data are from 1713 persons (18-65 years) with a lifetime MDD at the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety who were subsequently followed up 2, 4 and 6 years. SAs were assessed in the face-to-face measurements. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine a wide range of possible non-clinical and clinical predictors for subsequent SAs during 6-year follow-up. Over a period of 6 years, 3.4% of the respondents attempted suicide. Younger age, lower education, unemployment, insomnia, antidepressant use, a previous SA and current suicidal thoughts independently predicted a future SA. The number of significant risk factors (ranging from 0 to 7) linearly predicted the incidence of future SAs: in those with 0 predictors the SA incidence was 0%, which increased to 32% incidence in those with 6+ predictors. Of the non-clinical factors, particularly socio-economic factors predicted a SA independently. Furthermore, preexisting suicidal ideation and insomnia appear to be important clinical risk factors for subsequent SA that are open to preventative intervention.

  20. Risk factors related to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide: comparative study of Korean and American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations.

  1. Suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Ho; Kim, Jung Bin; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2016-10-01

    Stroke is known to be associated with an increase in the risk for suicide. However, there are very few population-based studies investigating the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts in patients with stroke. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts between patients with stroke and population without stroke using nationwide survey data. Individual-level data were obtained from 228,735 participants (4560 with stroke and 224,175 without stroke) of the 2013 Korean Community Health Survey. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, physical health status, and mental health status were compared between patients with stroke and population without stroke. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate the independent effects of the stroke on suicidal ideation and attempts. Stroke patients had more depressive mood (12.6 %) than population without stroke (5.7 %, p suicidal ideation (24.4 %) and attempts (1.3 %) than population without stroke (9.8 and 0.4 %, respectively; both p suicidal ideation (OR 1.65, 95 % CI 1.52-1.79) and suicidal attempts (OR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.21-2.22), adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors, and physical health and mental health factors. We found that stroke increased the risk for suicidal ideation and attempts, independent of other factors that are known to be associated with suicidality, suggesting that stroke per se may be an independent risk factor for suicidality.

  2. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Poststroke Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnod, Tomor; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2018-01-10

    This nationwide population-based cohort study evaluated the risk of and risk factors for suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan. The poststroke and nonstroke cohorts consisted of 713 690 patients and 1 426 009 controls, respectively. Adults (aged >18 years) who received new stroke diagnoses according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM ; codes 430-438) between 2000 and 2011 were included in the poststroke cohort. We calculated the adjusted hazard ratio for suicide attempt ( ICD-9-CM codes E950-E959) after adjustment for age, sex, monthly income, urbanization level, occupation category, and various comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to measure the cumulative incidence of suicide attempt, and the Fine and Gray method was used as a competing event when estimating death subhazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals between groups. The cumulative incidence of suicide attempt was higher in the poststroke cohort, and the adjusted hazard ratio of suicide attempt was 2.20 (95% confidence interval, 2.04-2.37) compared with that of the controls. The leading risk factors for poststroke suicide attempt were earning low monthly income (US dollars), living in less urbanized regions, doing manual labor, and having a stroke before age 50 years. The attempted suicide risk did not differ significantly between male and female patients in this study. These results convey crucial information to clinicians and governments for preventing suicide attempt in poststroke patients in Taiwan and other Asian countries. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Gysin-Maillart

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempted suicide is the main risk factor for suicide and repeated suicide attempts. However, the evidence for follow-up treatments reducing suicidal behavior in these patients is limited. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP in reducing suicidal behavior. ASSIP is a novel brief therapy based on a patient-centered model of suicidal behavior, with an emphasis on early therapeutic alliance.Patients who had recently attempted suicide were randomly allocated to treatment as usual (n = 60 or treatment as usual plus ASSIP (n = 60. ASSIP participants received three therapy sessions followed by regular contact through personalized letters over 24 months. Participants considered to be at high risk of suicide were included, 63% were diagnosed with an affective disorder, and 50% had a history of prior suicide attempts. Clinical exclusion criteria were habitual self-harm, serious cognitive impairment, and psychotic disorder. Study participants completed a set of psychosocial and clinical questionnaires every 6 months over a 24-month follow-up period. The study represents a real-world clinical setting at an outpatient clinic of a university hospital of psychiatry. The primary outcome measure was repeat suicide attempts during the 24-month follow-up period. Secondary outcome measures were suicidal ideation, depression, and health-care utilization. Furthermore, effects of prior suicide attempts, depression at baseline, diagnosis, and therapeutic alliance on outcome were investigated. During the 24-month follow-up period, five repeat suicide attempts were recorded in the ASSIP group and 41 attempts in the control group. The rates of participants reattempting suicide at least once were 8.3% (n = 5 and 26.7% (n = 16. ASSIP was associated with an approximately 80% reduced risk of participants making at least one repeat suicide attempt (Wald χ21 = 13.1, 95% CI 12.4-13.7, p < 0

  4. Impact of mass media and interpersonal health communication on smoking cessation attempts: a study in North Karelia, 1989-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T; Uutela, A; Korhonen, H J; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes an impact evaluation of the North Karelia Project (Finnish CINDI program) on smoking cessation attempts. During the period 1989-1996, data were collected by annual surveys, with response rates varying from 66% to 76%. This study included 1,694 adult current smokers or persons who had quit smoking during the past year, out of a total of 6,011 respondents. Smoking cessation attempts during the past 12 months were examined as a dependent variable. Reported exposures to mass media and interpersonal health communication were examined as possible determinants of smoking cessation. Weekly exposure to mass media health messages was significantly associated with cessation attempts among men only. In contrast, interpersonal health communication, or social influence, was a significant determinant of cessation attempts among both sexes. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal health communication had an even stronger impact on cessation attempts. Thus, interpersonal communication appears to be an important catalyst of community programs, and its inclusion should be emphasized to obtain a higher impact with community programs.

  5. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    with schizophrenia and related disorders. The thesis contains a review of the risk of suicide in homeless. In all the studies included, increased suicide mortality was found, and in the studies that evaluated suicide risk in different age groups, the excess suicide mortality was most dominant in younger age groups. Our own study revealed an increased risk of suicide, and in univariate analysis, significant predictors for suicide were found to be associated with shortest stay in hostel less than 11 days and more than one stay during one year. The thesis also contains a review of the risk of suicide in first-episode patients with schizophrenia, and it was concluded on the basis of the identified studies that long-term risk of suicide was not 10 percent as previously accepted, but lower. Risk factors for suicide among patients with schizophrenia were evaluated in case control studies, in nested case control studies, and in prospective studies. The following risk factors were the most important and frequently observed predictors: male gender, young age, short duration of illness, many admissions during last year, current inpatient, short time since discharge, previous and recent suicide attempt, co-morbid depression, drug abuse, poor compliance with medication, poor adherence to treatment, high IQ, and suicidal ideations. The results of analyses of psychotic symptoms as risk factor for suicide were contradictory, but a recent meta-analysis concluded that both hallucinations and delusions seemed to be protective; however, there was a non-significant tendency that command hallucinations were associated with higher suicide risk. Prevention of suicide in schizophrenia must especially focus on improving assessment of risk of suicide during inpatient treatment and the first week after discharge, and special attention must be paid to patients with one or more of the identified risk factors. There is a need for large randomised clinical trials evaluating the effect on suicide and

  6. Clinical characteristics in schizophrenia patients with or without suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Erlend; Walby, Fredrik A; Harkavy-Friedman, Jill M; Barrett, Elizabeth A; Steen, Nils E; Lorentzen, Steinar; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Mehlum, Lars

    2013-10-09

    To investigate whether schizophrenia patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm have earlier age of onset of psychotic and depressive symptoms and higher levels of clinical symptoms compared to patients with only suicide attempts or without suicide attempt. Using a cross-sectional design, 251 patients (18-61 years old, 58% men) with schizophrenia treated at hospitals in Oslo and Innlandet Hospital Trust, Norway, were assessed with a comprehensive clinical research protocol and divided into three groups based on their history of suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm. Suicide attempts were present in 88 patients (35%); 52 had suicide attempts only (29%) and 36 had both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm (14%). When compared with nonattempters and those with suicide attempts without non-suicidal self-harm, patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more frequently women, younger at the onset of psychotic symptoms, had longer duration of untreated psychosis, and had higher levels of current impulsivity/aggression and depression. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm were more likely to repeat suicide attempts than patients with suicide attempts only. Patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm had different illness history and clinical characteristics compared to patients with only suicide attempts or patients without suicidal behavior. Our study suggests that patients with both suicide attempts and non-suicidal self-harm represent a distinct subgroup among patients with schizophrenia and suicidal behavior with their early onset of psychotic symptoms, high rate of repeated suicidal behavior and significant treatment delay.

  7. Multicomponent Intervention for Patients Admitted to an Emergency Unit for Suicide Attempt: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Brovelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major cause of premature deaths worldwide and belongs to the top priority public health issues. While suicide attempt is the most important risk factor for completed suicide, intervention for suicide attempters (SA have produced mixed results. Since an important proportion of SA request medical care, emergency units (EU are an opportune setting to implement such interventions. This exploratory study evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of a multicomponent intervention for SA admitted to an EU. The intervention consisted of coordination by a case manager of a joint crisis plan (JCP, an early meeting with relatives and the existing care network, as well as phone contacts during 3 months after suicide attempt. Among 107 SA admitted to the emergency unit during the study period, 51 could not be included for logistical reason, 22 were excluded, and intervention was offered to 34. Of these, 15 refused the intervention, which was thus piloted with 19 SA. First-time attempters most frequently declined the intervention. Feasibility and acceptability of phone contacts and case manager were good, while JCPs and meetings were difficult to implement and perceived as less acceptable. Refusal pattern questions the global acceptability and is discussed: JCPs and meetings will have to be modified in order to improve their feasibility and acceptability, especially among first-time attempters.

  8. Dimensions of Impulsivity and Aggression Associated with Suicide Attempts Among Bipolar Patients: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Benjamin H.; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Davis, Glen P.; Singer, Tara M.; Garno, Jessica L.; Wenze, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    Impulsivity and hostility are often thought to be interrelated among depressed patients with suicidal behavior, but few studies have examined this relationship empirically. In this study, we assessed trait impulsivity and hostility among 52 DSM-IV bipolar subjects with and without histories of suicide attempts. Impulsivity and hostility were…

  9. Self-Reported Psychopathology, Trauma Symptoms, and Emotion Coping Among Child Suicide Attempters and Ideators: An Exploratory Study of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzy, Mary E; Barreto, Steven J; Swenson, Lance P; Liguori, Gina; Costea, Geanina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined self-reported psychopathology, trauma symptoms, and emotion coping in 7 to 12 year old children with suicidal ideation and attempts. This study compared 70 psychiatric inpatient children with current suicidal ideation to 59 psychiatric inpatient children with recent suicide attempts on measures of depression, anxiety, anger, emotional intelligence, and family/contextual factors. Results revealed greater self-reported anger as well as psychological distress associated with traumatic experiences (dissociation, anger, depression), among children who attempted suicide, in addition to increased reports of special education utilization, when compared to ideators only. These relationships were not affected by age or gender. Overall, the findings suggest self-reports of younger children who attempt suicide share similarities with older children and adolescent attempters, when compared with ideators who do not attempt. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed.

  10. Case Control Study of Impulsivity, Aggression, Pesticide Exposure and Suicide Attempts Using Pesticides among Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chun Ping; Pei, Jian Ru; Beseler, L Cheryl; Li, Yu Ling; Li, Jian Hui; Ren, Ming; Stallones, Lorann; Ren, Shu Ping

    2018-03-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate associations between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, aggression, impulsivity, and attempted suicide. Questionnaires were used to collect information; impulsivity and aggression were measured by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Aggression Inventory (AI). A greater number of OP symptoms was associated with an increased odds of a suicide attempt after adjusting for marital status and income (OR = 1.45; CI 1.14-1.86). Attempted suicide was significantly associated with high impulsivity scores (means: 72.4 vs. 60.6, P controls and scored higher on scales of impulsivity and aggression. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicide Attempts and Childhood Maltreatment Among Street Youth: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Wood, Evan; Dong, Huiru; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio S; DeBeck, Kora

    2015-09-01

    Although suicide is a known leading cause of death among street youth, few prospective studies have explored childhood experiences as risk factors for future suicide attempt in this population. We examined the risk of attempted suicide in relation to childhood maltreatment among street youth. From September 2005 to November 2013, data were collected from the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort of street youth in Vancouver, Canada. Inclusion criteria were age 14 to 26 years, past-month illicit drug use, and street involvement. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, an instrument measuring self-reported sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Suicide attempts were assessed semiannually. Using Cox regression, we examined the association between the 5 types of maltreatment and suicide attempts. Of 660 participants, 68.2% were male and 24.6% were Aboriginal. Median age was 21.5 years. The prevalence of moderate to extreme childhood maltreatment ranged from 16.8% (sexual abuse) to 45.2% (emotional abuse). Participants contributed 1841 person-years, with suicide attempts reported by 35 (5.3%) individuals (crude incidence density: 1.9 per 100 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-2.6 per 100 person-years). In adjusted analyses, types of maltreatment associated with suicide attempts included physical abuse (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 4.47; 95% CI: 2.12-9.42), emotional abuse (adjusted HR: 4.92; 95% CI: 2.11-11.5), and emotional neglect (adjusted HR: 3.08; 95% CI: 1.05-9.03). Childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent risk of suicidal behavior among street youth. Suicide prevention efforts should be targeted toward this marginalized population and delivered from a trauma-informed perspective. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Comparative study of hostility in depressive patients with and without a suicide attempt history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Poulios, Antonios; Papadopoulou, Athanasia; Douzenis, Athanassios

    2017-08-01

    Hostility in association with depression seems to be connected to suicidal behavior. This study aimed to evaluate hostility and its dimensions in relation to depression in patients who suffered from diagnosed depression with and without a suicide attempt history. The study included 168 participants; 58 patients with depression and suicide attempt history, 55 patients with depression without a suicide attempt history and 55 healthy controls. Hostility was assessed with the Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, while depression with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Patients with depression and a suicide attempt history compared with the patients without attempt history presented statistically significantly higher total hostility (28.71 ± 6.43 vs 24.20 ± 7.66), extroverted hostility (17.16 ± 4.37 vs 14.15 ± 4.63), acting out hostility (6.03 ± 2.09 vs 4.73 ± 1.93), and self criticism (6.95 ± 2.12 vs 5.89 ± 2.32). No statistically significant differences were found between the two clinical groups in depression according to the BDI. Moreover depressive patients with suicide attempt history scored higher in all the hostility dimensions than the controls. Therefore, it could be suggested that hostility and especially its extrapunitive dimensions are associated with suicidal behavior, since no differences in depression were recorded between the two clinical groups.

  13. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  14. Exploring the risk factors contributing to suicide attempt among adolescents: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Rafi Bazrafshan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified three major themes related to suicide attempt among adolescents in the context. As a result, suicide prevention and care provision should formulate a comprehensive method, considering the interaction of medical besides individual, familiar, and social factors in their assessment and care provision.

  15. Intimate partner violence and incident depressive symptoms and suicide attempts: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Devries

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs. Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.48, I²  =  50.4%, p(heterogeneity = 0.073. There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51-2.48, I²  =  0%, p = 0.481. IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and Incident Depressive Symptoms and Suicide Attempts: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen M.; Mak, Joelle Y.; Bacchus, Loraine J.; Child, Jennifer C.; Falder, Gail; Petzold, Max; Astbury, Jill; Watts, Charlotte H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression and suicide are responsible for a substantial burden of disease globally. Evidence suggests that intimate partner violence (IPV) experience is associated with increased risk of depression, but also that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of violence. We aimed to investigate the extent to which IPV experience is associated with incident depression and suicide attempts, and vice versa, in both women and men. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published before February 1, 2013. More than 22,000 records from 20 databases were searched for studies examining physical and/or sexual intimate partner or dating violence and symptoms of depression, diagnosed major depressive disorder, dysthymia, mild depression, or suicide attempts. Random effects meta-analyses were used to generate pooled odds ratios (ORs). Sixteen studies with 36,163 participants met our inclusion criteria. All studies included female participants; four studies also included male participants. Few controlled for key potential confounders other than demographics. All but one depression study measured only depressive symptoms. For women, there was clear evidence of an association between IPV and incident depressive symptoms, with 12 of 13 studies showing a positive direction of association and 11 reaching statistical significance; pooled OR from six studies = 1.97 (95% CI 1.56–2.48, I 2 = 50.4%, p heterogeneity = 0.073). There was also evidence of an association in the reverse direction between depressive symptoms and incident IPV (pooled OR from four studies = 1.93, 95% CI 1.51–2.48, I 2 = 0%, p = 0.481). IPV was also associated with incident suicide attempts. For men, evidence suggested that IPV was associated with incident depressive symptoms, but there was no clear evidence of an association between IPV and suicide attempts or depression and incident IPV. Conclusions In women, IPV

  17. Hopelessness as a Predictor of Attempted Suicide among First Admission Patients with Psychosis: A 10-Year Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonsky, E. David; Kotov, Roman; Bakst, Shelly; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the longitudinal relationship of hopelessness to attempted suicide in psychotic disorders. This study addresses this gap by assessing hopelessness and attempted suicide at multiple time-points over 10 years in a first-admission cohort with psychosis (n = 414). Approximately one in five participants attempted suicide during…

  18. Contributing Factors and Mental Health Outcomes of First Suicide Attempt During Childhood and Adolescence: Results From a Nationally Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, Hugo; Hoertel, Nicolas; Stordeur, Coline; Lebeau, Gaële; Blanco, Carlos; McMahon, Kibby; Basmaci, Romain; Lemogne, Cédric; Limosin, Frédéric; Delorme, Richard

    2017-06-01

    To investigate whether risk factors for suicide attempts differ in children and adolescents and to categorize adulthood mental health outcomes of child and adolescent suicide attempters in the general population. Using a large (N = 34,653), nationally representative US adult sample, the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we examined whether individuals who first attempted suicide during childhood (under the age of 13 years) differ from those who first attempted suicide during adolescence (13 through 17 years) in (1) contributing factors for first suicide attempt, including mental disorders and traumatic experiences that occurred before the first suicide attempt, parental history of mental disorders, and family poverty and (2) adulthood mental health outcomes, including lifetime and current prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders and quality of life measures. Suicide attempts during childhood (n = 104) were more strongly related to childhood maltreatment, while suicide attempts during adolescence (n = 415) were more strongly associated with major depressive episode. Compared to first suicide attempts during adolescence, first attempts during childhood were associated with increased risk for multiple suicide attempts (61.3% vs 32.6%), several psychiatric disorders (mania, hypomania, and panic disorder), and poorer social functioning during adulthood (all P values childhood maltreatment and early intervention for psychiatric disorders may have broad benefits to reduce not only the suffering of these children and adolescents, but also the burden of suicide. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  19. A social study on effects of personal characteristics on suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt has been one of serious social problems in todays’ modern society and many studies have been focused to detect different factors influencing this unfortunate issue. In this paper, we perform an empirical study among 897 people who had some experiences associated with suicide attempt. We have designed and distributed a questionnaire among them investigating the impact of four major issues including marital status, educational background, age and living status. The results of our survey indicate that married people tend to commit suicide more than single people do. The other observation indicates that more educated people are more likely to commit suicide, older people are more interested in ending their lives and finally, people who live in cities are more likely to commit suicide than other people.

  20. Genome-wide association study of suicide attempts in mood disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Roy H; Huang, Jie; Purcell, Shaun; Fava, Maurizio; Rush, A John; Sullivan, Patrick F; Hamilton, Steven P; McMahon, Francis J; Schulze, Thomas G; Schulze, Thomas; Potash, James B; Zandi, Peter P; Willour, Virginia L; Penninx, Brenda W; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Middeldorp, Christel M; Rietschel, Marcella; Nöthen, Markus; Cichon, Sven; Gurling, Hugh; Bass, Nick; McQuillin, Andrew; Hamshere, Marian; Craddock, Nick; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W

    2010-12-01

    Family and twin studies suggest that liability for suicide attempts is heritable and distinct from mood disorder susceptibility. The authors therefore examined the association between common genomewide variation and lifetime suicide attempts. The authors analyzed data on lifetime suicide attempts from genomewide association studies of bipolar I and II disorder as well as major depressive disorder. Bipolar disorder subjects were drawn from the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder cohort, the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium bipolar cohort, and the University College London cohort. Replication was pursued in the NIMH Genetic Association Information Network bipolar disorder project and a German clinical cohort. Depression subjects were drawn from the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression cohort, with replication in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety/Netherlands Twin Register depression cohort. Strongest evidence of association for suicide attempt in bipolar disorder was observed in a region without identified genes (rs1466846); five loci also showed suggestive evidence of association. In major depression, strongest evidence of association was observed for a single nucleotide polymorphism in ABI3BP, with six loci also showing suggestive association. Replication cohorts did not provide further support for these loci. However, meta-analysis incorporating approximately 8,700 mood disorder subjects identified four additional regions that met the threshold for suggestive association, including the locus containing the gene coding for protein kinase C-epsilon, previously implicated in models of mood and anxiety. The results suggest that inherited risk for suicide among mood disorder patients is unlikely to be the result of individual common variants of large effect. They nonetheless provide suggestive evidence for multiple loci, which merit further investigation.

  1. Lessons learned in research: an attempt to study the effects of magnetic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szor, Judy K; Holewinski, Paul

    2002-02-01

    Difficulties related to chronic wound healing research are frequently discussed, but results of less-than-perfect studies commonly are not published. A 16-week, randomized controlled double-blind study attempted to investigate the effect of static magnetic therapy on the healing of diabetic foot ulcers. Of 56 subjects, 37 completed the study. Because of the small sample size, randomization did not control for differences between the two groups, and the data could not be analyzed in any meaningful way. The challenges of performing magnetic therapy research are discussed and considerations for future studies are noted.

  2. Qualitative Research to study the attempted suicide of Tabasco´s young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela B. Martínez G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: this paper intends to give an account concerning the progress of a doctoral research with regards to suicidal attempts in young people along with their meanings. Methodology: qualitative research. It presents the theories which support my work (collective health, cultural studies, and youth sociology in the search of understanding how the hegemonic medical thinking has had an influence in the production of scientific knowledge about suicide. Results: there is a need to construct an overlook which may allow discovering the meanings that death, life, and life style may have for men and women with suicidal attempts. Discussion: It concludes with the presentation of the development that has taken this research with regard to the analysis interviews that give it origin.

  3. Qualitative study on suicide attempts and ideations with 60 elderly in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Sixty cases of suicidal attempts and ideations among elderly people from thirteen Brazilian municipalities were studied, with the objective of discovering, from what they had to say, their reasons and interpretations for attempting to take their own life. The study, with a hermeneutic and dialectic basis, was based on an interview guide, to steer the conversation with these individuals. It starts with a sociodemographic classification and looks in depth at the person's situation according to their social, community and family circumstances and their physical and mental health, functional capacity, and the reasons given for the suicidal ideations and attempts. This field information was first analysed locally and then cross-categorized according to the method used, severity of the events and reasons given by the elderly people, by sex, age, socioeconomic profile and risk and protection factors. A comprehensive, critical and interpretative summary was made of the material. The results show that failure to listen to and the isolation of elderly people, lack of awareness of the risks on the part of family, the association with physical and mental, functional, social and family losses and violence are predisposing factors, and concurrent in many cases. The conclusion is that vulnerability and self-neglect are reduced where there is family support, care and bonds of unity.

  4. Suicide attempts in major depressive episode: evidence from the BRIDGE-II-Mix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dina; Vieta, Eduard; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Angst, Jules; Bowden, Charles L; Mosolov, Sergey; Young, Allan H; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-11-01

    The Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance, and Education (BRIDGE-II-Mix) study aimed to estimate the frequency of mixed states in patients with a major depressive episode (MDE) according to different definitions and to compare their clinical validity, looking into specific features such as suicidality. A total of 2,811 subjects were enrolled in this multicenter cross-sectional study. Psychiatric symptoms, and sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected. The analysis compared the characteristics of patients with MDE with (MDE-SA group) and without (MDE-NSA) a history of suicide attempts. The history of suicide attempts was registered in 628 patients (22.34%). In the MDE-SA group, women (72.5%, p = 0.028), (hypo)mania in first-degree relatives (20.5%, p suicide attempts. In the MDE-SA group, 75 patients (11.9%) fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 criteria for MDE with mixed features, and 250 patients (39.8%) fulfilled research-based diagnostic criteria for a mixed depressive episode. Important differences between MDE-SA and MDE-NSA patients have emerged. Early identification of symptoms such as risky behavior, psychomotor agitation, and impulsivity in patients with MDE, and treatment of mixed depressive states could represent a major step in suicide prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts: a study of Danish adoptees and their biological and adoptive siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kragh Andersen, Per; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Hawton, Keith

    2014-02-01

    Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions. The rate of attempted suicide in full siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide before age 60 years was higher than in full siblings of adoptees who had not attempted suicide (incidence rate ratios (IRR)=3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.94-12.7). After adjustment for history of psychiatric admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6). Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation. Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Risk of Suicide Attempt among Adolescents with Conduct Disorder: A Longitudinal Follow-up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Han-Ting; Lan, Wen-Hsuan; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Bai, Ya-Mei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Su, Tung-Ping; Li, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Wei-Chen; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Mu-Hong

    2016-10-01

    To assess the independent or comorbid effect of conduct and mood disorders on the risk of suicide. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to derive data for 3711 adolescents aged 12-17 years with conduct disorder and 14 844 age- and sex-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. The participants were followed up to the end of 2011, and those who attempted suicide during the follow-up period were identified. Adolescents with conduct disorder had a higher incidence of suicide (0.9% vs 0.1%; P suicide at a younger age (17.38 ± 2.04 vs 20.52 ± 1.70 years of age) than did the controls. The Cox proportional hazards regression model, after adjustment for demographic data and psychiatric comorbidities, determined that conduct disorder was an independent risk factor for subsequent suicide attempts (hazard ratio, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.29-11.70). The sensitivity after those with other psychiatric comorbidities were excluded revealed a consistent finding (hazard ratio, 10.32; 95% CI, 3.71-28.71). Adolescents with conduct disorder had an increased risk of suicide attempts over the next decade. Future studies are required to clarify the underlying pathophysiology and elucidate whether prompt intervention for conduct disorder could reduce this risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Huang, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Bibo; O'Dea, Bridianne; Christensen, Helen; Zhu, Tingshao

    2015-01-01

    broadcast their suicide attempts on social media. Results of this study support the need for improved public health programs in China and may be insightful for other countries and other social media platforms.

  8. Experimental study of neoclassical currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Prager, S.C.

    1985-05-01

    A detailed experimental study is presented of the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schlueter currents that are predicted by neoclassical transport theory. In a toroidal octupole, on magnetic surfaces within the separatrix, the observed parallel plasma currents are in excellent quantitative agreement with neoclassical theory with regard to the spatial structure (along a magnetic surface), collisionality dependence and toroidal magnetic field dependence. On magnetic surfaces outside the separatrix, the ion portion of the parallel current is in agreement with neoclassical theory but the electron parallel current is observed to obtain a unidirectional component which deviates from and exceeds the theoretical prediction

  9. Clinical characteristics of depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts: results from the CRESCEND study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Tae-Suk; Yim, Hyeon-Woo; Jeong, Seung Hee; Lee, Chul; Lee, Chang-Uk; Kim, Jae-Min; Jung, Sung-Won; Lee, Min-Soo; Jun, Tae-Youn

    2010-10-01

    South Korea is a country with one of the highest suicide rates in the world, and the suicide rate is still on the rise. The purpose of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of suicide attempts and risk factors related to suicide attempts among depressed patients in South Korea. Among the 1183 participants, 21.4% had a history of a suicide attempt. When the severity of depression was controlled, the risk factors for patients who attempted suicide included younger age, experienced significant life events before 12 years of age, psychotic symptoms, and previous depressive episodes. The characteristics of attempted suicide in depressed patients in South Korea can be summarized as a high suicide attempt rate with no difference in the number of suicide attempts and lethality between males and females. This unique tendency is probably related to the sociodemographic and cultural characteristics of South Korea.

  10. Association between level of suicide risk, characteristics of suicide attempts, and mental disorders among suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Youn, Tak; Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Jong Ik; Kim, Haesoo; Lee, Hyo Chu; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2018-04-11

    Past attempted suicide is a strong predictor of future suicide risk, but the risk varies among suicide attempters. Hence, it is important to clarify distinguishing features of lifetime attempters with a high level of current suicide risk for efficient preventive management. We compared characteristics of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics among high-, moderate-, and low-risk attempters. Among the total of 6022 participants in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 193 reported a suicide attempt in their lifetime, 36 of which had high, 126 moderate, and 30 low levels of current suicide risk (1 incomplete response). High-risk suicide attempters had more past attempts compared with moderate- and low-risk suicide attempters. Suicide attempts were closely linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities regardless of degree of current level of suicide risk, but the relative risk for having at least one mental disorder was the highest in high-risk attempters. Specifically, the relative risks for depressive disorder, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders were higher in high-risk attempters, and relative risk for somatoform disorder was higher in low-risk attempters than others. Our findings indicated that special attention is required for suicide attempters with a history of repeated attempts and current mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders.

  11. What constitutes a nesting attempt? Variation in criteria causes bias and hinders comparisons across studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Because reliable estimates of nesting success are very important to avian studies, the defnition of a “successful nest” and the use of different analytical methods to estimate success have received much attention. By contrast, variation in the criteria used to determine whether an occupied site that did not produce offspring contained a nesting attempt is a source of bias that has been largely ignored. This problem is especially severe in studies that deal with species whose nest contents are relatively inaccessible because observers cannot determine whether or not an egg was laid for a large proportion of occupied sites. Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia) often lay their eggs ≥3 m below ground, so past Burrowing Owl studies have used a variety of criteria to determine whether a nesting attempt was initiated. We searched the literature to document the extent of that variation and examined how that variation influenced estimates of daily nest survival. We found 13 different sets of criteria used by previous authors and applied each criterion to our data set of 1,300 occupied burrows. We found significant variation in estimates of daily nest survival depending on the criteria used. Moreover, differences in daily nest survival among populations were apparent using some sets of criteria but not others. These inconsistencies may lead to incorrect conclusions and invalidate comparisons of the productivity and relative site quality among populations. We encourage future authors working on cavity-, canopy-, or burrow-nesting birds to provide specific details on the criteria they used to identify a nesting attempt.

  12. Childhood trauma and suicide attempt: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies from the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatti, Cleonice; Rosa, Virgínia; Barros, Alcina; Valdivia, Lucianne; Calegaro, Vitor Crestani; Freitas, Lúcia Helena; Ceresér, Keila Maria Mendes; Rocha, Neusa Sica da; Bastos, Andre Goettems; Schuch, Felipe Barreto

    2017-10-01

    Childhood trauma (CT) is a modifiable risk factor for lifetime suicide attempts (SA). However, the extent to which each type of CT increases SA risk is unclear. This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies published in the last 10 years about the relationship between CT and lifetime SA risk. The PUBMED, PsycINFO, ISI, and EMBASE databases were searched for cohort studies that reported AS during follow-up and included an assessment of CT. A meta-analysis was conducted to identify potential effects of each type of CT on SA. Seven unique studies were included for review. Sexual (n=6, OR=3.73, 95%CI 2.94-4.75, pbroken home were not significantly associated with further SA. The modes of CT that most contribute to SA in later life are physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and physical neglect, in descending order. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Stigma Mediates the Impact of Insight on Current Suicide Ideation in Suicide Attempters with Schizophrenia: Results of a Moderated Mediation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Yin-Ju; Chang, Hsin-An; Kao, Yu-Chen; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Loh, Ching-Hui

    2017-09-04

    This study examined the relationships among insight, self-stigma, self-esteem, hope, quality of life, and suicidal behavior in individuals diagnosed as having schizophrenia. Hypotheses concerning mediating and moderating effects were examined. A total of 170 community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. The results revealed a negative association between insight and suicide ideation, which was partially mediated by self-stigma. Moreover, this indirect link was stronger among patients with suicide attempts than among those without attempts. We discuss the implications of these results for preventing or reducing the considerable risks of suicide in this population. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Li

    2015-09-01

    social media users to improve their attitudes towards those who broadcast their suicide attempts on social media. Results of this study support the need for improved public health programs in China and may be insightful for other countries and other social media platforms.

  15. Attitudes towards suicide attempts broadcast on social media: an exploratory study of Chinese microblogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxiao; Hao, Bibo; O’Dea, Bridianne; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    media users to improve their attitudes towards those who broadcast their suicide attempts on social media. Results of this study support the need for improved public health programs in China and may be insightful for other countries and other social media platforms. PMID:26380801

  16. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty...

  17. Youth, suicide attempts and low level of education: A Danish historical register-based cohort study of the outcome of suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Larsen, Kim Juul; Bilenberg, Niels; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2015-12-01

    In Denmark, it is a political goal that 95% of all young people should complete an upper secondary education. For some young people, this goal can be difficult to achieve. An association has been established between suicidal behaviour and school performance. We hypothesise that young people who have attempted suicide have a lower chance of finishing secondary education. We used Danish historical population registers to perform a longitudinal cohort design and extended Cox regression modelling to estimate crude and adjusted estimates of the effect of suicide attempt on secondary education. We used the birth cohorts 1983-1989, and all subjects were followed from birth until the end of 2011 (n = 355,725). For suicide attempters, the likelihood of completing secondary education was one-third of non-attempters (crude hazard ratio = 0.38). A part of the impact can be explained by confounding factors. Individuals with a suicide attempt at age 16-20 years or with multiple suicide attempts were most likely not to complete secondary education. Compared to mentally ill non-attempters, suicide attempters with mental illness were more likely not to finish secondary education. A suicide attempt is not necessarily causal for not finishing secondary education, but it is a marker, and it predicts an increased likelihood of not finishing secondary education. We need to identify individuals at risk for suicide attempts and subsequently provide the necessary support. Completing secondary education is important, as it provides better chances of employment, higher wages and more opportunities for individuals in the future. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Visualizing Changes in Strategy Use across Attempts via State Diagrams: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Game log data have great potential to provide actionable information about the in-game behavior of players. However, these low-level behavioral data are notoriously difficult to analyze due to the challenges associated with extracting meaning from sparse data stored at such a small grain size. This paper describes a three-step solution that uses cluster analysis to determine which strategies players use to solve levels in the game, sequence mining to identify changes in strategy across multiple attempts at the same level, and state transition diagrams to visualize the strategy sequences identified by the sequence mining. In the educational video game used in this case study, cluster analysis successfully identified 15 different in-game strategies. The sequence mining found an average of 40 different sequences of strategy use per level, which the state transition diagrams successfully displayed in an interpretable way.

  19. High-current railgap studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.; Gordon, L.; Hofer, W.; Wilson, M.

    1983-06-03

    Characteristics of a 40-kV, 750-kA, multichannel rail gap are presented. The gap is a three electrode, field-distortion-triggered design, with a total switch inductance of less than 10 nH. At maximum ratings, the gap typically switches 10 C per shot, at 700 kA, with a jitter of less than 2 ns. Image-converter streak photographs were used to study channel evolution and current division. Transient gas-pressure measurements were made to investigate the arc generated shocks and to detect single channel failure. Channel current sharing and simultaneity are described and their effects on the switch inductance and lifetime are discussed. Lifetime tests of the rail gap were performed. Degradation in the channel current-sharing and erosion measurements are discussed.

  20. High-current railgap studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.; Gordon, L.; Hofer, W.; Wilson, M.

    1983-06-01

    Characteristics of a 40-kV, 750-kA, multichannel rail gap are presented. The gap is a three electrode, field distortion triggered design, with a total switch inductance of less than 10 nH. At maximum ratings, the gap typically switches 10 C per shot, at 700 kA, with a jitter of less than 2 ns. Channel evolution and current division were studied on image converter streak photographs. Transient gas pressure measurements were made to investigate the arc generated shocks and to detect single channel failure. Channel current sharing and simultaneity are described and their effects on the switch inductance in the channel current sharing and erosion measurements are discussed.

  1. Motivational Interviewing for encouraging quit attempts among unmotivated smokers: study protocol of a randomized, controlled, efficacy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catley Delwyn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the current Clinical Practice Guideline recommend Motivational Interviewing for use with smokers not ready to quit, the strength of evidence for its use is rated as not optimal. The purpose of the present study is to address key methodological limitations of previous studies by ensuring fidelity in the delivery of the Motivational Interviewing intervention, using an attention-matched control condition, and focusing on unmotivated smokers whom meta-analyses have indicated may benefit most from Motivational Interviewing. It is hypothesized that MI will be more effective at inducing quit attempts and smoking cessation at 6-month follow-up than brief advice to quit and an intensity-matched health education condition. Methods/Design A sample of adult community resident smokers (N = 255 who report low motivation and readiness to quit are being randomized using a 2:2:1 treatment allocation to Motivational Interviewing, Health Education, or Brief Advice. Over 6 months, participants in Motivational Interviewing and Health Education receive 4 individual counseling sessions and participants in Brief Advice receive one brief in-person individual session at baseline. Rigorous monitoring and independent verification of fidelity will assure the counseling approaches are distinct and delivered as planned. Participants complete surveys at baseline, week 12 and 6-month follow-up to assess demographics, smoking characteristics, and smoking outcomes. Participants who decide to quit are provided with a self-help guide to quitting, help with a quit plan, and free pharmacotherapy. The primary outcome is self-report of one or more quit attempts lasting at least 24 hours between randomization and 6-month follow-up. The secondary outcome is biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence cessation at 6-month follow-up. Hypothesized mediators of the presumed treatment effect on quit attempts are greater perceived autonomy support and

  2. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Soo Beom Choi; Wanhyung Lee; Jin-Ha Yoon; Jong-Uk Won; Deok Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. Method This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20?years and older who had suicidal ideation from the...

  3. Profile of suicide attempts and risk factors among psychiatric patients: A case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meha Bhatt

    Full Text Available Suicidal behaviour remains challenging for clinicians to predict, with few established risk factors and warning signs among psychiatric patients.We aimed to describe characteristics and identify risk factors for suicide attempts among patients with psychiatric disorders.Multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted for clinically important confounders, was employed to determine risk factors for suicide attempts within a psychiatric patient population.The case (n = 146 and control groups (n = 104 did not differ significantly with regards to sociodemographic characteristics. The majority of the participants who had attempted suicide did so with high intent to die, and expected to die without medical intervention. The primary method of attempt was pharmaceutical overdose among the case participants (73.3%. Results showed impulsivity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.30 and borderline personality symptoms (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.13 were significantly associated with attempted suicide.Our findings indicate that known sociodemographic risk factors for suicide may not apply within psychiatric populations. Prevention strategies for suicidal behaviour in psychiatric patients may be effective, including limited access to means for suicide attempts (i.e. excess pharmaceutical drugs and target screening for high-risk personality and impulsivity traits.

  4. Chain of care for patients who have attempted suicide: a follow-up study from Bærum, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Individuals who have attempted suicide are at increased risk of subsequent suicidal behavior. Since 1983, a community-based suicide prevention team has been operating in the municipality of Bærum, Norway. This study aimed to test the effectiveness of the team's interventions in preventing repeated suicide attempts and suicide deaths, as part of a chain of care model for all general hospital treated suicide attempters. Methods Data has been collected consecutively since 1984 and a follow-up was conducted on all individuals admitted to the general hospital after a suicide attempt. The risk of repeated suicide attempt and suicide were comparatively examined in subjects who received assistance from the suicide prevention team in addition to treatment as usual versus those who received treatment as usual only. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to analyze the data. Results Between January 1984 and December 2007, 1,616 subjects were registered as having attempted suicide; 197 of them (12%) made another attempt within 12 months. Compared to subjects who did not receive assistance from the suicide prevention team, individuals involved in the prevention program did not have a significantly different risk of repeated attempt within 6 months (adjusted OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 0.66-1.74), 12 months (adjusted OR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.57-1.30), or 5 years (adjusted RR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.67-1.22) after their first recorded attempt. There was also no difference in risk of suicide (adjusted RR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.46-1.57). Previous suicide attempts, marital status, and employment status were significantly associated with a repeated suicide attempt within 6 and 12 months (p suicide attempts were significantly associated with a repeated attempt within 5 years (p 0.05). With each year of age, the risk of suicide increased by 3% (p suicidal behavior between subjects who received treatment as usual combined with community assistance versus subjects who received only

  5. Are comorbid anxiety disorders a risk factor for suicide attempts in patients with mood disorders? A two-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, L N; Oquendo, M A; Galfavy, H; Burke, A; Grunebaum, M F; Sher, L; Sullivan, G M; Sublette, M E; Mann, J; Lafer, B

    2018-01-01

    Comorbid anxiety disorders have been considered a risk factor for suicidal behavior in patients with mood disorders, although results are controversial. The aim of this two-year prospective study was to determine if lifetime and current comorbid anxiety disorders at baseline were risk factors for suicide attempts during the two-year follow-up. We evaluated 667 patients with mood disorders (504 with major depression and 167 with bipolar disorder) divided in two groups: those with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders (n=229) and those without (n=438). Assessments were performed at baseline and at 3, 12, and 24 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and log-rank test were used to evaluate the relationship between anxiety disorders and suicide attempts. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to investigate clinical and demographic variables that were associated with suicide attempts during follow-up. Of the initial sample of 667 patients, 480 had all three follow-up interviews. During the follow-up, 63 patients (13.1%) attempted suicide at least once. There was no significant difference in survival curves for patients with and without comorbid anxiety disorders (log-rank test=0.269; P=0.604). Female gender (HR=3.66, P=0.001), previous suicide attempts (HR=3.27, P=0.001) and higher scores in the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (HR=1.05, P≤0.001) were associated with future suicide attempts. Our results suggest that comorbid anxiety disorders were not risk factors for suicide attempts. Further studies were needed to determine the role of anxiety disorders as risk factors for suicide attempts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between Personality Profiles and Suicide Attempt via Medicine Poisoning among Hospitalized Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Kandjani, Ali Reza; Amiri, Shahrokh; Arfaie, Asghar; Ahmadi, Azadeh; Farvareshi, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Inflexible personality traits play an important role in the development of maladaptive behaviors among patients who attempt suicide. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between personality profiles and suicide attempt via medicine poisoning among the patients hospitalized in a public hospital. Materials and Methods. Fifty-nine patients who attempted suicide for the first time and hospitalized in the poisoning ward were selected as the experimental group. Sixty-three patients hospitalized in the other wards for a variety of reasons were selected as the adjusted control group. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Personality Inventory, 3rd version (MCMI-III) was used to assess the personality profiles. Results. The majority of the suicide attempters were low-level graduates (67.8% versus 47.1%, OR = 2.36). 79.7% of the suicide attempters were suffering from at least one maladaptive personality profile. The most common maladaptive personality profiles among the suicide attempters were depressive personality disorder (40.7%) and histrionic personality disorder (32.2%). Among the syndromes the most common ones were anxiety clinical syndrome (23.7%) and major depression (23.7%). Conclusion. Major depression clinical syndrome, histrionic personality disorder, anxiety clinical syndrome, and depressive personality disorder are among the predicators of first suicide attempts for the patients hospitalized in the public hospital due to the medicine poisoning.

  7. Predictors of suicide and suicide attempt in subway stations: a population-based ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas; Sonneck, Gernot; Dervic, Kanita; Nader, Ingo W; Voracek, Martin; Kapusta, Nestor D; Etzersdorfer, Elmar; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Dorner, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Suicidal behavior on the subway often involves young people and has a considerable impact on public life, but little is known about factors associated with suicides and suicide attempts in specific subway stations. Between 1979 and 2009, 185 suicides and 107 suicide attempts occurred on the subway in Vienna, Austria. Station-specific suicide and suicide attempt rates (defined as the frequency of suicidal incidents per time period) were modeled as the outcome variables in bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. Structural station characteristics (presence of a surveillance unit, train types used, and construction on street level versus other construction), contextual station characteristics (neighborhood to historical sites, size of the catchment area, and in operation during time period of extensive media reporting on subway suicides), and passenger-based characteristics (number of passengers getting on the trains per day, use as meeting point by drug users, and socioeconomic status of the population in the catchment area) were used as the explanatory variables. In the multivariate analyses, subway suicides increased when stations were served by the faster train type. Subway suicide attempts increased with the daily number of passengers getting on the trains and with the stations' use as meeting points by drug users. The findings indicate that there are some differences between subway suicides and suicide attempts. Completed suicides seem to vary most with train type used. Suicide attempts seem to depend mostly on passenger-based characteristics, specifically on the station's crowdedness and on its use as meeting point by drug users. Suicide-preventive interventions should concentrate on crowded stations and on stations frequented by risk groups.

  8. Youth suicide attempts and the dose-response relationship to parental risk factors: a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, E; Goldney, R D; Beautrai, A L

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk for suic......BACKGROUND: There is a lack of specific knowledge about the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors for suicide attempts among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to determine the dose-response effect of multiple parental risk factors on an offspring's risk...... for suicide attempt.MethodWe designed a population-based two-generation nested case-control study and used Danish register data. A population of 403 431 individuals born between 1983 and 1989 was sampled. Among these, 3465 (0.8%) were registered as having had a suicide attempt. Twenty controls were matched...... to each case and a link to the offspring's biological parents was established. RESULTS: There was a dose-response relationship between the number of exposures and the risk of suicide attempts, with the increased risk seeming to be a multiplicative effect. Parental suicide, suicide attempt, psychiatric...

  9. A Novel Brief Therapy for Patients Who Attempt Suicide: A 24-months Follow-Up Randomized Controlled Study of the Attempted Suicide Short Intervention Program (ASSIP)

    OpenAIRE

    Gysin-Maillart, Anja; Schwab, Simon; Soravia, Leila; Megert, Millie; Michel, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Suicide is a serious public health problem. Over 800,000 people worldwide die by suicide every year. In the US, one suicide death occurs approximately every 12 minutes. While the causes of suicide are complex, the goals of suicide prevention are simple?reduce factors that increase risk, and increase factors that promote resilience or coping. Factors that increase suicide risk include family history of suicide, family history of child abuse, previous suicide attempt...

  10. Combined EEG-fNIRS decoding of motor attempt and imagery for brain switch control: an offline study in patients with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokland, Yvonne; Spyrou, Loukianos; Thijssen, Dick; Eijsvogels, Thijs; Colier, Willy; Floor-Westerdijk, Marianne; Vlek, Rutger; Bruhn, Jorgen; Farquhar, Jason

    2014-03-01

    Combining electrophysiological and hemodynamic features is a novel approach for improving current performance of brain switches based on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR). This study was conducted with a dual purpose: to test the feasibility of using a combined electroencephalogram/functional near-infrared spectroscopy (EEG-fNIRS) SMR-based brain switch in patients with tetraplegia, and to examine the performance difference between motor imagery and motor attempt for this user group. A general improvement was found when using both EEG and fNIRS features for classification as compared to using the single-modality EEG classifier, with average classification rates of 79% for attempted movement and 70% for imagined movement. For the control group, rates of 87% and 79% were obtained, respectively, where the "attempted movement" condition was replaced with "actual movement." A combined EEG-fNIRS system might be especially beneficial for users who lack sufficient control of current EEG-based brain switches. The average classification performance in the patient group for attempted movement was significantly higher than for imagined movement using the EEG-only as well as the combined classifier, arguing for the case of a paradigm shift in current brain switch research.

  11. Concurrent adversities and suicide attempts among Sami and non-Sami adolescents: the Norwegian Arctic Adolescent Study (NAAHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigstad, Bjørn; Kvernmo, Siv

    2017-08-01

    Little is known about connections between adolescent suicide attempts (SA) and concurrent adversities. In a cross-sectional study, the authors wanted to investigate prevalences, additive effects of adversities, family and peer relations, gender, divorce and poverty, and ethnic differences between Sami and non-Sami youth. In an adolescent community population encompassing 4881 adolescents of 15-16 years of age, youth with and without self-reports of attempted suicide the last year were compared on 12 concurrent adversities, on scales assessing family and peer functioning, and on sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of attempted suicide the last year was 5.3%, and more girls (8.8%) than boys (1.8%). All 12 concurrent adversities were strongly related to SA. The suicide attempters reported two and a half times as many adversities as non-attempters. A strong multiple additive relationship was found. Multivariately, among boys, the strongest risk factors were suicide among friends (OR = 9.4), and suicide in the family or in the neighbourhood (OR = 4.8). Among girls, sexual abuse (OR = 5.2) and parent mental problems (OR = 4.6) were strongest related to SA. Suicide attempters reported more divorce and poverty, more conflicts with parents, and less family support and involvement. Totally, Sami youth reported more SA and more concurrent adversities than non-Sami peers. Adolescent suicide attempters are heavily burdened with concurrent adversities. Clinicians should be aware of gender differences in risk factors, and should ask about abuse and suicide or attempts among relatives and peers. A family perspective in clinical work is needed.

