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  1. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

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    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  2. The Economic Discourse of the Current Reform Aimed at Business Optimization in Ukraine

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    Purdenko Olena A.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the strengths and weaknesses of the current reforms and provide appropriate recommendations and proposals to improve the regulatory and economic business environment. The article analyzes the introduced reforms in the aspect of the regulatory field and the active current system of taxation with the detailing of the type and content of the basic implemented measures. There have been justified the advantages and disadvantages of the introduced system of taxation with respect to the main budget forming taxes, such as the enterprise income taxes, value added tax, individual income tax considering changes in the administering of unified social tax (UST and war tax, excise duty. On the basis of the results of the study it has been found that the introduced reforms only partially improved the tax administration system and in no way reduced the announced tax burden, the time spending of business for preparing the current report was not significantly reduced.

  3. Progress of MCT Detector Technology at AIM Towards Smaller Pitch and Lower Dark Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, D.; Schirmacher, W.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, K. M.; Fries, P.; Figgemeier, H.

    2017-09-01

    We present our latest results on cooled p-on- n planar mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) photodiode technology. Along with a reduction in dark current for raising the operating temperature ( T op), AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) has devoted its development efforts to shrinking the pixel size. Both are essential requirements to meet the market demands for reduced size, weight and power and high-operating temperature applications. Detectors based on the p-on- n technology developed at AIM now span the spectrum from the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) to the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) with cut-off wavelengths from 5 μm to about 13.5 μm at 80 K. The development of the p-on- n technology for VLWIR as well as for MWIR is mainly implemented in a planar photodetector design with a 20- μm pixel pitch. For the VLWIR, dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' are demonstrated for operating temperatures between 30 K and 100 K. This allows for the same dark current performance at a 20 K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM technology. For MWIR detectors with a 20- μm pitch, noise equivalent temperature differences of less than 30 mK are obtained up to 170 K. This technology has been transferred to our small pixel pitch high resolution (XGA) MWIR detector with 1024 × 768 pixels at a 10- μm pitch. Excellent performance at an operating temperature of 160 K is demonstrated.

  4. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamse, W.; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.; Rothengatter, T. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Psychology

    2005-09-15

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies (i.e. commitment, goal setting, information, modeling) or consequence strategies (i.e. feedback, rewards). Particular attention is given to the following evaluation criteria: (1) to what extent did the intervention result in behavioral changes and/or reductions in energy use, (2) were underlying behavioral determinants examined (e.g. knowledge, attitudes), (3) to what extent could effects be attributed to the interventions and, (4) were effects maintained over longer periods of time? Interestingly, most studies focus on voluntary behavior change, by changing individual knowledge and/or perceptions rather than changing contextual factors (i.e. pay-off structure) which may determine households' behavioral decisions. Interventions have been employed with varying degrees of success. Information tends to result in higher knowledge levels, but not necessarily in behavioral changes or energy savings. Rewards have effectively encouraged energy conservation, but with rather short-lived effects. Feedback has also proven its merits, in particular when given frequently. Some important issues cloud these conclusions, such as methodological problems. Also, little attention is given to actual environmental impact of energy savings. Often, an intervention's effectiveness is studied without examining underlying psychological determinants of energy use and energy savings. Also, it is not always clear whether effects were maintained over a longer period of time. Recommendations are given to further improve intervention planning and to enhance the effectiveness of interventions. (author)

  5. Religious Studies, Religious Education and the Aims of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2015-01-01

    This article interacts with a recent article by Denise Cush and Catherine Robinson in which they call for a new dialogue between religious studies in universities and religious education, and identify a number of developments in religious studies that have implications for the practice of religious education in schools. Cush and Robinson are…

  6. Low dark current MCT-based focal plane detector arrays for the LWIR and VLWIR developed at AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Eich, Detlef; Fick, Wolfgang; Figgemeier, Heinrich; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard

    2015-10-01

    For nearly 40 years AIM develops, manufactures and delivers photo-voltaic and photo-conductive infrared sensors and associated cryogenic coolers which are mainly used for military applications like pilotage, weapon sights, UAVs or vehicle platforms. In 2005 AIM started to provide the competences also for space applications like IR detector units for the SLSTR instrument on board of the Sentinel 3 satellite, the hyperspectral SWIR Imager for EnMAP or pushbroom detectors for high resolution Earth observation satellites. Meanwhile AIM delivered more than 25 Flight Models for several customers. The first European pulse-tube cooler ever operating on-board of a satellite is made by AIM. AIM homes the required infrared core capabilities such as design and manufacturing of focal plane assemblies, detector housing technologies, development and manufacturing of cryocoolers and also data processing for thermal IR cameras under one roof which enables high flexibility to react to customer needs and assures economical solutions. Cryogenically cooled Hg(1-x)CdxTe (MCT) quantum detectors are unequalled for applications requiring high imaging as well as high radiometric performance in the infrared spectral range. Compared with other technologies, they provide several advantages, such as the highest quantum efficiency, lower power dissipation compared to photoconductive devices and fast response times, hence outperforming micro-bolometer arrays. However, achieving an excellent MCT detector performance at long (LWIR) and very long (VLWIR) infrared wavelengths is challenging due to the exponential increase in the thermally generated photodiode dark current with increasing cut-off wavelength and / or operating temperature. Dark current is a critical design driver, especially for LWIR / VLWIR multi-spectral imagers with moderate signal levels or hyper-spectral Fourier spectrometers operating deep into the VLWIR spectral region. Consequently, low dark current (LDC) technologies are the

  7. Current Automotive Holometry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Mitchell M.; Snyder, D. S.

    1990-04-01

    Holometry studies of automotive body and powertrain components have become a very useful high resolution test methodology to knowledgeable Ford engineering personnel. Current examples of studies that represent the static or dynamic operational conditions of the automotive test component are presented. Continuous wave laser holometry, computer aided holometry (CAH) and pulsed laser holometry were the holometric techniques used to study the following subjects: (1) body in prime (BIP) vibration modes, (2) transmission flexplate stud-torque converter deformation due to engine torque pulses, (3) engine cylinder head and camshaft support structure deformation due to cylinder pressure and (4) engine connecting rod/cap lift-off. Static and dynamic component loading and laboratory techniques required to produce usable and valid test results are discussed along with possible conclusions for the engineering concerns.

  8. Important treatment aims at the end of life: a nationwide study among GPs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, S.J.J.; Echteld, M.A.; Francke, A.L.; Block, L. van den; Donker, G.A.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about treatment aims during the last 3 months of life. Aim: To investigate important treatment aims in the last 3 months of patients' lives in cases of on-sudden death. Design and setting: Mortality follow-back study in the Netherlands. Method: data were collected retrosp

  9. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

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    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers.…

  10. Study protocol: The Adherence and Intensification of Medications (AIM study - a cluster randomized controlled effectiveness study

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    Selby Joe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with diabetes have poor blood pressure (BP control. Pharmacological therapy is the cornerstone of effective BP treatment, yet there are high rates both of poor medication adherence and failure to intensify medications. Successful medication management requires an effective partnership between providers who initiate and increase doses of effective medications and patients who adhere to the regimen. Methods In this cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness study, primary care teams within sites were randomized to a program led by a clinical pharmacist trained in motivational interviewing-based behavioral counseling approaches and authorized to make BP medication changes or to usual care. This study involved the collection of data during a 14-month intervention period in three Department of Veterans Affairs facilities and two Kaiser Permanente Northern California facilities. The clinical pharmacist was supported by clinical information systems that enabled proactive identification of, and outreach to, eligible patients identified on the basis of poor BP control and either medication refill gaps or lack of recent medication intensification. The primary outcome is the relative change in systolic blood pressure (SBP measurements over time. Secondary outcomes are changes in Hemoglobin A1c, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, medication adherence determined from pharmacy refill data, and medication intensification rates. Discussion Integration of the three intervention elements - proactive identification, adherence counseling and medication intensification - is essential to achieve optimal levels of control for high-risk patients. Testing the effectiveness of this intervention at the team level allows us to study the program as it would typically be implemented within a clinic setting, including how it integrates with other elements of care. Trial Registration The ClinicalTrials.gov registration number is NCT

  11. Prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain (EPISER 2016 study): Aims and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Silva-Fernández, Lucía; Sivera, Francisca; Blanco, Francisco J; Pérez Ruiz, Fernando; Juan-Mas, Antonio; Pego-Reigosa, José M; Narváez, Javier; Quilis Martí, Neus; Cortés Verdú, Raúl; Antón-Pagés, Fred; Quevedo Vila, Víctor; Garrido Courel, Laura; Del Amo, Natividad Del Val; Paniagua Zudaire, Inmaculada; Añez Sturchio, Gustavo; Medina Varo, Fermín; Ruiz Tudela, María Del Mar; Romero Pérez, Antonio; Ballina, Javier; Brandy García, Anahy; Fábregas Canales, Dolores; Font Gayá, Teresa; Bordoy Ferrer, Carolina; González Álvarez, Beatriz; Casas Hernández, Laura; Álvarez Reyes, Fátima; Delgado Sánchez, Mónica; Martínez Dubois, Cristina; Sánchez-Fernández, Simón Ángel; Rojas Vargas, Luisa Marena; García Morales, Paula Virginia; Olivé, Alejandro; Rubio Muñoz, Paula; Larrosa, Marta; Navarro Ricos, Noemí; Graell Martín, Eduard; Chamizo, Eugenio; Chaves Chaparro, Lara; Rojas Herrera, Sara; Pons Dolset, Jordi; Polo Ostariz, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz-Alejos Garrido, Susana; Macía Villa, Cristina; Cruz Valenciano, Ana; González Gómez, María Luisa; Morcillo Valle, Mercedes; Palma Sánchez, Deseada; Moreno Martínez, María José; Mayor González, Marta; Atxotegi Sáenz de Buruaga, Joana; Urionagüena Onaindia, Irati; Blanco Cáceres, Boris Anthony; Díaz-González, Federico; Bustabad, Sagrario

    2017-07-31

    To describe the methodology of the EPISER 2016 (study of the prevalence of rheumatic diseases in adult population in Spain), as well its strengths and limitations. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome (SS), osteoarthritis (knee, hip, hands, and cervical and lumbar spine), fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. Population-based, multicenter, cross-sectional study, with the participation of 45 municipalities in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. The reference population will consist of adults aged 20 years and over residing in Spain. A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) system will be used for data collection. Diagnostic suspicions and diagnoses received by the participants will be studied by rheumatologists in the referral hospitals in the selected municipalities. the prevalence of the rheumatic diseases will be calculated using estimators and their 95% confidence intervals. Weights will be calculated in each of the sampling stages in accordance with the probability of selection. The distribution of the population in Spain will be obtained from the Spanish Statistics Institute. Sociodemographic and lifestyle changes over the last 16 years justify EPISER 2016. This study will provide current data about the prevalences of RA, AS, PsA, SLE, SS, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, gout and clinical osteoporotic fracture. The results will allow comparisons with studies from other countries and EPISER 2000. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  12. CURRENT STUDIES IN THERMOREGULATION

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    Alfredo Jesús López Dávila

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present recent advances in the understanding of the physiological mechanisms of thermoregulation in mammals, which can be divided into two types including reflex (or autonomic and behavioral thermoregulation. In reflex thermoregulation, which is totally beyond the voluntary control of the individual, thermoreceptors detect thermal stimuli. Afferent pathways transport information sensed by receptors to the hypothalamus, with relays in the spinal cord and the midbrain. The hypothalamic integration center coordinates its response to the thermal stimuli and sends neural signals through efferent pathways with relays in the medulla and the spinal cord. These signals finally reach effectors that are capable of conserving or dissipating thermal energy in order for body temperature to remain constant. Today, a growing body of evidence suggests considerable physiologic integration between reflex thermoregulation, energy balance and metabolism, which makes considering manipulation of reflex thermoregulation a potential strategy in order to treat metabolic conditions or influence body composition. In behavioral thermoregulation, which relies on voluntary decisions, thermal stimuli are detected by the same receptors. Afferent pathways transport thermal information to the spinal cord, thalamus and cerebral cortex, which influences the perception of thermal comfort and the decisions of the individual in order to gain or lose heat. The recent findings have also brought new questions that are discussed at the end of this review.

  13. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges

  14. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): Studying the geophysics of small binaries, measuring asteroid deflection and studying impact physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Michael; Michel, Patrick; AIM Team

    2016-10-01

    Binary asteroids and their formation mechanisms are of particular interest for understanding the evolution of the small bodies in the solar system. Also, hazards to Earth from impact of near-Earth asteroids and their mitigation have drawn considerable interest over the last decades.Those subjects are both addressed by ESA's Asteroid Impact mission, which is part of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) currently under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. NASA's DART mission will impact a projectile into the minor component of the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022. The basic idea is to demonstrate the effect of the impact on the orbital period of the secondary around the primary. ESA's AIM will monitor the Didymos system for several months around the DART impact time.AIM will be launched in aurumn 2020. It is foreseen to arrive at Didymos in April 2022. The mission takes advantage of a close approach of Didymos to Earth. The next opportunity would arise in 2040 only.AIM will stay near Didymos for approximately 6 months. Most of the time it will be placed on the illuminated side of the system, at distances of approximately 35 km and 10 km. AIM is expected to move away from Didymos for some time around the DART impact.The reference payload for AIM includes two visual imagers, a hyperspectral camera, a lidar, a thermal infrared imager, a monostatic high frequency radar, and a bistatic low frequency radar. In addition, AIM will deploy a small lander on the secondary asteroid, and two cubesats that will be used for additional, more risky investigations close to or on the surface of the asteroid.Major contributions from AIM are expected in the study of the geophysics of small asteroids (including for the first time, radar measurements of an interior structure), the formation of binary asteroids, the momentum enhancement factor from the DART impact (through measuring the mass and the change of orbit of the seondary), and impact physics

  15. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  16. Aims & Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine(APJTB)aims to set up and provide an international academic communication platform for physicians,medical scientists,allied health scientists and public health workers,especially those in the Asian Pacific region and worldwide on tropical biomedicine,infectious diseases and public health,and to meet the growing challenges of understanding,preventing and controlling the dramatic global emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases in the Asian Pacific region.

  17. Professional Development Program Aimed at Physicians to Develop Drug Utilization Studies

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    Yacelis Dahilet Cisneros Nápoles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: one of the deficiencies presented by physicians in their professional activity is related to the development of drug utilization studies. Objective: to design a professional development program aimed at physicians to develop drug utilization studies. Methods: an educational research was conducted at the Faculty of Medical Sciences of Cienfuegos during the 2011-2012 academic year. Theoretical methods such as the analytic-synthetic, the inductive-deductive, the historical-logical, modeling and system approach were used in the methodological and theoretical process. Results: the program aims at training physicians to develop drug utilization studies and its contents include: drug-related problems; criteria for selecting a drug in the prescription process; Pharmacoepidemiology; objectives, types of studies, characteristics and steps for the design and development of drug utilization studies; drug therapy and aspects on the selection and analysis of drug information sources. The methods are based on reflection and research itself developed by physicians during the activities for their professional development. Discussion and presentation of essays and research projects will be used to assess learning in the program, which integrates forms of professional development including specialized conferences, self-study, postgraduate courses, workshops and consultancies. Conclusions: the program serves as a reference to design the different activities required to train physicians for the development of drug utilization studies and it can be integrated in the graduate strategy of the university.

  18. Surgical outcome in patients taking concomitant or recent intake of oral isotretinoin: A multicentric Study-ISO-AIMS study

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    Omprakash Heggadahalli Mahadevappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. Aim: To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Materials and Methods: Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included[1] 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels;[2] 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery;[3] 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction;[4] 1 session of electrosurgery. Results: No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. Conclusion: The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised.

  19. Occult cancer in specimens of reduction mammaplasty aimed at symmetrization. A multicentric study of 2718 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, T; Fyad, J P; Delay, E; Rouanet, P; Rimareix, F; Houpeau, J L; Classe, J M; Garrido, I; Tunon De Lara, C; Dauplat, J; Bendavid, C; Houvenaeghel, G; Clough, K B; Sarfati, I; Leymarie, N; Trudel, M; Salleron, J; Guillemin, F; Oldrini, G; Brix, M; Dolivet, G; Simon, E; Verhaeghe, J L; Marchal, F

    2015-06-01

    Women who have undergone surgical treatment for breast cancer often benefit from a contralateral reduction mammaplasty (CRM) aimed at symmetrization of the contralateral breast unaffected by the initial cancer. In our 7-year multicentric study (12 centers) of 2718 patients, incidence of CRM cancers (CRMc) was 1.47% (n = 40) [95% CI 1.05%-2.00%]. The CRMc group had significantly more initial mammary cancers of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC, 22.5% vs 12.0%) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS, 35.0% vs 21.6%) types than the healthy CRM group (p = 0.017). 35.0% (n = 14) of patients had en bloc resection; 25.0% (n = 10) of surgical specimens were correctly oriented. En bloc resection and orientation of surgical specimens enable precise pinpointing of the CRMc. A salvage lumpectomy may be proposed as an option when margins are invaded. The histological distribution of the 40 CRMc (mean size 12.7 mm) was carcinoma in situ (CIS) 70%, ILC 12.5%, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) 12.5% and tubular carcinoma (TC) 5.0%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Current studies on megapode phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, T.G.; Dekker, R.W.R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic relationships between megapodes and other birds are reviewed, and it is concluded that the available evidence supports a sistergroup relationship between megapodes and all other galliforms. Current studies in this direction are discussed. The resolvement of intr

  1. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas; Viviane Tavares de Morae; Eduardo Junca; Jorge Alberto Soares Tenório; Denise Crocce Romano Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an ox...

  2. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    système est perfectionné par l’intégration de cinq capteurs à capacité de déclenchement actif en un cardan unique. Il pourra ainsi servir à une multitude...unique jusqu’à cinq capteurs , y compris des capacités de déclenchement actif et d’imagerie thermique. Il peut ainsi servir à une multitude de...AIMS) est en cours de développement. Ce système est perfectionné par l’intégration de cinq capteurs à capacité de déclenchement actif en un cardan unique

  3. RECYCLING OF PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS AIMING SILVER RECOVERY: A HYDROMETALLURGICAL ROUTE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Kohler Caldas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is characterize printed circuit board of computers and propose a hydrometallurgical route for silver recovery present in its composition. Initially, the printed circuit board was comminuted in both knife and hammer mills. The comminuted material was characterized by sieve analysis, chemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and loss on ignition. Leaching tests were conducted in sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid in an oxidizing medium and nitric acid. The results indicated that the printed circuit board is mainly composed of copper (19.42%. Silver content of 0.045% was found. The route for silver recovery was leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C for 18 hours. Then, leaching in sulfuric acid at 75°C in an oxidizing medium for 6 hours and nitric acid leaching at room temperature for 2 hours. Through of this route, 96.6% of silver was recovered.

  4. Cathodoluminescence study of SnO{sub 2} powders aimed for gas sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korotcenkov, G. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)]. E-mail: ghkoro@yahoo.com; Nazarov, M. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Zamoryanskaya, M.V. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. [Technical University of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Cirera, A. [EME/CERMAE. Dep. Elect., University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Shimanoe, K. [Kyushu University, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2006-06-15

    In this paper we report on cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of SnO{sub 2} powders, synthesized using the wet chemical route. The analysis of influence of the modes of calcination (T {sub an}-450-800 deg. C), and doping by both Pd and Pt (0.01-10.0 wt.%) on CL spectra was made. It was found that the measurement of CL spectra could be an effective research method of nanostructured metal oxides, aimed for gas sensor applications. It was established that in nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} the same system of energy levels, associated with radiative recombination, as in single crystalline and polycrystalline SnO{sub 2}, is retained. It was found that doping by both Pd and Pt modifies the structural properties of SnO{sub 2} grains. Also, there is an optimum doping; near 0.1-0.2 wt.%, at which a maximum intensity of cathodoluminescence is reached. It was concluded that for low concentrations of both Pd and Pt additives in SnO{sub 2} an improvement of the material's crystal structure is promoted, and is associated with a decrease in the non-radiating recombination rate.

  5. Distributed Leadership with the Aim of "Reculturing": A Departmental Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Jones, Doug; Campbell, Todd

    2014-01-01

    This article considers a secondary science department that has, since 2000, developed distributed leadership as a form of human capacity building. Using a longitudinal ethnographic case study allowed us to consider how distributed leadership can be nurtured and developed in a department. Our analysis centres on two key issues: the nature and…

  6. Optomechatronic prototype based on digital holographic interferometry aimed to the study of biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaráz Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Muñoz, Silvino

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the preliminary stages of the development of a compact optomechatronic prototype for the characterization and study of biological tissues in full field of view. The system is based on the optical non invasive technique known as digital holographic interferometry (DHI), which allows displacement measurements in the micrometer range, a key feature for the study of biological tissues. An ad-hoc optomechanical design contemplates a sturdy system yet compact that renders high quality images able to generate new data about the biological tissues under study. These data contain quantitative and qualitative information of tissue mechanical parameters. The DHI results are presented as fringe phase maps related to tissue surface displacements, showing that the proposed prototype provides non invasive information pertaining to the mechanical characteristics of the tissue which can be used later to diagnose certain tissue pathologies. The use of this prototype in the biomedical area may be thought of as a new and complementary tool for the study and research in full field of view that may even be used in conditions outside the laboratory.

  7. Epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Greece: aims, design and baseline characteristics of the ATTICA study

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    Chrysohoou Christina

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an attempt to evaluate the levels of several cardiovascular risk factors in Greece we conducted a population-based health and nutrition survey, the "ATTICA study". In this work we present the design and the methodology of the study, as well as the status of various baseline characteristics of the participants. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 adult women, stratified by age – gender (census 2000, from the greater area of Athens. More than 300 demographic, lifestyle, behavioral, dietary, clinical and biochemical variables have been recorded. Results Regarding the frequency of the classical cardiovascular risk factors we observed that 51% of men and 39% of women reported smokers (p Conclusions The prevalence of the common cardiovascular risk factors in our population seems high. As a consequence a considerable proportion of Greek adults are at "high-risk" for future cardiovascular events.

  8. A Study of Microalgal Symbiotic Communities with the Aim to Increase Biomass and Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Claus

    Microalgae are nearly everywhere and they are responsible for a large part of the world’s primaryproduction.Their ability to grow fast and toreach high cell densities makes them candidates for use in the production of biofuel. A key feature of many algae is the production of lipids as storage...... molecules. A variety of algae can produce large amounts of lipids and these easily be converted to biodiesel for use as transport fuel. Production of algal based biodiesel is however still limited mainly due production costs. Research is needed in order to lower the price of the final product. In this study...... interactions between algae and bacteria have been investigated. Many previous investigations have revealed that algae when co-cultured with bacteria reach higher cell numbers and exhibit faster growth rates. Part of the study focuses on interactions between the green algae Dunaliella salina and three strains...

  9. New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations SA (T) for return periods of 475, 975 and 2475 years. The map of the coefficient of variation (COV) are also represented to give an idea of the zones where the dispersion among

  10. [Current studies in myotonic dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yimeng; Ishiura, Shoichi

    2014-03-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is a genetic, progressive, multisystemic disease with muscular disorder as its primary symptom. There are two types of DM (DM1 and DM2) caused by mutations in different genes, and in Japan, DM occurs with an incidence of approximately 1 in 20,000. The pathogenic mechanism underlying the disease is RNA toxicity caused by transcripts of aberrantly elongated CTG or CCTG repeats located in the 3' untranslated region or in the intron. The current treatments for DM is limited to symptomatic care. In this review, we will discuss several new therapeutic strategies based on recent studies of RNA toxicity.

  11. A cohort study of gestational diabetes mellitus and complimentary qualitative research: background, aims and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S; Datta, Manjula; Rajendran, Rekha; Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Radhakrishnan, Rohini; Kapur, Anil; Seshiah, Veerasamy

    2014-11-25

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and their offsprings are at increased risk of future type 2 diabetes and metabolic abnormalities. Early diagnosis and proper management of GDM, as well as, postpartum follow-up and preventive care is expected to reduce this risk. However, no large scale prospective studies have been done particularly from the developing world on this aspect. The objective of this study is to identify and follow a cohort of pregnant women with and without GDM and their offspring to identify determinants and risk factors for GDM, for various pregnancy outcomes, as well as, for the development of future diabetes and metabolic abnormalities. This is a prospective cohort study involving pregnant women attending prenatal clinics from urban, semi-urban and rural areas in the greater Chennai region in South India. Around 9850 pregnant women will be screened for GDM. Socio-economic status, demographic data, obstetric history, delivery and birth outcomes, perinatal and postnatal complications, neonatal morbidity, maternal postpartum and offsprings follow-up data will be collected. Those diagnosed with GDM will initially be advised routine care. Those unable to reach glycaemic control with diet alone will be advised to take insulin. Postpartum screening for glucose abnormalities will be performed at months 3 and 6 and then every year for 10 years. The offsprings will be followed up every year for anthropometric measurements and growth velocity, as well as, plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile. In addition, qualitative research will be carried out to identify barriers and facilitators for early GDM screening, treatment compliance and postpartum follow-up and testing, as well as, for continued adherence to lifestyle modifications. The study will demonstrate whether measures to improve diagnosis and care of GDM mothers followed by preventive postpartum care are possible in the routine care setting. It will also map out the barriers and

  12. AIM Study on the Reaction of CH2SH Radical with Fluorine Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui-hong Sun; Yan-li Zeng; Ling-peng Meng; Shi-jun Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of CH2SH radical with fluorine atom was studied at the levels of B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) and MP2(Full)/6-311G(d,p).The computational results show that the reaction has three channels and proceeds by the addition of fluorine atoms on carbon or sulfur sites of CH2SH,forming initial intermediates.The calculated results show that the channel,in which fluorine attaches to the carbon atom to form CH2S and HF,is the most likely reaction pathway.Topological analysis of electron density was carried out for the three channels.The change trends of the chemical bonds on the reaction paths were discussed.The energy transition states and the structure transition regions (states) of the three channels were found.The calculated results show that the structure transition regions axe broad in unobvions exothermic reactions or unobvions endothermic reactions,and are narrow in obvious exothermic reactions or obvious endothermic reactions.

  13. Theoretical studies on 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol derivatives aimed at finding superior propellants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Wang, Lianjun; Wang, Guixiang; Du, Hongchen; Gong, Xuedong

    2012-04-01

    In an attempt to find superior propellants, 2-diazo-4,6-dinitrophenol (DDNP) and its -NO(2), -NH(2), -CN, -NC, -ONO(2), and -NF(2) derivatives were studied at the B3LYP/6-311++G level of density functional theory (DFT). Sensitivity was evaluated using bond dissociation enthalpies (BDEs) and molecular surface electrostatic potentials. The C-NO(2) bond appears to be the trigger bond during the thermolysis process for these compounds, except for the -ONO(2) and -NF(2) derivatives. Electrostatic potential results show that electron-withdrawing substituents make the charge imbalance more anomalous, which may change the strength of the bond, especially the weakest trigger bond. Most of the DDNP derivatives have the impact sensitivities that are higher than that of DDNP, making them favorable for use as solid propellants in micro-rockets. The theoretical densities (ρ), heats of formation (HOFs), detonation energies (Q), detonation pressures (P), and detonation velocities (D) of the compounds were estimated. The effects of various substituent groups on ρ, HOF, Q, D, and P were investigated. Some derivatives exhibit perfect detonation properties. The calculated relative specific impulses (I (r,sp)) of all compounds except for -NH(2) derivatives were higher than that of DDNP, and also meet the requirements of propellants.

  14. [Current status of autism studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, H

    2001-01-01

    The current status of autism studies was reviewed based on English articles published during the 1990s. Although the concepts of autism and pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are established, diagnostic criteria of PDDNOS or atypical autism, which is frequently difficult to differentiate from autism, need to be established. The prevalence of autism has been estimated as about 0.05% in the U.S and many European countries, while it was reported to be 0.1% or higher in Japan and some European countries, though the reasons for this difference are unclear. High-functioning (IQ > or = 70) autism may not be as rare a condition as previously thought and both its difference from and similarity to Asperger's syndrome, the highest functioning PDD subtype, need clarification. About 20 to 40% of children with autism lose meaningful words by the age of 2 years and display autistic symptoms thereafter. Such autism, called the setback type in Japan, has been demonstrated to have a poorer adolescent/adult outcome compared to autism without setback and its relationship with childhood disintegrative disorder, which displays a clearer regression after normal development for at least the first 2 years of life, needs to be addressed. The etiology of autism is now considered mostly genetic for reasons, such as the significantly higher concordance rate of autism in identical twin pairs (60-80%) than in fraternal twin pairs (0-10%) and an 3-5% incidence of autism among sibs of an autism proband, 30 to 100 times higher than that in the general population. The involvement of several genes is implicated to create susceptibility for autism, yet the responsible genes have not been identified. Although there is no medication to cure autism, some psychotropic drugs, such as antipsychotics and SSRIs, seem effective for behavior problems in autism patients. Psychosocial treatments are the main therapeutic approach to autism, though they are yet to be well systematized. It is important to

  15. Study Protocol - Accurate assessment of kidney function in Indigenous Australians: aims and methods of the eGFR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotopoulos Sianna

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an overwhelming burden of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease among Indigenous Australians. In this high risk population, it is vital that we are able to measure accurately kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate is the best overall marker of kidney function. However, differences in body build and body composition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians suggest that creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate derived for European populations may not be appropriate for Indigenous Australians. The burden of kidney disease is borne disproportionately by Indigenous Australians in central and northern Australia, and there is significant heterogeneity in body build and composition within and amongst these groups. This heterogeneity might differentially affect the accuracy of estimation of glomerular filtration rate between different Indigenous groups. By assessing kidney function in Indigenous Australians from Northern Queensland, Northern Territory and Western Australia, we aim to determine a validated and practical measure of glomerular filtration rate suitable for use in all Indigenous Australians. Methods/Design A cross-sectional study of Indigenous Australian adults (target n = 600, 50% male across 4 sites: Top End, Northern Territory; Central Australia; Far North Queensland and Western Australia. The reference measure of glomerular filtration rate was the plasma disappearance rate of iohexol over 4 hours. We will compare the accuracy of the following glomerular filtration rate measures with the reference measure: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 4-variable formula, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation, Cockcroft-Gault formula and cystatin C- derived estimates. Detailed assessment of body build and composition was performed using anthropometric measurements, skinfold thicknesses, bioelectrical impedance and a sub-study used dual

  16. Formal analysis of the urban 'Dutch model' with aims of re-formulating spatial quality concerns for pedestrian precincts in current New Town developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    In the Japanese post WWII urban planning and design field, concerns for formal features regarding the sequential street-front visual image in new high-density urban spaces have been a rather subordinated subject. Famous New Town schemes such as Tsukuba Science City (1963), or Minato Mirai 21 (1965) for instance, are typical inland and reclaimed land examples that summarize the validity and limitations of functional zoning systems applied to these artificial urban developments for the last half century. In those examples, the interaction between space mobility and land use has not been explored sufficiently in order to create attractive street-front images, yet such interaction is essential to the way the cityscape and its character are perceived by the eye. However, current insight regarding the sustainable New Town paradigm has brought a renewed perspective regarding design policy of the pedestrian precinct. This study investigates the formal features of the sequential street-front image of Dutch late-medieval town examples which could help re-formulate the existing design policies regarding the quality of pedestrian space especially in the artificial reclaimed land design field. The purpose is to find out how the principles of those old high-density artificial environmental design models generate such effective interaction between mobility and land usage, creating an enriched aesthetic visual image of street-front space as a result.

  17. Benchmarking Investments in Advancement: Results of the Inaugural CASE Advancement Investment Metrics Study (AIMS). CASE White Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Juidith A.

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural Advancement Investment Metrics Study, or AIMS, benchmarked investments and staffing in each of the advancement disciplines (advancement services, alumni relations, communications and marketing, fundraising and advancement management) as well as the return on the investment in fundraising specifically. This white paper reports on the…

  18. What Are We Aiming For?--A Delphi Study on the Development of Civic Scientific Literacy in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Based on the EU FP 7 project, PROFILES, this article presents our findings from a three-round Delphi study conducted in Sweden that aimed at establishing a consensus on how science education should be developed for citizens to enhance civic scientific literacy. A total of 100 stakeholders (9th graders, school teachers, scientists, and science…

  19. [Generalized anxiety disorders (GAD)--a neglected illness? Background und aims of the GAD-P study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, H U; Linden, M; Schwarzer, W; Riemann, D; Boerner, R J; Bandelow, B

    2001-01-01

    In the past Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)--previously classified as anxiety neurosis--was regarded as not being a separate diagnostic entity. On the basis of new explicit criteria for GAD in the 90ies, GAD-specific pharmacological (i.e. SNRI) and psychological treatments with improved efficacy have become available. The Generalized Anxiety and Depression in Primary care study (GAD-P) investigates the prevalence of GAD in primary care settings and evaluates the patterns of care provided. Aims, methods and findings of the GAD-P study are described in this supplement.

  20. X-ray computed tomography and aggregate image system (AIMS for studying hot mix asphalt and aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allex E. Álvarez Lugo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Achieving reliable pavement design, durable roadway structures and effective maintenance and rehabilitation plans requires the suitable characterisation of the materials used in pavement construction. This paper describes two non-destructive techniques based on image acquisition and analysis and their successful application in pavement engi-neering: X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT and aggregate imaging system (AIMS. The former has been used for characterising the internal structure of asphalt mixes to analyse and model their performance; it has been particu-larly used for studying the content, size, distribution and connectivity of air-voids and these variables’ relationship with moisture damage susceptibility, capillarity and permeability within the mixes. AIMS was intended for characterri-sing aggregates’ morphological properties (i.e., form, angularity and texture. This technique provides important ad-vantages regarding the standard methods used for obtaining the same aggregate properties: it is objective, reliable, reproducible and can be carried out quickly. This paper was aimed at describing these two techniques’ theoretical backgrounds, mention some recent applications and provide insight into how existing characterisation of materials used in pavement construction can be improved.

  1. Polish mother and child cohort study--defining the problem, the aim of the study and methodological assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Gromadzińska, Jolanta; Ligocka, Danuta; Gulczyńska, Ewa; Sobala, Wojciech; Wásowicz, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Exposures during prenatal period have implications for pregnancy outcome as well as for children's health, morbidity and mortality. Prospective cohort study design allows for the identification of exposures that may influence pregnancy outcome and children's health, verification of such exposures by biomarker measurements and notification of any changes in exposure level. Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) is multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 8 different regions of Poland. The final cohort is intended to comprise 1300 mother-child pairs to be recruited within 4-year period (2007-2011). The recruitment and all scheduled visits are conducted in maternity units or clinics in the districts included in the study. The women are followed-up 3 times in pregnancy (once in each trimester) and after delivery for the notification of pregnancy outcome. During each visit, detailed questionnaire and biological samples are collected including saliva, urine, hair, maternal blood and cord blood. About 6 weeks postpartum, breast milk from part of the women is collected. The study concentrates on the identification and evaluation of the effects of prenatal environmental exposure on pregnancy outcome and children's health. Specific research hypotheses refer to the role of heavy metals, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the aetiology of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm delivery (PD). The role of oxidative stress putative mechanism and pregnant women nutritional status will be investigated. Based on questionnaire data, the impact of occupational exposures and stressful situations will be evaluated. The results of the study will become available within the next few years and will help to determine levels of child prenatal exposure in several areas of Poland and its impact on course and outcome of pregnancy.

  2. Plant-based strategies aimed at expressing HIV antigens and neutralizing antibodies at high levels. Nef as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Carla; Vitale, Alessandro; Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Donini, Marcello; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Bock, Ralph; Dix, Philip J; McCabe, Matthew S; Bellucci, Michele; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2009-08-01

    The first evidence that plants represent a valid, safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems for large-scale production of antigens and antibodies was described more than 10 years ago. Since then, considerable improvements have been made to increase the yield of plant-produced proteins. These include the use of signal sequences to target proteins to different cellular compartments, plastid transformation to achieve high transgene dosage, codon usage optimization to boost gene expression, and protein fusions to improve recombinant protein stability and accumulation. Thus, several HIV/SIV antigens and neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have recently been successfully expressed in plants by stable nuclear or plastid transformation, and by transient expression systems based on plant virus vectors or Agrobacterium-mediated infection. The current article gives an overview of plant expressed HIV antigens and antibodies and provides an account of the use of different strategies aimed at increasing the expression of the accessory multifunctional HIV-1 Nef protein in transgenic plants.

  3. Cancer-induced alterations of NK-mediated target recognition: current and investigational pharmacological strategies aiming at restoring NK-mediated anti-tumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie eChretien

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence of cancer immune-surveillance, which plays a key role in tumor rejection, cancer cells can escape immune recognition through different mechanisms. Thus, evasion to NK cell mediated anti-tumor activity is commonly described and is mediated by various mechanisms, mainly cancer cell-induced down regulation of NK activating receptors (NCRs, NKG2D, DNAM-1 and CD16 as well as up regulation of inhibitory receptors (KIRs, NKG2A. Alterations of NK cells lead to an impaired recognition of tumor cells as well as a decreased ability to interact with immune cells. Alternatively, cancer cells down-regulate expression of ligands for NK cell activating receptors and up-regulate expression of the ligands for inhibitory receptors. A better knowledge of the extent and the mechanisms of these defects will allow developing pharmacological strategies to restore NK cell ability to recognize and lyse tumor cells. Combining conventional chemotherapy and immune modulation is a promising approach likely to improve clinical outcome in diverse neoplastic malignancies. Here, we overview experimental approaches as well as strategies already available in the clinics that restore NK cell functionality. Yet successful cancer therapies based on the manipulation of NK cell already have shown efficacy in the context of hematologic malignancies. Additionally, the ability of cytotoxic agents to increase susceptibility of tumors to NK cell lysis has been studied and may require improvement to maximize this effect. More recently, new strategies were developed to specifically restore NK cell phenotype or to stimulate NK cell functions. Overall, pharmacological immune modulation trends to be integrated in therapeutic strategies and should improve antitumor effects of conventional cancer therapy.

  4. Assessment of mycotoxin exposure in the Belgian population using biomarkers: aim, design and methods of the BIOMYCO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyndrickx, Ellen; Sioen, Isabelle; Bellemans, Mia; De Maeyer, Mieke; Callebaut, Alfons; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Saeger, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are harmful food contaminants. Currently, human exposure assessment to these toxins is often based on calculations combining mycotoxin occurrence data in food with population data on food consumption. Because of limitations inherent to that approach, biomarkers have been proposed as a suitable alternative whereby a more accurate assessment of exposure at the individual level can be performed. The BIOMYCO study is designed to assess human mycotoxin exposure using urinary biomarkers of exposure. Over the different seasons of 2013 and 2014, morning urine is gathered in a representative part of the Belgian population according to a designed study protocol, whereby 140 children (3-12 years old) and 278 adults (19-65 years old) are selected based on random cluster sampling stratified for sex, age and geographical areas. Every participant completes a food frequency questionnaire to assess the consumption of relevant foodstuffs (n = 43) of both the day before the urine collection and the previous month. Validated multi-toxin LC-MS/MS methods are used to analyse aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone and their metabolites in morning urine. The study protocol is approved by the ethical committee of the Ghent University Hospital. Within this paper, study design and methods are described. The BIOMYCO study is the first study whereby a multi-toxin approach is applied for mycotoxin exposure assessment in adults and children on a large scale. Moreover, it is the first study that will describe the exposure to an elaborated set of mycotoxins in the Belgian population. In first instance, descriptive analysis will be performed, describing the exposure to mycotoxins for the child and adult group. Exposure of different subgroups will be compared. Furthermore, correlations between the mycotoxin concentrations measured and the food consumption reported will be estimated to explore whether the mycotoxin exposure could be explained by the consumption

  5. Theoretical investigation of hydrogen bonding between water and platinum(II): an atom in molecule (AIM) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhang, Guiqiu; Chen, Dezhan

    2012-02-01

    Recently, Rizzato et al. [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 49, 7440 (2010)] [1] reported a hydrogen-bonding-like interaction between a water molecule and a d8 metal ion (PtII) based on neutron diffraction, and provided the first crystallographic evidence for this interaction. We studied the hydrogen bonding of the O-H ... Pt interaction theoretically using atoms in molecule (AIM) and natural bond orbital analysis (NBO) in the crystallographic geometries. The method used density functional theory (DFT) with the hybrid B3LYP function. For platinum atoms, we used the Los Alamos National Laboratory 2-Double-Zeta (LANL2DZ) basis set, and for the other atoms we used 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Criteria based on a topological analysis of the electron density were used in order to characterize the nature of interactions in the complexes. The main purpose of the present work is to provide an answer to the following questions: Why can a filled d orbital of square-planar d8 metal ions such as platinum(II) also act as hydrogen-bond acceptors? Can a study based on the electron charge density answer this question? A good correlation between the density at the intermolecular bond critical point and the energy interaction was found. The interaction is mainly closed-shell and there is some charge transfer in this system.

  6. Study of high-definition and stereoscopic head-aimed vision for improved teleoperation of an unmanned ground vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyczka, Dale R.; Wright, Robert; Janiszewski, Brian; Chatten, Martha Jane; Bowen, Thomas A.; Skibba, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Nearly all explosive ordnance disposal robots in use today employ monoscopic standard-definition video cameras to relay live imagery from the robot to the operator. With this approach, operators must rely on shadows and other monoscopic depth cues in order to judge distances and object depths. Alternatively, they can contact an object with the robot's manipulator to determine its position, but that approach carries with it the risk of detonation from unintentionally disturbing the target or nearby objects. We recently completed a study in which high-definition (HD) and stereoscopic video cameras were used in addition to conventional standard-definition (SD) cameras in order to determine if higher resolutions and/or stereoscopic depth cues improve operators' overall performance of various unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) tasks. We also studied the effect that the different vision modes had on operator comfort. A total of six different head-aimed vision modes were used including normal-separation HD stereo, SD stereo, "micro" (reduced separation) SD stereo, HD mono, and SD mono (two types). In general, the study results support the expectation that higher resolution and stereoscopic vision aid UGV teleoperation, but the degree of improvement was found to depend on the specific task being performed; certain tasks derived notably more benefit from improved depth perception than others. This effort was sponsored by the Joint Ground Robotics Enterprise under Robotics Technology Consortium Agreement #69-200902 T01. Technical management was provided by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory's Robotics Research and Development Group at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

  7. A systematic review of studies that aim to determine which outcomes to measure in clinical trials in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Sinha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In clinical trials the selection of appropriate outcomes is crucial to the assessment of whether one intervention is better than another. Selection of inappropriate outcomes can compromise the utility of a trial. However, the process of selecting the most suitable outcomes to include can be complex. Our aim was to systematically review studies that address the process of selecting outcomes or outcome domains to measure in clinical trials in children.We searched Cochrane databases (no date restrictions in December 2006; and MEDLINE (1950 to 2006, CINAHL (1982 to 2006, and SCOPUS (1966 to 2006 in January 2007 for studies of the selection of outcomes for use in clinical trials in children. We also asked a group of experts in paediatric clinical research to refer us to any other relevant studies. From these articles we extracted data on the clinical condition of interest, description of the method used to select outcomes, the people involved in the selection process, the outcomes selected, and limitations of the method as defined by the authors. The literature search identified 8,889 potentially relevant abstracts. Of these, 70 were retrieved, and 25 were included in the review. These studies described the work of 13 collaborations representing various paediatric specialties including critical care, gastroenterology, haematology, psychiatry, neurology, respiratory paediatrics, rheumatology, neonatal medicine, and dentistry. Two groups utilised the Delphi technique, one used the nominal group technique, and one used both methods to reach a consensus about which outcomes should be measured in clinical trials. Other groups used semistructured discussion, and one group used a questionnaire-based survey. The collaborations involved clinical experts, research experts, and industry representatives. Three groups involved parents of children affected by the particular condition.Very few studies address the appropriate choice of outcomes for clinical research

  8. Mechanistic studies aimed at the development of single site metal alkoxide catalysts for the production of polyoxygenates from renewable resources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, Malcolm H. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The work proposed herein follows on directly from the existing 3 year grant and the request for funding is for 12 months to allow completion of this work and graduation of current students supported by DOE. The three primary projects are as follows. 1.) A comparative study of the reactivity of LMg(OR) (solvent), where L= a β-diiminate or pyrromethene ligand, in the ring-opening of cyclic esters. 2.) The homopolymerization of expoxides, particularly propylene oxide and styrene oxide, and their copolymerizations with carbon dioxide or organic anhydrides to yield polycarbonates or polyesters, respectively. 3.) The development of well-defined bismuth (III) complexes for ring-opening polymerizations that are tolerant of both air and water. In each of these topics special emphasis is placed on developing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the ring-opening event and how this is modified by the employment of specific metal and ligand combinations. This document also provides a report on findings of the past grant period that are not yet in the public domain/published and shows how the proposed work will bring the original project to conclusion.

  9. Aims, methods and preliminary findings of the Physical Activity, Nutrition and Allergies in Children Examined in Athens (PANACEA epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadimitriou Anastasios

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the prevalence of asthma symptoms in a sample of Greek children aged 10–12 years, and to evaluate these rates in relation to anthropometric, lifestyle characteristics and dietary habits. Methods During 2006, 700 schoolchildren (323 male and 377 female, aged 10–12 years (4th to 6th school grade, were selected from 18 schools located in the greater Athens area. The schools were randomly selected from a list provided by the regional educational offices. To achieve a representative sample the schools enrolled were selected from various region of the Athens area. For each child a questionnaire was completed that was developed for the purposes of the study to retrieve information on: age, sex, school class, other socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, dietary habits (through a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity status; the presence of asthma and allergies was assessed by the standard ISAAC questionnaire. Results The prevalence of wheezing in the past was 25% in boys and 19% in girls, while the prevalence of current wheezing was 9.0% in boys and 5.8% in girls. The prevalence of any asthma symptoms was 27.6% in boys and 20.4% in girls. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that increased body weight and sedentary lifestyle is associated with asthma symptoms only in boys. Conclusion The present cross-sectional study cannot establish causal relationships between asthma and increased body weight of schoolchildren; however, our findings underline the associations between asthma, increased body weight, and physical activity at population level, and urge for actions that should be taken by public health policy makers in order to prevent these conditions among children.

  10. The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study (Thai AIMS) of anesthetic equipment failure/malfunction: an analysis of 1996 incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaphanyo, Chaiyapruk; Charuluxananan, Somrat; Sriramatr, Dujduen; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn; Sriraj, Wimonrat

    2009-11-01

    The present study is a part of the multi-centered study of model of anesthesia relating adverse events in Thailand by incident report (The Thai Anesthesia Incident Monitoring Study or Thai AIMS). The objective was to identify the frequency distribution, contributing factors, and factors minimizing incident of equipment failure/malfunction. As a prospective descriptive research design, anesthesia providers reported the data as soon as the incidents of equipment failure/malfunction occurred. Standardized forms of incident report were then mailed to the center at Chulalongkorn University and three anesthesiologists reviewed the data. Ninety-two cases of equipment failure/malfunction were reported from 51 hospitals across Thailand Between January and June 2007, 92 incidents of equipment failure/malfunction were reported out of 1996 anesthesia-related incidents (4.6%). Failed/malfunctioned equipment included anesthetic circuit (17.4%), anesthesia machine (15.2%), capnography (15.2%), laryngoscope (15.2%), ventilator (12%), pulse oximeter (8.7%), vaporizer (4.3%), endotracheal tube (3.3%), sodalime (3.3%), and electrocardiogram (2.2%). All 16 anesthetic circuit incidents (100%) were detected by clinical signs whereas five incidents (31.3%) were detected firstly by monitors. All 14 laryngoscope malfunction (100%) were detected solely by clinical signs. Only one out of eight (12.5%) of pulse oximeter incidents was detected by clinical signs before the pulse oximeter itself. Three out of four (75%) incidents of vaporizer were detected by clinical signs before monitors. The majority of equipment malfunction was considered as related to anesthetic (69.6%) and system factors (69.6%) and 71.7% of incidents were preventable. Seventy-four incidents (80.4%) were caused by human error and, specifically, rule-based error in three fourths. Contributing factors were ineffective equipment, haste, lack of experience, ineffective monitors, and inadequate equipment. Factors minimizing

  11. Study of longshore current equations for currents in Visakhapatnam beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Rao, T.V.N.

    Longshore currents were measured along the Visakhapatnam Beach, Andhra Pradesh, India at weekly intervals from March 1978 to March 1979. Visual observations on breaker characteristics were also made during this period. Using modified Longuet...

  12. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  13. Studies of Current Dependent Effects at ANKA

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, A S; Huttel, E; Pérez, F; Pont, M; Zimmermann, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The ANKA electron storage ring is operated at energies between 0.5 and 2.5 GeV. A major requirement for a synchrotron light source, such as ANKA, is to achieve a high beam current. A multitude of mostly impedance related effects depend on either bunch or total beam current. This paper gives an overview over the various beam studies performed at ANKA in this context, specifically the observation of current dependent detuning, the determination of the bunch length change with current from a measurement of the ratio between coherent and incoherent synchrotron tune and an assessment of the effective longitudinal loss factor from the current dependent horizontal closed orbit distortion.

  14. The persuasive aims of Metal Gear Solid: A discourse theoretical approach to the study of argumentation in video games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamenkovic, Dusan; Jacevic, Milan; Wildfeuer, Janina

    2017-01-01

    in a representative video game combine so as to convince the player to act, play, and perhaps think accordingly. The multimodal approach employed in the paper combines the notion of discourse aims and the rhetorical and argumentative structure of Metal Gear Solid (Kojima, 1998), and analyses different narrative...

  15. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF CURRENT RATIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas Delev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to address problems of liquidity and in particular the values and factors that influenced the values of the coefficient of total liquidity sixty Bulgarian public companies for the period 2013 - 2007 year. In the analysis it was found that some businesses fail to achieve favorable values of the ratio between current assets and current liabilities. It was found that plants have a low level of total liquidity, which can create problems in repayment of short-term liabilities. It can be seen that there are companies with very high liquidity, which is not so good phenomenon, ie the retention of a high level of resources required. Businesses should conduct a thorough analysis and implement appropriate measures to correct adverse changes. The financial management of the companies surveyed had worked towards improving the state of the enterprise, thereby seeking to reduce liquidity risk.

  16. Extended-Interval Dosing of Gentamicin Aiming for a Drug-Free Period in Neonates: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maarseveen, Erik M; Sprij, Arwen; Touw, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Current gentamicin dosing algorithms in adult populations target a high peak concentration (Cmax) assuring efficacy and a drug-free period (concentration 8 mg·L and estimated trough concentrations 8 mg·L with a Cmin value

  17. Extended-Interval Dosing of Gentamicin Aiming for a Drug-Free Period in Neonates : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maarseveen, Erik M.; Sprij, Arwen; Touw, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background:Current gentamicin dosing algorithms in adult populations target a high peak concentration (C-max) assuring efficacy and a drug-free period (concentration 8 mgL(-1) and estimated trough concentrations 8 mgL(-1) with a C-min value

  18. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Precision laser aiming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  20. Multiscale Study of Currents Affected by Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    boundary layers to influence the ambient larger-scale flow. We have studied these issues through ocean model simulations, adjoint sensitivity...circulation be monitored from pressure gauges, temperature sensors, current meters, or other measurements near the feature? • The influence of the

  1. Study of vibrational spectra and hydrogen bonding network in dimeric and tetrameric model of ampicillin using DFT and AIM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Anuradha; Khan, Eram; Tandon, Poonam; Sinha, Kirti

    2017-03-01

    Ampicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic that is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and is widely used for the treatment of infections. In this work, molecular properties of ampicillin are calculated on the basis of calculations on its dimeric and tetrameric models using DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). HOMO-LUMO energy gap shows that chemical reactivity of tetrameric model of ampicillin is higher than the dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. To get a better understanding of intra and intermolecular bonding and interactions among bonds, NBO analysis is carried out with tetrameric model of ampicillin, and is further finalized with an 'quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules' (QTAIM) analysis. The binding energy of dimeric model of ampicillin is calculated as -26.84 kcal/mol and -29.34 kcal/mol using AIM and DFT calculations respectively. The global electrophilicity index (ω = 2.8118 eV) of tetrameric model of ampicillin shows that this behaves as a strong electrophile in comparison to dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded in the solid phase, and interpreted in terms of potential energy distribution analysis. A collective theoretical and experimental vibrational analysis approves the presence of hydrogen bonds in the ampicillin molecule.

  2. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    chose CHOP as our primary target for drug development. Currently, we are in the process of screening a library of 1274 drugs, all of which are already used in human subjects, for CHOP inhibitors. The last topic of our discussion is future possibilities for glaucoma management. First, we discuss the development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities that allow detailed description of pathomechanisms of this multifactorial disease, glaucoma. The purpose of this research was to improve the efficacy of glaucoma diagnosis and to visualize its pathology at a cellular/molecular level and develop molecule-specific therapies. Currently available visual field tests are subjective, since they rely on a determination of the threshold of light perception, and are affected by poor reproducibility. The current dependence on visual field tests to ascertain the progression of glaucoma is thus a serious limitation on an important task of ophthalmologists. We, therefore, turned our focus to the establishment of an in vivo imaging method to detect dying retinal ganglion cells, which would highlight the pathologic state of glaucoma with high sensitivity. To this end, we used confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy to assess the usefulness of SYTOX Orange as a cell death probe. Our results showed that this probe could reveal dying retinal ganglion cells clearly, quickly and with high sensitivity. We, therefore, believe that the clinical application of probes that can sensitively detect dying retinal ganglion cells is a highly promising approach. This also applies to the use of molecular tools that can provide information on the molecular pathology of glaucoma. Finally, we would like to introduce our national collaborative work on the analysis of "big-data". The project aims to collect as wide a range of data as possible at an unprecedented scale. The data to be registered ranges from basic glaucoma data, such as IOP and visual field test results, to data from the most sophisticated

  3. Aiming for the Singing Teacher: An Applied Study on Preservice Kindergarten Teachers' Singing Skills Development within a Music Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neokleous, Rania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a music methods course offered at a Cypriot university on the singing skills of 33 female preservice kindergarten teachers. To systematically measure and analyze student progress, the research design was both experimental and descriptive. As an applied study which was carried out "in situ," the normal…

  4. The ENIQ pilot study: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Eriksen, B.; Crutzen, S. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands); Hansch, M. [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Whittle, J. [AEA Technology, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1998-11-01

    A pilot study is currently being carried out by ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) in order to explore the issues involved in inspection qualification applied along the general principles of the European methodology. The components selected for the pilot study are austenitic pipe to pipe and pipe to elbows welds typical of those in BWR recirculation loops. A range of defect parameters has been defined. A suitable inspection procedure designed to find the designated defects will be applied to geometrically representative test pieces. The procedure/equipment will be qualified through open trials and technical justification. The personnel qualification will be done in a blind way. Once all features of the inspection system will have been qualified an in-service inspection will be simulated in order to test the feasibility of the qualification approach followed. In this paper the current status of this pilot study is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Interactive web visualization tools to the results interpretation of a seismic risk study aimed at the emergency levels definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gutierrez, V.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.

    2009-04-01

    Results of a seismic risk assessment study are often applied and interpreted by users unspecialised on the topic or lacking a scientific background. In this context, the availability of tools that help translating essentially scientific contents to broader audiences (such as decision makers or civil defence officials) as well as representing and managing results in a user-friendly fashion, are on indubitable value. On of such tools is the visualization tool VISOR-RISNA, a web tool developed within the RISNA project (financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre, Spain) for regional seismic risk assessment of Navarre and the subsequent development of emergency plans. The RISNA study included seismic hazard evaluation, geotechnical characterization of soils, incorporation of site effects to expected ground motions, vulnerability distribution assessment and estimation of expected damage distributions for a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The main goal of RISNA was the identification of higher risk area where focusing detailed, local-scale risk studies in the future and the corresponding urban emergency plans. A geographic information system was used to combine different information layers, generate tables of results and represent maps with partial and final results. The visualization tool VISOR-RISNA is intended to facilitate the interpretation and representation of the collection of results, with the ultimate purpose of defining actuation plans. A number of criteria for defining actuation priorities are proposed in this work. They are based on combinations of risk parameters resulting from the risk study (such as expected ground motion and damage and exposed population), as determined by risk assessment specialists. Although the values that these parameters take are a result of the risk study, their distribution in several classes depends on the intervals defined by decision takers or civil defense officials. These criteria provide a ranking of

  6. [Current registry studies of acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltkamp, R; Jüttler, E; Pfefferkorn, T; Purrucker, J; Ringleb, P

    2012-10-01

    Study registries offer the opportunity to evaluate the effects of new therapies or to observe the consequences of new treatments in clinical practice. The SITS-MOST registry confirmed the validity of findings from randomized trials on intravenous thrombolysis concerning safety and efficacy in the clinical routine. Current study registries concerning new interventional thrombectomy techniques suggest a high recanalization rate; however, the clinical benefit can only be evaluated in randomized, controlled trials. Similarly, the experiences of the BASICS registry on basilar artery occlusion have led to the initiation of a controlled trial. The benefit of hemicraniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction has been demonstrated by the pooled analysis of three randomized trials. Numerous relevant aspects are currently documented in the DESTINY-R registry. Finally, the recently started RASUNOA registry examines diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke occurring during therapy with new oral anticoagulants.

  7. A radio-frequency system for in vivo pilot experiments aimed at the studies on biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardoino, Lucia; Lopresto, Vanni; Mancini, Sergio; Marino, Carmela; Pinto, Rosanna; Lovisolo, Giorgio A

    2005-08-07

    An exposure system consisting of two long transversal electromagnetic (TEM) cells, operating at a frequency of 900 MHz, is presented and discussed. The set-up allows simultaneous exposure of a significant number of animals (up to 12 mice per cell) in a blind way to a uniform plane wave at a frequency of 900 MHz, for investigating possible biological effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields produced by wireless communication systems. A heating/refrigerating system has also been designed for maintaining comfortable environmental conditions within the TEM cells during experiments. An accurate dosimetric study has been performed both numerically and by means of direct measurements on phantoms and living mice. The results have shown that good homogeneity of exposure and adequate power efficiency, in terms of whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) per 1 W of input power, are achievable for the biological target.

  8. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  9. New Theories and Practice in Social Studies in Japan: Is Citizenship Education the Aim of Social Studies as a School Subject?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Ikeno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce new theories and practice in Social Studies in Japan since the 1990s, to outline some trends and characteristics relating to the question ‘Is Citizenship Education the aim of Social Studies as a school subject?’ and to identify ‘Applied’ and ‘Academic’ Social Studies as two separate categories. The Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology has long advocated the merits of Applied Social Studies, but recent trends have seen educational researchers and local education administrators actively supporting the reformation and promotion of Social Studies from an ‘applied’ perspective. Going even further, several schools and districts are so in favour of this development that Citizenship Education has been incorporated as a subject or topic into the school curriculum. However, defence of Academic Social Studies is also deeply rooted; its argument being that Social Studies means Social Sciences. According to this view, Geography, History and Civics (comprising politics, economics and sociology are treated as distinct fields of Social Studies.

  10. AIM Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scholz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM Data Services as a virtual facility provides virtual 3D reference tracks for simulation applications in the domain of automotive and railway systems. It offers tools for management and analysis of experiment data and a platform for survey and processing of vehicle data in the public transport domain. Collected spatial data is bundled in a database cluster and published through common web mapping interfaces.

  11. Aims of the Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Dornan, P J

    2010-01-01

    There are challenges and opportunities for the European particle physics community to engage with innovative and exciting developments which could lead to precision measurements in the neutrino sector. These have the potential to yield significant advances in the understanding of CP violation, the flavour riddle and theories beyond the Standard Model. This workshop aims to start the process of a dialogue in Europe so that informed decisions on the appropriate directions to pursue can be made in a few years time.

  12. Aims and Scope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Nursing Research(CNR)is the official peer-reviewed research journal and an international platform of nursing academic exchange.This journal aims to promote excellence in nursing and health care through the dissemination of the latest,evidence-based,peer-reviewed research report,academic papers,review articles and clinical research,to reflect nursing academic trends,scientific research and

  13. Aiming for the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard

    and articulation of bodily sensations, and how decisions about healthcare seeking are established in this context. This dissertation aims to explore these matters from the perspective of the Danish middle class, mainly focusing on how sensations are ascribed meaning as symptoms and how they are evoked...... months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Danish middle class suburban neighbourhood, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews and health diaries. 18 key informants were followed with regular field visits, interviews and participation in everyday life activities as well as health...

  14. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scienti c distributed applications [1]. The survey established, arguably for the rst time, the relationship between infrastructure and scienti c distributed applications. It examined well known contributors to the complexity associated with infrastructure, such as inconsistent internal and external interfaces, and demonstrated the correlation with application brittleness. It discussed how infrastructure complexity reinforces the challenges inherent in developing distributed applications.

  15. A study of model bivalve siphonal currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Janet K.; O'Riordan, Catherine A.; Nepf, Heidi M.

    1990-01-01

    We carried out experiments studying the hydrodynamics of bivalve siphonal currents in a laboratory flume. Rather than use living animals, we devised a simple, model siphon pair connected to a pump. Fluorescence-based flow visualization was used to characterize siphon-jet flows for several geometric configurations and flow speeds. These measurements show that the boundary-layer velocity profile, siphon height, siphon pair orientation, and size of siphon structure all affect the vertical distribution of the excurrent flow downstream of the siphon pair and the fraction of excurrent that is refiltered. The observed flows may effect both the clearance rate of an entire population of siphonate bivalves as well as the efficiency of feeding of any individual. Our results imply that field conditions are properly represented in laboratory flume studies of phytoplankton biomass losses to benthic bivalves when the shear velocity and bottom roughness are matched to values found in the field. Numerical models of feeding by a bivalve population should include an effective sink distribution which is created by the combined incurrent-excurrent flow field. Near-bed flows need to be accounted for to properly represent these benthic-pelagic exchanges. We also present velocity measurements made with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA) for a single configuration (siphons flush with bed, inlet downstream) that show that the siphonal currents have a significant local effect on the properties of a turbulent boundary layer.

  16. A western boundary current eddy characterisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, Joachim; Brieva, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of an eddy census for the East Australian Current (EAC) region yielded a total of 497 individual short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies for the period 1993 to 2015. This was an average of about 23 eddies per year. 41% of the tracked individual cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies were detected off southeast Queensland between about 25 °S and 29 °S. This is the region where the flow of the EAC intensifies forming a swift western boundary current that impinges near Fraser Island on the continental shelf. This zone was also identified as having a maximum in detected short-lived cyclonic eddies. A total of 94 (43%) individual cyclonic eddies or about 4-5 per year were tracked in this region. The census found that these potentially displaced entrained water by about 115 km with an average displacement speed of about 4 km per day. Cyclonic eddies were likely to contribute to establishing an on-shelf longshore northerly flow forming the western branch of the Fraser Island Gyre and possibly presented an important cross-shelf transport process in the life cycle of temperate fish species of the EAC domain. In-situ observations near western boundary currents previously documented the entrainment, off-shelf transport and export of near shore water, nutrients, sediments, fish larvae and the renewal of inner shelf water due to short-lived eddies. This study found that these cyclonic eddies potentially play an important off-shelf transport process off the central east Australian coast.

  17. Recent Advances in Studies of Current Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanter, Yaroslav M.

    This is a brief review of recent activities in the field of current noise intended for newcomers. We first briefly discuss main properties of shot noise in nanostructures, and then turn to recent developments, concentrating on issues related to experimental progress: non-symmetrized cumulants and quantum noise; counting statistics; super-Poissonian noise; current noise and interferometry

  18. CURRENT STUDY ON THE FUNDING SOURCES COVERAGE OF CURRENT ASSETS TO COMPANIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor HADA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents issues about the coverage with financing sources of current assets for 64 companies listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange. The aim of the study is to see how to calculate indicators specific to current assets and the general framework offered as whole analysis of the financing sources of current assets. The introduction of the paper presents the objective, the research methodology and the novelties brought by this study. Further on, this study shows the various views of the authors about the concept of "current assets", financing sources of current assets, the calculation of net working capital, setting the limits of the normal working capital and determining the speed of rotation. After that was done, based on the theory, a case study was performed, for companies covered in this study. Conclusions focused on determining the final data about what was detailed in the previous paragraphs.

  19. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries) is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months), tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva), environmental (fluoride exposure) and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions). 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and progression of early

  20. The VicGeneration study - a birth cohort to examine the environmental, behavioural and biological predictors of early childhood caries: background, aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashper Stuart

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries (decay during childhood is largely preventable however it remains a significant and costly public health concern, identified as the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Caries in children aged less than five years (early childhood caries is a rapid and progressive disease that can be painful and debilitating, and significantly increases the likelihood of poor child growth, development and social outcomes. Early childhood caries may also result in a substantial social burden on families and significant costs to the public health system. A disproportionate burden of disease is also experienced by disadvantaged populations. Methods/Design This study involves the establishment of a birth cohort in disadvantaged communities in Victoria, Australia. Children will be followed for at least 18 months and the data gathered will explore longitudinal relationships and generate new evidence on the natural history of early childhood caries, the prevalence of the disease and relative contributions of risk and protective biological, environmental and behavioural factors. Specifically, the study aims to: 1. Describe the natural history of early childhood caries (at ages 1, 6, 12 and 18 months, tracking pathways from early bacterial colonisation, through non-cavitated enamel white spot lesions to cavitated lesions extending into dentine. 2. Enumerate oral bacterial species in the saliva of infants and their primary care giver. 3. Identify the strength of concurrent associations between early childhood caries and putative risk and protective factors, including biological (eg microbiota, saliva, environmental (fluoride exposure and socio-behavioural factors (proximal factors such as: feeding practices and oral hygiene; and distal factors such as parental health behaviours, physical health, coping and broader socio-economic conditions. 4. Quantify the longitudinal relationships between these factors and the development and

  1. Translation and validation study of the Persian version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2 in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadian Mohamad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2 (AIMS2 has not been translated and validated for Persian-speaking patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. This was to provide a validated instrument to measure functional disability and health-related quality of life in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in Iran. The aim of this study was to culturally adapt and validate the AIMS2 for Persian-speaking patients with osteoarthritis of the knee in Iran. Methods A consecutive sample of patients with knee osteoarthritis were asked to complete the AIMS2, the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and four visual analog scales for pain, joint stiffness, patient's and physician's global assessment. Internal consistency and convergent validity were applied to examine psychometric properties of the AIMS2. In addition, 30 randomly selected patients were asked to complete the questionnaire two days later for the second time for test-retest reliability. Finally factor structure of the Persian AIMS2 was performed using the principal component factor analysis. Results In all 230 patients were entered into the study. The mean (SD age of the participants was 56.9 (8.7 years and the mean (SD duration of disease was 7.2 (3.5 years. Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for the Persian AIMS2 scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.92 and 0.85 to 0.96, respectively. The correlation between most of the Persian AIMS2 scales and the physical and mental summary scores of the SF-36 and the visual analogue scales for pain, joint stiffness, patient's and physician's global assessment were statistically significant indicating a good convergent validity (p Conclusion The results showed that the Persian AIMS2 had reasonably good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. It is simple and easy to use and now can be applied in the future studies in Iran. However, its

  2. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  3. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Maessen, J.M.; Slangen, B.F.; Winkens, B.; Dirksen, C.D.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological

  4. An Exploratory Study Investigating the Impact of a University Module That Aims to Challenge Students' Perspectives on Ageing and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alison

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess if a module on an undergraduate degree programme had challenged students' perspectives on ageing and older adults. Courses on gerontology are on the increase within the UK to support increasingly ageing populations, with agendas to promote ethical care and to challenge the incidence of elderly abuse. Research…

  5. DiAlert: a lifestyle education programme aimed at people with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes and overweight, study protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, W.H.; Nierkens, V.; Stronks, K.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Verhoeff, A.P.; de Wit, M.; Snoek, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Family history is a known risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and more so in the presence of overweight. This study aims to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a new lifestyle education programme 'DiAlert' targeted at 1st degree relatives of people with T2DM and overweight. In view of the

  6. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Maessen, J.M.; Slangen, B.F.; Winkens, B.; Dirksen, C.D.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological

  7. Chiang Mai University Health Worker Study aiming toward a better understanding of noncommunicable disease development in Thailand: methods and description of study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkurawaranon C

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chaisiri Angkurawaranon,1,2 Anawat Wisetborisut,2 Wichuda Jiraporncharoen,2 Surinporn Likhitsathian,3 Ronnaphob Uaphanthasath,2 Patama Gomutbutra,2 Surin Jiraniramai,2 Chawin Lerssrimonkol,2 Apinun Aramrattanna,2 Pat Doyle,1 Dorothea Nitsch1 1Department of Non-Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK; 2Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: Urbanization is considered to be one of the key drivers of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in Thailand and other developing countries. These influences, in turn, may affect an individual's behavior and risk of developing NCDs. The Chiang Mai University (CMU Health Worker Study aims to provide evidence for a better understanding of the development of NCDs and ultimately to apply the evidence toward better prevention, risk modification, and improvement of clinical care for patients with NCDs and NCD-related conditions. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of health care workers from CMU Hospital was conducted between January 2013 and June 2013. Questionnaires, interviews, and physical and laboratory examinations were used to assess urban exposure, occupational shift work, risk factors for NCDs, self-reported NCDs, and other NCD-related health conditions. Results: From 5,364 eligible workers, 3,204 participated (59.7%. About 11.1% of the participants had high blood pressure (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and almost 30% were considered to be obese (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. A total of 2.3% had a high fasting blood glucose level (≥126 mg/dL, and the most common abnormal lipid profile was high low-density lipoprotein (≥160 mg/dL, which was found in 19.2% of participants. Discussion: The study of health

  8. Evaluating a Dutch cardiology primary care plus intervention on the Triple Aim outcomes: study design of a practice-based quantitative and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjel, Tessa C C; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2017-09-06

    In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the health-care system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study focuses on a cardiology primary care plus intervention. Primary care plus (PC+) is a new health-care delivery model focused on substitution of specialist care in the hospital setting with specialist care in the primary care setting. The intervention consists of a cardiology PC+ centre in which cardiologists, supported by other health-care professionals, provide consultations in a primary care setting. The PC+ centre aims to improve the health of the population and quality of care as experienced by patients, and reduce the number of referrals to hospital-based outpatient specialist care in order to reduce health-care costs. These aims reflect the Triple Aim principle. Hence, the objectives of the study are to evaluate the cardiology PC+ centre in terms of the Triple Aim outcomes and to evaluate the process of the introduction of PC+. The study is a practice-based, quantitative study with a longitudinal observational design, and an additional qualitative study to supplement, interpret and improve the quantitative study. The study population of the quantitative part will consist of adult patients (≥18 years) with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints, who will be referred to the cardiology PC+ centre (intervention group) or hospital-based outpatient cardiology care (control group). All eligible patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at three different time points consisting of questions about their demographics, health status and experience of care. Additionally, quantitative data will be collected about health-care utilization and related health-care costs at the PC+ centre and the hospital. The qualitative part, consisting of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and observations, is designed to evaluate the process as well as to amplify, clarify and explain quantitative results. This study

  9. An intervention program with the aim to improve and maintain work productivity for workers with rheumatoid arthritis: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilsteren Myrthe van

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the (costeffectiveness of an intervention program at the workplace on work productivity for workers with RA. Methods/design This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT in specialized rheumatology treatment centers in or near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Randomisation to either the control or the intervention group is performed at patient level. Both groups will receive care as usual by the rheumatologist, and patients in the intervention group will also take part in the intervention program. The intervention program consists of two components; integrated care, including a participatory workplace intervention. Integrated care involves a clinical occupational physician, who will act as care manager, to coordinate the care. The care manager has an intermediate role between clinical and occupational care. The participatory workplace intervention will be guided by an occupational therapist, and involves problem solving by the patient and the patients’ supervisor. The aim of the workplace intervention is to achieve consensus between patient and supervisor concerning feasible solutions for the obstacles for functioning at work. Data collection will take place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by means of a questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is work productivity, measured by hours lost from work due to presenteeism. Secondary outcome measures include sick leave, quality of life, pain and fatigue. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated from the societal perspective. Discussion Usual care of primary and outpatient health services is not aimed at improving work productivity. Therefore it is desirable to develop

  10. An intervention program with the aim to improve and maintain work productivity for workers with rheumatoid arthritis: design of a randomized controlled trial and cost-effectiveness study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vilsteren, Myrthe; Boot, Cécile R L; Steenbeek, Romy; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Anema, Johannes R

    2012-07-02

    Workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) often experience restrictions in functioning at work and participation in employment. Strategies to maintain work productivity exist, but these interventions do not involve the actual workplace. Therefore the aim of this study is to investigate the (cost)effectiveness of an intervention program at the workplace on work productivity for workers with RA. This study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in specialized rheumatology treatment centers in or near Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Randomisation to either the control or the intervention group is performed at patient level. Both groups will receive care as usual by the rheumatologist, and patients in the intervention group will also take part in the intervention program. The intervention program consists of two components; integrated care, including a participatory workplace intervention. Integrated care involves a clinical occupational physician, who will act as care manager, to coordinate the care. The care manager has an intermediate role between clinical and occupational care. The participatory workplace intervention will be guided by an occupational therapist, and involves problem solving by the patient and the patients' supervisor. The aim of the workplace intervention is to achieve consensus between patient and supervisor concerning feasible solutions for the obstacles for functioning at work. Data collection will take place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months by means of a questionnaire. The primary outcome measure is work productivity, measured by hours lost from work due to presenteeism. Secondary outcome measures include sick leave, quality of life, pain and fatigue. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention program will be evaluated from the societal perspective. Usual care of primary and outpatient health services is not aimed at improving work productivity. Therefore it is desirable to develop interventions aimed at improving functioning at work. If the

  11. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  12. Current Research on Chinese Students Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Jurgen; Zhu, Jiani

    2012-01-01

    As a result of China's growing participation and importance in the process of internationalization and globalization a continuously rising number of Chinese students has gone abroad for further study. By the end of the last decade the number of Chinese students abroad made up the largest group of international students in the USA (surpassing those…

  13. Current studies on myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Ta-Shen

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies have clarified the nature of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). In an MTrP region, multiple hyperirritable loci can be found. The sensory components of the MTrP locus are sensitized nociceptors that are responsible for pain, referred pain, and local twitch responses. The motor components are dysfunctional endplates that are responsible for taut band formation as a result of excessive acetylcholine (ACh) leakage. The concentrations of pain- and inflammation-related substances are increased in the MTrP region. It has been hypothesized that excessive ACh release, sarcomere shortening, and release of sensitizing substances are three essential features that relate to one another in a positive feedback cycle. This MTrP circuit is the connection among spinal sensory (dorsal horn) neurons responsible for the MTrP phenomena. Recent studies suggest that measurement of biochemicals associated with pain and inflammation in the MTrP region, the sonographic study of MTrPs, and the magnetic resonance elastography for taut band image are potential tools for the diagnosis of MTrPs. Many methods have been used to treat myofascial pain, including laser therapy, shockwave therapy, and botulinum toxin type A injection.

  14. Tobin Tax: Arguments and Current Derivative Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozekicioglu Seda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobin Tax and its derivative applications have started to be discussed again in many platforms as the issue regarding taxation of short-term capital movements has become an agenda among international communities such as European Union (EU and G20 since the beginning of 2000s. In this study, Tobin Tax, which is the first significant step towards taxation of foreign currency transactions, has been discussed theoretically and considering its possible effects on application. Also, in this context, the initiatives of countries such as USA, Belgium, France and Austria regarding international implementation of Tobin Tax and its derivatives are being evaluated. The intended use of the taxes, determination of transactions exempt from tax and international cooperation in the implementation of taxation are possible problems that can be faced regarding Tobin Tax. In this study the conclusion, which the effects of Tobin Tax in developing and developed countries will be different but imposing such tax regarding cyclic balance of the world economy will be a positive improvement, has been reached.

  15. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  16. Ocular biomechanics study: current state and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the eye represents a challenge for biomechanical research due to its size, over the last two decades, much data on ocular biomechanics were accumulated. Scleral and lamina cribrosa biomechanics contribute to our understanding of myopia and open-angle glaucoma; iris and trabecular meshwork biomechanics to that of angle-closure glaucoma; vitreous biomechanics to that of retinal detachment and ocular drug delivery; corneal biomechanics to that of keratoconus; and lens capsule biomechanics to that of cataract. This paper offers a general overview of recent advances in corneal, scleral, crystalline lens, and lamina cribrosa biomechanics and summarizes the results of experimental and clinical studies. Ocular biomechanics abnormalities affect etiology of many eye diseases. Ocular biomechanics plays an important role in the development of novel diagnostic methods, therapeutic and surgical procedures. Corneal biomechanics impacts etiology and pathogenesis of keratoconus as well as tonometry accuracy and explains corneal refractive surgery effect. Scleral biomechanics is associated with IOP and progressive myopia. Accommodative apparatus (ciliary body and crystalline lens is an important anatomic physiological structure. Recent studies uncovered the causes of agerelated loss of accommodation as a result of lens involution. Optic nerve head abnormalities due to IOP fluctuations are the key factor of glaucomatous neuropathy. They are directly associated with ocular biomechanics as well.

  17. Study of high current commutation by explosive switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuba, S.; Kakudate, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Miyamoto, M.; Morita, T.; Kubota, A.; den, M.

    1993-01-01

    The study presents the basic experimental data obtained with a large current opening switch for current commutation using explosives. It is shown that currents up to a maximum of 40 kA can be completely interrupted within 30 microsec. The mechanism of current interruption using a thin conductor plate and methods of measuring interrupting current with a pickup coil and taking photographs with a high-speed camera (one frame per microsec) are discussed.

  18. Rhetoric and Reality in Study Abroad: The Aims of Overseas Study for U.S. Higher Education in the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras Jr., Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Political and educational leaders today often praise the benefits of study abroad with lofty rhetoric by arguing that overseas study can provide American undergraduate students with a variety of beneficial outcomes such as personal growth, academic gains, professional skills, greater international awareness and cross-cultural understanding. Despite the rhetoric, a relatively small percentage of students participate in overseas study. In 2014, the Institute of International Education reported ...

  19. External equivalent type Ward aiming optimization studies in power systems; Equivalentes externos tipo Ward visando estudos de otimizacao em sistemas de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepomuceno, Leonardo

    1993-07-01

    The execution of functions such as contingency analysis, optimization, reactive dispatch, etc, at the control centers requires appropriate models representing the non-observable parts (external system). The classical external equivalents have been developed considering basically the contingency analysis. This work points out the performance of the Extended Ward Equivalent (W.E.), which currently represents the state of art concerning reduced circuit based models. the work analyzes the W.E. response to changes occurred in optimization studied. Moreover, a new model, named INTERNAL REACTIVE WARD (WRINT), resulting from an adaptation of the W.E. is proposed focusing on the improvement of the equivalent in case of changes occurs in optimization studies. The model's general idea is to reflect the equivalent's capacity of reactive response into the internal system. Comparative computational test results are shown. The details of routines implementation are also pointed out. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a Mindfulness-Based Mobile App Aimed at Promoting Awareness of Weight-Related Behaviors in Adolescents: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Tami; Hingle, Melanie

    2017-04-26

    Mindfulness-based interventions are reported to be highly acceptable and have positive effects on youth, yet most are clinic- or school-based aimed at emotional regulation or academic performance. To provide flexible program delivery, we developed and tested a standalone mindfulness-based app aimed at improving weight-related behaviors (eg, diet, physical activity, sleep) in adolescents. Our objective was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and utility of a mindfulness-based mobile app. In a single-arm pilot study, 15 adolescents (14-18 years) were prompted to access the app once a day, every day for 6 weeks. Outcomes were measured by in-app and poststudy surveys, and descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Time within a mindfulness state was self-reported during weekly timed practices. The app was rated highly for content and encouraging the practice of activities to promote mindfulness states. Teens reported increased awareness of eating behaviors and high adherence, particularly during physically active practices. Average self-reported time spent in a mindfulness state increased 2.5 times by week 6 (78 [SD 17] seconds) compared to week 1 (31 [SD 21] seconds). The high acceptability and utility ratings of the app, increases in reported time in mindfulness states, and high frequency of participation, including mindful eating and physical activity, suggest the mindfulness-based mobile app has the potential to improve awareness of weight-related behaviors.

  1. Study of air masses trajectories during the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mappe, Irene; Riviere, Emmanuel; Khaykin, Sergey; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Amarouche, Nadir; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Water vapor directly affects the climate as greenhouse gas emissions, but also indirectly by the formation of other essential elements of radiative forcing as aerosols, clouds of ice. In addition, water has a significant role in the chemical composition, the balance of ozone and the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Transfers of water vapor in the troposphere to the stratosphere are one of the major scientific challenges in modeling the stratosphere and climate. The TRO-pico small balloon campaign took place in Bauru (22.3 ° S) in southern Brazil during two convective seasons. Its main objective was to study the exchange of water vapor between the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and better understand the role of overshooting convection in the moistening of the lower stratosphere and its variability at the local scale to infer a typical impact at a larger scale. Here we focus on the purely convective seasons of the campaign, with a first period in March 2012 and a second in Jan-Feb 2013, during which, in addition to convective tracers measurements (methane, O3…) H2O was intensively sampled by two different in situ hygrometers : Pico-SDLA H2O and FLASH-B. Here we investigated all the measurements gathered close to deep convective events and analyze them in term of potential signature of overshooting convection in the lower stratosphere, to put to the fore possible impact at the wet season time scale. The approach is the use of a trajectory model (HYsplit) running with the GDAS analyses, the different H2O profile from both instruments, echo top from the Bauru S-Band radar highlighting any potential overshoot occurrence in the vicinity of the balloon flight earlier during the day. For each local maximum of H2O, a back trajectory is computed from the balloon position. It is checked if the back trajectory cross an overshooting cell seen by the Bauru radar, and matches it in time and maximum altitude Here we use a total of 8 vertical profiles of H2O from

  2. Seeing is believing? A mixed-methods study exploring the quality and perceived trustworthiness of online information about chronic conditions aimed at children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Amy C; Gofine, Miriam L; Stinson, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The numbers of children and young people with chronic conditions are increasing. While their information needs may vary, providing health care information can have considerable benefits, including better emotional health, less distress during treatments, and greater satisfaction with medical care. The Internet is increasingly being used to communicate health-related information to children about a range of chronic conditions. However, the quality of such websites is underexplored. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the reliability and quality of online information for children about chronic conditions using a standardized evaluation tool, and to explore children's and young people's perceptions of quality and trustworthiness regarding online health information. The study consisted of two phases. In Phase 1, websites about common pediatric chronic conditions aimed at children and containing treatment or management options were identified and the quality assessment tool DISCERN was completed. Test-retest and interrater reliability were calculated. In Phase 2, two focus groups with laptop computers were conducted with children and young people with a chronic condition to explore their perceptions of trustworthiness of online health information. In Phase 1, 165 websites were identified and 100 met the criteria and were assessed. The mean DISCERN score of all sites was 48.16 out of 75 (SD = 7.97, range 28-71, min 15 to max 75). Quality scores varied widely across the sample. The internal consistency and interrater reliability scores were both lower than previously reported in studies using the DISCERN to assess information for adults. In Phase 2, two focus groups with a total of six participants aged 11-23 years revealed a relative lack of concern about the quality and trustworthiness of online health information. Older participants reported judging the source and authorship of websites, but other participants did not question the source of the

  3. MonitorNet: the Italian multi-centre observational study aimed at estimating the risk/benefit profile of biologic agents in real-world rheumatology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfriso, P; Salaffi, F; Montecucco, C M; Bombardieri, S; Todesco, S

    2009-01-01

    MonitorNet is a database established by the Italian Society of Rheumatology (SIR) in January 2007 and funded by the Italian Medicines Agency (AIFA), for the active long-term follow-up of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis treated with biologic agents. All hospital Rheumatology Units in Italy were invited to participate in a non-interventional, observational, epidemiological study. The study is conducted in a routine clinical setting (real-world practice) where biologics are prescribed on the basis of current recommendations. In this report we describe the design, methodology, and present preliminary data of the study. At the time of the analysis (April 2009) the database included 3510 patients: 2469 (70.3%) with established RA, 675 (19.2%) with PsA and 366 (10.4%) with AS. The cumulative follow up period was 8,787 patient-years (RA: 8,388, PsA: 157; AS: 242). There were 1,538 adverse events in 938 (26.7%) patients. Infections were recorded in 630 patients, skin-related adverse events in 142 and post-infusion reactions in 90. A total of 30 malignancies were reported. An interim analysis of efficacy was conducted on 2,148 RA patients. Seven hundred and thirty-one patients (35.8%) achieved EULAR remission (defined as DAS28<2.4). When assessed with the more restrictive CDAI and SDAI criteria, the frequency of remission was lower (17.9% and 14.7% respectively). Availability of funding for this study provided an opportunity to organize a collaborative national network of rheumatology clinics to develop a large multicentre observational study.