  12. Register for Suicide Attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2004-01-01

    The Register for Suicide Attempts (RSA) is a product of the WHO research project "WHO/Euro Multicentre Study on Parasuicide", which, among other things, had the purpose of collecting data on suicide attempts from 13 European countries. Data is collected in order to calculate trends and identify...

  13. Suicidal ideation and attempts among people with severe mental disorder, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, comparative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duko, Bereket; Ayano, Getinet

    2018-01-01

    People with severe mental disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide and suicide attempts compared to the general population. In low and middle-income countries, research concerning suicide attempts and completed suicide among people living with severe mental disorder is limited. The objective of this study was to assess suicide and attempts in people with severe mental disorder at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in August-September 2016. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were selected using systematic random-sampling technique. The composite international diagnostic interview was used to assess suicide that was administered by psychiatry professionals. Substance use disorder was assessed through face-to-face interviews using structured clinical interview of DSM-IV. A total of 542 (272 schizophrenia + 270 bipolar disorder) patients were included in the study. One hundred nineteen (43.75%) of schizophrenic participants and 128 (47.1%) of bipolar participants have suicidal ideation. Fifty-six (20.7%) of schizophrenic participants and 58 (21.3%) of bipolar participants have suicidal attempt. Among the schizophrenic and bipolar patients who had suicidal ideation, 31.8 and 32.60% had co-morbid substance use disorder, respectively. In this study, which was performed in Ethiopia, suicidal ideation and attempt were shown to be common problems in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Co-morbid substance use disorder was a more frequent phenomenon among patients with suicidal ideation and attempt. Attention should be given to screen and assess suicidal ideation and attempt in persons with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  14. Healing and recovering after a suicide attempt: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Mei-Ting; Long, Ann; Jeang, Shiow-Rong; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Lu, Ti; Sun, Fan-Ko

    2014-06-01

    To explore the healing and recovery process following a suicide attempt over 12 months ago. Literature has explored the process leading up to attempted suicide. However, there is a lack of information exploring the healing and recovery process after a suicide attempt. Qualitative research using the grounded theory approach. Data were collected during 2010-2011 from the psychiatric outpatient's centre in Taiwan. Interviews were conducted with people who had attempted suicide more than 12 months prior to data collection and had not reattempted since that time (n = 14). Constant comparison analysis was used to scrutinise the data. Findings demonstrated that healing and recovering evolved in five phases: (1) self-awareness: gained self-awareness of their responsibilities in life and their fear of death; (2) the inter-relatedness of life: awareness of the need to seek help from professionals, friends and family for support; (3) the cyclical nature of human emotions: reappearance of stressors and activators causing psyche disharmony; (4) adjustment: changes in adjustment patterns of behaviour, discovering and owning one's own unique emotions, deflecting attention from stressors and facing reality and (5) acceptance: accepting the reality of life and investing in life. The healing and recovery process symbolises an emotional navigation wheel. While each phase might follow the preceding phase, it is not a linear process, and patients might move backwards and forwards through the phases depending on the nursing interventions they receive coupled with their motivation to heal. It is important for nurses to use advanced communication skills to enable them to co-travel therapeutically with patients. Listening to patients' voices and analysing their healing and recovery process could serve as a reference for psychiatric nurses to use to inform therapeutic interventions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Corpus callosum integrity is affected by mood disorders and also by the suicide attempt history: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprien, Fabienne; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Deverdun, Jérémy; Olié, Emilie; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafé, Alain; Mura, Thibault; Jollant, Fabrice; Courtet, Philippe; Artero, Sylvaine

    2016-12-01

    Some MRI studies have noted alterations in the corpus callosum (CC) white matter integrity of individuals with mood disorders and also in patients with suicidal behavior. We investigated the specific impact of suicidal behavior on CC integrity in mood disorders. CC structural changes were assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 121 women 18-50-year-old): 41 with bipolar disorder (BD), 50 with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 30 healthy controls (HC). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and DTI metrics were calculated for the genu, body and splenium of CC and compared in the three groups by MANCOVA. Then, they were re-analyzed relative to the suicide attempt history within the MDD and BD groups and to the suicide number/severity. FA values for the CC genu and body were lower in non-suicide attempters with BD than with MDD and in HC. Conversely, FA values for all CC regions were significantly lower in suicide attempters with BD than in HC. Finally, higher number of suicide attempts (>2) and elevated Suicidal Intent Scale score were associated with significant splenium alterations. Limitations include the cross-sectional design (non-causal study), the potential influence of medications and concerns about the generalizability to men. Genu and body are altered in non-suicide attempters with BD, while splenium is specifically altered in suicide attempters, independently from their psychiatric status. History of suicide attempts may be a source of heterogeneity in the association between CC alterations and BD and may partially explain the variable results of previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Young people’s risk of suicide attempts in relation to parental death: A population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte

    2011-01-01

    Background:  The objective of this study was to examine the association between the death of a biological parent and subsequent suicide attempts by young people (aged 10–22 years), and to explore sociodemographic factors as modifying factors in the process. Methods:  The study used a nested case......–control design. The full study population was obtained from the Danish longitudinal registers and included all individuals born between 1983 and 1989 (n = 403,431 individuals). The 3,465 registered suicide attempters from that group were matched with 75,300 population-based control subjects. Potentially...

  17. Parental Psychiatric Disease and Risks of Attempted Suicide and Violent Criminal Offending in Offspring: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Pearl L H; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Springate, David; Astrup, Aske; Kapur, Nav; Antonsen, Sussie; Mors, Ole; Webb, Roger T

    2016-10-01

    Self-directed and interpersonal violence share some common risk factors such as a parental history of mental illness. However, relationships between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and these 2 related outcomes are unclear. To examine associations between the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease and risks of attempted suicide and violent offending among offspring. Population-based cohort study of all persons born in Denmark 1967 through 1997, followed up from their 15th birthday until occurrence of adverse outcome or December 31, 2012, whichever came first. Array of parental psychiatric disorders and parental suicide attempt, delineated from records of secondary care treatments. Using survival analyses techniques, incidence rate ratios were estimated for offspring suicide attempt and violent offending. We examined 1 743 525 cohort members (48.7% female; total follow-up, 27.2 million person-years). Risks for offspring suicide attempt and violent offending were elevated across virtually the full spectrum of parental psychiatric disease. Incidence rate ratios were the most elevated for parental diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder (suicide attempt, 3.96; 95% CI, 3.72-4.21; violent offending, 3.62; 95% CI, 3.41-3.84) and cannabis misuse (suicide attempt, 3.57; 95% CI, 3.25-3.92; violent offending, 4.05; 95% CI, 3.72-4.39), and for parental suicide attempt (suicide attempt, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.29-3.55; violent offending, 3.31; 95% CI, 3.19-3.44). Parental mood disorders (and bipolar disorder in particular) conferred more modest risk increases. A history of mental illness or suicide attempt in both parents was associated with double the risks compared with having just 1 affected parent. Associations between parental psychiatric disease and offspring violent offending were stronger for female than for male offspring, whereas little sex difference in risk was found for offspring suicide attempt. The similarities in risk patterns observed

  18. Attentional bias toward suicide-relevant information in suicide attempters: A cross-sectional study and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo; Jollant, Fabrice

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies using a modified Stroop test suggested that suicide attempters, in contrast to depressed patients with no suicidal history, display a particular attentional bias toward suicide-related cues. However, negative results have also been reported. In the present study, we collected new data and pooled them as part of a meta-analysis intended to shed further light on this question. We conducted 1) a cross-sectional study comparing performance on the modified Stroop task for suicide-related, positively-valenced and negatively-valenced words in 33 suicide attempters and 46 patient controls with a history of mood disorders; 2) a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies comparing performance on the modified Stroop task among patients with vs. without a history of suicidal acts in mood disorders. The cross-sectional study showed no significant difference in interference scores for any type of words between suicide attempters and patient controls. A meta-analysis of four studies, including 233 suicide attempters and 768 patient controls, showed a significant but small attentional bias toward suicide-related words (Hedges'g=0.22, 95%CI [0.06-0.38], Z=2.73, p=0.006), but not negatively-valenced words (Hedges'g=0.06, 95%CI [-0.09-0.22], Z=0.77, p=0.4) in suicide attempters compared to patient controls. Positively-valenced words and healthy controls could not be assessed in the meta-analysis. Our data support a selective information-processing bias among suicide attempters. Indirect evidence suggests that this effect would be state-related and may be a cognitive component of the suicidal crisis. However, we could not conclude about the clinical utility of this Stroop version at this stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychiatric assessment of suicide attempters in Japan: a pilot study at a critical emergency unit in an urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishida Ikuko

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of suicide has increased markedly in Japan since 1998. As psychological autopsy is not generally accepted in Japan, surveys of suicide attempts, an established risk factor of suicide, are highly regarded. We have carried out this study to gain insight into the psychiatric aspects of those attempting suicide in Japan. Methods Three hundred and twenty consecutive cases of attempted suicide who were admitted to an urban emergency department were interviewed, with the focus on psychosocial background and DSM-IV diagnosis. Moreover, they were divided into two groups according to the method of attempted suicide in terms of lethality, and the two groups were compared. Results Ninety-five percent of patients received a psychiatric diagnosis: 81% of subjects met the criteria for an axis I disorder. The most frequent diagnosis was mood disorder. The mean age was higher and living alone more common in the high-lethality group. Middle-aged men tended to have a higher prevalence of mood disorders. Conclusion This is the first large-scale study of cases of attempted suicide since the dramatic increase in suicides began in Japan. The identification and introduction of treatments for psychiatric disorders at emergency departments has been indicated to be important in suicide prevention.

  20. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication......, previous inpatient treatment, self-discharge before evaluation, sociopathy, unemployment, frequent change of address, hostility, and living alone. Several of the predictors are overlapping and most of them were already identified in early studies of factors predictive of repetition of suicide attempt...... or previous psychiatric treatment. In our follow-up study from Bispebjerg Hospital, we found that the risk of suicide during a ten-year follow-up period among patients admitted in 1980 after self-poisoning was 30 times greater than in the general population. We also found increased mortality by all other...

  1. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  2. Broad and narrow personality traits as markers of one-time and repeated suicide attempts: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaro Frank

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studying personality traits with the potential to differentiate between individuals engaging in suicide attempts of different degrees of severity could help us to understand the processes underlying the link of personality and nonfatal suicidal behaviours and to identify at-risk groups. One approach may be to examine whether narrow, i.e., lower-order personality traits may be more useful than their underlying, broad personality trait dimensions. Methods We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in broad and narrow personality traits between one-time and repeated suicide attempters in a longitudinal, population-based sample of young French Canadian adults using two multivariate regression models. Results One broad (Compulsivity: OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.2–3.5 and one narrow personality trait (anxiousness: OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.01–1.1 differentiated between individuals with histories of repeated and one-time suicide attempts. Affective instability [(OR = 1.1; 95% CI 1.04–1.1] and anxiousness [(OR = .92; 95% CI .88–.95], on the other hand, differentiated between nonattempters and one-time suicide attempters. Conclusion Emotional and cognitive dysregulation and associated behavioural manifestations may be associated with suicide attempts of different severity. While findings associated with narrow traits may be easier to interpret and link to existing sociobiological theories, larger effect sizes associated with broad traits such as Compulsivity may be better suited to objectives with a more clinical focus.

  3. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Beom Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. Method This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20 years and older who had suicidal ideation from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 106 men and 188 women attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination was performed to find risk factors for suicide attempt. Sub-group analysis, dividing participants into under 50 and at least 50 years old was also performed. Results Among people with suicidal ideation, age, education, cancer, and depressive disorder were selected as risk factors for suicide attempt in men. Age, education, national basic livelihood security, daily activity limitation, depressive disorder, stress, smoking, and regular exercise were selected in women. Area under curves of our prediction models in men and women were 0.728 and 0.716, respectively. Conclusions It is important to pay attention to populations with suicidal ideation and the risk factors mentioned above. Prediction models using the determined risk factors could be useful to detect high-risk groups early for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. It is necessary to develop specific action plans for these high-risk groups to prevent suicide.

  4. Risk factors of suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in South Korea: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Beom; Lee, Wanhyung; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Won, Jong-Uk; Kim, Deok Won

    2017-06-15

    Suicide is a serious public health concern worldwide, and the fourth leading cause of death in Korea. Few studies have focused on risk factors for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the risk factors and develop prediction models for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation in the Korean population. This study included 1567 men and 3726 women aged 20 years and older who had suicidal ideation from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Among them, 106 men and 188 women attempted suicide. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with backward stepwise elimination was performed to find risk factors for suicide attempt. Sub-group analysis, dividing participants into under 50 and at least 50 years old was also performed. Among people with suicidal ideation, age, education, cancer, and depressive disorder were selected as risk factors for suicide attempt in men. Age, education, national basic livelihood security, daily activity limitation, depressive disorder, stress, smoking, and regular exercise were selected in women. Area under curves of our prediction models in men and women were 0.728 and 0.716, respectively. It is important to pay attention to populations with suicidal ideation and the risk factors mentioned above. Prediction models using the determined risk factors could be useful to detect high-risk groups early for suicide attempt among people with suicidal ideation. It is necessary to develop specific action plans for these high-risk groups to prevent suicide.

  5. Thematic Analysis of Medical Notes Offers Preliminary Insight into Precipitants for Asian Suicide Attempters: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Carol C; Ho, Roger C; Burton, André A D

    2018-04-20

    One important dynamic risk factor for suicide assessment includes suicide precipitant. This exploratory study used a qualitative paradigm to look into the themes surrounding precipitants for suicide attempts in Singapore. Medical records related to suicide attempters who were admitted to the emergency department of a large teaching hospital in Singapore over a three year period were subjected to analysis. A total of 666 cases were examined (69.2% females; 63.8% Chinese, 15% Malays, 15.8% Indians), ages ranged from 10 years old to 85 years old (Mean = 29.7, Standard Deviation = 16.1). The thematic analysis process that was applied to the textual data elicited key concepts labelled as Relationship issues, Financial strain, Socio-legal-academic—environmental stress, and Physical and mental illness and pain. Interpreted with other recent local research on suicide attempters in Singapore, the findings have implications for informing suicide interventions.

  6. Thematic Analysis of Medical Notes Offers Preliminary Insight into Precipitants for Asian Suicide Attempters: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol C. Choo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One important dynamic risk factor for suicide assessment includes suicide precipitant. This exploratory study used a qualitative paradigm to look into the themes surrounding precipitants for suicide attempts in Singapore. Medical records related to suicide attempters who were admitted to the emergency department of a large teaching hospital in Singapore over a three year period were subjected to analysis. A total of 666 cases were examined (69.2% females; 63.8% Chinese, 15% Malays, 15.8% Indians, ages ranged from 10 years old to 85 years old (Mean = 29.7, Standard Deviation = 16.1. The thematic analysis process that was applied to the textual data elicited key concepts labelled as Relationship issues, Financial strain, Socio-legal-academic—environmental stress, and Physical and mental illness and pain. Interpreted with other recent local research on suicide attempters in Singapore, the findings have implications for informing suicide interventions.

  7. Predictors of suicide attempt in early-onset, first-episode psychoses: a longitudinal 24-month follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Baeza, Inmaculada; Arango, Celso; González-Pinto, Ana; de la Serna, Elena; Parellada, Mara; Graell, Motserrat; Paya, Beatriz; Llorente, Cloe; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-01-01

    To study the prevalence of suicide attempts and factors associated with risk for suicide during the first episode of psychosis, and to identify early predictors of suicide attempts over a 24-month follow-up period in an early-onset, first-episode psychosis cohort. 110 subjects in their first episode of psychosis aged between 9 and 17 years were assessed by using the DSM-IV diagnostic interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and a battery of clinical instruments at baseline and at 12 and 24 months. Patients were enrolled in the study from March 2003 through November 2005. Suicide attempts and level of suicidality at each assessment were evaluated by using the Clinical Global Impression for Severity of Suicidality and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Subjects were classified as being at high, low, or no risk of suicide, depending on their scores on certain items of these scales. Clinical associations between the outcome measures high risk for suicide during acute episode and suicide attempts during follow-up were investigated by 2 sets of logistic regression analyses. The 24-month prevalence of suicide attempters was 12.4%. History of suicide attempts prior to psychotic episode (OR = 20.13; 95% CI, 1.83-220.55; P = .01), severe depressive symptoms (OR = 8.78; 95% CI, 1.15-67.11; P = .003), and antidepressant treatment (OR = 15.56; 95% CI, 2.66-90.86; P = .002) were associated with being classified as high suicide risk at baseline. The categorization of high suicide risk at baseline predicted suicide attempts during follow-up (OR = 81.66; 95% CI, 11.61-574.35; P = .000). Suicide is a major concern in early-onset first-episode psychosis. Suicidal behavior and depressive symptoms at psychosis onset are important signs to be aware of to prevent suicide attempts during the early period after first-episode psychosis. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Incidence and predictors of suicide attempts in DSM-IV major depressive disorder: a five-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, K Mikael; Melartin, Tarja K; Haukka, Jari; Holma, Irina A K; Sokero, T Petteri; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2010-07-01

    Prospective long-term studies of risk factors for suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorder have not investigated the course of illness and state at the time of the act. Therefore, the importance of state factors, particularly time spent in risk states, for overall risk remains unknown. In the Vantaa Depression Study, a longitudinal 5-year evaluation of psychiatric patients with major depressive disorder, prospective information on 249 patients (92.6%) was available. Time spent in depressive states and the timing of suicide attempts were investigated with life charts. During the follow-up assessment period, there were 106 suicide attempts per 1,018 patient-years. The incidence rate per 1,000 patient-years during major depressive episodes was 21-fold (N=332 [95% confidence interval [CI]=258.6-419.2]), and it was fourfold during partial remission (N=62 [95% CI=34.6-92.4]) compared with full remission (N=16 [95% CI=11.2-40.2]). In the Cox proportional hazards model, suicide attempts were predicted by the months spent in a major depressive episode (hazard ratio=7.74 [95% CI=3.40-17.6]) or in partial remission (hazard ratio=4.20 [95% CI=1.71-10.3]), history of suicide attempts (hazard ratio=4.39 [95% CI=1.78-10.8]), age (hazard ratio=0.94 [95% CI=0.91-0.98]), lack of a partner (hazard ratio=2.33 [95% CI=0.97-5.56]), and low perceived social support (hazard ratio=3.57 [95% CI=1.09-11.1]). The adjusted population attributable fraction of the time spent depressed for suicide attempts was 78%. Among patients with major depressive disorder, incidence of suicide attempts varies markedly depending on the level of depression, being highest during major depressive episodes. Although previous attempts and poor social support also indicate risk, the time spent depressed is likely the major factor determining overall long-term risk.

  9. The role of impulsivity in self-mutilators, suicide ideators and suicide attempters - a study of 1265 male incarcerated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carli, Vladimir; Jovanović, Nikolina; Podlesek, Anja; Roy, Alec; Rihmer, Zoltan; Maggi, Stefania; Marusic, Dragan; Cesaro, Caterina; Marusic, Andrej; Sarchiapone, Marco

    2010-06-01

    We explored differences between high and low-impulsive incarcerated individuals in the context of lifetime self-mutilation, suicide ideation and suicide attempt. A total of 1265 males detained in Italian penitentiary institutions were studied between January 2006 and December 2008. The study raters were specifically trained to discriminate between suicide attempters, ideators and self-mutilators. Participants completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Lifetime History of Aggression (BGLHA) and Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Based on BIS 7 total score distribution, two extreme quarters - high-impulsive group (n=306) and low-impulsive group (n=285) - were compared. Over 42% of participants had lifetime suicide ideation, 13% attempted suicide and 17% were self-mutilators. High-impulsive subjects were younger, more often single and with more prominent psychoticism, extraversion, aggression, hostility and resilience capacity. They were more frequently diagnosed with substance use disorders and engaged in self-mutilating behaviour. There was no difference in the rate of suicide attempts between the two groups. Although high-impulsive subjects were more prone to suicidal behaviour, it was not predicted by higher impulsivity when other psychological variables were accounted for. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Parental separation in childhood, social capital, and suicide thoughts and suicide attempts: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Rosvall, Maria

    2015-09-30

    Studies of the association between parental separation in childhood and suicide thoughts and attempts are scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood, and ever having had suicide thoughts and ever having made suicide attempt, adjusting for social capital and other covariates. In 2012 a cross-sectional public health survey was conducted in Scania, southern Sweden, with a postal questionnaire with 28,029 participants aged 18-80. Associations between parental separation/divorce during childhood and ever having considered suicide or having made suicide attempt were analysed by logistic regression. Overall, 12.1% of the men and 15.5% of the women had experienced suicide thoughts, and 3.2% of the men and 5.3% of the women had ever tried committing suicide. Among men, 20.4% had experienced parental separation during childhood until age 18, and among women 22.3%. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was with few exceptions significantly associated with ever having had suicide thoughts with the highest odds ratios for those who had experienced parental separation during ages 0-4 years. Parental separation/divorce in childhood was significantly associated with suicide attempts among men who had experienced parental separation/divorce at ages 0-4 and 15-18, and among women at any age 0-18. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sociodemographic and clinical differences between suicide ideators and attempters: a study of mood disordered patients 50 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Di Vittorio, Cristina; Sher, Leo; Girardi, Paolo; Amore, Mario

    2014-02-01

    Our study sought to characterize mood disordered suicide ideators and attempters 50 years and older admitted to a psychiatric ward either for a recent suicide attempt or for ongoing suicidal ideation. We enrolled 50 patients with suicide ideation consecutively admitted to an inpatient department and 50 patients admitted for a suicide attempt made in the last 48 hours. Suicide attempters more frequently had low social support and an age of onset of mood disorder of 46 years and older, and less frequently had a history of suicidal behaviors in the family members and pharmacological treatment, despite the fact that the groups did not differ with regard to antidepressants prescribed. The groups were not distinguishable based on several variables assumed to be risk factors for suicide behavior, such as proximal life events and stressors or alcohol use disorders. In both samples, comorbidity with organic diseases, the presence of stressful life events in the past 12 months, and a diagnosis of major depression were frequently reported. In conclusion, the presence of low social support and the absence of a pharmacotherapy may increase suicidal behaviors in patients at risk. © 2013 The American Association of Suicidology.

  12. Seasonality in Violent and Nonviolent Methods of Suicide Attempts: A Cross-Sectional Study on Systematic Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Moradi, Ghobad; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2017-08-01

    Little attention has been paid to seasonality in suicide in Iran. Time pattern in suicide deaths and suicide attempts for some related factors such as gender, mental disorders has been found. In present study, we focus on suicide methods and the association with seasonality and other putative covariates such as gender. Through a cross-sectional study, overall identified suicide attempts and suicide deaths in the province of Ilam from 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014 were enrolled. We used Edwards' test for test of seasonality in suicide methods. Seasonal effect (peak/trough seasons) and (deaths/attempts suicide) was explored by ratio statistics, the null hypothesis being that the attempted suicides in each method group are evenly distributed over a year. More suicide attempts by hanging 29.4% and self-immolation 41.4% were observed in spring and differ by season pattern in both genders. The overall distribution of suicides by violent and non-violent methods was (males x2=6.3, P=0.041, females x2=7.7, P=0.021) and (males x2=44.5, P=0.001, females x2=104.7, P=0.001), respectively. The peak and trough seasons was observed in taking medications and self-poisoning for spring and winter. Suicide with alcohol was no differ by season pattern (x2=1.0, P=0.460). Suicide in Ilam illustrates a significant seasonality for both violent and non-violent methods of suicide, in both genders, the two peaks were observed in spring and autumn for violent suicides, and spring and summer in non-violent suicides.

  13. Lifetime Prevalence of Suicide Attempts Among Sexual Minority Adults by Study Sampling Strategies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottes, Travis Salway; Bogaert, Laura; Rhodes, Anne E; Brennan, David J; Gesink, Dionne

    2016-05-01

    Previous reviews have demonstrated a higher risk of suicide attempts for lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons (sexual minorities), compared with heterosexual groups, but these were restricted to general population studies, thereby excluding individuals sampled through LGB community venues. Each sampling strategy, however, has particular methodological strengths and limitations. For instance, general population probability studies have defined sampling frames but are prone to information bias associated with underreporting of LGB identities. By contrast, LGB community surveys may support disclosure of sexuality but overrepresent individuals with strong LGB community attachment. To reassess the burden of suicide-related behavior among LGB adults, directly comparing estimates derived from population- versus LGB community-based samples. In 2014, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Scopus databases for articles addressing suicide-related behavior (ideation, attempts) among sexual minorities. We selected quantitative studies of sexual minority adults conducted in nonclinical settings in the United States, Canada, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. Random effects meta-analysis and meta-regression assessed for a difference in prevalence of suicide-related behavior by sample type, adjusted for study or sample-level variables, including context (year, country), methods (medium, response rate), and subgroup characteristics (age, gender, sexual minority construct). We examined residual heterogeneity by using τ(2). We pooled 30 cross-sectional studies, including 21,201 sexual minority adults, generating the following lifetime prevalence estimates of suicide attempts: 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3%, 5%) for heterosexual respondents to population surveys, 11% (95% CI = 8%, 15%) for LGB respondents to population surveys, and 20% (95% CI = 18%, 22%) for LGB respondents to community surveys (Figure 1). The difference in LGB estimates by sample

  14. Characteristics of individuals who make impulsive suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spokas, Megan; Wenzel, Amy; Brown, Gregory K; Beck, Aaron T

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has identified only a few variables that have been associated with making an impulsive suicide attempt. The aim of the current study was to compare individuals who made an impulsive suicide attempt with those who made a premeditated attempt on both previously examined and novel characteristics. Participants were classified as making an impulsive or premeditated attempt based on the Suicide Intent Scale (Beck et al., 1974a) and were compared on a number of characteristics relevant to suicidality, psychiatric history, and demographics. Individuals who made an impulsive attempt expected that their attempts would be less lethal; yet the actual lethality of both groups' attempts was similar. Those who made an impulsive attempt were less depressed and hopeless than those who made a premeditated attempt. Participants who made an impulsive attempt were less likely to report a history of childhood sexual abuse and more likely to be diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder than those who made a premeditated attempt. Although the sample size was adequate for bivariate statistics, future studies using larger sample sizes will allow for multivariate analyses of characteristics that differentiate individuals who make impulsive and premeditated attempts. Clinicians should not minimize the significance of impulsive attempts, as they are associated with a similar level of lethality as premeditated attempts. Focusing mainly on depression and hopelessness as indicators of suicide risk has the potential to under-identify those who are at risk for making impulsive attempts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High school students' knowledge and experience with a peer who committed or attempted suicide: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Ruiter, Robert A C; Bos, Arjan E R; Reddy, Priscilla S; van den Borne, Bart

    2014-10-18

    Suicide is a major public health problem for adolescents in South Africa, and also affects those associated with them. Peers become more important during adolescence and can be a significant source of social support. Because peers may be the first to notice psychological problems among each other, the present study's objectives were to assess students' knowledge about suicide, perceived risk factors, signs of poor mental health in adolescents who committed suicide, students' awareness of available mental health care and resources, and beliefs about prevention. This qualitative study used focus group discussions to elicit the thoughts and feelings of high school students who had a peer who committed or attempted suicide. Peers and class mates of suicide attempters and suicide completers were identified with the help of a social worker and school management and were invited to participate. All focus group discussions were audio taped and analyzed. A total of 56 adolescents (13-19 years of age) from Limpopo schools in South Africa participated in six focus group discussions. The data were analyzed by NVivo version 8, using an inductive approach. Participants reported to be affected by the suicide attempt or completed suicide. They felt guilty about their failure to identify and prevent the suicide and displayed little knowledge of warning signs for suicidal behaviour. They identified several risk factors for the suicide of their peers, such as poor relationship issues, teenage pregnancy, punishment, and attention seeking behaviour. Resources for students with mental health problems and survivors of suicide attempts were not perceived to be available at schools and elsewhere. School-based suicide prevention programs based on theory and evidence are necessary. Such interventions should also focus on detection of mental health problems by peers. Counseling services for students with mental health problems and suicide survivors should be available and made known to

  16. Negative control exposure studies in the presence of measurement error: implications for attempted effect estimate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Eleanor; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Davey Smith, George

    2018-04-01

    Negative control exposure studies are increasingly being used in epidemiological studies to strengthen causal inference regarding an exposure-outcome association when unobserved confounding is thought to be present. Negative control exposure studies contrast the magnitude of association of the negative control, which has no causal effect on the outcome but is associated with the unmeasured confounders in the same way as the exposure, with the magnitude of the association of the exposure with the outcome. A markedly larger effect of the exposure on the outcome than the negative control on the outcome strengthens inference that the exposure has a causal effect on the outcome. We investigate the effect of measurement error in the exposure and negative control variables on the results obtained from a negative control exposure study. We do this in models with continuous and binary exposure and negative control variables using analysis of the bias of the estimated coefficients and Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that measurement error in either the exposure or negative control variables can bias the estimated results from the negative control exposure study. Measurement error is common in the variables used in epidemiological studies; these results show that negative control exposure studies cannot be used to precisely determine the size of the effect of the exposure variable, or adequately adjust for unobserved confounding; however, they can be used as part of a body of evidence to aid inference as to whether a causal effect of the exposure on the outcome is present.

  17. An attempt for empowering education: A qualitative study of in-service training of nursing personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Chaghari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In-service training of nursing personnel has a significant role in increasing the empowerment of nurses and promotion of the quality of health services. The objective of this study is to identify and explain the process of in-service training of nursing personnel in the hospitals affiliated with Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences in Tehran. Materials and Methods: The present study employed a qualitative approach using Corbin and Strauss method (2008 in 2015, and examined the viewpoints and experiences of 35 nurses, nurse managers, and educational managers with the in-service education of nursing staffs. According to this method, comparisons, asking questions, flip-flop technique, depicting personal experiences, and raising red flag were used for data analysis. Results: In this study, five major themes including unsuccessful mandatory education, empowering education, organizational challenges, weakness in the educational management, and educational-job resiliency were derived from the results. Unsuccessful mandatory education was the main concern of participants and empowering education was the core category derived from this study. Conclusions: Empowering education emphasizes the practice-oriented and self-directed training. It is an applied education, is participation-oriented, facilitates job functions, and is based on exploration.

  18. An attempt for empowering education: A qualitative study of in-service training of nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaghari, Mahmood; Ebadi, Abbas; Ameryoun, Ahmad; Safari, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    In-service training of nursing personnel has a significant role in increasing the empowerment of nurses and promotion of the quality of health services. The objective of this study is to identify and explain the process of in-service training of nursing personnel in the hospitals affiliated with Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences in Tehran. The present study employed a qualitative approach using Corbin and Strauss method (2008) in 2015, and examined the viewpoints and experiences of 35 nurses, nurse managers, and educational managers with the in-service education of nursing staffs. According to this method, comparisons, asking questions, flip-flop technique, depicting personal experiences, and raising red flag were used for data analysis. In this study, five major themes including unsuccessful mandatory education, empowering education, organizational challenges, weakness in the educational management, and educational-job resiliency were derived from the results. Unsuccessful mandatory education was the main concern of participants and empowering education was the core category derived from this study. Empowering education emphasizes the practice-oriented and self-directed training. It is an applied education, is participation-oriented, facilitates job functions, and is based on exploration.

  19. Mind the gap: an attempt to bridge computational and neuroscientific approaches to study creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Geraint A.; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is the hallmark of human cognition and is behind every innovation, scientific discovery, piece of music, artwork, and idea that have shaped our lives, from ancient times till today. Yet scientific understanding of creative processes is quite limited, mostly due to the traditional belief that considers creativity as a mysterious puzzle, a paradox, defying empirical enquiry. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in revealing the neural correlates of human creativity. Though many of these studies, pioneering in nature, help demystification of creativity, but the field is still dominated by popular beliefs in associating creativity with “right brain thinking”, “divergent thinking”, “altered states” and so on (Dietrich and Kanso, 2010). In this article, we discuss a computational framework for creativity based on Baars’ Global Workspace Theory (GWT; Baars, 1988) enhanced with mechanisms based on information theory. Next we propose a neurocognitive architecture of creativity with a strong focus on various facets (i.e., unconscious thought theory, mind wandering, spontaneous brain states) of un/pre-conscious brain responses. Our principal argument is that pre-conscious creativity happens prior to conscious creativity and the proposed computational model may provide a mechanism by which this transition is managed. This integrative approach, albeit unconventional, will hopefully stimulate future neuroscientific studies of the inscrutable phenomenon of creativity. PMID:25104930

  20. Mind the Gap: An attempt to bridge computational and neuroscientific approaches to study creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraint eWiggins

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is the hallmark of human cognition, yet scientific understanding of creative processes is limited. However, there is increasing interest in revealing the neural correlates of human creativity. Though many of these studies, pioneering in nature, help demystification of creativity, but the field is still dominated by popular beliefs in associating creativity with right brain thinking, divergent thinking, altered states and so on (Dietrich and Kanso, 2010 . In this article, we discuss a computational framework for creativity based on Baars' global workspace theory (Baars, 1988 enhanced with mechanisms based on information theory. Next we propose a neurocognitive architecture of creativity with a strong focus on various facets (i.e., unconscious thought theory, mind wandering, spontaneous brain states of un/pre-conscious brain responses. Our principal argument is that pre-conscious creativity happens prior to conscious creativity happens prior to conscious creativity and the proposed computational model may provide a mechanism by which this transition is managed. This integrative approach, albeit unconventional, will hopefully stimulate future neuroscientific studies of the inscrutable phenomenon of creativity.

  1. Incongruent reduction of serotonin transporter associated with suicide attempts in patients with major depressive disorder: a positron emission tomography study with 4-[18F]-ADAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Wei; Ho, Pei-Shen; Chen, Chun-Yen; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Liang, Chih-Sung; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Shiue, Chyng-Yann; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-10-31

    Much evidence supports the role of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of major depressive disorder (MDD) and suicidal behaviors. In this study, we recruited 17 antidepressant-naïve patients with MDD and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. SERT availability was measured in vivo with N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-[(18)F]fluorophenylthio)benzylamine (4-[(18)F]-ADAM) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation were used to assess the severity of depression and the intent of suicide ideation prior to PET imaging. All subjects with MDD were in a current state of depression with HDRS scores ≧18. Subjects who attempted suicide within two weeks of the study onset were recruited in the depressed suicidal group (n = 8). Subjects with MDD who denied any prior suicide attempt were recruited into the depressed non-suicidal group (n = 9). A significant reduction of SERT availability in the midbrain, thalamus, and striatum was noted in the MDD group relative to the control group (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value depressed suicidal group compared to the control group (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value depressed non-suicidal and control groups, the depressed suicidal group showed an increased prefrontal cortex (PFC)/midbrain SERT binding ratio (Bonferroni-adjusted p-value depressed suicide attempters and non-attempters in patients with MDD and may be involved in the pathophysiology of suicide behaviors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  2. Considerations for Public Health Organizations Attempting to Implement a Social Media Presence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Mark; Stetten, Nichole; Castaneda, Gail

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, social media has become an integral part of our everyday lives, but research on how this tool is used by public health workers and organizations is still developing. Budget cuts and staff reduction in county departments have required employees to take on more responsibilities. These reductions have caused a reduction in the time for training or collaborating with others in the field. To make up for the loss, many employees are seeking collaboration through social media sites but are unable to do so because state departments block these Internet sites. This study sought to highlight the key considerations and decision-making process for a public health organization deciding whether to implement a social media presence for their organization. Using 3 structured interviews, 15 stakeholders were questioned on their personal experience with social media, experience within the context of public health, and their thoughts on implementation for their center. Interviews were coded using constant comparative qualitative methods. The following themes emerged from the interviews: (1) personal experience with technology and social networking sites, (2) use of social networking sites in public health, (3) use of social networking sites in work environments, (4) social networking sites access, (5) ways the Rural South Public Health Training Center could use social networking sites, and (6) perceived outcomes of social networking site usage for the Rural South Public Health Training Center (positive and negative). The collective voice of the center showed a positive perceived perception of social media implementation, with the benefits outweighing the risks. Despite the benefits, there is a cautious skepticism of the importance of social networking site use.

  3. One-year follow-up study of first suicide attempts in first episode psychosis: Personality traits and temporal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal-Rivero, Manuel; Barrigón, Maria Luisa; Perona-Garcelán, Salvador; Rodriguez-Testal, Juan F; Giner, Lucas; Obiols-Llandrich, Jordi E; Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The highest suicide rates occur after psychiatric hospitalization or soon after discharge. In addition to other factors, personality traits have been suggested as predictors of suicide attempts (SA) after first episode psychosis (FEP). In this study we examined their temporal pattern and the influence of personality traits on first suicide attempts (fSA) during one year after FEP. One-year follow-up of 65 FEP patients. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to explore the relationship between personality traits and fSA. This analysis was also adjusted for a set of sociodemographic, clinical and psychopathological variables. fSAs in the six months following FEP were predicted by higher scores in passive-dependent personality traits (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.15-5.09) and severity of symptoms at onset (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.07-3.76). Severity of symptoms at onset (OR = 2.71, CI = 1.15-6.39) was the most significant predictor of fSA from six to twelve months after FEP. Seventy percent of fSA occurred during the first six months after FEP, decreasing considerably afterwards. Our study suggests that personality traits play a role in fSA after FEP. Specifically, passive-dependent personality traits emerged as a predictor of fSA in the six months following FEP. Severity of symptoms at onset predicted early and late first suicide attempts. We also found that risk of fSA is highest during the six months following FEP. These results can contribute to the implementation of prevention program. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Child and Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Suicidal Behavior, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in South Africa: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-07-01

    This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of suicide and attempted suicide by self-immolation in an Irish psychiatric population: an increasing problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Donoghue, J M

    2012-02-03

    In the Western World self-immolation is an uncommon but dramatic method of attempting suicide. In-patients who attempt suicide by fire-setting tend to be female with severe psychopathology. In a previous study from the South of Ireland, seven cases from a psychiatric and prison population were identified in a five year period from 1984 to 1989. This would represent an annual rate of 1.07 per cent of burns treated in the burns unit at Cork University Hospital. In this study 12 cases were identified for the years 1994 and 1995. This represents an increase of 3.5 per cent from 1.07 to 4.6 per cent of all burns treated at the same institution. Ten of these patients had a previous psychiatric history and eight of them were resident on a psychiatric ward when they committed the act. Seven of the patients were found to have a high degree of suicide intent of whom four died of their injuries, which gives a mortality rate for this group of 33 per cent. Effective prevention policies are necessary if this increasing problem is to be curtailed.

  6. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian Lawrence; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom...... severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047......) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania....

  7. Suicide attempts in 107 adolescents and adults with kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, Brian L; Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2012-01-01

    Suicide attempts in kleptomania have received little investigation. This study examined rates, correlates, and predictors of suicide attempts in kleptomania. A total of 107 adolescent and adult subjects (n = 32 [29.9%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed with standard measures of symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidity, and functional impairment. Subjects had high rates of suicide attempts (24.3%). The suicide attempt in 92.3% of those who attempted suicide was attributed specifically to kleptomania. Suicide attempts were associated with current and life-time bipolar disorder (p = .047) and lifetime personality disorder (p = .049). Individuals with kleptomania have high rates of suicide attempts. Bipolar disorder is associated with suicide attempts in individuals with kleptomania and underscores the importance of carefully assessing and monitoring suicidality in patients with kleptomania.

  8. Model-independent study of light cone current commutators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.R.; Dicus, D.A.

    1974-01-01

    An attempt is made to extract information on the nature of light cone current commutators (L. C. C.) in a model independent manner. Using simple assumptions on the validity of the DGS representation for the structure functions of deep inelastic scattering and using the Bjorken--Johnston--Low theorem it is shown that in principle the L. C. C. may be constructed knowing the experimental electron--proton scattering data. On the other hand the scaling behavior of the structure functions is utilized to study the consistency of a vanishing value for various L. C. C. under mild assumptions on the behavior of the DGS spectral moments. (U.S.)

  9. North Korea's Trade Expansion with Western Countries in the Early 1970's and Its Implications on North Korea's Current Attempts at Economic Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Woon Lee

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide the analytical background of North Korea's trade expansion with Western countries in the early 1970's and examine in depth the resulting impacts on the North Korean economy. Indeed, this study explores the implications of the mechanism and consequences of North Korea's increased trade with Western countries in the 1970's for the current situation of the country's trade expansion based on the rapid increase in imports and large trade deficit. As a result of researching North Korea's economic trajectory during the 1970's within this focus, this study asserts that, despite some positive aspects, North Korea's rapid increase of foreign trade in recent years possesses the immanent possibility of generating serious obstacles to the process of economic recovery. In this vein, this paper intends to explore some policy options North Korea should choose in order to create conditions conducive to economic rehabilitation and prevent the recurrence of similar situation as experienced in the 1970's.

  10. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  11. Prevalence of Suicide Ideation, Attempts and the Associated Factors among a Sample of Iranian Population in South Part of the Country: A Population Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Navadeh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  Objective: "n "n "nSuicide represented 1.8% of the total global burden of disease in1998 and it will increase to 2.4% in 2020. We performed a cross sectional study to assess the prevalence of suicide ideation, attempt and its associated factors. "nMethod: We designed a cross sectional study in Mahan and Bardsir cities, Kerman province, Iran. Based on the multistage cluster sampling, 860 subjects aged 15 and older were selected as the non-attempter group and 58 hospital cases admitted due to suicide attempts were selected as the attempter group. General Health Questionnaire, Suicide Ideation Scale and demographic form were filled for each participant. "nResults: This study showed that the prevalence of suicide ideation was 10% in total: 48.3% in the suicide attempters and 7.33% in the non-attempters. Being female, young, single, more educated and less religious, living in urban areas, opium use and having somatic complaints and other psychiatric problems were associated with suicide attempts. "nConclusion: Suicide ideation and attempt aren't uncommon in Iran and should be recognized as important problems existing in these two cities of Kerman province .

  12. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating...... therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide...

  13. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used. PMID:24672358

  14. Suicide attempts in Malaysia from the year 1969 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniah, Aishvarya; Maniam, T; Oei, Tian Po; Subramaniam, Ponnusamy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76%) of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.

  15. Suicide Attempts in Malaysia from the Year 1969 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishvarya Sinniah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the literature on suicide attempts in Malaysia. PsycINFO, PubMed, and Medline databases from 1845 to 2012 and detailed manual search of local official reports from the Ministry of Health and the Malaysian Psychiatric Association and unpublished dissertations from 3 local universities providing postgraduate psychiatric training were included in the current review. A total of 38 studies on suicide attempts in Malaysia were found and reviewed. Twenty-seven (76% of the studies on suicide attempts were descriptive studies looking at sociodemographic data, psychiatric illnesses, and methods and reasons for suicide attempts. No study has been conducted on treatment and interventions for suicide attempts and the impact of culture was rarely considered. The review showed that in order for researchers, clinicians, and public health policy makers to obtain a better understanding of suicide attempts in Malaysia, more systematic and empirically stringent methodologies and research frameworks need to be used.

  16. Socio-Demographic, Clinical and Behavioral Characteristics Associated with a History of Suicide Attempts among Psychiatric Outpatients: A Case Control Study in a Northern Mexican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Arnaud-Gil, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Molina-Espinoza, Luis Fernando; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of suicide attempts among psychiatric outpatients in Mexico. This study was aimed to determine the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics associated with suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients in two public hospitals in Durango, Mexico. Two hundred seventy six psychiatric outpatients (154 suicide attempters and 122 patients without suicide attempt history) attended the two public hospitals in Durango City, Mexico were included in this study. Socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained retrospectively from all outpatients and compared in relation to the presence or absence of suicide attempt history. Increased prevalence of suicide attempts was associated with mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (F10-19) (P=0.01), schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (F20-29) (P=0.02), mood (affective) disorders (F30-39) (Purban residence (OR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.17-4.57; P=0.01), memory impairment (OR=1.91, 95% CI: 1.07-3.40; P=0.02), alcohol consumption (OR=2.39, 95% CI: 1.21-4.70; P=0.01), and sexual promiscuity (OR=3.90, 95% CI: 1.74-8.77; PMexico. Results may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against suicide attempts in psychiatric outpatients.

  17. Suicide menace in North-Eastern India: a hospital-based study on the clinical aspects of suicide attempters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Victor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Suicide is a rapidly evolving public health problem affecting people worldwide and is the second leading cause of death among 15-29 year olds globally in 2012. It is a multidimensional and multifactorial phenomenon in terms of the cause and the effect. Objectives: To find out sociodemographic profiles, modes of attempting suicide, and prevalence of depression among the subjects with suicide attempt, and to find any association between them. Methods: One hundred and eight cases of attempted suicide were selected consecutively who were attending the hospital irrespective of the department and were evaluated to find out various sociodemographic variables, methods of attempting suicide, and if they fulfilled ICD-10 criteria for depressive disorder. Results: Higher prevalence of suicide was seen in cases with age <35 years (77.6%, female gender (54.62%, from rural background (69.44%, living in nuclear family (64.81%, who were unmarried/single (60.18%, illiterate or having education up to class Xth (71.29%, occupationally dependent (68.51%, belonging to lower/lower middle socioeconomic class (51.85%. Organophosphorus poisoning (42.59% was the most common method of attempting suicide. 66.66% of cases suffered from depressive disorder at the time of attempting suicide. Poisoning was the more common method among cases with age less than 35 years (63.09% and while males opted for drug overdose (16.32% females used poisoning (64.40% as the most common method to attempt suicide. Conclusions: The data provides a range of information to identify vulnerable groups so that a multidimensional approach can be planned for formulation of suicide prevention strategies.

  18. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P; Eriksen, B; Crutzen, S [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Suicidal Ideation and Attempt among People Living with HIV/AIDS at Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsay Hailu Gebremariam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS continues to be an underrecognized risk for suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt, and completion of suicide. Suicidal ideation and attempt in HIV/AIDS is not only a predictor of future attempted suicide and completed suicide. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among HIV-positive patients attending HIV care at Zewditu Memorial Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit 423 participants from April to May 2014. Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to collect data. Multivariable logistic regression was computed to assess factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempt. Result. Suicidal ideation and suicidal attempt were found to be 22.5% and 13.9%, respectively. WHO clinical stage of HIV, not being on HAART, depression, family history of suicidal attempt, and perceived stigma were associated with suicidal ideation. WHO clinical stage, being female, not being on HAART, use of substance, and depression were associated with suicidal attempt. Conclusion. Early diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic infections, depression, and early initiation of ART need to be encouraged in HIV-positive adults. Furthermore, counseling on substance use and its consequences and early identification of HIV-positive people with family history of suicidal ideation have to be considered.

  20. Risk for attempted suicide in children and youths after contact with somatic hospitals: a Danish register based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, E; Stenager, E

    2012-03-01

    A range of studies have found an association between some somatic diseases and increased risk of suicide and attempted suicide. These studies are mostly analyses of adult populations and illnesses related to adulthood. To study the risk of attempted suicide in children and youths with a somatic diagnosis, and to assess a possible association from a somatic perspective. From a cohort of 403 431 individuals (born 1983-89), 3465 children and youths who had attempted suicide were identified. Each case was matched with 20 population controls. 72 765 children and youths constituted the case-control population. All data were obtained from national population registers and analysed in a nested case-control design. Contact of children and youths with a somatic hospital is correlated with increased risk of attempted suicide; the risk peaks in the time immediately after contact. Risk factors were treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma and malformation for males; and spontaneous and medical abortions, treatment for injury caused by violence, epilepsy, asthma, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and malformation for females. Not all the mentioned diagnoses were significant in the adjusted model. Based on the results of the study a strategy to minimise the risk of attempted suicide among children and youths must be implemented. The strategy should mainly focus on children at high risk-that is, children from families with low socioeconomic status, and children with a psychiatric history, a history of previous suicide attempts and with an unstable somatic disease subsequently causing many admissions.

  1. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography ...the effects of topography on the ocean general and regional circulation with a focus on the wide range of scales of interactions. The small-scale...details of the topography and the waves, eddies, drag, and turbulence it generates (at spatial scales ranging from meters to mesoscale) interact in the

  2. [Suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Mario; Silva, Daniel; Sanhueza, Félix; Cova, Félix; Melipillán, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.