  4. A cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at implementation of local quality improvement collaboratives to improve prescribing and test ordering performance of general practitioners: Study Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkens Ron

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of guidelines in general practice is not optimal. Although evidence-based methods to improve guideline adherence are available, variation in physician adherence to general practice guidelines remains relatively high. The objective for this study is to transfer a quality improvement strategy based on audit, feedback, educational materials, and peer group discussion moderated by local opinion leaders to the field. The research questions are: is the multifaceted strategy implemented on a large scale as planned?; what is the effect on general practitioners' (GPs test ordering and prescribing behaviour?; and what are the costs of implementing the strategy? Methods In order to evaluate the effects, costs and feasibility of this new strategy we plan a multi-centre cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT with a balanced incomplete block design. Local GP groups in the south of the Netherlands already taking part in pharmacotherapeutic audit meeting groups, will be recruited by regional health officers. Approximately 50 groups of GPs will be randomly allocated to two arms. These GPs will be offered two different balanced sets of clinical topics. Each GP within a group will receive comparative feedback on test ordering and prescribing performance. The feedback will be discussed in the group and working agreements will be created after discussion of the guidelines and barriers to change. The data for the feedback will be collected from existing and newly formed databases, both at baseline and after one year. Discussion We are not aware of published studies on successes and failures of attempts to transfer to the stakeholders in the field a multifaceted strategy aimed at GPs' test ordering and prescribing behaviour. This pragmatic study will focus on compatibility with existing infrastructure, while permitting a certain degree of adaptation to local needs and routines. Trial registration Nederlands Trial Register ISRCTN40008171

  5. A case study evaluation of an intervention aiming to strengthen the midwifery professional role in Morocco: anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Malham, Sabina; Hatem, Marie; Leduc, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the high maternal mortality ratio, Morocco is strongly committed to strengthen its midwifery professional role. This study aimed to identify barriers that could potentially hinder an action plan to strengthen the midwifery professional role from achieving desired outcomes. We used a conceptual framework, which is derived from Hatem-Asmar's (1997) framework on the interaction of educational, professional, and sociocultural systems in which a professional role evolves and from Damschroder et al's (2009) framework for the implementation analysis. This paper builds on a qualitative case study on the factors affecting the action plan's implementation process that also revealed rich data about anticipated barriers to reaching outcomes. Data were collected through training sessions, field observations, documents, focus groups (n=20), and semistructured interviews (n=11) with stakeholders pertaining to the three systems under study. Content analysis was used to identify themes related to barriers. Seven barriers that may compromise the achievement of desired results were found. They relate to the legal framework, social representations, and media support in the sociocultural system and the practice environment, networks and communication mechanisms, and characteristics related to the role and the readiness in the professional system. Disregarding sociocultural and professional system level, barriers may impede efforts to strengthen the midwife's role and to provide qualified midwives who can improve the quality of maternal care. Making changes in the educational system cannot be thought of as an isolated process. Its success is closely tied with multiple contextual factors pertaining to the two other systems. Activities recommended to address these barriers may have great potential to build a competent midwifery workforce that contributes to positive maternal and neonatal health outcomes.

  6. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (nonlinear attribution study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuchar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979–2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  7. Solar cycle in current reanalyses: (non)linear attribution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11 year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (Support Vector Regression, Neural Networks) besides the traditional linear approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis datasets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how this type of data resolves especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the lower and upper stratosphere were found to be sufficiently robust and in qualitative agreement with previous observational studies. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone datasets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. Consequently the results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all datasets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. Furthermore, the seasonal dependence of the solar response was also discussed, mainly as a source of dynamical causalities in the wave propagation characteristics in the zonal wind and the induced meridional circulation in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer Dobson circulation was reviewed together with discussion of polar vortex stability.

  8. Theoretical studies of non inductive current drive in compact toroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farengo, R; Lifschitz, AF; Caputi, KI; Arista, NR; Clemente, RA

    2002-01-01

    Three non inductive current drive methods that can be applied to compact toroids axe studied. The use of neutral beams to drive current in field reversed configurations and spheromaks is studied using a Monte Carlo code that includes a complete ionization package and follows the exact particle orbit

  9. Aiming for excellence - A simulation-based study on adapting and testing an instrument for developing non-technical skills in Norwegian student nurse anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Fiona M; Sandaker, Kjersti; Ballangrud, Randi

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing focus on building safety into anaesthesia practice, with excellence in anaesthesia as an aspirational goal. Non-technical skills are an important factor in excellence and improved patient safety, though there have been few systematic attempts at integrating them into anaesthesia nursing education. This study aimed to test the reliability of NANTS-no, a specially adapted behavioural marker system for nurse anaesthetists in Norway, and explore the development of non-technical skills in student nurse anaesthetists. The pre-test post-test design incorporated a 10-week simulation-based programme, where non-technical skills in 14 student nurse anaesthetists were rated on three different occasions during high-fidelity simulation, before and after taking part in a training course. NANTS-no demonstrated high overall inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.91), high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.94) and good internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85-0.92). A significant improvement was demonstrated across all categories of non-technical skills, with greatest improvements between the first and third and second and third sessions. There was also a significant improvement in two categories between the first and second sessions. NANTS-no is therefore suitable for assessing non-technical skills during simulation training in anaesthesia nursing education. More research is needed to validate its use in clinical practice.

  10. Association between education about organ transplantation aimed at medical students and the acquisition of the organ donor card. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiomara Benavides-López

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. The transplantation group of the National University of Colombia considers that education about transplants is important to raise the donation rate in this country. Objective. To find a statistical association between education about transplantation aimed at medical students and the number of students and their families bearing the organ donor card. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional analytical study. Two surveys were designed and sent to two different student populations. The first group had taken the course "Human Organ and Tissue Transplantation", and the second group was composed of students from the fifth semester of medical education. The statistical test used was difference of proportions, sample size of 50 people, statistical power of 80%, difference in proportions 20%, alpha 0.05, p <0.05. Results. The surveys were answered by 29 students from first group and 74 students from second group. First question: "Do you carry the organ donor card?", p-value of 0.03 found. Second question: "Do your family members carry the organ donor card?", p-value of 0.732 found. Affirmative answer to the first question, p=0.10 and answer to second question, p=0.0005. Conclusion. An association was found between education about transplantation focused on medical students and bearing the organ donor card and communicating their wishes to their families. Likewise, an association between education and a positive attitude toward donation was found in the families of students that participated on the course "Human Organ and Tissue Transplantation".

  11. Competitive service centers location in the cities with aim to reduce traffic (Case study: Health centers location in the city if Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Moradi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   Distribution of goods and services in cities is of utmost importance. Selecting appropriate venues for different service centers in a city not only enables the citizens to access these services much more easily, but also reduces the traffic load caused by trips made to reach them. Unfortunately, the lack of a correct urban planning has led to inappropriate formation of many cities around the world in terms of the locations assumed for different service centers. Since the private sector has been given the responsibility to construct most of these centers, changing their current locations may be restricted due to legal obligations. Therefore, it seems necessary for the government to construct new service centers with high competitive facilities to attract customers and to compete with those built by the private sector. In this paper, the selection of appropriate locations to construct new service centers has been studied. Such locations have been selected in a way to fulfill goals such as rapid and easy accessibility for the customers and reduction of traffic drawbacks caused by the related trips. In this regard, a model for service centers with restricted capacity has been designed and a parallel simulated annealing algorithm has been proposed to solve it. Finally, the proposed algorithm has been utilized to locate the health centers around the city of Isfahan and its efficiency has been investigated. The findings highlight the accuracy and speed of the proposed algorithm in location of the health centers of Isfahan.

  12. A stepped strategy that aims at the nationwide implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme in major gynaecological surgery: study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jeanny Ja; Maessen, José Mc; Slangen, Brigitte Fm; Winkens, Bjorn; Dirksen, Carmen D; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2015-07-30

    Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programmes aim at an early recovery after surgical trauma and consequently at a reduced length of hospitalisation. This paper presents the protocol for a study that focuses on large-scale implementation of the ERAS programme in major gynaecological surgery in the Netherlands. The trial will evaluate effectiveness and costs of a stepped implementation approach that is characterised by tailoring the intensity of implementation activities to the needs of organisations and local barriers for change, in comparison with the generic breakthrough strategy that is usually applied in large-scale improvement projects in the Netherlands. All Dutch hospitals authorised to perform major abdominal surgery in gynaecological oncology patients are eligible for inclusion in this cluster randomised controlled trial. The hospitals that already fully implemented the ERAS programme in their local perioperative management or those who predominantly admit gynaecological surgery patients to an external hospital replacement care facility will be excluded. Cluster randomisation will be applied at the hospital level and will be stratified based on tertiary status. Hospitals will be randomly assigned to the stepped implementation strategy or the breakthrough strategy. The control group will receive the traditional breakthrough strategy with three educational sessions and the use of plan-do-study-act cycles for planning and executing local improvement activities. The intervention group will receive an innovative stepped strategy comprising four levels of intensity of support. Implementation starts with generic low-cost activities and may build up to the highest level of tailored and labour-intensive activities. The decision for a stepwise increase in intensive support will be based on the success of implementation so far. Both implementation strategies will be completed within 1 year and evaluated on effect, process, and cost-effectiveness. The primary

  13. An exploration of factors related to dissemination of and exposure to internet-delivered behavior change interventions aimed at adults: a Delphi study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; de Vries, Nanne K; Brug, Johannes

    2008-04-16

    The Internet is an attractive medium for delivering individualized, computer-tailored behavior change interventions to large numbers of people. However, the actual numbers of people reached seem to fall behind the high expectations. Insight into factors that determine use of and exposure to these Internet interventions is important to be able to increase the reach and improve exposure. The aim was to identify potentially important factors that determine whether adults visit an Internet-delivered behavior change intervention, extend their visit, and revisit the intervention. A systematic, three-round Delphi study was conducted among national and international experts from Internet intervention research and practice, e-marketing/e-commerce, Web design, and technical website development. In the first round, 30 experts completed a structured, open-ended online questionnaire assessing factors that were, in their opinion, important for a first visit, an extended visit, a revisit and for effective promotion strategies. Based on the responses in this first questionnaire, a closed-ended online questionnaire was developed for use in the second round. A total of 233 experts were invited to complete this questionnaire. Median and interquartile deviation (IQD) scores were computed to calculate agreement and consensus on the importance of the factors. The factors for which no consensus was obtained (IQD > 1) were included in the third-round questionnaire. Factors with a median score of six or higher and with an IQD important. Of the 62 experts invited for the first round, 30 completed the questionnaire (48% response rate); 93/233 experts completed the second-round questionnaire (40% response rate), and 59/88 completed the third round (67% response rate). Being motivated to visit an Internet intervention and perceiving the intervention as personally relevant appeared to be important factors related to a first visit. The provision of tailored feedback, relevant and reliable

  14. Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan Natalie

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD, aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. Methods The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC. Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. Discussion The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00257088

  15. Satellite mission Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) partners with formal and informal education programs to study clouds on the edge of space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D. Q.; Maggi, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    The satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM), has developed an exciting partnership of formal and informal education programs that will connect students and the public to the unique scientific aspects of the mission. The AIM satellite mission is dedicated to providing a scientific basis for understanding why Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) form and vary. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) or "night shinning" clouds because of their visibility at dawn and dusk. The visible manifestation of PMCs provides a unique opportunity for Education and Public Outreach. The AIM outreach programs will utilize the beautiful images of "clouds on the edge of space" as a tool to motivate students and the public to increase their knowledge and understanding about issues surrounding changes in our atmosphere. In an effort to provide formal and informal outreach opportunities worldwide, AIM has developed a partnership with the GLOBE program. GLOBE is a network of schools, science centers, and clubs from over 105 countries where participants collect scientific data according to precise protocols and enter the data into a central database allowing both scientists and students to utilize the data. The collaboration between AIM and GLOBE will involve participants in collecting and utilizing NLC data worldwide. This partnership will provide a mechanism for sustaining AIM education opportunities for both formal and informal education venues in the future. Included in the formal education component of AIM outreach is the implementation of two educator workshops that will establish partnerships between the mission and classrooms nationwide. The educator workshops will be held in Alaska due to the optimal location for viewing NLCs. Participants attending the workshops will be chosen from a national pool allowing teachers working with students in southern latitudes an opportunity to experience the excitement of working with data that can only

  16. Routine versus aggressive upstream rhythm control for prevention of early atrial fibrillation in heart failure : background, aims and design of the RACE 3 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alings, M.; Smit, M. D.; Moes, M. L.; Crijns, H. J. G. M.; Tijssen, J. G. P.; Brugemann, J.; Hillege, H. L.; Lane, D. A.; Lip, G. Y. H.; Smeets, J. R. L. M.; Tieleman, R. G.; Tukkie, R.; Willems, F. F.; Vermond, R. A.; Van Veldhuisen, D. J.; Van Gelder, I. C.

    2013-01-01

    Rhythm control for atrial fibrillation (AF) is cumbersome because of its progressive nature caused by structural remodelling. Upstream therapy refers to therapeutic interventions aiming to modify the atrial substrate, leading to prevention of AF. The Routine versus Aggressive upstream rhythm Control

  17. Using International Study Series and Meta-Analytic Research Syntheses to Scope Pedagogical Development Aimed at Improving Student Attitude and Achievement in School Mathematics and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Taking lower-secondary schooling within the English educational system as an example, this paper illustrates the contribution of two bodies of international scholarship to the scoping of research-based pedagogical development aimed at improving student attitude and achievement in science and mathematics. After sketching the English context of…

  18. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget: first highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Khaykhin, Sergey; Ghysels, Melanie; Mappe-Fogaing, Irene; Stoeffler, Clara; Toledo-Tarasco, Daniel; Rannou, Pascal; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Durry, Georges; Held, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small size, fast but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign that took place in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, in March 2012 and from November 2012 to March 2013 (most of the wet season) with a peak phase in January-February 2013 (during the most active convective season). The campaign involved a series of light weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser spectrometers (H2O, CO2 or CH4), a FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometer, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based S-Band radar and an optical depth sensor so-called ODS, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, and adequate modelling tools that is of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico included a two time-scale campaign with a total of 37 balloon flights including 34 flights using H2O sensors in the flight train: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering to the full wet season

  19. Overview of the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying of the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Emmanuel; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Amarouche, Nadir; Ghysels, Mélanie; Stoeffler, Clara; Khaykin, Sergey; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Wienhold, Franck; Cairo, Francesco; Di Donfrancesco, Guido; Held, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small-size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, supported by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3°S) in S-E Brazil, including different phases during the wet season : March 2012 at the end of the most active convective season, a transition phase in November-December 2012 before the most active season, and January-February 2013, which corresponds to the peak of the convective activity. The campaign involves a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O, CO2 or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD, LOAC and micro-lidar aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS and adequate modeling tools, that is to say all parameters that are sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period

  20. First results from the TRO-pico campaign aiming at studying the impact of convective overshooting on the stratospheric water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, E. D.; Pommerau, J.-P.; Held, G.; Amarouche, N.; Ghysels, M.; Khaykin, S.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Renard, J.-B.; Cairo, F.; Durry, G.; Di Donfrancesco, G.

    2012-04-01

    Two processes are competing in the control of water vapor concentration in the tropical stratosphere: i) The so-called cold trap that is the slow ascent of water vapour in the TTL (Tropical Tropopause Layer) followed by ice crystal freezing and sedimentation leading to the drying of air entering the stratosphere and ii) convective overshooting that injects ice crystals sublimating in the stratosphere, eventually followed by further condensation and sedimentation. In contrast with the large-scale cold trap mechanism, overshooting towers are small in size and fast, but relatively frequent processes. Even if the first is frequently thought to be the main process controlling the amount of water in the stratosphere, the importance of overshooting, highly dependent on the frequency of the events, is still unknown. The aim of the TRO-pico project, funded by the French ANR, is to characterize the variability and frequency of convective water injections, its contribution at the regional wet season timescale, and to improve the understanding of their role with respect to the cold trap at a wider scale. The project is based on a small balloon campaign in Bauru (22.3 S) in Southeast Brazil, from the end of January 2012 to December 2012, involving a series of light-weight payloads, including Pico-SDLA laser (H2O or CH4) and FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometers, a mini-SOAZ spectrometer for O3, NO2, H2O, and BrO, an AICEP (Electric field and Lightning) sensor, and COBALD and LOAC aerosol instruments, combined with ground based radar and lidar measurements, satellite observations from CALIPSO, MLS, Megha-Tropiques and adequate modeling, that is, of all parameters sensitive to convective intensity. TRO-pico is a two time-scale campaign: i) a Six Month Observation Period (SMOP) covering a complete wet season during which water vapour profiles will be measured regularly for studying its variability and seasonal change, and ii) an intensive observation period (IOP) during the most

  1. Study of a fibre optics current sensor for the measurement of plasma current in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuilpart, Marc; Vanus, Benoit; Andrasan, Alina; Gusarov, Andrei; Moreau, Philippe; Mégret, Patrice

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we study the feasibility of using a fibre-optics current sensor (FOCS) for the measurement of plasma current in the future fusion reactor ITER. The sensor is based on a classical FOCS interrogator involving the measurement of the state of polarization rotation undergone by the light in presence of a magnetic field (Faraday effect) in an optical fibre surrounding the current and terminated by a Faraday mirror. We considered a uniformly spun optical fibre as the sensing element and we used the Stokes formalism to simulate the sensor. The objective of the simulations is to quantify the ratio LB/SP (beat length over the spun period of the spun fibre) enabling a measurement error in agreement with the ITER specifications. The simulator takes into account the temperature variations undergone by the measurement system under ITER operation. The simulation work showed that a LB/SP ratio of 19.2 is adequate.

  2. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    1999-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  3. Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth : an in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alwas-Danowska, HM; Huysmans, MCDNJM; Verdonschot, EH

    1999-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a low intensity alternating current on the odontoblasts and odontoblast layer and compare this with the effects of a direct current. Methodology Teeth extracted for orthodontic were immersed in physiological saline stabilized with thymol

  4. Experimental study of the dynamics of a thin current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekelman, W.; DeHaas, T.; Van Compernolle, B.; Daughton, W.; Pribyl, P.; Vincena, S.; Hong, D.

    2016-05-01

    Many plasmas in natural settings or in laboratory experiments carry currents. In magnetized plasmas the currents can be narrow field-aligned filaments as small as the electron inertial length ≤ft(\\tfrac{c}{{ω }pe}\\right) in the transverse dimension or fill the entire plasma column. Currents can take the form of sheets, again with the transverse dimension the narrow one. Are laminar sheets of electric current in a magnetized plasma stable? This became an important issue in the 1960s when current-carrying plasmas became key in the quest for thermonuclear fusion. The subject is still under study today. The conditions necessary for the onset for tearing are known, the key issue is that of the final state. Is there a final state? One possibility is a collection of stable tubes of current. On the other hand, is the interaction between the current filaments which are the byproduct endless, or does it go on to become chaotic? The subject of three-dimensional current systems is intriguing, rich in a variety of phenomena on multiple scale sizes and frequencies, and relevant to fusion studies, solar physics, space plasmas and astrophysical phenomena. In this study a long (δz = 11 m) and narrow (δx = 1 cm, δy = 20 cm) current sheet is generated in a background magnetoplasma capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The current is observed to rapidly tear into a series of magnetic islands when viewed in a cross-sectional plane, but they are in essence three-dimensional flux ropes. At the onset of the current, magnetic field line reconnection is observed between the flux ropes. The sheet on the whole is kink-unstable, and after kinking exhibits large-scale, low-frequency (f ≪ f ci ) rotation about the background field with an amplitude that grows with distance from the source of the current. Three-dimensional data of the magnetic and electric fields is acquired throughout the duration of the experiment and the parallel resistivity is derived from it. The parallel

  5. The diverse aims of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aim to unify the narrow band imaging (NBI) magnifying classification for colorectal tumors: current status in Japan from a summary of the consensus symposium in the 79th Annual Meeting of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shinji; Sano, Yasushi

    2011-05-01

    At present, there are many narrow band imaging (NBI) magnifying observation classifications for colorectal tumor in Japan. To internationally standardize the NBI observation criteria, a simple classification system is required. When a colorectal tumor is closely observed using the recent high-resolution videocolonoscope, a pit-like pattern on the tumor can be observed to a certain degree without magnification. In the symposium we could have a consensus that we will name the pit-like pattern as 'surface pattern.' Using the NBI system, the microvessels on the tumor surface can also be recognized to a certain degree. When the NBI system is used, the structure is emphasized, and consequently, the surface pattern can be recognized easily. Recently, an international cooperative group was formed and consists of members from Japan, the USA and Europe, which is named as the Colon Tumor NBI Interest Group. This group has developed a simple category classification (NBI international colorectal endoscopic [NICE] classification), which classifies colorectal tumors into types 1-3 even by closely observing colorectal tumors using a high-resolution videocolonoscope (Validation study is now ongoing by Colon Tumor NBI Interest Group.). The key advantage of this is simplification of the NBI classification. Although the magnifying observation is the best for getting detailed NBI findings, both close observation and magnifying observation using the NICE classification might give almost similar results. Of course the NICE classification can be used more precisely with magnification. In this report we also refer the issues on NBI magnification, which should be solved as early as possible.

  7. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  8. Can a Box of Mailed Materials Achieve the Triple Aims of Health Care? The Mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Kate; Ritter, Philip L; Moreland, Courtney; Laurent, Diana D

    2015-09-01

    Not all patients with chronic conditions are able or willing to participate in small-group or Internet self-management programs. Based on the Arthritis Mailed Took Kit Program and the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program, a mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit, delivered in a onetime mailing, was developed as an alternative mode of delivery. Kits were mailed to a national sample of 255 participants with varying chronic conditions and evaluated in a longitudinal (6-month) trial. Outcomes reflected the triple aims of health care. At 6 months, participants demonstrated better health care indicators, better health indicators, and less health care utilization. There were significant improvements in two health care indicators and six health indicators and reductions in physician visits. Follow-up response rate was high (85%). There were no significant baseline differences between responders and nonresponders. Subgroup analyses were performed for a number of subgroups, including those with arthritis (58%) and/or depression (43%), and for African Americans (14%). Subgroups demonstrated improvements equal to or better than the overall group. The Mailed Chronic Disease Self-Management Tool Kit represents a third mode, along with small groups and Internet, of delivering self-management patient education, and appears to contribute to meeting the triple aims of health care for those who actively chose this mode of delivery. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  9. The study aims at the structural analysis of Nezami's tale of "the Evil and the Good" in terms of Greimas's structural semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SayydAhmad Parsa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present research focuses on the investigation of Nezami's tale of "the Evil and the Good" in terms of Greimas's structural semantics. The study aims at the structural analysis of the tale above through the identification of binary oppositions, sequences, the contractual, performative, and disjunctive ones and a good grasp of the structure of Haft Peikar to generalize the research findings to other verse narratives in Persian classic literature. The reason for the selection of Nezami lies in his artifice in narrative production, the narrativity of Haft Peikar and the popularity of the tale of "The Evil and the Good". The research method is descriptive-analytic and the findings are analyzed through content analysis along with Gremasian semantic analysis. The findings reveal that hero (subject and goal (object and the central actors in the narrative and the subject (the good as the base part plays an active role in then narrative with respect to the adaptability of Gremasian approach to the "the Evil and the Good" and conducting more researches, one can confide in Greimas's structural analysis of the other verse narratives. Keywords: structuralism Greimasactantial pattern, Haft Peikar, "the Evil and the Good"  Professor of Persian language and literature, kurdistan university * MA. student of Persian language and literature, kurdistan University**   The present research investigates the tale of "Evil and Good" in Nezami's Haft Peikar in terms of Greimasian semantic structuralism and tries through binary oppositions to verify the degree of applicability of Greimas' actantial modelto the Persian versified narratives and generalization of the results to other verse narratives to achieve a better understanding of the structure of these narratives. Greimas was able to drive semantic square from binary oppositions. He discovered, through these oppositions, a new type of dialectic whereby each concepts generates another concept, and

  10. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangping Kong; Zhe Zhang; Xianggen Yin; Zhenxing Li

    2013-01-01

    In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influenc...

  11. Neurofeedback training aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in children with ADHD: a study of relative power of EEG rhythms using custom-made software application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillard, Brent; El-Baz, Ayman S; Sears, Lonnie; Tasman, Allan; Sokhadze, Estate M

    2013-07-01

    Neurofeedback is a nonpharmacological treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We propose that operant conditioning of electroencephalogram (EEG) in neurofeedback training aimed to mitigate inattention and low arousal in ADHD, will be accompanied by changes in EEG bands' relative power. Patients were 18 children diagnosed with ADHD. The neurofeedback protocol ("Focus/Alertness" by Peak Achievement Trainer) has a focused attention and alertness training mode. The neurofeedback protocol provides one for Focus and one for Alertness. This does not allow for collecting information regarding changes in specific EEG bands (delta, theta, alpha, low and high beta, and gamma) power within the 2 to 45 Hz range. Quantitative EEG analysis was completed on each of twelve 25-minute-long sessions using a custom-made MatLab application to determine the relative power of each of the aforementioned EEG bands throughout each session, and from the first session to the last session. Additional statistical analysis determined significant changes in relative power within sessions (from minute 1 to minute 25) and between sessions (from session 1 to session 12). Analysis was of relative power of theta, alpha, low and high beta, theta/alpha, theta/beta, and theta/low beta and theta/high beta ratios. Additional secondary measures of patients' post-neurofeedback outcomes were assessed, using an audiovisual selective attention test (IVA + Plus) and behavioral evaluation scores from the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. Analysis of data computed in the MatLab application, determined that theta/low beta and theta/alpha ratios decreased significantly from session 1 to session 12, and from minute 1 to minute 25 within sessions. The findings regarding EEG changes resulting from brain wave self-regulation training, along with behavioral evaluations, will help elucidate neural mechanisms of neurofeedback aimed to improve focused attention and alertness in ADHD.

  12. Business Management Coaching: Focusing on Entrepreneur's Current Position and Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Kheng T.

    2012-01-01

    One-to-one business coaching over 6 months was provided to nine clients in Hawaii to help them acquire business transition skills. The STARS model was used to determine the individual business situation and to explore suitable leadership strategies to move forward. Systematically, each client developed a business model, business strategies, a…

  13. Business Management Coaching: Focusing on Entrepreneur's Current Position and Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Kheng T.

    2012-01-01

    One-to-one business coaching over 6 months was provided to nine clients in Hawaii to help them acquire business transition skills. The STARS model was used to determine the individual business situation and to explore suitable leadership strategies to move forward. Systematically, each client developed a business model, business strategies, a…

  14. Study of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarri, M.; Adriani, O.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahlen, S.; Alpat, B.; Alcaraz, J.; Alemanni, G.; Allaby, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alverson, G.; Alviggi, M. G.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Andreev, V. P.; Angelescu, T.; Anselmo, F.; Antreasyan, D.; Arefiev, A.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Bagnaia, P.; Baksay, L.; Ball, R. C.; Banerjee, S.; Banicz, K.; Barillère, R.; Barone, L.; Bartalini, P.; Baschirotto, A.; Basile, M.; Battiston, R.; Bay, A.; Becattini, F.; Becker, U.; Behner, F.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Betev, B. L.; Bhattacharya, S.; Biasini, M.; Biland, A.; Bilei, G. M.; Blaising, J. J.; Blyth, S. C.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bock, R.; Böhm, A.; Borgia, B.; Boucham, A.; Bourilkov, D.; Bourquin, M.; Boutigny, D.; Branson, J. G.; Brigljevic, V.; Brock, I. C.; Buffini, A.; Buijs, A.; Burger, J. D.; Burger, W. J.; Busenitz, J.; Buytenhuijs, A.; Cai, X. D.; Campanelli, M.; Capell, M.; Romeo, G. Cara; Caria, M.; Carlino, G.; Cartacci, A. M.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cavallo, N.; Cecchi, C.; Cerrada, M.; Cesaroni, F.; Chamizo, M.; Chan, A.; Chang, Y. H.; Chaturvedi, U. K.; Chemarin, M.; Chen, A.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Chiefari, G.; Chien, C. Y.; Choi, M. T.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Civinini, C.; Clare, I.; Clare, R.; Cohn, H. O.; Coignet, G.; Colijn, A. P.; Colino, N.; Commichau, V.; Costantini, S.; Cotorobai, F.; de La Cruz, B.; Csilling, A.; Dai, T. S.; D'Alessandro, R.; de Asmundis, R.; de Boeck, H.; Degré, A.; Deiters, K.; Denes, P.; Denotaristefani, F.; Dibitonto, D.; Diemoz, M.; van Dierendonck, D.; di Lodovico, F.; Dionisi, C.; Dittmar, M.; Dominguez, A.; Doria, A.; Dorne, I.; Dova, M. T.; Drago, E.; Duchesneau, D.; Duinker, P.; Duran, I.; Dutta, S.; Easo, S.; Efremenko, Yu.; El Mamouni, H.; Engler, A.; Eppling, F. J.; Erné, F. C.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Extermann, P.; Fabre, M.; Faccini, R.; Falciano, S.; Favara, A.; Fay, J.; Fedin, O.; Felcini, M.; Fenyi, B.; Ferguson, T.; Fernandez, D.; Ferroni, F.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fiandrini, E.; Field, J. H.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, P. H.; Forconi, G.; Fredj, L.; Freudenreich, K.; Furetta, C.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Ganguli, S. N.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gau, S. S.; Gentile, S.; Gerald, J.; Gheordanescu, N.; Giagu, S.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldstein, J.; Gong, Z. F.; Gougas, A.; Gratta, G.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurtu, A.; Gutay, L. J.; Hartmann, B.; Hasan, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hervé, A.; van Hoek, W. C.; Hofer, H.; Hoorani, H.; Hou, S. R.; Hu, G.; Innocente, V.; Janssen, H.; Jenkes, K.; Jin, B. N.; Jones, L. W.; de Jong, P.; Josa-Mutuberria, I.; Kasser, A.; Khan, R. A.; Kamrad, D.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Kapustinsky, J. S.; Karyotakis, Y.; Kaur, M.; Kienzle-Focacci, M. N.; Kim, D.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, Y. G.; Kinnison, W. W.; Kirkby, A.; Kirkby, D.; Kirkby, J.; Kiss, D.; Kittel, W.; Klimentov, A.; König, A. C.; Korolko, I.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraemer, R. W.; Krenz, W.; Kuijten, H.; Kunin, A.; de Guevara, P. Ladron; Landi, G.; Lapoint, C.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurikainen, P.; Lebeau, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebrun, P.; Lecomte, P.; Lecoq, P.; Le Coultre, P.; Lee, J. S.; Lee, K. Y.; Leggett, C.; Le Goff, J. M.; Leiste, R.; Leonardi, E.; Levtchenko, P.; Li, C.; Lieb, E.; Lin, W. T.; Linde, F. L.; Lista, L.; Liu, Z. A.; Lohmann, W.; Longo, E.; Lu, W.; Lu, Y. S.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Luci, C.; Luckey, D.; Luminari, L.; Lustermann, W.; Ma, W. G.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malinin, A.; Maña, C.; Mangla, S.; Marchesini, P.; Marin, A.; Martin, J. P.; Marzano, F.; Massaro, G. G. G.; McNally, D.; Mele, S.; Merola, L.; Meschini, M.; Metzger, W. J.; von der Mey, M.; Mi, Y.; Mihul, A.; van Mil, A. J. W.; Mirabelli, G.; Mnich, J.; Molnar, P.; Monteleoni, B.; Moore, R.; Morganti, S.; Moulik, T.; Mount, R.; Müller, S.; Muheim, F.; Nagy, E.; Nahn, S.; Napolitano, M.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Newman, H.; Niessen, T.; Nippe, A.; Nisati, A.; Nowak, H.; Opitz, H.; Organtini, G.; Ostonen, R.; Pandoulas, D.; Paoletti, S.; Paolucci, P.; Park, H. K.; Pascale, G.; Passaleva, G.; Patricelli, S.; Paul, T.; Pauluzzi, M.; Paus, C.; Pauss, F.; Peach, D.; Pei, Y. J.; Pensotti, S.; Perret-Gallix, D.; Petrak, S.; Pevsner, A.; Piccolo, D.; Pieri, M.; Pinto, J. C.; Piroué, P. A.; Pistolesi, E.; Plyaskin, V.; Pohl, M.; Pojidaev, V.; Postema, H.; Produit, N.; Prokofiev, D.; Rahal-Callot, G.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rattaggi, M.; Raven, G.; Razis, P.; Read, K.; Ren, D.; Rescigno, M.; Reucroft, S.; van Rhee, T.; Riemann, S.; Riemers, B. C.; Riles, K.; Rind, O.; Ro, S.; Robohm, A.; Rodin, J.; Rodriguez, F. J.; Roe, B. P.; Romero, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rosselet, Ph.; van Rossum, W.; Roth, S.; Rubio, J. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Salicio, J.; Sanchez, E.; Santocchia, A.; Sarakinos, M. E.; Sarkar, S.; Sassowsky, M.; Sauvage, G.; Schäfer, C.; Schegelsky, V.; Schmidt-Kaerst, S.; Schmitz, D.; Schmitz, P.; Schneegans, M.; Scholz, N.; Schopper, H.; Schotanus, D. J.; Schwenke, J.; Schwering, G.; Sciacca, C.; Sciarrino, D.; Sens, J. C.; Servoli, L.; Shevchenko, S.; Shivarov, N.; Shoutko, V.; Shukla, J.; Shumilov, E.; Shvorob, A.; Siedenburg, T.; Son, D.; Sopczak, A.; Soulimov, V.; Smith, B.; Spillantini, P.; Steuer, M.; Stickland, D. P.; Stone, H.; Stoyanov, B.; Straessner, A.; Strauch, K.; Sudhakar, K.; Sultanov, G.; Sun, L. Z.; Susinno, G. F.; Suter, H.; Swain, J. D.; Tang, X. W.; Tauscher, L.; Taylor, L.; Ting, Samuel C. C.; Ting, S. M.; Tonutti, M.; Tonwar, S. C.; Tóth, J.; Tully, C.; Tuchscherer, H.; Tung, K. L.; Uchida, Y.; Ulbricht, J.; Uwer, U.; Valente, E.; van de Walle, R. T.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vetlitsky, I.; Viertel, G.; Vivargent, M.; Völkert, R.; Vogel, H.; Vogt, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Vorobyov, A. A.; Vorvolakos, A.; Wadhwa, M.; Wallraff, W.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Z. M.; Weber, A.; Wittgenstein, F.; Wu, S. X.; Wynhoff, S.; Xu, J.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yang, B. Z.; Yang, C. G.; Yao, X. Y.; Ye, J. B.; Yeh, S. C.; You, J. M.; Zalite, An.; Zalite, Yu.; Zemp, P.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, G. Y.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zichichi, A.; Ziegler, F.

    1997-02-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69+/-0.07 (stat.)+/-0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40+/-17% of the produced mesons are light-flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the π0 multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays.

  15. Study of the Weak Charged Hadronic Current in b Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alpat, B; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Antreasyan, D; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Ball, R C; Banerjee, S; Banicz, K; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Borgia, B; Boucham, A; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Boutigny, D; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Buytenhuijs, A O; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Caria, M; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chan, A; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Choi, M T; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; De Boeck, H; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dorne, I; Dova, M T; Drago, E; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Fernández, D; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gerald, J; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janssen, H; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kuijten, H; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee Jae Sik; Lee, K Y; Leggett, C; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lieb, E H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Nagy, E; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Pinto, J C; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riemers, B C; Riles, K; Rind, O; Ro, S; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Santocchia, A; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Sauvage, G; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Schneegans, M; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Sens, Johannes C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Soulimov, V; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhou, Y; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    Charged and neutral particle multiplicities of jets associated with identified semileptonic and hadronic b decays are studied. The observed differences between these jets are used to determine the inclusive properties of the weak charged hadronic current. The average charged particle multiplicity of the weak charged hadronic current in b decays is measured for the first time to be 2.69$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.14(syst.). This result is in good agreement with the JETSET hadronization model of the weak charged hadronic current if 40$\\pm$17\\% of the produced mesons are light--flavored tensor (L=1) mesons. This level of tensor meson production is consistent with the measurement of the $\\pi^0$ multiplicity in the weak charged hadronic current in b decays. \\end{abstract}

  16. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: Michal.chudy@stuba.sk [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  17. China Aims to Promote Import

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the theme of"An Opening Market and Global Trade",aim at promoting communications and exchanges among governments,industries and business to achieve mutual benefit and a win-win situation,nearly 300 representatives from the relevant departments of the Chinese government,foreign embassies in China,industrial associations and major enterprises,as well as well-known Chinese and foreign experts and scholars were invited to take part in the forum and share their iews on Chinese market and foreign trade policies.

  18. Heart failure in community-dwelling older persons: aims, design and adherence rate of the ICARe Dicomano project: an epidemiologic study. Insufficienza Cardiaca negli Anziani Residenti a Dicomano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bari, M; Marchionni, N; Ferrucci, L; Pini, R; Antonini, E; Chiarlone, M; Marsilii, A; De Alfieri, W; Fumagalli, S; Masotti, G

    1999-06-01

    The prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases with age, and HF is a major cause of disability and mortality in older persons. Detection of HF in epidemiological studies has relied on criteria validated only in young and middle-age adults, and, therefore, may prove inadequate in older subjects, because they do not take into account the pathophysiologic and clinical peculiarities of HF in old age. Thus, the true prevalence of HF in the older general population remains uncertain and has probably been underestimated in previous studies. Moreover, the mechanism and the extent by which HF hinders physical functioning in older people has not been fully elucidated. This paper describes the design of the ICARe study, carried out in an older home-dwelling population to collect data about: (1) the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic criteria used previously in epidemiological studies of HF; (2) the prevalence of the different pathophysiologic forms of HF; and (3) the impact of HF on overall health status, and on physical functioning, in the absence or presence of chronic comorbidity. This was a cross-sectional survey. Eligible were all community-dwelling persons aged 65 years or older recorded in the Registry Office of Dicomano, a small town nearby Florence (Italy). All the domains of multidimensional geriatric assessment were explored through different phases of the study (home interview, laboratory testing, geriatric visit) that comprised an extensive cardiopulmonary instrumental assessment including: color Doppler echocardiography, echotomography of the carotid arteries used in an original method to determine arterial compliance, and bell spirometry. Presence of major chronic conditions was ascertained by predefined, standard algorithms that were based largely on clinical examination. There were 864 older persons eligible for the ICARe study. Even with a substantial decline from home interview (91.2%) to the cardiopulmonary study (71.1%), the adherence rate remained

  19. Rolipram versus imipramine in inpatients with major, "minor" or atypical depressive disorder: a double-blind double-dummy study aimed at testing a novel therapeutic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, A; Crippa, D; di Dio, S; Fichte, K; Musmeci, G; Porro, V; Rapisarda, V; Sastre-y-Hernández, M; Schratzer, M

    1988-07-01

    Unlike conventional antidepressants, rolipram stimulates both the presynaptic as well as the postsynaptic component of monoaminergic transmission. Several double-blind comparative trials are on the way to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of this novel compound. The present study was a randomized double-blind double-dummy comparison with imipramine in inpatients with major, "minor" and atypical depressions (DSM III). Results show no relevant differences between rolipram and imipramine regarding efficacy and safety.

  20. Towards a List of Heuristics to Evaluate Smartphone Apps Targeted at Older Adults: A Study with Apps that Aim at Promoting Health and Well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paula Alexandra; Holden, Kelly; Jordan, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a list of heuristics to evaluate smartphone apps for older adults. It further verifies the usefulness of the proposed list through a study performed with two groups of five expert evaluators, who inspected two popular health and fitness smartphone apps – Nike+ and Runkeeper –through heuristic evaluation. Additionally, the evaluators completed a post-evaluation survey to provide feedback to the researchers about the usefulness, strengths and gaps ...

  1. Current research projects on traffic conflicts technique studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondel, M. van den & and Kraay, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A review of current research concerning the development, evaluation and use of the traffic conflicts technique is presented. The 32 studies, selected from the IRRD data base, are listed alphabetically by names of countries and under countries by names of research organizations. The IRRD descriptions

  2. Subminiature eddy current transducers for studying boride coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, S. F.; Ishkov, A. V.; Malikov, V. N.; Sagalakov, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    Strengthening of parts and units of machines, increased reliability and longer service life is an important task of modern mechanical engineering. The main objects of study in the work were selected steel 65G and 50HGA, wear-resistant boride coatings ternary system Fe-B-Fe n B which were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and eddy-current nondestructive methods.

  3. A study of eddy current measurement (1986-1987)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, R.S.; Armstrong, K.P.

    1989-06-22

    A study was conducted in 1986 to evaluate a modified eddy current system for measuring copper thickness on Kapton. Results showed a measurement error of 0.42 {mu}in. for a thickness range of 165 to 170 {mu}in. and a measurement variability of 3.2 {mu}in.

  4. Cartography and Population Geography as Current Events: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comenetz, Joshua

    2003-01-01

    The Sanders housing lawsuit in Pennsylvania provides a case study of how to incorporate current events into the teaching of cartography or population geography at the high school or college level. Settlement of the Sanders case resulted in the release of information about the segregation of public housing by race in the Pittsburgh area. The issues…

  5. A study aimed at characterizing the interfacial structure in a tin–silver solder on nickel-coated copper plate during aging

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D C Lin; R Kovacevic; T S Srivatsan; G X Wang

    2008-06-01

    This paper highlights the interfacial structure of tin-silver (Sn-3·5Ag) solder on nickel-coated copper pads during aging performance studies at a temperature of 150°C for up to 96 h. Experimental results revealed the as-solidified solder bump made from using the lead-free solder (Sn-3·5Ag) exhibited or showed a thin layer of the tin–nickel–copper intermetallic compound (IMC) at the solder/substrate interface. This includes a sub-layer having a planar structure immediately adjacent to the Ni-coating and a blocky structure on the inside of the solder. Aging performance studies revealed the thickness of both the IMC layer and the sub-layer, having a planar structure, to increase with an increase in aging time. The observed increase was essentially non-linear. Fine microscopic cracks were observed to occur at the interfaces of the planar sub-layer and the block sub-layer.

  6. Ternary phase diagram of ketamine ((R,S-2-(2-chlorophenyl-2methylaminocyclohexanone in ethanol and preliminary studies aiming at Enantioselective Crystallization of S-ketamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. F. Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Crystallization is an important industrial-scale process for the purification of enantiomers that depends on a phase diagram. In this work, the ternary phase diagram of R- and S-ketamine in ethanol was determined. The eutectic point indicated that crystallization of pure enantiomers from solutions containing more than 75% of the desired enantiomer is feasible. Solubility studies showed the feasibility of using temperature control to conduct the process. Batch crystallization of ketamine (S/R:80/20 solutions at 25ºC provided the isolation of S-ketamine (purity of 100% with a yield from 65 to 70% and a productivity of 6.5 g/(lh.

  7. Differential Thermostimulated Discharge Current Method for Studying Electrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekishev, G. A.; Yovcheva, T. A.; Viraneva, A. P.; Gencheva, E. A.

    2010-01-01

    The thermostimulated discharge current method (TSDC) is widely used for the study of charge storage mechanisms in electrets. A new discharged technique, called differential, which consists in discharging a charged sample through an otherwise identical but uncharged one, has been proposed by J.-P. Reboul and A. Toureille. In the present paper a new version of the differential thermostimulated discharge current method is advanced. In contrast to the differential technique described earlier, the measuring cell allows to realize typical differential technique. In this case the measuring system records the difference of the thermostimulated currents of two samples which have been preliminary charged (or thermally treated) under the same or different conditions. Samples of 0.85 mm thick polymethylmethacrylate are used to demonstrate an operation of the developed differential TSDC method.

  8. Study on Fault Current of DFIG during Slight Fault Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Kong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the safety of DFIG when severe fault happens, crowbar protection is adopted. But during slight fault condition, the crowbar protection will not trip, and the DFIG is still excited by AC-DC-AC converter. In this condition, operation characteristics of the converter have large influence on the fault current characteristics of DFIG. By theoretical analysis and digital simulation, the fault current characteristics of DFIG during slight voltage dips are studied. And the influence of controller parameters of converter on the fault current characteristics is analyzed emphatically. It builds a basis for the construction of relay protection which is suitable for the power gird with accession of DFIG.

  9. A multi-centre randomised controlled trial of rehabilitation aimed at improving outdoor mobility for people after stroke: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logan Pip A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Up to 42% of all stroke patients do not get out of the house as much as they would like. This can impede a person’s quality of life. This study is testing the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a new outdoor mobility rehabilitation intervention by comparing it to usual care. Methods/design This is a multi-centre parallel group individually randomised, controlled trial. At least 506 participants will be recruited through 15 primary and secondary care settings and will be eligible if they are over 18 years of age, have had a stroke and wish to get out of the house more often. Participants are being randomly allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. Intervention group participants receive up to 12 rehabilitation outdoor mobility sessions over up to four months. The main component of the intervention is repeated practice of outdoor mobility with a therapist. Control group participants are receiving the usual intervention for outdoor mobility limitations: verbal advice and provision of leaflets provided over one session. Outcome measures are being collected using postal questionnaires, travel calendars and by independent assessors. The primary outcome measure is the Social Function domain of the SF36v2 quality of life assessment six months after recruitment. The secondary outcome measures include: functional ability, mobility, the number of journeys (monthly travel diaries, satisfaction with outdoor mobility, mood, health-related quality of life, resource use of health and social care. Carer mood information is also being collected. The mean Social Function score of the SF-36v2 will be compared between treatment arms using a multiple membership form of mixed effects multiple regression analysis adjusting for centre (as a fixed effect, age and baseline Social Function score as covariates and therapist as a multiple membership random effect. Regression coefficients and 95% confidence

  10. Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: retrospective study of 149 treatments in curative aimed; Carcinome epidermoide de l'hypopharynx: etude retrospective de 149 traitements a visee curative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oueslati, Z.; Zeglaoui, I.; Touati, S.; Gritli, S.; Ladgham, A. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Chirurgie Carcinologique et ORL, Tunis (Tunisia); Nasr, C.; Benna, F. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Radiotherapie, Tunis (Tunisia); Boussen, H. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de Chimiotherapie, Tunis (Tunisia); Mokni, N.; Gamoudi, A.; El-May, A. [Institut Salah-Azaiz, Service de d' Immunohistochimie, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2004-12-01

    Purpose. - Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is associated to one of the most unfavorable prognosis among the cancers of the head and neck. The purpose of this study is to analyze its therapeutic modalities in the Salah-Azaiz Institute (Tunis) and to compare their results. Patients and method. - This retrospective study concerns 271 hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, compiled in the Carcinologic Surgery Department of Head and Neck of the Salah-Azaiz Institute over a period of 25 years (from 1977 to 2002). The average age of the patients was of 56 years; sex-ratio was on average of 1.2 (man/woman). The indication of a curative treatment was initially retained for 149 (55%) patients, who were the only ones retained for the analysis of results. Results. - We retained the indication of a protocol including surgery and post-operating radiotherapy for 26.2% of the patients. Post-operation mortality rate was 5.1%; the operating rate of morbidity was 46.2%. For 13.5% of the patients, post-operating radiotherapy was permanently interrupted because of a gradual deterioration of the patients' health in the course of treatment. We retained the indication of exclusive radiotherapy for 59.7% of the patients. The average age was of 56 years and the sex-ratio of 1.2. The external radiotherapy was conventional. Radiotherapy had to be permanently interrupted in progress in 32.6% of cases on account of an deterioration of the patients' health; the rate of morbidity of the radiotherapy was 33.3%. We indicated a protocol of conservation of organ with induction chemotherapy for 21 patients (14.1%). The average age was of 53 years (28-65 years) and sex-ratio (man/woman) of 0.5. The global survival was 25.5% at one year, 18.1% at two years, 11.4% at three years and 7.4% at five years. All the patients selected for chemotherapy died in the course of treatment. The rates of survival in two and five years according to protocols surgery-radiotherapy and exclusive

  11. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Practice Guidelines Resources Continuing Education Funding Training & Career Development Division of Intramural Research Research Resources Scientific Reports Technology Transfer What are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites Press ...

  12. Experimental Study on Current Decay Characteristics of Persistent Current HTS Magnet by Alternating Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Gun; Lee, Chang Young; Hwang, Young Jin; Lee, Woo Seung; Lee, Jiho; Jo, Hyun Chul; Chung, Yoon Do; Ko, Tae Kuk

    This paper deals with a current decay characteristics of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet operated in persistent current mode (PCM). In superconducting synchronous machine applications such as linear synchronous motor (LSM), the superconducting coil is designed to operate in the PCM to obtain steady magnetic field with DC transport current. This superconducting magnet operates on a direct current, but it can be exposed to alternating magnetic field due to the armature winding. When the magnet is subjected to an external time-varying magnetic field, it is possible to result in a decay of the current in PCM system due to AC loss. In this research, a PCM system with armature coil which generates time-varying magnetic field was fabricated to verify current decay characteristics by external alternating magnetic field. The current decay rate was measured by using a hall sensor as functions of amplitude and frequency of armature coil.

  13. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  14. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the recovery of postural control after stroke : a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L.; de Heyning, van, P.H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Purpose: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during 4 weeks on balance and gait parameters after stroke. Method: Thirty-one stroke patients were included in this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. The Tinetti test was used to assess functional balance and gait after stroke. Secondary measures, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), were register...

  15. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Bahadoran; Parvin Mirmiran; Fereidoun Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, S...

  16. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleary, D.D. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  17. Current methods for studying dynamic processes in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipp, Nikolai D.; Blaunshtein, Natan Sh.; Erukhimov, Lev M.; Ivanov, Vladimir A.; Uriadov, Valerii P.

    Current experimental and theoretical data relevant to the study of dynamic processes in the ionospheric plasma using state-of-the-art methods are summarized. The methods used include linear FM sounding, partial radio wave reflection, oblique-incidence radio wave scattering, radio wave heating of the ionosphere, plasma injection, and computer simulation of physical processes. For each specific method, experimental data are compared against theoretical predictions and numerical calculations.

  18. Pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals: historic and current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebergall-Roth, E; Teyssen, S; Singer, M V

    1997-12-01

    This report presents a review of the historic and current methods for performing pancreatic exocrine studies in intact animals. Special emphasis is given to the various surgical procedures--pancreatic fistulas, duodenal pouches, and duodenal fistulas--and practice of collecting pancreatic secretion in dogs. Procedures in other animal species--rat, cat, pig, rabbit, cattle, sheep, and horse--also are specified. The advantages and disadvantages, as well as the indications and limitations of the distinct methods, are discussed.

  19. Current methodology and methods in psychophysiological studies of creative thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtereva, N P; Danko, S G; Medvedev, S V

    2007-05-01

    Important points on methodology and detailed description of methods used in polymodal psychophysiological studies of human verbal creative thinking are presented. The psychophysiological studies were conducted with healthy volunteers during implementations of specially developed and adapted psychological tests aimed to bring the subjects into states of verbal creative thinking. Four different task sets ("story composition", "associative chains", "original definitions", "proverb sense flipping") were developed and applied. Positron emission tomography of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and state-related quantitative electroencephalography (power and coherence evaluated) were used. The effectiveness of the methods is illustrated with figures.

  20. Current Status of Integral Medical Study on Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Chao-qin (俞超芹); YU Jin (俞瑾)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endometriosis (EM), an estrogen dependent disease that comes from the planting of endometrial gland and stroma outside the uterine cavity, is characterized by invasiveness, wide planting and liability to relapse. It has been proved by recent studies that the pathogenesis of EM has its genetic background and is closely related with neuro-, endocrino- and immuno-factors. There has been great progress in the treatment of EM, but the clinical effect is not yet satisfactory. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely played its role in EM treatment. In this article, the current status of integral medical study on EM is reviewed.

  1. Paying research participants: a study of current practices in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C L; Ritter, A; Baldwin, S; Bowen, K J; Gardiner, P; Holt, T; Jenkinson, R; Johnston, J

    2005-09-01

    To examine current research payment practices and to inform development of clearer guidelines for researchers and ethics committees. Exploratory email based questionnaire study of current research participant reimbursement practices. A diverse sample of organisations and individuals were targeted. Australia. Contacts in 84 key research organisations and select electronic listservers across Australia. A total of 100 completed questionnaires were received with representations from a variety of research areas (for example, market, alcohol and drug, medical, pharmaceutical and social research). Open-ended and fixed alternative questions about type of research agency; type of research; type of population under study; whether payment is standard; amounts and mechanisms of payment; factors taken into account when deciding on payment practices; and whether payment policies exist. Reimbursement practice is highly variable. Where it occurs (most commonly for drug dependent rather than health professional or general population samples) it is largely monetary and is for time and out-of-pocket expenses. Ethics committees were reported to be often involved in decision making around reimbursement. Research subject payment practices vary in Australia. Researchers who do provide payments to research participants generally do so without written policy and procedures. Ethics committees have an important role in developing guidelines in this area. Specific guidelines are needed considering existing local policies and procedures; payment models and their application in diverse settings; case study examples of types and levels of reimbursement; applied definitions of incentive and inducement; and the rationale for diverse payment practices in different settings.

  2. Current Mathematical Methods Used in QSAR/QSPR Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peixun Liu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of the mathematical methods currently used in quantitative structure-activity/property relationship (QASR/QSPR studies. Recently, the mathematical methods applied to the regression of QASR/QSPR models are developing very fast, and new methods, such as Gene Expression Programming (GEP, Project Pursuit Regression (PPR and Local Lazy Regression (LLR have appeared on the QASR/QSPR stage. At the same time, the earlier methods, including Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Squares (PLS, Neural Networks (NN, Support Vector Machine (SVM and so on, are being upgraded to improve their performance in QASR/QSPR studies. These new and upgraded methods and algorithms are described in detail, and their advantages and disadvantages are evaluated and discussed, to show their application potential in QASR/QSPR studies in the future.

  3. Current management of bronchiectasis: review and 3 case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Enid; Ebright, Linda; Kwiatkowski, Marianne; Cullina, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is the abnormal, irreversible dilatation of diseased bronchi. Permanently dilated airways, usually in the medium-sized bronchi, are inflamed and often obstructed with thick, purulent secretions. Known causative factors include postinfection bronchial damage, postinhalation injury, hypersensitivity reactions, and congenital airway obstructive disorders. Typical symptoms include sputum overproduction, fever, pleurisy, dyspnea, and chronic cough. Diagnosis involves radiographic studies and pulmonary function testing. Treatment includes oral, aerosolized, or intravenous antibiotic therapy according to the severity of the exacerbation, and mucus clearance by means of bronchial hygiene assistive devices, chest physiotherapy, postural drainage, and high-frequency chest compression. We present a review of bronchiectasis and offer 3 case studies illustrating current management of different presentations, including use of aerosolized antibiotics for patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Although an adjunctive program of pulmonary rehabilitation may be useful for patients with bronchiectasis, no confirming studies have been performed to date, and additional research in this area is warranted.

  4. Simulation studies of direct-current microdischarges for electric propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, Thomas Dominique

    The structure of direct-current microdischarges is investigated using a detailed two-dimensional multi-species continuum model. Microdischarges are direct-current discharges that operate at a relatively high pressure of about 100 Torr and geometric dimensions in the 10-100 micrometer range. Our motivation for the study of microdischarges comes from a potential application of these devices in microthrusters for small satellite propulsion. The Micro Plasma Thruster (MPT) concept consists of a direct-current microdischarge in a geometry comprising a constant area flow section followed by a diverging exit nozzle. A detailed description of the plasma dynamics inside the MPT including power deposition, ionization, coupling of the plasma phenomena with high-speed flow, and propulsion system performance is reported in this study. A two-dimensional model is developed as part of this study. The model consists of a plasma module coupled to a flow module and is solved on a hybrid unstructured mesh framework. The plasma module provides a self-consistent, multi-species, multi-temperature description of the microdischarge phenomena while the flow module provides a description of the low Reynolds number compressible flow through the system. The plasma module solves conservation equations for plasma species continuity and electron energy, and Poisson's equation for the self-consistent electric field. The flow module solves mass, bulk gas momentum and energy equations. The coupling of energy from the electrostatic field to the plasma species is modeled by the Joule heating term which appears in the electron and heavy species energy equations. Discretization of the Joule heating term on unstructured meshes requires special attention. We propose a new robust method for the numerical discretization of the Joule heating term on such meshes using a cell-centered, finite volume approach. A prototypical microhollow cathode discharge (MHCD) is studied to guide and validate the modeling

  5. Current Conceptual Challenges in the Study of Rhythm Processing Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eTranchant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the study of rhythm processing deficits (RPD is currently growing in the cognitive neuroscience community, as this type of investigation constitutes a powerful tool for the understanding of normal rhythm processing. Because this field is in its infancy, it still lacks a common conceptual vocabulary to facilitate effective communication between different researchers and research groups. In this commentary, we provide a brief review of recent reports of RPD through the lens of one important empirical issue: the method by which beat perception is measured, and the consequences of method selection for the researcher’s ability to specify which mechanisms are impaired in RPD. This critical reading advocates for the importance of matching measurement tools to the putative neurocognitive mechanisms under study, and reveals the need for effective and specific assessments of the different aspects of rhythm perception and synchronization.

  6. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J.; Brennan, Sue E.; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The “model of diffusion in service organisations” was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Results Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change

  7. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Marije; Tavender, Emma J; Brennan, Sue E; Knott, Jonathan; Gruen, Russell L; Green, Sally E

    2016-01-01

    The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET) Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED) with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The "model of diffusion in service organisations" was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results. Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices) the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change) was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change commitment, but relatively low

  8. The Many Organisational Factors Relevant to Planning Change in Emergency Care Departments: A Qualitative Study to Inform a Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial Aiming to Improve the Management of Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije Bosch

    Full Text Available The Neurotrauma Evidence Translation (NET Trial aims to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a targeted theory-and evidence-informed intervention to increase the uptake of evidence-based recommended practices for the management of patients who present to an emergency department (ED with mild head injuries. When designing interventions to bring about change in organisational settings such as the ED, it is important to understand the impact of the context to ensure successful implementation of practice change. Few studies explicitly use organisational theory to study which factors are likely to be most important to address when planning change processes in the ED. Yet, this setting may have a unique set of organisational pressures that need to be taken into account when implementing new clinical practices. This paper aims to provide an in depth analysis of the organisational context in which ED management of mild head injuries and implementation of new practices occurs, drawing upon organisational level theory.Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED staff in Australia. The interviews explored the organisational context in relation to change and organisational factors influencing the management of patients presenting with mild head injuries. Two researchers coded the interview transcripts using thematic content analysis. The "model of diffusion in service organisations" was used to guide analyses and organisation of the results.Nine directors, 20 doctors and 13 nurses of 13 hospitals were interviewed. With regard to characteristics of the innovation (i.e. the recommended practices the most important factor was whether they were perceived as being in line with values and needs. Tension for change (the degree to which stakeholders perceive the current situation as intolerable or needing change was relatively low for managing acute mild head injury symptoms, and mixed for managing longer-term symptoms (higher change commitment, but

  9. Experimental study of blockage of monochromatic waves by counter currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suastika, I.K.

    1999-01-01

    Blockage of waves by a current can occur if waves are propagating on a spatially varying opposing current in which the velocity is increasing in the wave propagation direction. The ongoing waves become shorter and steeper while they are propagating against the current. Blocking occurs at the

  10. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  11. Numerical Study on the Bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yulong; WANG Qi; SONG Jun; ZHU Xiande; GONG Xiaoqing; WU Fang

    2011-01-01

    A 1.5-layer reduced-gravity model forced by wind stress is used to study the bifurcations of the North Equatorial Current (NEC).The authors found that after removing the Ekman drift,the modelled circulations can serve well as a proxy of the SODA circulations on the σθ=25.0kgm-3 potential density surface based on available long-term reanalysis wind stress data.The modelled results show that the location of the western boundary bifurcation of the NEC depends on both zonal averaged and local zero wind stress curl latitude.The effects of the anomalous wind stress curl added in different areas are also investigated and it is found that they can change the strength of the Mindanao Eddy (ME),and then influence the interior pathway.

  12. Coupled Numerical Study of Turbidity Currents, Internal Hydraulic Jump and Morphological Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, P.; Cao, Z.; He, Z.; Gareth, P.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: The last two decades have seen intensive experimental and numerical studies of the occurrence condition of internal hydraulic jump in turbidity currents and the induced morphological signatures (Garcia and Parker 1989; Kostic and Parker 2006). Yet there are two critical issues that remain insufficiently or inappropriately addressed. First, depositional turbidity currents are imposed on steep slopes in both flume experiments and numerical cases, exclusively based on a configuration consisting of an upstream sloping portion and a downstream horizontal portion linked by a slope break. This appears physically counterintuitive as steep slope should favour self-accelerating erosional turbidity currents (Parker et al. 1986). The second issue concerns the numerical studies. There exist significant interactions among the current, sediment transport and bed topography. Due to the slope break in bed, the current may experience an internal hydraulic jump, leaving morphological signatures on the bed, which in turn affects the current evolution. Nevertheless, simplified decoupled models are exclusively employed in previous numerical investigations, in which the interactions are either partly or completely ignored without sufficient justification. The present paper aims to address the above-mentioned two issues relevant to the occurrence condition of the internal hydraulic jump and the induced morphological signatures. A recently developed well-balanced coupled numerical model for turbidity currents (Hu et al. 2012) is applied. In contrast to previous studies, erosional turbidity currents will be imposed at the upstream boundary, which is much more typical of the field. The effects of sediment size, bed slope decrease, and upstream and downstream boundary conditions are revealed in detail. In addition, the evolution of turbidity currents over a bed characterized by gradual decrease in slope is also discussed. References Garcia, M. H., and Parker, G. (1989). Experiments

  13. Experimental Study on Current-Driven Domain Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Tanigawa, H.; Yano, K.; Kasai, S.

    2006-06-01

    Current-driven domain wall (DW) motion for a well-defined single DW in a micro-fabricated magnetic wire with submicron width was investigated by real-space observation with magnetic force microscopy. Magnetic force microscopy visualizes that a single DW introduced in a wire is displaced back and forth by positive and negative pulsed-current, respectively. Effect of the Joule heating, reduction of the threshold current density by shape control, and magnetic ratchet effect are also presented.

  14. Study of toroidal current penetration during current ramp in JIPP T-IIU with fast response Zeeman polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, H.; Hiraki, N. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan); Toi, K. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The toroidal current penetration is studied in current ramp experiments of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal magnetic field profile in the peripheral region of a plasma (0.5 {<=} {rho} {<=} 1.0) has been measured directly with a newly developed fast response Zeeman polarimeter. The experimental results indicate that an obvious skin effect of toroidal current density is clearly observed during both the current ramp-up and ramp-down experiments. The experimentally obtained toroidal current density profiles are well described by the profiles calculated on the assumption of the neoclassical electrical conductivity. Quasi-linear {Delta}`-analysis of tearing modes for the measured current density profile is consistent with time behaviour of coherent MHD modes such as m=4/n=1 or m=3/n=1 (m: poloidal mode number, n: toroidal mode number) often observed during the current ramp-up phase. The effect of these MHD modes on current penetration during the current ramp-up discharges is studied. (author)

  15. Current state of the hydrothermal geochemistry studies at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fausto L, J.J.; Jimenez S, M.E.; Esquer P, I.

    1981-01-01

    The current state of hydrothermal geochemistry studies being carried out at the field are reported. These studies are based on the results of chemical analysis of water samples collected during 1979 and 1980 at the geothermal wells of the area known as Cerro Prieto I, as well as from those located in the Cerro Prieto II and Cerro Prieto III areas, some of which have only recently started flowing. Data are presented on the chemical variations of the main chemical constituents dissolved in the waters, as well as on the Na/K and Na-K-Ca chemical relations and the temperatures calculated from them and from SiO/sub 2/. Fluid recharge into the reservoir and its direction of flow are interpreted from isotherm contour maps of the field prepared from Na/K and Na-K-Ca geothermometry and from concentration contour maps of some of the main chemical constituents. Well M-43 is discussed as an example of a well affected by well completion problems in its production casing. Its behavior is explained on the basis of the chemical characteristics of the produced water. The chemical changes that have taken place in some of the wells during production are explained by correlating the chemistry with the production mechanisms of the well (steam-water production rates).

  16. Current Advances in the Metabolomics Study on Lotus Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingzhi; Liu, Ting; Guo, Mingquan

    2016-01-01

    Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera), which is distributed widely throughout Asia, Australia and North America, is an aquatic perennial that has been cultivated for over 2,000 years. It is very stimulating that almost all parts of lotus have been consumed as vegetable as well as food, especially the seeds. Except for the nutritive values of lotus, there has been increasing interest in its potential as functional food due to its rich secondary metabolites, such as flavonoids and alkaloids. Not only have these metabolites greatly contributed to the biological process of lotus seeds, but also have been reported to possess multiple health-promoting effects, including antioxidant, anti-amnesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor activities. Thus, comprehensive metabolomic profiling of these metabolites is of key importance to help understand their biological activities, and other chemical biology features. In this context, this review will provide an update on the current technological platforms, and workflow associated with metabolomic studies on lotus seeds, as well as insights into the application of metabolomics for the improvement of food safety and quality, assisting breeding, and promotion of the study of metabolism and pharmacokinetics of lotus seeds; meanwhile it will also help explore new perspectives and outline future challenges in this fast-growing research subject.

  17. A EUropean study on effectiveness and sustainability of current Cardiac Rehabilitation programmes in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Meindersma, Esther P; van der Velde, Astrid E

    2016-01-01

    on effectiveness and sustainability of current cardiac rehabilitation programmes in the elderly (EU-CaRE) project consists of an observational study and an open prospective, investigator-initiated multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) involving mobile telemonitoring guided CR (mCR). OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of EU-CaRE is to map the efficiency of current CR of the elderly in Europe, and to investigate whether mCR is an effective alternative in terms of efficacy, adherence and sustainability. METHODS AND RESULTS: The EU-CaRE study includes patients aged 65 years or older with ischaemic heart disease or who...... home-based programme while the control group will receive no advice or coaching throughout the study period. Outcomes will be assessed after the end of CR and at 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is VO2peak and secondary outcomes include variables describing CR uptake, adherence, efficacy...

  18. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  19. A study of current maintenance challenges in a large offshore wind farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Madsen, Erik Skov; Bilberg, Arne

    The aim of the present research project is to obtain a better understanding of the operations and maintenance (O&M) processes that are performed in the offshore wind energy sector. So far, the focus on O&M of offshore wind parks has been very limited and is currently in its early phase. A compara...... used in this study is the case study method. We have followed a team of service-technicians for a longer period of time to investigate their work tasks. This has given an insight in how maintenance jobs are planned, carried out and....

  20. Particle Image Velocimetry Study of Density Current Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Juan Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    Gravity currents are flows that occur when a horizontal density difference causes fluid to move under the action of gravity; density currents are a particular case, for which the scalar causing the density difference is conserved. Flows with a strong effect of the horizontal density difference, even if only partially driven by it--such as the…

  1. Study on electrical current variations in electromembrane extraction process: Relation between extraction recovery and magnitude of electrical current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Turaj; Rahimi, Atyeh; Nojavan, Saeed

    2016-01-15

    This contribution presents an experimental approach to improve analytical performance of electromembrane extraction (EME) procedure, which is based on the scrutiny of current pattern under different extraction conditions such as using different organic solvents as supported liquid membrane, electrical potentials, pH values of donor and acceptor phases, variable extraction times, temperatures, stirring rates, different hollow fiber lengths and the addition of salts or organic solvents to the sample matrix. In this study, four basic drugs with different polarities were extracted under different conditions with the corresponding electrical current patterns compared against extraction recoveries. The extraction process was demonstrated in terms of EME-HPLC analyses of selected basic drugs. Comparing the obtained extraction recoveries with the electrical current patterns, most cases exhibited minimum recovery and repeatability at the highest investigated magnitude of electrical current. . It was further found that identical current patterns are associated with repeated extraction efficiencies. In other words, the pattern should be repeated for a successful extraction. The results showed completely different electrical currents under different extraction conditions, so that all variable parameters have contributions into the electrical current pattern. Finally, the current patterns of extractions from wastewater, plasma and urine samples were demonstrated. The results indicated an increase in the electrical current when extracting from complex matrices; this was seen to decrease the extraction efficiency.

  2. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Antonio José Felix; Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas; Faria, Roberto Mendonça

    2009-12-01

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak β), an intermediate peak (peak α), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak ρ). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes.

  3. Thermally stimulated depolarization current studies of sulfonated polystyrene ionomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Antonio Jose Felix [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Laboratory of Polymers and Renewable Materials, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Viana, Vicente Galber Freitas [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Centro de Ciencias da Natureza, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Faria, Roberto Mendonca [USP, Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-15

    A detailed study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) was carried out to investigate dipolar relaxation and the charge storage phenomenon in films of sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) ionomers having lithium or potassium as counterions. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements were also applied as a complementary technique, mainly to follow the change of the glass transition temperature with the amount of sulfonated groups. It was observed that, since the glass transition does not change significantly with the amount of sulfonated groups, a cluster of multiplets is expected not to be formed in the range used in this work. TSDC of SPS samples polarized at temperatures higher than the glass transition temperature showed three peaks: one at lower temperature (peak {beta}), an intermediate peak (peak {alpha}), and a third that appeared at a temperature coincident with the polarization temperature (peak {rho}). Quantitative information about trapping-detrapping and dipolar relaxation and their corresponding activation energies was determined by fittings of the deconvoluted peaks with kinetic relaxation processes. (orig.)

  4. MODEL STUDY OF THE DOUBLE FED MACHINE WITH CURRENT CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Lyapin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with modeling results of the double fed induction machine with current control in the rotor circuit. We show the most promising applications of electric drives on the basis of the double fed induction machine and their advantages. We present and consider functional scheme of the electric drive on the basis of the double fed induction machine with current control. Equations are obtained for creation of such machine mathematical model. Expressions for vector projections of rotor current are given. According to the obtained results, the change of the vector projections of rotor current ensures operation of the double fed induction machine with the specified values of active and reactive stator power throughout the variation range of sliding motion. We consider static characteristics of double fed machine with current control. Energy processes proceeding in the machine are analyzed. We confirm the operationpossibility of double fed induction machine with current controlin the rotor circuit with given values of active and reactive stator power. The presented results can be used for creation of mathematical models and static characteristics of double fed machines with current control of various capacities.

  5. The human milk study, HUMIS. Presentation of a birth cohort study which aims to collect milk samples from 6000 mothers, for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), relating it to exposure factors and health outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Becher, G.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U. [The Norwegian School of Veterinay Science, Oslo (Norway); Lindstroem, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Although PCB has been forbidden for more than 20 years now, and its levels in human milk is declining, it remains among the chemicals in human milk causing most concern with regard to its possible detrimental effects on the fetus and the breastfed child. Due to our industry, amongst others, the Norwegian population has been rather heavily exposed to PCB. Furthermore, new environmental toxicants are steadily entering the scene, such as the Brominated flame retardants. The level of Brominated flame retardants in human milk has shown an exponential increase during the last ten years, and this group of chemicals, are causing increasingly more concern. Studies from Sweden has shown that the levels differ greatly between individuals, however, for reasons yet unknown. In Norway, the highest levels of Brominated flame retardants ever measured in the world was reported from fish in Mjoesa. Surprisingly few attempts has been made to identify dietary habits or other life style factors that are associated with the levels of these toxicants in human milk. Such knowledge is needed in order for accurate prophylactic measures to be taken by the population and of special importance to women before and during child bearing age, in order to keep the levels in human milk as low as possible. Furthermore, there is great need for more knowledge of the effects of these toxicants on child health. The need for more research in this field, especially the need for prospective exposure data and the need for interdisciplinary approaches has been specifically targeted. Therefore a research initiative was taken in Norway to establish a prospective birth cohort which aims to recruit 6000 mother/child pairs, in whom human milk samples are collected in infancy and information on health outcomes are collected throughout the child's first seven years of life. The aim of this presentation is to describe this project in more detail and to give some preliminary results.

  6. Study of wavelet transform type high-current transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢文科; 朱长纯; 刘君华; 张建军

    2002-01-01

    The wavelet transformation is applied to the high-current transformer.The high-current transformer elaborated in the paper is mainly applied to the measurement of AC/DC high-current.The principle of the transformer is the Hall direct-measurement principle.The transformer has the following three characteristics:firstly, the effect of the remnant field of the iron core on the measurement is decreased;secondly,because the temperature compensation is adopted,the transformer has good temperature charactreristic;thirdly,be-cause the wavelet transfomation technology is adopted,the transformer has the capacity of good antijanming.

  7. [Content analysis of food adverts aimed at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Blandón, José Antonio; Pabón-Carrasco, Manuel; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products. Approximately 42.9% (n=39) was aimed at children and 53.8% (n=49) were products classified as "unhealthy". Unhealthy foods were more common in adverts for children (p <0.001). Significant differences were found between the ads aimed at adults and those aimed at children. Emotional and irrational persuasive resources such as fantasy (p <0.001), cartoons (p <0.001) or offering gifts with the purchase of the product (p=0.003) were observed more frequently in adverts for children. Food advertising aimed at children in Andalusia is mainly based on offering products with a low nutritional value and using persuasive resources based on fantasy or gifts. The message is focused on the incentive and not the food. More effective measures than the current self-regulatory systems must be put in place to counter these distorted adverts. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Cost-of-illness studies : a review of current methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobundu, Ebere; Ju, Jing; Blatt, Lisa; Mullins, C Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods are a major driver of variation in COI estimates. The objective of this review was to document the variation in the methodologies employed in COI studies and to highlight the benefits and limitations of these methods. The review of COI studies was implemented following a four-step procedure: (i) a structured literature search of MEDLINE, JSTOR and EconLit; (ii) a review of abstracts using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; (iii) a full-text review using pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria; and (iv) classification of articles according to the methods used to calculate costs. This review identified four COI estimation methods (Sum_All Medical, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, Matched Control and Regression) that were used in categorising articles. Also, six components of direct medical costs and five components of indirect/non-medical costs were identified and used in categorising articles.365 full-length articles were reflected in the current review following the structured literature search. The top five cost components were emergency room/inpatient hospital costs, outpatient physician costs, drug costs, productivity losses and laboratory costs. The dominant method, Sum_Diagnosis Specific, was a total costing approach that restricted the summation of medical expenditures to those related to a diagnosis of the disease of interest. There was considerable variation in the methods used within disease subcategories. In several disease subcategories (e.g. asthma, dementia

  9. Study on UPF Harmonic Current Detection Method Based on DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, H J [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Pang, Y F [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Qiu, Z M [Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Chen, M [Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Unity power factor (UPF) harmonic current detection method applied to active power filter (APF) is presented in this paper. The intention of this method is to make nonlinear loads and active power filter in parallel to be an equivalent resistance. So after compensation, source current is sinusoidal, and has the same shape of source voltage. Meanwhile, there is no harmonic in source current, and the power factor becomes one. The mathematic model of proposed method and the optimum project for equivalent low pass filter in measurement are presented. Finally, the proposed detection method applied to a shunt active power filter experimental prototype based on DSP TMS320F2812 is developed. Simulation and experiment results indicate the method is simple and easy to implement, and can obtain the real-time calculation of harmonic current exactly.

  10. Durability Study of SOFCs Under Cycling Current Load Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Frandsen, Henrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cell applications, the cells must be able to withstand varying operating conditions. Anode supported solid oxide fuel cells were tested under cycling current load in order to determine the durability and possibly identify degradation mechanisms. At 750 °C and a cycling between zero and 0.......75 A cm-2, the cell voltage degradation rate was similar to tests with the corresponding high constant current density. However, by analyzing the impedance spectra it was found that anode degradation was becoming more important when going from constant to cycling conditions. Running the cycling load tests...... at 850 °C, the cells degraded similarly as under the corresponding constant current load whereas, in some cases, cells failed mechanically after a few hundred hours. These cells did not experience severe additional degradation due to the cycling of the current density until the point of failure...

  11. Study of lower hybrid current drive for the demonstration reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molavi-Choobini, Ali Asghar [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Shahr-e-kord Branch, Shahr-e-kord (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naghidokht, Ahmed [Dept. of Physics, Urmia University, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, Zahra [Dept. of Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan Branch, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Steady-state operation of a fusion power plant requires external current drive to minimize the power requirements, and a high fraction of bootstrap current is required. One of the external sources for current drive is lower hybrid current drive, which has been widely applied in many tokamaks. Here, using lower hybrid simulation code, we calculate electron distribution function, electron currents and phase velocity changes for two options of demonstration reactor at the launched lower hybrid wave frequency 5 GHz. Two plasma scenarios pertaining to two different demonstration reactor options, known as pulsed (Option 1) and steady-state (Option 2) models, have been analyzed. We perceive that electron currents have major peaks near the edge of plasma for both options but with higher efficiency for Option 1, although we have access to wider, more peripheral regions for Option 2. Regarding the electron distribution function, major perturbations are at positive velocities for both options for flux surface 16 and at negative velocities for both options for flux surface 64.

  12. Quantitative study of electrophoretic and electroosmotic enhancement during alternating current iontophoresis across synthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Guang; Li, S Kevin; Peck, Kendall D; Zhu, Honggang; Higuchi, William I

    2004-12-01

    One of the primary safety and tolerability limitations of direct current iontophoresis is the potential for electrochemical burns associated with the necessary current densities and/or application times required for effective treatment. Alternating current (AC) transdermal iontophoresis has the potential to eliminate electrochemical burns that are frequently observed during direct current transdermal iontophoresis. Although it has been demonstrated that the intrinsic permeability of skin can be increased by applying low-to-moderate AC voltages, transdermal transport phenomena and enhancement under AC conditions have not been systematically studied and are not well understood. The aim of the present work was to study the fundamental transport mechanisms of square-wave AC iontophoresis using a synthetic membrane system. The model synthetic membrane used was a composite Nuclepore membrane. AC frequencies ranging from 20 to 1000 Hz and AC fields ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 V/membrane were investigated. A charged permeant, tetraethyl ammonium, and a neutral permeant, arabinose, were used. The transport studies showed that flux was enhanced by increasing the AC voltage and decreasing AC frequency. Two theoretical transport models were developed: one is a homogeneous membrane model; the other is a heterogeneous membrane model. Experimental transport data were compared with computer simulations based on these models. Excellent agreement between model predictions and experimental data was observed when the data were compared with the simulations from the heterogeneous membrane model.

  13. Air Quality Study Using Satellites - Current Capability and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Liu, Xiong; Torres, Omar; Krotkov, Nickolay; Ziemke, Jerry; Chandra, Sushil

    2008-01-01

    Satellite instruments have had great success in monitoring the stratospheric ozone and in understanding the processes that control its daily to decadal scale variations. This field is now reaching its zenith with a number of satellite instruments from the US, Europe and Canada capping several decades of active research in this field. The primary public policy imperative of this research was to make reliable prediction of increases in biologically active surface UV radiation due to human activity. By contrast retrieval from satellite data of atmospheric constituents and photo-chemically active radiation that affect air quality is a new and growing field that is presenting us with unique challenges in measurement and data interpretation. A key distinction compared to stratospheric sensors is the greatly enhanced role of clouds, aerosols, and surfaces (CAS) in determining the quality and quantity of useful data that is available for air quality research. In our presentation we will use data from several sensors that are currently flying on the A-train satellite constellation, including OMI, MODIS, CLOUDSAT, and CALIPSO, to highlight that CAS can have both positive and negative effects on the information content of satellite measurements. This is in sharp contrast to other fields of remote sensing where CAS are usually considered an interference except in those cases when they are the primary subject of study. Our analysis has revealed that in the reflected wavelengths one often sees much further down into the atmosphere, through most cirrus, than one does in the emitted wavelengths. The lower level clouds provide a nice background against which one can track long-range transport of trace gases and aerosols. In addition, differences in trace gas columns estimated over cloudy and adjacent clear pixels can be used to measure boundary layer trace gases. However, in order to take full advantage of these features it will be necessary to greatly advance our understanding of

  14. Tapping, grasping and aiming in ideomotor apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ietswaart, Magdalena; Carey, David P; Della Sala, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated sensorimotor control in apraxia using tasks that differ in movement complexity. Nevertheless, there is some evidence to suggest that spontaneous behaviour, although relatively preserved, can be rather clumsy or awkward, and that patients with ideomotor apraxia may have subtle kinematic abnormalities in movements made in the laboratory. It remains unclear whether patients with ideomotor apraxia perform normally on movements such as visually guided aiming, that may not depend on higher-order, more cognitive, processes and that are relatively unguided by overlearned contexts. In this study, three different sensorimotor tasks were given to the same sample of patients with quantified apraxic disturbance. Finger tapping, goal-directed grasping and aiming with and without visual feedback were examined in these patients. A clear dissociation was found between grossly impaired gesture imitation and intact motor programming of goal-directed movements with visual feedback. Apraxic patients were, however, impaired on aiming movements without visual feedback, suggesting that apraxia is associated with an increased reliance on integration of online visual information with feedforward/feedback somatosensory and motor signals. Furthermore, patients were impaired on single finger tapping which was a surprisingly good predictor of apraxia severity.

  15. Study on the Current Situation and Protection Countermeasures of Wild Plant Resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the current situation and protection countermeasures of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve. [Method] The current situation of wild plant resources in Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve was researched by means of route survey, sample plot survey and literature survey, and then the main impact factors of wild plant resources were analyzed by using participatory rural appraisal and problem tree analysis, finally protection countermeasures were put ...