  3. Current status of thermoluminescence studies on minerals and rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of thermoluminescence (TL) in geological studies is being increasingly recognized, as may be judged from the considerable volume of literature accumulated over the past couple of decades; besides, a number of seminars, conferences and specialists' meetings have also been held on the subject of applied TL. However, these publications lie scattered over several periodicals and conference proceedings and an interested worker finds it difficult to obtain the gist of the contributions in one place. The present authors felt a need for this and have, therefore, attempted to bring together in this Report the current status of TL research about different minerals; applications in the fields of geochronology, ore-prospecting, stratigraphic correlation, geothermometry and other useful areas are also included. (author)

  4. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  5. Childhood Bullying Behaviors as a Risk for Suicide Attempts and Completed Suicides: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomek, Anat Brunstein; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Piha, Jorma; Tamminen, Tuula; Almqvist, Fredrik; Gould, Madelyn S.

    2009-01-01

    The examination of the data from a sample of 5,302 Finnish children who were born in 1981 finds that bullying at age eight years and later is associated with later suicide attempts and completed suicide for boys but not after controlling for conduct and depression symptoms. For girls, the association is still seen even after controlling for…

  6. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily...... after 3, 8 and 14 months. We found that the association between expecting to be more stressed if giving up smoking differed between participants who had previously attempted to quit and those who had not: In participants who previously attempted to quit (47%), expecting to be more stressed......, expectations about stress were not associated with abstinence. Results indicate that expectations about stress in relation to smoking cessation are an important determinant of cessation in smokers who previously attempted to quit. Addressing stress and how to handle stressful situations may increase...

  7. Correlation of impulsivity with self-harm and suicidal attempt: a community study of adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsin; Liu, Hui-Ching; Tsai, Fang-Ju; Sun, Fang-Ju; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Chiu, Yu-Ching; Huang, Yen-Hsun; Huang, Yo-Ping; Liu, Shen-Ing

    2017-12-06

    The aim of this study was to investigate differences and similarities in risk factors for deliberate self-harm (DSH) and suicidal attempt (SA), and the role of impulsivity among a group of community adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study conducted at high schools in Northern Taiwan. We recruited grade 1 students from 14 high schools. A total of 5879 participants (mean age 16.02 years, female adolescents: 57.7%) completed the online assessment. Participants completed online questionnaires about sociodemographic data, suicidality, history of DSH and SA, depressed mood, self-esteem, social support, family discord, impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11 (BIS-11)) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. A subsample was interviewed about lifetime SA, and the results were compared with those from the online questionnaires. In our sample, 25% of the students had lifetime DSH and 3.5% had lifetime SA. Two hundred and seventy-two students received face-to-face interviews. The concordance between the online questionnaires and interviews in terms of ascertaining cases of SA was moderate (concordance rate 82.76%; kappa value 0.59). Similar risk factors for DSH/SA among the whole sample included female gender, lower academic performance, depression, substance use (tobacco and alcohol) and low self-esteem. The BIS-11 score was correlated with DSH. Factor 3 score of the BIS-11 (novelty seeking) was correlated with DSH in both boys and girls, whereas factor 2 score (lack of self-control) was correlated with SA in boys. Social support was a protective factor against SA among the female adolescents. Gender modulated the association of impulsivity and DSH/SA. Associations between impulsivity and DSH and SA were particularly strong among boys. Risk factors for DSH and SA were similar, but not identical. Early identification of those at risk and appropriate interventions may be helpful. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in

  8. Electronic cigarette use among Korean adolescents: a cross-sectional study of market penetration, dual use, and relationship to quit attempts and former smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Grana, Rachel A; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-06-01

    As elsewhere, in South Korea electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are marketed, in part, as a smoking cessation aid. We assessed the prevalence of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents and the relationship between e-cigarette use and current (past 30-day) smoking, cigarettes/day, attempts to quit conventional cigarettes, and ceasing to use cigarettes. Data from the 2011 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 75,643 students aged 13-18 years were analyzed with logistic regression. A total of 9.4% (8.0% ever-dual users who were concurrently using e-cigarettes and smoking conventional cigarettes and 1.4% ever-e-cigarette only users) of Korean adolescents have ever used e-cigarettes and 4.7% were current (past 30-day) e-cigarette users (3.6% dual users and 1.1% e-cigarettes only). After adjusting for demographics, current cigarette smokers were much more likely to use e-cigarettes than were nonsmokers. Among current cigarette smokers, those who smoked more frequently were more likely to be current e-cigarette users. The odds of being an e-cigarette user were 1.58 times (95% confidence interval, 1.39-1.79) higher among students who had made an attempt to quit than for those who had not. It was rare for students no longer using cigarettes to be among current e-cigarette users (odds ratio, .10; confidence interval, .09-.12). Some Korean adolescents may be responding to advertising claims that e-cigarettes are a cessation aid: those who had made an attempt to quit were more likely to use e-cigarettes but less likely to no longer use cigarettes. E-cigarette use was strongly associated with current and heavier cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronotype differences in suicidal behavior and impulsivity among suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Yavuz; Aydin, Adem; Atli, Abdullah; Boysan, Murat; Selvi, Fatih; Besiroglu, Lutfullah

    2011-03-01

    Morning- and evening-type individuals differ on a number of psychological and biological variables. There has been increasing interest in the relationship between chronotype and personality traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between impulsivity and chronotype in suicide attempters. Eighty-nine suicide attempters were included in the study, and systematic information on suicide attempts was recorded. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire was applied to determine chronotype, and attempter impulsivity was measured by the total score of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. Significant differences between chronotype and impulsivity scores were found. Evening-type subjects reported significantly higher impulsivity scores than both neither- and morning-types. A significant association between chronotype and type of suicide attempt was detected. The largest proportion of violent suicide attempters were evening-type subjects. Violent suicide attempters also reported significantly higher impulsivity scores than nonviolent attempters. Previous studies have pointed out possible relations between eveningness and impulsivity. Current findings suggest that eveningness may be a risk factor for violent suicide attempts by increasing impulsivity.

  10. Characteristics of attempted suicide by patients with schizophrenia compared with those with mood disorders: a case-controlled study in northern Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takao; Hashimoto, Eri; Ukai, Wataru; Kakutani, Yohei; Sasaki, Ryuji; Saito, Toshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Recent reports suggest a lifetime suicide risk for schizophrenia patients of approximately 5%. This figure is significantly higher than the general population suicide risk consequently, detection of those at risk is clinically important. This study was undertaken to define the characteristics of suicide attempts by schizophrenia patients compared with attempts by patients with mood disorders. All patients were diagnosed using the ICD-10 criteria. The study population comprised 65 patients with F2 disorders (schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders), i.e., "the F2 group", and 94 patients with F3 disorders (mood disorders), i.e., "the F3 group", who presented in the clinical setting of consultation-liaison psychiatry. The F2 group had a significantly younger mean age and significantly higher ratios of 'past/present psychiatric treatment' and 'more than 3 months interruption of psychiatric treatment'. In contrast, the ratios of 'physical disorder comorbidity', 'alcohol intake at suicide attempt' and 'suicide note left behind' were significantly higher in the F3 group. The F2 group attempted suicide by significantly more serious methods. Furthermore, 'hallucination-delusion' was the most prevalent motive in the F2 group and was the only factor that showed a significant association with the seriousness of the method of suicide attempt (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.05-11.33).

  11. Characteristics of attempted suicide by patients with schizophrenia compared with those with mood disorders: a case-controlled study in northern Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ishii

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest a lifetime suicide risk for schizophrenia patients of approximately 5%. This figure is significantly higher than the general population suicide risk consequently, detection of those at risk is clinically important. This study was undertaken to define the characteristics of suicide attempts by schizophrenia patients compared with attempts by patients with mood disorders. All patients were diagnosed using the ICD-10 criteria. The study population comprised 65 patients with F2 disorders (schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, i.e., "the F2 group", and 94 patients with F3 disorders (mood disorders, i.e., "the F3 group", who presented in the clinical setting of consultation-liaison psychiatry. The F2 group had a significantly younger mean age and significantly higher ratios of 'past/present psychiatric treatment' and 'more than 3 months interruption of psychiatric treatment'. In contrast, the ratios of 'physical disorder comorbidity', 'alcohol intake at suicide attempt' and 'suicide note left behind' were significantly higher in the F3 group. The F2 group attempted suicide by significantly more serious methods. Furthermore, 'hallucination-delusion' was the most prevalent motive in the F2 group and was the only factor that showed a significant association with the seriousness of the method of suicide attempt (OR = 3.36, 95% CI: 1.05-11.33.

  12. Exploring Personality Features in Patients with Affective Disorders and History of Suicide Attempts: A Comparative Study with Their Parents and Control Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Camarena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits are important candidate predictors of suicidal behavior. Several studies have reported an association between personality/temperament traits and suicidal behavior, suggesting personality traits as intermediary phenotypes related to suicidal behavior. Thus, it is possible that suicide attempts can be accounted for by increased familial rates of risk personality traits. The aim of this work was to evaluate personality traits in affective disorder patients with attempted suicide and to compare them with the personality trait scores of their parents. In addition, ITC scores in the two groups were compared with a healthy control sample. The patients evaluated met the DSM-IV criteria for major depression disorder or dysthymia and had a documented history of suicide attempts. Psychiatric diagnoses of patients and parents were done according to the SCID-I and the personality was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory. We analyzed 49 suicide attempt subjects and their parents (n=95 and 89 control subjects. We observed that temperament and character dimensions were similar between patients and their parents (P>0.05. In particular, we observed that high HA and low P, SD, and CO were shared among families. Our study is the first to report that the personality traits of affective disorder patients with a history of attempted suicide are shared between patients and their parents.

  13. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in suicide attempt by charcoal burning: a 10-year study in a general hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chemin; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Leong, Wa Cheong; Hung, Huei-Min; Ku, Chung-Hsuan; Lin, Ja-Liang; Lee, Shwu-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, charcoal burning has become a common method of suicide in Taiwan; however, the underlying psychiatric diagnoses and gender differences have yet to be examined. We conducted a retrospective chart review on inpatients after suicide attempt by charcoal burning during 2000-2010. The patients were referred to the psychiatric consultation team and diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV. We chose those who were admitted to the nephrology ward in the same period due to accidental carbon monoxide intoxication as controls. Demographic and laboratory data, psychiatric diagnoses and reasons for suicide were obtained and analyzed. Among seventy-three patients, major depressive disorder (49.3%) and adjustment disorder (41.1%) were most frequently diagnosed. Breaking-up, financial debt and physical/mental illnesses were the top three reasons for suicide (17.8% each). The male-to-female gender ratio was 1.5:1. Female patients had higher rates of major depressive disorders, while male patients presented more adjustment disorders comorbid with alcohol use disorders. There were gender differences in patients of suicide attempt by charcoal burning, in terms of demographic profiles and psychiatric diagnoses. Suicide risk assessment and prevention should be tailored by gender. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Elderly suicide attempters by self-poisoning in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoo-Ra; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2011-08-01

    Suicide is a major public health concern. The elderly have the highest rate of suicide and they make more lethal suicide attempts and have fewer psychiatric interventions than young people. Furthermore, they have old-age specific psychosocial difficulties. The present study investigated psychosocial risk factors and characteristics of an index suicide attempt of the elderly suicide attempters. Subjects included 388 patients who were admitted to the emergency room following self-poisoning. Two age groups were defined: younger patients (aged less than 65 years) and older patients (aged over 65 years). Data including demographic factors, suicidal risk factors and information about the current suicide attempt were obtained from a retrospective chart review. The number of suicide attempters over the age of 65 years old was 57, and their mean age was 73.5 ± 7.5 years. The elderly patients had more underlying medical illnesses than the under-65 group (p suicide attempters had higher risk-rating scores (p suicide attempters had different psychosocial stressors such as physical illness and more lethal suicide attempts. Our study suggests the need for development of specific preventive strategies and management guidelines for the elderly suicide attempters.

  15. Music-Evoked Emotions—Current Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Hans-Eckhardt

    2017-01-01

    The present study is focused on a review of the current state of investigating music-evoked emotions experimentally, theoretically and with respect to their therapeutic potentials. After a concise historical overview and a schematic of the hearing mechanisms, experimental studies on music listeners and on music performers are discussed, starting with the presentation of characteristic musical stimuli and the basic features of tomographic imaging of emotional activation in the brain, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which offer high spatial resolution in the millimeter range. The progress in correlating activation imaging in the brain to the psychological understanding of music-evoked emotion is demonstrated and some prospects for future research are outlined. Research in psychoneuroendocrinology and molecular markers is reviewed in the context of music-evoked emotions and the results indicate that the research in this area should be intensified. An assessment of studies involving measuring techniques with high temporal resolution down to the 10 ms range, as, e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), event-related brain potentials (ERP), magnetoencephalography (MEG), skin conductance response (SCR), finger temperature, and goose bump development (piloerection) can yield information on the dynamics and kinetics of emotion. Genetic investigations reviewed suggest the heredity transmission of a predilection for music. Theoretical approaches to musical emotion are directed to a unified model for experimental neurological evidence and aesthetic judgment. Finally, the reports on musical therapy are briefly outlined. The study concludes with an outlook on emerging technologies and future research fields. PMID:29225563

  16. When the Pain Becomes Unbearable: Case-Control Study of Mental Pain Characteristics Among Medically Serious Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Belz, Y; Gvion, Y; Grisaru, S; Apter, A

    2018-01-01

    The unbearable mental pain experience is recognized as a key antecedent of suicidal behavior. We aimed to examine the precise nature of the mental pain among medically serious suicide attempters (MSSAs), a population closely resembling those who died by suicide. We evaluated various factors of mental pain from the Orbach and Mikulincer Mental Pain Scale, as well as medical lethality and suicide intent. MSSAs were higher than non-MSSAs and psychiatric controls for Irreversibility of pain. Moreover, Emptiness predicted medical lethality, while Cognitive Confusion negatively predicted suicide intent level, controlling for hopelessness and depression. high sense of Irreversibility of pain as well as high Emptiness and low Cognitive Confusion are important risk factors for more severe suicidal behavior. Implications for identification of at-risk groups for suicide as well as for suicide prevention and treatment of suicidal individuals are discussed.

  17. Surviving a Suicide Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Harrasi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a global phenomenon in all regions of the world affecting people of all age groups. It has detrimental consequences on patients, their families, and the community as a whole. There have been numerous risk factors described for suicide including mental illness, stressful life situations, loss of social support, and general despair. The association of suicide with Islam has not been extensively studied. The common impression from clinical practice is that being a practicing Muslim reduces the risk of suicide. Another factor associated with suicide is starting a patient on antidepressants. However, this has been questioned recently. This report describes a middle-aged man with depression and multiple social stressors who survived a serious suicide attempt. The discussion will focus on the factors that lead him to want to end his life and the impact of the assumed protective factors such as religious belief and family support on this act of self-harm. Such patients can be on the edge when there is an imbalance between risk factors (such as depression, insomnia, and psychosocial stressors and protective factors (like religious affiliation and family support. All physicians are advised to assess the suicide risk thoroughly in patients with depression regardless of any presumed protective factor.

  18. Differences and similarities in the serotonergic diathesis for suicide attempts and mood disorders: a 22-year longitudinal gene-environment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezo, J; Bureau, A; Mérette, C; Jomphe, V; Barker, E D; Vitaro, F; Hébert, M; Carbonneau, R; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G

    2010-08-01

    To investigate similarities and differences in the serotonergic diathesis for mood disorders and suicide attempts, we conducted a study in a cohort followed longitudinally for 22 years. A total of 1255 members of this cohort, which is representative of the French-speaking population of Quebec, were investigated. Main outcome measures included (1) mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) and suicide attempts by early adulthood; (2) odds ratios and probabilities associated with 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 serotonergic genes, acting directly or as moderators in gene-environment interactions with childhood sexual or childhood physical abuse (CPA), and in gene-gene interactions; (3) regression coefficients for putative endophenotypes for mood disorders (childhood anxiousness) and suicide attempts (childhood disruptiveness). Five genes showed significant adjusted effects (HTR2A, TPH1, HTR5A, SLC6A4 and HTR1A). Of these, HTR2A variation influenced both suicide attempts and mood disorders, although through different mechanisms. In suicide attempts, HTR2A variants (rs6561333, rs7997012 and rs1885884) were involved through interactions with histories of sexual and physical abuse whereas in mood disorders through one main effect (rs9316235). In terms of phenotype-specific contributions, TPH1 variation (rs10488683) was relevant only in the diathesis for suicide attempts. Three genes contributed exclusively to mood disorders, one through a main effect (HTR5A (rs1657268)) and two through gene-environment interactions with CPA (HTR1A (rs878567) and SLC6A4 (rs3794808)). Childhood anxiousness did not mediate the effects of HTR2A and HTR5A on mood disorders, nor did childhood disruptiveness mediate the effects of TPH1 on suicide attempts. Of the serotonergic genes implicated in mood disorders and suicidal behaviors, four exhibited phenotype-specific effects, suggesting that despite their high concordance and common genetic determinants, suicide attempts

  19. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A.; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael; Sikora Kessler, Asia; Dodd, Michael D.; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates. PMID:26861379

  20. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129. However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  1. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with

  2. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  3. Daily negative affect and smoking after a self-set quit attempt: The role of dyadic invisible social support in a daily diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Janina; Stadler, Gertraud; Ochsner, Sibylle; Rackow, Pamela; Knoll, Nina; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2015-11-01

    Social support receipt from one's partner is assumed to be beneficial for successful smoking cessation. However, support receipt can have costs. Recent research suggests that the most effective support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). Therefore, this study examined the association between everyday levels of dyadic invisible emotional and instrumental support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking after a self-set quit attempt in smoker-non-smoker couples. Overall, 100 smokers (72.0% men, mean age M = 40.48, SD = 9.82) and their non-smoking partners completed electronic diaries from a self-set quit date on for 22 consecutive days, reporting daily invisible emotional and instrumental social support, daily negative affect, and daily smoking. Same-day multilevel analyses showed that at the between-person level, higher individual mean levels of invisible emotional and instrumental support were associated with less daily negative affect. In contrast to our assumption, more receipt of invisible emotional and instrumental support was related to more daily cigarettes smoked. The findings are in line with previous results, indicating invisible support to have beneficial relations with affect. However, results emphasize the need for further prospective daily diary approaches for understanding the dynamics of invisible support on smoking cessation. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Social support receipt from a close other has proven to have emotional costs. According to current studies, the most effective social support is unnoticed by the receiver (i.e., invisible). There is empirical evidence for beneficial effects of invisible social support on affective well-being. What does this study add? Confirming benefits of invisible social support for negative affect in a health behaviour change setting Providing first evidence for detrimental effects of invisible social support on smoking. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Resistance against Schistosoma mansoni induced by highly irradiated infections: studies on species specificity of immunization and attempts to transfer resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickle, Q.D.; Andrews, B.J.; Doenhoff, M.J.; Ford, M.J.; Taylor, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Significant levels of resistance against Schistosoma mansoni challenge were developed by mice exposed to highly irradiated (20 krad.) cercariae of the homologous species (53-67%), whereas vaccination with S. bovis, S. haematobium or S. japonicum failed to confer significant levels of resistance (-5-12%), thus confirming the specificity of the immunizing procedure. Attempts to transfer resistance to naive recipients by injection of serum and of spleen or lymph node cells from donor mice vaccinated with highly irradiated cercariae were largely unsuccessful. However, significant levels of resistance could be transferred to mice by injection of serum from rabbits exposed to irradiated cercariae. Comparable levels of resistance were conferred by injection of serum at the time of challenge (34-69%) or 5-6 days later (31-56%). In contrast, sera from rabbits injected with soluble egg antigen or homogenized cercariae failed to confer protection upon recipient mice. Sera from vaccinated mice, vaccinated rabbits and antigen-injected rabbits all caused cell adherence to skin-transformed schistosomula but neither the level of adherence nor the serum titre correlated with the ability to confer protection to mice. (author)

  5. First attempt to study rock glaciers in New Zealand using the Schmidt-hammer - framework and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stefan; Lambiel, Christophe; Sattler, Katrin; Büche, Thomas; Springer, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    significant different in age, a phenomena known from similar studies on rock glaciers elsewhere. Already during sampling it became obvious that with increasing altitude and decreasing distance to the valley headwall the percentage of freshly appearing boulders vs. weathered boulders with a distinct micro-relief is getting higher. The means of the lowermost ridges of the rock glaciers show, however, no significant difference to the early Holocene moraines dated to c. 11.5 10Be ka ago. This may indicate that rock glacier formation initiated shortly after Termination 1 during the early Holocene and partly overrode some parts of the early Holocene moraines. During the field work, a network of 46 differential GPS points has been established to start future monitoring of any potential rock glacier movement. It will allow exploring the climatological control on rock glacier behaviour in in the Southern Alps, as well as comparisons with current velocities measured in the European Alps. References: Kaplan, M.R., Schaefer, J., Denton, G.H., Barrell, D.J.A., Chinn, T.J.H., Putnam, A.E., Anderson, B.G., Finkel, R.C., Schwartz, R. & Doughty, A.M. (2010): Glacier retreat in New Zealand during the Younger DryasStadial. Nature 467, 194-197. Sattler, K., Anderson, B., Mackintosh, A., Norton, K., de Róiste, M. (2016): Estimating permafrost distribution in the maritime SouthernAlps, New Zealand, based on climatic conditions at rock glacier sites. Frontiers in Earth Science - Section Cryospheric Sciences. doi: 10.3389/feart.2016.00004.

  6. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  7. A CROSS SECTIONAL ANALYTICAL STUDY OF PSYCHO SOCIAL FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE FIRST ATTEMPT SUICIDE OF YOUNG ADULTS DONE AT THANJAVUR MEDICAL COLLEGE, TAMILNADU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbazhagan G

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Attempted Suicide is 8-10 times higher than the number of successful suicides. The suicide risk among persons who attempted suicide is forty times higher than in the general population and the risk persist for many years. Attempted suicide is much more common in young adults due to biological, psychological and social factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross sectional analytical study involving a sample of 30 in the age group 17-40 years who attempted suicide for the first time. Semi-structured socio-demographic proforma, ICD-10 International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE, Beck’s Suicide Intent Scale, Holmes and Rahe Stress scales, were administered. Descriptive statistics, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, Student T test, were used to analyse the data. RESULTS Among this sample of 30, 18(60% were in the age group of 17–24 years. Females (84% outnumbered males (16%. Majority of the suicide attempters 19 (63.3% belonged to the upper lower socio- economic status. 70% of the cases were from rural areas. The commonest mode of suicide attempt was by consuming poison 96.6%. 8 (26.7% were found to have a definite personality disorder. Among those 8 cases, 5 (16.7% were found to have Anankastic Personality Disorder, 2 (6.7% were found to have Dependent Personality Disorder and 1 (3.3% person qualified for Borderline Personality Disorder Impulsive subtype. 3 (10% persons were found to have medium suicide intent whereas 7 (23.3% had low intent. On assessing their stress level, 3 (10% people had moderate risk whereas 12 (40% had slightest risk for developing illnesses. On comparing the scores of Holmes Rahe Stress scores of the 17-24 age groups and 25-34 age groups, the p value was 0.010 which was statistically significant. CONCLUSION Similar to suicide, attempted suicide is much more common in the 15-34 age groups. The reason being, various biological changes take place within their body system, development of one’s personality and

  8. Experimental studies of coaxial plasma gun current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    In this investigation of a coaxial plasma gun, plasma sheath currents and related behavior are examined. Plasma behavior in the gun affects gun characteristics. Plasma gun applications are determined by the plasma behavior. The AFWL PUFF capacitor bank (72 μF, 29 nH, 120 kV) drives the plasma gun using a deuterium fill gas. The gas breakdown site is isolated from the dielectric/vacuum interface in the AFWL system. Two gas values deliver gas in the system. The first delivers gas from the gun breech and the second optional valve delivers gas to the gun muzzle. Currents and voltages are measured by Rogowski coils, B probes and capacitive voltage probes. A O-D slug model is used to predict the current, inductance, gun voltage and plasma sheath velocity. The slug model assumes the sheath transits the gun with all mass in the sheath. In the snowplow mode, the plasma sheath is thin with a sharp current rise and drop. Our system operated in a transition mode between the snowplow and deflagration modes with early snowplow behavior and late deflagration behavior. Neutrons are produced in a plasma pinch at the gun muzzle, indicating snowplow behavior. The slug theory models overall gun behavior to experimental accuracy. Experimental results are compared to four theories for plasma sheath velocities: the Alfven collisionally limited model, the Rosenbluth model, the Fishbine saturated model and a single particle drift model. Experimental velocities vary from 10 5 to 10 6 m/s. Only the single particle drift and the slug model calculations are of the right magnitude (8 x 10 5 m/s). The Fishbine and the Rosenbluth models predict slower velocities (2 x 10 5 m/s). The Alfven model is not applicable to this system

  9. Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor G196A and Attempted Suicide: A Case-Control Study in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Yu; Wang, Xin-Ting; Wang, Lin-Lin; Jia, Cun-Xian

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is an important public problem, the mechanism of which has not been clarified. Many studies have focused on the molecular, biological and genetic mechanisms of suicide. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) G196A is one of the most leading loci in recent studies, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a 1:1 age- and sex-matched case-control study in rural areas of Shandong Province, China. A total of 365 pairs of cases and controls were finally recruited into our study. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of BDNF 196G/G and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by multivariate conditional logistic regression models. No association between BDNF polymorphisms and attempted suicide was found in the overall population. However, the BDNF 196G/G genotype was significantly related to attempted suicide in the elderly population (AOR = 7.85, 95% CI: 1.12-54.90, p = 0.038), while the associations were not significant in young and middle-aged groups. Our study suggests that the BDNF 196G/G genotype increases the risk of attempted suicide in elderly people. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. [When a Suicide Attempt is Kid's Stuff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Rojas, Rafael; Quijano-Serrano, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Attempted suicide in children and adolescents is a disturbing and painful issue for patients, their families and physicians. Current medical literature provides little information about minors who attempt suicide, possibly because there is under-reporting of this condition as a diagnosis, or maybe because it is sometimes considered as a way for the child to draw attention. To present the experience of the Department of Psychiatry (Universidad Nacional de Colombia) at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia, from 2003 to 2013. An observational retrospective study was conducted by reviewing 213 cases of children and adolescents treated for attempted suicide at the Hospital Infantil de La Misericordia from January 1, 2003 to October 31, 2013, and who received hospital or outpatient care in Child Psychiatry. A review was performed of the diagnosis, the number of suicide attempts, the peak months of consultation for this reason, and the methods selected, as well as a detailed description of the group of patients under 12 years old, and those managed with outpatient follow-up. The average patient is a female teenager who becomes intoxicated with drugs. Most often, patients do not return to outpatient follow-up. Those with follow-up have multiple psychopathologies and a high level of suffering. The most common methods, other than poisoning by drugs, are hanging and jumping from heights. Patients under 12 years old generally have their first attempt by drug poisoning. There is a predominance of anxiety disorder and depression, with a strong association with cognitive dysfunction, as a vulnerability factor. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Suicidal ideations, plans and attempts in primary care: cross-sectional study of consultants at primary health care system in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneib, Bouchra; Sabir, Maria; Otheman, Yassine; Abda, Naima; Ouanass, Abderrazzak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Moroccan consultants in primary health care system. We conducted a cross sectional survey in three health care centers in two cities of Morocco to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts among 396 consultants in the primary health care system, using the Mini International neuropsychiatric interview. Patients were 18 years and older, without known psychiatric or chronic somatic disease. Statistical analysis was performed by the SPSS 13.0 software. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 5.3%, and 2.7% of the patients planned their suicide and 1.2% tried to commit suicide. The multivariate analysis did not demonstrate significant association. Suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts are prevalent in primary health care patients, but they are still under diagnosed. An adequate training of physicians and the establishment of education programs is essential to reduce the rate of suicide.

  12. Effectiveness of assertive case management on repeat self-harm in patients admitted for suicide attempt: Findings from ACTION-J study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuno, Taku; Nakagawa, Makiko; Hino, Kosuke; Yamada, Tomoki; Kawashima, Yoshitaka; Matsuoka, Yutaka; Shirakawa, Osamu; Ishizuka, Naoki; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    Self-harm is an important risk factor for subsequent suicide and repetition of self-harm, and a common cause of emergency department presentations. However, there still remains limited evidence on intervention in emergency department settings for individuals who self-harm. This multicentre, randomised controlled trial was conducted at 17 general hospitals in Japan. In total, 914 adult patients admitted to emergency departments for a suicide attempt and had a DSM-IV-TR axis I disorder were randomly assigned to two groups, to receive either assertive case management (intervention) or enhanced usual care (control). Assertive case management was introduced by the case manager during emergency department admissions for suicide attempts, and continued after discharge. Interventions were provided until the end of the study period (for at least 18 months and up to 5 years). The number of overall self-harm episodes per person-year was significantly lower in the intervention group (adjusted incidence risk ratio (IRR) 0.88, 95%CI 0.80-0.96, p=0.0031). Subgroup analysis showed a greater reduction of overall self-harm episodes among patients with no previous suicide attempt at baseline (adjusted IRR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-0.98, p=0.037). Patients younger than 20 years and patients who self-harmed but were not admitted to an emergency department were excluded. The present study showed that assertive case management following emergency admission for a suicide attempt reduced the incident rate of repeat overall self-harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Growing need to study foraminifera in the laboratory culture experiments: An attempt from the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Koli, N.Y.

    . No doubt these proxies were well tested in the modern environmental setup, prior to be considered as climate indicators. Nevertheless, if the same effect is studied under controlled conditions in the laboratory, it will definitely enhance the reliability...

  14. Effects of Aggression Replacement Training on Problem Solving, Anger and Aggressive Behaviour among Adolescents with Criminal Attempts in Turkey: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Fadime; Buzlu, Sevim

    2016-12-01

    The research was conducted by a pretest and post-test conducted in a quasi-experimental design which aimed to determine effectiveness of Aggression Replacement Training (ART) on problem solving, anger and aggressive behaviour among adolescents with criminal attempts in Turkey. The study included 65 adolescents with criminal attempts (32 intervention, 33 control). There was no difference between the groups in terms of average age (16.13±1.10 in the experimental group and 16.21±0.89 in the control group). After the intervention, the experimental group showed significantly decreased Trait Anger levels (t=1.906; P=0.033), increased Anger Control scores (t=2.522; P=0.008), decreased Physical Aggression scores (t=1.925; P=0.031), decreased Hostility scores (t=2.496; P=0.009), increased Social Problem Solving total scores (t=2.937; P=0.005). Increased Anger Control scores were found to be significant when compared with the control group (t=2.273, P=0.026). These results showed that ART was effective on problem solving, anger and aggressive behaviour and can be used to develop positive behaviours among adolescents with criminal attempts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study, design and manufacture eddy current probes for industry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Phuc; Nguyen Van Thuy; Vuong Binh Duong; Do Minh Duc; Trinh Dinh Truong; Tran Trong Duc; Do Tung Khanh; Dang Quang Trung

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the studying, designing and manufacturing of eddy current probes for industry applications. The main tasks of this study include: i) Describes the overview and classification of eddy current probes (which can be classified into three categories based on the mode of operation: absolute eddy current probe, differential eddy current probe and reflect eddy current probe); ii) Describes the three methods of probe designing and manufacturing (including experimental, analytical and numerical designs); iii) Describes the designing and manufacturing of eddy current probes for industry applications, which based on experimental and analytical methods. Based on this study, we have successfully manufactured some current probes (including absolute eddy current probe, differential eddy current probe and reflect eddy current probe) for surface and tube inspections. (author)

  16. Risk factors for feelings of sadness and suicide attempts among cancer survivors in South Korea: findings from nationwide cross-sectional study (KNHANES IV-VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeewoong; Lee, Mijo; Ki, Myung; Lee, Ju-Yeong; Song, Yeong-Jun; Kim, Miram; Lee, Sunyoung; Park, Soonjoo; Lim, Jiseun

    2017-12-14

    As the number of cancer survivors is rapidly increasing with the increased incidence of the disease and improved survival of patients, the prevalence of, and risk factors for, mental health problems and suicidality among cancer survivors should be examined. Using data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2013), we examined 1285 and 33 772 participants who had been and never been diagnosed with cancer, respectively. We investigated the risks of feelings of sadness and suicide attempts among cancer survivors and general population and examined differences in the risks of cancer survivors among subgroups according to cancer-related characteristics. The median age of survivors at the time of the survey and at diagnosis was 63 and 54 years, respectively. After adjusting for sex, level of education, household income, occupation, marital status, cancer type, current status of treatment, age at diagnosis and years since diagnosis, the risk of suicide attempts was significantly higher in participants diagnosed with cancer before 45 years of age compared with those diagnosed at 45-64 years (adjusted OR=3.81, 95% CI 1.07 to 13.60, P=0.039), and the higher risk of suicide attempts with borderline significance was found in those for whom more than 10 years had passed since diagnosis compared with those for whom the diagnosis was made only 2-10 years ago (adjusted OR=3.38, 95% CI 0.98 to 11.70, P=0.055). However, feelings of sadness were not significantly associated with any cancer-related characteristic. Our results reveal an increased risk of suicide attempts among cancer survivors diagnosed early in life and in those for whom more than 10 years has passed since the diagnosis, suggesting the need for intensive monitoring and support for mental health problems and suicidal risks in this population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  17. "We Now Have a Patient and Not a Criminal": An Exploratory Study of Judges and Lawyers' Views on Suicide Attempters and the Law in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Joseph; Akotia, Charity S; Andoh-Arthur, Johnny; Boakye, Kofi E; N-B Quarshie, Emmanuel

    2018-05-01

    This study explored the views of judges and lawyers of the superior courts of Ghana on the law criminalizing attempted suicide. Qualitative data were collected from 12 experienced legal practitioners of the superior courts (five judges and seven lawyers) using a semi-structured interview schedule. Thematic analysis of the data yielded three main perspectives: In defence of the Law, Advocating a Repeal, and Pro-Health Orientation. Although exploratory, the findings of this study offer cues for stepping up suicide literacy and advocacy programmes toward either a repeal of the law or a reform.

  18. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes Riveros, M.A.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed

  19. Lake Titicaca: History and current studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes Riveros, M A [PELT, Puno (Peru); Gonfiantini, R [Istituto di Geocronologia e Geochimica Isotopica del CNR, Pisa (Italy)

    1999-12-01

    This article summarizes results of Titicaca lake water balance studies including the findings of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022. Direct precipitation over the lake accounts for about 55% of the water inflow and rivers and streams provide about 45% of the water inflow. Diffuse groundwater leakage into the lake from coastal aquifers is believed to represent a negligible term of water balance. Evaporation from the lake is strong and accounts for more than 95% of the water losses. The isotopic and chemical composition data obtained within the frameworks of the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project RLA/08/022 are discussed.

  20. The Reasons for the Emergence of Violent Behavior and Attempted Murder from the Perspective of Male Killers: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kalateh Sadati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Murder is a violent social behavior, which stems from various reasons. The purpose of the present research is to evaluate the reasons for murder from the perspective of killers. Methods: The present research is a qualitative study which involves 23 male killers sampled purposefully from Adel Abad prison in Shiraz. After conducting a semi-structured interview, data was analysed through qualitative content analysis. Results: The results showed that three reasons including Honor (fear of prolongation of trial, recognition of the legitimacy of murder, unintentional (mental stress, consumption of alcohol and psychotropic substances, availability of weapons, and subcultural values (considering crime to be a normal event are the major reasons for emergence of murder among these people. Results of the research indicate that murder occurs based on interpretive structures of actors; which form their values and behaviors and potentially can lead to murder. Conclusion: In order to decline violent behavior especially murder; policies of the judicial system in the country should ensure security for citizens. This security can be achieved through non-prolonged trials, timeliness of law especially in matters of Honor, banning weapons in civil society and ultimately reducing the influence of anti-social and subcultural values in various social contexts.

  1. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  2. Current status of studies on nodular corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Takayoshi; Kawasaki, Satoru; Echigoya, Hironori; Kinoshita, Yutaka; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Konishi, Takao; Yamanaka, Tuneyasu.

    1993-01-01

    The studies on nodular corrosion formed on the outer surface of BWR fuel cladding tubes were reviewed. Main factors affecting the corrosion behavior were material and environmental conditions and combined effect. The effects of such material conditions as fabrication process, alloy elements, texture and surface treatment and environmental factors as neutron irradiation, thermo-hydrodynamic, water chemistry, purity of the coolant and contact with foreign metals on the corrosion phenomena were surveyed. Out-of-reactor corrosion test methods and models for the corrosion mechanism were also reviewed. Suppression of the accumulated annealing temperature during tube reduction process improved the nodular corrosion resistance of Zircaloys. Improved resistance for the nodular corrosion was reported for the unirradiated Zircaloys with some additives. Detailed irradiation test under the BWR conditions is needed to confirm the trend. Concerning the environmental factors, boiling on the cladding surface due to heat flux reduces the nodular corrosion susceptibility, while oxidizing radical generated from dissolved oxygen accelerates the corrosion. Concerning corrosion mechanisms, importance of such phenomena as the depleted zone of alloying elements in zirconium matrix, reduction of H + to H 2 in oxide layer, electrochemical property of precipitates, crystallographic anisotropy of oxidation rates were revealed. (author) 59 refs

  3. Associations of obesity with tracheal intubation success on first attempt and adverse events in the emergency department: An analysis of the multicenter prospective observational study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushiji, Hiromasa; Goto, Tadahiro; Shirasaka, Wataru; Hagiwara, Yusuke; Watase, Hiroko; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is deemed to increase the risk of difficult tracheal intubation. However, there is a dearth of research that examines the relationship of obesity with intubation success and adverse events in the emergency department (ED). We analyzed the data from a prospective, observational, multicenter study-the Japanese Emergency Airway Network (JEAN) 2 study from 2012 through 2016. We included all adults (aged ≥18 years) who underwent tracheal intubation in the ED. Patients were categorized into three groups according to their body mass index (BMI): lean (<25.0 kg/m²), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m²), and obesity (≥30.0 kg/m²). Outcomes of interest were intubation success on the first attempt and intubation-related adverse events. Of 6,889 patients who are eligible for the analysis, 5,370 patients (77%) were lean, 1,177 (17%) were overweight, and 342 (4%) were obese. Compared to the lean patients, the intubation success rates were significantly lower in the overweight and obese patients (70.9% in lean, 66.4% in overweight, and 59.3% in obese patients; P<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, compared to the lean patients, overweight (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.98) and obese (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95%CI, 0.49-0.79) patients had a significantly lower success rate on the first attempt. Additionally, obesity was significantly associated with a higher risk of adverse events (adjusted OR, 1.62; 95%CI, 1.23-2.13). Based on the data from a multicenter prospectively study, obesity was associated with a lower success rate on the first intubation attempt and a higher risk of adverse event in the ED.

  4. Parental suicide attempt and offspring educational attainment during adolescence in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geulayov, G; Metcalfe, C; Gunnell, D

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of parental suicide attempt (SA) on offspring outcomes other than mental health. We investigated the association of parental SA with offspring educational attainment in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Parental SA was prospectively recorded from pregnancy until the study children were 11 years old. National school test results (ages 11-16 years) were obtained by record linkage. Multilevel regression models quantified the association between parental SA and offspring outcomes. Data were available for 6667 mother-child and 3054 father-child pairs. Adolescents whose mothers had attempted suicide were less likely than their peers to achieve the expected educational level by age 14 years [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.95] in models controlling for relevant confounders, including parental education and depression. At age 16 years, adolescents whose mothers had attempted suicide were less likely to obtain the expected educational level (five or more qualifications at grade A*-C) (aOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.43-1.00) in models controlling for relevant confounders and parental education; however, after additionally controlling for maternal depression the results were consistent with chance (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48-1.13). Findings in relation to paternal SA were consistent with those of maternal SA but power was limited due to lower response rate amongst fathers. Maternal SA was associated with diminished educational performance at age 14 years. Educational attainment during adolescence can have substantial effect on future opportunities and well-being and these offspring may benefit from interventions.

  5. CSF and plasma testosterone in attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Jon; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2016-12-01

    Very few studies have assessed testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters. Aggressiveness and impulsivity are common behavioural traits in suicide attempters. Dual-hormone serotonergic theory on human impulsive aggression implies high testosterone/cortisol ratio acting on the amygdala and low serotonin in the prefrontal cortex. Our aim was to examine the CSF and plasma testosterone levels in suicide attempters and in healthy volunteers. We also assessed the relationship between the testosterone/cortisol ratio, aggressiveness and impulsivity in suicide attempters. 28 medication-free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in the study. CSF and plasma testosterone sulfate and cortisol levels were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Karolinska Scales of Personality was used to assess impulsivity and aggressiveness. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up period was 21 years. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma testosterone levels than age- matched male healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in CSF testosterone levels in female suicide attempters and healthy female volunteers. Testosterone levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. In male suicide attempters, the CSF testosterone/cortisol ratio showed a significant positive correlation with both impulsivity and aggressiveness. Higher CSF testosterone levels may be associated with attempted suicide in young men through association with both aggressiveness and impulsivity, a key endophenotype in young male suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intolerance to Delayed Reward in Girls with Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Charles W.; Dougherty, Donald M.; James, Lisa M.; Richard, Dawn M.; Dawes, Michael A.; Acheson, Ashley; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity has been conceptualized as influencing the expression of suicidal behavior. Adolescence is a developmental period characterized both by a relatively high rate of suicide attempts and a high level of impulsivity. The current study examined two behavioral measures (delay reward and disinhibition) and one self-report measure of…

  7. Attempts at superunification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Maiani, L.; Zumino, B.; Gaillard, M.K.

    1980-04-01

    We describe attempts to construct a phenomenologically viable model which embeds a unified theory of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in an extended supergravity theory. Following Cremmer and Julia, we assume that the local unitary symmetry which they found for SO(N) supergravity theories is realized dynamically, and that the usual quarks, leptons, gauge bosons and Higgs scalars of the renormalizable gauge theory are composite states which appear point-like on a mass scale below the Planck mass. We argue that this picture leads uniquely to SO(8) (or SO(7)) supergravity with SU(5) as the grand unification gauge group. We find that conventional symmetry breaking schemes according to which particles acquire all allowed invariant masses at each stage of a step by step symmetry breakdown do not yield an acceptable particle spectrum. We argue that the original symmetries of the composite supermultiplet may break dynamically to an effective anomaly free renormalizable sub-theory, with the underlying supersymmetry serving at most to restrict the particle spectrum and to specify the couplings of the effective renormalizable Lagrangian at the Planck mass. Preliminary investigations suggest that this approach may be more promising

  8. Suicide Attempts and Completions among Mothers Whose Children Were Taken into Care by Child Protection Services: A Cohort Study Using Linkable Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Brownell, Marni; Nickel, Nathan; Chateau, Dan; Singal, Deepa

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to examine suicide attempts and completions among mothers who had a child taken into care by child protection services (CPS). These mothers were compared with their biological sisters who did not have a child taken into care and with mothers who received services from CPS but did not have a child taken into care. A retrospective cohort of mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada, between April 1, 1992, and March 31, 2015, is used. Rates among discordant biological sisters (1872 families) were compared using fixed-effects Poisson regression models, and mothers involved with CPS (children in care [ n = 1872] and received services [ n = 9590]) were compared using a Poisson regression model. Compared with their biological sisters and mothers who received services, the adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) of death by suicide was greater among mothers whose child was taken into care by CPS (aIRR = 4.46 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39-14.33] and ARR = 3.45 [95% CI, 1.61-7.40], respectively). Incidence rates of suicide attempts were higher among mothers with a child taken into care compared with their sisters (aIRR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.40-3.30) and mothers receiving services (aIRR = 2.82; 95% CI, 2.03-3.92). Mothers who had a child taken into care had significantly higher rates of suicide attempts and completions. When children are taken into care, physician and social workers should inquire about maternal suicidal behaviour and provide appropriate mental health.

  9. Family presence at resuscitation attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Helen

    UK resuscitation guidelines suggest that parents and carers should be allowed to be present during a resuscitation attempt in hospital but no guidance is available regarding family presence when resuscitation takes place out of hospital. A new research study has suggested that relatives who were offered the opportunity to witness resuscitation were less likely to develop symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder than those who were not given the chance. This article summarises the results of this study and provides an expert commentary on its conclusions.

  10. The effects of religion, superstition, and perceived gender inequality on the degree of suicide intent: a study of serious attempters in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Huilan

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have tried to account for the uniqueness of gender ratios in Chinese suicide through physiological and psychological differences between men and women, and the means employed in the fatal act. From the point of view of the socio-psychological traits, this study examines the effects of religion (religiosity), superstition, and perceived gender inequality among Chinese women on the degree of their suicide intent. A four-page structured interviews were performed to the consecutively sampled serious attempters of suicide hospitalized to emergency rooms immediately after the suicidal act in Dalian areas, China. Both univariate analyses and the multiple regression model have found that the higher the degree the religiosity and superstition on metempsychosis, the stronger the suicide intent Chinese women had. The perceived gender inequality is positively correlated with suicide intent, and it is especially true for Chinese women. The socio-psychological traits and traditional culture values and norms have important impacts on suicide patterns in Chinese societies.

  11. [Attempted suicide during the financial crisis in Athens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrianakos, K; Kontaxakis, V; Moussas, G; Paplos, K; Papaslanis, T; Havaki-Kontaxaki, B; Papadimitriou, Gn

    2014-01-01

    Suicidal behavior is considered as the result of complex cognitive and emotional processes and it is a timeless, global and multifactorial phenomenon. Periods of financial crises in the past, such as the Great Depression in the USA in 1929 and the economic crises of Asia, Russia and Argentina in the late 1990s, have been associated with impairment of mental health of the economically affected. Unemployment, job insecurity, debts, poverty and social exclusion seems to lead to higher incidence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and increased suicidality. Alcohol and substance use and the reduction of the state budget for health services reinforce the negative effects of the economic recession on mental health. The financial crisis which currently affects many European countries began in 2008 and its impact on the mental health of European citizens is in progress. Greece is probably the most affected country by the European financial crisis. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential impact of the crisis' consequences on the attempted suicide rates in the Athens population and the differentiation of suicide attempters on social, demographic and clinical-psychopathological parameters during the crisis. A retrospective study was conducted. The semi-structured records of 165 attempters who were hospitalized in the Internal Medicine Clinics of the "Sotiria" General Hospital in Athens, after attempted suicide in the years 2007 and 2011, before and during the financial crisis respectively, were studied. Among suicide attempters 95(57.6%) were suffering from mental disorders. Most often diagnoses were these of mood disorders (n=60, 63.2%). Demographic data, current psychiatric disorder, previous suicide attempt and severity of psychopathology at the time of suicide attempt were recorded for each patient. Furthermore, the severity of each suicide attempt was estimated. Suicide attempts were 70 in 2007, before the financial crisis (mean age 36.9 years, 71% women

  12. Gender differences in characteristics of suicide attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljušić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt denotes activities directed towards one's own death which do not end in death. The ratio between attempted and realized suicides is expressed by the index called hazard ratio. Risk factors which contribute to suicidal behavior are: various emotional conditions, personality traits, stressful life events, substance misuse etc. The purpose of the study was to explore the frequencies and epidemiological and demographic characteristics of suicide attempts separately in men and women. The study sample involved 56 patients with the diagnosis suicide attempt (Tentamen suicidii treated on the Psychiatric department of the Clinical Center Priština, Gračanica. The data have been analyzed in respect to gender, age, profession/employment, mental disorder diagnosis, motivation (reason and the way of performing a suicide attempt. Results: suicide has been attempted by 42 women (75% and 14 men (25% of the sample. The prevalent age group of our sample (26.8% represents the patients below 20. The most prevalent are also unemployed patients, 33.3% of women and 50% of men. The most prevalent diagnosis is anxiety disorder (61.9% of women and 57.1% of men. The prevailing reason for attempting suicide in women was couple conflict (54.8% and existential problems in men (50%. Fifty one patients of the sample (91.1% have attempted suicide by intoxication with sedative drugs (anxiolytics. The majority of suicide attempts happened during afternoon and evening hours, i.e. in the period 12-24h. Conclusion: women have attempted suicide more frequently than men (ratio 3:1. Unemployment has been the prevailing professional characteristic in both genders. The most prevailing diagnosis is anxiety disorder. The chief motive in women is couple conflict and in men existential difficulties. In both genders the most frequent way of attempting suicide is poisoning, mostly in the period 12-24h.

  13. Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on current trading system and online trading: the case of ... of online trading and factors affecting its feasibility of implementation in ECX. ... The study found that there is significant capacity problem with major skills gap with ...