  16. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  17. Current sedation and monitoring practice for colonoscopy: an International Observational Study (EPAGE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froehlich, F; Harris, JK; Wietlisbach, V;

    2006-01-01

    in endoscopy centers internationally. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational study included consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy at 21 centers in 11 countries. Endoscopists reported sedation and monitoring practice, using a standard questionnaire for each patient. RESULTS: 6004 patients were......BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Sedation and monitoring practice during colonoscopy varies between centers and over time. Knowledge of current practice is needed to ensure quality of care and help focus future research. The objective of this study was to examine sedation and monitoring practice...... included in this study, of whom 53 % received conscious/moderate sedation during colonoscopy, 30 % received deep sedation, and 17 % received no sedation. Sedation agents most commonly used were midazolam (47 %) and opioids (33 %). Pulse oximetry was done during colonoscopy in 77 % of patients, blood...

  18. Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic...... characterization of wind farm harmonic currents is analyzed. Specific issues addressed in the paper include the harmonic variation with the wind farm operating point and the random characteristics of their magnitude and phase angle....

  19. Zinc electrowinning: anode conditioning and current distribution studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.A. [Cominco Research, Cominco Ltd., Trail, British Columbia (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    In the zinc electrowinning (EW) process, Pb-Ag anodes are widely used. Prior to their use in the EW process, anodes are conditioned to form a stable oxide layer that can evolve O{sub 2} without excessive Pb contamination of the cathode and MnO{sub 2} precipitation. The most widely used conditioning techniques are: passivation in a KF-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolysis bath, chemical oxidation in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution, and sandblasting. In this paper, a comparison of these treatments using flat and corrugated anodes is presented. Laboratory and industrial-scale tests carried out at Cominco's Trail and Cajamarquilla zinc plants indicated that flat anodes should be sandblasted or electrochemically passivated before their use in the Zn electrowinning process. Further, corrugated anodes should be sandblasted or chemically conditioned in a KMnO{sub 4}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} -electrolyte. The beneficial effects of chemical conditioning are lost if the anode is non-corrugated. Flat, chemically conditioned anodes generate up to 10 times more mud than corrugated-chemically conditioned anodes. Because anode mud growth is evenly distributed on sandblasted anodes, short-circuit frequency may decrease and anode life may increase. Sandblasting does not appear to affect anode performance. Parallel to the industrial anode conditioning tests, current distribution measurements were made. Current flow measurements were used to correct troublesome electrodes and/or bad electrical contacts. In Cajamarquilla, this technique was used in four industrial electrowinning cells and energy consumption values lower than 3000 kWh/t Zn were obtained at current efficiencies as high as 95% and at current densities up to 450 A/m{sup 2}. (author)

  20. Current pharmacological and phytochemical studies of the plant Alpinia galanga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Dhirender; Yadav, Jyoti; Kaushik, Pawan; Sacher, Disha; Rani, Ruby

    2011-10-01

    Traditional medicine systems consist of large numbers of plants with medicinal and pharmacological importance and hence represent an invaluable reservoir of new bioactive molecules. Alpinia galanga (family Zingiberaceae) is commonly known as galangal and has been used for its emmenagogue, aphrodisiac, abortifacient, carminative, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory qualities and used in the treatment of various diseases such as bronchitis, heart diseases, chronic enteritis, renal calculus, diabetes, rheumatism and kidney disorders. It was reported to contain, among other components, essential oils, tannins, phenol, glycosides, monoterpenes and carbohydrates. In the last few years, new compounds such as gallic acid glycoside, galangoisoflavonoid,β-sitosterol, galangin, alpinin, zerumbone and kampferide have been isolated from various parts of A. galanga. Therefore, the present review is aimed to summarize the information regarding A. galanga concerning the new phytoconstituents and pharmacological uses that have appeared in recent years.

  1. The Exploring Nature of Definitions and Classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the Current Studies of Second/Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to explore the nature of definitions and classifications of Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) in the current studies of second/foreign language learning in order to show the current problems regarding such definitions and classifications. The present study shows that there is not a universal agreeable definition and…

  2. A study of the current collecting sectors of a U-25B diagonal megnetohydrodynamic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V.V.; Panovka, M.Ya.; Semenov, V.D.; Sokolov, Yu.N.

    1983-01-01

    The results are cited of an experimental study and a calculated analysis of the operation of current collecting sectors of the U-25B magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The effect was studied of the parameters of the current, the coefficient of electrical loading, the disposition of the current collecting sectors (T) relative to the diagram of the magnetic field on the distribution of current along the length of the current collecting sectors. It is established that with optimal disposition of the current collecting sectors a uniform distribution of current is achieved. A simplified calculation model of the current collecting sector is developed. It is shown that the experimental and calculated relationships match well. The effect of the ballast resisters installed in the current collecting circuits on the distribution of current is examined. Their positive role in preventing current overloads on the frames and in supporting the uniform distribution of current is noted.

  3. Current practice in continuous renal replacement therapy: An epidemiological multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasa Irriguible, T M; Sabater Riera, J; Poch López de Briñas, E; Fort Ros, J; Lloret Cora, M J; Roca Antònio, J; Navas Pérez, A; Ortiz Ballujera, P; Servià Goixart, L; González de Molina Ortiz, F J; Rovira Anglès, C; Rodríguez López, M; Roglan Piqueras, A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to ascertain the most relevant aspects of the current management of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in critically ill patients, and to analyze renal function recovery and mortality in patients undergoing RRT. A non-interventional three-month observational study was made in 2012, with a follow-up period of 90 days, in 21 centers in Catalonia (Spain). Demographic information, severity scores and clinical data were obtained, as well as RRT parameters. patients aged ≥ 16 years admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and subjected to RRT. A total of 261 critically ill patients were recruited, of which 35% had renal dysfunction prior to admission. The main reason for starting RRT was oliguria; the most widely used RRT modality was hemodiafiltration; and the median prescribed dose at baseline was 35mL/kg/h. The median time of RRT onset from ICU admission was one day. The mortality rate at 30 and 90 days was 46% and 54%, respectively, and was associated to greater severity scores and a later onset of RRT. At discharge, 85% of the survivors had recovered renal function. Current practice in RRT in Catalonia abides with the current clinical practice guidelines. Mortality related to RRT is associated to later onset of such therapy. The renal function recovery rate at hospital discharge was 85% among the patients subjected to RRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. The Study of the Geomagnetic Variation for Sq current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Du, A.

    2012-04-01

    The solar quiet variation (Sq) with a period of 24 hrs is a typical one of the quiet variations. Sq is generally caused by atmospheric tide-dynamo in ionosphere and it is controlled by the electric field, electric conductivity in ionosphere and neutral wind in middle-high altitude atmosphere. In our work, the geomagnetic field data observed by 90 ground-based observatories is used to analyze the local time variation of Sq. Sq is derived from five quiet-day geomagnetic data in every month by the FFT method. According to the pattern of geomagnetic X component in Sq, there is a prenoon-postnoon (before noon and after noon) asymmetry. This asymmetry is obvious in spring, summer and winter. The X component at 12:00-13:00 LT is about 5 nT larger than it at 11:00-12:00 LT. The ratio between the X component of daily variable amplitude and Y component of daily variable amplitude in middle and low (high) latitude regions in summer is greater (smaller) than that in winter. Used the sphere harmonic analysis method, the Sq equivalent current system is obtained. From the pattern of Sq current system, the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry may be caused by the electric field in the high latitude region. This electric field has two effects: the one is that the electric field from high latitude maps to the low latitude region; the other is this electric field penetrate to the middle latitude region directly. The combined action of these two effects makes the prenoon-postnoon asymmetry of Sq. The asymmetry also has an obvious seasonal effect. It may relate to the polar Sq and DP2 in the high latitude region.

  5. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  6. Comparative study between an alternating current (AC) and a direct current (DC) electrification of an urban railway

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Turu, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study will evaluate technically, energetic and economically the traction electrification network of the line Barcelona – Vallès operated by Ferrocarrils de la Generalitat de Catalunya (FGC) in the existing voltage system (1500 Vdc) and a new electrification under alternative current (25 kVac) will be proposed to be as well studied. The results obtained will be compared in order to obtain decision factors on which system best fits.

  7. Effects of anxiety on running with and without an aiming task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Gerritsma, R.M.; Hofland, R.M.; Oudejans, R.R.D.

    2012-01-01

    State anxiety is known to affect far aiming tasks, but less is known about the effects of state anxiety on running and aiming while running. Therefore, in the current study participants ran on a treadmill at their preferred speed in a low- and highanxiety condition. In both conditions, running was c

  8. Ground-penetrating radar studies in Svalbard aimed to the calculation of the ice volume of its glaciers:Estudios de georradar en Svalbard orientados al cálculo del volumen de hielo de sus glaciares

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Francisco; Lapazaran, Javier; Martin Espanol, Alba; Otero, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    During the period 1999-2014, the Group of Numerical Simulation in Sciences and Engineering of Universidad Politécnica de Madrid carried out many ground-penetrating radar campaigns in Svalbard, aimed to the study of glacier ice-thickness and the physical properties of glacier ice. The regions covered were Nordenskiöld Land, Wedel Jarlsberg Land, Sabine Land and Nordaustlandet. We here present a review of these works, focused on the aspects related to the estimate of the volume of individual gl...

  9. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  10. Current studies on human papillomavirus in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, Fatimah Saeed; Al-Qahtani, Ahmed A; Al-Ahdal, Mohammed N

    2015-07-04

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant etiological factor and an important prognosticator in cervical cancer. Indeed, researchers worldwide have confirmed these roles for high-risk HVPs in over 70% of cervical cancer cases. According to the World Health Organization, approximately 561,200 new cancer cases (5.2% of all new cancers) are attributed to HPV infection. Over 120 types of HPV are classified further as either low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) or high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) based on their oncological potential of transforming cells. The LR-HPV types cause benign hyperproliferative lesions (i.e. genital warts) while the HR-HPV types are strongly associated with premalignant and malignant cervical lesions. Data on the prevalence of HPV, survival of infected patients, and mortality rate are scarce in Saudi Arabia. The unsubstantiated assumption of a low prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia has contributed to limiting HPV research in this conservative country. Therefore, the goal of this review is to shed light on the current HPV research being conducted and the prevalence of HPV in Saudi Arabia.

  11. Retooling the Social Studies Classroom for the Current Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Elizabeth K.; Wright, Vivian H.; Inman, Christopher T.; Matherson, Lisa H.

    2011-01-01

    Digital technologies have changed the way students read and communicate. Subsequently, teachers must use technology to engage their students in learning. This article illustrates the value of using Web 2.0 tools (blogs, wikis, and digital media-sharing) in the social studies classroom. Additionally, a social studies teacher shares insights into…

  12. A Review of Current Studies on Human Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄思雅

    2012-01-01

      This paper introduces some previous studies on human capital, mainly regarding human capital’s properties and its relationship with corporate performance and capital structure. This study shows the importance of human capital and suggests that managers should pay more attention to employees.

  13. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  14. Review of current study methods for VRU safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Kamaluddin, Noor Azreena; Várhelyi, András

    written questionnaires (either online or paper-based), interviews may be performed (either face-to-face or via telephone) and people may be asked to report their accident via an app on their mobile device. The method for gaining self-reported information thus varies greatly – and so does the information...... that people are asked to give. In most studies, only the number of accidents in which the respondent was involved is relevant for the researcher. In other studies, respondents are asked about possible accident causation factors, and some studies deal with respondents’ recall of the accident details. In other...

  15. The study of Zn–Co alloy coatings electrochemically deposited by pulse current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milorad V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical deposition by pulse current of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel was examined, with the aim to find out whether pulse plating could produce alloys that could offer a better corrosion protection. The influence of on-time and the average current density on the cathodic current efficiency, coating morphology, surface roughness and corrosion stability in 3% NaCl was examined. At the same Ton/Toff ratio the current efficiency was insignificantly smaller for deposition at higher average current density. It was shown that, depending on the on-time, pulse plating could produce more homogenous alloy coatings with finer morphology, as compared to deposits obtained by direct current. The surface roughness was the greatest for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with direct current, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with pulse current, for both examined average current densities. It was also shown that Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited by pulse current could increase the corrosion stability of Zn-Co alloy coatings on steel. Namely, alloy coatings deposited with pulse current showed higher corrosion stability, as compared with alloy coatings deposited with direct current, for almost all examined cathodic times, Ton. Alloy coatings deposited at higher average current density showed greater corrosion stability as compared with coatings deposited by pulse current at smaller average current density. It was shown that deposits obtained with pulse current and cathodic time of 10 ms had the poorest corrosion stability, for both investigated average deposition current density. Among all investigated alloy coatings the highest corrosion stability was obtained for Zn-Co alloy coatings deposited with pulsed current at higher average current density (jav = 4 A dm-2.

  16. AIMS simulation study of ultrafast electronically nonadiabatic chemistry of methyl azide and UV-VIS spectroscopic study of azido-based energetic plasticizer bis(1,3-diazido prop-2-yl)malonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jayanta; Banerjee, Shaibal; Bhattacharya, Atanu

    2017-09-01

    To gain insight into the ultrafast electronically nonadiabatic chemistry of azido-based energetic plasticizer, we have explored the nonadiabatic chemical dynamics of an azido-based model analog molecule, methyl azide (MAz), using ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) simulation and electronic structure theory calculations. Molecular nitrogen (N2) is predicted to be the initial product of MAz following its electronic excitation to the S1 electronically excited state. AIMS-based simulation reveals that electronically excited azido-based molecules undergo extremely fast (approximately in 40 femtoseconds) relaxation to the ground state via the (S1/S0)CI conical intersection. Furthermore, this relaxation process involves the Nsbnd N bond elongation along with the bending of N3 moiety. This is the first report on the electronically non-adiabatic chemical dynamics (in ultrafast time domain) of methyl azide. Finally, using ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, we comment on the electronically nonadiabatic chemistry of azido-based energetic plasticizer, bis(1,3-diazido prop-2-yl)malonate.

  17. Current approaches of genome-wide association studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Xu

    2008-01-01

    @@ With rapid advances in high-throughput genotyping technology and the great increase in information available on SNPs throughout the genuine, genuine-wide association(GWA) studies have now become feasible.

  18. Cost-of-Illness Studies: A Review of Current Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ebere Akobundu; Jing Ju; Lisa Blatt; C Daniel Mullins

    2006-01-01

    The number of cost-of-illness (COI) studies has expanded considerably over time. One outcome of this growth is that the reported COI estimates are inconsistent across studies, thereby raising concerns over the validity of the estimates and methods. Several factors have been identified in the literature as reasons for the observed variation in COI estimates. To date, the variation in the methods used to calculate costs has not been examined in great detail even though the variations in methods...

  19. The Course of Schizophrenia: E. Kraepelin's View and Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Müller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kraepelin's concept of dementia praecox and Bleuler's concept of the group of schizophrenias differ mainly under the aspect of course of the disorder. Follow-up studies play an important role for research regarding course, outcome and prognosis of psychiatric disorders, especially in terms of validation of psychiatric diagnosis and other psychiatric concepts, such as the concept of schizophrenic negative symptoms. Long-term studies also have their place in the description and evaluation of first treatment procedures. This paper will describe some general aspects of the long-term course and outcome of schizophrenic psychoses. The problem of relapses and relapse prevention will then be discussed. Especially data from recent studies will be considered in this overview.

  20. Organ preconditioning: the past, current status, and related lung studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUH Shi-ping; YANG Pan-chyr

    2006-01-01

    Preconditioning (PC) has emerged as a powerful method for experimentally and clinically attenuating various types of organ injuries. In this paper related clinical and basic research issues on organ preconditioning issues were systemically reviewed.Since lung injuries, including ischemia-reperfusion and others, play important roles in many clinical results, including thromboembolism, trauma, thermal injury, hypovolemic and endotoxin shock, reimplantation response after organ transplantation, and many respiratory diseases in critical care. It is of interest to uncover methods, including the PCs, to protect the lung from the above injuries. However, related studies on pulmonary PC are relatively rare and still being developed, so we will review previous literature on experimental and clinical studies on pulmonary PC in the following paragraphs.

  1. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuri; N; Utkin

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom ofthese animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  2. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah

    2007-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came...

  3. Electrophysiological studies of malaria parasite-infected erythrocytes: Current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, Henry M.; Alkhalil, Abdulnaser; Allen, Richard J.; De Jonge, Hugo R.; Derbyshire, Elvira; Egée, Stéphane; Ginsburg, Hagai; Hill, David A.; Huber, Stephan M.; Kirk, Kiaran; Lang, Florian; Lisk, Godfrey; Oteng, Eugene; Pillai, Ajay D.; Rayavara, Kempaiah; Rouhani, Sherin; Saliba, Kevin J.; Shen, Crystal; Solomon, Tsione; Thomas, Serge L. Y.; Verloo, Patrick; Desai, Sanjay A.

    2009-01-01

    The altered permeability characteristics of erythrocytes infected with malaria parasites have been a source of interest for over 30 years. Recent electrophysiological studies have provided strong evidence that these changes reflect transmembrane transport through ion channels in the host erythrocyte plasma membrane. However, conflicting results and differing interpretations of the data have led to confusion in this field. In an effort to unravel these issues, the groups involved recently came together for a week of discussion and experimentation. In this article, the various models for altered transport are reviewed, together with the areas of consensus in the field and those that require a better understanding. PMID:17292372

  4. The end of universality: new collectivities in current literary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Greene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The author investigates how the literary studies reacted to the conceptual crises of universalism, especially after WWII. In order to replace a concept that refers to the ability of a literary work to transcend time and space, literary studies should focus on different and specific collectivities that, situated in time and space, read and interpret literary works. The author makes use of the concept of the obverse, in which two poems, from different historical moments and intellectual traditions are compared based on a common social-historical problem they are trying to solve.    O autor investiga sobre como os estudos literários reagiram à crise do conceito de universalismo, sobretudo depois da II Guerra Mundial. Para substituir um conceito que se refere à capacidade de uma obra literária transcender tempo e espaço, os estudos literários deveriam indagar sobre as diferentes coletividades específicas, no tempo e no espaço, que leem e dão significado à obra literária. Para isso, o autor se utiliza do conceito de “obverso”, em que dois poemas, de épocas e tradições intelectuais diferentes, são comparados a partir de um problema sócio-histórico que tentam resolver.      This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  5. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  6. Is "Freedom" an Aim of Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinum, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that "freedom" properly understood cannot be an aim or an ideal of education, and that when educators talk of "freedom" as an aim or ideal of education, they usually have in mind the development of autonomy. (Author)

  7. Current studies on physiological functions and biological production of lactosucrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Wanmeng; Chen, Qiuming; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Lactosucrose (O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1,4)-O-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is a trisaccharide formed from lactose and sucrose by enzymatic transglycosylation. This rare trisaccharide is a kind of indigestible carbohydrate, has good prebiotic effect, and promotes intestinal mineral absorption. It has been used as a functional ingredient in a range of food products which are approved as foods for specified health uses in Japan. Using lactose and sucrose as substrates, lactosucrose can be produced through transfructosylation by β-fructofuranosidase from Arthrobacter sp. K-1 or a range of levansucrases, or through transgalactosylation by β-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. This article presented a review of recent studies on the physiological functions of lactosucrose and the biological production from lactose and sucrose by different enzymes.

  8. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of descriptive varieties of philosophy of religion primarily concerned with understanding and the clarification of meaning rather than with the stereotypical tasks of propositional justification or critical evaluation. Three examples are discussed in the article: analytic traditions (Wittgensteinianism and ordinarylanguage philosophy, phenomenological perspectives involving reduction (bracketing and comparative philosophy of religion that works in tandem with the history of religion and comparative religion.

  9. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  10. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  11. A prospective population-based study, aiming to support decision-making in a follow-up programme for patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma, based on patterns of recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroti, Marianne; Ulff, Eva; Lyth, Johan;

    2016-01-01

    to characteristics of the primary tumour. Metastases developed in 421 of the 2,910 patients with primary cutaneous MM in Stage I and II of the disease. Thirty-five percent of all recurrences were detected during the first year. Time to first metastasis to the skin and lymph nodes was almost identical. The vast...... majority of the recurrences were diagnosed at sites that were easily recognised by the patient and relatives; self-examination may therefore be a worthwhile approach. Our findings further indicate that the follow-up programme should focus on the first three years after diagnosis....... to administer successful treatment for early disseminated disease, it may be of interest to engage MM patients and/or relatives in self-control. The aim of the present study was to analyse both the time to, and the location of, the first metastatic lesion in order to provide help for the patient, relatives...

  12. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, Thermal Decomposition and Sensitivity Properties of (AIM)(HTNR) and (AIM)(PA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhan; YANG Li; QIAO Xiao-jing; WU Bi-dong; ZHANG Tong-lai; ZHOU Zun-ning; YU Kai-bei

    2012-01-01

    Two new energetic compounds (AIM)(HTNR) and (AIM)(PA)(AIM=2-azidoimidazole,TNR=2,4,6-trinitroresorcinol,PA=picric acid) have been prepared by AIM(2-azidoimidazolium) and TNR(2,4,6-trinitroresorcinol) or PA(picric acid) and characterized by elemental analysis and FTIR spectrum.Their crystal structures were determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis.The obtained results show that (AIM)(HTNR) crystal belongs to monoclinic,P2(1)/c space group,a=1.1306(2) nm,b=0.70305(14) nm,c=1.7398(4) nm,β=106.91°,V=1.3231(5) nm3,Dc=1.778 g/cm3,Z=4,R1=0.0524,wR2[I>2σ(I)]=0.1067 and S=1.092 and (AIM)(PA) crystal belongs to monoclinic P21/c space group,a=0.80303(16) nm,b=0.81395(16) nm,c=2.0471(4) nm,β=93.93(3)°,V=1.3349(5) nm3,Dc=1.683g/cm3,Z=4,R1=0.0784,wR2[I>2σ(I)]=0.1814 and S=1.098.Both the compounds have electrostatic attraction and hydrogen bonds,which contribute to making the constructions more stable.The decomposition of the two compounds was studied via differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry(TG-DTG)techniques at a heating rate of 10 ℃/min,and the results show that both the compounds underwent one intensive exothermic decomposition stage.Sensitivity tests reveal that the title compounds were insensitive to friction and impact and sensitive to flame and could be applied in potential pyrotechnics.

  13. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.

  14. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  15. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltri, P., E-mail: pierluigi.veltri@igi.cnr.it; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), Corso Stati Uniti 4 - 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Università n. 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  16. The Cosmic Dust Experiment of AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A.; James, D.; Horanyi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmic Dust Experiment (CDE) onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission is a dust impact experiment designed to monitor the variability of the cosmic dust in ux. The instrument consists of fourteen permanently polarized thin plastic film sensors that generate an electrical signal when an impacting dust particle penetrates them. The total surface area is about 0.1 square meters and the detection threshold is about a micron in particle radius. The variability of these small grains is assumed to follow the variability of the dominant 100 micron radius particles, hence the measured flux can be used in correlation studies with various Noctilucent Cloud (NLC) activity indexes. CDE has been observing the cosmic dust influx since June 2007. In this talk, we present the first nine months of reduced data, focusing on the observed temporal and spatial variability of the dust influx. Data collected after February 2008 show increased levels of background noise and preliminary work on reducing this data will also be presented.

  17. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found ...

  18. Estudios de intervención dirigidos a disminuir el riesgo de padecer diabetes mellitus tipo 2 Intervention studies aimed at lowering the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valenciaga Rodríguez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios de intervención en población de riesgo, dirigidos a disminuir la frecuencia de la aparición de la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM 2, son considerados orientadores para el enfoque del trabajo con esos pacientes. El objetivo del presente estudio es revisar los resultados de investigaciones dirigidas a disminuir el riesgo de padecer DM 2. Los sujetos estudiados presentaban alguna de las siguientes condiciones: glucosa alterada en ayunas (GAA o tolerancia a la glucosa alterada (TGA, antecedente personal de diabetes gestacional y síndrome metabólico. Se citan, entre otros, DPP (diabetes prevention program, DPS (diabetes prevention study, STOP-NIDDM (study to prevent non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, Hiperglucemia en ayunas, DAISI (dutch acarbose intervention trial, Da Quing (estudio chino, TRIPOD (troglitazone In the prevention of diabetes, intervención, XENDOS (xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects, WOSCOPS (west of scotland coronary prevention study, EDIT (early diabetes intervención trial, NAVIGATOR (nateglinide and valsartan in impaired glucose tolerance outcomes research, DREAM (diabetes reduction assessment with ramipril and rosiglitazone medication. Estos consistían en cambios de estilo de vida (fundamentalmente ejercicios físicos sistemáticos y orientaciones nutricionales y/o intervenciones terapéuticas. Se concluye que en personas con 25 o más años de edad de ambos sexos, con riesgo de padecer DM 2, la adopción de un estilo de vida saludable logra disminuir el riesgo de padecer el síndrome diabético. En sujetos con alto riesgo de DM 2, los fármacos que reportan mejores y más consistentes resultados son el metformin y la acarbosa. Otros como la nateglidina, rosiglitazona, ramipril y valsartan, se están investigando actualmente.Intervention studies on population at risk aimed at lowering the frequency of occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus(DM2 are considered as guiding lines for the work

  19. Modeling studies of the coastal/littoral current system off Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Henry A.

    2006-01-01

    Both theoretical and numerical modeling studies of the current system off western and southern Australia are conducted to characterize the features of the current system, their temporal variability, and their impact on the sound speed structure. The theoretical study examines why boundary current separation occurs off Cape Leeuwin creating an area of enhanced eddy generation. It is shown that the beta effect, vortex stretching, and streamline curvature all act to decelerate the current a...

  20. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  1. On the Aims and Responsibilities of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Lacey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available I offer a view of the aims and responsibilities of science, and use it to analyze critically van Fraassen’s view that ‘objectifying inquiry’ is fundamental to the nature of science.

  2. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  3. Presentation of Database on Aims and Visions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented.......This presentation presents a database on aims and visions regarding regional development and transport and infrastructure in the corridor from Oslo-Göteborg-Copenhagen-Berlin. The process, the developed methodology as well as the result of the database is presented....

  4. 龙榆生创办《词学季刊》的宗旨与举措%The Aims and Means of Long Yusheng to Start Quarterly of Ci Poem Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢春红

    2011-01-01

    The modern master of the study of ci poems,Long Yusheng,launched Quarterly of Ci Poem Studies,and decided that it was a journal of ci poem studies.After deciding on the authors and the way to communicate with the readers,he published the first issue,realizing his aim;then,he made an efforts to improve the communication between editors and authors so that the journal would continue its existence;he also tried to enable the readers to take part in the editing of the journal.The publication of Quarterly of Ci Poem Studies left a glorious page in the history of editing journals of ci poem studies.%现代词学家龙榆生创办《词学季刊》,将其定位成以词学研究为主的专业性期刊,在确定作者人选范围、确立与读者取得沟通方式的编辑思想主导下,推出"创刊号",实现他的编辑意旨;而后着力搞好编辑与作者间的协作,以利于期刊的持续发展;为读者着想,争取读者参与到期刊编辑工作中来。《词学季刊》的出版,为词学研究期刊编辑史上留下了风采的一笔。

  5. Effect of Direct Electricity Current on Viability of Leishmania (L tropica Promastigotes: an in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Leishmaniasis is among top ten infectious diseases in the world, including the three diseases is important that the development of vaccines, medicines and insecticides is difficult to control it. The aim of in this study was Effect of direct electricity current on viability of Leishmania (L tropica promastigotes: an In vitro study. Methods: Leishmania (L tropica [MHOM / IR / NADIM3] to an appropriate level in NNN medium and RPMI1640 culture and promastigotes was prepared both stationary and logarithmic phases. The effects of the direct current from the electrodes 2 or 4 cm Leishmania parasite when staining the size of 1 × 1/5 cm in a arose gel and the parasites create both stationary and logarithmic phases were separate. Electrodes are 2 or 4 cm, and when the voltage in the order of 2/5, 3/5 and 4/5 was applied to the electrodes at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 70 minutes.   Results: Mean number of live promastigotes stationary and logarithmic stages when the distance between the electrodes was 2 cm to voltage 2/5, 3/5 and 4/5 compared with promastigotes in the control group showed significant differences (P=0.003. Also mean number of live promastigotes static stage when the distance between the electrodes was 4 cm to voltage 2/5 and 3/5 V was not significant (P=0.148. And 3/5 and 4/5 volts for voltage are not significant (P>0.05, the mean number of live promastigotes logarithmic stage when the distance between the electrodes was 4 cm, the voltage difference between the number of parasites for 2/5 and 3/5 V  Not significant (P=0.725. Conclusion: The electrodes are more sensitive and dynamic stage promastigotes lower and higher voltage electric current effect on growth control well.

  6. Current debates on end-of-life sedation: an international expert elicitation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Evangelia Evie; Payne, Sheila; Brearley, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    End-of-life sedation, though increasingly prevalent and widespread internationally, remains one of the most highly debated medical practices in the context of palliative medicine. This qualitative study aims to elicit and record the perspectives of leading international palliative care experts on current debates. Twenty-one professionals from diverse backgrounds, sharing field-specific knowledge/expertise defined by significant scholarly contribution on end-of-life sedation, were recruited. Open-ended, semi-structured interviews, following a topic-oriented structure reflecting on current debates, were conducted. Results were analysed using thematic content analysis. Three main aspects of sedation were identified and discussed as potentially problematic: (a) continuous deep sedation as an extreme facet of end-of-life sedation, (b) psycho-existential suffering as an ambivalent indication for sedation and (c) withdrawal or withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as potentially life-shortening. On these grounds, concerns were reported over end-of-life sedation being morally equivalent to euthanasia. Considerable emphasis was placed on intentions as the distinguishing factor between end-of-life acts, and protective safeguards were introduced to distance sedation from euthanasia. This study shows that, despite the safeguards introduced, certain aspects of sedation, including the intentions associated with the practice, are still under question, parallels being drawn between end-of-life sedation and euthanasia. This reaffirms the existence of a grey area surrounding the two practices, already evidenced in countries where euthanasia is legalized. More clarity over the issues that generate this grey area, with their causes being uncovered and eliminated, is imperative to resolve current debates and effectively inform research, policy and practice of end-of-life sedation.

  7. Data Integrity-A Study of Current Regulatory Thinking and Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiei, Nader; De Montardy, Regis; Rivera-Martinez, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to breaches of data integrity in the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities have introduced inspection approaches or initiatives with the aim of reducing occurrences of data integrity problems. This review article-based on study of 65 cases of regulatory action from 2002 to 2014-provides an overview of current regulatory thinking and action on breaches of data integrity affecting GxP (health-related regulations) processes supporting non-clinical studies, clinical studies, laboratory controls, and production controls. These case studies largely represent position of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the regulatory agencies affiliated with the European Medicines Agency. Also discussed is the role of human factors as a potential source of data integrity problems. The article concludes by recommending some remedial controls that could be established to avoid or reduce occurrences of data integrity problems.Lay Abstract: In fulfilling their mission to protect public health, regulatory agencies (e.g., U.S. Food and Drug Administration, European Medicines Agency) must establish confidence that medical products they approve are fit for their intended use. In so doing they rely on scientific and operational data generated during research, development, manufacturing, sales, marketing, distribution, and post-marketing surveillance activities. The level of confidence they build is directly proportional to the scientific validity and integrity of data presented to them by the sponsors of medical products. In this article we present analysis of 65 case studies that document regulatory action taken by various regulatory agencies on breach of data integrity between 2002 and 2014. The ensuing discussion on current trends largely represents position of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. The article concludes by proposing some remedial controls that could be established by pharmaceutical companies to avoid or reduce

  8. Current management of intracerebral haemorrhage in China: a national, multi-centre, hospital register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeley Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to examine current practice of the management and secondary prevention of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH in China where the disease is more common than in Western populations. Methods Data on baseline characteristics, management in-hospital and post-stroke, and outcome of ICH patients are from the ChinaQUEST (QUality Evaluation of Stroke Care and Treatment study, a multi-centre, prospective, 62 hospital registry in China during 2006-07. Results Nearly all ICH patients (n = 1572 received an intravenous haemodiluting agent such as mannitol (96% or a neuroprotectant (72%, and there was high use of intravenous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM (42%. Neurosurgery was undertaken in 137 (9% patients; being overweight, having a low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score on admission, and Total Anterior Circulation Syndrome (TACS clinical pattern on admission, were the only baseline factors associated with this intervention in multivariate analyses. Neurosurgery was associated with nearly three times higher risk of death/disability at 3 months post-stroke (odd ratio [OR] 2.60, p Conclusions The management of ICH in China is characterised by high rates of use of intravenous haemodiluting agents, neuroprotectants, and TCM, and of antihypertensives for secondary prevention. The controversial efficacy of these therapies, coupled with the current lack of treatments of proven benefit, is a call for action for more outcomes based research in ICH.

  9. The Current Studies of Education for a Traditional and Complementary Medicine in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun Jin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the current tradition and complementary medicine (T&CM) education in Malaysia. We referred to literature regarding to traditional medicine education in Malaysia, and collected the information via website or interview with faculty of T&CM in universities/colleges and Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health, Malaysia. T&CM education in Malaysia has been following China's T&CM systems for 50 years. Currently, Division of T&CM, Ministry of Health; and Ministry of Higher Education has approved 11 institutions to offer T&CM education. Students may major in Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, or other T&CM subjects. Generally, clinical training programs in China, Taiwan, or Australia include substantial proportion of clinical training. We report on the general information of T&CM education in Malaysia. This result would be the first-stage information for the establishment of a strategy regarding the enhancement of T&CM education in Malaysia.

  10. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Garg, Sourabh; Adarme-Vega, Tania Catalina; Thurecht, Kristofer J; Ghafor, Wael Abdul; Tannock, Simon; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-01-24

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO₂ extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research.

  11. Satisfaction rates with the current Special Type Consultation (STC) reimbursement scheme among General Practitioners – A Mixed Methods Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, A

    2017-03-01

    The Special Type Consultation (STC) scheme is a fee-for-service reimbursement scheme for General Practitioners (GPs) in Ireland. Introduced in 1989, the scheme includes specified patient services involving the application of a learned skill, e.g. suturing. This study aims to establish the extent to which GPs believe this scheme is appropriate for current General Practice. This is an embedded mixed-methods study combining quantitative data on GPs working experience of and qualitative data on GPs attitudes towards the scheme. Data were collected by means of an anonymous postal questionnaire. The response rate was 60.4% (n=159.) Twenty-nine percent (n=46) disagreed and 65% (n=104) strongly disagreed that the current list of special items is satisfactory. Two overriding themes were identified: economics and advancement of the STC process. This study demonstrates an overwhelming consensus among GPs that the current STC scheme is outdated and in urgent need of revision to reflect modern General Practice.

  12. Herc SAR Task 106: AIMS Feature Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    prédécesseurs grâce à l’intégration de quatre capteurs dans un seul cardan. Pour offrir un rendement optimal, le système AIMS exige une interface et...qui simule l’utilisation et la commande de l’interface de capteur aéroporté a été élaborée par Recherche et Développement pour la défense Canada...système AIMS et de systèmes d’imagerie électro- optique semblables. Résulats Plusieurs importantes caractéristiques du système de simulation AIMS

  13. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  14. Equity perceptions and marital satisfaction in former and current marriage : A study among the remarried

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, BP; Mutsaers, W

    1999-01-01

    A study among 290 remarried individuals examined equity perceptions in the former and the current marriage. The results showed that equity in the former and the current marriage were not related to each other. In general, respondents perceived much more inequity in the former than in the current mar

  15. Basic study of groundwater recharge which aim at preservation of water resources. Study of bio-filter; Suishitsugen no hozen wo mezashita chikasui jinko kan'yo no kiso kenkyu. Bio filter ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemiya, H. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Suzuki, A. [Yamagata University, Yamagata (Japan)

    1999-04-25

    An experimental study has been made on the effect of bio-filter in a packed bed. By using a packed bed of glass beads in stead of aquifer, groundwater recharge was reappeared. Measurements were made on microorganism number density, COD, turbidity, iron concentration, and pH. Emphasis was placed on the removal effect of COD. The conclusions were as follows. 1) Bio-filter is formed at the upstream end of the packed bed. It is composed of general microorganism and iron bacteria. The number densities of microorganism and iron bacteria are increased with the passage of time and bio-filter is thickly formed. 2) Bio-filter is very useful to COD removal, because organism is consumed by oxidation with iron bacteria and iron, 3) Iron is removed by the physical filter effect of bio-filter and oxidation with iron bacteria. 4) Turbidity is removed by the physical filter effect of bin-filter. 5) Light is an effective system for COD removal. 6) Environmental temperature is usefulness to bio-filter formation and water purification. (author)

  16. An internal pilot study for a randomized trial aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of iron interventions in children with non-anemic iron deficiency: the OptEC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Kawsari; Thorpe, Kevin E; Mamak, Eva; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Fehlings, Darcy; Hanley, Anthony J; Macarthur, Colin; Zlotkin, Stanley H; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-07-14

    The OptEC trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of oral iron in young children with non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID). The initial sample size calculated for the OptEC trial ranged from 112-198 subjects. Given the uncertainty regarding the parameters used to calculate the sample, an internal pilot study was conducted. The objectives of this internal pilot study were to obtain reliable estimate of parameters (standard deviation and design factor) to recalculate the sample size and to assess the adherence rate and reasons for non-adherence in children enrolled in the pilot study. The first 30 subjects enrolled into the OptEC trial constituted the internal pilot study. The primary outcome of the OptEC trial is the Early Learning Composite (ELC). For estimation of the SD of the ELC, descriptive statistics of the 4 month follow-up ELC scores were assessed within each intervention group. The observed SD within each group was then pooled to obtain an estimated SD (S2) of the ELC. Correlation (ρ) between the ELC measured at baseline and follow-up was assessed. Recalculation of the sample size was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method which uses the design factor (1- ρ(2)). Adherence rate was calculated using a parent reported rate of missed doses of the study intervention. The new estimate of the SD of the ELC was found to be 17.40 (S2). The design factor was (1- ρ2) = 0.21. Using a significance level of 5%, power of 80%, S2 = 17.40 and effect estimate (Δ) ranging from 6-8 points, the new sample size based on ANCOVA method ranged from 32-56 subjects (16-28 per group). Adherence ranged between 14% and 100% with 44% of the children having an adherence rate ≥ 86%. Information generated from our internal pilot study was used to update the design of the full and definitive trial, including recalculation of sample size, determination of the adequacy of adherence, and application of strategies to improve adherence. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the recovery of postural control after stroke: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeys, Wim; Vereeck, Luc; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L; Van De Heyning, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of multiple sessions of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) during 4 weeks on balance and gait parameters after stroke. Thirty-one stroke patients were included in this randomised, double-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. The Tinetti test was used to assess functional balance and gait after stroke. Secondary measures, Rivermead Motor Assessment (RMA) and Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), were registered to asses both motricity and trunk performance. All tests were administered at baseline, after 4 and 8 weeks. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups received both sixteen 20-min sessions of tDCS and sixteen 20-min sessions of Sham stimulation. Application method between groups was changed after 4 weeks. A general linear repeated measures model was used to analyse the results of our study. Results revealed an effect on the total score of the Tinetti test (p = 0.049). No significant results were obtained for the RMA (p = 0.166) and the TIS (p = 0.479). This pilot study indicates that 16 tDCS-sessions could have a beneficial effect on balance and gait in stroke patients measured with the Tinetti test. However, further research is needed to elucidate these findings. Implications for Rehabilitation Sixteen sessions of tDCS is beneficial in the recovery of postural control in stroke patients. tDCS has to be applied as soon as possible to enhance beneficial effects.

  18. Aims and harvest of moral case deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidema, Froukje C; Molewijk, Bert A C; Kamsteeg, Frans; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative ways of dealing with ethical issues in health care are expanding. Moral case deliberation is an example, providing group-wise, structured reflection on dilemmas from practice. Although moral case deliberation is well described in literature, aims and results of moral case deliberation sessions are unknown. This research shows (a) why managers introduce moral case deliberation and (b) what moral case deliberation participants experience as moral case deliberation results. A responsive evaluation was conducted, explicating moral case deliberation experiences by analysing aims (N = 78) and harvest (N = 255). A naturalistic data collection included interviews with managers and evaluation questionnaires of moral case deliberation participants (nurses). From the analysis, moral case deliberation appeals for cooperation, team bonding, critical attitude towards routines and nurses' empowerment. Differences are that managers aim to foster identity of the nursing profession, whereas nurses emphasize learning processes and understanding perspectives. We conclude that moral case deliberation influences team cooperation that cannot be controlled with traditional management tools, but requires time and dialogue. Exchanging aims and harvest between manager and team could result in co-creating (moral) practice in which improvements for daily cooperation result from bringing together perspectives of managers and team members.

  19. PRAGUE SEMINAR ON LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, 1967.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FRIED, VILEM

    AN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, WHOSE PURPOSE IT WAS TO DISCUSS THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, IS REPORTED ON IN THIS ARTICLE. THE THREE PAPERS PRESENTED BY IVAN POLDAUF, VALENTINA ZETLINA, AND JOHN B. CARROLL ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR DISCUSSIONS ON LINGUISTICS, DIDACTICS, AND PSYCHOLOGY. THE DISCUSSION FOLLOWING THE PRESENTATION OF…

  20. Character as the Aim of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light

    2011-01-01

    The aim of education should be developing intellectual character, moral character, civic character, and performance character. That does not mean that schools should ignore teaching content, but that the dispositions and habits of mind that come from developing these four forms of character will remain with students throughout their lives.…

  1. Teacher Research and the Aims of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Yvonne; Wardekker, Willem

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of a course for experienced teachers in the Netherlands, intended to enhance their professionalism by engaging them in doing research based on reflection on the aims of their educational efforts. The course was accompanied by design-based research. The research question was whether and how the course stimulated…

  2. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  3. THE CARTOGRAPHY IN STUDIES OF ENVIRONMENT: BILINGUAL PRACTICE AIMING INCLUSION OF DEAF STUDENTS A CARTOGRAFIA NOS ESTUDOS DO MEIO AMBIENTE: POR UMA PRÁTICA BILINGUE VISANDO A INCLUSÃO DOS ALUNOS SURDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Salge Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding that teaching Geography to Deaf students through to the field visual-spatial and off course, the appreciation of their mother language, the Brazilian Sing Language, that study aiming to discuss and develop activities of Geography focusing on the characteristics of that language. Therefore, starting from the Cartography and all diverse applicability, this study sought to sharpen the student’s perception about the lived space. The conditions of urban neighborhood linked to the importance of space and interpret the various events that surround us. Finally, using games, images and fields works with a group of Deaf students, we compose a sequence teaching that we call: The Urban Environmental Problems: From the world to my school.Por entender que o ensino ao aluno Surdo perpassa pelo campo viso-gestual e, especialmente, pela valorização da sua língua materna, a Língua Brasileira de Sinais, é que este trabalho objetivou a discussão e elaboração de atividades de Geografia centradas nas características lingüísticas e didáticas destes alunos. Portanto, partindo-se da Cartografia e de suas diversas aplicabilidades, este trabalho procurou aguçar a percepção dos alunos acerca do espaço vivido. Considerando a área em que se localiza a escola, elegemos os problemas ambientais urbanos como eixo temático. Sendo assim, através de atividades, jogos, imagens e trabalho de campo com uma turma de alunos Surdos, arquitetaram-se as seqüências didáticas que chamamos de Os Problemas Ambientais Urbanos: Do mundo à minha escola.

  4. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of posterior-only vertebral column resection (PVCR) for the treatment of angular and isolated congenital kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengru; Aikenmu, Kahaer; Zhang, Jianguo; Qiu, Guixing; Guo, Jianwei; Zhang, Yanbin; Weng, Xisheng

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of posterior-only vertebral column resection (PVCR) for the treatment of angular and isolated congenital kyphosis. 24 patients with isolated angular congenital kyphosis treated by PVCR in our hospital were retrospectively studied. The patients' radiographs and hospital records were reviewed. Deformity in sagittal planes and global sagittal alignment were analyzed for correction and maintenance of the correction in preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up radiographs. The complications and related risk factors were analyzed. The average age was 13.9 (4-40) years. Three of them were revision surgeries. Two patients have intraspinal anomalies. The mean follow-up is 56.9 (26-129) months. The mean operation time was 293.1 (170-480) min. The averaged blood loss was 993.8 (250-3000) ml. The segmental kyphosis was 87.3° before surgery, 17.6° post surgery and 20.4° at the latest the follow-up. And the sagittal vertical axis was improved from 43.1 mm to 9.2 mm. Mean total score of SRS-22 was 89.3. Complications occurred in 4 patients, including 1 screw pullout due to pseudarthrosis, 1 proximal junctional kyphosis, 1 incomplete spinal cord injury and 1 root injuries. Posterior-only vertebral column resection is an ideal procedure for severe rigid congenital kyphosis. However, it is still a highly technical demanding procedure. Neurological compromises still remain the biggest challenges. Sufficient height of anterior reconstruction, avoidance sacrifice of bilateral roots in the same level in the thoracic spine, avoidance of the sagittal translation of the upper and lower vertebras, intra-operative neuromonitoring, and preoperative surgical release of diastematomyelia and tethered cord may help to improve the safety.

  5. China Aims to Reform,Not Destroy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ The current system of international relations, which was devised by Western countries, must be reformed. There is mounting evidence showing the system has severedefects and is not fair or just. The global financial crisis, for instance, has exposed flaws in the international financial system formulated by the United States and other Western nations. Climate change is also a telling reminder of the downside of the Western lifestyle.

  6. Spectroscopic and molecular modeling study on the separate and simultaneous bindings of alprazolam and fluoxetine hydrochloride to human serum albumin (HSA): With the aim of the drug interactions probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangkoob, Faeze; Housaindokht, Mohmmad Reza; Asoodeh, Ahmad; Rajabi, Omid; Rouhbakhsh Zaeri, Zeinab; Verdian Doghaei, Asma

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present research is to study the interaction of separate and simultaneous of alprazolam (ALP) and fluoxetine hydrochloride (FLX) with human serum albumin (HSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using different kinds of spectroscopic, cyclic voltammetry and molecular modeling techniques. The absorbance spectra of protein, drugs and protein-drug showed complex formation between the drugs and HSA. Fluorescence analysis demonstrated that ALP and FLX could quench the fluorescence spectrum of HSA and demonstrated the conformational change of HSA in the presence of both drugs. Also, fluorescence quenching mechanism of HSA-drug complexes both separately and simultaneously was suggested as static quenching. The analysis of UV absorption data and the fluorescence quenching of HSA in the binary and ternary systems showed that FLX decreased the binding affinity between ALP and HSA. On the contrary, ALP increased the binding affinity of FLX and HSA. The results of synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that the binding of drugs to HSA would modify the microenvironment around the Trp and Tyr residues and the conformation of HSA. The distances between Trp residue and the binding sites of the drugs were estimated according to the Förster theory, and it was demonstrated that non-radiative energy transfer from HSA to the drugs occurred with a high probability. Moreover, according to CV measurements, the decrease of peak current in the cyclic voltammogram of the both drugs in the presence of HSA revealed that they interacted with albumin and binding constants were calculated for binary systems which were in agreement with the binding constants obtained from UV absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The prediction of the best binding sites of ALP and FLX in binary and ternary systems in molecular modeling approach was done using of Gibbs free energy.

  7. 对稳定浓度目标下温室气体排放路径的探讨%Study on the Greenhouse Gas Emission Pathways Aiming at the Stable Concentration Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉; 陈文颖; 刘德顺

    2011-01-01

    The MACICC model ( model for the assessment of greenhouse gas induced climate change) and WRE ( Wigley, Richels and Edmonds) emission scenario are used to study the uncertainty of the greenhouse gas(GHG) emission pathways aiming at the stable concentration targets, based on the research of the emission pathways aiming at the 450 and 550 ppmvC02e concentration targets of 2100 and the changes of the CHG concentration. The model showed that the concentration target depended on the cumulative emission from starting year to target year and the emissions pathways. If the peak years of the emission pathways are adjusted to delay gradually in order to ensure the certain cumulative emissions, the new emission pathways need greater efforts in emission reduction after reaching the peak. GHG concentrations will increase gradually during the forecast period, but the changes in the target year are relative low, about one third of the maximal concentration changes. When the peak years of WRE350 and WRE450 emission pathways are adjusted to 2020 and 2035 respectively, the maximal concentration changes will be 6.4 ppmv and 22.8 ppmv, while the concentration changes in 2100 will be 1.9 ppmv and 7.5 ppmv respectively, compared to the original emission pathways.%为研究稳定浓度目标下温室气体排放路径的不确定性问题,应用温室气体导致气候变化评估模型( MAGICC模型)和WRE排放情景的数据对2100年温室气体浓度控制在450和550 ppmvCO2当量目标下的排放路径及浓度变化情况进行了研究.结果显示,目标年浓度的变化取决于起始年至目标年的累计排放量和摊放路径.将排放路径峰值逐渐调整滞后时,为保证累计排放量不变,需在到达峰值后比原排放路径进行更大力度的减排.温室气体浓度在预测期内将逐渐增加,但目标年的结果变化较小,约为浓度变化最大值的1/3左右.将WRE350和WRE450排放路径的峰值分别调整至2020年和2035年时,与原排

  8. Sample injection strategy to increase throughput in counter-current chromatography: Case study of Honokiol purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Aihua; Hewitson, Peter; Ye, Haoyu; Zu, Liansuo; Garrard, Ian; Sutherland, Ian; Chen, Lijuan; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2016-12-09

    Counter-current chromatography (CCC) has been widely used as a preparative separation method to purify natural products from plant extracts and fermentation broths. Traditionally, throughput optimization in CCC has focused on sample concentration and sample volume. In this paper sample injection was considered as consisting of three variables: injection flow rate, post-injection flow rate and sample solvent. The effects of these parameters were studied using a honokiol purification from a Magnolia officinalis bark extract as a case study aiming to achieve the highest throughput/yield ratio for greater than 99% purity of this potential anti-cancer drug obtained for submission to the Chinese FDA. An injection method was established that increased the throughput of honokiol by 46.5% (from 3.05g/h to 4.47g/h), and decreased the solvent consumption of mobile phase and stationary phase per gram of honokiol by 40.0% (from 0.68L/g to 0.41L/g) and 48.4% (from 0.40L/g to 0.21L/g) respectively. These results show the importance of understanding the whole injection process when optimizing a given CCC separation.

  9. Exploring Current Sensory Enhancement Practices Within Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study (VFSS) Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkington, Leisa; Nund, Rebecca L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Farrell, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Whilst some research evidence supports the potential benefits of sensory enhancement strategies (SES) in dysphagia management, there is limited understanding of how SES are used in clinical services and the influencing drivers involved in selection during instrumental assessment. SES include modification of temperature, flavour, texture, chemesthetic qualities and bolus size of food/fluid. This study aimed to explore the use of SES within Australian Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study (VFSS) clinics providing adult services, via a qualitative methodology. Maximum variation sampling was used to select a cross section of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) with a range of experience working within 16 VFSS clinics across metropolitan and regional settings to participate in semi-structured, focus group or individual teleconference interviews. Content analysis of interview transcripts was conducted, with four themes emerging as influencing drivers of SES use, including: Patient factors influence SES use; Clinician factors influence SES use; Trials of SES require planning and organisation, and; Organisational barriers impact on SES use. These four themes were all connected through a single integrative theme: Extensive variations of SES procedures exist across clinical settings. Findings indicate that achieving alignment of clinical purpose and implementation of practices amongst VFSS clinicians will be complex given current diversity in SES use. Organisational issues and clinician training need to be addressed, and more research is needed to provide a stronger evidence base to inform clinical practice in this emerging area of dysphagia management.

  10. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadoran, Zahra; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consumption and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa-bolic risk factors. Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu-lar diseases.

  11. Fast Food Pattern and Cardiometabolic Disorders: A Review of Current Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bahadoran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are growing concern globally regarding the alarming trend of fast food consump­tion and its related cardiometabolic outcomes including overweight and obesity. This study aimed to review the current evidences available in relation to adverse effects of fast food pattern on cardiometa­bolic risk factors. Methods: Relevant articles including epidemiological and clinical studies with appropriate design and good quality were obtained through searches of the Medline, PubMed, Scopus databases and Google scholar with related key words including "fast foods", "processed foods", "obesity", "overweight", "insulin resistance", "diabetes", "cardiovascular disease", "metabolic syndrome", "dyslipidemia" and "hypertension". Results: Fast food consumption and out-of-home eating behavior is a main risk factor for lower diet quality, higher calorie and fat intake and lower micronutrients density of diet. Frequent consumption of fast foods was accompanied with overweight and abdominal fat gain, impaired insulin and glucose homeostasis, lipid and lipoprotein disorders, induction of systemic inflammation and oxidative stress. Higher fast food consumption also increases the risk of developmental diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This review provides further evidence warning us against the irreparable effects of fast food consumption on public health especially the increasing global burden of obesity and cardiovascu­lar diseases.

  12. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo......RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows...... whereas under intermediate and high sediment rates there was consistent cumulative growth throughout a 15 d experiment. This highlights the importance of suspended sediment for S. spinulosa and also the suitability of the VoRT system for maintaining organisms with suspended matter requirements....

  13. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  14. The aims and accomplishments of comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Greenberg, Partridge, Weiss, and Pisula propose a new perspective of comparative psychology, based in large part on an anagenetic and dynamic systems approach to the development and evolution of behavior. Their view appreciates the probabilistic nature of behavioral development and promotes the value of an integrative levels concept for generating testable hypothesis regarding the complex relationship between biology, context, and developmental history underlying behavioral and psychological functioning. However, the authors fail to represent the full scope of contemporary comparative psychology by overlooking several core aims of the field, including (a) the use of animal models to shed light on human behavior and development and (b) understanding the role of behavior as a leading edge in the evolutionary process.

  15. Current trends of carcinoma tongue at a Medical College in Central India: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context : Oral cancer is the most common cancer in India and tongue is one of the most commonly affected site. Aims and Objectives : The current study assesses the clinico-epidemiological trends of carcinoma tongue, its survival rates in different stages and relationship between different variables in central India. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study of 121 carcinoma tongue patients admitted between the period of 2½ years in a hospital of central India. The data collected were age and sex distribution, location and site of the tumor, tumor stage, histopathological type and grade, nodal status, modality of treatment, recurrences and survival. The disease free survival (DFS was analyzed against stage, nodal status and recurrences using log rank test. Results : In this study, the incidence of cancer was more in males (male: female = 6.1:1 particularly in their fifth decade (mean 52.7 years and the most common location was anterior 2/3 rd of the tongue mainly on right lateral side. Most of the patients presenting to out-patient department were having neck nodes positive status. The clinical stage at presentation was mainly advanced stages with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The most common treatment offered was surgery with radiotherapy (RT, followed by chemotherapy plus RT. The mean DFS time was of 27.8 ± 1.68 months, and it was directly related to tumor stage (P < 0.0001 in comparison to nodes positivity and recurrences. Conclusion : The study signifies better prognosis of carcinoma tongue in early stages and warrants more awareness campaigns and health education in the health facilities as well as in community for early diagnosis of the disease with proper staging and subsequently multimodal treatment for increasing survival rates.

  16. [The current structure of rheumatology in German universities. The Rhesus and RISA-II studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyszer, G; Burmester, G-R

    2008-11-01

    The teaching of rheumatology requires competent rheumatological structures in German university hospitals. In 2002, the nationwide 'RISA' survey on the extent and quality of rheumatological training in Germany brought a variety of deficits to light. In the same year, a new law regulating the licensing process to practise medicine came into force. Since this law aimed at a more practise-based training of medical students, hopes were high that the conditions for the rheumatological education of students would improve over time. Therefore, our survey was repeated four years later, supplemented by a questionnaire covering scientific activities in rheumatology at university hospitals. In addition, another survey, known as the Rhesus study, was started in 2007 to analyse the size and capacity of rheumatological departments and units at German medical faculties. The results show that rheumatology represents one of the smallest subjects of internal medicine in Germany. Several German university hospitals do not include a rheumatological department at all. Since 2002, no significant progress has been made with regard to the extent of training for medical students in rheumatology, and the new licensing law has not yet shown beneficial effects in this respect. The current data represent only a snap-shot. The development of rheumatology requires cautious observation to prevent this important area of medicine from being sacrificed to economic interests or structural changes.

  17. A Study on the Thermal Effect of the Current-Carrying Capacity of Embedded Underground Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Dewen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to study embedded underground cable and the effect of temperature that surrounds it. Determining the carrying capacity of the cable is important to predict the temperature changesin the embedded pipe. Simulating the temperature field and the laying environment according to the IEC standard enables the calculation of the carrying capacity of the buried region. According to the theoryof heat transfer, the embedded pipe tube model temperature field should be coupled with a numerical model. The domain and boundary conditions of the temperature field should also be determined using the 8.7/15kV YJV 400 cable. In conducting numerical calculation and analysis using the temperature field model, the two-dimensional temperature distribution of the emission control area should be determined. The experimental results show that the simulation isconsistent with the IEC standard. Furthermore, in identifying the cable ampacity, the different seasons and different cable rows should be taken into account using the finite element method. Finally, theappropriate choice of root and circuit numbers of the cable will improve the cable’s the carrying capacity.

  18. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized.

  19. The current status of usability studies of information technologies in China: a systematic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jianbo; Xu, Lufei; Meng, Qun; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang

    2014-01-01

    To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993) have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. China's usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. More human and material resources need to be invested in China's usability research, particularly in HIT.

  20. The Current Status of Usability Studies of Information Technologies in China: A Systematic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To systematically review and analyze the current status and characteristics of usability studies in China in the field of information technology in general and in the field of healthcare in particular. Methods. We performed a quantitative literature analysis in three major Chinese academic databases and one English language database using Chinese search terms equivalent to the concept of usability. Results. Six hundred forty-seven publications were selected for analysis. We found that in China the literature on usability in the field of information technology began in 1994 and increased thereafter. The usability definitions from ISO 9241-11:1998 and Nielsen (1993 have been widely recognized and cited. Authors who have published several publications are rare. Fourteen journals have a publishing rate over 1%. Only nine publications about HIT were identified. Discussions. China’s usability research started relatively late. There is a lack of organized research teams and dedicated usability journals. High-impact theoretical studies are scarce. On the application side, no original and systematic research frameworks have been developed. The understanding and definition of usability is not well synchronized with international norms. Besides, usability research in HIT is rare. Conclusions. More human and material resources need to be invested in China’s usability research, particularly in HIT.

  1. Study of eddy current power loss in an RCS vacuum chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shou-Yan; WANG Sheng

    2012-01-01

    In a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS),power loss due to an eddy current on the metal vacuum chamber would cause heating of the vacuum chamber.It is important to study the effect for estimating eddy current induced power loss and temperature growth.Analytical formulas for eddy current power loss for various types of vacuum chambers are derived for dipole and quadrupole repectively.By using the prototype of dipole of CSNS/RCS,an experiment was done to test the analytical formula.The derived formulas were applied to calculating the eddy current power loss on some special structures of an RCS vacuum chamber.

  2. Combined experimental and theoretical studies on the molecular structures, spectroscopy, and inhibitor activity of 3-(2-thienyl)acrylic acid through AIM, NBO,FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV and HOMO-LUMO analyses, and molecular docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, N.; Ghalla, H.; Bardak, F.; Karabacak, M.; Aouled Dlala, N.; Flakus, H. T.; Oujia, B.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the molecular structures and vibrational spectral analyses of 3-(2-Theinyl)acrylic acid (3-2TAA) monomer and dimer structures have been reported by using density functional theory calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The complete assignments of the fundamental vibrational modes were obtained using potential energy distribution. Intermolecular interactions were analyzed by orbital NBO and topological AIM approaches. The electronic properties have been carried out using TD-DFT approach. Great agreements between experimental and theoretical values were achieved throughout the analysis of structural parameters and spectroscopic features. Inhibitor characteristics on human monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) enzyme of two determined stable conformers of 3-2TAA (β and γ) along with four selective inhibitors, namely safinamide, a coumarin analogue, farnesol, and phenyethylhydrazine were investigated via molecular docking. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and temperature dependency of thermodynamic functions have been reported.

  3. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Executive Summary The AIM-9X Block II missile completed Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E) in March 2015 and was found to be...carried. The AIM -9X Block II missile shall be compatible with representative threshold hose aircraft weapon and sensor load-outs with regard to

  4. TRIM11 Suppresses AIM2 Inflammasome by Degrading AIM2 via p62-Dependent Selective Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The AIM2 inflammasome is a key cytosolic signaling complex that is activated by double-stranded DNA, leading to the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-18. Dysregulated AIM2 inflammasome activity is associated with human inflammatory diseases and cancers, suggesting that its activity must be tightly regulated. However, the precise molecular mechanisms that control AIM2 levels and activity are still poorly understood. Here, we report tripartite motif 11 (TRIM11 as a key negative regulator of the AIM2 inflammasome. Upon DNA virus infection, TRIM11 binds to AIM2 via its PS domain and undergoes auto-polyubiquitination at K458 to promote an association between TRIM11 and the autophagic cargo receptor p62 to mediate AIM2 degradation via selective autophagy. These findings identify a role for TRIMs in AIM2 inflammasome activation where TRIM11 acts as a secondary receptor to deliver AIM2 to the autophagosomes for degradation in a p62-dependent manner.

  5. Demagnetization treatment of remanent composite microspheres studied by alternating current susceptibility measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkum, S.; Erné, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant

  6. Multilevel interventions aimed at adult obesity prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature emphasizes the importance of using both quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate the wide range of aspects which hinder or promote the success of health interventions. The pilot phase of this study highlights how mixed-method approaches can be strengthened ...... to investigate factors associated with multi-level obesity prevention....

  7. NUMERICAL STUDY ON THE FORMATION OF THE SOUTH CHINA SEA WARM CURRENT I. BAROTROPIC CASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, Princeton Ocean Model (POM) was used to study the formation of the South China Sea Warm Current (SCSWC) in the barotropic case. Monthly averaged wind stress and the inflow/outflow transports in January were used in the numerical simulation which reproduced the SCSWC. The effects of wind stress and inflow/outflow were studied separately. Numerical experiments showed that the Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait and the slope shelf in the northern SCS are necessary conditions for the formation of the SCSWC. In a flat bottom topography experiment, the wind stress driven northeast current in the northern SCS is a compensatory current.

  8. A status analysis of current digital marketing: a case study of Kauneusstudio FAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a small company's current digital marketing status. This study was con-ducted in order for the owners of the beauty and hair salon Kauneusstudio FAB to improve their understanding of their customers’ behavior online and the significance of each digital channel they are using in the present marketing strategy. The goal of this study is to provide information for the company to recognize the strengths and the development points of the current digital marketing stra...

  9. Numerical study on short-circuit current of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the cathode work function,carriers mobilities and temperature on the short-circuit current of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts was numerically studied,and the quantitative dependences of the short-circuit current on these quantities were obtained.The results provide the theoretical foundation for experimental study of single layer organic solar cells with Schottkey contacts.

  10. Synchronous Study of Ferroresonance and Inrush Current Phenomena and their Related Reasons in Ground Power Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Amin; Ghaderi, Mohammad; Ghadi, Saeed

    2010-01-01

    Energizing the power transformers usually results in flowing very high inrush currents. This harmful current can be minimized using controlled switching and considering the value of residual flux. But nowadays, developing the ground power networks results in high increment of ferroresonance phenomenon occurrence due to the line' capacitance reactance and nonlinear inductive reactance of power transformer's core. In this study, these transient phenomena and their cause have studied synchronously.

  11. Factors influencing the current practice of self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brata, Cecilia; Fisher, Colleen; Marjadi, Brahmaputra; Schneider, Carl R; Clifford, Rhonda M

    2016-05-13

    Research has shown that the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in Indonesia is suboptimal. To improve the performance of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies, the factors that influence current practice need to be understood. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations in Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies. Fifteen in-depth interviews were conducted with pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, pharmacy owners, and counter attendants. Thematic analysis was used to generate findings. The current practice of pharmacy staff when handling self-medication consultations is directly influenced by the professionalism of pharmacy staff and patient responses to the consultations. These factors are in turn affected by the organisational context of the pharmacy and the external pharmacy environment. The organisational context of the pharmacy includes staffing, staff affordability, and the availability of time and facilities in which to provide consultations. The external pharmacy environment includes the number of trained pharmacy staff in the research setting, the relevance of pharmacy education to the needs of pharmacy practice, the support offered by the Indonesian Pharmacists Association, a competitive business environment, and the policy environment. Complex and inter-related factors influence the current practice of pharmacy staff when providing self-medication consultations in community pharmacies in this research setting. Multiple strategies will be required to improve consultation practices.

  12. Study of Leakage Current Behaviour on Artificially Polluted Surface of Ceramic Insulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. Subba Reddy; G. R. Nagabhushana

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study concerning to the leakage current be-haviour on artificially polluted ceramic insulator surface. From the present study it was observedthat there is a reasonably well-defined inception of current i.e. scintillations at a finite voltage.The corresponding voltages for extinction of the current are in the range of 0.8 kV to 2.1 kV.Obviously, the dry band formed in the immediate vicinity of the pin prevents smooth current flowas the voltage rises from zero. Only when the voltage is adequate it causes a flashover of the dryband and current starts flowing. As is common in similar current extinction phenomena, herealso, the extinction voltages are significantly lower than the inception voltages.Further, the voltage-current curves invariably show hysteresis - the leakage currents are lowerin the reducing portion of the voltage. This is obviously due to drying of the wet pollutantlayer thereby increasing its resistance. It is believed that this is the first time that such a directquantitative evidence of drying in individual half cycles is experimentally visualized.

  13. Are current disease-modifying therapeutics in multiple sclerosis justified on the basis of studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Nasr; Gran, Bruno; Constantinescu, Cris S

    2010-11-01

    The precise aetio-pathology of multiple sclerosis remains elusive. However, important recent advances have been made and several therapies have been licensed for clinical use. Many of these were developed, validated or tested in the animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This systematic review aims to assess whether the current disease modifying treatments and those that are the closest to the clinic are justified on the basis of the results of EAE studies. We discuss some aspects of the utility and caveats of EAE as a model for multiple sclerosis drug development.

  14. Experimental study on directional solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of electric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räbiger, D.; Zhang, Y.; Galindo, V.; Franke, S.; Willers, B.; Eckert, S.

    2016-07-01

    The application of electric currents during solidification can cause grain refinement in metallic alloys. However, the knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the decrease in grain size remains fragmentary. This study considers the solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of electric currents for the configuration of two parallel electrodes at the free surface. Solidification experiments were performed under the influence of both direct currents (DC) and rectangular electric current pulses (ECP). The interaction between the applied current and its own induced magnetic field causes a Lorentz force which produces an electro-vortex flow. Numerical simulations were conducted to calculate the Lorentz force, the Joule heating and the induced melt flow. The numerical predictions were confirmed by isothermal flow measurements in eutectic GaInSn. The results demonstrate that the grain refining effect observed in our experiments can be ascribed solely to the forced melt flow driven by the Lorentz force.

  15. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  16. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  17. A Simulation Study on the Shift Schedule of Electric Vehicle Aiming at Fuel Economy%纯电动汽车经济性换挡规律仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江昊; 赵韩; 黄康; 刘拂晓

    2015-01-01

    In order to extend the driving mileage and reduce the energy consumption of electric vehicle, its shift schedule is simulated aiming at fuel economy in this paper. Firstly, a static economical shift schedule with two-parameter control is worked out. Then by using dynamic programming algorithm, the optimal gear under ECE driv-ing cycles is found, and based on which the static economical shift schedule is revised with the final economical shift schedule curve obtained. Finally an electricity consumption model for electric vehicle is set up, and a simulation on the shift schedule before and after revision is conducted with UDDC driving cycles. The results show that the revised shift schedule can effectively reduce the energy consumption of electric vehicle.%为提高纯电动汽车的续驶里程,降低能量消耗率,本文中针对其燃油经济性进行了换挡规律的仿真。首先制定出两参数静态经济性换挡规律;然后利用动态规划算法找出在ECE循环工况下的最优挡位,并据此对所制定的静态经济性换挡规律进行修正,得到最终经济性换挡规律曲线;最后,在UDDS行驶工况下,建立了纯电动汽车耗电量模型,对修正前后的换挡规律进行仿真。结果表明,修正后的换挡规律能有效地降低纯电动汽车的能量消耗率。

  18. Multiday Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Causes Clinically Insignificant Changes in Childhood Dystonia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanpuri, Nasir H; Bertucco, Matteo; Young, Scott J; Lee, Annie A; Sanger, Terence D

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal motor cortex activity is common in dystonia. Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation may alter cortical activity by decreasing excitability while anodal stimulation may increase motor learning. Previous results showed that a single session of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation can improve symptoms in childhood dystonia. Here we performed a 5-day, sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study, where we measured tracking and muscle overflow in a myocontrol-based task. We applied cathodal and anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (2 mA, 9 minutes per day). For cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (7 participants), 3 subjects showed improvements whereas 2 showed worsening in overflow or tracking error. The effect size was small (about 1% of maximum voluntary contraction) and not clinically meaningful. For anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (6 participants), none showed improvement, whereas 5 showed worsening. Thus, multiday cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduced symptoms in some children but not to a clinically meaningful extent, whereas anodal transcranial direct current stimulation worsened symptoms. Our results do not support transcranial direct current stimulation as clinically viable for treating childhood dystonia.

  19. Electric field characteristics of electroconvulsive therapy with individualized current amplitude: a preclinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Hee; Lisanby, Sarah H; Laine, Andrew F; Peterchev, Angel V

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics of the electric field induced in the brain by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) with individualized current amplitude. The electric field induced by bilateral (BL), bifrontal (BF), right unilateral (RUL), and frontomedial (FM) ECT electrode configurations was computed in anatomically realistic finite element models of four nonhuman primates (NHPs). We generated maps of the electric field strength relative to an empirical neural activation threshold, and determined the stimulation strength and focality at fixed current amplitude and at individualized current amplitudes corresponding to seizure threshold (ST) measured in the anesthetized NHPs. The results show less variation in brain volume stimulated above threshold with individualized current amplitudes (16-36%) compared to fixed current amplitude (30-62%). Further, the stimulated brain volume at amplitude-titrated ST is substantially lower than that for ECT with conventional fixed current amplitudes. Thus individualizing the ECT stimulus current could compensate for individual anatomical variability and result in more focal and uniform electric field exposure across different subjects compared to the standard clinical practice of using high, fixed current for all patients.

  20. Comparing snow models under current and future climates: Uncertainties and implications for hydrological impact studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troin, Magali; Poulin, Annie; Baraer, Michel; Brissette, François

    2016-09-01

    Projected climate change effects on snow hydrology are investigated for the 2041-2060 horizon following the SRES A2 emissions scenario over three snowmelt-dominated catchments in Quebec, Canada. A 16-member ensemble of eight snow models (SM) simulations, based on the high-resolution Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM-15 km) simulations driven by two realizations of the Canadian Global Climate Model (CGCM3), is established per catchment. This study aims to compare a range of SMs in their ability at simulating snow processes under current climate, and to evaluate how they affect the assessment of the climate change-induced snow impacts at the catchment scale. The variability of snowpack response caused by the use of different models within two different SM approaches (degree-day (DD) versus mixed degree-day/energy balance (DD/EB)) is also evaluated, as well as the uncertainty of natural climate variability. The simulations cover 1961-1990 in the present period and 2041-2060 in the future period. There is a general convergence in the ensemble spread of the climate change signals on snow water equivalent at the catchment scale, with an earlier peak and a decreased magnitude in all basins. The results of four snow indicators show that most of the uncertainty arises from natural climate variability (inter-member variability of the CRCM) followed by the snow model. Both the DD and DD/EB models provide comparable assessments of the impacts of climate change on snow hydrology at the catchment scale.

  1. Multimodal Study of Adult-Infant Interaction: A Review of Its Origins and Its Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Carretero Pérez

    Full Text Available Abstract An interpretative review of research on adult-infant interactions involving the analysis of movement behaviors is presented, systematically linking previous studies to current research on the subject. Forty-two articles analyzing the dyad's interactive movement in the period 1970-2015 were found. Twelve papers were excluded, including only those that studied the phenomenon in the baby's first year of life. The results revealed that movement was a central topic in early interaction studies in the 70s. In the 1980's and 1990's, its study was marginal and it is currently resurging under the embodiment perspective. The conceptual framework and research methods used in the pioneering work are presented, and the thematic foci shared with current research are highlighted. Thus, essential keys are provided for the updated study of early interactions from a multimodal perspective.

  2. A case study exploring the current issues faced by diploma-prepared nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droskinis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Nursing is a dynamic and rapidly progressing field. As the profession changes over time, it is vital to study how these transformations influence the workforce. In this study, the aim was to explore how diploma-prepared nurses are functioning in the acute care setting and how modifications in educational requirements and technological advancement have affected their nursing practice.

  3. Langmuir probe study in the nonresonant current drive regime of helicon discharge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manash Kumar Paul; Dhiraj Bora

    2008-07-01

    Characterization of the current drive regime is done for helicon wave-generated plasma in a torus, at a very high operating frequency. A radiofrequency-compensated Langmuir probe is designed and used for the measurement of plasma parameters along with the electron energy distributions in radial scans of the plasma. The electron energy distribution patterns obtained in the operational regime suggest that Landau damping cannot be responsible for the efficient helicon discharge in the present study. A typical peaked radial density profile, high plasma temperature and absence of an appreciable amount of energetic electrons for resonant wave–particle interactions, suggest that the chosen operational regime is suitable for the study of nonresonant current drive by helicon wave. Successful and significant current drive achieved in our device clearly demonstrates the capability of nonresonant current drive by helicon waves in the present operational regime.

  4. Study on Catastrophic Air Current Early-warning and Control System of Coalmines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Fang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic air current significantly influences the stability of ventilation system, and existing studies have not considered the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current when designing the control systems. To analyze the effects of different kinds of coalmine accidents on safety production, grey relation entropy theory was used to analyze the hazard assessment of coalmine accidents. Fluent software was employed to study the flow characteristics of catastrophic air current, and the catastrophic air current early-warning and control system of coalmine was researched according to the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The threat of fire accidents and roof accidents were larger than other accidents. The influence of temperature and CO volume fraction distribution of fire accidents to the tailwind side was larger than that of the weather side, and gradient decreased on the weather side. This system can effectively control the spread of fire and poisonous gas,

  5. Prevalence of primary aldosteronism in patient's cohorts and in population-based studies--a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, A; Wallaschofski, H

    2012-03-01

    There is an ongoing controversy on the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA). We aimed to update a meta-analysis published in 2008, that compiled studies reporting the prevalence of positive ARR screening tests and PA. We therefore reviewed original studies published in 2008 or later to examine whether current reports provide similar, higher or lower prevalences of elevated ARRs or PA than reports included in the original meta-analysis. A systematic review of English articles using PubMed was conducted. Search and extraction of articles were performed by one review author; the second review author checked all extracted data. We identified 11 eligible studies. The updated, weighted mean prevalences of elevated ARRs and PA in primary care (prevalence of high ARRs 16.5%; prevalence of PA 4.3%) and referred patients (prevalence of high ARRs 19.6%; prevalence of PA 9.5%) were only marginally different from the mean values obtained in the original meta-analysis. Among the current studies the maximum values for the prevalence of elevated ARRs and PA were substantially lower than among the older studies. Our results confirm the main conclusions from the original meta-analysis. The prevalence of PA increases with the severity of hypertension and the inclusion of current study results did not alter the mean prevalences of elevated ARRs and PA in primary care and referred patients. Additionally, we found that current studies focus increasingly on patients in referral centers or special subgroups, while the prevalence of PA in the general hypertensive population is yet unknown.

  6. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and transcranial pulsed current stimulation: a computer based high-resolution modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Abhishek; Dmochowski, Jacek P; Guleyupoglu, Berkan; Bikson, Marom; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-01-15

    The field of non-invasive brain stimulation has developed significantly over the last two decades. Though two techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation--transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)--are becoming established tools for research in neuroscience and for some clinical applications, related techniques that also show some promising clinical results have not been developed at the same pace. One of these related techniques is cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES), a class of transcranial pulsed current stimulation (tPCS). In order to understand further the mechanisms of CES, we aimed to model CES using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived finite element head model including cortical and also subcortical structures. Cortical electric field (current density) peak intensities and distributions were analyzed. We evaluated different electrode configurations of CES including in-ear and over-ear montages. Our results confirm that significant amounts of current pass the skull and reach cortical and subcortical structures. In addition, depending on the montage, induced currents at subcortical areas, such as midbrain, pons, thalamus and hypothalamus are of similar magnitude than that of cortical areas. Incremental variations of electrode position on the head surface also influence which cortical regions are modulated. The high-resolution modeling predictions suggest that details of electrode montage influence current flow through superficial and deep structures. Finally we present laptop based methods for tPCS dose design using dominant frequency and spherical models. These modeling predictions and tools are the first step to advance rational and optimized use of tPCS and CES.

  7. Perspective of the study on the ring current - past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The study of the ring current has a long history going back to the early 20th century. The ring current was predicted by Carl Stoermer to explain the equatorward movement of the auroral zone during magnetic storms. In 1917, Adolf Schmidt introduced the concept of the ring current to explain the global decrease of the geomagnetic field. Since then, number of studies have been accomplished in the context of the growth and recovery of magnetic storms. Observations have shown that protons and oxygen ions with energies 1 - 100 keV significantly increase during the storm main phase, which are most likely the major contributor to the storm-time ring current. When the loss of the ions dominates the injection of them, the storm recovery phase takes place. Immediate problems are the origin, transport and loss of the ions. All these relevant processes are essential to understand the growth and decay of the ring current. Derived problems, for example, include the entry of solar wind plasma into the magnetosphere, the outflow of ionospheric ions, generation of the convection electric field, influence of substorm-associated electric field, and pitch angle scattering of ions. Recalling that the ring current is the diamagnetic current, we shall consider the force balance and stress carefully. Generation of field-aligned currents is one of the consequences, which might redistribute the state of the inner magnetosphere including the plasmasphere, the ring current and the radiation belts. The ring current may also have a large influence on the geomagnetically induced current (GIC) on the ground at mid- and low-latitudes. The magnetic storms can be easily identified by looking at magnetograms, but the processes behind the magnetic storms cannot be easily understood because the processes depend on each other. From this sense, we shall pay much attention to the detailed function of each process as well as its role on the overall system. Dealing with the ring current as a complex system

  8. Theoretical study of the source-drain current and gate leakage current to understand the graphene field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cui; Liu, Hongmei; Ni, Wenbin; Gao, Nengyue; Zhao, Jianwei; Zhang, Haoli

    2011-02-28

    We designed acene molecules attached to two semi-infinite metallic electrodes to explore the source-drain current of graphene and the gate leakage current of the gate dielectric material in the field-effect transistors (FETs) device using the first-principles density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. In the acene-based molecular junctions, we modify the connection position of the thiol group at one side, forming different electron transport routes. The electron transport routes besides the shortest one are defined as the cross channels. The simulation results indicate that electron transport through the cross channels is as efficient as that through the shortest one, since the conductance is weakly dependent on the distance. Thus, it is possible to connect the graphene with multiple leads, leading the graphene as a channel utilized in the graphene-based FETs in the mesoscopic system. When the conjugation of the cross channel is blocked, the junction conductance decreases dramatically. The differential conductance of the BA-1 is nearly 7 (54.57 μS) times as large as that of the BA-4 (7.35 μS) at zero bias. Therefore, the blocked graphene can be employed as the gate dielectric material in the top-gated graphene FET device, since the leakage current is small. The graphene-based field-effect transistors fabricated with a single layer of graphene as the channel and the blocked graphene as the gate dielectric material represent one way to overcome the problem of miniaturization which faces the new generation of transistors.

  9. Movement planning of video and of manual aiming movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Patrick; Proteau, Luc

    2005-01-01

    We studied aiming performance of adults for video- and manual aiming tasks when they had visual information about the location of the starting base or when they had not. In video-aiming, foveating the starting base and then the target prior to movement initiation (Foveation) resulted in less aiming bias and variability than when the starting base was not visible (PNV), or visible without the participants foveating it prior to movement initiation (PSV). In manual aiming, Foveation and PSV procedures resulted in identical results but reduced aiming bias and variability in comparison to the PNV procedures. The results indicate that participants had difficulty in transforming the locations of the starting base and of the target when seen on a vertical screen into an appropriate movement trajectory. Successive foveation of the starting base and of the target facilitated this transformation, resulting in direction variability being reduced by more than half in comparison to the PNV and PSV conditions. This suggests that in video-aiming the efference copy of the saccade can be used by the CNS to approximate the hand trajectory in the workspace and/or in joint coordinates (Jouffrais and Boussaoud, 1999). Hand trajectory could be readily available in manual aiming if the target location can be recoded directly in hand-coordinates as recently suggested by Buneo et al. (2002).

  10. Thermohydraulic study of a MTR fuel element aimed at the construction of an irradiation facility; Estudo termohidraulico de um elemento combustivel tipo MTR visando a construcao de um dispositivo de irradiacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coragem, Helio Boemer de Oliveira

    1980-07-01

    A thermohydraulic study of MTR fuel element is presented as a basic requirement for the development of an irradiation facility for testing fuel elements. A computer code named 'Thermo' has been developed for this purpose, which can stimulate different working conditions, such as, cooling, power elements and neutron flux, performing all pertinent thermohydraulic calculations. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature gradients of the cooling fluid throughout the IEAR-1 reactor core. All experimental data are in good agreement with the theoretical model applied in this work. Finally, a draft of the proposed facility and its safety system is presented. (author)

  11. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies. Bowker, L. et al., eds. Unity in diversity? current trends in translation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Vasconcellos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005. Unity in Diversity? Current Trends in Translation Studies—a result of the diverse range of phenomena addressed in the Dublin City University Translation Studies (TS Conference (1996—proves to be a timely publication of St. Jerome Publishing at the end of the 20th century. This collection of papers exploring the central and uptodate issue of disciplinary identity in the young academic field of TS is in tune with the present concern in the area, as can be seen in the topic suggested for the international Translation Conference I IATIS Conference:“Disciplinary Identity—Redefining Translation in the 21st Century” (cf. www.iatis.org/content/korea/programme.php, to be held in 2005.

  12. Numerical study of magnetic reconnection process near in- terplanetary current sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The third order accurate upwind compact difference scheme has been applied to the numerical study of the magnetic reconnection process possibly occurring near the interplanetary current sheet, under the framework of the two-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Our results here show that the driven reconnection near the current sheet can occur within 10-30 min for the interplanetary high magnetic Reynolds number, RM =2 000-10 000, the stable magnetic reconnection structure can be formed in hour-order of magnitude, and there are some ba- sic properties such as the multiple X-line reconnections, vortical velocity structures, filament current systems, split-ting and collapse of the high-density plasma bulk. These results are helpful in understanding and identifying the magnetic reconnection phenomena near the interplanetary current sheets.

  13. Transcranial direct-current stimulation induced in stroke patients with aphasia: a prospective experimental cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Devido Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous animal and human studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation can induce significant and lasting neuroplasticity and may improve language recovery in patients with aphasia. The objective of the study was to describe a cohort of patients with aphasia after stroke who were treated with transcranial direct current stimulation. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study developed in a public university hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients with chronic aphasia received 10 transcranial direct current stimulation sessions lasting 20 minutes each on consecutive days, using a current of 2 mA. The anode was positioned over the supraorbital area and the cathode over the contralateral motor cortex. The following variables were analyzed before and after the 10 neuromodulation sessions: oral language comprehension, copying, dictation, reading, writing, naming and verbal fluency. RESULTS: There were no adverse effects in the study. We found statistically significant differences from before to after stimulation in relation to simple sentence comprehension (P = 0.034, naming (P = 0.041 and verbal fluency for names of animals (P = 0.038. Improved scores for performing these three tasks were seen after stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that excitability of the primary motor cortex through transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with effects on different aspects of language. This can contribute towards future testing in randomized controlled trials.