  14. Suicides and Suicide Attempts during Long-Term Treatment with Antidepressants: A Meta-Analysis of 29 Placebo-Controlled Studies Including 6,934 Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Cora; Bschor, Tom; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    It is unclear whether antidepressants can prevent suicides or suicide attempts, particularly during long-term use. We carried out a comprehensive review of long-term studies of antidepressants (relapse prevention). Sources were obtained from 5 review articles and by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed Central and a hand search of bibliographies. We meta-analyzed placebo-controlled antidepressant RCTs of at least 3 months' duration and calculated suicide and suicide attempt incidence rates, incidence rate ratios and Peto odds ratios (ORs). Out of 807 studies screened 29 were included, covering 6,934 patients (5,529 patient-years). In total, 1.45 suicides and 2.76 suicide attempts per 1,000 patient-years were reported. Seven out of 8 suicides and 13 out of 14 suicide attempts occurred in antidepressant arms, resulting in incidence rate ratios of 5.03 (0.78-114.1; p = 0.102) for suicides and of 9.02 (1.58-193.6; p = 0.007) for suicide attempts. Peto ORs were 2.6 (0.6-11.2; nonsignificant) and 3.4 (1.1-11.0; p = 0.04), respectively. Dropouts due to unknown reasons were similar in the antidepressant and placebo arms (9.6 vs. 9.9%). The majority of suicides and suicide attempts originated from 1 study, accounting for a fifth of all patient-years in this meta-analysis. Leaving out this study resulted in a nonsignificant incidence rate ratio for suicide attempts of 3.83 (0.53-91.01). Therapists should be aware of the lack of proof from RCTs that antidepressants prevent suicides and suicide attempts. We cannot conclude with certainty whether antidepressants increase the risk for suicide or suicide attempts. Researchers must report all suicides and suicide attempts in RCTs. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Childhood suicide attempts with acetaminophen in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeland, Rikke; Jørgensen, Marianne H; Teilmann, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To explore: (1) The relationship between children admitted to our paediatric department as a result of suicide attempts with acetaminophen and their parents and friends. (2) The extent to which the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems before their suicide...... Hospital, Denmark, 2006-2011. Study group: 107 children, 11 to 15 years old. Control group: 59 age- and gender-matched children. Results: 43.5% experienced a dissociated parental relationship characterized by the inability to speak to their parents about any problems, compared with 2% in the control group.......02). Prior to their suicide attempts, 41.5% of the children had attempted to speak to their parents about their problems but felt that they were not heard. There was a significant association among 'the feeling of not being heard' and the purpose of the suicide attempt (p = 0.002) and self-mutilation (p = 0...

  16. Smoking cessation and attempted cessation among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goren

    Full Text Available With growing recognition of stagnant rates of attempted cigarette smoking cessation, the current study examined demographic and psychometric characteristics associated with successful and attempted smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample. This additional understanding may help target tobacco cessation treatments toward sub-groups of smokers in order to increase attempts to quit smoking.Data were used from the 2011 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 50,000.Current smoking status and demographics, health characteristics, comorbidities, and health behaviors.In 2011, 18%, 29%, and 52% of U.S. adults were current, former, or never smokers, respectively. Over one quarter (27% of current smokers were attempting to quit. Current smokers (vs. others were significantly more likely to be poorer, non-Hispanic White, less educated, ages 45-64, and uninsured, and they had fewer health-conscious behaviors (e.g., influenza vaccination, exercise. Attempting quitters vs. current smokers were significantly less likely to be non-Hispanic White and more likely to be younger, educated, insured, non-obese, with family history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and they had more health-conscious behaviors.Smokers, attempting quitters, and successful quitters differ on characteristics that may be useful for targeting and personalizing interventions aiming to increase cessation attempts, likelihood, and sustainability.

  17. Children at Risk for Suicide Attempt and Attempt-related Injuries: Findings from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West, Bethany A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current study examines the associations between a range of risk factors and reports of suicide attempts, and attempts requiring medical care in a nationally representative study of high school students. The goal is to examine sex differences in the risk factors that are associated with suicide attempts and attempt-related injuries requiring treatment by a health-care provider. Methods: Data from the 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey for students in grades 9-12 were used to assess the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behavior as well as differences in these for boys and girls. Cross-sectional multivariate logistic regression analyses were computed to determine the most important risk factors for suicide attempts and for suicide attempts requiring medical care for the sample overall and also stratified for boys and for girls. Results: Overall, 6.9% of adolescents attempted suicide (9.3% of girls versus 4.6% of boys. Girls were more likely than boys to report a suicide attempt in the past year (Adj.OR=2.89. Among girls, sadness (Adj.OR=5.74, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.48, dating violence (Adj.OR=1.60, forced sex (Adj.OR=1.72, and huffing glue (Adj.OR=2.04 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Among boys, sadness (Adj.OR=10.96, weapon carrying (Adj.OR=1.66, forced sex (Adj.OR=2.60, huffing glue (OR=1.63, hard drug use (Adj.OR=2.18, and sports involvement (Adj.OR=1.52 were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate similarities and differences in terms of the modifiable risk factors that increase risk for suicide attempts among boys and girls. In terms of the differences between boys and girls, hard drug use and sports involvement may be important factors for suicide prevention strategies that are directed specifically towards boys, while dating violence victimization may be an important risk factor to address for girls. Overall, these findings can help guide prevention

  18. Factors related to attempted suicide in Davanagere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Gouda M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the factors responsible for suicidal attempts? Objectives: To study the socio-demographic factors, methods and reasons for suicidal attempts. Type of Study: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Bapuji and C.G. Hospitals attached to J.J.M. Medical College, Davanagere. Participants: A total of 540 suicidal attempters admitted to emergency wards. Methodology: A pretested proforma was administered to the subjects relating the factors responsible for the attempt. The data thus obtained was compiled and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Proportions, Z -test and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, 61.3% were males and 38.7% were females. Peak occurrence of suicidal attempts was found in the second and third decades (15-29 years. Hindus constituted about 94.6% of the total suicidal attempters. Almost half (52.2% of the subjects had education below or up to matriculation and 83% of them were from the lower (classes IV and V socio-economic groups. Agriculturists, housewives and unskilled workers represented 75% of the total subjects. Fifty-five percent of the subjects were from nuclear families and most (62.4% of them were married; frequent mode of attempting suicides was by organo-phosphorus compounds (66.3% followed by overdosage of tablets (17.8%. Common cause was family problem (27.2% followed by illness (27%.

  19. Serum BDNF levels in relation to illness severity, suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity in patients with major depressive disorder: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Min; Lee, Bun-Hee; Um, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sollip

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are correlated with the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP). The question of whether there is a difference in BDNF levels between depressive patients according to their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and central serotonin activity was also addressed. A sample of 51 patients who met the criteria for major depressive disorder following diagnosis using axis I of the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - text revision comprised the study subjects. The patients were stratified into two subgroups based on their illness severity, history of suicide attempts, and their LDAEP values. The LDAEP was evaluated by measuring the auditory event-related potentials, and serum BDNF was measured using blood sampling before beginning medication with serotonergic agents. There was no difference in serum BDNF levels between the two patient subgroups. The subgroup with moderate-to-severe depression (n = 16) was reanalyzed after stratifying it into two subgroups according to LDAEP and BDNF values (dichotomized at the medians into low and high). The high-LDAEP subgroup had higher serum BDNF levels and total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale score than the low-LDAEP subgroup (p = 0.03 and 0.036, respectively). Serum BDNF levels were positively correlated with LDAEP and total Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) score (r = 0.56, p = 0.025, and r = 0.59, p = 0.016, respectively). The high-BDNF subgroup had a higher LDAEP and total BHS score than the low-BDNF subgroup (p = 0.046 and p = 0.011, respectively). This is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the BDNF level and LDAEP in Asian depressive patients. Intriguingly, the high-BDNF subgroup (divided according to illness severity) exhibited a more severe psychopathology on some psychometric rating scales, a finding that

  20. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghi...

  1. Shame-proneness in attempted suicide patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiklander Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that shame may be an important feature in suicidal behaviors. The disposition to react with shame, “shame-proneness”, has previously not been investigated in groups of attempted suicide patients. We examined shame-proneness in two groups of attempted suicide patients, one group of non-suicidal patients and one group of healthy controls. We hypothesized that the attempted suicide patients would be more shame-prone than non-suicidal patients and healthy controls. Methods The Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA, which is the most used measure of shame-proneness, was completed by attempted suicide patients (n = 175: 105 women and 3 men with borderline personality disorder [BPD], 45 women and 22 men without BPD, non-suicidal psychiatric patients (n = 162, and healthy controls (n = 161. The participants were convenience samples, with patients from three clinical research projects and healthy controls from a fourth research project. The relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide was studied with group comparisons and multiple regressions. Men and women were analyzed separately. Results Women were generally more shame-prone than men of the same participant group. Female suicide attempters with BPD were significantly more shame-prone than both female suicide attempters without BPD and female non-suicidal patients and controls. Male suicide attempters without BPD were significantly less shame-prone than non-suicidal male patients. In multiple regressions, shame-proneness was predicted by level of depression and BPD (but not by attempted suicide in female patients, and level of depression and non-suicidality in male patients. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis and related previous research, there was no general relationship between shame-proneness and attempted suicide. Shame-proneness was differentially related to attempted suicide in different groups of suicide attempters

  2. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahoz, Titia; Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Amager Project was initiated as a quasi-experimental study in 2005, based on an active outreach suicide preventive intervention inspired by the Norwegian Baerum Model. A 1-year follow-up study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial showing that this kind of active outreach...... to suicide attempters had a significant preventive effect on the prevalence of suicide attempts and significantly reduced the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. AIMS: In this 5-year RCT follow-up the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the suicide preventive effect shown in a 1-year...... follow-up study. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-three suicide attempters were included at this 5-year follow-up RCT study at Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager, and randomized to a rapid outreach suicide preventive intervention (OPAC) or TAU. RESULTS: Offering OPAC intervention to patients after...

  3. Combined EEG-fNIRS Decoding of Motor Attempt and Imagery for Brain Switch Control: An Offline Study in Patients With Tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, Y.M.; Spyrou, L.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.; Colier, W.N.; Floor-Westerdijk, M.; Vlek, R.; Bruhn, J.; Farquhar, J.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Combining electrophysiological and hemodynamic features is a novel approach for improving current performance of brain switches based on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR). This study was conducted with a dual purpose: to test the feasibility of using a combined electroencephalogram/functional near-infrared

  4. Combined EEG-fNIRS decoding of motor attempt and imagery for brain switch control: an offline study in patients with tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokland, Y.M.; Spyrou, L.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Floor-Westerdijk, M.J.; Vlek, R.J.; Bruhn, J.; Farquhar, J.D.R.

    2014-01-01

    Combining electrophysiological and hemodynamic features is a novel approach for improving current performance of brain switches based on sensorimotor rhythms (SMR). This study was conducted with a dual purpose: to test the feasibility of using a combined electroencephalogram/functional near-infrared

  5. Evidence of Multiple Mediating Pathways in Associations Between Constructs of Stigma and Self-Reported Suicide Attempts in a Cross-Sectional Study of Gay and Bisexual Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salway, Travis; Gesink, Dionne; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Ferlatte, Olivier; Rhodes, Anne E; Brennan, David J; Marchand, Rick; Trussler, Terry

    2018-05-01

    Gay and bisexual men (GBM) are more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexual men. This disparity is commonly interpreted using minority stress theory; however, specific pathways from antigay stigma to suicidal behavior are poorly understood. We aimed to estimate associations between multiple constructs of stigma and suicide attempts among adult GBM, and to measure the proportion of these associations mediated by distinct suicide risk factors, thus identifying proximal points of intervention. Data were drawn from a Canadian community-based survey of adult GBM. Structural equation modeling was used to compare associations between three latent constructs-enacted stigma (e.g., discrimination, harassment), anticipated prejudice (worry about encountering antigay/bisexual prejudice), and sexuality concealment-and self-reported suicide attempts (last 12 months). Coefficients were estimated for direct, indirect, and total pathways and evaluated based on magnitude and statistical significance. The proportion of associations mediated by depression, drug/alcohol use, and social isolation was calculated using indirect paths. Among 7872 respondents, 3.4% reported a suicide attempt in the past 12 months. The largest total association was observed for enacted stigma, and this association was partially mediated by depression and drug/alcohol use. The total association of anticipated prejudice was relatively smaller and mediated by depression and social isolation. Concealment had an inverse association with suicide attempts as mediated by depression but was also positively associated with suicide attempts when mediated through social isolation. Multiple constructs of antigay stigma were associated with suicide attempts; however, mediating pathways differed by construct, suggesting that a combination of strategies is required to prevent suicide in adult GBM.

  6. Pediatric Emergency Department Suicidal Patients: Two-Site Evaluation of Suicide Ideators, Single Attempters, and Repeat Attempters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Baraff, Larry J.; Berk, Michele; Grob, Charles; Devich-Navarro, Mona; Suddath, Robert; Piacentini, John; Tang, Lingqi

    2008-01-01

    The study examines ideators, single attempters, and repeats attempters of suicide to clarify optimal strategies for emergency department management and risk assessment to help them in reducing youth suicide and suicide attempts. Depression was found to be a strong predictor of suicide/suicide attempts along with substance use, externalizing…

  7. A Randomized Cadaver Study Comparing First-Attempt Success Between Tibial and Humeral Intraosseous Insertions Using NIO Device by Paramedics: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarpak, Lukasz; Truszewski, Zenon; Smereka, Jacek; Krajewski, Paweł; Fudalej, Marcin; Adamczyk, Piotr; Czyzewski, Lukasz

    2016-05-01

    Medical personnel may encounter difficulties in obtaining intravenous (IV) access during cardiac arrest. The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines and the 2015 European Resuscitation Council guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) suggest that rescuers establish intraosseous (IO) access if an IV line is not easily obtainable.The aim of the study was to compare the success rates of the IO proximal tibia and proximal humerus head access performed by paramedics using the New Intraosseous access device (NIO; Persys Medical, Houston, TX, USA) in an adult cadaver model during simulated CPR.In an interventional, randomized, crossover, single-center cadaver study, a semi-automatic spring-load driven NIO access device was investigated. In total, 84 paramedics with less than 5-year experience in Emergency Medical Service participated in the study. The trial was performed on 42 adult cadavers. In each cadaver, 2 IO accesses to the humerus head, and 2 IO accesses to the proximal tibia were obtained.The success rate of the first IO attempt was 89.3% (75/84) for tibial access, and 73.8% (62/84) for humeral access (P = 0.017). The procedure times were significantly faster for tibial access [16.8 (interquartile range, IQR, 15.1-19.9] s] than humeral access [26.7 (IQR, 22.1-30.9) s] (P < 0.001).Tibial IO access is easier and faster to put in place than humeral IO access. Humeral IO access can be an alternative method to tibial IO access. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02700867.

  8. Perinatal and psychosocial circumstances associated with risk of attempted suicide, non-suicidal self-injury and psychiatric service use. A longitudinal study of young people.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Young, Robert

    2011-11-18

    Abstract Background Past studies using large population based datasets link certain perinatal circumstances (birth weight, parity, etc) with mental health outcomes such as suicide, self-harm and psychiatric problems. Problematically, population datasets omit a number of social confounds. The aim of this study is to replicate past research linking perinatal circumstances and mental health (suicidality and use of psychiatric services) and to determine if such associations remain after adjusting for social circumstances. Methods A longitudinal school-based survey of 2157 young people (surveyed at age 11, 13, 15) followed up in early adulthood (age 19). At age 11 parents of participants provided information about perinatal circumstances (birth weight, birth complications, etc.) and psychiatric service use. Participants provided data about their mental health at age 15 (attempted suicide, suicidal thoughts) and at ages 19 (self-harm, psychiatric service use). In addition, data were collected about their social and psychosocial circumstances (gender, deprivation, religion, sexual behaviour, etc.). Results Predictably, social factors were linked to mental health outcomes. For example, those with same sex partners were more likely (OR 4.84) to self-harm than those without a same sex partner. With a single exception, in both unadjusted and adjusted models, perinatal circumstances were not or only marginally associated with mental health outcomes. The exception was the number of birth complications; young people with two or more complications were approximately 2-3 times more likely than those without complications to use psychiatric services. Conclusions While we failed to replicate results found using large population based datasets, some of our results are compatible with prior research findings. Further, evidence from this study supports the influence of perinatal circumstances (birth complications) on later psychiatric problems, or at least higher than expected contact

  9. Study of runaway current generation following disruptions in KSTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z Y; Kim, W C; Yu, Y W; England, A C; Yoo, J W; Hahn, S H; Yoon, S W; Lee, K D; Oh, Y K; Kwak, J G; Kwon, M

    2013-01-01

    The high fraction of runaway current conversion following disruptions has an important effect on the first wall for next-generation tokamaks. Because of the potentially severe consequences of a large full current runaway beam on the first wall in an unmitigated disruption, runaway suppression is given a high priority. The behavior of runaway currents both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 massive gas injection (MGI) shutdown experiments is investigated in the KSTAR tokamak. The experiments in KSTAR show that the toroidal magnetic field threshold, B T >2 T, for runaway generation is not absolute. A high fraction of runaway current conversion following spontaneous disruptions is observed at a much lower toroidal magnetic field of B T = 1.3 T. A dedicated fast valve for high-pressure gas injection with 39.7 bar is developed for the study of disruptions. A study of runaway current parameters shows that the conversion efficiency of pre-disruptive plasma currents into runaway current can reach over 80% both in spontaneous disruptions and in D 2 MGI shutdown experiments in KSTAR. (paper)

  10. The role of alcohol, drugs, suicide attempts and situational strains in homicide committed by offenders seen for psychiatric assessment. A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, R; Paitich, D; Orchard, B; Handy, L; Russon, A

    1982-09-01

    The use of alcohol and drugs at the time of offence, suicide attempts and situational strains were compared in 109 killers and 38 nonviolent offenders seen for psychiatric assessment. More killers than nonviolent offenders used alcohol and drugs at the time of their offence but there was no difference in previous attempts at suicide nor in situational strains. Killers, however, did have more recent frustrations than the other group. Results suggest that the use of intoxicants in violence-prone individuals is the most important factor in homicide.

  11. A comparative study of using spindle motor power and eddy current for the detection of tool conditions in milling processes

    OpenAIRE

    Abbass, JK; Al-Habaibeh, A

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the power of the driving motor of a CNC spindle in comparison to two perpendicular eddy current sensors for the detection of tool wear in milling processes. Monitoring the power through the current profile is a low cost system which has been utilised in this study as an attempt to detect the fluctuation in the motor load as a result of the conditions of the cutting tool. Eddy current sensors are dedicated sensors that are installed on the spindle to measure ...

  12. Current status of studies on temperature fluctuation phenomena in LMFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, H.; Muramatsu, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Yamaguchi, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of studies being performed in PNC on temperature fluctuation phenomena occurring in fast reactors. The studies concentrate on four problems: thermal stratification, thermal striping, core-plenum interaction and free surface sloshing. Both experimental and analytical approaches to reveal these phenomena and to establish design and safety evaluation methods are presented together with future works. (author)

  13. Numerical study of gravity currents in a channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional, primitive-equation model was used to study gravity currents produced by instantaneous releases of a buoyant fluid in a rectangular channel. Without rotation, the gravity current passes through two distinct phases: an initial adjustment phase in which the front speed is constant, and an eventual self-similar phase in which the front speed decreases with time. With rotation, the gravity current is confined to the right-hand wall, forming a coastal jet. The initial front-speed is constant; however, the front speed decreases rapidly due to strong mixing at the horizontal edge of the gravity current. Also, with rotation, part of the buoyant fluid is trapped near the source region, forming an anticyclonic vortex

  14. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  15. Depressed suicide attempters with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Maria; Stanley, Barbara; Ystgaard, Mette; Mehlum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder are well-established risk factors for suicidal behavior. This study compared depressed suicide attempters with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder with respect to additional diagnoses, global functioning, depressive symptoms, substance abuse, history of traumatic exposure, and suicidal behavior. Adult patients consecutively admitted to a general hospital after a suicide attempt were interviewed and assessed for DSM-IV diagnosis and clinical correlates. Sixty-four patients (71%) were diagnosed with depression; of them, 21 patients (32%) had posttraumatic stress disorder. There were no group differences in social adjustment, depressive symptoms, or suicidal intent. However, the group with comorbid depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had more additional Axis I diagnoses, a higher degree of childhood trauma exposure, and more often reported previous suicide attempts, non-suicidal self-harm, and vengeful suicidal motives. These findings underline the clinical importance of diagnosis and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in suicide attempters.

  16. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  17. Decision-making competence and attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Hallquist, Michael N; Vanyukov, Polina M; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-12-01

    The propensity of people vulnerable to suicide to make poor life decisions is increasingly well documented. Do they display an extreme degree of decision biases? The present study used a behavioral-decision approach to examine the susceptibility of low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempters to common decision biases that may ultimately obscure alternative solutions and deterrents to suicide in a crisis. We assessed older and middle-aged (42-97 years) individuals who made high-lethality (medically serious) (n = 31) and low-lethality suicide attempts (n = 29). Comparison groups included suicide ideators (n = 30), nonsuicidal depressed participants (n = 53), and psychiatrically healthy participants (n = 28). Attempters, ideators, and nonsuicidal depressed participants had nonpsychotic major depression (DSM-IV criteria). Decision biases included sunk cost (inability to abort an action for which costs are irrecoverable), framing (responding to superficial features of how a problem is presented), underconfidence/overconfidence (appropriateness of confidence in knowledge), and inconsistent risk perception. Data were collected between June 2010 and February 2014. Both high- and low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to framing effects as compared to the other groups included in this study (P ≤ .05, ηp2 = 0.06). In contrast, low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to sunk costs than both the comparison groups and high-lethality attempters (P ≤ .01, ηp2 = 0.09). These group differences remained after accounting for age, global cognitive performance, and impulsive traits. Premorbid IQ partially explained group differences in framing effects. Suicide attempters' failure to resist framing may reflect their inability to consider a decision from an objective standpoint in a crisis. Failure of low-lethality attempters to resist sunk cost may reflect their tendency to confuse past and future costs of their behavior, lowering their threshold for acting

  18. Study of the outcome of suicide attempts: characteristics of hospitalization in a psychiatric ward group, critical care center group, and non-hospitalized group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemuyama Nobuo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The allocation of outcome of suicide attempters is extremely important in emergency situations. Following categorization of suicidal attempters who visited the emergency room by outcome, we aimed to identify the characteristics and potential needs of each group. Methods The outcomes of 1348 individuals who attempted suicide and visited the critical care center or the psychiatry emergency department of the hospital were categorized into 3 groups, "hospitalization in the critical care center (HICCC", "hospitalization in the psychiatry ward (HIPW", or "non-hospitalization (NH", and the physical, mental, and social characteristics of these groups were compared. In addition, multiple logistic analysis was used to extract factors related to outcome. Results The male-to-female ratio was 1:2. The hospitalized groups, particularly the HICCC group, were found to have biopsychosocially serious findings with regard to disturbance of consciousness (JCS, general health performance (GAS, psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, and life events (LCU, while most subjects in the NH group were women who tended to repeat suicide-related behaviors induced by relatively light stress. The HIPW group had the highest number of cases, and their symptoms were psychologically serious but physically mild. On multiple logistic analysis, outcome was found to be closely correlated with physical severity, risk factor of suicide, assessment of emergent medical intervention, and overall care. Conclusion There are different potential needs for each group. The HICCC group needs psychiatrists on a full-time basis and also social workers and clinical psychotherapists to immediately initiate comprehensive care by a medical team composed of multiple professionals. The HIPW group needs psychological education to prevent repetition of suicide attempts, and high-quality physical treatment and management skill of the staff in the psychiatric ward. The NH group subjects need a

  19. Study of Grants, new Mexico, uranium miners: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Morgan, M.V.; Buechley, R.W.; Key, C.R.; Valdivia, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Uranium Epidemiology Study at the University of New Mexico was initiated in 1977 with the objective of assessing health effects of uranium mining in the Grants, New Mexico, area. The planned approach was a cohort study of mortality that would capitalize on the availability of health records at the Grants Clinic. The first year's work confirmed the study's feasibility (Buechley, 1979). Subsequent efforts have focused on the health and exposure data base and comprehensive follow-up. A retrospective cohort study of early miners is in progress; a prospective cohort study of miners who began working under the current federal standard is planned. This report will summarize the current status of the Uranium Epidemiology Study

  20. Sexual function and postpartum depression 6 months after attempted operative vaginal delivery according to fetal head station: A prospective population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Ducarme

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD, and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on female and male sexual function and symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD at 6 months.Prospective population-based cohort study.1,941 women with singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation with midpelvic or low aOVD between 2008 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital.Symptoms of female sexual dysfunction using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence/Sexual Function Short Form Questionnaire (PISQ-12, symptoms of PPD using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS score, symptoms of male sexual dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-15 and perineal pain were assessed 6 months after aOVD. We measured the association between midpelvic or low aOVD and symptoms of female and male sexual function and symptoms of PPD at 6 months using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics, and risk factors of sexual dysfunction, symptoms of PPD and perineal pain with adjusted odds ratios (aORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI.The study included 907 women (46.7% who responded to the questionnaire; 18.4% (167/907 had midpelvic aOVD, and 81.6% (740/907 low. Most women (873/907 [96.3%] of those with partners reported sexual activity at 6 months. No significant difference was observed for PISQ-12, EPDS, IIEF-15 scores and perineal pain between mid and low pelvic groups. Compared with low pelvic aOVD, midpelvic aOVD was not significantly associated with either female or male sexual dysfunction (p = 0.89 and p = 0.76, respectively, or maternal symptoms of PPD (p = 0.83. Perineal pain significantly increased the risk of male and female sexual dysfunction and maternal symptoms of PPD at 6 months (p = 0.02, p = 0.006, and p = 0.02, respectively.Midpelvic compared with low pelvic aOVD was not associated with an increase in sexual dysfunction, nor with symptoms of PPD at 6

  1. Study program for constant current capacitor charging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, C.

    1978-10-04

    The objective of the study program was to determine the best method of charging 20,000 to 132,000 microfarads of capacitance to 22 kVdc in 14 to 15 sec. Component costs, sizes, weights, line current graphs, copies of calculations and manufacturer's data are included.

  2. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  3. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  4. Pathways to Attempted Suicide as Reflected in the Narratives of People with Lived Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kätlin Luhaäär

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Narratives, i.e., stories told by suicidal people, describing personal experiences and meanings given to these experiences, play an important role in understanding suicidal behaviour. The aim of the current study was to analyse suicidal processes that have resulted in attempted suicide and to improve the understanding of protective and risk factors of suicidal behaviour. Special emphasis was paid to religious/spiritual aspects. The material was collected in Estonia by conducting narrative interviews with adults (18 years or older who had attempted suicide during their lifetimes (N = 8. Thematic analysis was used for analysing the data. The main themes identified from the narratives were: childhood and family relationships, romantic relationships, alcohol/drug abuse, losses, sleep, previous suicide attempts, and religious/spiritual beliefs. The findings of the study show that there are many pathways to attempted suicide and that the process leading to attempted suicide is complex. Protective and risk factors are both multi-faceted.

  5. Type of sexual intercourse experience and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among youths: a cross-sectional study in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Hee; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-12-07

    Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts) from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12-17 years for the years 2012 and 2013. We defined lesbian, gay, or bisexual youth as youths who engaged in a type of sexual intercourse (same-sex or both-sex intercourse). A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between intercourse experience and SROs. The results showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among youths with same-sex intercourse experience (45.9% for females, 33.7% for males) than among youths with opposite-sex intercourse experience (42.2% for females, 23.8% for males) and those with no experience in intercourse (21.0% for females, 12.7% for males). After adjusting for revealed risk factors that were associated with suicide risks, among males, suicide risks based on intercourse experience seemed to increase in the following order: no experience in sexual intercourse, opposite-sex, same-sex, and then both-sexes sexual intercourse experience. Same- and both-sexes intercourse related SROs are strongly linked to violence (being physically assaulted, threatened, or bullied) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV infection. Those having no sexual intercourse experience showed the least probability of suicide risks among youths. The SROs of youths with same-sex or both-sex intercourse experience had strong associations with gender (males), violence, and STDs. Therefore, school educators must continue to advocate for and to implement LGB inclusive policies and programs in order to

  6. “Getting out of downtown”: a longitudinal study of how street-entrenched youth attempt to exit an inner city drug scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban drug “scenes” have been identified as important risk environments that shape the health of street-entrenched youth. New knowledge is needed to inform policy and programing interventions to help reduce youths’ drug scene involvement and related health risks. The aim of this study was to identify how young people envisioned exiting a local, inner-city drug scene in Vancouver, Canada, as well as the individual, social and structural factors that shaped their experiences. Methods Between 2008 and 2016, we draw on 150 semi-structured interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth. We also draw on data generated through ethnographic fieldwork conducted with a subgroup of 25 of these youth between. Results Youth described that, in order to successfully exit Vancouver’s inner city drug scene, they would need to: (a secure legitimate employment and/or obtain education or occupational training; (b distance themselves – both physically and socially – from the urban drug scene; and (c reduce their drug consumption. As youth attempted to leave the scene, most experienced substantial social and structural barriers (e.g., cycling in and out of jail, the need to access services that are centralized within a place that they are trying to avoid, in addition to managing complex individual health issues (e.g., substance dependence. Factors that increased youth’s capacity to successfully exit the drug scene included access to various forms of social and cultural capital operating outside of the scene, including supportive networks of friends and/or family, as well as engagement with addiction treatment services (e.g., low-threshold access to methadone to support cessation or reduction of harmful forms of drug consumption. Conclusions Policies and programming interventions that can facilitate young people’s efforts to reduce engagement with Vancouver’s inner-city drug scene are critically needed, including meaningful

  7. Type of sexual intercourse experience and suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts among youths: a cross-sectional study in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geum Hee Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12–17 years for the years 2012 and 2013. We defined lesbian, gay, or bisexual youth as youths who engaged in a type of sexual intercourse (same-sex or both-sex intercourse. A chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between intercourse experience and SROs. Results The results showed that the prevalence of suicidal ideation was higher among youths with same-sex intercourse experience (45.9% for females, 33.7% for males than among youths with opposite-sex intercourse experience (42.2% for females, 23.8% for males and those with no experience in intercourse (21.0% for females, 12.7% for males. After adjusting for revealed risk factors that were associated with suicide risks, among males, suicide risks based on intercourse experience seemed to increase in the following order: no experience in sexual intercourse, opposite-sex, same-sex, and then both-sexes sexual intercourse experience. Same- and both-sexes intercourse related SROs are strongly linked to violence (being physically assaulted, threatened, or bullied and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs, including HIV infection. Those having no sexual intercourse experience showed the least probability of suicide risks among youths. Conclusion The SROs of youths with same-sex or both-sex intercourse experience had strong associations with gender (males, violence, and STDs. Therefore, school educators must continue to advocate for and

  8. Rare CNVs in Suicide Attempt include Schizophrenia-Associated Loci and Neurodevelopmental Genes: A Pilot Genome-Wide and Family-Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Sokolowski

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB has a complex etiology involving genes and environment. One of the genetic components in SB could be copy number variations (CNVs, as CNVs are implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. However, a recently published genome-wide and case-control study did not observe any significant role of CNVs in SB. Here we complemented these initial observations by instead using a family-based trio-sample that is robust to control biases, having severe suicide attempt (SA in offspring as main outcome (n = 660 trios. We first tested for CNV associations on the genome-wide Illumina 1M SNP-array by using FBAT-CNV methodology, which allows for evaluating CNVs without reliance on CNV calling algorithms, analogous to a common SNP-based GWAS. We observed association of certain T-cell receptor markers, but this likely reflected inter-individual variation in somatic rearrangements rather than association with SA outcome. Next, we used the PennCNV software to call 385 putative rare (100 kb CNVs, observed in n = 225 SA offspring. Nine SA offspring had rare CNV calls in a set of previously schizophrenia-associated loci, indicating the importance of such CNVs in certain SA subjects. Several additional, very large (>1MB sized CNV calls in 15 other SA offspring also spanned pathogenic regions or other neural genes of interest. Overall, 45 SA had CNVs enriched for 65 medically relevant genes previously shown to be affected by CNVs, which were characterized by a neurodevelopmental biology. A neurodevelopmental implication was partly congruent with our previous SNP-based GWAS, but follow-up analysis here indicated that carriers of rare CNVs had a decreased burden of common SNP risk-alleles compared to non-carriers. In conclusion, while CNVs did not show genome-wide association by the FBAT-CNV methodology, our preliminary observations indicate rare pathogenic CNVs affecting neurodevelopmental functions in a subset of SA, who were distinct from SA having

  9. Clinical Correlates of Planned and Unplanned Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sadia R; Singh, Tanya; Burke, Ainsley; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael; Sublette, M Elizabeth; Oquendo, Maria A

    2016-11-01

    Suicide attempters differ in the degree of planning for their suicide attempts. The purpose of this study was to identify differences between individuals who make planned (≥3 hours of planning) and unplanned (suicide attempts. Depressed suicide attempters (n = 110) were compared based on degree of planning of their most recent suicide attempt on demographic and clinical variables. Participants who made planned suicide attempts were more likely to have family history of completed suicide, more severe and frequent suicidal ideation, greater trait impulsivity, and greater suicidal intent and more severe medical consequences for both their most recent and most serious suicide attempts. These results suggest clear clinical differences based on the degree of suicide attempt planning. Severe suicidal ideation, high suicide intent, family history of suicide completion, and high levels of motor impulsivity contribute to a phenotype that is at greater risk of planned, highly lethal suicide attempts.

  10. A population-based study of associations between current posttraumatic stress symptoms and current fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdal, Anners; Lee, Kathryn A; Rokne, Berit; Knudsen, Øistein; Wahl, Astrid K; Dahl, Alv A

    2010-10-01

    This study explores current experience with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and other variables (sociodemographic, mental distress, somatic morbidity, self-rated health, and quality of life [QoL]) in relation to fatigue. A representative sample of the Norwegian population (N = 3,944) was invited to participate in a mailed survey, and 1,857 (47%) returned valid responses on the questionnaire that included the Fatigue Severity Scale and the Posttraumatic Symptom Scale-10. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showed a strong association with fatigue in univariate (β = .41) and multivariate analyses (β = .33). Associations between psychosocial health variables, QoL, and fatigue were confirmed. However, PTSD symptoms showed the strongest association with fatigue in the analyses. Findings need to be replicated in other population samples and in clinical samples with PTSD and fatigue.

  11. Study on current limiting characteristics of SFCL with two trigger current levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) with two trigger current levels was suggested and its effectiveness through the analysis on the current limiting characteristics was described. The proposed SFCL, which consists of the triggering and the limiting components, can limit the fault current by generating the limiting impedance through two steps according to the amplitude of the initial fault current. In case that the fault happens, the lower initial fault current causes the only superconducting element of the triggering component to be quenched. On the other hand, the higher initial fault current makes both the superconducting elements comprising the triggering and the limiting components of the SFCL to be quenched, which contributes to the higher impedance of the SFCL. Therefore, the effective fault current limiting operation of the SFCL can be performed by generating the SFCL's impedance in proportion to the amplitude of the initial fault current. To confirm the current limiting operation of the proposed SFCL, the short-circuit tests of the SFCL according to the fault angle were carried out and its effective fault current limiting operations could be discussed.

  12. Study of noninductive current generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Three aspects of noninductive current generation are treated: (1) The kinetic problem, i.e., coupling between current-carrying energetic electrons on the one hand, and the electromagnetic wave and thermal particles on the other. (2). The electromagnetic problem, i.e., calculation of the wave structure produced by the antennas. (3) The study of nonthermal radiation and electrical responses. Green's functions are used to solve the kinetic problem. The electron distribution function is calculated. For the electromagnetic problem of wave structure at different wave numbers, the Green's function of the Maxwell equations in an inhomogeneous, anisotropic medium which is spatially and temporally scattered was calculated. Perturbation of propagation by diffusion and conversion was studied. The calculation of nonthermal radiation and of transfer of electromagnetic wave energy into magnetic energy is derived from the two preceding problems. A method to produce fusion power quasi-continuously using two inductively and thermally coupled tokamaks is proposed [fr

  13. Evaluation of Patients Hospitalized in Intensive Care Unit Due to Drug-Related Suicide Attempt and Access to Drugs: A Single Center Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Doğu Geyik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate patients who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit due to drug-related suicide attempt (medical or insecticides and their access to these drugs. Methods: We prospectively recorded the demographic characteristics and medical data of 50 patients (32 females and 18 males who were hospitalized in our intensive care unit due to drug-related suicide attempt. Results: 66% of subjects were between the ages of 15 and 24 years with a mean age of 25.4±8.8 years. Multiple drug overdose was observed in 28% of patients. The unemployment rate was higher for women than men (p<0.001. Men obtained drugs from pharmacy more often than women (27.8% vs 6.2%, p=0,03. Of the patients, 86% got the drugs from home medicine cabinet while this rate was 93% among women (n=30. The level of toxicity was higher among patients who got the drugs from pharmacy than in those who used drugs at home (p=0.06. The length of stay in the intensive care unit was longer among patients with toxic level of medication (p=0.001. Conclusion: Patients usually use drugs or insecticides available at home to commit suicide. We believe that in patients with risk of suicide attempt, access to drugs should be limited and state regulations should be applied. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:111-5

  14. Path analysis of warning label effects on negative emotions and quit attempts: A longitudinal study of smokers in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoo Jin; Thrasher, James F; Yong, Hua-Hie; Szklo, André Salem; O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hardin, James; Borland, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette pack health warning labels can elicit negative emotions among smokers, yet little is known about how these negative emotions influence behavior change. Guided by psychological theories emphasizing the role of emotions on risk concern and behavior change, we investigated whether smokers who reported stronger negative emotional responses when viewing warnings reported stronger responses to warnings in daily life and were more likely to try to quit at follow-up. We analyzed data from 5439 adult smokers from Australia, Canada, Mexico, and the US, who were surveyed every four months from September 2012 to September 2014. Participants were shown warnings already implemented on packs in their country and reported negative emotional responses (i.e., fear, disgust, worry), which were averaged (range = 1 to 9). Country-stratified logistic and linear generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the effect of negative emotional responses on self-reported responses to warnings in daily life (i.e., attention, risk concern, avoidance of warnings, forgoing planned cigarettes) and quit attempts at follow-up. Models were adjusted for socio-demographic and smoking-related characteristics, survey wave, and the number of prior surveys answered. Smokers who reported stronger negative emotions were more likely to make quit attempts at follow-up (Adjusted ORs ranged from 1.09 [95% CI 1.04 to 1.14] to 1.17 [95% CI 1.12 to 1.23]; p negative emotions. This relationship was mediated through attention to warnings and behavioral responses to warnings. There was no significant interaction of negative emotions with self-efficacy or nicotine dependence. Negative emotions elicited by warnings encourage behavior change, promoting attention to warnings and behavioral responses that positively predict quit attempts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Study and Evaluation of Current and Future Aircraft Loaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    detonation intense Electromagnetic Pulse Eergy (DIP) is gene - rated which could seriously affect the electronic equipment. 2-105 The intense...speciality efforts, such as integrated logistics support (ILS), human factors engineering ( HFE ), and reliability, availability and m aintainability...task analyiis is outlined in detail in Appendix C: Human Fac- tors Enqineering Study and Evaluation of Current and Future Aircraft Loaders. The HFE

  16. Study on pulsed current cathodic protection in a simulated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Milin; Li, Helin [Xi' an Jiao Tong Universitiy (China)]|[Tubular Goods Research Center of China National Petroleum Corp. (China); Qiu, Yubing; Guo, Xingpeng [Hua Zhong University of Science and Techonology (China)

    2004-07-01

    The pulsed current cathodic protection (PCCP) is a new cathodic protection (CP) technology and shows more advantages over the conventional DC cathodic protection (DCCP) in oil well casing system. However, little information about PCCP is reported. In this research, a simulated CP system was set up in a pool of 3.5 m x 2.0 m x 3.0 m size, in which the effects of the square wave pulsed current (SWPC) parameters (amplitude: IA, frequency: f, duty cycle: P), auxiliary anode distance (d) and media conductivity ({mu}) on the cathodic potential (E) distribution were studied, and the protection effects of PCCP and DCCP were compared. The results show that with increase of the square wave parameters (IA, f, P), the E distribution becomes more negative and the effects of each current parameter are relate closely to the cathode polarizing state. Only with suitable square wave parameters can the whole cathode be effectively protected. With increase of d and {mu}, the E distribution becomes more uniform. Compared with DCCP system, PCCP system has much more uniform E distribution, costs less average current, and gains much better protection effects. Further, the mechanism of PCCP was analyzed. (authors)

  17. Autobiographical Memory and Suicide Attempts in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersen, Kenneth; Rydningen, Nora Nord; Christensen, Tore Buer; Walby, Fredrik A.

    2010-01-01

    According to the cry of pain model of suicidal behavior, an over-general autobiographical memory function is often found in suicide attempters. The model has received empirical support in several studies, mainly of depressed patients. The present study investigated whether deficits in autobiographical memory may be associated with an increased…

  18. Comorbid panic disorder as an independent risk factor for suicide attempts in depressed outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Yoon-Young; Kim, Chan-Hyung; Roh, Daeyoung

    2016-05-01

    Although comorbid panic disorder is associated with more severe symptoms and poorer therapeutic response in depressive patients, the relationship between panic disorder and risk of suicide attempt has not been confirmed. This study aimed to examine the relationship between comorbid panic disorder and clinical characteristics associated with suicidal risk as well as the likelihood of suicide attempt. A total of 223 outpatients with current major depressive disorder participated in the study. Both subjects with panic disorder (33%) and those without panic disorder (67%) were compared based on history of suicide attempts, current psychopathologies, and traits of impulsivity and anger. Subjects with panic disorder had higher levels of impulsivity, depression, and hopelessness and were more likely to report a history of suicide attempts. Subjects with panic disorder were younger at the time of first suicide attempt than those without panic disorder. Logistic regression analyses indicated that comorbid panic disorder was significantly associated with a history of suicide attempts after adjusting for other clinical correlates (odds ratio = 2.8; p depressive disorder may be associated with a more severe burden of illness and may independently increase the likelihood of suicide attempt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide or all deaths after an episode of attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Jensen, Børge Frank

    2007-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these.......This study was undertaken in order to estimate the incidence of repetition of suicide attempt, suicide and all deaths, and to analyse the influence of psychiatric illness and socio-demographic factors on these....

  20. Definition of a quit attempt: a replication test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Callas, Peter W

    2010-11-01

    The incidence of quit attempts is often used to measure the effects of tobacco control interventions. Many surveys of quit attempts require that the attempt last ≥24 hr, presumably to provide a more objective definition and to eliminate less serious attempts; however, this criterion may bias outcomes by excluding the more dependent quitters who cannot stop for 1 day despite a serious quit attempt. We examined the 2003 and the 2006-2007 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey to determine the prevalence of quit attempts that did and did not last 24 hr, both in the last 12 months and in one's lifetime among current daily smokers. We also tested the hypothesis that those unable to quit for 24 hr were the more dependent smokers. Requiring quit attempts to last 24 hr excluded 6%-17% of smokers who stated they made a quit attempt. Whether smokers who could not quit for more than 24 hr were more dependent varied across survey, recall duration, and measure. We conclude restricting quit attempts to those who have quit for 24 hr underestimates the prevalence of attempts. Whether those unable to quit for 24 hr are the more dependent smokers is unclear. Empirical tests of whether the addition of a 24-hr criterion increases reliability or validity are needed.

  1. Attempted suicide, depression and physical diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Stenager, Egon; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    on analgesics for pain. Patients that suffered from a somatic disease differed from other suicide attempters in depression score, age, pain and the presence of psychosis. Fewer of the somatically ill suicide attempters had a psychosis. Patients complaining of pain were more often depressed and abused medicine....... Statistically, the risk of repetition of parasuicide for patients with a somatic disease but without depression was significantly less. The 7 patients committing suicide were older and a tendency was found towards painful somatic diseases and depression as risk factors for suicide.......In the period January 1, 1990 to March 31, 1991 a sample of suicide attempters admitted to the Department of Psychiatry, Odense University Hospital, underwent a structured interview. In the study 52% of the patients interviewed were found to suffer from a somatic disease, and 21% were daily...

  2. Laboratory Measured Behavioral Impulsivity Relates to Suicide Attempt History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Marsh, Dawn M.; Papageorgiou, T. Dorina; Swann, Alan C.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between laboratory behavioral measured impulsivity (using the Immediate and Delayed Memory Tasks) and suicidal attempt histories. Three groups of adults were recruited, those with either: no previous suicide attempts (Control, n = 20), only a single suicide attempt (Single, n = 20), or…

  3. An attempt to implement tools to support examination of community-based activities for disaster mitigation: A case study in Toyokawa city, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karashima, Kazuki; Ohgai, Akira

    2017-10-01

    Japan is a country with a high risk for earthquake disasters. The measures used to promote structures' seismic safety, such as reconstruction, widening narrow roads, and the response capacities to deal with huge earthquakes are important. Techniques to support the examination of countermeasures to huge earthquakes are required. To improve this capability, the authors developed tools to: (1) evaluate fire-spread risk, (2) evaluate the difficulty of emergency response and evacuation, and (3) evaluate capacities of neighborhood communities for disaster mitigation. The usefulness of the tools was clarified by the demonstration experiments of previous studies. The next step was implementation of the tools in community-based activities for disaster mitigation. This study aimed to clarify the usability and problems of implementing the tools in community-based activities. The tools were used at several workshops in actual community-based activities for disaster mitigation for one year. After the last workshop, interviews and a questionnaire were conducted on municipal staff and consultant staff. The results found that the tools visually showed the fire-spread risk, the difficulty of evacuation under current conditions and after improvements, and the effects of each disaster mitigation activity. The users could easily explore the draft plans to promote seismic safety of urban structures and response capabilities. The tools were positively incorporated into some community-based activities for disaster mitigation. Thus, the tools have the possibility of successful use at continuing community-based activities and the possibility of implementing the tools will be promoted.

  4. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n=109) and non-attempters (n=107) were recruited from the NYC area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit; intermediate-knit; and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens that attempted...

  5. Decision-making competence and attempted suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Parker, Andrew M; Hallquist, Michael N; Vanyukov, Polina M; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    2015-01-01

    Objective The propensity of people vulnerable to suicide to make poor life decisions is increasingly well documented. Do they display an extreme degree of decision biases? The present study used a behavioral decision approach to examine the susceptibility of low-lethality and high-lethality suicide attempters to common decision biases, which may ultimately obscure alternative solutions and deterrents to suicide in a crisis. Method We assessed older and middle-aged individuals who made high-lethality (medically serious; N=31) and low-lethality suicide attempts (N=29). Comparison groups included suicide ideators (N=30), non-suicidal depressed (N=53), and psychiatrically healthy participants (N=28). Attempters, ideators, and non-suicidal depressed participants had unipolar non-psychotic major depression. Decision biases included sunk cost (inability to abort an action for which costs are irrecoverable), framing (responding to superficial features of how a problem is presented), under/overconfidence (appropriateness of confidence in knowledge), and inconsistent risk perception. Data were collected between June of 2010 and February of 2014. Results Both high- and low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to framing effects, as compared to the other groups included in this study (p≤ 0.05, ηp2 =.06). In contrast, low-lethality attempters were more susceptible to sunk costs than both the comparison groups and high-lethality attempters (p≤ 0.01, ηp2 =.09). These group differences remained after accounting for age, global cognitive performance, and impulsive traits. Premorbid IQ partially explained group differences in framing effects. Conclusion Suicide attempters’ failure to resist framing may reflect their inability to consider a decision from an objective standpoint in a crisis. Low-lethality attempters’ failure to resist sunk-cost may reflect their tendency to confuse past and future costs of their behavior, lowering their threshold for acting on suicidal

  6. Experimental study of anti-tumor activity of direct current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisao; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1989-01-01

    The anti-tumor activity of direct current combined with radiation was studied. The experiments were performed with fibrosarcomas (FSA, NFSA) syngenetic to C3H mice. Direct current (0.6mA, 120min) alone was effective to reduce the tumor sizes, but could not cure the tumors. When the direct current therapy (DC therapy) was combined with radiation the DC therapy following radiation was more effective than that before radiation. Using TCD 50 assay, the DC therapy enhanced the effect of a single dose of radiation with the dose-modifying factor of 1.2. However, tumor control rates by the combination therapy were more improved at the smaller doses of radiation than at the larger ones. When the single DC therapy (0.6mA, 120min) was applied immediately after the first radiation of fractionated one the combination therapy still showed the enhanced effect. However, both DC therapy and the radiation therapy were divided in three fractions, and the DC therapy (0.6mA, 40min) was applied after each radiation. Tumor growth retardation by the combination therapy was no different from that by radiation alone. This result suggests that there might be a minimum required dose of coulombs to show the effect of the combination therapy. (author)

  7. Association between Terror Attacks and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizman, Tal; Yagil, Yaron; Schreiber, Shaul

    2009-01-01

    Based on Durkheim's "Control theory," we explored the association between frequency of terror attacks in Israel and the frequency of suicide attempts admitted to the Emergency Room of a major general hospital in Tel-Aviv (1999-2004). Analysis of the six-year study period as a whole revealed no significant correlation between the…

  8. Psychiatric analysis of suicide attempt subjects due to maxillofacial gunshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Serdar; Bozkurt, Ali; Durmus, Muzaffer; Deveci, Mustafa; Sengezer, Mustafa

    2006-11-01

    The studies of maxillofacial gunshot injuries mainly focused on evaluating the surgical interventions and physical outcomes of the procedures. In this study we aimed to analyze the pre- and post-injury psychiatric status of the patients with self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the face. This study is based on 12 subjects who attempted suicide resulting in extensive maxillofacial injuries using guns placed beneath their chins. The psychiatric evaluation was conducted by interview and using SCID-I, SCID-II, MMPI, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Suicide Probability Scale. Two subjects were healthy, 1 had bereavement, 6 had current and 5 had previous MDD (major depressive disorder), 2 had dysthymic disorder, 3 had alcohol abuse, 2 had drug abuse and 4 had antisocial personality disorder. The suicidal group was more socially introverted according to MMPI. According to Rosenberg self-esteem subscale, self esteem, the constancy of self respect and depressive mood subtests were statistically significant in the suicide group compared to the healthy controls (P suicide. The changes in the physical facial appearance after the suicide attempt caused impairment of self-esteem and the constancy of self-respect. Similar to other studies, none of our patients reattempted suicide and all tried to return to their pre-injury lifestyle and appeared to accommodate to the stigma of their physical deformities. Early diagnosis and treatment should be considered as a factor to reduce the risk for suicide attempt.