  14. Semi-automatic determination of the Azores Current axis using satellite altimetry: Application to the study of the current variability during 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, C.; Juliano, M. F.; Fernandes, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    Satellite altimetry has been widely used to study the variability of the ocean currents such as the Azores Current (AzC) in the North Atlantic. Most analyses are performed over the region that encloses the current, thus being somehow affected by other oceanographic signals, e.g., eddies. In this study, a new approach for extracting the axis of a zonal current solely based on satellite altimetry is presented. This is a semi-automatic procedure that searches for the maximum values of the gradient of absolute dynamic topography (ADT), using the geostrophic velocity as auxiliary information. The advantage of this approach is to allow the analyses to be performed over a buffer centered on the current axis instead of using a wider region. It is here applied to the AzC for the period June 1995-October 2006.

  15. Study of controlled leaching process of steel slag in Soxhlet extractor aiming employment in pavements; Estudo do processo de lixiviacao controlada da escoria de aciaria em extrator Soxhlet visando emprego em pavimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Kissyla Avila; Guimaraes, Antonio Carlos Rodrigues; Reis, Marcelo de Miranda; Santana, Claudeny Simone Alves, E-mail: kissyla.avila@gmail.com.br, E-mail: cap-guimaraes@hotmail.com, E-mail: marceloreis@ime.eb.br, E-mail: cl_deny@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work addresses the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of steel slag as an alternative aggregation before and after leaching testing controlled Soxhlet extractor. The material it was characterized before going through the natural leaching process and after controlled leaching in different periods of 24, 56, 96, 120 hours. The steel slag was subjected in the laboratory to simulate the precipitation in Soxhlet equipment to evaluate its physical, chemical and mechanical properties after each period described. The study of the process of leaching in steel slag searched to understand the influence of the washing process in a slag behavior in such a process. The physical characterization occurred through traditional testing of coarse aggregates, the chemical characterization through the testing of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) completed by Dispersive Spectroscopy Energy (DSE) and X- ray diffraction and the mechanical characterization through testing of standardized expansion and adapted. The sample virgin, without receiving process of stabilization by controlled leaching, showed satisfactory results in the physics characterization when compared to conventional aggregates, the chemical characterization proved to be a steel slag with high contents of CaO, MgO and FeO, the mechanical characterization demonstrated that, although the degree of expansibility of the slag is low demonstrated that this should not be disregarded in the paving work. After controlled leaching the steel slag showed no significant loss of its physical properties. As the mechanical testing of expansion had decreased the potential of expansibility after leaching periods. It is concluded that the leaching process in a Soxhlet extractor is of importance in the study the properties of steel slag, once covering several days of leaching was reduced potential for expansion, limiting feature in the use of steel slag for paving. (author)

  16. Study on the Distribution of Disease-Resistant Shrimp Identified by DNA Markers in Respect to WSSV Infection in Different Seasons Along the Entire East Coast of India Aiming to Prevent White Spot Disease in Penaeus monodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N

    2016-02-01

    White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology. This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3) copy μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern. This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P. monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock.

  17. The Return-Stroke of Lightning Current, Source of Electromagnetic Fields (Study, Analysis and Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib Djalel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present and analysis of the return-stroke lightning current and described their models which existing in the literature by several authors for the evaluation of radiated electromagnetic fields and modelling the coupling with electrical systems based on the calculation of induced voltages. the objective of this work was to take part in the improvement of the coordination of electric insulations and to put device also for calculation of the over-voltages induced in the electrical networks by the indirect lightning strokes which represent the most dangerous constraint and most frequent. A comparative study between the existing models and the analysis of the parameters which affect the space and temporal behaviour of the current lightning strokes as well as the importance of the lightning current at the channel base form the essential consequence of this study.

  18. Study of the acceleration of ammonia generation process from poultry residues aiming at hydrogen production; Estudo do processo para a aceleracao da geracao de amonia a partir de residuos avicolas visando a producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the Wavelength-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Elementary Analysis (CHN), Thermogravimetry and GC/MS - Gas chromatography/ Mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  19. A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestler, Edgar; Walker, Dilys; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; de Tejada, Sandra Sáenz; Donner, Allan

    2013-03-21

    Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries. A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster

  20. Study of the process for accelerating ammonia generation from poultry residues aiming its hydrogen production; Estudo do processo para a aceleracao da geracao de amonia a partir de residuos avicolas visando a producao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egute, Nayara dos Santos

    2010-07-01

    The hydrogen, utilized in fuel cells, can be produced from a variety of intermediate chemicals, between them, the ammonia. The ammonia gas as a raw material for the hydrogen production has been used due to its high energetic content, facility of decomposition, high availability, low prices, low storage pressure and its by-products are environmentally correct. One of the sources of ammonia is poultry and egg production systems. In these systems the ammonia is produced from the decomposition of uric acid present in the excreta of birds. The residue from the poultry-rearing farms is the broiler litter and from the egg production system is the excreta without any substrate. The characterization of these residues was performed using the wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), elementary analysis (CHN), thermogravimetry and GC/MS - gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The studied factors which influence the ammonia volatilization were: nitrogen content, raising period, urease enzyme, temperature, pH and moisture content. The experiment results with poultry litter and excreta allow to conclude that the manipulation of the following parameters increased the ammonia emission: pH, nitrogen content, raising period, age of birds and excreta accumulation, urease enzyme and the temperature. The addition of different amounts of sand in the excreta and different volumes of water in the poultry litter inhibited the emission of ammonia. The variation of the quantity of material (broiler litter or excreta) and the volume of the flask used as incubator chamber showed no significant alterations to be chosen as a variable. The excreta was considered more appropriate than poultry litter for the objectives of this work due to the higher ammonia concentrations determined in this material. Due to the large amount of poultry litter and excreta from the production processes, the reuse of poultry residues to obtain ammonia is necessary to improve the quality of the local

  1. An induction machine model including interbar currents for studying performances during transients and steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razik, H. [Universite Henri Poincare, GREEN, CNRS-UMR 7037, BP 239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Henao, H. [University of Picardie, CREA, 33 rue Saint Leu, F-80039 Amiens Cedex 1 (France); Carlson, R. [GRUCAD/CTC/UFSC, Campus Universitario, C.P. 436, Florianopolis - SC, 88040-900 (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    This paper presents a mathematical model of a three-phase induction motor taking into consideration the interbar contacts. Several models have been available in the references. However, they consider the rotor of the induction motor as being constituted either a three-phase or a squirrel cage even if it operates under stator and/or rotor faults condition. Nonetheless, the contact between a bar and the iron core for the machine has to be considered, especially when a rotor fault occurs. It is obvious that rotor currents are under the influence of rotor constitution materials. So, the paper aim's concerns a transient model of the induction motors which can consider the rotor broken bars defect. Despite its increasing complexity, it could be able to provide with useful indications for diagnostic purposes. This model is advocated for the simulation of motors behavior under rotor defect which takes into account the interbar currents. The proposed technique is based on the mesh model analysis of the squirrel cage. As low power induction motors are prevalent in industrial plants, we pay a special attention on them. Notwithstanding, additional currents are due to the contact between the non-insulated bar constituting the squirrel cage to the rotor iron core. The monitoring of induction motors is predominantly made through the stator current analysis of the motor when it operates at nominal condition. Moreover, this one is observed in steady state operating system, knowing that the motor is generally fed by a sinusoidal supply. Consequently, simulation results showed in this paper prove the effectiveness of the proposed approach, and the impact of interbar resistance both on the model and the line current spectrum for the diagnostic. An experimental test proves the effectiveness of this model. (author)

  2. Comparative study of hydro soluble polymers solutions and surfactants aiming the polymer-rock interactions in consolidated sandstone; Estudo comparativo de solucoes de polimeros hidrossoluveis e tensoativos visando as interacoes polimero-rocha em arenito consolidado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentim, Adriano Cesar M.; Marcelino, Cleuton Pereira; Medeiros, Ana Catarina R.; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Petroleo (LAPET)

    2004-07-01

    The polyacrylamide is one of the main polymers used in the petroleum industry. Among its properties, stands out the capacity to alter the permeability of the rock to water. However, the polyacrylamide presents some limitations, such as low tolerance to the presence of salts, what can promote its precipitation resulting in low oil recovery efficiency. The application of the polymer in emulsion can promote a larger stability, due to the presence of a surfactant, which has the capacity to modify the interfacial tension and to form a film between the phases of the emulsion. Thereby, the injection of a polymer emulsion can promote an increase of oil recovery. In this work, a preliminary study of the effect of a anionic surfactant (SDS) and polyacrylamides (anionic and neutral) on the surface tension and rheology is presented in aqueous solutions contend salt (NaCl). The results showed surface tension of the mixtures had been remained constant and low (around 32 mN/m), independent of the polymer concentration. A viscosity reduction was observed at polymeric solutions as much in presence of salt, as in presence of the surfactant. Both the samples showed a pseudo plastic behavior. (author)

  3. [Strategies aiming to control hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña Torres, Pablo Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease is known to be associated with phosphate retention. The mechanisms are complex and the early increase in serum phosphate levels in chronic kidney disease is not strictly related to the dietary phosphate load or to the degree of phosphate retention. It also implicates the activity of intestinal sodium-phosphate cotransporters, the degree of bone turnover and the retention and/or phosphate release from the skeleton, and the feedback mechanisms regulating the phosphaturia. Indeed, the increase in serum phosphate levels is only a reflection of underlying complex mechanisms, and many important factors play a role including parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), and others. Hyperphosphatemia increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease as well as in subjects with normal renal function. Oral phosphate binders are prescribed in patients with chronic kidney disease and in those treated by dialysis, to prevent intestinal absorption of dietary phosphate and reduce serum phosphate. In prospective observational studies, they have been shown to decrease all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk. However, different problems have been associated with currently available phosphate binders including the induction of a positive calcium balance and impaired outcomes with calcium-based phosphate binders or increased costs with non-calcium-based phosphate binders. Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. The aim of this article is to provide an update review of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading and maintaining elevated serum phosphate levels in patients with chronic kidney disease and patients in dialysis, and the educational, nutritional, and therapeutic strategies that can be undertaken to control the hyperphosphatemia. Copyright © 2017 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of magnetic fields and current in the Z pinch at stagnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, V. V.; Anderson, A. A.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Nalajala, V.; Dmitriev, O. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Papp, D. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); ELI-ALPS, ELI-Hu Nkft., H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    The structure of magnetic fields in wire-array Z pinches at stagnation was studied using a Faraday rotation diagnostic at the wavelength of 266 nm. The electron plasma density and the Faraday rotation angle in plasma were calculated from images of the three-channel polarimeter. The magnetic field was reconstructed with Abel transform, and the current was estimated using a simple model. Several shots with wire-array Z pinches at 0.5–1.5 MA were analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field measured in plasma of the stagnated pinch was in the range of 1–2 MG. The magnetic field and current profile in plasma near the neck on the pinch were reconstructed, and the size of the current-carrying plasma was estimated. It was found that current flowed in the large-size trailing plasma near the dense neck. Measurements of the magnetic field near the bulge on the pinch also showed current in trailing plasma. A distribution of current in the large-size trailing plasma can prevent the formation of multi-MG fields in the Z pinch.

  5. Experimental study of the velocity of density currents in convergent and divergent channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hasan Torabi POUDEH; Samad EMAMGHOLIZADEH; Manoocher Fathi-MOGHADAM

    2014-01-01

    The head velocity of the density current in the convergent and divergent channel is a key parameter for evaluating the extent to which suspended material travels, and for determining the type and distribution of sediment in the water body. This study experimentally evaluated the effects of the reach degree of convergence and divergence on the head velocity of the density current. Experiments were conducted in the flume with 6.0 m long, 0.72 m width and 0.6 m height. The head velocity was measured at three convergent degrees (-8o;-12o;-26o), at three divergent degrees (8o; 12o; 26o) and two slopes (0.009, 0.016) for various discharges. The measured head velocity of the density current is compared with the head velocity of the density current in the constant cross section channel. Based on non-dimensional and statistical analysis, relations as linear multiple regression are offered for predicting head velocity of the density current in the convergent, divergent and constant cross section channel. Also the results of this research show that for the same slope and discharge, the head velocity of the density current in the convergent and divergent channel are greater and less than the head velocity of the constant cross section, respectively.

  6. Current views and practice of faculty members and consultants regarding ′Publications in India′: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri S Kurdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: There is an increasing enthusiasm and pressure to submit scientific articles to journals for publication due to official policies. This has led to increased stress on authors and editors and in issues like plagiarism. We planned a cross-sectional study with an aim to explore the current publication related views and practice of faculty members and consultants. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire based prospective survey with 22 questions divided into parts. Print and electronic versions were sent to around 18,270 members in total, a majority of whom were anaesthesiologists and 600 members responded to our questionnaire. A database was created and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Results: About 80% felt that online journals were better read than print journals. Eighty eight percent agreed that publications improve academic skills. The Medical Council of India requirements to publish in reputed journals were cited as the main reasons for plagiarism. The publication rule had become a burden for 46% respondents. Review articles were most likely to be read though clinical investigations were considered to be of maximum academic significance. Review/publishing time followed by author requirements and journal indexing were the points our respondents liked to see most when choosing a journal for article submission. Conclusion: Our survey results depict the current author related views and trends in publication practice which may guide in evidence-based policy making.

  7. Mitochondrial ROS potentiates indirect activation of the AIM2 inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D Crane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the inflammasome is important for the detection and clearance of cytosolic pathogens. In contrast to avirulent F. novicida (Fn, infection with virulent F. tularensis ssp tularensis does not trigger activation of the host AIM2 inflammasome. Here we show that differential activation of AIM2 following Francisella infection is due to sensitivity of each isolate to reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS present at the outset of Fn infection contributes to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome, independent of NLRP3 and NADPH oxidase. Rather, mitochondrial ROS (mROS is critical for Fn stimulation of the inflammasome. This study represents the first demonstration of the importance of mROS in the activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by bacteria. Our results also demonstrate that bacterial resistance to mROS is a mechanism of virulence for early evasion of detection by the host.

  8. An observational study of a shallow gravity current triggered by katabatic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adachi

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Observations from a wind profiler and a meteorological tower are utilized to study the evolution of a gravity current that passed over the Meteorological Research Institute's (MRI field site in Tsukuba, Japan. The gravity current was created by katabatic flow originating on the mountainous slopes west of the field site. The passage of the shallow current was marked by a pronounced pressure disturbance and was accompanied by vertical circulations seen in the tower and profiler data. Direct vertical-beam measurements are difficult, especially at low heights during high-gradient events like density currents. In this study vertical velocities from the profiler are derived from the four oblique beams by use of the Minimizing the Variance of the Differences (MVD method. The vertical velocities derived from the MVD method agree well with in situ vertical velocities measured by a sonic anemometer on the tower.

    The gravity current is analyzed with surface observations, the wind profiler/RASS and tower-mounted instruments. Observations from the profiler/RASS and the tower-mounted instruments illustrate the structure of the gravity current in both wind and temperature fields. The profiler data reveal that there were three regions of waves in the vertical velocity field: lee-type waves, a solitary wave and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves. The lee-type waves in the head region of the gravity current seem to have been generated by the gravity current acting as an obstacle to prefrontal flow. The solitary wave was formed from the elevated head of the gravity current that separated from the feeder flow. Profiler vertical-motion observations resolve this wave and enable us to classify it as a Benjamin-Davis-Ono (BDO type solitary wave. The ducting mechanism that enabled the solitary wave to propagate is also revealed from the wind profiler/RASS measurements. The combination of high-resolution instruments at the MRI site allow us to

  9. A study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bi Ran

    2015-01-01

    An empirical study on current situations of college students' foreign language anxiety is concerned with in this paper. The author adopted Horwitz's Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) to measure the level of foreign language anxiety of 325 participants and then the conclusions are drawn.

  10. A historical study to understand students’ current difficulties about RMS values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantine-Langlois, Françoise; Munier, Valérie

    2016-07-01

    Several studies show that students experience more and more difficulties managing the measurements of electrical values in alternating current and that they have trouble making links between theory and practice. They find it difficult to give meaning to root mean square (RMS; or effective) values, which are not understood as average values and are confused with instantaneous values. This shows that students do not clearly differentiate variable and direct currents. In this paper we try, with a historical study and a study of teaching the concept of RMS values, to understand students’ difficulties with this concept. In the first part we present an epistemological analysis of the concept of RMS values, showing that it is multifaceted and can be approached from different points of view. In the second part we analyse the evolution of French secondary school curricula and textbooks from the explicit introduction of variable currents to today, questioning the links between the evolution of the curricula and the evolution of the place of science and technology in our societies. We point out that the evolution of the curricula is linked to the social context and to the connections between science, technology and society, and also to the relationship with mathematics curricula. We show that alternating current is introduced earlier in the curriculum but has gradually lost all phenomenological description. This study allows us to better understand students’ difficulties and to discuss some implications for teaching.

  11. Understandings of Current Environmental Issues: Turkish Case Study in Six Teacher Education Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Mustafa; Irez, Serhat; Dogan, Ozgur Kivilcan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to profile future science teachers' understandings of current environmental issues in the context of an education reform in Turkey. Knowledge base and understandings of elementary and secondary prospective science teachers about biodiversity, carbon cycle, global warming and ozone layer depletion were targeted in the…

  12. Study of multipass regimes in lower hybrid current drive experiments on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslanbekov, R.; Litaudon, X.; Peysson, Y.; Hoang, G.T.; Kazarian, F.; Moreau, D. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Shoucri, M.; Shkarofsky, I.P. [Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, PQ (Canada); Baranov, Y. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Kupfer, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This document presents a study of multipass regimes in Lower Hybrid Current Drive on Tore Supra. A statistical model of the plasma wave propagation based on the Fokker-Planck theory is proposed, together with experimental results performed on Tore Supra. (TEC). 9 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were ...

  14. Relevance of animal studies in regulatory toxicology : current approaches and future opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    With rapidly increasing knowledge of toxicological processes, the scientific value and relevance of toxicity studies for risk assessment must be re-evaluated. In this paper, it is proposed that the rigid risk evaluation currently required should be replaced by a more flexible, case-by-case approach,

  15. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  16. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  17. Field Study on the Effects of Waves and Currents on a Distributed Explosive Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    taken during each deployment. Table 1 Summary of Video Camera Resources Used During Study Camra ID [LoGato Formal Availabilty BWTEL Top of tower Black... usage . First, the offshore-flowing current would help extend the array seaward from the rocket anchors while reducing the longshore deformation

  18. Some Gaps in the Current Studies of Reading in Second/Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The ability to read written material is very important in the civilized world. In a society characterized by globalization and technological change, where knowledge is becoming increasingly important, reading ability is a key skill for active participation. The intent of the current study is to set out the nature of reading alongside express…

  19. A New Regime for Studying the High Bootstrap Current Fraction Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Isayama; Y. Kamada; K. Ushigusa; T. Fujita; T. Suzuki; X. Gao

    2001-01-01

    A new experimental regime has recently been studied for achieving the high fraction of the bootstrap current in the JT-60U hydrogen discharges. The high poloidal beta(βp ~ 3.61) plasma was obtained by high-power neutral beam injection heating at a very high edge safety factor (Ip = 0.3 MA, Bt = 3.65 T, qeff = 25 - 35) region, and the bootstrap current fraction (fBS) was correspondingly about 40% using the ACCOME code calculation. It was observed that there were no magnetohydrodynamic instabilities to retard the increase of the βp and fBS parameters in the new regime.

  20. A Study of Strange Particles Produced in Neutrino Neutral Current Interactions in the NOMAD Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Naumov, D V; Naumova, E; Popov, B; Astier, Pierre; Autiero, D; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldo-Ceolin, Massimilla; Banner, M; Bassompierre, G; Benslama, K; Besson, N; Bird, I; Blumenfeld, B; Bobisut, F; Bouchez, J; Boyd, S; Bueno, A G; Bunyatov, S; Camilleri, L L; Cardini, A; Cattaneo, P W; Cavasinni, V; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Challis, R C; Collazuol, G; Conforto, G; Conta, C; Contalbrigo, M; Cousins, R; Daniels, D; Das, R; Degaudenzi, H M; Del Prete, T; De Santo, A; Dignan, T; Di Lella, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Dumarchez, J; Ellis, M; Feldman, G J; Ferrari, R; Ferrère, D; Flaminio, V; Fraternali, M; Gaillard, J M; Gangler, E; Geiser, A; Geppert, D; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Godley, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Gosset, J; Gössling, C; Gouanère, M; Grant, A; Graziani, G; Guglielmi, A M; Hagner, C; Hernando, J; Hong, T M; Hubbard, D B; Hurst, P; Hyett, N; Iacopini, E; Joseph, C L; Juget, F R; Kent, N; Kirsanov, M; Klimov, O; Kokkonen, J; Kovzelev, A; Krasnoperov, A V; Lacaprara, S; Lachaud, C; Lakic, B; Lanza, A; La Rotonda, L; Laveder, M; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Lévy, J M; Linssen, Lucie; Ljubicic, A; Long, J; Lupi, A; Lyubushkin, V V; Marchionni, A; Martelli, F; Méchain, X; Mendiburu, J P; Meyer, J P; Mezzetto, Mauro; Mishra, S R; Moorhead, G F; Nédélec, P; Nefedov, Yu A; Nguyen-Mau, C; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Peak, L S; Pennacchio, E; Pessard, H; Petti, R; Placci, A; Polesello, G; Pollmann, D; Polyarush, A Yu; Poulsen, C; Rebuffi, L; Rico, J; Roda, C; Rubbia, André; Salvatore, F; Schahmaneche, K; Schmidt, B; Schmidt, T; Sconza, A; Sevior, M E; Shih, D; Sillou, D; Soler, F J P; Sozzi, G; Steele, D; Stiegler, U; Stipcevic, M; Stolarczyk, T; Tareb-Reyes, M; Taylor, G N; Tereshchenko, V V; Toropin, A N; Touchard, A M; Tovey, Stuart N; Tran, M T; Tsesmelis, E; Ulrichs, J; Vacavant, L; Valdata-Nappi, M; Valuev, V Yu; Vannucci, François; Varvell, K E; Veltri, M; Vercesi, V; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Vieira, J M; Vinogradova, T G; Weber, F V; Weisse, T; Wilson, F F; Winton, L J; Yabsley, B D; Zaccone, Henri; Zuber, K; Zuccon, P

    2004-01-01

    Results of a detailed study of strange particle production in neutrino neutral current interactions are presented using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Integral yields of neutral strange particles (K0s, Lambda, Lambda-bar) have been measured. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with an identified K0s or Lambda in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K* and Sigma(1385) have been observed. First results on the measurements of the Lambda polarization in neutral current interactions have been obtained.

  1. A study of strange particles produced in neutrino neutral current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, D.; Chukanov, A.; Naumova, E.; Popov, B.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Daniels, D.; Das, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; Del Prete, T.; de Santo, A.; Dignan, T.; di Lella, L.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hong, T. M.; Hubbard, D.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Mishra, S. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Shih, D.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.; NOMAD Collaboration

    2004-11-01

    Results of a detailed study of strange particle production in neutrino neutral current interactions are presented using the data from the NOMAD experiment. Integral yields of neutral strange particles ( Ks0, Λ, Λ¯) have been measured. Decays of resonances and heavy hyperons with an identified Ks0 or Λ in the final state have been analyzed. Clear signals corresponding to K and Σ(1385 have been observed. First results on the measurements of the Λ polarization in neutral current interactions have been obtained.

  2. Longitudinal study of spatially heterogeneous emphysema progression in current smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tanabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke is the main risk factor for emphysema, which is a key pathology in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Low attenuation areas (LAA in computed tomography (CT images reflect emphysema, and the cumulative size distribution of LAA clusters follows a power law characterized by the exponent D. This property of LAA clusters can be explained by model simulation, where mechanical force breaks alveolar walls causing local heterogeneous lung tissue destruction. However, a longitudinal CT study has not investigated whether continuous smoking causes the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema. METHODS: We measured annual changes in ratios of LAA (LAA%, D and numbers of LAA clusters (LAN in CT images acquired at intervals of ≥ 3 years from 22 current and 31 former smokers with COPD to assess emphysema progression. We constructed model simulations using CT images to morphologically interpret changes in current smokers. RESULTS: D was decreased in current and former smokers, whereas LAA% and LAN were increased only in current smokers. The annual changes in LAA%, D, and LAN were greater in current, than in former smokers (1.03 vs. 0.37%, p=0.008; -0.045 vs. -0.01, p=0.004; 13.9 vs. 1.1, p=0.007, respectively. When LAA% increased in model simulations, the coalescence of neighboring LAA clusters decreased D, but the combination of changes in D and LAN in current smokers could not be explained by the homogeneous emphysema progression model despite cluster coalescence. Conversely, a model in which LAAs heterogeneously increased and LAA clusters merged somewhat in relatively advanced emphysematous regions could reflect actual changes. CONCLUSIONS: Susceptibility to parenchymal destruction induced by continuous smoking is not uniform over the lung, but might be higher in local regions of relatively advanced emphysema. These could result in the spatially heterogeneous progression of emphysema in current smokers.

  3. Computational and experimental studies of laser cutting of the current collectors for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongkyoung; Patwa, Rahul; Herfurth, Hans; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy

    2012-07-01

    Sizing electrodes is an important step during Lithium-ion battery manufacturing processes since poor cut edge affects battery performance significantly and sometime leads to fire hazard. Mechanical cutting could result in a poor cut quality with defects. The cutting quality can be improved by using a laser, due to its high energy concentration, fast processing time, small heat-affected zone, and high precision. The cutting quality is highly influenced by operating parameters such as laser power and scanning speed. Thus, we studied a numerical simulation to provide a guideline for achieving clear edge quality. In order to simulate electrodes laser cutting for Lithium-Ion batteries, understanding the behavior of current collectors is crucial. This study focuses on current collectors, such as pure copper and aluminium. Numerical studies utilized a 3D self-consistent mathematical model for laser-material interaction. Observations of penetration time, depth, and threshold during laser cutting processes of current collectors are described. The model is validated experimentally by cutting current collectors and single side-coated electrodes with a single mode fiber laser. The copper laser cutting is laser intensity and interaction time dependent process. The aluminium laser cutting depends more on laser intensity than the interaction time. Numerical and experimental results show good agreement.

  4. Turbulent Gravity Current of Lock Release Type:A Numerical Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Q.CHEN; J.H.W.LEE

    1999-01-01

    The time evolution of a turbulent gravity current of lock release type,formed by a finite volume of homogenous fluid released instantaneously into another fluid of slightly lower density,is studied numerically via the renormalization group(RNG)κ-ε model for Reynolds-stress closure to characterize the flow with transitional and highly localized turbulence,Consistent with previous experimental observations,the numerical results show that the gravity current passes through two distinct phases,an initial slumping phase in which the current head advances steadily,and a second self-similar phase in which the front velocity decreases like the negative third power of the time after release.An overall entrainment ratio proportional to the distance from the release point is found and comares well with available experimental data for the slumping phase.

  5. A case control study of premorbid and currently reported physical activity levels in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchwald Dedra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome typically report high levels of physical activity before becoming ill. Few studies have examined premorbid and current activity levels in chronically fatigued patients. Methods In a case-control study, 33 patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue attending a university-based clinic specializing in fatigue were compared to 33 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Patients rated their activity levels before their illness and currently, using scales designed for this purpose. Controls reported their level of activity of 2 years previously and currently. Chi-square analyses, Student's t tests, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used in pair matched analyses. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients with chronic, unexplained fatigue rated themselves as more active before their illness (p ≤ 0.001 and less active currently (p ≤ 0.001. The patients also reported they currently stood or walked less than the controls (median [inter-quartile range] = 4 2345 versus 9 [7.5–12] hours, p ≤ 0.001, and spent more time reclining (median [inter-quartile range] = 12 10111213141516 versus 8 [8–9.5] hours, p ≤ 0.001. These differences remained significant for the subset of patients who met strict criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. Conclusion Patients with chronic, unexplained, disabling fatigue reported being more active before becoming ill than healthy controls. This finding could be explained by greater premorbid activity levels that could predispose to illness, or by an overestimation of previous activity. Either possibility could influence patients' perceptions of their current activity levels and their judgments of recovery. Perceived activity should be addressed as part of management of the illness.

  6. Studies of challenge in lower hybrid current drive capability at high density regime in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, B. J.; Li, M. H.; Li, Y. C.; Wang, M.; Liu, F. K.; Shan, J. F.; Li, J. G.; Wan, B. N.; Wan

    2017-02-01

    Aiming at a fusion reactor, two issues must be solved for the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), namely good lower hybrid wave (LHW)-plasma coupling and effective current drive at high density. For this goal, efforts have been made to improve LHW-plasma coupling and current drive capability at high density in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). LHW-plasma coupling is improved by means of local gas puffing and gas puffing from the electron side is taken as a routine way for EAST to operate with LHCD. Studies of high density experiments suggest that low recycling and high lower hybrid (LH) frequency are preferred for LHCD experiments at high density, consistent with previous results in other machines. With the combination of 2.45 GHz and 4.6 GHz LH waves, a repeatable high confinement mode plasma with maximum density up to 19~\\text{m}-3$ was obtained by LHCD in EAST. In addition, in the first stage of LHCD cyclic operation, an alternative candidate for more economical fusion reactors has been demonstrated in EAST and further work will be continued.

  7. A Study on the Current Oil and Gas Price Formula and Its Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Won; Lee, Young Koo [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The object of this study is to suggest some improvements on current price formulas on oil and gas which have been pivotal roles in the process of Korean economic growth. This study first examines basic frames and transition of oil and gas pricing in Korea and then finds some suggestions on them by scrutinizing their theoretical backgrounds. This study finds several problems on oil and gas pricing formulas. (a) In a model that is now studied to evaluate the current domestic oil price, the costs associated with oil security such as oil stockpile are fully penetrated into oil price without their fair evaluations. There is no evaluation principle on the costs occurred in oil supply security. (b) The Rate Of Equity(ROE), a crucial factor in town-gas pricing which is strictly controlled, is directly connected to the average interest rate on saving accounts of domestic commercial banks. Some arguments may have rise about inclusion a risk factor on ROE in order to compensate the uncertainty of town-gas business. (c) New demand for natural gas which is generated by new technologies or machinery and tools can help reduce the costs occurred from seasonal imbalance between power sector and gas sector. So it is also important to decide how to include the beneficiary of cost reduction in town-gas pricing. In order to evaluate the proper price levels, this study tests energy supply security by adopting methodologies such as Herfindahl Index and Portfolio Variance Risk. They can help develop the method to effectively improve the energy security and include the proper energy security costs into energy prices. This study also provides some suggestions for betterment of current ROE decision rule in town-gas business and for improvement of current town-gas policy that government subsidizes newly developed demand for strengthening price competitiveness in the early stage. (author). 145 refs., 16 figs., 49 tabs.

  8. A Comparative Study of Current and Potential Users of Mobile Payment Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Phonthanukitithaworn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of mobile payment (m-payment services have primarily focused on a single group of adopters. This study identifies the factors that influence an individual’s intention to use m-payment services and compares groups of current users (adopters with potential users (non-adopters. A research model that reflects the behavioral intention to use m-payment services is developed and empirically tested using structural equation modeling on a data set consisting of 529 potential users and 256 current users of m-payment services in Thailand. The results show that the factors that influence current users’ intentions to use m-payment services are compatibility, subjective norms, perceived trust, and perceived cost. Subjective norms, compatibility, ease of use, and perceived risk influenced potential users’ intentions to use m-payment. Subjective norms and perceived risk had a stronger influence on potential users, while perceived cost had a stronger influence on current users, in terms of their intentions to use m-payment services. Discussions, limitations, and recommendations for future research are addressed.

  9. Business Management Coaching: Focusing on Entrepreneur's Current Position and Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Kheng T.

    2012-01-01

    One-to-one business coaching over 6 months was provided to nine clients in Hawaii to help them acquire business transition skills. The STARS model was used to determine the individual business situation and to explore suitable leadership strategies to move forward. Systematically, each client developed a business model, business strategies, a…

  10. An Analysis of Entrepreneurship Aspects of Current Training Programs Conducted on Practicing Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs): A Case Study of Roysambu

    OpenAIRE

    Joram Ng’ang’a Nyambura

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to analyze entrepreneurial aspects of current training methods administered to micro and small enterprises (MSEs) in Roysambu. More specifically, the study aimed at understanding the mode of training conducted to MSEs within Roysambu (a suburb in Nairobi) in an effort to increase its entrepreneurial aspects. Descriptive research design was employed and the population was sampled through stratified random sampling. Structured questionnaires and observation schedules were used...

  11. Review of the Studies about Environmental Education: Current Status in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kızılay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research is to reveal current status of studies in environmental education, which were published in Turkey between 2007-2011. Within the content of this study, 112 studies were reviewed using content analysis based on the following grouping criteria; i.e., publication year, language, participant, research design, research topic, data gathering instruments and data analysis program. The results indicated that 78% of them were published in Turkish and most of them were at university level (36.2%.A majority of the reviewed studies were about affective domain (31.9%. Quantitative studies (57.1% were very commonly used by the researchers . Questionnaires (45% were the most commonly used data gathering instruments, and SPSS was the most frequently used quantitative data analysis program (88.6%. Presenting an overview of relevant literature, this study may guide the researchers who will conduct further studies on environmental education.

  12. Uncertainty in aiming movements and its association to hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Priscila de Paiva Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the uncertainty of target location on the planning and execution of aiming movements performed towards the ipsilateral and contralateral directions by the right and left upper limbs. In addition, the association between the performance of aiming movements and the performance of functional manual tasks was investigated. Two tasks were proposed: with prior knowledge of the movement direction (simple reaction time or not (choice reaction time. The grip strength and manual dexterity were measured. The choice option in response (i.e. uncertainty influenced planning of the aiming movements, but not its execution, while movements performed towards the contralateral direction were worse in execution as compared to the ipsilateral direction. Manual dexterity was significantly correlated with reaction times, while the performance during movement execution was significantly correlated with handgrip/pinch strength.

  13. Triple AIM evaluation and application in advanced node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gary C.; Lio, En Chuan; Hung, Yuting; Chen, Charlie; Wang, Sybil; Weng, Tang Chun; Lin, Bill; Yu, Chun Chi

    2016-03-01

    A novel method on advanced node for IBO (Image Based Overlay) data extraction accuracy is demonstrated in this work, and here some special design in triple-AIM (Advanced Imaging Metrology) is able to realize the approach. Since triple AIM design has 3 locations left for patterning layers insertion, a new design with 2 layers locations, location-A (inner) and location-B (middle), are generated by 1st pattering, i.e. once lithography exposure, and the 2 marks grouping are formed on dielectric through lithography and etching process with a predetermined overlay "zero offset" through original mask layout design, as illustrated in Fig. (1). And then, as following top photo resist layer, assumed location-C (outer), lithography patterning process, PR coating, exposure and development complete, full triple-AIM patterns is generated, and 3 sets of overlay data could be obtained, A to B, C to B, C to A. Through re-calculating the overlay raw data of current (2nd patterning layer) to previous (1st patterning layer) layer by averaging [C to B] and [C to A], then theoretically the data extraction of sites would be more accuracy, since the variation of local marks signal, induced by inline process instability, could be minimized through the raw data averaging procedure. Moreover, from raw data [A to B], an extra monitor function for detections of the inline process variation, marks selection and recipe setting optimization could be obtained, since marks in [A] and [BB] locations are both generated in 1st patterning, and with the target "zero". So if the raw data [A to BB] is bigger or smaller than "zero" in some degree, there should be some process issue or marks condition setting error in triple-AIM design.

  14. Experimental study on hydrodynamic characteristics of vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Li, Teng-fei; Zhang, Liang; Sheng, Qi-hu; Zhang, Xue-wei; Jiang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    To study the characteristics of attenuation, hydrostatic towage and wave response of the vertical-axis floating tidal current energy power generation device (VAFTCEPGD), a prototype is designed and experiment is carried out in the towing tank. Free decay is conducted to obtain attenuation characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD, and characteristics of mooring forces and motion response, floating condition, especially the lateral displacement of the VAFTCEPGD are obtained from the towing in still water. Tension response of the #1 mooring line and vibration characteristics of the VAFTCEPGD in regular waves as well as in level 4 irregular wave sea state with the current velocity of 0.6 m/s. The results can be reference for theoretical study and engineering applications related to VAFTCEPGD.

  15. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Tushar Kanti Bera; Nagaraju, J.

    2013-01-01

    Phantoms are essentially required to generate boundary data for studying the inverse solver performance in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). A MATLAB-based boundary data simulator (BDS) is developed to generate accurate boundary data using neighbouring current pattern for assessing the EIT inverse solvers. Domain diameter, inhomogeneity number, inhomogeneity geometry (shape, size, and position), background conductivity, and inhomogeneity conductivity are all set as BDS input variables. D...

  16. Current methods for studying dynamic processes in the ionosphere. Sovremennye metody issledovaniia dinamicheskikh protsessov v ionosfere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipp, N.D.; Blaunshtein, N.SH.; Erukhimov, L.M.; Ivanov, V.A.; Uriadov, V.P.

    1991-01-01

    Current experimental and theoretical data relevant to the study of dynamic processes in the ionospheric plasma using state-of-the-art methods are summarized. The methods used include linear FM sounding, partial radio wave reflection, oblique-incidence radio wave scattering, radio wave heating of the ionosphere, plasma injection, and computer simulation of physical processes. For each specific method, experimental data are compared against theoretical predictions and numerical calculations. 251 refs.

  17. Transcranial direct current stimulation in refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, Edina T; Terney, Daniella; Atkins, Mary D;

    2011-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) decreases cortical excitability. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cathodal tDCS could interrupt the continuous epileptiform activity. Five patients with focal, refractory continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep were...... recruited. Cathodal tDCS and sham stimulation were applied to the epileptic focus, before sleep (1 mA; 20 min). Cathodal tDCS did not reduce the spike-index in any of the patients....

  18. Counseling psychology and psychotherapy skills’ studies: current status in Western and Russian Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryuchkov K.S.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief review of studies concerning the current status of the psychotherapeutic and counseling skills in the West (mainly in the USA and in Russia. Papers written by the fellows of the leading US labs in this field and by other scientists are reviewed in this article alongside with investigations of several Russian psychological institutions. We also introduce some theoretical and methodological papers of Russian scholars

  19. Investigation of scaling properties of a thin current sheet by means of particle trajectories study

    CERN Document Server

    Sasunov, Yu L; Alexeev, I I; Belenkaya, E S; Semenov, V S; Kubyshkin, I V; Mingalev, O V

    2015-01-01

    A thin current sheet (TCS), with the width of an order of thermal proton gyroradius, appears a fundamental physical object which plays an important role in structuring of major magnetospheric current systems (magnetotail, magnetodisk, etc.). The TCSs are nowadays under extensive study by means of space missions and theoretical models. We consider a simple model of the TCS separating two half-spaces occupied by a homogenous magnetic field of opposite sign tangential to the TCS; a small normal component of the magnetic field is prescribed. An analytical solution for the electric current and plasma density in the close vicinity of the TCS has been obtained and compared with numerical simulation. The number density and the electric current profiles have two maxima each. The characteristic spatial scale $z_S$ of the maxima location was investigated as a function of initial pitch-angle of an incoming charge particle. The effect of the thermal dispersion of the incoming proton beam have been taken into consideration...

  20. Dosage considerations for transcranial direct current stimulation in children: a computational modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Kilaru Kessler

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is being widely investigated in adults as a therapeutic modality for brain disorders involving abnormal cortical excitability or disordered network activity. Interest is also growing in studying tDCS in children. Limited empirical studies in children suggest that tDCS is well tolerated and may have a similar safety profile as in adults. However, in electrotherapy as in pharmacotherapy, dose selection in children requires special attention, and simple extrapolation from adult studies may be inadequate. Critical aspects of dose adjustment include 1 differences in neurophysiology and disease, and 2 variation in brain electric fields for a specified dose due to gross anatomical differences between children and adults. In this study, we used high-resolution MRI derived finite element modeling simulations of two healthy children, ages 8 years and 12 years, and three healthy adults with varying head size to compare differences in electric field intensity and distribution. Multiple conventional and high-definition tDCS montages were tested. Our results suggest that on average, children will be exposed to higher peak electrical fields for a given applied current intensity than adults, but there is likely to be overlap between adults with smaller head size and children. In addition, exposure is montage specific. Variations in peak electrical fields were seen between the two pediatric models, despite comparable head size, suggesting that the relationship between neuroanatomic factors and bioavailable current dose is not trivial. In conclusion, caution is advised in using higher tDCS doses in children until 1 further modeling studies in a larger group shed light on the range of exposure possible by applied dose and age and 2 further studies correlate bioavailable dose estimates from modeling studies with empirically tested physiologic effects, such as modulation of motor evoked potentials after stimulation.