  9. Time without clocks - an attempt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpman, G.

    1978-01-01

    A definition of time intervals separating two states of systems of elementary particles and observers is attempted. The definition is founded on the notion of instant state of the system and uses no information connected with the use of a clock. Applying the definition to a classical clock and to a sample of unstable particles, results are obtained in agreement with experiment. However, if the system contains 'few' elementary particles, the properties of the time interval present some different features. (author)

  10. Current CTR-related tritium handling studies at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.S.; Bell, J.T.; Clinton, S.D.; Fisher, P.W.; Redman, J.D.; Smith, F.J.; Talbot, J.B.; Tung, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has a comprehensive program concerned with plasma fuel recycle, tritium recovery from blankets, and tritium containment in fusion reactors. Two studies of most current interest are investigations of cryosorption pumping of hydrogen isotopes and measurements of tritium permeation rates through steam generator materials. Cryosorption pumping speeds have been measured for hydrogen, deuterium, and helium at pressures from 10 -8 torr to 3 x 10 -3 torr. Permeation rates through Incoloy 800 have been shown to be drastically reduced when the low pressure side of permeation tubes are exposed to steam. These results will be important considerations in the design of fusion reactor steam generators

  11. Design studies on high current and grid control electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinnan; Lu Kun; Chi Yunlong; Zhou Zusheng

    2011-01-01

    Electron gun, the source of electrons, is a kind of ultrahigh vacuum device and plays an important role in different kind of accelerators. With the irradiation accelerator demands, describes the design studies on beam optics optimization. The simulation result shows that the beam current is above 5 A with cathode voltage of 80 kV and beam emittance, gun electric field and beam waist radius meet the accelerator needs. The electron gun manufactured and installed in the test stand, the conditioning and test will be done in the near future. (authors)

  12. Repeated suicide attempts and suicide among individuals with a first emergency department contact for attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedyszyn, Izabela E.; Erlangsen, Annette; Hjorthoj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emergency departments are important, albeit underutilized, sites for suicide prevention. Preventive strategies and interventions could benefit from a greater understanding of factors influencing the course of suicide risk after emergency department contact due to attempted suicide...... = 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49). The cumulative rates of repeated attempts and suicide deaths in the total sample were particularly high within the first week of the index attempt, reaching 3.6% and 0.1%, respectively. Conclusions: Preventive efforts need to target the period close to discharge from....... The aim of our study was 2-fold: to identify predictors of repeated suicide attempts and suicide and to investigate the timing of these events. Methods: Data from Danish nationwide, longitudinal registers were used in this prospective, population-based study of all individuals first presenting...

  13. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulakkal, Nitha C.; Nagy, Peter; Takats, Szabolcs; Tusco, Radu; Juhász, Gábor; Nezis, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy. PMID:24949430

  14. Autophagy in Drosophila: From Historical Studies to Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitha C. Mulakkal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of evolutionarily conserved Atg genes required for autophagy in yeast truly revolutionized this research field and made it possible to carry out functional studies on model organisms. Insects including Drosophila are classical and still popular models to study autophagy, starting from the 1960s. This review aims to summarize past achievements and our current knowledge about the role and regulation of autophagy in Drosophila, with an outlook to yeast and mammals. The basic mechanisms of autophagy in fruit fly cells appear to be quite similar to other eukaryotes, and the role that this lysosomal self-degradation process plays in Drosophila models of various diseases already made it possible to recognize certain aspects of human pathologies. Future studies in this complete animal hold great promise for the better understanding of such processes and may also help finding new research avenues for the treatment of disorders with misregulated autophagy.

  15. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  16. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  17. Lifetime suicide attempts in juvenile assessment center youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, Scott; McReynolds, Larkin S; DeComo, Robert E; John, Reni; Keating, Joseph M; Wasserman, Gail A

    2008-01-01

    To describe suicide risk in youth seen at a Juvenile Assessment Center (JAC), we examined relationships among self-reported lifetime attempts and demographic, justice, and psychiatric data via logistic regression. Similar to other settings, youth reporting lifetime attempts were more likely to be older, female, not living with both parents and currently arrested for a violent or felony crime. Mood, substance use, and behavior disorder each increased prediction substantially. Anxiety Disorder was associated with elevated attempt rates for boys only. JACs need to develop protocols for identifying suicide risk; further, since suicide history predicts future attempts, Anxiety Disordered boys may be at particular risk.

  18. Current Conceptual Challenges in the Study of Rhythm Processing Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eTranchant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher’s ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization.

  19. Studies on fast wave current drive in the JAERI tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Fujii, T.; Kawashima, H.; Tamai, H.; Saigusa, M.; Imai, T.; Hamamatsu, K.; Fukuyama, A.

    1991-01-01

    Fast wave electron heating experiment (FWEH) on JFT-2M and JT-60 and analysis of fast wave current drive (FWCD) ability on JT-60U are presented. In the JFT-2M, absorption of fast waves have been investigated by using a phased four-loop antenna array. The absorption of the fast waves has been studied for various plasma parameters by using combination of other additional heating methods such as electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and ion cyclotron heating. It is shown that the absorption efficiency estimated from various methods well correlates with one calculated theoretically in single pass damping. Interaction of the fast waves with fast electrons in combination with ECH has been examined through the measurement of non-thermal electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The observed ECE during FWEH is well explained by the theoretical model, which indicates generation of the appreciable energetic fast electrons by the fast waves. New four-loop array antennas have been employed to improve the absorption of unidirectionally-propagating waves. Characteristics of antenna loading resistance can be reproduced by a coupling calculation code. In JT-60, FWEH experiment in combination with lower hybrid current drive was performed. Power absorption efficiency of fast wave is substantially improved in combination with LHCD of relatively low power for both phasing modes. Bulk electron heating is observed with high-k // mode and coupling with fast electron is confirmed in hard X-ray emission with low-k // mode. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction based on 1.D full wave code. Synergetic effects between FWEH and LHCD are found. Coupling calculation indicates that eight-loop antenna is favourable for keeping high directivity in the required N // -range. Current drive efficiency is calculated with 1-D full wave code including trapped particle effects and higher harmonic ion cyclotron damping

  20. A study of current world telecommunications and a projection of the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgis, Costas

    1992-09-01

    Telecommunications today are important factors in economic and social progress. The last decades of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st have been characterized as the Information Age. Telecommunications, the movement of information through distances, is absolutely critical to the economic and military survival of nations. This thesis is an attempt to predict the future of telecommunications, by studying and analyzing the past and present. First it examines the meaning of telecommunications today and some basics of information transmission. The current status of telecommunications is then presented, by examining the regional profiles as they are divided by the International Telecommunications Union. A number of statistical studies are given, which present a thorough picture of current world telecommunications. In an effort to predict future industry trends, the competition among the three largest telecommunications markets, U.S.A., Japan and the European Community, is also considered by looking at their present telecommunications industry, the efforts they make to improve their technology, and their plans for future investment. Finally, some major technological trends including BISDN, the use of fiber technology in the communications loop, and the use of solitons are examined. The new Metropolitan Area Network Protocol, FDDI-2 is also reviewed.

  1. Predicting suicide attempts with the SAD PERSONS scale: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, James M; Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender

    2012-06-01

    The SAD PERSONS scale is a widely used risk assessment tool for suicidal behavior despite a paucity of supporting data. The objective of this study was to examine the ability of the scale in predicting suicide attempts. Participants consisted of consecutive referrals (N=4,019) over 2 years (January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010) to psychiatric services in the emergency departments of the 2 largest tertiary care hospitals in the province of Manitoba, Canada. SAD PERSONS and Modified SAD PERSONS (MSPS) scale scores were recorded for individuals at their index and all subsequent presentations. The 2 main outcome measures in the study included current suicide attempts (at index presentation) and future suicide attempts (within the next 6 months). The ability of the scales to predict suicide attempts was evaluated with logistic regression, sensitivity and specificity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curves. 566 people presented with suicide attempts (14.1% of the sample). Both SAD PERSONS and MSPS showed poor predictive ability for future suicide attempts. Compared to low risk scores, high risk baseline scores had low sensitivity (19.6% and 40.0%, respectively) and low positive predictive value (5.3% and 7.4%, respectively). SAD PERSONS did not predict suicide attempts better than chance (area under the curve =0.572; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51-0.64; P value nonsignificant). Stepwise regression identified 5 original scale items that accounted for the greatest proportion of future suicide attempt variance. High risk scores using this model had high sensitivity (93.5%) and were associated with a 5-fold higher likelihood of future suicide attempt presentation (odds ratio =5.58; 95% CI, 2.24-13.86; PSAD PERSONS and MSPS do not accurately predict future suicide attempts. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  3. The prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among inpatient adolescent offspring of Croatian PTSD male war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boričević Maršanić, Vlatka; Margetić, Branka Aukst; Zečević, Iva; Herceg, Miroslav

    2014-10-01

    Despite evidence that children of male war veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at particularly high risk for behavior problems, very little is currently known about suicidal behaviors in this population of youth. This study aimed to examine the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of suicide attempts among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescent offspring of Croatian male PTSD veterans. Participants were psychiatric inpatients, ages 12-18 years. Self-report questionnaires assessed demographics, suicide attempts, psychopathology, parenting style, and family functioning. The prevalence of suicide attempts was 61.5% (65.2% for girls and 58.0% for boys). Internalizing symptoms, family dysfunction, lower levels of maternal and paternal care, and paternal overcontrol were significantly associated with suicide attempts. Our findings suggest that suicide attempts are common among inpatient adolescent offspring of male PTSD veterans and that interventions targeting both adolescent psychopathology and family relationships are needed for adolescents who have attempted suicide.

  4. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  5. Comparison of impulsive and nonimpulsive suicide attempt patients treated in the emergency departments of four general hospitals in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Liu, Li; Bi, Bo; Li, Haiyan; Hou, Jinglin; Chen, Wei; Tan, Shanyong; Chen, Xu; Jia, Xiaoju; Dong, Guanghui; Qin, Xiaoxia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of impulsive suicide attempters with those of nonimpulsive suicide attempters in the emergency departments of general hospitals in Shenyang, China. A total of 239 consecutive suicide attempters, who were treated in the emergency departments of four randomly selected general hospitals from Shenyang city, were evaluated by the following measurements: a detailed structured questionnaire, Beck Suicide Ideation Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, a quality of life scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. The patients were categorized as "impulsive suicide attempts" (≤ 2 h) and "nonimpulsive suicide attempts" (> 2 h) based on the hours it takes for a patient to consider suicide before acting, and the characteristics of the two groups of patients were compared. One hundred seven (44.8%) patients were categorized as impulsive attempters. Compared to nonimpulsive suicide attempters, the impulsive suicide attempters had significantly more self-rescue ideation, their motive was more likely to threaten or express anger at others, and they scored much lower on the intensity of suicidal ideation and depression but higher on life quality; they also had a lower prevalence of psychiatric diagnosis but a higher rate of substance-related disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of impulsive suicide attempts among suicide attempters: having religious beliefs [odds ratio (OR)=4.435, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.545-12.736], a lower score on the Suicide Ideation Scale (OR=0.952, 95% CI=0.936-0.969) and a lower score on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (OR=0.949, 95% CI=0.911-0.989). The characteristics of impulsive suicide attempters differed significantly with those of nonimpulsive suicide attempters in emergency departments of urban China. It is important to develop different kinds of

  6. Current measurement studies around the Cesme Peninsula (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taspinar, N.

    1989-04-01

    In order to design coastal structures and marine vehicles safely, it is required to know current climate which shows the variation of the current characteristics with time. There are a wide variety of current meters designed to measure water flow today. Each current meter is capable of recording the influence of mooring arrangement. Here we describe sea water temperatures, salinities and current velocities at offshore of Akburun, Tatlicak Burnu, Kalem Burnu and Kizil Burun areas in Cesme Peninsula 27 August, 1986 to 19 November, 1986. At the end of the investigations, measured significant maximum and average current velocities have been routinely analysed with micro-computers and also the percentages of current velocity have been calculated. (author). 8 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Intrapersonal positive future thinking predicts repeat suicide attempts in hospital-treated suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Rory C; Smyth, Roger; Williams, J Mark G

    2015-02-01

    Although there is clear evidence that low levels of positive future thinking (anticipation of positive experiences in the future) and hopelessness are associated with suicide risk, the relationship between the content of positive future thinking and suicidal behavior has yet to be investigated. This is the first study to determine whether the positive future thinking-suicide attempt relationship varies as a function of the content of the thoughts and whether positive future thinking predicts suicide attempts over time. A total of 388 patients hospitalized following a suicide attempt completed a range of clinical and psychological measures (depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, suicidal intent and positive future thinking). Fifteen months later, a nationally linked database was used to determine who had been hospitalized again after a suicide attempt. During follow-up, 25.6% of linked participants were readmitted to hospital following a suicide attempt. In univariate logistic regression analyses, previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression-as well as low levels of achievement, low levels of financial positive future thoughts, and high levels of intrapersonal (thoughts about the individual and no one else) positive future thoughts predicted repeat suicide attempts. However, only previous suicide attempts, suicidal ideation, and high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking were significant predictors in multivariate analyses. Positive future thinking has predictive utility over time; however, the content of the thinking affects the direction and strength of the positive future thinking-suicidal behavior relationship. Future research is required to understand the mechanisms that link high levels of intrapersonal positive future thinking to suicide risk and how intrapersonal thinking should be targeted in treatment interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  9. Rationing critical care medicine: recent studies and current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas S

    2005-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the rationing of critical care resources. Although much has been written about the concept of rationing, there have been few scientific studies as to its prevalence. A recent meta-analysis reviewed all previously published studies on rationing access to intensive care units but little is known about practices within the intensive care unit. Much literature in the past few years has focused on the growing use of critical care resources and projections for the future. Several authors suggest there may be a crisis in financial or personnel resources if some rationing does not take place. Other papers have argued that the methods of rationing critical care previously proposed, such as limiting the care of dying patients or using cost-effectiveness analysis to determine care, may not be effective or viewed as ethical by some. Finally, several recent papers review how critical care is practiced and allocated in India and Asian countries that already practice open rationing in their health care systems. There is currently no published evidence that overt rationing is taking place in critical care medicine. There is growing evidence that in the future, the need for critical care may outstrip financial resources unless some form of rationing takes place. It is also clear from the literature that choosing how to ration critical care will be a difficult task.

  10. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (non)linear attribution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks) besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  11. Current Highlights on ESA's Planetary Technology Reference Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, P.

    The concept of Technology Reference Studies has been introduced already at EGU05, where the Venus Entry Probe (VEP), the Jupiter Minisat Explorer (JME), the Deimos Sample Return (DSR) and the Interstellar Heliopause Probe (IHP) have been presented in detail. At the EGU06 the new studies in reaction to the Cosmic Vision exercise have been introduced. The formulation of themes and mapping into potential future missions has been taken as basis in the planning of additional new and adaptation of existing TRS's to cover areas, which have not yet been addressed by any TRS. These new ongoing studies are progressing well and current highlights will be presented in the paper in further detail as well as an overview on supporting technology studies and Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) sessions. The Jupiter System Explorer (JSE) study investigates mission concepts with up to two Magnetospheric Orbiters placed in a highly elliptical Jovian orbit and the possibility to deploy a Jovian Entry Probe. The mission profile is based on a solar powered concept launched on a Soyuz-Fregat launcher. Mission analysis and the application of a new Jovian radiation model are supporting the study activities. The Near-Earth Asteroid Sample Return (NEA-SR) concept explores the possibilities of sample return or in-situ mission profiles with visits to up to two NEA targets. Due to the assumed low cost cap a trade between a sample return and remote/in-situ exploration concept has a high attention in the study. The Cross Scale TRS (CS-TRS) is intended to simultaneously investigate magnetospheric and plasma processes in three spatial scales with a formation flight of up to 12 spacecraft, orbiting on deep elliptical orbits around Earth. One of the major challenges is the launch of that number of spacecraft on a single launcher and the collisionless deployment of the formation at the target orbit. The scope if the GeoSail TRS is to demonstrate deployment, attitude control and navigation concepts for a

  12. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-30

    Sep 30, 2010 ... problematic currents in the English-speaking world and that we find ourselves in the context of developing postmodern, post-analytic and post-empiricist approaches. Even so, analytic philosophy of religion is still the most representative current in the discipline within the English-speaking world.

  13. Frequency and timing of leaders' mediation attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Demirağ, Elif Gizem; Demirag, Elif Gizem

    2015-01-01

    How do a state's political regime type and power status influence leader's mediation attempts? This study develops an explanation as a response to this question derived from the democratic peace theory which underlines the role of democratic norms in motivating state leaders to play a third party role in peace processes. Based on this approach, the expectation is that democratic country representatives are more likely to mediate especially in the early stage of their careers. In addition, I a...

  14. The EPIC nutrient database project (ENDB): a first attempt to standardize nutrient databases across the 10 European countries participating in the EPIC study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Deharveng, G.; Unwin, I.

    2007-01-01

    because there is currently no European reference NDB available. Design: A large network involving national compilers, nutritionists and experts on food chemistry and computer science was set up for the 'EPIC Nutrient DataBase' ( ENDB) project. A total of 550-1500 foods derived from about 37 000...... standardized EPIC 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRS) were matched as closely as possible to foods available in the 10 national NDBs. The resulting national data sets ( NDS) were then successively documented, standardized and evaluated according to common guidelines and using a DataBase Management System...

  15. Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraud, A.

    1968-01-01

    We have shown the existence and made a study of the current oscillations produced in high-resistivity gallium arsenide by a strong electric field. The oscillations are associated with the slow travelling of a region of high electrical field across the whole sample. An experimental study of the properties of these instabilities has made it possible for us to distinguish this phenomenon from the Gunn effect, from acoustic-electric effects and from contact effects. In order to account for this type of instability, a differential trapping mechanism involving repulsive impurities is proposed; this mechanism can reduce the concentration of charge carriers in the conduction band at strong electrical fields and can lead to the production of a high-field domain. By developing this model qualitatively we have been able to account for all the properties of high-resistance gallium arsenide crystals subjected to a strong electrical field: increase of the Hall constant, existence of a voltage threshold for these oscillations, production of domains of high field, low rate of propagation of these domains, and finally the possibility of inverting the direction of the propagation of the domain without destroying the latter. A quantitative development of the model makes it possible to calculate the various characteristic parameters of these instabilities. Comparison with experiment shows that there is a good agreement, the small deviations coming especially from the lack of knowledge concerning transport properties in gallium arsenide subjected to high fields. From a study of this model, it appears that the instability phenomenon can occur over a wide range of repulsive centre concentrations, and also for a large range of resistivities. This is the reason why it appears systematically in gallium arsenide of medium and high resistivity. (authors) [fr

  16. A study of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions in deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an analysis of inclusive neutrino and antineutrino interaction on deuterium nuclei are presented. The use of deuterium as a target provides a mean to study proton and neutron scattering separately. The presently accepted theory of electro-weak interactions is reviewed. Applications of the quark-parton model in the context of deep-inelastic neutrino interactions on nucleons are summarized. The concept of scaling and its consequences are treated, together with some sources of violation of scaling. The properties of the CERN wide-band neutrino beam and an overview of the elements of this beam are given. The method to determine the energy distribution and the composition of the neutrino and antineutrino beam is described. The technique employed to separate neutrino interactions on protons and neutrons is discussed. Results of the measurement of the total nucleon charged-current cross-sections and differential cross-sections are presented. The relative contributions of quarks and antiquarks to the neutrino cross-sections are deduced from y-distributions and compared to those obtained from the total cross-section measurements. Finally, the analysis of the structure functions is given. (Auth.)

  17. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    farideh faraji; Neda Kakayi; Mohammad Kazem Atef Vahid; Ahmad Sohraby; Samira Purghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II), Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress), and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was fou...

  18. "Impulsive" suicide attempts: What do we really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexis M; Klonsky, E David

    2016-07-01

    Suicide attempts are often regarded as impulsive acts. However, there is little consensus regarding the definition or clinical characteristics of an "impulsive" attempt. To clarify this issue, we examined 3 indicators of the impulsivity of an attempt: (a) preparation, (b) time contemplating the attempt, and (c) self-report that impulsivity motivated the attempt. We examined relationships among the indicators and their relationship to trait impulsivity and characteristics of the suicide attempt. Adult participants (N = 205) with a history of suicide attempts were administered validated interviews and questionnaires. In general, the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators correlated only moderately with each other and not at all with trait impulsivity or with important characteristics of the attempt (e.g., lethality, preattempt communication, motivations). However, there were 2 exceptions. First, intent to die was inversely related to the 3 attempt impulsivity indicators (rs ranged from -.17 to .45) such that more impulsive attempts were associated with lower intent. Second, self-report that the attempt was motivated by impulsivity was related to 3 facets of trait impulsivity (rs ranged from .16 to .41). These findings suggest that individuals endorsing trait impulsivity are likely to describe their attempts as motivated by impulsivity, regardless of the presence of preparation or prolonged contemplation. Overall, study results suggest that the common conception of a unidimensional impulsive attempt may be inaccurate and that the emphasis on general impulsivity in prevention guidelines should be tempered. Implications for suicide risk assessment and prevention are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Associations between substance use disorders and suicide or suicide attempts in people with mental illness: a Danish nation-wide, prospective, register-based study of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression or personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Marie L D; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-07-01

    To estimate and test associations between substance use disorders (SUDs) and both completed suicides and suicide attempts in a population with severe mental illness. Register-based cohort study with adjusted Cox regression of substance use disorders as time-varying covariates. Denmark. People born in Denmark since 1955 with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 35 625), bipolar disorder (n = 9279), depression (n = 72 530) or personality disorder (n = 63 958). Treated SUDs of alcohol and illicit substances identified in treatment registers; suicide attempt identified in treatment registers; and completed suicides identified in the Cause of Death register. Covariates were sex and age at diagnosis. Having any SUD was associated with at least a threefold increased risk of completed suicide when compared with those having no SUD. Alcohol misuse was associated with an increased risk of completed suicide in all populations with hazard ratios (HR) between 1.99 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44-2.74] and 2.70 (95% CI = 2.40-3.04). Other illicit substances were associated with a two- to threefold risk increase of completed suicide in all populations except bipolar disorder, and cannabis was associated with increased risk of attempted suicide only in people with bipolar disorder (HR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.15-2.99). Alcohol and other illicit substances each displayed strong associations with attempted suicide, HR ranging from 3.11 (95% CI = 2.95-3.27) to 3.38 (95% CI = 3.24-3.53) and 2.13 (95% CI = 2.03-2.24) to 2.27 (95% CI = 2.12-2.43), respectively. Cannabis was associated with suicide attempts only in people with schizophrenia (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.19). Substance use disorders are associated strongly with risk of completed suicides and suicide attempts in people with severe mental illness. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Executive Functioning in Men with Schizophrenia and Substance Use Disorders. Influence of Lifetime Suicide Attempts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Adan

    Full Text Available Lifetime suicide attempts in patients with comorbidity between psychotic disorders and Substance Use Disorder (SUD, known as dual diagnosis, was associated with a worse clinical and cognitive state, poor prognosis and premature death. However, to date no previous study has examined the cognitive performance of these patients considering as independent the presence or absence of lifetime suicide attempts.We explore executive functioning differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in dual schizophrenia (DS patients and the possible related factors for both executive performance and current suicide risk. Fifty DS male patients in remission of SUD and clinically stables, 24 with and 26 without lifetime suicide attempts, were evaluated. We considered Z scores for all neuropsychological tests and a composite summary score for both premorbid IQ and executive functioning.DS patients showed low performance in set-shifting, planning and problem solving tasks. Those with suicide attempts presented lower composite summary scores, together with worse problem solving skills and decision-making, compared with non-attempters. However, after controlling for alcohol dependence, only differences in decision-making remained. Executive functioning was related to the premorbid intelligence quotient, and several clinical variables (duration, severity, months of abstinence and relapses of SUD, global functioning and negative symptoms. A relationship between current suicide risk, and first-degree relatives with SUD, insight and positive symptoms was also found.Our results suggest that problem solving and, especially, decision-making tasks might be sensitive to cognitive impairment of DS patients related to presence of lifetime suicide attempts. The assessment of these executive functions and cognitive remediation therapy when necessary could be beneficial for the effectiveness of treatment in patients with DS. However, further research is needed to expand

  1. Suicide attempts among depressed inpatients with depressive disorder in a Malaysian sample. Psychosocial and clinical risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, L F; Maniam, T; Shamsul, A S

    2011-01-01

    Depressed inpatients constitute a high-risk population for suicide attempts. To describe the interactions of clinical and psychosocial risk factors influencing suicide attempts among a Malaysian sample of depressed inpatients. Seventy-five subjects were diagnosed with a depressive disorder according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (SCID-CV). Data on suicide attempts, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicidal Ideation, SSI), depression severity (Beck's Depression Inventory, BDI), recent life-event changes (Social Readjustment Rating Scale, SRRS), sociodemographic and other relevant clinical factors were collected. A third of the subjects presented after a current suicide attempt. Significant factors for a current suicide attempt were race, religion, recent life-event changes, suicidal ideation, and alcohol use disorder. Independent predictive risk factors for a current suicide attempt were Chinese race, recent marital separation, major mortgage or loans, and being newly diagnosed with depression. Any recent change in personal habits was shown to be a protective factor against current suicide attempt. Age and gender were nonsignificant factors. The findings are generally consistent with existing studies and highlight the role of psychosocial risk factors.

  2. Study of non inductive current generation in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of non-thermal bremsstrahlung during lower hybrid current drive is considered. The proposed method shows the role of the Compton effects at low frequencies and allows us to establish the link between the emitted power and the absorbed power at high frequency. The non-thermal emission is considered as a kinematical mode conversion between the absorbed radio-frequency mode and the emitted X ray photons. The fast electrons diagnostics and the ways to reach the wave structure are shown. Kinetic and electromagnetic problems concerning current generation are described. The plasma properties and diagnostics in the case of a non inductive current generation are discussed [fr

  3. An attempt to define the sodium requirements of lactating dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiangtum, W.; Yawongsa, A.; Schonewille, J.T.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Yuangklang, C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lactating dairy cattle in the tropics may require more sodium (Na) owing to the hot and humid climatic conditions. It is unknown whether the current recommendations on Na for lactating cows can be quantitatively used in tropical countries. This study attempted to define the Na

  4. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  5. Theoretical study of a flat eddy current probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.; Dumont-Fillon, J.; Labbe, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the computation of the impedance of an eddy current probe has been determined in the case of flat product testing. Various applications are discussed with particular emphasis on ferromagnetic materials [fr

  6. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  7. Sociodemographic profile, clinical factors, and mode of attempt in suicide attempters in consultation liaison psychiatry in a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Ramdurg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to study the sociodemographic data, psychiatric disorder, precipitating events, and mode of attempt in suicide attempted patients referred to consultation liaison psychiatric services. Settings and Design: A prospective study of 6-month duration was done in a tertiary care center in India. Materials and Methods: During the 6-month period all referrals were screened for the presence of suicide attempters in consultation liaison services. Those who fulfilled the criteria for suicide attempters were evaluated by using semistructured pro forma containing sociodemographic data, precipitating events, mode of attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis by using ICD-10. Results: The male-to-female ratio was similar. Adult age, urban background, employed, matriculation educated were more represented in this study. More than 80% of all attempters had psychiatric disorder. Majority had a precipitating event prior to suicide attempt. The most common method of attempt was by use of corrosive. Conclusions: Majority of suicide attempter patients had mental illness. Early identification and treatment of these disorders would have prevented morbidity and mortality associated with this. There is a need of proper education of relatives about keeping corrosive and other poisonous material away from patients as it was being commonest mode of attempt.

  8. Trend of environmental radiation protection and its current related studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Reviewed are the international trend of environmental radiation protection (ERP), Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings from aspects of ecosystem to molecular level, and the future view. ERP is particularly closed up toward promotion after its first involvement in the general global conference, UN Conference on Environment and Development (1992). International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) has conducted such actions for the environment as establishing protection essentials for non-human species (2003), organizing Committee 5 (2005), and defining Reference Animals and Plants (2008) where Derived Consideration Reference Levels of 0.1-100 mGy/d are proposed, together with cooperative actions by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and European projects. Japanese NIRS is now enrolled in the project of Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety-II (IAEA). Major Japanese studies of radiation effects on environmental livings have utilized killifish (medaka: Oryzias latipes), springtail, earthworm, nematode, cultured plant cell (cedar), poplar, etc. Studies of the radiation effect on microcosm consisting of 3 livings have led to establishing a model for mathematical analysis and of 8 livings, have defined 50% affect dose of 5600 Gy gamma-ray. Irradiation of gamma-ray at 1 Gy/d for 5-10 days to the soil has been shown to result in alteration of the composition of natural earth bacterial population by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis, which being a promising tool for evaluating the alteration of soil composition and function. At molecular levels, transcriptome analysis of various cells from yeast to man, is performed after irradiation of gamma-ray, neutron, heavy particles and others to reveal radiation-induced gene expression; and Hi-CEP (high

  9. Prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Sheng Yang

    Full Text Available Suicide is the leading cause of death among 15-34 year olds in China, but no national data are available on the suicide and suicide attempts rates of college students, a sub-group of youth with 23 million. Several studies have reported the prevalence of suicide attempts among college students, however, no meta-analysis pooling the prevalence of suicide attempts is found.This study aims to estimate the pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among college students in China. The relevant studies up to August 2014 were systematically searched via electronic databases (PubMed-Medline, Embase, Chinese Wanfang database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese VIP database. We only selected original articles that either reported the prevalence of suicide attempts or sufficient data for calculating the prevalence.A total of 29 eligible studies, with 88,225 college students, were finally included. The maximum and minimum reported prevalences of suicide attempts among college students in China were 0.4% and 10.5%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts was 2.8% (95%CI: 2.3%-3.3%. Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled estimate of prevalence of life time suicide attempts was 2.7% (95%CI: 2.1%-3.3%, and 12-month suicide attempts was 2.9% (95%CI: 2.0%-3.8%. The prevalence for males was 2.4% (95%CI: 1.8%-3.0%, and for females was 2.7% (95%CI: 1.9%-3.7%. The prevalences among college students in grade 1 through 4 were 2.8% (95%CI: 1.7%-3.8%, 1.8% (95%CI: 1.2%-2.3%, 2.0% (95%CI: 0.8%-3.1%, and 2.9% (95%CI: 0.1%-6.7%, respectively. The prevalences among college students from rural and urban areas were 5.1% (95%CI: 2.8%-7.5% and 3.7% (95%CI: 1.4%-5.9%, respectively.2.8% prevalence of suicide attempts and more than 600,000 suicide attempters among college students indicate that suicide attempt among college students is an important public health problem in China. More attention should be paid to the current situation.

  10. Distinguishing the relevant features of frequent suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castroman, Jorge; Perez-Rodriguez, Maria de las Mercedes; Jaussent, Isabelle; Alegria, Analucia A; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Freed, Peter; Guillaume, Sébastien; Jollant, Fabrice; Leiva-Murillo, Jose Miguel; Malafosse, Alain; Oquendo, Maria A; de Prado-Cumplido, Mario; Saiz-Ruiz, Jeronimo; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Courtet, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    In spite of the high prevalence of suicide behaviours and the magnitude of the resultant burden, little is known about why individuals reattempt. We aim to investigate the relationships between clinical risk factors and the repetition of suicidal attempts. 1349 suicide attempters were consecutively recruited in the Emergency Room (ER) of two academic hospitals in France and Spain. Patients were extensively assessed and demographic and clinical data obtained. Data mining was used to determine the minimal number of variables that blinded the rest in relation to the number of suicide attempts. Using this set, a probabilistic graph ranking relationships with the target variable was constructed. The most common diagnoses among suicide attempters were affective disorders, followed by anxiety disorders. Risk of frequent suicide attempt was highest among middle-aged subjects, and diminished progressively with advancing age of onset at first attempt. Anxiety disorders significantly increased the risk of presenting frequent suicide attempts. Pathway analysis also indicated that frequent suicide attempts were linked to greater odds for alcohol and substance abuse disorders and more intensive treatment. Novel statistical methods found several clinical features that were associated with a history of frequent suicide attempts. The identified pathways may promote new hypothesis-driven studies of suicide attempts and preventive strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF RELIGION, SUPERSTITION, AND PERCEIVED GENDER INEQUALITY ON THE DEGREE OF SUICIDE INTENT: A STUDY OF SERIOUS ATTEMPTERS IN CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, JIE; XU, HUILAN

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have tried to account for the uniqueness of gender ratios in Chinese suicide through physiological and psychological differences between men and women, and the means employed in the fatal act. From the point of view of the socio-psychological traits, this study examines the effects of religion (religiosity), superstition, and perceived gender inequality among Chinese women on the degree of their suicide intent. A four-page structured interviews were performed to the consecuti...

  12. Future orientation and suicide ideation and attempts in depressed adults ages 50 and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jameson K; Duberstein, Paul R; Conner, Kenneth R; Heisel, Marnin J; Beckman, Anthony; Franus, Nathan; Conwell, Yeates

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that future orientation is associated with lower levels of suicide ideation and lower likelihood of suicide attempt in a sample of patients in treatment for major depression. Two hundred two participants (116 female, 57%) ages 50-88 years were recruited from inpatient and outpatient settings. All were diagnosed with major depression using a structured diagnostic interview. Suicide ideation was assessed with the Scale for Suicide Ideation (both current and worst point ratings), and a measure of future orientation was created to assess future expectancies. The authors predicted that greater future orientation would be associated with less current and worst point suicide ideation, and would distinguish current and lifetime suicide attempters from nonattempters. Hypotheses were tested using multivariate logistic regression and linear regression analyses that accounted for age, gender, hopelessness, and depression. As hypothesized, higher future orientation scores were associated with lower current suicidal ideation, less intense suicidal ideation at its worst point, and lower probability of a history of attempted suicide after accounting for covariates. Future orientation was not associated with current attempt status. Future orientation holds promise as a cognitive variable associated with decreased suicide risk; a better understanding of its putative protective role is needed. Treatments designed to enhance future orientation might decrease suicide risk.

  13. Crane RF accelerator for high current radiation damage studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitham, K.; Anamkath, H.; Evans, K.; Lyons, S.; Palmer, D.; Miller, R.; Treas, P.; Zante, T.

    1992-01-01

    An electron accelerator was designed and built for the Naval Weapons Support Center for transient radiation effects on electronics experiments and testing. The Crane L Band RF Electron Linac was designed to provide high currents over a wide range of pulse widths and energies. The energy extends to 60 MeV and pulse widths vary from a few ns to 10 μsec. Beam currents range from 20 amps in the short pulse case to 1.5 amps in the long pulse case. This paper describes the linac, its architecture, the e-gun and pulser, waveguides, klystrons and modulator, vacuum system, beam transport, and control systems. fig., tab

  14. Memory impairment in those who attempted suicide by benzodiazepine overdose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwey, B.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Wientjes, H.J.F.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    Backgroud: a prospective study was done to investigate the presence of anterograde amnesia in suicide attempters who took benzodiazepines (BZ) and to study the correlation with sedation. Method: in 43 patients, who attempted suicide by taking benzodiazepines, memory perfomrance was tested on a

  15. West Virginia Women Business Owners: Current Study and Trends Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holup, Linda L.; FitzGerald, Kathleen M.

    This report profiles current West Virginia women business owners and notes significant trends in the last eight years. It highlights a subgroup of women business owners, specifically low income, single women with children. These survey areas are discussed: industry sector, type of ownership, reasons for going/not going into business, planning…

  16. SSRIs and risk of suicide attempts in young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik; Agerbo, Esben; Bilenberg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: SSRIs are widely used in the treatment of mental illness for both children and adults. Studies have found a slightly increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempts in young people using SSRIs but SSRIs' impact on risk for suicides in youth is not well-established. AIM......: Is there indication that SSRIs might raise risk for suicide attempts in young people? METHODS: We used an observational register-based historical cohort design, a large cohort of all Danish individuals born in 1983-1989 (n = 392,458) and a propensity score approach to analyse the impact from SSRIs on risk for suicide...... attempts. Every suicide attempt and redeemed prescription of SSRIs was analysed by Cox regression. RESULTS: We found a significant overlap between redeeming a prescription on SSRIs and subsequent suicide attempt. The risk for suicide attempt was highest in the first 3 months after redeeming the first...

  17. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees...... who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. METHOD: We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses...... admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6). LIMITATIONS: Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts....

  18. Association between Weight and Smoking Not Mediated by Weight Loss Attempts or Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaker, Leia M; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    Youth smoking and obesity may both be mediated by weight control behaviors and experiences of bullying. This study examines associations between smoking and obesity among youth, and explores whether associations are mediated by weight loss attempts or bullying experiences. Data from 24,173 grade 9 to 12 students in the COMPASS study (2012-13) were used to examine the prevalence of self-reported smoking, weight status, attempting to lose weight, and being a victim of bullying. Generalized linear mixed effects models were used to examine correlates of smoking. Among youth, 11% reported currently smoking, 20% were overweight or obese, 42% reported attempting to lose weight, and 18% reported being bullied. Girls who reported attempting to lose weight had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.42, p = .0039), and students who reported being bullied had higher odds of smoking (OR = 1.85, p weight status. For girls, weight loss attempts were associated with smoking. For both sexes, being bullied was associated with smoking, independent of weight status. Programs attempting to reduce smoking among youth should consider the effects of weight control behaviors and bullying irrespective of weight status.

  19. Studies of fracture network geometry of reservoir outcrop analogues from terrestrial lidar data: attempts to quantify spatial variations of fracture characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vsemirnova, E. A.; Jones, R. R.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    2012-04-01

    We describe studies analysing terrestrial lidar datasets of fracture systems from a range of reservoir analogues in clastic and carbonate lithologies that represent geological analogues of offshore hydrocarbon reservoirs for the UK continental shelf. As fracture networks (observed here from centimetre to kilometre scale) can significantly affect the permeability of a fractured reservoir, the definition of fracture network geometry at various scales has become an important goal of structural analysis. The main aim of the study has been to extend the investigation of fracture networks in order to quantify spatial variations in fracture parameters in a variety of lithologies. The datasets were pre-processed using RiSCAN PRO software, and then re-sampled and filtered to derive characteristics which are traditionally measured from outcrops, including size distributions, fracture spacing and clustering statistics. This type of analysis can significantly reduce the uncertainty associated with some field fracture network measurements. The digitised fracture networks datasets are then used to investigate various aspects of spatial heterogeneity. A series of fracture maps (joints and faults) were generated at different scales, and fracture trends were studied to test scale dependency of fracture orientations. Multiscale trend analysis was then applied to describe the trend structure of the fracture networks.

  20. [The relationship between the structuralism of Levi-Strauss and linguistic methods. An attempt at applying structuralist phonologic models to the study of pathologic language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhote, E

    1975-01-01

    The structuralism which is generally accepted as a 'good French' school of thinking, presents in some of its applications the short-time character of fashion in such a way that one often forgets what this philosophy implicates. In this essay, the author intends to show that even though a structural method really exists, one cannot say who exactly is 'the father' of structuralism. But during the long maturity period of thought that resulted in structuralism, one important step has been made in France by Lévi-Strauss who has been using a great number of linguistic concepts, and at the same time has contributed to the consequent progress realized in that discipline. In the light of linguistics and of the works made by Lévi-Strauss some notions are redefined: those of structure, those of oppositions in the systems, those of relations inside one system, and the interactions between 'significant' and 'signifié'. Born from recent research in mathematics and cybernetics, the notion of Model, very fertile in linguistics, is an important element in the Lévi-Strauss structural methodology. With the help of examples taken from phonetics and phonology, the author intends to show how to elaborate a model, of what nature are the links between the observed object and the model, and what can be the applications of that method in the study of pathological languages; the author also intends to show that the main interest in a model of structural type is its explicative and previsional quality. A critical study of the structural analysis makes it possible to show the real contribution of structuralism: the author presents new ways that have been revealed by structuralism and some developments later on favorized by this discipline, mainly in linguistics. Remark. In this study of structuralism, the author places herself on the level with 'method' and not with 'philosophy'.

  1. Longitudinal qualitative study describing family physicians' experiences with attempting to integrate physical activity prescriptions in their practice: 'It's not easy to change habits'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Mathieu; Phillips, Emily Wolfe; O'Rielly, Connor; Mallet, Bertin; Aubé, Shane; Doucet, Marylène; Couturier, Jonathan; Mallet, Maxime; Martin, Jessica; Gaudet, Christine; Murphy, Nathalie; Brunet, Jennifer

    2017-07-13

    Physical activity (PA) prescriptions provided by family physicians can promote PA participation among patients, but few physicians regularly write PA prescriptions. The objective of this study was to describe family physicians' experiences of trying to implement written PA prescriptions into their practice. Longitudinal qualitative study where participants were interviewed four times during a 12-month period. After the first interview, they were provided with PA prescription pads. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Family medicine clinics in New Brunswick, Canada. Family physicians (n=11) with no prior experience writing PA prescriptions, but who expressed interest in changing their practice to implement written PA prescriptions. Initially, participants exhibited confidence in their ability to write PA prescriptions in the future and intended to write prescriptions. However, data from the follow-up interviews indicated that the rate of implementation was lower than anticipated by participants and prescriptions were not part of their regular practice. Two themes emerged as factors explaining the gap between their intentions and behaviours: (1) uncertainty about the effectiveness of written PA prescription, and (2) practical concerns (eg, changing well-established habits, time constraints, systemic institutional barriers). It may be effective to increase awareness among family physicians about the effectiveness of writing PA prescriptions and address barriers related to how their practice is organised in order to promote written PA prescription rates. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Extent of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis: attempt to define a threshold above which HIPEC does not offer survival benefit: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goéré, Diane; Souadka, Amine; Faron, Matthieu; Cloutier, Alexis S; Viana, Benjamin; Honoré, Charles; Dumont, Frédéric; Elias, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    The main prognostic factors after complete cytoreductive surgery (CCRS) of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) followed by intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) are completeness of the resection and extent of the disease. This study aimed to determine a threshold value above which CCRS plus IPC may not offer survival benefit compared with systemic chemotherapy. Between March 2000 and May 2010, 180 patients underwent surgery for PC from colorectal cancer with intended performance of CCRS plus IPC. Among the 180 patients, CCRS plus IPC could be performed for 139 patients (curative group, 77 %), whereas it could not be performed for 41 patients (palliative group, 23 %). The two groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, primary tumor characteristics, and pre- and postoperative systemic chemotherapy. The mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was lower in the curative group (11 ± 7) than in the palliative group (23 ± 7) (p offer any survival benefit.

  3. The Fear of Being Assessed: An Auto-Ethnographic Case Study on Attempts to Engage and Motivate an Individual Disaffected Access Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebor, Merv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how a tutor engaged an individual student who was abusive to teachers and would not carry out coursework assessments which tutors had set him in the Lifelong Learning Sector. It offers strategies to overcome barriers to achievement, particularly where a student resists carrying out required assessment tasks. It is a self-reflexive, auto-ethnographic case study. The research is based on observation, interview and a narratology of the researcher’s own involvement in the situation. It is concerned with strategies that worked with this particular student. It argues a case for personal engagement, solution-focused and cognitive behavioural strategies in the teaching/learning situation and offers an overall humanist approach. It ultimately argues for the complexity of understanding the key relationship between teacher and student. It is also concerned with ‘improving practice’ which is the central agenda of this journal.

  4. Geoelectric study in attempt to detect of deformation around slice gate in the embankment; Hiteiko eizoho wo mochiita himon shuhen no yurumi ryoiki no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natori, T; Nakayama, Y [Hokkaido Sapporo Public Works Office, Sapporo (Japan); Hashimoto, Y; Matsuo, J [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    For the river structures, such as slice gates and slice pipes, constructed on the weak ground, structures often come out due to forced settlement of embankment, which results in the formation of cavity and loose ground. These deformations can cause disasters due to leakage by water channel and fracture of bank. It is significant to detect and grasp these situations in early stage. In this study, resistivity imaging was conducted around slice gate in several times, to estimate the loose region based on the difference in the obtained resistivity data. Resistivity was measured in two times with a certain interval using the same line. The loose region around the slice gate was estimated from the change of saturation condition and the saturation line by considering the difference. Even in the case when judgment was hard by a single measurement, it was possible to estimate the loose region based on the difference from multiple measurements. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Finger Length Ratio (2D:4D) in Central India and an Attempt to Verify Fraternal Birth Order Effect: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arjun; Maitra, Chaitali; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-12-01

    A normal physiology of a human being is not mere a series of functions occurring with specific intensities and timing. There are lot of factors that may change the normal physiological activity within normal limits. Finger length ratio is one of the markers of intrauterine androgen exposure and it is debated and contradicted by many authors. Digit ratio varies among the ethnicities. Many Indian studies show that there is considerable difference in finger length ratio in different population. Data regarding Central India was not found on extensive search. To find out the finger length ratio and explore the birth order effect on finger length ratio among the first two successive born in the said population. We conducted a survey on 1500 volunteer persons (800 male and 700 female) over two years of time. We measured the length of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) of both the hands and asked about their birth order history to find out the digit ratio for Central India population and any existing correlation of the same with birth order. T Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for the measure of significance and difference among the groups. The peffect among the eldest, second born with elder brother and second born with elder sister groups, no significant (p>0.05) variation for finger length ratio of right and left hands observed in both male and female population. Our study reports that the finger length ratio (2D:4D) for Central India population did not show significant association between finger length ratio and fraternal birth order among the first two successive born.

  6. Association of Hormonal Contraception With Suicide Attempts and Suicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel; Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the relative risk of suicide attempt and suicide in users of hormonal contraception. METHOD: The authors assessed associations between hormonal contraceptive use and suicide attempt and suicide in a nationwide prospective cohort study of all women...... in Denmark who had no psychiatric diagnoses, antidepressant use, or hormonal contraceptive use before age 15 and who turned 15 during the study period, which extended from 1996 through 2013. Nationwide registers provided individually updated information about use of hormonal contraception, suicide attempt......, suicide, and potential confounding variables. Psychiatric diagnoses or antidepressant use during the study period were considered potential mediators between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of suicide attempt. Adjusted hazard ratios for suicide attempt and suicide were estimated for users of hormonal...

  7. MMP3 and TIMP2 gene variants as predisposing factors for Achilles tendon pathologies: Attempted replication study in a British case-control cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Louis; Ribbans, William J; Raleigh, Stuart M

    2016-09-01

    Variants within the MMP3 (rs679620) and TIMP2 (rs4789932) genes have been associated with the risk of Achilles tendon pathology (ATP) in populations from South Africa and Australia. This study aimed to determine whether these variants were associated with the risk of ATP in British Caucasians. We recruited 118 cases with ATP, including a subset of 25 individuals with Achilles tendon rupture (RUP) and 131 controls. DNA samples were isolated from saliva and genotyped using qPCR. For the TIMP2 rs4789932 variant we found a significant (p = 0.038) difference in the genotype distribution frequency between males with ATP (CC, 39.4%; CT, 43.7%; TT, 16.9%) compared to male controls (CC, 20.7%; CT, 59.8%; TT, 19.5%). We also observed a difference in the TIMP2 rs4789932 genotype distribution between males with rupture compared to male controls (p = 0.038). The MMP3 rs679620 GG genotype was found to be overrepresented in the Achilles tendon rupture (RUP) group (AA, 24.0%; AG, 32.0%; GG, 44.0%) compared to controls (AA, 26.7%; AG, 54.2%; GG, 19.1%). In conclusion, the CT genotype of the TIMP2 rs4789932 variant was associated with lower risk of ATP in males. Furthermore, while we revealed differences for both variants in genotype distribution between the RUP and control groups, the sample size of the RUP group was small and confirmation would be required in additional cohorts. Finally, although both the TIMP2 rs4789932 and MMP3 rs679620 variants tentatively associated with ATP, there were differences in the direction of association compared to earlier work.

  8. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchiapone, Marco; Carli, Vladimir; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Roy, Alec

    2009-01-01

    We wished to examine determinants of suicidal behavior in prisoners. 903 male prisoners had a psychiatric interview which included various psychometric tests. Suicide attempters were compared with prisoners who had never attempted suicide. Significantly more of the attempters had a history of psychiatric disorder, substance abuse, a family history…

  9. Automated Studies of Continuing Current in Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Claros, Jose

    Continuing current (CC) is a continuous luminosity in the lightning channel that lasts longer than 10 ms following a lightning return stroke to ground. Lightning flashes following CC are associated with direct damage to power lines and are thought to be responsible for causing lightning-induced forest fires. The development of an algorithm that automates continuing current detection by combining NLDN (National Lightning Detection Network) and LEFA (Langmuir Electric Field Array) datasets for CG flashes will be discussed. The algorithm was applied to thousands of cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes within 40 km of Langmuir Lab, New Mexico measured during the 2013 monsoon season. It counts the number of flashes in a single minute of data and the number of return strokes of an individual lightning flash; records the time and location of each return stroke; performs peak analysis on E-field data, and uses the slope of interstroke interval (ISI) E-field data fits to recognize whether continuing current (CC) exists within the interval. Following CC detection, duration and magnitude are measured. The longest observed C in 5588 flashes was 631 ms. The performance of the algorithm (vs. human judgement) was checked on 100 flashes. At best, the reported algorithm is "correct" 80% of the time, where correct means that multiple stations agree with each other and with a human on both the presence and duration of CC. Of the 100 flashes that were validated against human judgement, 62% were hybrid. Automated analysis detects the first but misses the second return stroke in many cases where the second return stroke is followed by long CC. This problem is also present in human interpretation of field change records.

  10. Attempts to lose weight among overweight and non-overweight adolescents: a cross-national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tynjälä Jorma

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the global obesity epidemic, few studies have performed cross-national comparisons of adolescents' attempts to lose weight and weight control practices. This study aims to investigate matters mentioned above by weight status in Europe, Israel, and North America. Methods Nationally representative samples of adolescents from over 30 countries completed an anonymous, standardized questionnaire as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2001/2002 survey. The prevalence and likelihood of attempts to lose weight were determined. The effect of weight status, self-perception of overweight, age and country of residence upon the likelihood of current attempts to lose weight were evaluated using multilevel multivariate logistic regression in separate analyses for boys and girls. The study also presented the prevalence of weight control practices of overweight and non-overweight adolescents who had controlled their weight in seven countries. Results In general, overweight and obese adolescents were more likely to be engaged in current attempts to lose weight and had tried to control their weight during the past 12 months more often than non-overweight adolescents. Besides weight status, self-perception of overweight and age were significant individual-level factors determining current attempts to lose weight. Country of residence was a significant second-level factor but no clear geographical pattern was found. Several gender-related differences existed. Conclusion The findings indicated that most overweight adolescents were motivated to reduce their weight. The importance of promoting a healthy body image for all adolescents was highlighted by the fact that self-perception of overweight was found to be the most important factor leading to attempts to lose weight.

  11. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, pimpulsivity (β=.24, psuicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attempted and completed suicide in primary care: not what we expected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, N; Melchior, M; Turbelin, C; Blanchon, T; Hanslik, T; Chee, C Chan

    2015-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) play a central role in suicide prevention. This study aims to compare the characteristics of individuals who attempt suicide to those who complete suicide in a same primary care setting. We compared the characteristics and GP's management of all patients with attempted (N=498, SA) or completed suicide (N=141, SC) reported to the GPs'French Sentinelles surveillance system (2009-2013). Compared to patients who attempted suicide, those who completed suicide were more likely to be male, older and to have used a more lethal method; for men they were less likely to have a history of previous suicide attempt and prior contacts with their GP. In terms of GPs' management, we found no differences between the SA and SC groups in the identification of psychological difficulties and in the care, but GPs were more likely to provide psychological support to the SA group. During the last consultation, the SC group expressed suicidal ideas more frequently than the SA group (26.7% vs. 14.8%, pcommit suicide differ from those who attempt suicide in terms of demographic characteristics and by sex, of history of suicide attempt, previous contact and expressed suicidal ideas. We show that GPs do not act more intensively with patients who will commit suicide, as if they do not foresee them. Current prevention programs particularly in primary care should be tailored. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Mobile Text Message Intervention to Reduce Repeat Suicidal Episodes: Design and Development of Reconnecting After a Suicide Attempt (RAFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Mark Erik; Shand, Fiona; Morley, Kirsten; Batterham, Philip J; Petrie, Katherine; Reda, Bill; Berrouiguet, Sofian; Haber, Paul S; Carter, Gregory; Christensen, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death, particularly among young people. Continuity of care following discharge from hospital is critical, yet this is a time when individuals often lose contact with health care services. Offline brief contact interventions following a suicide attempt can reduce the number of repeat attempts, and text message (short message service, SMS) interventions are currently being evaluated. Objective The aim of this study was to extend postattempt caring contac...

  14. Assessment of maximal handgrip strength : How many attempts are needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; de Jong, Nynke; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Gapeyeva, Helena; Hogrel, Jean Yves; Mcphee, Jamie S.; Narici, Marco V.; Sipilä, Sarianna; Stenroth, Lauri; van Lummel, Rob C.; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B.

    Background: Handgrip strength (HGS) is used to identify individuals with low muscle strength (dynapenia). The influence of the number of attempts on maximal HGS is not yet known and may differ depending on age and health status. This study aimed to assess how many attempts of HGS are required to

  15. Familism, Family Environment, and Suicide Attempts among Latina Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…

  16. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand; De Wolf, E.A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W.B.; Gupta, V.K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F.A.; Jabiol, M.A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G.T.; Jones, M.D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J.M.; Koller, E.L.; Krawiec, R.J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J.E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R.H.; Miller, D.B.; Mittra, I.S.; Mobayyen, M.M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D.R.O.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M.W.; Peterson, V.Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N.K.; Rubin, H.A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S.S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J.B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K.E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288±0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(bar ν) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and bar ν events. A value of 0.274±0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming bar ν NC/CC=0.39±0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323±0.025 and the K 0 production rates are 0.375±0.064 per CC and 0.322±0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161±0.030 per CC and 0.113±0.030 per NC event. The K 0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events

  17. Study of high-energy neutrino neutral-current interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P. P.; Badyal, S. K.; Ballagh, H. C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J. P.; Bingham, H. H.; Brucker, E. B.; Burnstein, R. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Cence, R. J.; Chatterjee, T. K.; Clayton, E. F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; Deprospo, D.; Devanand; de Wolf, E. A.; Faulkner, P. J.; Foeth, H.; Fretter, W. B.; Gupta, V. K.; Hanlon, J.; Harigel, G.; Harris, F. A.; Jabiol, M. A.; Jacques, P.; Jain, V.; Jones, G. T.; Jones, M. D.; Kafka, T.; Kalelkar, M.; Kasper, P.; Kohli, J. M.; Koller, E. L.; Krawiec, R. J.; Lauko, M.; Lys, J. E.; Marage, P.; Milburn, R. H.; Miller, D. B.; Mittra, I. S.; Mobayyen, M. M.; Moreels, J.; Morrison, D. R.; Myatt, G.; Nailor, P.; Naon, R.; Napier, A.; Neveu, M.; Passmore, D.; Peters, M. W.; Peterson, V. Z.; Plano, R.; Rao, N. K.; Rubin, H. A.; Sacton, J.; Sambyal, S. S.; Schmitz, N.; Schneps, J.; Singh, J. B.; Smart, W.; Stamer, P.; Varvell, K. E.; Verluyten, L.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wainstein, S.; Willocq, S.; Yost, G. P.

    1992-04-01

    From an exposure of the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber to the Tevatron quadrupole triplet neutrino beam, we have determined the ratio of neutral-current (NC) to charged-current (CC) interactions to be 0.288+/-0.032 for events with visible hadron momentum above 10 GeV/c. The mean ν(ν¯) event energy is 150 (110) GeV, which is higher than that for any previous beam. This result agrees with those from previous experiments at lower energies. The NC/CC ratio is derived for a combined sample of ν and ν¯ events. A value of 0.274+/-0.038 is obtained for the dominant ν component assuming ν¯ NC/CC=0.39+/-0.08. For events with visible hadron momentum above 25 GeV/c, where the neutral hadron contamination remaining in the NC sample is assumed to be negligible, the combined NC/CC is 0.323+/-0.025 and the K0 production rates are 0.375+/-0.064 per CC and 0.322+/-0.073 per NC event. The corresponding Λ rates are 0.161+/-0.030 per CC and 0.113+/-0.030 per NC event. The K0 and Λ distributions of the fractional hadron energy variable z in NC events are consistent with those in CC events.

  18. Study of rare earth separation by counter current electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Sergio Machado

    1995-08-01

    The counter current electromigration (CCEM) is an electrophoretic technique where the charged species migrate on an electrical field toward an electrolytic flux. Usually this electrolyte is a complexing agent and is necessary to increase the small differences between the species mobilities. A new column was developed, all made of acrylic, in a cylindrical shape. A set of experiments was carried out with the species Na + /K + , K + /Sm +3 , K + /Eu +3 and K + /Sm +3 /Eu +3 using the α-hydrox i-isobutyric acid o,01 M as the counter current electrolytic flux. From a synthetic mixture of 90% of samarium and 10% of europium was obtained the samarium ion in a purity better than 99,9% where the concentration of Eu was determined by the polarography technique. The potassium ion was used as a leading electrolyte. It was also measured the mobilities of the involved species in the α-HIBA medium. Two models are proposed, a stationary model and a dynamic one. A simulator of a simplified stationary model, prepared in FORTRAN language, was developed and tested toward experimental results. (author)

  19. Attempted suicides in India: a comprehensive look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddichha, Sahoo; Prasad, M N V; Saxena, Mukul Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the biggest killers in the world, with suicide rates varying between 8.1 and 58.3/100,000 population for different parts of India. Andhra Pradesh, the fourth largest state in India, is responsible for more than 11% of these. Unfortunately, most suicides are under-reported and there is scant data on attempted suicides. This study aimed to comprehensively study the characteristics of attempted suicides in Andhra Pradesh and using the primary data, make secondary projections for the forthcoming years. Using Patient Care Record (PCR) forms of all emergencies serviced by 108, the first comprehensive emergency service in India, an analysis of all cases was done to detect possible suicides during the period January-December 2007. A follow up 48 hours later was then done to confirm status and diagnosis. A total of 1007 cases were recorded as confirmed suicides. Hanging and insecticide poisoning (72%) were the most common methods used. Males preferred hanging and insecticide poisoning while females preferred self-immolation and hanging as common methods. Self-immolation and insecticide poisoning had the highest mortality (41.6%). Estimates of attempted suicides for the year 2008 revealed a mean of 3.2-3.8 per 1000 population for males, 3.3-3.7 per 1000 population for females and 6.4-7.6 per 1000 population combined. A serious epidemic of suicides seems to be in store in the coming years unless preventive steps in the form of policy changes are undertaken. Restricting access to poisonous substances or prescription drugs and taking into consideration the prevailing social, economic and cultural factors could help in reducing numbers. Starting tele-help services or offering brief interventions during hospital stays are other programs which may be considered.

  20. Familial Pathways to Early-Onset Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A.; Melhem, Nadine M.; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J. John

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. OBJECTIVE To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). RESULTS Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75–13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37–12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94–16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29–56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder

  1. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkol, Tonguç D; İslam, Serkan; Kırlı, Ebru; Pınarbaşı, Rasim; Özyıldırım, İlker

    2016-06-01

    To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two  hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Axis-I (SCID-I) in order to detect all possible psychiatric comorbid diagnoses. Clinical predictors of suicide attempts were examined in attempters and non-attempters. The study design was retrospective. The lifetime suicide attempt rate for the entire sample was 19.2%. Suicide attempters with bipolar disorder had more lifetime comorbidity of eating disorder. Female gender and family history of mood disorder were significant predictors for suicide attempts. There was no difference between groups in terms of bipolar disorder subtype, onset age of bipolar disorder, total number of episodes, first and predominant episode type, suicide history in first degree relatives, severity of episodes, and hospitalization and being psychotic. Our study revealed that female gender, family history of mood disorder, and eating disorder are more frequent in bipolar patients with at least one suicide attempt.

  2. Computer programs for eddy-current defect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pate, J.R.; Dodd, C.V.

    1990-06-01

    Several computer programs to aid in the design of eddy-current tests and probes have been written. The programs, written in Fortran, deal in various ways with the response to defects exhibited by four types of probes: the pancake probe, the reflection probe, the circumferential boreside probe, and the circumferential encircling probe. Programs are included which calculate the impedance or voltage change in a coil due to a defect, which calculate and plot the defect sensitivity factor of a coil, and which invert calculated or experimental readings to obtain the size of a defect. The theory upon which the programs are based is the Burrows point defect theory, and thus the calculations of the programs will be more accurate for small defects. 6 refs., 21 figs

  3. Computer programs for eddy-current defect studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pate, J. R.; Dodd, C. V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1990-06-01

    Several computer programs to aid in the design of eddy-current tests and probes have been written. The programs, written in Fortran, deal in various ways with the response to defects exhibited by four types of probes: the pancake probe, the reflection probe, the circumferential boreside probe, and the circumferential encircling probe. Programs are included which calculate the impedance or voltage change in a coil due to a defect, which calculate and plot the defect sensitivity factor of a coil, and which invert calculated or experimental readings to obtain the size of a defect. The theory upon which the programs are based is the Burrows point defect theory, and thus the calculations of the programs will be more accurate for small defects. 6 refs., 21 figs.

  4. Studies of current-perpendicular-to-plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR) and current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Huseyin

    2005-08-01

    We present two CPP-MR studies of spin-valves based upon ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic (F/N/F) trilayers. We measure the spin-diffusion lengths of N = Pd, Pt, and Au at 4.2K, and both the specific resistances (sample area A times resistance R) and spin-memory-loss of N/Cu interfaces. Pd, Pt and Au are of special device interest because they give perpendicular anisotropy when sandwiching very thin Co layers. Comparing our spin-memory-loss data at Pd/Cu and Pt/Cu interfaces with older data for Nb/Cu and W/Cu gives insight into the importance of spin-orbit coupling in producing such loss. We reproduce and extend prior studies by Eid of 'magnetic activity' at the interface of Co and N-metals (or combinations of N-metals), when the other side of the N-metal contacts a superconductor (S). Our data suggest that magnetic activity may require strong spin-flipping at the N/S interface. We present five studies of a new phenomenon, CIMS, in F1/N/F2 trilayers, with F1 a thick 'polarizing' layer and F2 a thin 'switching' layer. In all prior studies of CIMS, positive current caused the magnetization of F2 to switch from parallel (P) to anti-parallel (AP) to that of F1- 'normal' switching. By judicious addition of impurities to F-metals, we are able to controllably produce both 'normal' and 'inverse' switching- where positive current switches the magnetization of F2 from AP to P to that of F1. In the samples studied, whether the switching is normal or inverse is set by the 'net polarization' produced by F1 and is independent of the properties of F2. As scattering in the bulk of F1 and F2 is essential to producing our results, these results cannot be described by ballistic models, which allow scattering only at interfaces. Most CIMS experiments use Cu as the N-layer due to its low resistivity and long spin-diffusion length. We show that Ag and Au have low enough resistivities and long enough spin-diffusion lengths to be useful alternatives to Cu for some devices. While

  5. Cigarette smoking and quit attempts among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Moreno, Patricia Gonzalez; Rao, Smriti; Garfein, Richard S; Novotny, Thomas E; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-12-01

    Injection drug use and cigarette smoking are major global health concerns. Limited data exist regarding cigarette smoking behavior and quit attempts among injection drug users (IDUs) in low- and middle-income countries to inform the development of cigarette smoking interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe cigarette smoking behavior and quit attempts among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. IDUs were recruited through community outreach and administered in-person interviews. Multivariable Poisson regression models were constructed to determine prevalence ratios (PRs) for quit attempts. Of the 670 participants interviewed, 601 (89.7%) were current smokers. Of these, median number of cigarettes smoked daily was 10; 190 (31.6%) contemplated quitting smoking in the next 6 months; 132 (22.0%) had previously quit for ≥1 year; and 124 (20.6%) had made a recent quit attempt (lasting ≥1 day during the previous 6 months). In multivariable analysis, recent quit attempts were positively associated with average monthly income (≥3,500 pesos [US$280] vs. <1,500 pesos [US$120]; PR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.57-3.36), smoking marijuana (PR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.01-2.90), and smoking heroin (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.23-2.78), and they were negatively associated with number of cigarettes smoked daily (PR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.94-0.98). One out of 5 IDUs attempted to quit cigarette smoking during the previous 6 months. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of the association between drug use patterns and cigarette smoking quit attempts, including the higher rate of quit attempts observed among IDUs who smoke marijuana or heroin compared with IDUs who do not smoke these substances.

  6. [Factors associated with suicide attempts by sexual minorities: Results from the 2011 gay and lesbian survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, L-M; Chan Chee, C; Sauvage, C; Saboni, L; Beltzer, N; Velter, A

    2016-06-01

    Since the 1990s, several studies have found higher rates of suicide attempts in homosexuals and bisexuals than in heterosexuals. The current challenge is to identify risk factors for targeting prevention. The aim of this paper was to determine, for the first time in France, the prevalence of suicide attempts over a 12-month period and associated factors in a population of men and women who self-identified as homosexuals or bisexuals. A convenience sample cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire made available in the gay press, and Internet sites targeting the gay or lesbian community. Among the persons completing the questionnaire, 10,100 men and 2963 women residing in France answered the questions on suicide attempts. The factors associated with suicide attempts during the previous 12 months were identified by logistic regression. Lifetime prevalence for suicide attempts was 16% in men and 18% in women; 12-month prevalence was 1.6% in men and 1.9% in women. Factors independently associated with suicide attempts in the past 12 months in men and women were lack of occupational activity, victim of sexual abuse, termination of a long-term relationship, excessive alcohol consumption in the past 12 months, depression, and in addition, in men, living in a small locality, victim of verbal or physical aggression and use of anxiolytics. According to our results, the fight against homophobia is an important element for the prevention of suicide attempts among homosexual and bisexual men. Indeed, in addition to traditional risk factors for suicide attempt, a significant association was also found with homophobic aggression in the past year. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparative Study of Voltage, Peak Current and Dual Current Mode Control Methods for Noninverting Buck-Boost Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Č. Bošković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of voltage mode control (VMC and two current mode control (CMC methods of noninverting buck-boost converter. The converter control-to-output transfer function, line-to-output transfer function and the output impedance are obtained for all methods by averaging converter equations over one switching period and applying small-signal linearization. The obtained results are required for the design procedure of feedback compensator to keep a system stable and robust. A comparative study of VMC, peak current mode control (PCMC and dual-current mode control (DCMC is performed. Performance evaluation of the closed-loop system with obtained compensator between these methods is performed via numerical simulations.

  8. Safety and tolerability of transcranial direct current stimulation to stroke patients - A phase I current escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatbar, Pratik Y; Chen, Rong; Deardorff, Rachael; Dellenbach, Blair; Kautz, Steven A; George, Mark S; Feng, Wuwei

    A prior meta-analysis revealed that higher doses of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have a better post-stroke upper-extremity motor recovery. While this finding suggests that currents greater than the typically used 2 mA may be more efficacious, the safety and tolerability of higher currents have not been assessed in stroke patients. We aim to assess the safety and tolerability of single session of up to 4 mA in stroke patients. We adapted a traditional 3 + 3 study design with a current escalation schedule of 1»2»2.5»3»3.5»4 mA for this tDCS safety study. We administered one 30-min session of bihemispheric montage tDCS and simultaneous customary occupational therapy to patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. We assessed safety with pre-defined stopping rules and investigated tolerability through a questionnaire. Additionally, we monitored body resistance and skin temperature in real-time at the electrode contact site. Eighteen patients completed the study. The current was escalated to 4 mA without meeting the pre-defined stopping rules or causing any major safety concern. 50% of patients experienced transient skin redness without injury. No rise in temperature (range 26°C-35 °C) was noted and skin barrier function remained intact (i.e. body resistance >1 kΩ). Our phase I safety study supports that single session of bihemispheric tDCS with current up to 4 mA is safe and tolerable in stroke patients. A phase II study to further test the safety and preliminary efficacy with multi-session tDCS at 4 mA (as compared with lower current and sham stimulation) is a logical next step. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02763826. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Current Experimental Studies of Gene Therapy in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-ya Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD was characterized by late-onset, progressive dopamine neuron loss and movement disorders. The progresses of PD affected the neural function and integrity. To date, most researches had largely addressed the dopamine replacement therapies, but the appearance of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia hampered the use of the drug. And the mechanism of PD is so complicated that it's hard to solve the problem by just add drugs. Researchers began to focus on the genetic underpinnings of Parkinson's disease, searching for new method that may affect the neurodegeneration processes in it. In this paper, we reviewed current delivery methods used in gene therapies for PD, we also summarized the primary target of the gene therapy in the treatment of PD, such like neurotrophic factor (for regeneration, the synthesis of neurotransmitter (for prolong the duration of L-dopa, and the potential proteins that might be a target to modulate via gene therapy. Finally, we discussed RNA interference therapies used in Parkinson's disease, it might act as a new class of drug. We mainly focus on the efficiency and tooling features of different gene therapies in the treatment of PD.

  10. Current research efforts of EP study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    After the successful demonstration of H mode on KSTAR, the problem of fast-ion driven MHD modes such as Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) and the reverse effects on fast ions of MHD modes is under study in KSTAR. In this paper, I will briefly describe some recent efforts of KSTAR on energetic particle physics study. (J.P.N.)

  11. Study on the Swiss electricity market - the current situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N. O.

    2007-01-01

    This short article discusses the results of a study made on the opinions of energy suppliers in Switzerland with respect to future power generation in Switzerland. In particular, questions concerning new nuclear power stations and gas-fueled generating facilities are examined. The study was commissioned to tackle questions concerning the liberalisation of the electricity market, a future possible gap in supply, mains regulation and changes in market structure. The article discusses the findings of the study, in which 87 utilities took part, and lists strategic areas for action to be taken by electricity utilities such as efficiency analysis, regulation management, co-operative sourcing and possible mergers and acquisitions

  12. Remote Sensing Studies Of The Current Martian Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F. W.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Calcutt, S. B.; Moroz, V. I.

    A systematic and detailed experimental study of the Martian atmosphere remains to be carried out, despite many decades of intense interest in the nature of the Martian climate system, its interactions, variability and long-term stability. Such a study is planned by the 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, using limb-scanning infrared radiometric techniques similar to those used to study trace species in the terrestrial stratosphere. For Mars, the objectives are temperature, humidity, dust and condensate abundances with high vertical resolution and global coverage in the 0 to 80 km height range. The paper will discuss the experiment and its methodology and expectations for the results.

  13. Flavonoid Bioavailability and Attempts for Bioavailability Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilakarathna, Surangi H.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids are a group of phytochemicals that have shown numerous health effects and have therefore been studied extensively. Of the six common food flavonoid classes, flavonols are distributed ubiquitously among different plant foods whereas appreciable amounts of isoflavones are found in leguminous plant-based foods. Flavonoids have shown promising health promoting effects in human cell culture, experimental animal and human clinical studies. They have shown antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory effects as well as ability to modulate cell signaling and gene expression related disease development. Low bioavailability of flavonoids has been a concern as it can limit or even hinder their health effects. Therefore, attempts to improve their bioavailability in order to improve the efficacy of flavonoids are being studied. Further investigations on bioavailability are warranted as it is a determining factor for flavonoid biological activity. PMID:23989753

  14. Some psychological characteristics of adolescents hospitalized following a suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraš, J S; Kolundžija, K; Dukić, O; Marković, J; Okanović, P; Stokin, B; Mitrović, D; Ivanović-Kovačević, S

    2013-02-01

    In most countries, suicide is second or third leading cause of death in youth. Suicidal tendencies among youth have been the subject of extensive research. Reports of increased rate of suicide attempts in the past few decades indicate that this phenomenon has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of adolescent suicide behavior by defining some specific psychological characteristics of adolescents who were hospitalized at the psychiatric ward because of the suicide attempt. 62 participants were assigned to two groups: clinical (adolescents who were hospitalized after a suicide attempt) and non-clinical (adolescents without psychiatric symptoms). They filled in a series of instruments: a questionnaire examining adolescents' demographic characteristics, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, Youth Self Report. Compared to the non-clinical populaton adolescents attempting suicide had significantly more frequent suicidal thoughts (χ2 = 18.627, df = 1, p self-esteem (t = 4.23, p suicide attempt.  

  15. Cognitive behavioural therapy halves the risk of repeated suicide attempts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Gøtzsche, Pernille K

    2017-01-01

    is excluded, the risk ratio becomes 0.61 (0.46-0.80) and the heterogeneity in the results disappears (I(2 )= 0%). Conclusions Cognitive behavioural therapy reduces not only repeated self-harm but also repeated suicide attempts. It should be the preferred treatment for all patients with depression.......Objective To study whether cognitive behavioural therapy decreases suicide attempts in people with previous suicide attempts. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting Randomised trials that compare cognitive behavioural therapy with treatment as usual. Participants Patients who had...... engaged in any type of suicide attempt in the six months prior to trial entry resulting in presentation to clinical services. Main outcome measure Suicide attempt. Results We included ten trials, eight from Cochrane reviews and two from our updated searches (1241 patients, 219 of whom had at least one new...

  16. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of ...

  17. Objectives and current status of the study Mobi-kids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.; Eastman, C.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. Mobi-Kids, an international study coordinated by CREAL Barcelona, is underway in 15 countries to assess potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile communications technology (RF and extremely low frequency (ELF) fields) on brain tumour risk. The study aims to recruit over 2,000 cases of brain tumours aged 10 to 24 years and their respective controls (300 cases and 600 controls from Spain). The project builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. Hospital based controls are being selected to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates of population-based controls, validation of questionnaire responses with recross from network operators will allow characterization of possible recall errors. Extensive work has gone into characterising and modelling ELF and RF exposure from different types of mobile and cordless phones, from different communication systems, and from other environmental sources of EMF. The study will address a public health problem of increasing importance in Spain and provide information on potential health risks from mobile telephone use as well as from EMF in general. (Author) 21 refs.

  18. Serum lipids, recent suicide attempt and recent suicide status in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ji Hyun; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Yu, Bum-Hee; Lee, Dongsoo; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2014-06-03

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with suicide. Although several studies have reported its association with low serum lipid, few studies have investigated relationships between current suicidality and lipid profiles, comparing with other blood measures in MDD patients. The study population consisted of 555 subjects with MDD who were ≥ 18 years old, evaluated by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) with the suicidality module. At the evaluation visit, we measured serum lipid profiles including total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and blood measures such as fasting glucose, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, thyroid hormones, red and white blood cells, platelet count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Recent attempters who had attempted suicide within the past month showed significantly lower TG and higher HDL levels than lifetime and never attempters, using Tukey's post-hoc analysis. Recent attempters exhibited lower TG and higher HDL than those with recent suicide ideation and wish to self-harm and those without previous attempt. Linear regression analysis revealed that TG was negatively associated with current suicidality scores (β = -0.187, p = 0.039), whereas VLDL was positively associated with the recent suicide status (β = 0.198, p = 0.032) after controlling for age and sex. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of other serum lipid profiles and blood measures. Low serum TG, high HDL and VLDL levels are associated with recent suicide attempt or recent suicide status in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Current status of crushed rock and whole rock column studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, E.N.; Daniels, W.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Thompson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements on a large number of crushed rock columns of tuff, granite, and argillite are discussed. The isotopes 85 Sr, 137 Cs, 133 Ba, 141 Ce, 152 Eu, /sup 95m/Tc, and 233 U were used. Flow rates were varied from approx. 30 to approx. 30000 m/y. Other parameters studied include isotope concentration and atmosphere. The sorption ratios calculated were compared with batch sorption ratios on the same samples. Methods of studying the movement of radionuclides through whole rock cores are described. The problems associated with sealing the cores to prevent leaking along the exterior surface and one possible solution are discussed. The strontium sorption ratio obtained by elution of one solid tuff core is compared with the batch and crushed rock column sorption ratios

  20. Study of efficiency and current use of respiratory protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linauskas, S.H.; Kalos, F.

    1984-12-01

    The efficiency of a helmet-type powered air-purifying respirator was studied in the work environment of an underground uranium mine. Workplace protection factors (WPF) were measured, using approximately 30-minute air sampling periods and repeated sampling throughout the work shifts for six miners during three shifts each. The WPF of the modified Racal AH-5 helmet was 17.8 (geometric mean) with new filters in the respirator; the WPF dropped to 5.3 when four-day-old filters were used. The WPF results were lognormally distributed. The test population appeared to be a homogeneous set: there was no significant difference in the mean WPFs of individual test subjects. The study could not resolve any effect of elapsed time within the work shift or of ambient Working Level on the WPF. The actual use levels and the problems associated with respirator use were studied at the same time, principally via a user survey. The respirators have a high level of acceptance among the user population of underground uranium miners and 72.5 percent of the 207 survey respondents stated six or more hours use with the visor in the correct 'down' position per shift

  1. The current status of glass leaching studies in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laude, F.

    1983-11-01

    Glass has been selected in France as the material used to confine the activity of fission product solutions, and a continuous vitrification process has been developed at the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM), the first industrial plant. Borosilicate glass was chosen in various compositions for its properties: it is a homogeneous, non-porous material that incorporates appreciable quantities of most of the fission product oxides, and is only alterable at the surface interface layer. Glass thus constitutes the primary radioactivity containment barrier, and it is essential to determine its long-term behavior. Water constitutes the principal hazard during temporary or definitive storage of the glass blocks. Two types of inherent material properties are studied from the standpoint of glass stability under leaching conditions: - chemical durability; - radioactive containability with regard to the various radionuclides, fission products and especially the actinides. Durability tests are carried out in SOXHLET devices and the alteration rates are measured by the weight loss. The containability is measured by the leach rate, i.e. by the rate of activity loss into the water. Leaching tests are conducted for several major objectives: - selection of glass compositions (leach rates); - leaching mechanism studies (hydrolyzed layer characteristics, effects of temperature, pressure, pH, etc.); - long-term behavior studies (glass specimens doped with alpha-emitters); - simulation of geological repository environments [fr

  2. Examining the Impact of Suicide Attempt Function and Perceived Effectiveness in Predicting Reattempt for Emergency Medicine Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Atkins, David C; Kerbrat, Amanda H

    2017-01-01

    While previous studies have examined motivational aspects of self-directed violence, few studies have included specific motivations in predictive models for future suicide attempts. The current study utilized a sample of 160 individuals treated in an acute emergency setting following a suicide attempt who completed an interview battery that included an assessment of functional aspects of the index suicide attempt. A follow-up interview was conducted at 6 months to ascertain subsequent suicide attempts. The functional domains of suicide attempts were labeled as reduction-of-distress, communication, perceived better alternative to living, and self-loathing. Above and beyond other known risk factors, including history and highest lethality of previous self-injury, suicide attempts that served a communication function (OR = 0.18, p = .02, CI = 0.04, 0.73) and higher ratings of clinical dysfunction (OR = 3.41, p = .05, CI = 1.02, 11.36) were associated with a significant reduction in likelihood to engage in a suicide attempt during the 6-month follow-up window. Including the perceived effectiveness of the index suicide attempt in getting one's needs met strengthened the overall model predicting a suicide attempt in the follow-up window and was an independent risk factor above and beyond other variables in the model OR = 1.75, p = .04, CI = 1.02, 3.01). Assessment of functional aspects of suicide attempt is feasible and may improve formulation of risk in a population where typical risk factors for suicide are ubiquitous. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Attempts to Transform an Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    This paper builds on a case study of diversity work in a Swedish municipality, Malmö. It focuses on certain actors partaking in the diversity work done in the municipality that of a gender and diversity committee and its members – here called diversity ambassadors. I will describe the work...... of the diversity ambassadors and discuss what impact they could possibly have on the organization. Organizational efforts to change inequalities at the workplace may take different forms. The literature describes different ways to organize the diversity and equality work. In this paper I will focus a specific...... group of people assigned to do diversity work – so called diversity ambassadors (Omanović, 2006) or diversity champions (Subeliani & Tsogas, 2005). The diversity ambassadors are representatives of different departments and units of the organization. The ambassadors are convened in a committee in order...

  4. Study of charged current reactions induced by muon antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huss, D.

    1979-07-01

    We present in this work a study of antineutrino reactions on light targets. We have used the Gargamelle cloud chamber with a propane-freon mix. In the 2 first chapters we give a brief description of the experimental setting and we present the selection criteria of the events. In the third chapter we analyse the data for the reaction anti-ν + p → μ + + n that preserves strangeness. We have deduced the values of the axial (M A ) and vector (M V ) form factors: M A = (O.92 ± 0.08) GeV and M V = (0.86 ± 0.04) GeV. In the fourth chapter we study reactions in which strange particles appear (ΔS = 1) and we have determined their production cross-sections. The elastic reaction: anti-ν + p → μ + + Λ is studied in a more accurate manner thanks to a 3-constraint adjustment that enables the selection of events occurring on free protons. We have deduced from our data the longitudinal, orthogonal and transverse polarization of Λ, we have got respectively P l = -0.06 ± 0.44; P p = 0.29 ± 0.41; P t 1.05 ± 0.30. We have also deduced the values of the total cross-section as a function of the incident antineutrino energy E: σ (0.27 ± 0.02)*E*10 -38 cm -2 . E has been assessed from the energy deposited in the cloud chamber and we have adjusted the cross-section with a straight line as it is expected under the assumption of scale invariance. (A.C.)

  5. A study of the current group evaporation/combustion theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hayley H.

    1990-01-01

    Liquid fuel combustion can be greatly enhanced by disintegrating the liquid fuel into droplets, an effect achieved by various configurations. A number of experiments carried out in the seventies showed that combustion of droplet arrays and sprays do not form individual flames. Moreover, the rate of burning in spray combustion greatly deviates from that of the single combustion rate. Such observations naturally challenge its applicability to spray combustion. A number of mathematical models were developed to evaluate 'group combustion' and the related 'group evaporation' phenomena. This study investigates the similarity and difference of these models and their applicability to spray combustion. Future work that should be carried out in this area is indicated.

  6. Current tritium chemical studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.J.; Redman, J.D.; Strehlow, R.A.; Bell, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The equilibrium pressures of hydrogen isotopes in the Li-LiH-H 2 , Li-LiD-D 2 and Li-LiT-T 2 systems are being measured. The solubility of hydrogen in lithium was studied and the data are in reasonable agreement with the literature values. The Li-LiD-D 2 system is now being studied. The first experimental measurements of the equilibrium pressures of tritium between 700 and 1000 0 C as a function of the LiT concentration in the Li-LiT-T 2 system have also been completed. The permeation of tritium through clean metals and through metals under simulated steam generator conditions is being investigated. Measurements of tritium permeation through clean nickel at temperatures between 636 and 910 0 K were made using a mixed isotope technique. The tritium permeability, DK/sub s/', as a function of temperature was determined to be ln DK/sub s/' [cc(NTP).mm.min -1 .torr/sup -1/2/.cm -2 ] = -0.906 - 6360/T( 0 K). The measured permeation activation energy was 12.6 +- 0.4 kcal/mole. (MOW)

  7. Patient-Identified Priorities Leading to Attempted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulz, Niklaus; Hepp, Urs; Gosoniu, Dominic G; Grize, Leticia; Muheim, Flavio; Weiss, Mitchell G; Riecher-Rössler, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Attempted suicide is a major public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify patient-identified problems and triggers typically leading to attempted suicide. A representative sample of 66 adult patients was recruited from all clinical sites and psychiatrists who treat patients after attempted suicide in the Canton of Basel-City (Switzerland). Patients were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and interviewed with a local adaptation of the Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) to study underlying problems and triggers of attempted suicide. Of the patients, 92.4% had at least one DSM-IV disorder, with depressive disorders being the most prevalent disorder. Although half (50.0%) of the patients identified a health problem, 71.2% identified an interpersonal conflict as underlying problem leading to the suicide attempt. Furthermore, an interpersonal conflict was identified as the trigger of the suicide attempt by more than half of the patients (54.5%). The study included German-speaking patients only. According to patients, interpersonal problems often amplify underlying psychiatric problems, leading to suicide attempts. Social and interpersonal stressors should be acknowledged with integrated clinical and social interventions to prevent suicidal behavior in patients and populations.

  8. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  9. Comparison of the force applied on oral structures during intubation attempts by novice physicians between the Macintosh direct laryngoscope, Airway Scope and C-MAC PM: a high-fidelity simulator-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Taizo; Shiga, Takashi; Homma, Yosuke; Koyama, Yasuaki; Goto, Tadahiro

    2016-05-23

    We examined whether the use of Airway Scope (AWS) and C-MAC PM (C-MAC) decreased the force applied on oral structures during intubation attempts as compared with the force applied with the use of Macintosh direct laryngoscope (DL). Prospective cross-over study. A total of 35 novice physicians participated. We used 6 simulation scenarios based on the difficulty of intubation and intubation devices. Our primary outcome measures were the maximum force applied on the maxillary incisors and tongue during intubation attempts, measured by a high-fidelity simulator. The maximum force applied on maxillary incisors was higher with the use of the C-MAC than with the DL and AWS in the normal airway scenario (DL, 26 Newton (N); AWS, 18 N; C-MAC, 52 N; p<0.01) and the difficult airway scenario (DL, 42 N; AWS, 24 N; C-MAC, 68 N; p<0.01). In contrast, the maximum force applied on the tongue was higher with the use of the DL than with the AWS and C-MAC in both airway scenarios (DL, 16 N; AWS, 1 N; C-MAC, 7 N; p<0.01 in the normal airway scenario; DL, 12 N; AWS, 4 N; C-MAC, 7 N; p<0.01 in the difficult airway scenario). The use of C-MAC, compared with the DL and AWS, was associated with the higher maximum force applied on maxillary incisors during intubation attempts. In contrast, the use of video laryngoscopes was associated with the lower force applied on the tongue in both airway scenarios, compared with the DL. Our study was a simulation-based study, and further research on living patients would be warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Analysis of groundwater criteria and recent restoration attempts after in situ uranium leaching. Open file report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buma, G.; Johnson, P.H.; Bienek, G.K.; Watson, C.G.; Noyes, H.J.

    1981-10-01

    Groundwater restoration is an important aspect of in situ uranium leaching. Information on the effectiveness of the current technology, costs, and the current State and Federal Government permitting regulations is of vital importance to in situ leach operators and firms considering in situ leaching. This study describes (1) all recent restoration attempts at commercial in situ leaching operations, (2) restoration costs reported by the industry, (3) empirical equations that predict the amount of groundwater flushing required to meet the current restoration criteria, and (4) in situ uranium permit requirements for the States of Texas, Wyoming, New Mexico, Utah, Montana, Colorado, and South Dakota, and Federal requirements

  11. Molecular structure-adsorption study on current textile dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örücü, E; Tugcu, G; Saçan, M T

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the adsorption of a diverse set of textile dyes onto granulated activated carbon (GAC). The adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch system. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and the isotherm constants were calculated for 33 anthraquinone and azo dyes. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted more adequately to the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich isotherm model. Added to a qualitative analysis of experimental results, multiple linear regression (MLR), support vector regression (SVR) and back propagation neural network (BPNN) methods were used to develop quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models with the novel adsorption data. The data were divided randomly into training and test sets. The predictive ability of all models was evaluated using the test set. Descriptors were selected with a genetic algorithm (GA) using QSARINS software. Results related to QSPR models on the adsorption capacity of GAC showed that molecular structure of dyes was represented by ionization potential based on two-dimensional topological distances, chromophoric features and a property filter index. Comparison of the performance of the models demonstrated the superiority of the BPNN over GA-MLR and SVR models.

  12. Goal management as an attempt to evaluate nature conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews international approaches to evaluation research and attempts to apply this to the evaluation of the efficiency of environmental education campaigns in Southern Africa. It discusses the objectives of evaluation, looks into current practices in the evaluation of resident outdoor educational programmes in the ...

  13. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    KAUST Repository

    Kubiak, Jan J.; Khankhane, Premraj J.; Kleingeld, Pieter J.; Lima, Ana T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately

  14. Development of a clinical prediction rule to improve peripheral intravenous cannulae first attempt success in the emergency department and reduce post insertion failure rates: the Vascular Access Decisions in the Emergency Room (VADER) study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Peter J; Rippey, James C R; Cooke, Marie L; Bharat, Chrianna; Murray, Kevin; Higgins, Niall S; Foale, Aileen; Rickard, Claire M

    2016-02-11

    Peripheral intravenous cannula (PIVC) insertion is one of the most common clinical interventions performed in emergency care worldwide. However, factors associated with successful PIVC placement and maintenance are not well understood. This study seeks to determine the predictors of first time PIVC insertion success in emergency department (ED) and identify the rationale for removal of the ED inserted PIVC in patients admitted to the hospital ward. Reducing failed insertion attempts and improving peripheral intravenous cannulation practice could lead to better staff and patient experiences, as well as improving hospital efficiency. We propose an observational cohort study of PIVC insertions in a patient population presenting to ED, with follow-up observation of the PIVC in subsequent admissions to the hospital ward. We will collect specific PIVC observational data such as; clinician factors, patient factors, device information and clinical practice variables. Trained researchers will gather ED PIVC insertion data to identify predictors of insertion success. In those admitted from the ED, we will determine the dwell time of the ED-inserted PIVC. Multivariate regression analyses will be used to identify factors associated with insertions success and PIVC failure and standard statistical validation techniques will be used to create and assess the effectiveness of a clinical predication rule. The findings of our study will provide new evidence to improve insertion success rates in the ED setting and identify strategies to reduce premature device failure for patients admitted to hospital wards. Results will unravel a complexity of factors that contribute to unsuccessful PIVC attempts such as patient and clinician factors along with the products, technologies and infusates used. ACTRN12615000588594; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. [Factors related to suicide attempts in a Tunisian sample of patients with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, S; M'solly, M; Benhawala, S; Jones, Y; El-Hechmi, Z

    2013-02-01

    The mortality rate in schizophrenia is 4.5 times higher than in the general population. Suicide is one of the main causes of premature death in this affection. Life time prevalence of this behavior ranges from 10 to 15%, which represents a risk 20 to 50 times higher than in the general population. In addition, 40 to 93% of patients who committed suicide had attempted suicide previously. Thus, assessment of correlated variables with suicide attempts is a fundamental issue for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies in suicidal behavior. To the best of our knowledge, no systematic study has yet investigated suicide attempts in an Arabic Muslim population with schizophrenia, although many authors have demonstrated cultural differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables related to suicide attempts within many geographic areas around the world. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and characteristics of lifetime suicide attempts in Tunisian schizophrenic outpatients and to determine the correlated socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables. A total of 134 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who attended the outpatient department of the university psychiatric hospital of Tunis were included. The main demographic and lifetime clinical variables considered were: gender, marital status, family history of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts, age at time of recruitment, age at onset of illness, duration of untreated psychosis defined as the interval between the onset of the illness and the first antipsychotic treatment, the type and dose of current treatment, dose of antipsychotic drugs converted to chlorpromazine equivalents, extrapyramidal side effects assessed with the Simpson Angus rating scale, number of hospitalizations, comorbid substance abuse, cigarette smoking, severity of psychopathology measured with the Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and history of at least one suicide attempt

  16. Current Research at the Endeavour Ridge 2000 Integrated Studies Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, D. A.; Kelley, D. S.; Ridge 2000 Community, R.

    2004-12-01

    Integrated geophysical, geological, chemical, and biological studies are being conducted on the Endeavour segment with primary support from NSF, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and NSERC (Canada). The research includes a seismic network, physical and chemical sensors, high-precision mapping and time-series sampling. Several research expeditions have taken place at the Endeavour ISS in the past year. In June 2003, an NSF-sponsored cruise with R.V. al T.G.Thompson/ROV al Jason2 installed microbial incubators in drill-holes in the sides of active sulfide chimneys and sampled rocks, fluids, and microbes in the Mothra and Main Endeavour Field (MEF). In July 2003, with al Thompson/Jason2, an NSF-LEXEN project at Baby Bare on Endeavour east flank conducted sampling through seafloor-penetrating probes, plus time-series sampling of fluids, microbes, and rocks at the MEF. In September 2003, with al Thompson/ROV al ROPOS, the Keck Proto-Neptune project installed a seismic network consisting of 1 broadband and 7 short-period seismometers, installation of chemical/physical sensors and time-series samplers for chemistry and microbiology in the MEF and Clam Bed sites, collection of rocks, fluids, animals, and microbes. In May/June 2004, an NSF-sponsored al Atlantis/Alvin cruise recovered sulfide incubators installed in 2003, redeployed a sulfide incubator, mapped MEF and Mothra vent fields with high-resolution Imagenix sonar, sampled fluids from MEF, Mothra, and Clam Bed, recovered year-long time-series fluid and microbial samplers from MEF and Clam Bed, recovered and installed hot vent temperature-resistivity monitors, cleaned up the MEF and deployed new markers at major sulfide structures. In August 2004, there were two MBARI/Keck-sponsored cruises with R.V. al Western Flyer/ROV al Tiburon. The first cruise completed the seismic network with addition of two more broadband seismometers and serviced all 7 short-period seismometers. al Tiburon then performed microbial and chemical

  17. Association of Adolescent Dimensional Borderline Personality Pathology with Past and Current Nonsuicidal Self-Injury and Lifetime Suicidal Behavior: A Clinical Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Edanackaparampil, Manju; Schmidt, Johannes; Kirisgil, Melek; Fischer, Gloria; Wewetzer, Christoph; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Resch, Franz

    Descriptive diagnoses of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicide attempts (SAs) may detract from underlying dimensional borderline personality pathology (D-BPP). This study aimed to investigate D-BPP in adolescent inpatients with NSSI and SAs. A consecutive sample of 359 adolescent inpatients was assessed for current and past NSSI and life-time SAs. D-BPP and current mental health problems were measured using the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, respectively. D-BPP was significantly associated with both current (p BPP or current mental health problems. A multivariate model did not show any additional influence of current mental health problems over and above D-BPP in predicting NSSI and SAs. It can be hypothesized that D-BPP underlies adolescent self-harm and may persist even after its termination, promoting a higher burden of mental health problems. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. [The influencing factors on suicide attempt among adolescents in South Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2008-06-01

    Suicide has been considered a large public health concern in recent years because suicide mortality has been increasing rapidly. This study was done to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of a suicide attempt among adolescents in South Korea. The data of the 2006 Youth Health Risk Behavior web-based Survey collected by the Korean Center for Disease Control was analyzed using logistic regression for this study. The prevalence of a suicide attempt was 5.2% in South Korea. The risk factors of a suicide attempt were suicidal ideation (odds 31.83), depression (odds 7.98), drug use (odds 4.67), currently smoking (odds 3.19), feeling unhappiness (odds 2.77), stress (odds 2.60), currently drinking alcohol (odds 2.39), sexual activity (odds 2.33), living with neither parent (odds 2.24), initial alcohol drinking by age 9 (odds 1.80), health status (odds 2.15), skipped breakfast (odds 1.75), disease (odds 1.65), and school records (odds 1.22). Suicide screening and prevention programs should be developed, considering these risk factors. Suicide prevention programs should be applied to the at risk population prior to a suicide attempt.

  19. High interleukin-6 and impulsivity: determining the role of endophenotypes in attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isung, J; Aeinehband, S; Mobarrez, F; Nordström, P; Runeson, B; Asberg, M; Piehl, F; Jokinen, J

    2014-10-21

    The dysregulation of inflammation has been associated with depression and, more recently, with suicidal behaviors. The reports regarding the relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6) and suicide attempts are inconsistent. Personality traits such as impulsivity and aggression are considered endophenotypes and important factors that underlie suicidal behaviors. The aim of the current study was to assess whether plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of IL-6 are associated with personality traits among suicide attempters. We assessed the relationships among personality traits, IL-6 and violent suicide attempts. The plasma and CSF levels of IL-6 were measured in suicide attempters (plasma=58, CSF=39) using antibody-based immunoassay systems. Personality domains were assessed using the Karolinska Scale of Personality (KSP). IL-6 levels in plasma and CSF were used to predict personality domains via regression models. Plasma IL-6 was significantly and positively correlated with extraversion as well as the KSP subscales impulsivity and monotony avoidance. CSF IL-6 was positively correlated with monotony avoidance. Violent suicide attempts tended to be associated with high plasma IL-6 levels. Plasma and CSF levels of IL-6 were not significantly associated with each other. These results indicate that impulsivity and the choice of a violent suicide attempt method might be related to higher levels of IL-6 in individuals who attempt suicide. The neuroinflammation hypothesis of suicidal behavior on the basis of elevated IL-6 levels might be partly explained by the positive association between IL-6 and impulsivity, which is a key element of the suicidal phenotype.

  20. Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Immigrants in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsicas, Cendrine Bursztein; Mäkinen, Ilkka Henrik; Wasserman, Danuta; Apter, Alan; Kerkhof, Ad; Michel, Konrad; Renberg, Ellinor Salander; van Heeringen, Kees; Värnik, Airi; Schmidtke, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare frequencies of suicide attempt repetition in immigrants and local European populations, and the timing of repetition in these groups. Method: Data from 7 European countries, comprising 10 574 local and 3032 immigrant subjects, were taken from the World Health Organization European Multicentre Study on Suicidal Behaviour and the ensuing Monitoring Suicidal Behaviour in Europe (commonly referred to as MONSUE) project. The relation between immigrant status and repetition of suicide attempt within 12-months following first registered attempt was analyzed with binary logistic regression, controlling for sex, age, and method of attempt. Timing of repetition was controlled for sex, age, and the recommended type of aftercare. Results: Lower odds of repeating a suicide attempt were found in Eastern European (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.61, P Europe stands in contrast to their markedly higher tendency to attempt suicide in general, possibly pointing to situational stress factors related to their suicidal crisis that are less persistent over time. Our findings also raise the possibility that suicide attempters and repeaters constitute only partially overlapping populations. PMID:25565687

  1. [Life Experience following Suicide Attempt among Middle-aged Men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to identify the meaning of life experience following suicide attempt among middle-aged men. A qualitative research design was adopted using van Manen's hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The participants were six middle-aged men who had attempted suicide at least one time. Data were collected in 2013 through in-depth interviews. Individual interviews were recorded; and literary, art works and phenomenological literature were searched to identify the meaning of the experience. The five essential themes of the life experience of middle-aged men who attempted suicide were 'Bitter reality confronted again', 'Anger buried deep inside', 'Broken family, inescapable fetters', 'Blocked relationships, closed world' and 'A step towards a new life'. The meaning of lived experience found in this study provides deep insight into the experience following suicide attempt in middle-aged men and crucial information to give directions to appropriate support and nursing interventions.

  2. Substance Use Disorders and Suicide Attempts in Bipolar Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sublette, M. Elizabeth; Carballo, Juan J.; Moreno, Carmen; Galfalvy, Hanga C.; Brent, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Mann, J. John; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2009-01-01

    1. Abstract Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with high rates of suicide attempt and completion. Substance use disorders (SUD) have been identified as potent risk factors for suicidal behavior in BD. However, little is known concerning differences between BD subtypes with regard to SUD as a risk factor for suicidal behavior. We studied previous suicidal behavior in adults with a major depressive episode in context of BD type I (BD-I; N=96) or BD type II (BD-II; N=42), with and without history of SUD. Logistic regressions assessed the association between SUD and suicide attempt history by BD type, and exploratory analyses examined the effects of other clinical characteristics on these relationships. SUD were associated with suicide attempt in BD-I but not BD-II, an effect not attributable to sample size differences. The higher suicide attempt rate associated with alcoholism in BD-I was mostly explained by higher aggression scores, and earlier age of BD onset increased the likelihood that alcohol use disorder would be associated with suicide attempt(s). The higher suicide attempt rate associated with other drug use disorders in BD-I was collectively explained by higher impulsivity, hostility, and aggression scores. The presence of both alcohol and drug use disorders increased odds of a history of suicide attempt in a multiplicative fashion: 97% of BD-I who had both comorbid drug and alcohol use disorders had made a suicide attempt. A critical next question is how to target SUD and aggressive traits for prevention of suicidal behavior in BD-I. PMID:18590916

  3. Characteristics of suicidal attempts among farmers in rural South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi S Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, farming as an industry is considered a high-risk occupation for suicides. Certain states in India like Karnataka have a suicide rate higher than the national average, and this is generally attributed to the farmers' suicide. Aims: The aim is to study the characteristics of suicidal attempts among the farmer community in South India, with special emphasis on gender differences, modes used, and the immediate precipitant causes. Materials and Methods: Retrospective, case register-based, explorative-descriptive study of 426 consecutive medicolegal case files of patients whose stated occupation was farming and who were admitted as cases of deliberate self-harm or suicide attempt to a rural tertiary care hospital in rural South India. Results: Out of the 426 farmers who attempted suicide, majority were male (355, 83.3%, in the age group of 21–40 years (318, 75%, married (358, 84%, and belonging to lower socioeconomic status (268, 62.9%. About 54% of them had attempted suicide by consuming pesticides (230. Surprisingly, 183 (43% and 86 (20.2% reported the immediate precipitant as being relationship issues and marital conflict, respectively, and only 100 (23.5% attributed it to financial reasons. Females were significantly associated with a past history of suicidal attempt while males tended to abuse alcohol before an attempt more frequently. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning was the most common mode for attempting suicide among the farmers. Contrary to public perception and other studies, relationship, and marital issues, not financial reasons were found to be the most common immediate precipitant for the attempters in our study.

  4. A review of factors associated with greater likelihood of suicide attempts and suicide deaths in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Azorin, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    of current/recent episode, predominant polarity, mood episode characteristics, psychosis, psychiatric comorbidity, personality characteristics, sexual dysfunction, first-degree family history of suicide or mood disorders, past suicide attempts, early life trauma, and psychosocial precipitants. CONCLUSION......OBJECTIVES: Many factors influence the likelihood of suicide attempts or deaths in persons with bipolar disorder. One key aim of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide was to summarize the available literature on the presence and magnitude of effect of these factors....... METHODS: A systematic review of studies published from 1 January 1980 to 30 May 2014 identified using keywords 'bipolar disorder' and 'suicide attempts or suicide'. This specific paper examined all reports on factors putatively associated with suicide attempts or suicide deaths in bipolar disorder samples...

  5. What characterizes substance abusers who commit suicide attempts? Factors related to Axis I disorders and patterns of substance use disorders. A study of treatment-seeking substance abusers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landheim, A S; Bakken, K; Vaglum, P

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of suicide attempts and clinical characteristics of attempters among poly-substance abusers and alcoholics were examined. A consecutive sample (n = 260) of in- and outpatients from two Norwegian counties were assessed by Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Axis I disorders), Millon's Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (Axis II disorders) and the Norwegian National Client Assessment Form. When analysing the association between suicide attempters and the range of predictor variables, logistic regression analysis was conducted. Almost half (47%) of the sample reported lifetime suicide attempts; significantly more frequently in poly-substance abusers (58%) than alcoholics (38%). A substance use disorder with duration of >or=15 years and an early onset (suicide attempter after controlling for Axis I disorders. In addition, eating disorders, agoraphobia and major depression were strongly and independently associated with being a suicide attempter. Attempts at preventing suicidal behaviour should not ignore the suicide risk among poly-substance abusers. In addition, prevention of suicidal behaviour demands a treatment programme focusing concomitantly on both addictive behaviour and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Detection of mental imagery and attempted movements in patients with disorders of consciousness using EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar eHorki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Further development of an EEG based communication device for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC could benefit from addressing the following gaps in knowledge – first, an evaluation of different types of motor imagery; second, an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup; and third, rapid delivery of biased feedback. To that end we investigated whether complex and / or familiar mental imagery, passive, and attempted feet movement can be reliably detected in patients with DoC using EEG recordings, aiming to provide them with a means of communication. Six patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS took part in this study. The patients were verbally instructed to perform different mental imagery tasks (sport, navigation, as well as attempted feet movements, to induce distinctive event-related (desynchronization (ERD/S patterns in the EEG. Offline classification accuracies above chance level were reached in all three tasks (i.e. attempted feet, sport, and navigation, with motor tasks yielding significant (p<0.05 results more often than navigation (sport: 10 out of 18 sessions; attempted feet: 7 out of 14 sessions; navigation: 4 out of 12 sessions. The passive feet movements, evaluated in one patient, yielded mixed results: whereas time-frequency analysis revealed task-related EEG changes over neurophysiological plausible cortical areas, the classification results were not significant enough (p<0.05 to setup an initial classifier for the detection of attempted movements. Concluding, the results presented in this study are consistent with the current state of the art in similar studies, to which we contributed by comparing different types of mental tasks, notably complex motor imagery and attempted feet movements, within patients. Furthermore, we explored new venues, such as an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup, and rapid delivery of biased feedback.

  7. Risk Factors for Suicide Attempt in Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farideh faraji

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was conducted to identify risk and prediction factors of suicide attempts among drug abusers. Method: This causal-comparative study was conducted on 91 drug abusers that included 42 male and female suicide attempters and 49 male and female counterparts. Millon multi-axial personality inventory-II (MCMI-II, Dass-42 (depression, anxiety, stress, and coping styles inventory were used for data collection purposes. Results: The highest rate of suicide attempt was found in young male drug abusers with these characteristics: single, junior school graduate, unemployed, suicide history, sex and physical abuse history during childhood, legal problems, suicide and self-injury witness, and violence and suicide in family members. Compared to non-attempters, suicide attempters obtained higher scores in depressive, obsessive, masochistic, and borderline personality disorders clinical somatoform symptoms, alcohol abuse in addition to drug use, major depressive disorder, and stress. Suicide attempters also used lower levels of task-focused and avoidance-focused strategies and higher levels of emotion-focused strategies to cope with stressors. Conclusion: The findings of this study can contribute to suicide identification and prevention among drug abusers.

  8. Risk of Suicide Attempt in Adopted and Nonadopted Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyes, M. A.; Malone, S. M.; Sharma, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide att...... of the risk of suicide attempt in adopted offspring may inform the larger investigation of suicidality in all adolescents and young adults.......OBJECTIVE: We asked whether adoption status represented a risk of suicide attempt for adopted and nonadopted offspring living in the United States. We also examined whether factors known to be associated with suicidal behavior would mediate the relationship between adoption status and suicide...... attempt. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, which included 692 adopted and 540 nonadopted offspring and was conducted at the University of Minnesota from 1998 to 2008. Adoptees were systematically ascertained from records of 3 large Minnesota adoption...

  9. Heterogeneity in Past Year Cigarette Smoking Quit Attempts among Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gundersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Examine the association between English language proficiency (ELP and immigrant generation and having made a cigarette smoking quit attempt in the past 12 months among Latinos. Examine if gender moderates the association between acculturation and quit attempts. Methods. Latino past year smokers from the 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between quit attempt and ELP and immigrant generation, controlling for demographics and smoking characteristics. Results. Latinos with poor ELP were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to those with good ELP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.22, confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.46 after controlling for demographic and smoking characteristics. First (AOR=1.21, CI: 1.02–1.43 and second generation immigrants (AOR=1.36, CI: 1.12–1.64 were more likely than third generation immigrants to have made a quit attempt in the past 12 months. Conclusion. Quit behaviors are shaped by differences in language ability and generational status among Latinos. This underscores the need to disaggregate Latinos beyond racial/ethnic categories to identify subgroup differences relevant for smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in this population.

  10. Equity perceptions and marital satisfaction in former and current marriage: A study among the remarried

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, A.P.; Mutsaers, W

    A study among 290 remarried individuals examined equity perceptions in the former and the current marriage. The results showed that equity in the former and the current marriage were not related to each other. In general, respondents perceived much more inequity in the former than in the current

  11. Comparing Families of Suicide Attempters, Human

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rezaei: Family process and content of suicide attempters and HIV positive patients. Annals of Medical ... the exclusion criteria (psychotic disorders, suicidal ideation, addiction, refusing ..... A review of mood disorders among juvenile offenders.

  12. Ethnic Differences in Suicidal Ideation and Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Rodriguez, M. Mercedes; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; Oquendo, Maria A.; Blanco, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death, and suicidal ideation and attempts are a major public health problem. However, little is known about the relationship between ethnicity and suicidal behaviors.

  13. Differences and similarities of risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts among patients with depressive or bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, Kari; Näätänen, Petri; Heikkinen, Martti; Koivisto, Maaria; Baryshnikov, Ilya; Karpov, Boris; Oksanen, Jorma; Melartin, Tarja; Suominen, Kirsi; Joffe, Grigori; Paunio, Tiina; Isometsä, Erkki

    2016-03-15

    Substantial literature exists on risk factors for suicidal behaviour. However, their comparative strength, independence and specificity for either suicidal ideation or suicide attempt(s) remain unclear. The Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium (HUPC) Study surveyed 287 psychiatric care patients with ICD-10-DCR depressive or bipolar disorders about lifetime suicidal behaviour, developmental history and attachment style, personality and psychological traits, current and lifetime symptom profiles, and life events. Psychiatric records were used to confirm diagnosis and complement information on suicide attempts. Multinomial regression models predicting lifetime suicidal ideation and single or repeated suicide attempts were generated. Overall, 21.6% patients had no lifetime suicidal behaviour, 33.8% had lifetime suicide ideation without attempts, and 17.1% had a single and 27.5% repeated suicide attempts. In univariate analyses, lifetime suicidal behaviour was associated with numerous factors. In multivariate models, suicidal ideation was independently predicted by younger age, severe depressive disorder, bipolar disorder type II/nos, hopelessness, and childhood physical abuse. Repeated suicide attempts were independently predicted by younger age, female sex, severe depressive disorder with or without psychotic symptoms, bipolar disorder type II/nos, alcohol use disorder, borderline personality disorder traits, and childhood physical abuse. Cross-sectional and retrospective study design, utilization of clinical diagnoses, and relatively low response rate. Risk factors for suicidal ideation and attempts may diverge both qualitatively and in terms of dose response. When effects of risk factors from multiple domains are concurrently examined, proximal clinical characteristics remain the most robust. All risk factors cluster into the group of repeated attempters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristic Risk Factors Associated with Planned versus Impulsive Suicide Attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeha; Lee, Kang-Sook; Kim, Dai Jin; Hong, Seung-Chul; Choi, Kyoung Ho; Oh, Youngmin; Wang, Sheng-Min; Lee, Hae-Kook; Kweon, Yong-Sil; Lee, Chung Tai; Lee, Kyoung-Uk

    2015-12-31

    The present study aimed to investigate predictors for planned suicide attempters. This study included 1,003 patients who attempted suicide and visited emergency department. They were divided into two groups, planned suicide attempters (SAs; n=133 [13.3%]) and impulsive SAs (n=870, [86.7%]), and the demographic variables, clinical characteristics, factors related to suicide, and psychiatric resources of the groups were compared. Major depressive disorder and substance use disorders were more common among planned SAs than among impulsive SAs. Additionally, the planned SAs were older, more likely to be divorced, separated or widowed, and more likely to have comorbid medical illnesses, severe depression, higher suicidality, and self-blaming tendencies than the impulsive SAs. Financial problems and physical illnesses were more common in planned SAs but interpersonal conflicts were more frequent in impulsive SAs. Planned SAs had fewer previous suicide attempts but these were more serious suicide attempts. The presence of the hope to die, a written will, and suicidal ideation of a repetitive, intense, and continuous nature were predictive of planned SAs. The present findings demonstrated that planned SAs had more severe psychopathology and medical illnesses than impulsive SAs. Therefore, screening for depression, substance use disorders, and suicidal plans among old and medically ill patients may be important for preventing suicide attempts.

  15. Suicide attempts among incarcerated homicide offenders

    OpenAIRE

    Dhingra, Katie; Boduszek, Daniel; Hyland, Philip; Shagufta, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the role of age, drug abuse, period of confinement, loneliness, difficulty in controlling emotions, having no friends in prison, victimization in prison, guilt over crimes, insomnia, nightmares, anxiety, depression, and mood change in predicating suicide attempts in a sample of homicidal young prisoners. Poisson regression model indicated that five variables contributed significantly to the prediction of suicide attempts. Specifically, participants reporting drug ab...

  16. Risk factors of suicide attempts by poisoning: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia da Cruz Pires

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Suicide, a complex and universal human phenomenon, is a major public health problem. This study reviewed the literature about the major risk factors associated with suicide attempts by poisoning. Methods: An integrative review of the literature was performed in databases (LILACS, PubMed and MEDLINE to search for studies published between 2003 and 2013, using the following keywords: suicide, attempted; poisoning; risk factors. Inclusion criteria were: original study with abstract, sample of adults, and attempted suicide by poisoning in at least 50% of the study population. Results: Two hundred and nineteen studies were retrieved and read by two independent examiners, and 22 were included in the study. The main risk factors for suicide attempts by poisoning were female sex, age 15-40 years, single status, little education, unemployment, drug or alcohol abuse or addiction, psychiatric disorder and psychiatric treatment using antidepressants. Conclusion: Further prospective studies should be conducted to confirm these risk factors or identify others, and their findings should contribute to planning measures to prevent suicide attempts.

  17. Study on the Electronic Magnetic Field Oriented Control Based on D-axis Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Feng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the magnetic field orientation accuracy and system performance, the electronic field oriented control has been a hot research field of the induction motor speed control. Although the vector control of AC machines has many excellent properties, the researchers have been attempting to simplify the calculating steps and the structure of the control system to improve the accuracy of filed-oriented and the performance of AC machine drives. Based on the analysis of the conventional induction motor magnetic field oriented control, this paper puts forward a novel method of stator magnetic field orientation control. By analytical methods, the given current of d-axis can be calculated directly, and the stator flux can be controlled precisely. This method has a fast flux and torque response, and the control performance is unaffected by the rotor parameters.

  18. Systematic Literature Review of Attempted Suicide and Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Ingeborg; Myhre Reigstad, Marte; Frisch Moe, Kristin; Grimholt, Tine K.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Exposure to parental suicide attempt is associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes like lower educational performance, drug abuse and delinquent behavior. When a patient is hospitalized after a suicide attempt, this presents a unique opportunity to identify whether the patient has children, and thereby provide adequate follow-up for both the parent/patient and their children. The objective of this paper was to review the existing literature on follow-up measures for children subjected to parental suicide attempt. Methods: In line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement, we conducted a systematic literature search. Results: The search resulted in a total of 1275 article titles, of which all abstracts were screened. Out of these, 72 full text papers were read, and a final four articles were included. Three of the included papers described parts of the same study from an emergency department in The Hague, where a protocol was implemented for monitoring and referring children of parents attempting suicide. The fourth article described the association between maternal attempted suicide and risk of abuse or neglect of their children. Conclusions: The lack of research in this particular area is striking. The circumstances surrounding a parent’s suicide attempt call for appropriate familial care. PMID:29738447

  19. Systematic Literature Review of Attempted Suicide and Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Lunde

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to parental suicide attempt is associated with higher risks of adverse outcomes like lower educational performance, drug abuse and delinquent behavior. When a patient is hospitalized after a suicide attempt, this presents a unique opportunity to identify whether the patient has children, and thereby provide adequate follow-up for both the parent/patient and their children. The objective of this paper was to review the existing literature on follow-up measures for children subjected to parental suicide attempt. Methods: In line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA statement, we conducted a systematic literature search. Results: The search resulted in a total of 1275 article titles, of which all abstracts were screened. Out of these, 72 full text papers were read, and a final four articles were included. Three of the included papers described parts of the same study from an emergency department in The Hague, where a protocol was implemented for monitoring and referring children of parents attempting suicide. The fourth article described the association between maternal attempted suicide and risk of abuse or neglect of their children. Conclusions: The lack of research in this particular area is striking. The circumstances surrounding a parent’s suicide attempt call for appropriate familial care.

  20. Time to hospitalization for suicide attempt by the timing of parental suicide during offspring early development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S. Janet; Runeson, Bo; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Wilcox, Holly C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Previous studies have suggested that children who experience parental suicide at earlier ages are at higher risk of future hospitalization for suicide attempt. However, how the trajectories of risk differ by offspring age at the time of parental suicide is currently unknown. Objective To study time at risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt among offspring after experiencing parental suicide or accidental death by offspring developmental period at the time of parental death. Design Population-based retrospective cohort study Setting Sweden Participants 26,096 offspring who experienced parental suicide and 32,395 offspring of accident decedents prior to age 25 from 1973-2003. Main Outcome Measures Hospitalization for suicide attempt. Parametric survival analysis was used to model the time to hospitalization for suicide attempt across offspring who lost a parent during early childhood (0-5 years old), later childhood (6-12), adolescence (13-17) and young adulthood (18-24). Results The risk in offspring who lost a parent during early or late childhood surpassed the other two age groups’ hazards approximately 5 years after the origin and, for the youngest group, continued to rise over the course of decades. Offspring who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood were at greatest risk within 1 to 2 years after parental suicide, and risk declined over time. The shape of hospitalization risk was similar among those who experienced parental fatal accident. When the shape of hospitalization for suicide attempt at each developmental period was fixed to be the same between the two groups, offspring who lost a parent to suicide had earlier risk to hospitalization for suicide attempt hospitalization than offspring who lost a parent to an accident. Conclusion The hospitalization risk for suicide attempt in offspring who lost a parent during their childhood is different from those who lost a parent during adolescence or young adulthood. The results suggest

  1. Neoclassical current studies in high beta plasmas. Technical progress report, October 1, 1982-September 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    During the 12-month period, October 1, 1982 to September 30, 1983 the Levitated Octupole has been dedicated to a study of neoclassical currents. At beta values of a few percent, both the Pfirsch-Schlueter current and the bootstrap current have been observed and compared with theoretical predictions. The spatial variation of the current both radially and poloidally are found to agree with the prediction over a wide range of collisionality. A four megawatt ICRH capability exists for sustaining the current in steady state

  2. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Suicide Attempters Who Needed ICU Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMA Shalahuddin Qusar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77

  3. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows......Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo...... the distribution of particulate matter outwards from the sediment outflow. By calibrating a VoRT it is possible to control sedimentation rate by manipulating water and air flow rates. As an example application, three VoRTs were maintained under different sediment loadings to assess the sediment fraction...

  4. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    KAUST Repository

    Kubiak, Jan J.

    2012-04-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As remediation and collected from a ditch in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The tanks were filled with surface water without any pre-cleaning, therefore containing various elements including metals as Mn (2.9mgL -1), Cu (0.05mgL -1), Fe (1.39mgL -1), and Ba (0.13mgL -1). This water was then spiked with As and allocated to a feed container, guaranteeing a continuous flow of 0.12mLs -1 to each tank. Two experiments were performed: Exp. 1 with 3 consecutive stages with rising applied voltage and Exp. 2, with a constant voltage over a period of 6d. Measurements of pH and temperature were taken every working day, as well as water samples from outlets of all tanks including feed container for control. From the present study, there was no evidence that As had been taken up by the plants, but a strong depletion of As was observed in the tanks where current was applied. Preliminary results clearly showed that applying voltage to the electrodes caused 90% removal of As from the spiked surface water. © 2012 .

  5. Attempting to Answer a Meaningful Question Enhances Subsequent Learning Even When Feedback Is Delayed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornell, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Attempting to retrieve information from memory enhances subsequent learning even if the retrieval attempt is unsuccessful. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit materializes only if subsequent study occurs immediately after the retrieval attempt. Previous studies have prompted retrieval using a cue (e.g., "whale-???") that has no…

  6. Personality differences in early versus late suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitzka, Ute; Denzin, Sebastian; Sauer, Cathrin; Bauer, Michael; Jabs, Burkhard

    2016-08-09

    Suicidality is an individual behaviour caused by a complex framework of internal and external factors. The predictive values of personality traits for a suicide attempt have been demonstrated, especially in conjunction with Cloninger's TCI and impulsivity. Two issues remain unsolved, namely whether these traits alter over time after a suicide attempt, and how they may be influenced by depressive symptoms. We studied two patient cohorts: one sample of 81 patients after a suicide attempt no longer than 3 months previously (SA early) and another sample of 32 patients whose attempt had taken place more than 6 months previously (SA late). We carried out structured interviews with these subjects addressing diagnosis (MINI), suicidality (Scale for suicide ideation), depression (HAMD-17), temperament and character inventory (TCI), and impulsivity (BIS-10). Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Our two groups did not differ significantly in sociodemographics or suicidality. However, patients in the SA early group were significantly more depressed (p impulsivity (p suicide attempt. Further investigations are necessary to verify our results, ideally in longitudinal studies with larger, carefully-described cohorts. It would be also clinically important to investigate the influence of therapeutic strategies on the variability of personality traits and their impact on suicidal behavior.

  7. Epidemiology of Suicide Attempts among Youth Transitioning to Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P; Swartout, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death for older adolescents and young adults. Although empirical literature has identified important risk factors of suicidal behavior, it is less understood if changes in risk factors correspond with changes in suicide risk. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed if there were different trajectories of suicidal behavior as youth transition into young adulthood and determined what time-varying risk factors predicted these trajectories. This study used four waves of data spanning approximately 13 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample included 9027 respondents who were 12-18 years old (M = 15.26; SD = 1.76) at Wave 1, 50% male, 17% Hispanic, and 58% White. The results indicated that 93.6% of the sample had a low likelihood for suicide attempts across time, 5.1% had an elevated likelihood of attempting suicide in adolescence but not young adulthood, and 1.3% had an elevated likelihood of attempting suicide during adolescence and adulthood. The likelihood of a suicide attempt corresponded with changes on depression, impulsivity, delinquency, alcohol problems, family and friend suicide history, and experience with partner violence. Determining how suicide risk changes as youth transition into young adulthood and what factors predict these changes can help prevent suicide. Interventions targeting these risk factors could lead to reductions in suicide attempts.

  8. Attempted suicide and contact with the primary health authorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Jensen, Knud

    1994-01-01

    In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newl...... with their general practitioner prior to the suicide attempt. Postgraduate courses for practitioners on depression diagnostics and suicidal behaviour are proposed as a measure in suicide prevention.......In a study describing suicide attempters' approach to the health and social welfare authorities prior to a suicide attempt, it was found that one-fourth of the patients seeking help requested therapeutic consultations and only a few asked for medicinal treatment. Forty-four percent had taken newly...... prescribed medicine for the parasuicide. It is concluded that the availability of psychological support and a more restrictive prescription of medicine could have a preventive effect on parasuicidal behaviour. Patients suffering from depression and pain have more often than other patients been in contact...

  9. Suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia from 2007 to 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Christoffersen, Mette; Veirum, Nikoline Høgsgaard

    2014-01-01

    (65/77, 85.1%) among those using violent methods such as hanging and jumping compared to non-violent methods (43/84, 50.9%) such as ingesting chemicals and drugs (pdepression, and unwanted pregnancies. Many cases of suicide......BACKGROUND: Suicide attempts and suicides constitute a significant burden on communities and health systems, especially in low income countries. However, many low income countries lack epidemiological information on which to base future preventive strategies. This study reports on gender and age...... profiles as well as the likely background and means used for suicide attempts and suicides in Bolivia. METHOD: This study presents 1124 cases from four different sources of information: (i) emergency ward data with suicide attempts by poisoning from the year 2007, (ii) psychiatric ward data including...

  10. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  11. [Risk factors found in suicide attempters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Manzano, Alberto Iram; Robles-Romero, Miguel Angel; Gutiérrez-Román, Elsa Armida; Martínez-Arriaga, María Guadalupe; Valadez-Toscano, Francisco Javier; Cabrera-Pivaral, Carlos E

    2009-01-01

    A better understanding of risk factors for suicide in general population is crucial for the design of suicide prevention programs. Our objective was to identify personal and family risk factors in suicide attempters. Case-control design. We searched in patients with an acute intoxication, those subjects with and intoxication attributable to suicide attempt. These patients were matched with controls by gender and the date of intoxication. We use a structured questionnaire to identify personal characteristics, family features and network support. Odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval were obtained. 25 cases and 25 controls were evaluated. The risk factors associated with suicide attempt adjusted by age, were being a student and smoking habits. Family violence background showed OR = 3.8 (IC 95 % = 1.1-13), family disintegration a OR = 8.5 (IC 95 % = 2.1-35), critical events background OR = 8.8 (IC 95 % = 2.1-36), poor self-esteem OR = 8.2 (IC 95 % 2-35), depression OR = 22 (IC 95 % = 3-190), anxiety OR = 9 (IC 95 % = 2-47), family dysfunction OR = 25 (IC 95 % = 4-151). The principal risk factor for suicide attempt was family dysfunction and psychological traits.

  12. A first attempt : k-center

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. A first attempt : k-center. Randomly select R= C x k points. expected C points from the “largest cluster”. Consider all C-points subsets of R. (at least one will be “purely” from largest cluster). Centroid of this will approximate cluster centre.

  13. Emergency Department Youth Patients With Suicidal Ideation or Attempts: Predicting Suicide Attempts Through 18 Months of Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum Asarnow, Joan; Berk, Michele; Zhang, Lily; Wang, Peter; Tang, Lingqi

    2017-10-01

    This prospective study of suicidal emergency department (ED) patients (ages 10-18) examined the timing, cumulative probability, and predictors of suicide attempts through 18 months of follow-up. The cumulative probability of attempts was as follows: .15 at 6 months, .22 at 1 year, and .24 by 18 months. One attempt was fatal, yielding a death rate of .006. Significant predictors of suicide attempt risk included a suicide attempt at ED presentation (vs. suicidal ideation only), nonsuicidal self-injurious behavior, and low levels of delinquent symptoms. Results underscore the importance of both prior suicide attempts and nonsuicidal self-harm as risk indicators for future and potentially lethal suicide attempts. © 2016 The American Association of Suicidology.

  14. A concept model for learning: An attempt to define a proper relations scheme between instruction, learning and to establish the dynamics of learning in relation to modern political concepts as study-fairness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Min, F.B.M.; Vos, Henk; Kommers, Petrus A.M.; van Dijkum, C.; van Dijkum, C.

    2000-01-01

    For years, it has been attempted within educational science to establish the process of learning. A lot is known about instruction, but as to learning and acquiring knowledge and insight, we still know very little. A lot of research is conducted on methods of instruction, but very little on learning

  15. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Santos,Michele Devido; Gagliardi,Rubens José; Mac-Kay,Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio,Paulo Sergio; Lianza,Roberta; Fregni,Felipe

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with ...

  16. Study of single pion production in antineutrino induced charged current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese, Teresa.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented on the exclusive charged current antineutrino production of one pion using the data of the Gargamelle propane experiment at CERN PS. The isospin structure of the charged weak current is studied as well as the energy dependence of the total cross section for π - antineutrino production, which is compared with the prediction of Adler's model [fr

  17. Study on classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talebian, Soheil; Hojjat, Yousef [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghodsi, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat (Oman); Karafi, Mohammad Reza [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In the present paper, classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D are studied and effects of magnetic field frequency, peak of magnetic flux density and diameter of Terfenol-D on the eddy currents losses are investigated. To provide reliable data for the purpose of the paper, an experimental laboratory is fabricated and used to obtain major and minor hysteresis loops of Terfenol-D at different frequencies. In theoretical study, initially an analytical model based on uniform distribution of magnetic flux is developed which yields to calculation of classical eddy currents losses. Then, another eddy currents model based on non-uniform distribution of magnetic flux and nonlinear diffusion of electromagnetic fields is presented. The difference between output values of the two models is identified as excess eddy currents losses. Obtained results show that the values of excess losses are generally larger than classical losses and applying just classical model leads to wrong calculation of actual value of eddy currents losses. For the results obtained from two above models, empirical models with respect to the magnetic field frequency and the peak value of magnetic flux density are achieved which can predict the eddy currents losses precisely. To validate the empirical relations, experiments are repeated at a new frequency and values of power losses calculated from analytical equations are compared with the predicted values of the empirical models. The results point towards possibility to use the obtained empirical relations in order to calculate the classical and excess eddy currents losses of Terfenol-D at the frequencies below 200 Hz and different values of magnetic flux density. - Highlights: • Classical eddy currents loss of Terfenol-D is studied using Maxwell's laws. • Excess eddy currents loss of Terfenol-D is studied using Mayergoyz nonlinear model. • Effects of Terfenol-D geometry on the eddy currents losses are investigated. • Power

  18. Effect of current density on the anodic behaviour of zircaloy-4 and niobium: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath Reddy, G.; Lavanya, A.; Ch Anjaneyulu

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of anodic oxidation of zircaloy-4 and niobium have been studied at current densities ranging from 2 to 14 mA.cm -2 at room temperature in order to investigate the dependence of ionic current density on the field across the oxide film. Thickness of the anodic films were estimated from capacitance data. The formation rate, current efficiency and differential field were found to increase with increase in the ionic current density for both zircaloy-4 and niobium. Plots of the logarithm of formation rate vs. logarithm of the current density are fairly linear. From linear plots of logarithm of ionic current density vs. differential field, and applying the Cabrera-Mott theory, the half-jump distance and the height of the energy barrier are deduced and compared. (author)

  19. Weekend catch-up sleep is independently associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seung-Gul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju; Lim, Weonjeong; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Park, Young-Min; Cho, In Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2014-02-01

    The current study aims to determine the associations of insufficient sleep with suicide attempts and self-injury in a large, school-based Korean adolescent sample. A sample of 4553 middle- and high-school students (grades 7-10) was recruited in this study. Finally, 4145 students completed self-report questionnaires including items on sleep duration (weekday/weekend), self-injury, suicide attempts during the past year, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A multiple linear regression model showed that higher SIQ scores were associated with longer weekend catch-up sleep duration (p=0.009), higher BDI score (psleep duration (p=0.011), higher BDI score (psleep duration--which is an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep--might be associated with suicide attempts and self-injury in Korean adolescents. © 2014.

  20. Factors That Affect Adolescent Drug Users' Suicide Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Song, Hokwang

    2016-01-01

    Drug abuse has been widely linked to suicide risk. We examined the factors that affect adolescent drug users' suicide attempts in South Korea. This study analyzed the data of 311 adolescents who had used drugs such as inhalants, psychotropic drugs, and marijuana (195 males and 116 females). Among 311 subjects, 109 (35.0%) had attempted suicide during the last 12 months. After adjusting for other variables, depressive mood (OR=19.79) and poly-drug use (OR=2.79), and low/middle levels of academ...

  1. Risk of self-harm and nonfatal suicide attempts, and completed suicide in patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, A; Hansen, P. R.; Gislason, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease, and inflammation may affect suicidal behaviour. Current data on the incidence and risk of suicidal behaviour in patients with psoriasis are scarce. Objectives: We investigated the association between psoriasis and the risk of self......-harm and suicide attempts and suicides. Methods: All Danish patients aged ≥ 18 years with mild or severe psoriasis (cases) from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2011 were matched on age, sex and calendar time 1 : 5 with healthy controls. The outcome was a diagnosis of self-harm or a nonfatal suicide attempt......, or completed suicide. Incidence rates per 10 000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by Poisson regression models. Results: The study cohort comprised 408 663 individuals, including 57 502 and 11 009 patients with mild and severe...

  2. Predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.S.; Hoving, C.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.; West, R.; de Vries, H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite their positive motivation to quit, many smokers do not attempt to quit or relapse soon after their quit attempt. This study investigated the predictors of successful and unsuccessful quit attempts among smokers motivated to quit smoking. Methods: We conducted secondary data

  3. [The prevalence of suicide attempts among children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Ewelina; Talarowska, Monika; Orzechowska, Agata; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2013-03-01

    Suicide is the act of a fatal outcome. People who think about suicide perceive death as a way to avoid problems. Suicide attempts by children and young people likely to arise from the fact that the identified single or co-occurring mental disorders. was to illustrate the suicide problem, which is increasingly frequent attempts to take their own life for children and youth. Its main objective is to determine the prevalence and determinants of suicide attempts made by young people. The study group consisted of patients Babinski Hospital in Lodz. The study included 18 patients, 9 boys and 9 girls. Research methodology is based on the stories of young patients diseases. In order to verify the prevalence of trial and / or thoughts, suicidal tendencies among children and adolescents, was used as a research,tool - a survey of its own design. The survey consists of 21 questions about basic information on the state of social, physical and mental patients. Subjective verification made disseminate ideas, trends and / or suicide attempts among children and adolescents in most reflects the actual collection of information gathered by various authors. Children coming from families reconstructed and largely incomplete exhibit suicidal behavior. The main risk factors indicating the attempt on his own life are mental disorders: depression and behavioral disorders. Family situation of young people: conflicts between the father and the mother, violence, physical / mental, has a significant effect on the risk of an attempt on his own life. Superficial self-mutilation, is the main way to make a suicide bombing.

  4. Studies of non-inductive current drive in the CDX-U tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.S.

    1993-01-01

    Two types of novel, non-inductive current drive concepts for starting-up and maintaining tokamak discharges, dc-helicity injection and internally-generated pressure-driven currents, have been developed on the CDX-U tokamak. To study the equilibrium and transport of these plasmas, a full set of magnetic diagnostics was installed. By applying a finite element method and a least squares error fitting technique, internal plasma current distributions are reconstructed from the measurements. Electron density distributions were obtained from 2 mm interferometer measurements by a similar least squares error technique utilizing magnetic flux configurations obtained by the magnetic analysis. Neoclassical pressure-driven currents in ECH plasmas are modeled with the reconstructed magnetic structure, using the electron density distribution and the electron temperature profile measured by a Langmuir probe. In the dc-helicity injection scheme, the need to increase injection current and maintain plasma equilibrium restricts possible arrangements. Several injection configurations were investigated, with the best found to be outside injection with a single divertor configuration, where the cathode is placed at the low field side of the x-point. Both pressure-driven and dc-helicity injected tokamaks show the importance of plasma equilibrium in obtaining high plasma current. Programmed vertical field operation has proven to be very important in achieving high plasma current. These non-inductive current drive techniques show great potential as efficient current drive methods for future steady-state and/or long-pulse fusion reactors

  5. A scoping study for an environmental impact field programme in tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study to identify the environmental impacts of tidal current energy with the aim of prioritising research. The background to the study is traced, and the interaction between tidal current energy technology and the marine environment, the modeling of the consequences of the environmental interactions, the quantification of the environmental impacts of key environmental interactions, and the formulation of a programme of research are discussed. Recommendations are given and research needs are highlighted.

  6. Epidemiological aspects of suicide attempts among Moroccan children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive retrospective study over a period of 3 years (April 2012-April 2015) involving children who visited pediatric medical emergencies of the Children Hospital of Rabat after an autolysis attempt. We observed epidemiological parameters, history, social and family context, the means used, the presumed cause, clinical ...

  7. Characteristics of Suicide Attempters in a Slovenian High School Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan

    2000-01-01

    In a study of Slovenian high school students (N=3,687) results show that those who had attempted suicide and those who had not differed in levels of self-esteem, emotional reaction to family problems, running away from home, and substance abuse. Differences in depression, suicide ideation, family suicide ideation, family suicide occurrence,…

  8. Suicidal ideations, plans and attempts in primary care: cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation among Moroccan consultants in primary health care system. Methods: we conducted a cross sectional survey in three health care centers in two cities of Morocco to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan and suicide attempts among ...

  9. The Teacher Leadership Process: Attempting Change within Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kristy S.; Stanulis, Randi N.; Brondyk, Susan K.; Hamilton, Erica R.; Macaluso, Michael; Meier, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    This embedded case study examines the leadership practices of eleven teacher leaders in three urban schools to identify how these teacher leaders attempt to change the teaching practice of their colleagues while working as professional learning community leaders and as mentors for new teachers. Using a theoretical framework integrating complex…

  10. The Pretesting Effect: Do Unsuccessful Retrieval Attempts Enhance Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richland, Lindsey E.; Kornell, Nate; Kao, Liche Sean

    2009-01-01

    Testing previously studied information enhances long-term memory, particularly when the information is successfully retrieved from memory. The authors examined the effect of unsuccessful retrieval attempts on learning. Participants in 5 experiments read an essay about vision. In the test condition, they were asked about embedded concepts before…

  11. An attempt to electrically enhance phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubiak, J.J.; Khankhane, P.J.; Kleingeld, P.J.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Water polluted with arsenic presents a challenge for remediation. A combination of phyto- and electro-remediation was attempted in this study. Four tanks were setup in order to assess the arsenic removal ability of the two methods separately and in combination. Lemna minor was chosen for As

  12. Beyond Randomized Controlled Trials in Attempted Suicide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Simon; Sharon, Cynthia; Coggan, Carol

    2009-01-01

    There is a lack of evidence about what is the best treatment for people who present to hospital after self harm. Most treatment trials have been small and involved unrepresentative groups of patients which result in inconclusive findings. Here we note some of the characteristics of attempted suicide which make it a difficult subject to study. We…

  13. Study of leakage current behaviour on artificially polluted surface of ceramic insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Reddy, B.; Nagabhushana, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study concerning to the leakage current behaviour on artificially polluted ceramic insulator surface. From the present study it was observed that there is a reasonably well-defined inception of current i.e. scintillations at a finite voltage. The corresponding voltages for extinction of the current are in the range of 0.8 kV to 2.1 kV. Obviously, the dry band formed in the immediate vicinity of the pin prevents smooth current flow as the voltage rises from zero. Only when the voltage is adequate it causes a flashover of the dray band and current starts flowing. As is common in similar current extinction phenomena, here also, the extinction voltages are significantly lower than the inception voltages. Further, the voltage-current curves invariably show hysteresis-the leakage currents are lower in the reducing portion of the voltage. This is obviously due to drying of the wet pollutant layer thereby increasing its resistance. It is believed that this is the first time that such a direct quantitative evidence of drying in individual half cycles is experimentally visualized

  14. Anxiety Disorders Comorbidity in Iranian Patients with Mood Disorders and Its' Relationship with Suicidal Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shabani

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available     Objective: Several studies show co morbidity of anxiety disorders amongst patients with bipolar and unipolar disorders. It is associated with an intensification of symptoms, insufficient treatment response, non recovery, poor functional outcome and suicidality. The aim of this study was to show the frequency of anxiety disorders comorbidity and the relationship between comorbidity and suicide attempt in these patients.         Method: In a descriptive study, 152 patients with bipolar and unipolar disorders in a psychiatric center were assessed with SCID. Current and lifetime comorbidity in bipolar and unipolar patients were analyzed.         Results: One hundred fifty two subjects aged 18-60 years were included in the study and102 bipolar I, 11 bipolar II, and 39 unipolar patients were diagnosed.Co morbidity in each group was 21.2%, 11.5%, and 43.5%. Suicide attempt in patients with bipolar disorders and anxiety disorders comorbidity was significantly more than patients with bipolar disorders without co morbidity.     Conclusions: Significant proportions of patients with bipolar and unipolar disorder had co morbid anxiety disorders. Moreover, anxiety disorders comorbidity may be associated with more suicide attempt in bipolar patients,highlighting the need for greater clinical attention to anxiety in this population, particularly for enhanced clinical monitoring of suicidality. In addition, it is important to determine whether an effective treatment of anxiety symptoms can reduce suicidality.

  15. Attempting to model dissociations of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, Paul J.

    2002-05-01

    Kinder and Shanks report simulations aimed at describing a single-system model of the dissociation between declarative and non-declarative memory. This model attempts to capture both Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) and recognition memory with a single underlying representation. However, the model fails to reflect an essential feature of recognition memory - that it occurs after a single exposure - and the simulations may instead describe a potentially interesting property of over-training non-declarative memory.

  16. Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy: A Brief Intervention for Psychiatric Inpatients Admitted After a Suicide Attempt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Cox, Daniel W.; Greene, Farrah N.

    2012-01-01

    To date, no empirically based inpatient intervention for individuals who have attempted suicide exists. We present an overview of a novel psychotherapeutic approach, Post-Admission Cognitive Therapy (PACT), currently under development and empirical testing for inpatients who have been admitted for a recent suicide attempt. PACT is adapted from an…

  17. The validity of proxy-based NEO-Five Factor Inventory data in suicide research: a study of 18- to 64-year-old Hong Kong Chinese who attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S S M; Wong, C S M; Chiu, H F K

    2011-06-01

    To examine the validity of proxy-based NEO-Five Factor Inventory ratings for 18- to 64-year-old Chinese who attempted suicide. In all, 71 suicide attempters and their proxy-informants were recruited. Data based on structured interviews with the proxy respondents were compared with data obtained from interviews of the subjects themselves. For the 71 subject-proxy pairs, the overall correlations were fair to moderate (r = 0.30-0.45; p data that correlated less strongly with subjects' self-reports. Spousal ratings and self-reports correlated significantly in all domains, except extraversion (r = 0.42-0.63; p proxy-based data on NEO-Five Factor Inventory in research of suicidal behaviour in this age-group.

  18. The DiaS trial: dialectical behavior therapy versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality on self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and borderline personality disorder traits - study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, Kate; Krogh, Jesper; Rosenbaum, Bent; Gluud, Christian; Jobes, David A; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-05-29

    In Denmark 8,000 to 10,000 people will attempt suicide each year. The Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention in the Capital Region of Denmark is treating patients with suicidal behavior, and a recent survey has shown that 30% of the patients are suffering from borderline personality disorder. The majority of patients (70% to 75%) with borderline personality disorder have a history of deliberate self-harm and 10% have a lifetime risk to die by suicide. The DiaS trial is comparing dialectical behavior therapy with collaborative assessment and management of suicidality-informed supportive psychotherapy, for the risk of repetition of deliberate self-harm in patients with a recent suicide attempt and personality traits within the spectrum of borderline personality disorder. Both treatments have previously shown effects in this group of patients on suicide ideation and self-harm compared with treatment as usual. The trial is designed as a single-center, two-armed, parallel-group observer-blinded randomized clinical superiority trial. We will recruit 160 participants with a recent suicide attempt and at least two traits of the borderline personality disorder from the Centre of Excellence in Suicide Prevention, Capital Region of Denmark. Randomization will be performed though a centralized and computer-generated approach that conceals the randomization sequence. The interventions that are offered are a modified version of a dialectical behavior therapy program lasting 16 weeks versus collaborative assessment and management of suicidality-informed supportive psychotherapy, where the duration treatment will vary in accordance with established methods up to 16 weeks. The primary outcome measure is the ratio of deliberate self-harming acts including suicide attempts measured at week 28. Other exploratory outcomes are included such as severity of symptoms, suicide intention and ideation, depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, impulsivity, anger, and duration of respective

  19. Personality and attempted suicide. Analysis of anger, aggression and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giegling, Ina; Olgiati, Paolo; Hartmann, Annette M; Calati, Raffaella; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Rujescu, Dan; Serretti, Alessandro

    2009-12-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, mortality from suicide being approximately 2%. Attempted suicide appears to be a major risk factor for suicide completion. Anger, aggression and impulsivity are personality traits associated with suicide attempt. In this study we analysed a part of a previously reported sample in order to test anger, impulsivity and temperament/character scales as predictors of aggression and self-aggression in suicide attempters and to compare anger- and aggression-related traits between impulsive and premeditated suicide attempts as well as between violent and non-violent suicide methods. One-hundred-eleven consecutively admitted inpatients with a lifetime history of attempted suicide were assessed for anger (State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, STAXI), aggression (Questionnaire for Measuring Factors of Aggression, FAF) and temperament/character (Temperament and Character Inventory, TCI). Higher aggression scores, as measured by FAF, were predicted by being male, meeting criteria for borderline personality disorder and having higher angry temperament scores as assessed by STAXI; low cooperativeness was also associated with aggression but not after controlling for STAXI scales. TCI dimensions associated with self-aggression were high harm avoidance, high impulsivity and low self-directedness; state anger, inwardly directed anger and inhibition of aggression were also predictors of self-aggression. In conclusion, impulsivity and harm avoidance have emerged as temperament dimensions independently associated with self-aggressive tendencies in personality. Such interactions could explain the correlation between temperament and suicidality but further research is needed. Anger and self-directedness appear to have some effects on suicide attempt.

  20. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  2. Study on signal processing in Eddy current testing for defects in spline gear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Ho; Park, Tae Sug; Park, Ik Keun

    2016-01-01

    Eddy current testing (ECT) is commonly applied for the inspection of automated production lines of metallic products, because it has a high inspection speed and a reasonable price. When ECT is applied for the inspection of a metallic object having an uneven target surface, such as the spline gear of a spline shaft, it is difficult to distinguish between the original signal obtained from the sensor and the signal generated by a defect because of the relatively large surface signals having similar frequency distributions. To facilitate the detection of defect signals from the spline gear, implementation of high-order filters is essential, so that the fault signals can be distinguished from the surrounding noise signals, and simultaneously, the pass-band of the filter can be adjusted according to the status of each production line and the object to be inspected. We will examine the infinite impulse filters (IIR filters) available for implementing an advanced filter for ECT, and attempt to detect the flaw signals through optimization of system design parameters for detecting the signals at the system level

  3. Feasibility of the current-duration approach to studying human fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slama, Rémy; Ducot, Béatrice; Carstensen, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    of unprotected intercourse was defined for 69 women (5.7%). An additional 15 women (1.2%) were planning to start trying to become pregnant within the next 6 months. Parametric methods allowed, based on current duration of unprotected intercourse, estimation of fecundity as if the couples had been followed...... up (current-duration design). To illustrate the feasibility of the current-duration design, we contacted a random sample of 1204 French women age 18 to 44 years in 2004 and recruited those who were currently having unprotected sexual intercourse. The current duration since the beginning...... prospectively. The estimated proportion of couples not pregnant after 12 months of unprotected intercourse was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 15-54%). The accelerated-failure time model allows study of the influence of environmental factors on fecundity. As an illustration, tobacco smoking by the woman...

  4. Differences Between Patients that Made an Impulsive or Premeditated Suicide Attempt in a Mexican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Tovilla, Jorge E; Hernández Yánez, Homero Daniel; Peralta-Jiménez, Yesenia; Ramón-Frías, Teresa; Juárez-Rojop, Isela; Pool-García, Sherezada; Velázquez-Sánchez, Martha Patricia; López-Narvóez, Lilia; Fresán, Ana; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    We performed a study to identify differences between patients with impulsive suicide attempt and those with premeditated suicide attempt in a Mexican population. We studied 144 patients who recently attempted suicide. Impulsive and premeditated suicide attempts were evaluated with the Suicide Intent Scale. These data were divided according to the type of attempt. Subsequently, the characteristics between the two groups were compared. The rate of patients that made an impulsive attempt was 61.8% and only 9.7% of the patients carried out a premeditated suicide attempt. More years of schooling/education and less severity of the attempt were observed in patients that carried out an impulsive suicide attempt (p suicide attempt. Our findings demonstrate that there are clinical differences among the individuals who carried out an impulsive suicide attempt from those who premeditated an attempt in a Mexican population. As a result, when planning interventions and prevention efforts it may be helpful to consider these clinical differences and demographic characteristics. © 2015 The Author(s).

  5. [Morbidity-mortality review in psychiatry: suicide or suicide attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A; Combalbert, N; Fay, J; Paquis, J

    2010-06-01

    (diversion of the possessions with suicidal aim, and importance of the "almost incident") and on the interest in exchanging on the current and\\or local professional practices (exchange on tools possibly used in the other psychiatric health establishments; favor the training). The actions of improvement put in perspective mainly concerned the professional practices. In this particular case, the awareness of professional knowledge was the most sought by the ancillary medical members of the team. We observed an important investment of the team, as far as the MMR bases are concerned, on a shared clinical method. The participants easily got to grips with the tool. The initiation with the MMR tool was time consuming, in particular for the doctor coordinating the project and the referent doctor of the department (30 hours). The exchanges also permitted the assessment of the competence of each professional present, and the common priorities were fast identified and focused on sharing the professional practices. The intervention of an external speaker (doctor, qualitician or other) seems important since it favors the emergence of questionings in the team. When faced with unwanted events such as suicides or suicide attempts, the MMR method allows the care teams to have time to ponder, listen and argument. What is learnt from dealing with unexpected events should enable the collective development of the capacity to react with the right reflexes when a surprising situation occurs. The RMM should find a place in the systems of clinical risk management, as a supplement to the declaration of the incidence. The results make it possible to anticipate on the use of the MMR in other thematic studies or issues of risk management. Copyright (c) 2009 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiday Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Causes Clinically Insignificant Changes in Childhood Dystonia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Bertucco, Matteo; Young, Scott J; Lee, Annie A; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal motor cortex activity is common in dystonia. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation may alter cortical activity by decreasing excitability while anodal stimulation may increase motor learning. Previous results showed that a single session of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can improve symptoms in childhood dystonia. Here we performed a 5-day, sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, where we measured tracking and muscle overflow in a myocontrol-based task. We applied cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 9 minutes per day). For cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (7 participants), 3 subjects showed improvements whereas 2 showed worsening in overflow or tracking error. The effect size was small (about 1% of maximum voluntary contraction) and not clinically meaningful. For anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (6 participants), none showed improvement, whereas 5 showed worsening. Thus, multiday cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduced symptoms in some children but not to a clinically meaningful extent, whereas anodal transcranial direct current stimulation worsened symptoms. Our results do not support transcranial direct current stimulation as clinically viable for treating childhood dystonia. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. [Suicide attempts of 48 children aged 6-12 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthod, C; Giraud, C; Gansel, Y; Fourneret, P; Desombre, H

    2013-12-01

    Research is limited on suicide attempts in children under 13 years of age. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth description of this population. The present study is both retrospective and descriptive. Data were collected retrospectively from a file containing the causes for hospitalization of each child admitted into the Department of Child Psychiatry at the hôpital Femme-Mère-Enfant (hospices civils de Lyon). We included all patients under 13 years of age who were hospitalized for a suicide attempt between 2008 and 2011. The methods used to collect the medical records consisted in using a form made up of four major parts: suicide attempts, social environment, medical history, and therapy. The 26 girls and 22 boys included had a mean age of 11.52 years. The boys were younger than the girls (P=0.047) and their parents were usually separated (P=0.034). The boys used more violent means to commit suicide in comparison to the girls (P=0.048). On average, children using violent means were younger (P=0.013). Boys underwent more psychotherapy (P=0.027) and were prescribed more psychotropic medication in comparison to girls (P=0.051). Adjustment disorders (37.5%) and depression (27%) were the two main diagnoses for hospitalization. They were hospitalized on average (±standard deviation) 9.6 days (±10 days). Psychotherapy was organized when leaving the hospital (98%) with legal measures (8.3%), change of residence (12.5%), and prescription of psychotropic drugs (37.5%). None had physical complications. In children under 13 years of age, attempted suicide was more frequent in girls than boys. However, the sample included 18 girls and nine boys who were 12 years old (sex ratio of 12-year-olds, 0.5). There were more boys (16 boys/eight girls) in the children under 12 (sex ratio of 8- to 11-year-olds, 1.6). Children under 11 used more violent means (P=0.01). The literature also reports that more violent means lead to a greater risk of death by suicide

  8. Changing rates of suicide ideation and attempts among Inuit youth: a gender-based analysis of risk and protective factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Sarah L; Geoffroy, Dominique; Chachamovich, Eduardo; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-04-01

    Inuit in Canada currently suffer from one of the highest rates of suicide in the world. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of suicide ideations and attempts among 15-24 year olds living in Nunavik, Québec, and to explore risk and protective factors of suicide attempts as a function of gender. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 across Nunavik. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. A total of 22% of young males and 39% of females adults reported past suicidal attempts. Gender differences were observed in relation to associated risk and protective factors as well as degree of exposure to risk factors. Suicide prevention must include alcohol and drug prevention programs and rehabilitation services, interventions to reduce physical and sexual violence and their long-term impacts on Inuit youth, as well as exposure to culturally meaningful activities. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.

  9. Study of plasma equilibrium during the AC current reversal phase in STOR-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, C.

    2002-01-01

    Alternating current (AC) tokamak operation and equilibrium studies have been performed on the STOR-M tokamak. The recent experiments have achieved consistent smooth current reversal through the implementation of a hybrid digital-analog position controller and by careful density control. In order to study the plasma equilibrium during the current reversal phase with negligible rotational transform, a segmented limiter with four isolated conducting plates has been installed. The plates can be connected outside the vacuum vessel, which allows measurements of currents flowing between limiter plates. When the current reversal is smooth with zero dwell time, the hydrogen line emission level and electron density remain finite, indicating a finite particle confinement. The current from the top to the bottom limiter plate is also finite and its direction is consistent with that of the grad-B drift. The observation suggests that the limiter and other conducting structures surrounding the plasmas plays the role, during the current reversal phase of AC tokamak operation, to short out the charge separation arising from the grad-B drift and to maintain a finite particle confinement. (author)

  10. A Numerical Modeling for Study Marine Current in the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parabelem Tinno Dolf Rompas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is investigating about marine currents provided electrical energy through the numerical model. The objective of this study is to know the available power distributions in the Manado Bay, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Manado Bay was width 2200 m with 79 m of depth. In computation, we are made grids in x and y horizontal were 7 m respectively, also for z vertical of four layers. The results shown that the available power distributions in the Manado Bay at 0.1 Sv were 0.00-20.00 kW/m2 when low tide currents and when high tide currents were 0.00-105 kW/m2. The values will enable for marine currents power plant in the Manado Bay to future.

  11. Differences between Impulsive and Non-Impulsive Suicide Attempts among Individuals Treated in Emergency Rooms of South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meerae; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Objective A considerable proportion of suicide attempts are the result of sudden desires. Understanding such impulsive suicide attempts is necessary for effective interventions. We evaluated the impulsivity of suicide attempters treated in emergency rooms. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of impulsive suicide attempts by comparing these individuals to those who attempted to commit suicide in a non-impulsive manner. Methods This study analyzed suicide attempters who visited the emergency departments of seven selected university hospitals. A total of 269 medical records in which impulsivity of suicide attempt were confirmed were subject to be analyzed. The impulsivity of the suicide attempt was examined using a summative score of items 6 and 15 on the Suicide Intent Scale. Results A total of 48.0% of the participants were impelled by sudden inclinations to attempt suicide. Impulsive attempters were younger, unmarried and less physical illness than non-impulsive attempters, whereas no significant differences were found on psychiatric history and previous suicide history. Impulsive suicide attempters had suicide ideations that were not as severe (χ2=55.33, pimpulsive suicide attempts were better than non-impulsive suicide attempts (t=-3.77, psuicide attempts were the result of sudden inclinations. Impulsive attempts were made in relatively earlier stages of suicide ideation; consequently, they have less intent than non-impulsive attempts. PMID:27482239

  12. Stimulating thought: a functional MRI study of transcranial direct current stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; O'Daly, Owen; Tracy, Derek K; Daniju, Yusuf; Hodsoll, John; Valdearenas, Lorena; Rothwell, John; Shergill, Sukhi S

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically suffer a range of cognitive deficits, including prominent deficits in working memory and executive function. These difficulties are strongly predictive of functional outcomes, but there is a paucity of effective therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a novel neuromodulatory technique with emerging evidence of potential pro-cognitive effects; however, there is limited understanding of its mechanism. This was a double-blind randomized sham controlled pilot study of transcranial direct current stimulation on a working memory (n-back) and executive function (Stroop) task in 28 individuals with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Study participants received 30 min of real or sham transcranial direct current stimulation applied to the left frontal cortex. The 'real' and 'sham' groups did not differ in online working memory task performance, but the transcranial direct current stimulation group demonstrated significant improvement in performance at 24 h post-transcranial direct current stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with increased activation in the medial frontal cortex beneath the anode; showing a positive correlation with consolidated working memory performance 24 h post-stimulation. There was reduced activation in the left cerebellum in the transcranial direct current stimulation group, with no change in the middle frontal gyrus or parietal cortices. Improved performance on the executive function task was associated with reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulated functional activation in local task-related regions, and in more distal nodes in the network. Transcranial direct current stimulation offers a potential novel approach to altering frontal cortical activity and exerting pro-cognitive effects in schizophrenia. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford

  13. Studies of micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Vay, Laura [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Rolf H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Tobias, Charles W. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1986-05-01

    Results of a study of the micromorphology and current efficiency of zinc electrodeposited from flowing, acidic chloride solutions are reported. The effects of six variables were examined: flow rate, current density, zinc and hydrogen ion concentration, concentrations of nickel, iron and cadmium impurity ions, and the nature of the substrate. The development of micromorphology was studied in-situ by means of videomicrography and ex-situ by means of scanning electron microscopy. This investigation focused on the formation of grooved deposits, which are found under a wide range of deposition conditions. The major conclusions of this study are: the most important variable determining whether grooved deposits form is the interfacial concentration; large protrusions orient themselves parallel to the flow direction with the orientation starting upstream and progressing downstream; large protrusions become ridges due to growth of the highest current density portions of the electrode under mass transport control. The current efficiency was measured using EDTA titration and weight measurements. The fraction of the current taken by zinc deposition increased with zinc concentration, ranging up to 100%, and decreased with pH. The efficiency of zinc deposition was affected by the flow rate and the substrate employed. Impurities lowered the current efficiency.

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation for depression in Alzheimer's disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Zui; Yokoi, Yuma

    2017-06-19

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease frequently elicit neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as cognitive deficits. Above all, depression is one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease but antidepressant drugs have not shown significant beneficial effects on it. Moreover, electroconvulsive therapy has not ensured its safety for potential severe adverse events although it does show beneficial clinical effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation can be the safe alternative of neuromodulation, which applies weak direct electrical current to the brain. Although transcranial direct current stimulation has plausible evidence for its effect on depression in young adult patients, no study has explored it in older subjects with depression in Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, we present a study protocol designed to evaluate the safety and clinical effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on depression in Alzheimer's disease in subjects aged over 65 years. This is a two-arm, parallel-design, randomized controlled trial, in which patients and assessors will be blinded. Subjects will be randomized to either an active or a sham transcranial direct current stimulation group. Participants in both groups will be evaluated at baseline, immediately, and 2 weeks after the intervention. This study investigates the safety and effect of transcranial direct current stimulation that may bring a significant impact on both depression and cognition in patients with Alzheimer's disease, and may be useful to enhance their quality of life. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02351388 . Registered on 27 January 2015. Last updated on 30 May 2016.

  15. An image-guided transcranial direct current stimulation system: a pilot phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Jin; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Daejeong; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an image-guided transcranial direct current stimulation (IG-tDCS) system that can deliver an increased stimulation current to a target brain area without the need to adjust the location of an active electrode was implemented. This IG-tDCS system was based on the array-type tDCS concept, which was validated through computer simulations in a previous study. Unlike a previous study, the present IG-tDCS system adopts a single reference electrode and an active electrode array consisting of 16 (4 × 4) sub-electrodes. The proposed IG-tDCS system is capable of shaping current flow inside the human head by controlling the input currents of the arrayed electrodes. Once a target brain area has been selected, the optimal injection current of each arrayed sub-electrode is evaluated automatically using a genetic algorithm in order to deliver the maximum available current to the target area. The operation of our pilot system was confirmed through a simple phantom experiment. (paper)

  16. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, MA, 01854 (United States); Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman, E-mail: vikas_kaushal@student.uml.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, NY, 14627 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics{sup TM} (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  17. Current transport modeling and experimental study of THz room temperature ballistic deflection transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Vikas; Margala, Martin; Yu Qiaoyan; Ampadu, Paul; Guarino, Gregg; Sobolewski, Roman

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two different theoretical models, Comsol Multiphysics TM (a Finite Element Analysis tool), and a field solver Atlas/Blaze from Silvaco, are compared qualitatively to study the effect of the deflector position, its size and electric field on the charge transport and its distribution along the channel, resulting in current outputs and leakages in ballistic deflection transistors (BDT). Silvaco simulations and experimental results were then used to study the lateral charge transport as a result of variation in electric field distribution, which controls the charge current along the channel in BDT. The electric field dependence of gain is also studied with experimental and theoretical results.

  18. An attempt at a macrorealistic quantum worldview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1992-11-01

    Many scientists agree that various difficulties arise when one tries to build up a worldview incorporating some form of realism which can accommodate our knowledge about natural phenomena. We investigate whether quantum mechanics (Q.M.), in the standard interpretation or in some of its more widely known and accepted variants, can be taken as a basis for such a program. Having pointed out that, in our opinion, this is not the case, we present an attempt to overcome the difficulties by accepting stochastic and nonlinear modifications of the evolution equation of the theory. (author). 30 refs

  19. Risk factors for adolescents' attempted suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Poulsen, Henrik Day; Nielsen, Anne

    was also found among adolescents who had psychiatric disorder or a physical handicap, those who had been sentenced, were addicted to drugs, or had unstable education and unemployment records. A common feature of these significant risk factors seemed to be stigmatisation or social exclusion......This paper has been submitted to a journal for consideration, so please do not quote without permission. Adolescents' first-time suicide attempt tends to be characterized by parental psychiatric disorder or suicidal behaviour, family violence, especially child abuse and neglect. An increased risk...

  20. Experimental study on the evolution of Peregrine breather with uniform-depth adverse currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, B.; Ma, Y.; Ma, X.; Dong, G.

    2018-05-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed to study the evolution of Peregrine breather (PB) in a wave flume in finite depth, and wave trains were initially generated in a region of quiescent water and then propagated into an adverse current region for which the current velocity strength gradually increased from zero to an approximately stable value. The PB is often considered as a prototype of oceanic freak waves that can focus wave energy into a single wave packet. In the experiment, the cases were selected with the relative water depths k0h (k0 is the wave number in quiescent water and h is the water depth) varying from 3.11 through 8.17, and the initial wave steepness k0a0 (a0 is the background wave amplitude) ranges between 0.065 and 0.120. The experimental results show the persistence of the breather evolution dynamics even in the presence of strong opposing currents. We have shown that the characteristic spectrum of the PB persists even on strong currents, thus making it a viable characteristic for prediction of freak waves. It was also found that the adverse currents tend to shift the focusing point upstream compared to the cases without currents. Furthermore, it was found that uniform-depth adverse currents can reduce the breather extension in time domain.

  1. A study of direct- and pulse-current chromium electroplating on rotating cylinder electrode (RCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.H.; Hsu, F.Y.; Liao, M.J.; Huang, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct- and pulse-current (DC and PC) chromium electroplating on Cr-Mo steel were performed in a sulfate-catalyzed chromic acid solution at 50 deg. C using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). The electroplating cathodic current densities were at 30, 40, 50 and 60 A dm -2 , respectively. The relationship between electroplating current efficiency and the rotating speed of the RCE was studied. The cross-sectional microstructure of Cr-deposit was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed that DC-plating exhibited higher current efficiency than the PC-plating under the same conditions of electroplating current density and the rotating speed. We found the critical rotating speed of RCE used in the chromium electroplating, above this rotating speed the chromium deposition is prohibited. At the same plating current density, the critical rotating speed for DC-plating was higher than that for PC-plating. The higher plating current density is, the larger difference in critical rotating speeds appears between DC- and PC-electroplating. Equiaxed grains, in a nanoscale size with lower dislocation density, nucleate on the cathodic surface in both DC- and PC-electroplating. Adjacent to the equiaxed grains, textured grains were found in other portion of chromium deposit. Fine columnar grains were observed in the DC-electroplated deposit. On the other hand, very long slender grains with high degree of preferred orientation were detected in PC-electroplated deposit

  2. Numerical and experimental studies of stack shunt current for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Cong; Guo, Shaoyun; Fang, Honglin; Liu, Jiayi; Li, Yang; Tang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupled three-dimensional model of VRB cell stack is developed. • Shunt current of the stack is studied with the model and experiment. • Increased electrolyte resistance in channel and manifold lowers the shunt current. • Shunt current loss increases with stack cell number nonlinearly. - Abstract: The stack shunt current of VRB (vanadium redox flow battery) was investigated with experiments and 3D (three-dimensional) simulations. In the proposed model, cell voltages and electrolyte conductivities were calculated based on electrochemical reaction distributions and SOC (state of charge) values, respectively, while coulombic loss was estimated according to shunt current and vanadium ionic crossover through membrane. Shunt current distributions and coulombic efficiency are analyzed in terms of electrolyte conductivities and stack cell numbers. The distributions of cell voltages and shunt currents calculated with proposed model are validated with single cell and short stack tests. The model can be used to optimize VRB stack manifold and channel designs to improve VRB system efficiency

  3. Attempt on construction of human friendly man-machine interface. Study and apply about human communication; Human friendly na man machine interface kochiku no kokoromi. Ningen no communication no kento to sono oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsuno, J. [Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Kokubo, Y.; Matsumura, I.; Kobayashi, H. [Hosei University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes an attempt on a construction way of human friendly man-machine interface. At first, we do a simple experiment to find out the characteristic of human verbal communication. From the experimental results, we get some rules in case in human verbal communication. We construct the man-machine interface which is based on these rules. Through teaching process, we examine our verbal communication interface comparing with conventional interfaces. From this comparison, we recognize that the verbal communication interface is valid to construct the user-friendly man-machine interface. 12 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Personality Traits as Prospective Predictors of Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shirley; Shea, M. Tracie; Sanislow, Charles A.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Stout, Robert L.; Morey, Leslie C.; Zanarini, Mary C.; Markowitz, John C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Daversa, Maria T.; Gunderson, John G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine higher order personality factors of negative affectivity (NA) and disinhibition (DIS), as well as lower order facets of impulsivity, as prospective predictors of suicide attempts in a predominantly personality disordered (PD) sample. METHOD Data were analyzed from 701 participants of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study (CLPS) with available follow-up data for up to 7 years. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses was used to examine NA and DIS, and facets of impulsivity (e.g., urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, and sensation seeking), as prospective predictors of suicide attempts. RESULTS NA, DIS, and all facets of impulsivity except for sensation seeking were significant in univariate analyses. In multivariate models which included sex, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), course of major depressive disorder (MDD) and substance use disorders (SUD), only NA and lack of premeditation remained significant in predicting suicide attempts. Disinhibition and the remaining impulsivity facets were not significant. CONCLUSION Negative affectivity emerged as a stronger and more robust predictor of suicide attempts than disinhibition and impulsivity, and warrants greater attention in suicide risk assessment. Distinguishing between facets of impulsivity is important for clinical risk assessment. PMID:19298413

  5. Study of local currents in low dimension materials using complex injecting potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shenglai; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán

    2018-04-01

    A complex potential is constructed to inject electrons into the conduction band, mimicking electron currents in nanoscale systems. The injected electrons are time propagated until a steady state is reached. The local current density can then be calculated to show the path of the conducting electrons on an atomistic level. The method allows for the calculation of the current density vectors within the medium as a function of energy of the conducting electron. Using this method, we investigate the electron pathway of graphene nanoribbons in various structures, molecular junctions, and black phosphorus nanoribbons. By analyzing the current flow through the structures, we find strong dependence on the structural geometry and the energy of the injected electrons. This method may be of general use in the study of nano-electronic materials and interfaces.

  6. Numerical studies on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by radio frequency current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, X.D.; Guenter, S.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical modeling on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by localized radio frequency (rf) current drive has been carried out to study the effects of various wave and plasma parameters on the stabilization and the associated physics. The change of the rf current profile due to the magnetic island has been taken into account by modeling the two-dimensional transport of the fast electrons induced by the rf wave. It is found that, when the rf deposition width is much larger than the island width, the modulated rf current drive to deposit the rf current around the island's o point has a stronger stabilizing effect than a nonmodulated one. The slowing down time of the fast electrons and the initial island width when applying the rf wave are also found to be important in determining the stabilizing effect

  7. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  8. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Michele Devido; Gagliardi, Rubens José; Mac-Kay, Ana Paula Machado Goyano; Boggio, Paulo Sergio; Lianza, Roberta; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034), naming (P = 0.041) and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038). Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  9. An attempt to categorize Hungarian community currencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Szemerédi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of complementary currencies in the 1980s there have been numerous attempts to classify them, despite that the terms local currency, community currency and many others describing place-based monetary tools are not considered similarly by scholars. The local currencies take many forms, and local governments play different roles in their emergence and development. In Hungary there has been an increasing attention and discussion around the idea of implementing these alternative monetary tools. There is a growing number of working complementary currencies in Hungary, but academic research focuses mostly on whether these can contribute to the local development and what kind of effects they have. The aim of this paper is to present a possible categorization of Hungarian complementary currencies based on the role local governments played in their implementation. I evaluate whether these community currencies are effective at first, and attempt to categorize them based on their purpose, association form and their relationships with local governments, with the purpose of increasing awareness for these initiatives in the process of policy-making.

  10. Trichloroacetic Acid Ingestion: Self-Harm Attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Black

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA, or trichloroethanoic acid, is a chemical analogue of acetic acid where three methyl group hydrogen atoms are replaced by chlorine. TCAAs are also abbreviated and referred to as TCAs, causing confusion with the psychiatric antidepressant drug class, especially among patients. TCAAs exist in dermatological treatments such as chemical peels or wart chemoablation medication. TCAA ingestion or overdose can cause gastric irritation symptoms including vomiting, diarrhea, or lassitude. This symptomatology is less severe than TCA overdose, where symptoms may include elevated body temperature, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sleepiness, confusion, seizures, rapid heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Owing to the vast difference in symptoms, the need for clinical intervention differs greatly. While overdose of either in a self-harm attempt can warrant psychiatric hospital admission, the risk of death in TCAA ingestion is far less. Case Report. A patient ingested TCAA in the form of a commercially available dermatological chemical peel as a self-harm attempt, thinking that it was a more injurious TCA. Conclusion. Awareness among physicians, particularly psychiatrists, regarding this relatively obscure chemical compound (TCAA and its use by suicidal patients mistakenly believing it to be a substance that can be significantly more lethal (TCA, is imperative.

  11. SUICIDAL ATTEMPTS AMONG YOUNG RURAL INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Brzeski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years changes have been noted in the motivations for acute suicidal poisonings among young people from various environments, which are due to psychosocial changes both in the urban and rural environments. Suicidal attempts are accompanied – especially in the rural environment – by low social status, difficulties with adapting to a free market economy, emotional tension within the family, at school, in the environment of young people, addiction to alcohol, drug overuse, including psychotropes. Based on clinical material concerning rural inhabitants hospitalized due to suicidal poisonings, the authors performed the analysis of attitudes, motivations and causes of acute poisonings among the young rural population. Among rural adolescents who continued school or university education the dominant causes of undertaking a suicidal attempt were: adolescent period problems, conflicts within the family, conflicts with mates, and disappointment in love. Among young adults the motivations were as follows: difficulties with finding employment in the place of residence, conflicts within the family, overuse of stimulants, and sometimes states of depression during the period of aggravation of a disease.

  12. How do repeat suicide attempters differ from first timers? An exploratory record based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence indicates that repeat suicide attempters, as a group, may differ from 1st time attempters. The identification of repeat attempters is a powerful but underutilized clinical variable. Aims: In this research, we aimed to compare individuals with lifetime histories of multiple attempts with 1st time attempters to identify factors predictive of repeat attempts. Setting and Design: This was a retrospective record based study carried out at a teaching cum Tertiary Care Hospital in South India. Methods: Relevant data was extracted from the clinical records of 1st time attempters (n = 362 and repeat attempters (n = 61 presenting to a single Tertiary Care Center over a 4½ year period. They were compared on various sociodemographic and clinical parameters. The clinical measures included Presumptive Stressful Life Events Scale, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Coping Strategies Inventory – Short Form, and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Statistical Analysis Used: First time attempters and repeaters were compared using appropriate inferential statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors of repeat attempts. Results: The two groups did not significantly differ on sociodemographic characteristics. Repeat attempters were more likely to have given prior hints about their act (χ2 = 4.500, P = 0.034. In the final regression model, beck hopelessness score emerged as a significant predictor of repeat suicide attempts (odds ratio = 1.064, P = 0.020. Conclusion: Among suicide attempters presenting to the hospital, the presence of hopelessness is a predictor of repeat suicide attempts, independent of clinical depression. This highlights the importance of considering hopelessness in the assessment of suicidality with a view to minimize the risk of future attempts.

  13. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H; Gulbas, Lauren E

    2012-11-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multi-faceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions.

  14. Are suicide attempts by young Latinas a cultural idiom of distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.

    2015-01-01

    The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802

  15. An fMRI investigation of the effects of attempted naming on word retrieval in aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Shiree; McMahon, Katie L.; Nickels, Lyndsey A.; Angwin, Anthony; MacDonald, Anna D.; van Hees, Sophia; McKinnon, Eril; Johnson, Kori; Copland, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In healthy controls, picture naming performance can be facilitated by a single prior exposure to the same picture (“priming”). This priming phenomenon is utilized in the treatment of aphasia, which often includes repeated picture naming as part of a therapeutic task. The current study sought to determine whether single and/or multiple exposures facilitate subsequent naming in aphasia and whether such facilitatory effects act through normal priming mechanisms. A functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was employed to explore the beneficial effects of attempted naming in two individuals with aphasia and a control group. The timing and number of prior exposures was manipulated, with investigation of both short-term effects (single prior exposure over a period of minutes) and long-term effects (multiple presentations over a period of days). Following attempted naming, both short-term and long-term facilitated items showed improvement for controls, while only the long-term condition showed benefits at a behavioral level for the participants with aphasia. At a neural level, effects of long-term facilitation were noted in the left precuneus for one participant with aphasia, a result also identified for the equivalent contrast in controls. It appears that multiple attempts are required to improve naming performance in the presence of anomia and that for some individuals with aphasia the source of facilitation may be similar to unimpaired mechanisms engaged outside the language network. PMID:26074801

  16. Differences in non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M; Gutierrez, Peter M

    2010-03-01

    As suicide attempts and self-injury remain predominant health risks among adolescents, it is increasingly important to be able to distinguish features of self-harming adolescents from those who are at risk for suicidal behaviors. The current study examined differences between groups of adolescents with varying levels of self-harmful behavior in a sample of 373 high school students with a mean age of 15.04 (SD = 1.05). The sample was 48% female and the distribution of ethnicity was as follows: 35% Caucasian, 37.2% African-American, 16% Multi-ethnic, 9.2% Hispanic, and 2.3% Asian. The sample was divided into three groups: no history of self-harm, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) only, and NSSI in addition to a suicide attempt. Differences in depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, social support, self-esteem, body satisfaction, and disordered eating were explored. Results indicated significant differences between the three groups on all variables, with the no self-harm group reporting the lowest levels of risk factors and highest levels of protective factors. Further analyses were conducted to examine specific differences between the two self-harm groups. Adolescents in the NSSI group were found to have fewer depressive symptoms, lower suicidal ideation, and greater self-esteem and parental support than the group that also had attempted suicide. The clinical implications of assessing these specific psychosocial correlates for at-risk adolescents are discussed.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friestad, Christine; Åse-Bente, Rustad; Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse. Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse. The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.

  18. Social Class Status and Suicide Characteristics: A Survey among Patients Who Attempted Suicide in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafour; Karami, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Suicide is one of the most prominent problems in health care system in current Iran. It could be impacted by various factors such as social, economic, individual and so on. Researchers show that socio-economic factors and suicide has significantly related. The people in low social class may more engage with social problems than higher social class. They may confront to problems such as crime, violence, unemployment, financial hardship, population density, disorder personality, etc. However, these difficulties could be resulted from relationship of inequality socio-economic and mental or physical health. This research attempted to examine social class status and its relationship with parts of suicide characteristics. This study applied a descriptive approach. In the cross-sectional research 179 patients who attempted suicide and admitted to the toxicology ward of Nour hospital and to the burning ward of Imam Mousa Kazem hospital, in Isfahan, during a period of 6 months in 2010 were recruited. The randomize sampling for patients admitted to toxicology ward and census for burning ward are applied. Data collected through a questionnaire which Chronbagh coefficient's alpha was calculated (r= 0/72). Data was analyzed in SPSS software. The data showed that the majority of patients who attempted suicide were young married women who had diploma and under diploma of level education. They were housewife, engaged in education and unemployment. Finding showed that there are no significant relationships between sex, age, marital status, frequency of attempted suicide and their social class. But there is significant relationship between methods of suicide and social class. Similarly, there are significant relationship between social factors (i.e. family friction, betrothal, unemployment, financial problems and so on) effected on suicide and their social classes. Parts of findings were supported by previous studies.

  19. Field aligned current study during the solar declining- extreme minimum of 23 solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepolian, Jeni Victor; Kumar, Anil; C, Panneerselvam

    Field Aligned Current (FAC) density study has been carried out during the solar declining phase from 2004 to 2006 of the 23rd solar cycle and the ambient terrestrial magnetic field of the extended minimum period of 2008 and 2009. We mainly depended on CHAMP satellite data (http://isdc.gfz-potsdam.de/) for computing the FAC density with backup of IGRF-10 model. The study indicates that, the FAC is controlled by quasi-viscous processes occurring at the flank of the earth’s magnetosphere. The dawn-dusk conventional pattern enhanced during disturbed days. The intensity of R1 current system is higher than the R2 current system. Detailed results will be discussed in the conference.

  20. Study of the antineutrino-induced elastic semi-leptonic neutral current reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racca, C.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the elastic neutral current reaction antiνsub(μ)p→antiνsub(μ)p has been done using Gargamelle filled with propane and the antineutrino beam of the CERN P.S. The space-time structure of the weak neutral current is discussed, the predictions of various V-A models for the ratio of neutral to charged current elastic cross-sections Rsup(antiν) are given. The experimental set-up, the scanning criteria and the program of reconstruction are described. The background due to the contamination by the reaction np→np principally is studied. Cuts are defined to resorbe these backgrounds and corrections are made for other backgrounds and losses. The results are compared with those of the reaction antiνsub(μ)p→μ + n and the ratio Rsup(antiν) is calculated. An upper limit of this ratio is given and the results are discussed [fr

  1. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  3. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  4. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  5. Characteristics of methods of suicide attempts in Korea: Korea National Suicide Survey (KNSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bora; Ahn, Joon-Ho; Cha, Boseok; Chung, Young-Chul; Ha, Tae Hyon; Hong Jeong, Seong; Jung, Hee Yeon; Ju, Gawon; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Jae Min; Kim, Moon-Doo; Kim, Min-Hyuk; Kim, Soo In; Lee, Kyoung-Uk; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Lee, Seung Jae; Lee, Yu Jin; Moon, Eunsoo; Ahn, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    Because the method used for a suicide attempt is an important determinant of outcome, these methods should be explored. The present study was a nationwide investigation of suicide attempts and the characteristics of suicidal behavior. To compare the suicide methods used in attempted suicides with those used in completed suicides and to examine the factors associated with each phenomenon. The present study reviewed the medical charts of subjects who had attempted suicide and subsequently visited the emergency rooms of 17 medical centers from May 1, 2013 to November 7, 2013. All subjects completed a full psychiatric interview conducted by trained psychiatric residents. Suicide-attempt methods were divided into the following six categories: drug poisoning, pesticide poisoning, gassing, cutting, hanging, and others. The associations among demographic variables, related psychiatric variables, and suicide-attempt methods were analyzed using a multinomial regression analysis. Of the 1359 suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries and the 14,160 completed suicides, drug poisoning and cutting were the most common suicidal behaviors with/without injuries, but they were the least frequent method of completed suicides. In contrast, hanging and jumping from a height were less common among failed suicide attempts but resulted in a higher percentage of fatalities. Being male, age, and area of residence were associated with pesticide poisoning, whereas previous suicide attempts were associated with cutting, pesticide poisoning, and gassing. A previous suicide attempt is a risk factor for suicide; thus, assessing the characteristics of suicide attempts or instrumental suicide-related behaviors with/without injuries is necessary to prevent these attempts. The present findings showed that the methods of suicide used by individuals who only attempted suicide differed from those used by individuals who completed. Of the suicide methods, pesticide

  6. Analysis techniques of charging damage studied on three different high-current ion implanters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felch, S. B.; Larson, L. A.; Current, M. I.; Lindsey, D. W.

    1989-02-01

    One of the Greater Silicon Valley Implant Users' Group's recent activities has been to sponsor a round-robin on charging damage, where identical wafers were implanted on three different state-of-the-art, high-current ion implanters. The devices studied were thin-dielectric (250 Å SiO2), polysilicon-gate MOS capacitors isolated by thick field oxide. The three implanters involved were the Varian/Extrion 160XP, the Eaton/Nova 10-80, and the Applied Materials PI9000. Each implanter vendor was given 48 wafers to implant with 100 keV As+ ions at a dose of 1 × 1016 cm-2. Parameters that were varied include the beam current, electron flood gun current, and chamber pressure. The charge-to-breakdown, breakdown voltage, and leakage current of several devices before anneal have been measured. The results from these tests were inconclusive as to the physical mechanism of charging and as to the effectiveness of techniques to reduce its impact on devices. However, the methodology of this study is discussed in detail to aid in the planning of future experiments. Authors' industrial affiliations: S.B. Felch, Varian Research Center, 611 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA; L.A. Larson, National Semiconductor Corp., P.O. Box 58090, Santa Clara, CA 95052-8090, USA; M.I. Current, Applied Materials, 3050 Bowers Ave., Santa Clara, CA 95054, USA; D.W. Lindsey, Eaton/NOVA, 931 Benicia Ave, Sunnyvale, CA 94086, USA.

  7. 'This place is making me more depressed': The organisation of care for suicide attempters in a South African hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Nel, Annemi; Louw, Kerry-Ann; Frenkel, Louise; Benjamin, Ereshia; Lewis, Ian

    2017-09-01

    People who attend hospital following a suicide attempt represent a well-delineated high-risk group of patients who may be amenable to targeted interventions to reduce the risk of suicidal behaviour. Little is, however, known about how hospitals in South Africa respond to suicide attempters, what quality of care these patients receive or what possibilities exist for hospital-based suicide prevention interventions. We describe an ethnographic study conducted at a large hospital in South Africa to investigate the impact of current procedures and practices on the care received by those who attempt suicide. Findings suggest that the organisation of care within the hospital is a significant barrier to patients receiving optimal care and represents a lost opportunity for suicide prevention. Findings highlight the mismatch between the needs of suicide attempters and current services and call attention to the need for greater psychological input as well as hospital-based suicide prevention interventions that can be offered to patients without necessitating admissions.

  8. Military veteran mortality following a survived suicide attempt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conigliaro Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a global public health problem. Recently in the U.S., much attention has been given to preventing suicide and other premature mortality in veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan. A strong predictor of suicide is a past suicide attempt, and suicide attempters have multiple physical and mental comorbidities that put them at risk for additional causes of death. We examined mortality among U.S. military veterans after hospitalization for attempted suicide. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with all military veterans receiving inpatient treatment during 1993-1998 at United States Veterans Affairs (VA medical facilities following a suicide attempt. Deaths occurring during 1993-2002, the most recent available year at the time, were identified through VA Beneficiary and Records Locator System data and National Death Index data. Mortality data for the general U.S. adult population were also obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. Comparisons within the veteran cohort, between genders, and against the U.S. population were conducted with descriptive statistics and standardized mortality ratios. The actuarial method was used estimate the proportion of veterans in the cohort we expect would have survived through 2002 had they experienced the same rate of death that occurred over the study period in the U.S. population having the age and sex characteristics. Results During 1993-1998, 10,163 veterans were treated and discharged at a VA medical center after a suicide attempt (mean age = 44 years; 91% male. There was a high prevalence of diagnosed alcohol disorder or abuse (31.8%, drug dependence or abuse (21.8%, psychoses (21.2%, depression (18.5%, and hypertension (14.2%. A total of 1,836 (18.1% veterans died during follow up (2,941.4/100,000 person years. The cumulative survival probability after 10 years was 78.0% (95% CI = 72.9, 83.1. Hence the 10-year cumulative mortality risk was 22

  9. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  10. Examining Current Beliefs, Practices and Barriers about Technology Integration: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Sui

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to examine the current beliefs, practices and barriers concerning technology integration of Kindergarten through Grade Six teachers in the midwestern United States. The three data collection methods were online surveys with 152 teachers as well as interviews and observations with 8 teachers. The findings…

  11. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  12. To What Extent Does Current Scientific Research and Textbook Content Align? A Methodology and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierema, Andrea M.-K.; Schwartz, Renee S.; Gill, Sharon A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls for reform in education recommend science curricula to be based on central ideas instead of a larger number of topics and for alignment between current scientific research and curricula. Because alignment is rarely studied, especially for central ideas, we developed a methodology to discover the extent of alignment between primary…

  13. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  14. Correlations and currents in 3He studied with the (e, e'pp) reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groep, David Leo

    2000-01-01

    Nucleon-nucleon correlations, especially those of short-range character, can be well studied with electron-induced two-nucleon knockout reactions at intermediate electron energies. However, these reactions are not only driven by one-body currents, i.e., coupling of the virtual photon to one of

  15. Parametric study of lower-hybrid current drive in the FED-A design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, H.; Ehst, D.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-08-01

    In the FED-A concept, a quasi-steady-state operating scenario is conceived in which the plasma current is maintained by the transformer coil during burn at high density and by the lower hybrid wave during transformer recharge at low density. A parametric study is carried out to obtain optimum plasma and wave parameters in the recharging phase

  16. Default neglect in attempts at social influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatev, Julian J; Daniels, David P; Kim, Hajin; Neale, Margaret A

    2017-12-26

    Current theories suggest that people understand how to exploit common biases to influence others. However, these predictions have received little empirical attention. We consider a widely studied bias with special policy relevance: the default effect, which is the tendency to choose whichever option is the status quo. We asked participants (including managers, law/business/medical students, and US adults) to nudge others toward selecting a target option by choosing whether to present that target option as the default. In contrast to theoretical predictions, we find that people often fail to understand and/or use defaults to influence others, i.e., they show "default neglect." First, in one-shot default-setting games, we find that only 50.8% of participants set the target option as the default across 11 samples ( n = 2,844), consistent with people not systematically using defaults at all. Second, when participants have multiple opportunities for experience and feedback, they still do not systematically use defaults. Third, we investigate beliefs related to the default effect. People seem to anticipate some mechanisms that drive default effects, yet most people do not believe in the default effect on average, even in cases where they do use defaults. We discuss implications of default neglect for decision making, social influence, and evidence-based policy.

  17. Attempted suicide in the elderly: characteristics of suicide attempters 70 years and older and a general population comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorsson, Stefan; Runeson, Bo; Skoog, Ingmar; Ostling, Svante; Waern, Margda

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors associated with attempted suicide in the elderly. Social, psychological, and psychiatric characteristics were compared in suicide attempters (70 years and older) and a representative population sample. Emergency departments at five hospitals in western Sweden and a representative sample of the elderly population. Persons with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score age 80 years). Comparison subjects matched for gender and age group (N = 408) were randomly selected among participants in our general population studies. Symptoms were rated with identical instruments in cases and comparison subjects. The examination included the MMSE and tests of short- and long-term memory, abstract thinking, aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia. Depressive symptomatology was measured using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and major and minor depressions were diagnosed according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, using symptom algorithms. Factors associated with attempted suicide included being unmarried, living alone, low education level, history of psychiatric treatment, and previous suicide attempt. There was no association with dementia. Odds ratios were increased for both major (odds ratio [OR]: 47.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.1-117.7) and minor (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.5-4.7) depressions. An association was observed between perceived loneliness and attempted suicide; this relationship was independent of depression (OR: 2.8, 95% CI: 1.3-6.1). Observed associations mirrored those previously shown for completed suicide. Results may help to inform clinical decisions regarding suicide risk evaluation in this vulnerable and growing age group.

  18. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients

    OpenAIRE

    Berkol, Tongu? D.; ?slam, Serkan; K?rl?, Ebru; P?narba??, Rasim; ?zy?ld?r?m, ?lker

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition...

  19. A Content Analysis of Online Suicide Notes: Attempted Suicide Versus Attempt Resulting in Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, John; Ioannou, Maria; Coyne, Angela; Hemingway, Siobhan

    2017-09-28

    Fifty suicide notes of those who died by suicide and 50 suicide notes of those who survived their suicide attempt were analyzed using Smallest Space Analysis. The core of all suicide notes was discovered to be constructed with the use of four variables: saying goodbye to their audience, feelings of loneliness, method used to attempt suicide, and negative self-image. Furthermore, three different suicide note themes of those who died and three suicide note themes from those who survived were also identified. The analysis revealed that suicide note writers who died by their attempt were more likely to combine a dislike of themselves and a concern for loved ones. The implications of the work in terms of suicide prevention are discussed. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  20. The effect of seasonal changes and climatic factors on suicide attempts of young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Winkler, Dietmar; Willeit, Matthaeus; Kapusta, Nestor D; Dorffner, Georg; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha

    2017-11-15

    Seasonal changes and climatic factors like ambient temperature, sunlight duration and rainfall can influence suicidal behavior. This study analyses the relationship between seasonal changes and climatic variations and suicide attempts in 2131 young patients in Istanbul, Turkey. In our study sample, there was an association between suicide attempts in youths and seasonal changes, as suicide attempts occurred most frequently during summer in females as well as in males. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the mean temperature over the past 10 days and temperature at the index day and suicide attempts in females. After seasonality effects were mathematically removed, the mean temperature 10 days before a suicide attempt remained significant in males only, indicating a possible short-term influence of temperature on suicide attempts. This study shows an association between suicide attempts of young people and climatic changes, in particular temperature changes as well as seasonal changes. Therefore, the influence of seasonal changes and climatic factors on young suicide attempters should get more attention in research to understand the biopsychosocial mechanisms playing a role in suicide attempts of young people. As suicide attempts most frequently occur in young people, further research is of considerable clinical importance.

  1. An experimental study of particle-driven gravity currents on steep slopes with entrainment of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rastello

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of laboratory experiments are presented in which a finite suspension of sawdust particles was released instantaneously into a rectangular channel immersed in a water tank. Two kinds of gravity currents were studied: currents with or without entrainment of particles from the bed. Experiments were repeated for two slopes: 30° and 45°. We observed that the velocity of the front was significantly in-creased as particle entrainment occurred. In addition, our experiments showed that the front kept a quasi-constant velocity for both runs. This might suggest that the flow regime corresponded to the "slumping regime" or "adjustment phase" described earlier by Huppert and Simpson (1980.

  2. Study on ICT specification devices compared with needs and current technologies at Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fauzi Haris; Raja Murzaferi Raja Moktar; Mohd Hafez Mohd Tahir

    2012-01-01

    In line with current development of ICT, Malaysian government has planned and introduced several initiatives based on ICT strategies. In Economic Transformation Programs, these matters were mentioned in Chapter 13 entitled Communication Content and Infrastructure. In order to make these plans successful, sustainability and preparedness of ICT are required. ICT devices were not focused only on computer but also others components that supported and increased the performance of computer itself. This paper discussed on data produced from study of current ICT needs in line with technology and in future hopefully it can support all the planning made by the government. (author)

  3. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... and sustainability. CONCLUSION: The study will provide important information to improve CR in the elderly. The EU-CaRE RCT is the first European multicentre study of mCR as an alternative for elderly patients not attending usual CR....

  4. Bayesian tests to quantify the result of a replication attempt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Replication attempts are essential to the empirical sciences. Successful replication attempts increase researchers’ confidence in the presence of an effect, whereas failed replication attempts induce skepticism and doubt. However, it is often unclear to what extent a replication attempt results in

  5. Comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, S.

    2009-07-01

    During the past two decades, active power filters have increasingly grown their popularity as a viable method for improving electric power quality. The main reasons for this have been the advent of fast self-commutating solid-state devices, the progression of digital technology and the improved sensor technology. Four-wire active power filters provide an efficient solution for improving the quality of supply in grounded three-phase systems or three-phase systems with neutral conductors, which are commonly used for powering residential, office and public buildings. Four-wire active power filters are applicable in compensating current harmonics, reactive power, neutral current and load phase imbalance.This thesis presents a comparative study of microcontroller controlled four-wire voltage and current source shunt active power filters. The study includes two voltage source topologies and a current source topology with two different dc-link energy storage structures, which are compared on the basis of their filtering properties, filtering performance and efficiency. The obtained results are used for determining the suitability of current source technology for four-wire active power filtering and finding the most viable four-wire shunt active power filter topology. One commonly recognized disadvantage of the current source active power filter has always been the bulky dc-link inductor. To reduce the size of the dc-link inductor, an alternative dc-link structure for current source active power filters was introduced in the late 80's. The hybrid energy storage consists of both inductive and capacitive energy storage elements, two diodes and two controllable semiconductor switching devices. Since the capacitive element is used as a main storage unit, the inductance of the dc-link inductor can be considerably reduced. However, the original dc current control method proposed is not able to utilize the full potential of the hybrid energy storage and the inductance

  6. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  7. Reporting Multiple Individual Injuries in Studies of Team Ball Sports: A Systematic Review of Current Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Fortington, Lauren V; van der Worp, Henk; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-01-01

    Background To identi