  1. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, B A; Burdock, G A; Doull, J; Kroes, R M; Marsh, G M; Pariza, M W; Spencer, P S; Waddell, W J; Walker, R; Williams, G M

    2007-01-01

    Aspartame is a methyl ester of a dipeptide used as a synthetic nonnutritive sweetener in over 90 countries worldwide in over 6000 products. The purpose of this investigation was to review the scientific literature on the absorption and metabolism, the current consumption levels worldwide, the toxicology, and recent epidemiological studies on aspartame. Current use levels of aspartame, even by high users in special subgroups, remains well below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Food Safety Authority established acceptable daily intake levels of 50 and 40 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Consumption of large doses of aspartame in a single bolus dose will have an effect on some biochemical parameters, including plasma amino acid levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. The rise in plasma levels of phenylalanine and aspartic acid following administration of aspartame at doses less than or equal to 50 mg/kg bw do not exceed those observed postprandially. Acute, subacute and chronic toxicity studies with aspartame, and its decomposition products, conducted in mice, rats, hamsters and dogs have consistently found no adverse effect of aspartame with doses up to at least 4000 mg/kg bw/day. Critical review of all carcinogenicity studies conducted on aspartame found no credible evidence that aspartame is carcinogenic. The data from the extensive investigations into the possibility of neurotoxic effects of aspartame, in general, do not support the hypothesis that aspartame in the human diet will affect nervous system function, learning or behavior. Epidemiological studies on aspartame include several case-control studies and one well-conducted prospective epidemiological study with a large cohort, in which the consumption of aspartame was measured. The studies provide no evidence to support an association between aspartame and cancer in any tissue. The weight of existing evidence is that aspartame is safe at current levels of consumption as a nonnutritive

  2. Age at menarche and current substance use among Canadian adolescent girls: results of a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sahab Ban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use is among the key public health threats that find its genesis during adolescence. Timing of puberty has been lately researched as a potential predictor of subsequent substance abuse. The present study, therefore, aims to assess the effect of age at menarche on current practices of smoking, alcohol drinking and drug use among 14-15 year old Canadian girls. Methods The analysis of the study was based on all female respondents aged 14 to 15 years during Cycle 4 (2000/2001 of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children & Youth (NLSCY. The main independent variable was age at menarche assessed as the month and year of the occurrence of the first menstrual cycle. The dependent variables were current smoking, heavy alcohol drinking in the past 12 months and drug use in the past 12 months. Three logistic regression models were performed to investigate the association between age at menarche and each of the substance use outcomes, adjusting for possible confounders. Bootstrapping was performed to account for the complex sampling design. Results The total weighted sample included in the analysis represented 295,042 Canadian girls. The prevalence of current smokers, heavy drinkers (drunk in the past 12 months and drug users in the past 12 months was approximately 22%, 38% and 26%, respectively. After adjusting of all potential confounders, no association was found between age at menarche and any of the substance use outcomes. School performance and relationship with the father, however, stood out as the main variables to be associated with smoking, heavy drinking and drug use. Conclusions Qualitative studies understanding the social and psychological changes experienced by early maturing Canadian adolescents are warranted to identify other correlates or pathways to substance use in this higher risk population.

  3. Study on Eddy-current of Disc Permanent-magnet Eddy-current Couplings%盘式永磁涡流耦合器涡流研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    上官璇峰; 杨帅

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在研究盘式涡流耦合器涡流分布特点。采用解析法得到了涡流密度的函数表达式;利用三维有限元法分别计算正常工作状态和起动状态下涡流径向分量和周向分量沿径向和周向分布的三维图形并总结涡流沿周向、径向、轴向的分布特点。根据涡流密度的函数表达式着重分析了导体盘材料、气隙长度和转差率三个重要因素对涡流的影响。通过对盘式永磁涡流耦合器涡流特点的把握,合理的解释了轴向磁力随转差率变化的规律。%The purpose of this paper is to study the changing discipline of eddy-current of disc permanent-magnet eddy-current coupling.Analytical method was adopted to get expression of the eddy-current density. 3D FEMwas adopted to obtain the 3D distribution graph along with radial and circumferential direction of eddy-current on radial and circumferential components.And the characteristics of distribution of eddy-current along with radial,circumferential and axial directions were summarized.Three important factors of the influence of eddy-current,conductor plate material,air-gap length and slip were analyzed according to the expression of eddy-current density.Through the grasp of the characteristics of eddy-current,the law of the axial magnetic force changing with slip was explained reasonably.

  4. A Snapshot Study of Current Practices among Sellers of Translation Services between Japanese and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stephen Crabbe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-part study was launched in light of the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement in its guide, 翻訳で失敗しないために翻訳発注の手引き [lit. For not getting it wrong with translation: a guide to ordering translation], that “外国語の文書を母国語に翻訳するのがプロの原則です” [lit. It is a fundamental principle that professional translators work into their native languages] (Japan Translation Federation, 2012, p. 15. The key goal is to gauge the extent to which this 2012 statement is reflected in current practices among the sellers and buyers of translation services between Japanese and English. In this paper, which describes the first part of the study, the focus is on the practices of sellers of translation services between Japanese and English: specifically, professional freelance translators. Twenty-four professional freelance translators completed an online questionnaire. The results of this questionnaire, first, suggest that current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English are consistent with the Japan Translation Federation’s 2012 statement and, second, broadly support secondary literature on L1 translation (translation into the first language and L2 translation (translation into the second language. Whilst this is only a snapshot of current practices among sellers of translation services between Japanese and English, the overall results are informative. In the second, follow-up part of the study the focus will be on the current practices of buyers of translation services between Japanese and English.

  5. The relationship between attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study was conducted to determine affecting factors and to investigate relationship  between  attitudes towards menarche and current attitudes towards menstruation of women and to compare characteristics of menarche and menstruation of women who were born and raised in the northeastern and western of Turkey.  Method and Materials: This descriptive and comparative study was participated totally 400 volunteer women. The data were collected using a questionnaire containing defined closed and open-ended questions. Results: The study results showed that women living in Ordu province than women living in Aydın province expressed positive attitudes toward menarche, and the difference was found significant. Nevertheless, attitudes towards current menstruation were similar in both provinces. When the data of 400 women were evaluated together; women’s attitudes towards menarche were compared with the current attitudes towards menstruation, and the difference was found statistically significant. Although attitudes of the women towards menarche varied according to where they lived, their current attitudes towards menstruation were similar. In addition, depending upon the province, there were statistically significant differences in women’s age at menarche, recollection of menarche, and feelings of shame or happiness at menarche, source and adequacy of information about menstruation, and regularity of their menstrual cycle.   Conclusions: Early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life and women’s attitudes towards menstruation were not affected by geographical locations. In order to develop positive attitudes towards menarche and a woman’s future years of menstrual cycles, it is very important that accurate and adequate information for young girls be provided before menarche.

  6. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  7. CRITICAL CURRENT AND JUNCTION BETWEEN PANCAKE STUDIES FOR HTS COIL DESIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Lécrevisse, Y; Louchart, O; Rey, J-M; Tixador, P

    2011-01-01

    YBCO Coated Conductor (CC) are very attractive for very high magnetic field coil with lower cryogenics need. We study two major aspects of HTS coil building. First the results of critical current measurements on YBCO tape provided by SuperPower are presented for a large temperature range and in parallel magnetic field configuration. A model is also proposed to extrapolate those measurements at other temperatures and fields. Then we focus on the critical aspect of junctions between pancakes. Junctions in cylindrical configuration are studied using three different soldering materials. The results are promising for further coil building.

  8. Current twin studies in Germany: report on CoSMoS, SOEP, and ChronoS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Elisabeth; Gottschling, Juliana; Spinath, Frank M

    2013-02-01

    This article summarizes the status of three recent German twin studies: CoSMoS, SOEP, and ChronoS. The German twin study on Cognitive Ability, Self-Reported Motivation, and School Achievement (CoSMoS) is a three-wave longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together, and aims to investigate predictors of and influences on school performance. In the first wave of the data collection in 2005, 408 pairs of twins aged between 7 and 11 as well as their parents participated in CoSMoS. The SOEP twin study is an extended twin study, which has combined data from monozygotic and dizygotic twins reared together with additional data from full sibling pairs, mother-child, and grandparent-child dyads who participated in the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study. The SOEP twin project comprises about 350 twin and 950 non-twin pairs aged between 17 and 70. Data were collected between 2009 and 2010, with a focus on personality traits, wellbeing, education, employment, income, living situation, life-satisfaction, and several attitudes. The aim of the Chronotype twin study (ChronoS) was to examine genetic and environmental influences on chronotype (morningness and eveningness), coping strategies, and several aspects of the previous SOEP twin project in a sample of 301 twin pairs aged between 19 and 76 years, recruited in 2010 and 2011. Part of the ChronoS twin sample also participated in the earlier SOEP twin study, representing a second wave of assessments. We briefly describe the design and contents of these three studies as well as selected recent findings.

  9. Tourist animation aimed at developing rural tourism in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Saša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a tourist destination, Serbia has some real opportunities to put priority on the rural tourism in relation to other forms of tourism. Subsequently, there is a need to make the rural tourism offer more attractive to tourists. Among other things, that offer includes a tourist animation, which is currently gaining in significance, emerging directly in and aimed at tourism development of rural areas. Therefore this paper deals first with the role and importance of tourism related knowledge about developing rural areas, and particularly the knowledge on animation; then follows the tourist animation as an attractive quality of rural areas' tourist offer; as well as the importance and the role of the government and tourist animation in the development of rural tourism, with particular emphasis on the necessity to educate and train tourist animators, as experts and professionals at the academic level.

  10. CFD Study of NACA 0018 for Diffuser Design of Tidal Current Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Mehmood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on diffuser augmented tidal current turbines that capture the kinetic energy in a tidal stream. The energy that can be extracted from tides is proportional to the cube of the current velocity. The role of the diffuser in diffuser augmented tidal turbines is to help accelerate the incoming current velocity. Consequently, the efficiency of the turbine can be significantly increased by using a diffuser. The research community is investing considerable time and financial resources in this growing domain. The diffuser augmented tidal turbines research data is rather scarce due to their emerging nature, large and costly research and development setup, startup cost and proprietary issues. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of length and angle on NACA 0018 airfoil for diffuser design. CFD simulation is carried out to investigate velocity and mass flow rate at the throat. The drag force due to diffuser installation is also calculated. Velocity inside the diffuser increases with diffuser length and angle of attack. Velocity increases up to stall angle and then drops due to flow separation. The drag force is also dominant compared to lift coefficient near stall angle region.

  11. Affective bias and current, past and future adolescent depression: A familial high risk study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilford, Emma J.; Foulkes, Lucy; Potter, Robert; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita; Rice, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Background Affective bias is a common feature of depressive disorder. However, a lack of longitudinal studies means that the temporal relationship between affective bias and depression is not well understood. One group where studies of affective bias may be particularly warranted is the adolescent offspring of depressed parents, given observations of high rates of depression and a severe and impairing course of disorder in this group. Methods A two wave panel design was used in which adolescent offspring of parents with recurrent depression completed a behavioural task assessing affective bias (The Affective Go/No Go Task) and a psychiatric interview. The affective processing of adolescents with current, prior and future depressive disorder was compared to that of adolescents free from disorder. Results Adolescents with current depression and those who developed depression at follow-up made more commission errors for sad than happy targets compared to adolescents free from disorder. There was no effect of prior depression on later affective processing. Limitations Small cell sizes meant we were unable to separately compare those with new onset and recurrent depressive disorder. Conclusions Valence-specific errors in behavioural inhibition index future vulnerability to depression in adolescents already at increased risk and may represent a measure of affective control. Currently depressed adolescents show a similar pattern of affective bias or deficits in affective control. PMID:25527997

  12. The current status of structural studies on proteins of the myelin sheath (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursula, P

    2001-11-01

    Myelin, the multilayered membrane structure surrounding axons, provides a unique environment to its proteins, which are either transmembrane proteins or interacting intimately with the membrane surface. Although myelin-specific proteins have been studied for decades, remarkably little is known of their three-dimensional structures. In addition, the exact functions of myelin proteins are to a large extent unknown. In this report, our current knowledge of peripheral nervous system myelin protein structures is reviewed, and the current status of attempts to solve the structures of full-length myelin proteins is evaluated. Furthermore, molecular models for the extracellular domain of the myelin-associated glycoprotein and the putative kinase-like domain of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase are presented and discussed.

  13. Parametric study of rectangular coil for Eddy Current Testing of lamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng Fei; Zeng, Zhi Wei [School of Aerospace Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2016-04-15

    Eddy current testing (ECT) is an important nondestructive testing technology for the inspection of flaws in conductive materials. However, this widely used technology is not suitable for inspecting lamination when a conventional pancake coil is used because the eddy current (EC) generated by the pancake coil is parallel to the lamination and will not be perturbed. A new method using a rectangular coil placed vertical to the work piece is proposed for lamination detection. The vertical sections of the rectangular coil induce ECs that are vertical to the lamination and can be perturbed by the lamination. A parametric study of a rectangular coil by finite element analysis was performed in order to examine the capability of generating vertical EC sent data 1221-1237.

  14. A Study of Current Land Use in the Urban Area of Ma’anshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning ZHANG; Zhongxiang YU

    2016-01-01

    With the acceleration of urbanization,urban development poses a growing demand for land.China’s national conditions of a large population with relatively little arable land require us to intensively use land,and more and more departments have been aware of the importance of intensive urban land use.The study on the current land use in the urban area of Ma’anshan City,is not only conducive to adjustment of land use layout and structure as well as urban ecological construction,but also of guiding significance to the economical and intensive land use in Ma’anshan City.This paper first describes the natural,social and economic situation of Ma’anshan’s urban area,then analyzes the land use structure,layout and problems,and finally puts forth the recommendations for improving current land use situation in the urban area of Ma’anshan City.

  15. Current trends in research and clinical issues in the study of personality and its disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Erik; Sørensen, Per; Pedersen, Liselotte

    2014-01-01

    lecture (Simonsen), a young researchers' symposium (Hopwood, Sharp, and Kaess), and special lectures on the Danish philosopher Soeren Kierkegaard and the poet Hans Christian Andersen. In this article we will survey the presentations and highlight the important issues in order to underline the current......The International Society for the Study of Personality Disorders (ISSPD) celebrated its 25th anniversary in September 2013 in Copenhagen and commemorated the First International Congress at the same site. The overall theme of the congress was "Bridging Personality and Psychopathology: The Person...... Behind the Illness." More than 400 abstracts were submitted, and the program included 8 keynote presentations, 18 invited symposia, a debate on current controversial issues in the classification of personality disorders (Fossati, Tyrer, Livesley, and Krueger), an ISSPD award lecture (Silk), a jubilee...

  16. A study on the interference effects for tidal current power rotors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chul-Hee; JO; Kang-Hee; LEE; Jin-Young; YIM

    2010-01-01

    Due to global warming, the need to secure an alternative resource has become more important nationally. With the high tidal range of up to 9.7 m on the west coast of Korea, numerous tidal current projects are being planned and constructed. To extract a significant quantity of power, a tidal current farm with a multi-arrangement is necessary in the ocean. The rotor, which initially converts the energy, is a very important component because it affects the efficiency of the entire system, and its performance is determined by various design variables. The power generation is strongly dependent on the size of the rotor and the incoming flow velocity. However, the interactions between devices also contribute significantly to the total power capacity. Therefore, rotor performance considering the interaction problems needs to be investigated for generating maximum power in a specific field. This paper documents a performance study of devices considering the interference between rotating rotors with axial, transverse and diagonal arrangements.

  17. Combining estimates of interest in prognostic modelling studies after multiple imputation: current practice and guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holder Roger L

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple imputation (MI provides an effective approach to handle missing covariate data within prognostic modelling studies, as it can properly account for the missing data uncertainty. The multiply imputed datasets are each analysed using standard prognostic modelling techniques to obtain the estimates of interest. The estimates from each imputed dataset are then combined into one overall estimate and variance, incorporating both the within and between imputation variability. Rubin's rules for combining these multiply imputed estimates are based on asymptotic theory. The resulting combined estimates may be more accurate if the posterior distribution of the population parameter of interest is better approximated by the normal distribution. However, the normality assumption may not be appropriate for all the parameters of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies, such as predicted survival probabilities and model performance measures. Methods Guidelines for combining the estimates of interest when analysing prognostic modelling studies are provided. A literature review is performed to identify current practice for combining such estimates in prognostic modelling studies. Results Methods for combining all reported estimates after MI were not well reported in the current literature. Rubin's rules without applying any transformations were the standard approach used, when any method was stated. Conclusion The proposed simple guidelines for combining estimates after MI may lead to a wider and more appropriate use of MI in future prognostic modelling studies.

  18. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  19. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Marit Simensen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.

  20. Initiation Style Optimization of Aimed Warhead by Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Ji-feng; LI Na; WEN Yu-quan; WANG Wen-jie

    2008-01-01

    The kill characteristics of aimed warhead were studied.Emphasis on the improvement of initiation system,experiments and three dimensional numerical investigations were carried out.Simulation results of side three initiation points fit experiments well.Optimal initiation style is obtained through further simulation.It shows that the effective fragments and the effective kill energy of the optimal scheme increase 12.8%and 10.1%respectively.

  1. Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Frankie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

  2. Clinical and experimental studies on polyherbal formulations for diabetes:current status and future prospective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad Ghorbani

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. There is currently an active search for antidiabetic drugs with greater effectiveness with fewer and less adverse side effects. Although numerous individual herbs have been experimentally or clinically reported to possess antidiabetic effects, considerably less research has been conducted on polyherbal compounds. It is believed that herbal compounds containing multiple plant products have synergistic antidiabetic effects and could enhance the desired actions. Several polyherbal formulations have been studied as therapeutic agents in diabetes management. To describe the current state of research on polyherbal compounds in the treatment of diabetes, an extensive review of literature was undertaken on several major databases. This paper presents what is known about the efifcacy of these polyherbal formulations and compare their antidiabetic effects with those of current oral hypoglycemic drugs as reference. The percent decrease in blood glucose, lipids and other biochemical parameters achieved by each product in diabetic animals and patients is reported. Also, the possible mechanisms responsible for hypoglycemic action of polyherbal formulations are discussed.

  3. Numerical study on tidal currents and seawater exchange in the Benoa Bay, Bali, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HENDRAWAN I. Gede; ASAI Koji

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was used for the study of water cir-culation and seawater exchange in the Benoa Bay, Bali Island. The M2 tidal component was forced in open boundary and discharge from six rivers was included in the numerical calculation. The M2 tidal elevation produced by the FVCOM has a good agreement with the observation data. The M2 tidal current is also suc-cessfully calculated under the ebb tide and flood tide conditions. The non-linear M2 tidal residual current was produced by the coastline geometry, especially surrounding the narrow strait between the Serangan Is-land and the Benoa Peninsula. The tidal residual current also generated two small eddies within the bay and one small eddy in the bay mouth. The salinity distribution influenced by river discharge could be success-fully calculated, where the numerical calculation and the observation results have a good correlation (r2) of 0.75. Finally in order to examine the seawater exchange in the Benoa Bay, the Lagrangian particle tracking method and calculation of residence time are applied. The mechanism of particle transport to the flushing of seawater is depicted clearly by both methods.

  4. A Practical Study of the 66kV Fault Current Limiter (FCL) System with Rectifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Yoshio; Yuguchi, Kyosuke; Ohkuma, Takeshi; Hobara, Natsuro; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

    A fault current limiter (FCL) is extensively expected to suppress fault current, particularly required for trunk power systems heavily connected high-voltage transmission lines, such as 500kV class power system which constitutes the nucleus of the electric power system. By installing such FCL in the power system, the system interconnection is possible without the need to raise the capacity of the circuit breakers, and facilities can be configured for efficiency, among other benefits. For these reasons, fault current limiters based on various principles of operation have been developed both in Japan and abroad. In this paper, we have proposed a new type of FCL system, consisting of solid-state diodes, DC coil and bypass AC coil, and described the specification of distribution power system and 66kV model at the island power system and the superconducting cable power system. Also we have made a practical study of 66kV class, which is the testing items and the future subjects of the rectifier type FCL system.

  5. Mass transfer in thin films under counter-current gas: experiments and numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucquiaud, Mathieu; Lavalle, Gianluca; Schmidt, Patrick; Ausner, Ilja; Wehrli, Marc; O Naraigh, Lennon; Valluri, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    Mass transfer in liquid-gas stratified flows is strongly affected by the waviness of the interface. For reactive flows, the chemical reactions occurring at the liquid-gas interface also influence the mass transfer rate. This is encountered in several technological applications, such as absorption units for carbon capture. We investigate the absorption rate of carbon dioxide in a liquid solution. The experimental set-up consists of a vertical channel where a falling film is sheared by a counter-current gas flow. We measure the absorption occurring at different flow conditions, by changing the liquid solution, the liquid flow rate and the gas composition. With the aim to support the experimental results with numerical simulations, we implement in our level-set flow solver a novel module for mass transfer taking into account a variant of the ghost-fluid formalism. We firstly validate the pure mass transfer case with and without hydrodynamics by comparing the species concentration in the bulk flow to the analytical solution. In a final stage, we analyse the absorption rate in reactive flows, and try to reproduce the experimental results by means of numerical simulations to explore the active role of the waves at the interface.

  6. Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, Jenna; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves J. Charland * **, J. Touboul **, V. Rey ** jenna.charland@univ-tln.fr * Direction Générale de l'Armement, CNRS Délégation Normandie ** Université de Toulon, 83957 La Garde, France Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) Aix Marseille Université, 13288 Marseille, France CNRS/INSU, IRD, MIO, UM 110 In the nearshore area, both wave propagation and currents are influenced by the bathymetry. For a better understanding of wave - current interactions in the presence of a 3D bathymetry, a large scale experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin FIRST, Toulon, France. The 3D bathymetry consisted of two symmetric underwater mounds on both sides in the mean wave direction. The water depth at the top the mounds was hm=1,5m, the slopes of the mounds were of about 1:3, the water depth was h=3 m elsewhere. For opposite current conditions (U of order 0.30m/s), a huge focusing of the wave up to twice its incident amplitude was observed in the central part of the basin for T=1.4s. Since deep water conditions are verified, the wave amplification is ascribed to the current field. The mean velocity fields at a water depth hC=0.25m was measured by the use of an electromagnetic current meter. The results have been published in Rey et al [4]. The elliptic form of the "mild slope" equation including a uniform current on the water column (Chen et al [1]) was then used for the calculations. The calculated wave amplification of factor 1.2 is significantly smaller than observed experimentally (factor 2). So, the purpose of this study is to understand the physical processes which explain this gap. As demonstrated by Kharif & Pelinovsky [2], geometrical focusing of waves is able to modify significantly the local wave amplitude. We consider this process here. Since vertical velocity profiles measured at some locations have shown significant

  7. Motivated Attention to Cocaine and Emotional Cues in Abstinent and Current Cocaine Users: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Jonathan P.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Hajcak, Greg; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) are a direct measure of neural activity and are ideally suited to study the time-course of attentional engagement with emotional and drug-related stimuli in addiction. In particular, the late positive potential (LPP) appears enhanced following cocaine-related compared to neutral stimuli in individuals with cocaine use disorders (CUD). However, previous studies have not directly compared cocaine-related to emotional stimuli while examining potential differences between abstinent and current cocaine users. The present study examined ERPs in 55 CUD (27 abstinent and 28 current users) and 29 matched healthy controls while they passively viewed pleasant, unpleasant, neutral, and cocaine-related pictures. To examine the time-course of attention to these stimuli, we analyzed both an early and later window in the LPP as well as the early posterior negativity (EPN), established in assessing motivated attention. Cocaine pictures elicited increased electrocortical measures of motivated attention in ways similar to affectively pleasant and unpleasant pictures in all CUD, an effect that was no longer discernible during the late LPP window for the current users. This group also exhibited deficient processing of the other emotional stimuli (early LPP window: pleasant pictures; late LPP window: pleasant and unpleasant pictures). Results were unique to the LPP and not EPN. Taken together, results support a relatively early attention bias to cocaine stimuli in cocaine addicted individuals further suggesting that recent cocaine use decreases such attention bias during later stages of processing but at the expense of deficient processing of other emotional stimuli. PMID:21450043

  8. Admittance Modeling of Voltage and Current Controlled Inverter for Harmonic Instability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an impedance/admittance based model for voltage and current controlled inverters with passive elements suitable for harmonic instability study of grid connected inverters in frequency domain. This linearized model of inverters, significantly simplifies investigation of resonance...... instability and control loop interaction of wind turbines with each other and/or with the grid, while they are installed in wind farms. The derived impedance ratio at point of common connection demonstrates how the inverters participate in harmonic stability of the grid....

  9. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  10. Accelerating Virtual High-Throughput Ligand Docking: current technology and case study on a petascale supercomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Sally R; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Brown, Milton; Smith, Jeremy C; Baudry, Jerome

    2014-04-25

    In this paper we give the current state of high-throughput virtual screening. We describe a case study of using a task-parallel MPI (Message Passing Interface) version of Autodock4 [1], [2] to run a virtual high-throughput screen of one-million compounds on the Jaguar Cray XK6 Supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We include a description of scripts developed to increase the efficiency of the predocking file preparation and postdocking analysis. A detailed tutorial, scripts, and source code for this MPI version of Autodock4 are available online at http://www.bio.utk.edu/baudrylab/autodockmpi.htm.

  11. Electromagnetic and beam dynamics studies of a high current drift tube linac for LEHIPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, S.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, R.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2014-06-01

    We have performed detailed electromagnetic and beam dynamics studies of a 352.21 MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) that will accelerate a 30 mA CW proton beam from 3 to 20 MeV. At such high currents space charge effects are important, and therefore the effect of linear as well as non-linear space charge has been studied (corresponding to uniform and Gaussian initial beam distributions), in order to avoid space charge instabilities. To validate the electromagnetic simulations, a 1.2 m long prototype of the DTL was fabricated. RF measurements performed on the prototype were in good agreement with the simulations. A detailed simulation study of beam halos was also performed, which showed that beyond a current of 10 mA, significant longitudinal beam halos are excited even for a perfectly matched beam, whereas for a mis-matched beam transverse beam halos are also excited. However, these do not lead to any beam loss within the DTL.

  12. Study of a new direct current atmospheric pressure glow discharge in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielniak, B. [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Fiedler, T. [Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Institute for Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Broekaert, J.A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Institute for Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    In this study a new DC-APGD operated in He was developed and characterized. The discharge is operated at 0.9 kV and about 25-35 mA and at a gas flow of 100 ml/min. The source was spectroscopically studied and parameters such as the rotational temperature (T{sub rot}), the excitation temperature (T{sub exc}), the ionization temperature (T{sub ion}) and the electron number density (n{sub e}) were determined. The current-voltage characteristic of the source was studied as well. At optimized conditions the discharge operates in the normal region of the current-voltage characteristic. Rotational and excitation temperatures determined with the use of OH band and Fe I lines as thermometric species were of the order of about 900-1200 and 4500-5500 K, respectively. This indicates that despite of the atmospheric pressure, the discharge is not in LTE. Spatially resolved temperature measurements were performed with axial as well as radial resolution and showed relatively flat profiles. Axially resolved emission intensity profiles for several species such as H, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, OH, He and Hg were determined. It also was found that H{sub 2} introduced into the He by electrolysis of acid solutions such as in ECHG considerably increases the spectroscopically measured gas temperatures but decreases the analyte line intensities, as shown for Hg.

  13. A Study of Second-Year Engineering Students' Alternative Conceptions about Electric Potential, Current Intensity and Ohm's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, M. Cristina; Bohigas, Xavier

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate and analyse second-year industrial engineering and chemical engineering students prior knowledge of conceptual aspects of "circuit theory". Specifically, we focused on the basic concepts of electric potential and current intensity and on the fundamental relationship between them as expressed by Ohm's law.…

  14. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms.

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry-enabled studies: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjomand, Ali

    2010-03-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry is a detection platform with exceptional sensitivity compared with other bioanalytical platforms. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is widely used in archeology for radiocarbon dating applications. Early exploration of the biological and pharmaceutical applications of AMS began in the early 1990s. AMS has since demonstrated unique problem-solving ability in nutrition science, toxicology and pharmacology. AMS has also enabled the development of new applications, such as Phase 0 microdosing. Recent development of AMS-enabled applications has transformed this novelty research instrument to a valuable tool within the pharmaceutical industry. Although there is now greater awareness of AMS technology, recognition and appreciation of the range of AMS-enabled applications is still lacking, including study-design strategies. This review aims to provide further insight into the wide range of AMS-enabled applications. Examples of studies conducted over the past two decades will be presented, as well as prospects for the future of AMS.

  16. Ion Current Density Study of the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a Hall thruster in the 15-50 kW range to support future NASA missions. As a part of the process, the performance and plume characteristics of the NASA-300M, a 20-kW Hall thruster, and the NASA-457Mv2, a 50-kW Hall thruster, were evaluated. The collected data will be used to improve the fidelity of the JPL modeling tool, Hall2De, which will then be used to aid the design of the 15-50 kW Hall thruster. This paper gives a detailed overview of the Faraday probe portion of the plume characterization study. The Faraday probe in this study is a near-field probe swept radially at many axial locations downstream of the thruster exit plane. Threshold-based integration limits with threshold values of 1/e, 1/e(sup 2), and 1/e(sup 3) times the local peak current density are tried for the purpose of ion current integration and divergence angle calculation. The NASA-300M is operated at 7 conditions and the NASA-457Mv2 at 14 conditions. These conditions span discharge voltages of 200 to 500 V and discharge power of 10 to 50 kW. The ion current density profiles of the near-field plume originating from the discharge channel are discovered to strongly resemble Gaussian distributions. A novel analysis approach involving a form of ray tracing is used to determine an effective point of origin for the near-field plume. In the process of performing this analysis, definitive evidence is discovered that showed the near-field plume is bending towards the thruster centerline.

  17. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: current status of the Austrian-Czech-German gastric cancer prevention trial (PRISMA-Study)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Miehlke; A. Leodolter; P. Malfertheiner; A. Neubauer; G. Ehninger; M. Stolte; E, Bayerdorffer; C. Kirsch; B. Dragosics; M. Gschwantler; G. Oberhuber; D. Antos; P. Dite; J. Lauter; J. Labenz

    2001-01-01

    AIM To test the hypothesis that Helicobacter pylori eradication alone can reduce the incidence of gastric cancer in a subgroup of individuals with an increased risk for this fatal disease.METHODS It is a prospective, randomized,double-blind, placebo-controlled multinational multicenter trial. Men between 55 and 65 years of age with a gastric cancer phenotype of Helicobacterpylori gastritis are randomized to receive a 7-day course of omeprazole 2 × 20 mg,clarithromycin 2 × 500 mg, and amoxicillin 2 ×lg for 7 days, or omeprazole2 × 20mg plusplacebo. Follow - up endoscopy is scheduled 3months after therapy, and thereafter in one-year intervals. Predefined study endpoints are gastric cancer, precancerous lesions (dysplasia, adenoma), other cancers, anddeath.RESULTS Since March 1998, 1524 target patients have been screened, 279 patients (18.3%) had a corpus-dominant type of H.pylori gastritis, and 167 of those were randomized (58.8%). In the active treatment group (n -- 86), H. pylori infection infection was cured in 88.9% of patients. Currently, thecumulative follow-up time is 3046 months (253.8patient-years, median follow-up 16 months). So far, none of the patients developed gastric cancer or any precancerous lesion. Three(1.8%) patients reached study endpoints other than gastric cancer.CONCLUSION Among men between 55 and 65years of age, the gastric cancer phenotype of H.pylori gastritis appears to be more common than expected. Further follow- up and continuing recruitment are necessary to fulfil the main aim of the study.

  18. Drug interaction studies on new drug applications: current situations and regulatory views in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    Drug interaction studies on new drug applications (NDAs) for new molecular entities (NMEs) approved in Japan between 1997 and 2008 are examined in the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA). The situations of drug interaction studies in NDAs have changed over the past 12 years, especially in metabolizing enzyme and transporter-based drug interactions. Materials and approaches to study drug-metabolizing enzyme-based drug interactions have improved, and become more rational based on mechanistic theory and new technologies. On the basis of incremental evidence of transporter roles in human pharmacokinetics, transporter-based drug interactions have been increasingly studied during drug development and submitted in recent NDAs. Some recently approved NMEs include transporter-based drug interaction information in their package inserts (PIs). The regulatory document "Methods of Drug Interaction Studies," in addition to recent advances in science and technology, has also contributed to plan and evaluation of drug interaction studies in recent new drug development. This review summarizes current situations and further discussion points on drug interaction studies in NDAs in Japan.

  19. Numerical and experimental study of the interaction between two marine current turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Mycek, Paul; Germain, Grégory; Pinon, Grégory; Rivoalen, Elie

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of interaction effects between marine energy converters represents the next step in the research process that should eventually lead to the deployment of such devices. Although some a priori considerations have been suggested recently, very few real condition studies have been carried out concerning this issue. Trials were run on 1/30th scale models of three-bladed marine current turbine prototypes in a flume tank. The present work focuses on the case where a turbine is placed at different locations in the wake of a first one. The interaction effects in terms of performance and wake of the second turbine are examined and compared to the results obtained on the case of one single turbine. Besides, a three-dimensional software, based on a vortex method is currently being developed, and will be used in the near future to model more complex layouts. The experimental study shows that the second turbine is deeply affected by the presence of an upstream device and that a compromise between individu...

  20. Utilization study of antidiabetic agents in a teaching hospital of Sikkim and adherence to current standard treatment guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushrut Varun Satpathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes has gradually emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in our country. This underlines the need for timely disease detection and decisive therapeutic intervention. This prospective cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a remote North-East Indian tertiary care teaching hospital in the perspective of current standard treatment guidelines. Materials and Methods: Diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic medication, both as outpatients and inpatients in our hospital over a period of 12 months (May 2013–May 2014, were included in this study. The data obtained were sorted and analyzed on the basis of gender, type of therapy, and hospital setting. Results: A total of 310 patients were included in the study. Metformin was the single most frequently prescribed antidiabetic agent (66.8% followed by the sulfonylureas group (37.4%. Insulin was prescribed in 23.2% of the patients. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy (65.1% was used more frequently than monotherapy (34.8%. The use of biguanides (P < 0.0001 and sulfonylureas (P = 0.02 in combination was significant as compared to their use as monotherapy. A total of 48% of all antidiabetic combinations used, comprised metformin and sulfonylureas (n = 96. Insulin use was significantly higher as monotherapy and in inpatients (P< 0.0001. The utilization of drugs from the National List of Essential Medicines was 51.2%, while 11% of antidiabetics were prescribed by generic name. Conclusion: The pattern of utilization largely conforms to the current standard treatment guidelines. Increased use of generic drugs is an area with scope for improvement.

  1. General aspects and current view of the molecular study of Phenylketonuria (PKU in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Alcántara-Ortigoza

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an autosomic recessive inborn errors of metabolism. It is caused y the deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase, an enzyme encoded by the PAH gene in 12q22. This gene has a wide mutation spectrum and several different genotypes have been identified. There are many experimental strategies that allow molecular diagnosis of PAH in order to identify causal mutations in patients with phenylektonuria. The identification of the PAH genotype in these patients allows genetic counseling, genotype-phenotype correlation and for some cases treatment adjustment. There are few studies concerning the mutation spectrum of PAH in Mexican patients. Currently, a study to identify the genotypes of these patients is being done. Only preliminary results are presented, nevertheless results are expected to clarify the mutation spectrum, enable the identification of possible genotype-phenotype correlations and elucidate the ancestral origin of the mutations.

  2. Current Practice Patterns Regarding the Conduct of Thyroidectomy and Parathyroidectomy amongst Surgeons - A Survey Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR Henry, LB Helou, NP Solomon, A Chang, SK Libutti, A Stojadinovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heterogeneity of surgical care exists among surgeons regarding the conduct of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy.Aim: To identify the current patterns of technical conduct of operation amongst surgeons performing thyroidectomy or parathyroidectomy.Methods: A survey was designed and beta-tested on five surgical oncologists for face validity and usability. The final version of this survey was constructed and disseminated using the professional version of the internet-based survey mechanism Survey Monkey and consisted of two eligibility questions and 22 questions regarding thyroidectomy/parathyroidectomy treatment patterns. The survey was disseminated electronically to American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES and American College of Surgeons (ACS members. Survey results were collected, tabulated and analyzed. Responses among groups were compared using two sample T- tests. Significant responses were subsequently analyzed in generalized linear models to ascertain if significance remained with control of covariates.Results: Of 420 initial web survey visits, 236 (56.2% surveys were completed. The majority of respondents reported being 'fellowship trained', experienced and 'high-volume' surgeons. The most common fellowship trainings were endocrine (46%, oncology (22%, head & neck (13%, or combinations of the three fellowships (14%. Most surgeons reported that they dissect the course of the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN without using neuromonitoring. Nearly a third of respondents reported routinely using the Harmonic scalpel during the conduct of the operations. Significant differences emerged regarding operative technique according to residency training type, fellowship training, surgeon volume, and practice setting, but only those associated with residency training type and annual surgeon surgical volume remained significant within generalized linear models.Conclusion: Most surgeons who responded to this survey do not routinely

  3. Assessment of psychological and social current working conditions in epidemiological studies: experiences from the MUSIC-Norrtälje study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenström, Måns; Theorell, Töres; Ahlberg, Gunnel; Josephson, Malin; Nise, Patrik; Waldenström, Kerstin; Vingård, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present, evaluate and propose a tool for the assessment of psychosocial working conditions in epidemiological studies. A referent group of the large epidemiological study, the MUSIC-Norrtälje study of musculoskeletal disorders, was used. The respondents were 950 working persons (585 female and 365 male). Self-administered questionnaire and personal interview were used. The responses were subjected to factor analysis. The resulting model had components generated from the demand-control-support model and action theory. The result supported the use of different aspects of psychological job demands. The interview data seemed to be more related to factual exposure and the questionnaire data more to individual perception. The usefulness of the model was supported by associations between the model and psychosomatic symptoms and sleep disturbances. A combination of interview and questionnaire increases the possibility of interpreting the association between working conditions and health and may provide a more effective basis for interventions.

  4. Simulation of AIMS measurements using rigorous mask 3D modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Shiang; Huang, Hsu-Ting; Chu, Fu-Sheng; Chu, Yuan-Chih; Huang, Wen-Chun; Liu, Ru-Gun; Gau, Tsai-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Aerial image measurement system (AIMSTM) has been widely used for wafer level inspection of mask defects. Reported inspection flows include die-to-die (D2D) and die-to-database (D2DB) methods. For patterns that do not repeat in another die, only the D2DB approach is applicable. The D2DB method requires accurate simulation of AIMS measurements for a mask pattern. An optical vectorial model is needed to depict the mask diffraction effect in this simulation. To accurately simulate the imaging results, a rigorous electro-magnetic field (EMF) model is essential to correctly take account of the EMF scattering induced by the mask topography, which is usually called the mask 3D effect. In this study, the mask 3D model we use is rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA), which calculates the diffraction fields from a single plane wave incidence. A hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method with RCWA is used to calculate the EMF diffraction at a desired accuracy level while keeping the computation time practical. We will compare the speed of the hybrid Hopkins-Abbe method to the rigorous Abbe method. The matching between simulation and experiment is more challenging for AIMS than CD-SEM because its measurements provide full intensity information. Parameters in the mask 3D model such as film stack thickness or film optical properties, is optimized during the fitting process. We will report the fitting results of AIMS images for twodimensional structures with various pitches. By accurately simulating the AIMS measurements, it provides a necessary tool to perform the mask inspection using the D2DB approach and to accurately predict the mask defects.

  5. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  6. Numerical experiments on the detailed energy conversion and spectrum studies in a corona current sheet

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Lei; Mei, Zhixing; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the energy conversion and spectra in a corona current sheet by 2.5-dimensional MHD numerical simulations. Numerical results show that many Petschek-like fine structures with slow-mode shocks mediated by plasmoid instabilities develop during the magnetic reconnection process. The termination shocks can also be formed above the primary magnetic island and at the head of secondary islands. These shocks play important roles in generating thermal energy in a corona current sheet. For a numerical simulation with initial conditions close to the solar corona environment, the ratio of the generated thermal energy to the total dissipated magnetic energy is around $1/5$ before secondary islands appear. After secondary islands appear, the generated thermal energy starts to increase sharply and this ratio can reach a value about $3/5$. In an environment with a relatively lower plasma density and plasma $\\beta$, the plasma can be heated to a much higher temperature. After secondary islands appear, t...

  7. Measuring child exposure to violence and mental health reactions in epidemiological studies: challenges and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Cristiane Seixas; Bordin, Isabel Altenfelder Santos; Green, Genevieve Rachel; Hoven, Christina W

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines challenges and current issues involved in measuring exposure to different types of violence which are associated mental health problems in children and adolescents. Standardized measures suitable for epidemiological studies, selected based on their relevance in the current literature, are briefly described and commented. The assessment of child's exposure to violence may focus on a specific event (e.g., kidnapping), a specific context (e.g., war) or even of a certain type of exposure (e.g., intrafamilial physical violence). The assessment of child mental health after exposure to violence has traditionally focused on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) - most frequently measured through non-diagnostic scales. However, other mental health reactions may be present and screening as well as diagnostic instruments which may be used to assess these reactions are also described. Two issues of emerging importance - the assessment of impairment and of traumatic grief in children - are also presented. Availability of culturally appropriate instruments is a crucial step towards proper identification of child mental health problems after exposure to violence.

  8. Eddy currents in the anisotropy of out-of-phase magnetic susceptibility measurement - A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, Josef; Hrouda, Frantisek

    2016-04-01

    Analytical solutions of Maxwell equations for eddy currents caused by AC field in a conductive sphere, known from 1950s, provide a general formula for magnetic susceptibility. It contains the parameters describing the sphere (its size, conductivity and permeability), surrounding medium (permeability) and the applied field (frequency). The formula is complex and without numerical evaluation it is difficult to distinguish the real (in-phase) and imaginary (out-of-phase) part of susceptibility. Representing all the parameters by only two, relative permeability (sphere vs. medium) and skin ratio (summarizing the effect of sphere size, conductivity and permeability, and frequency of the field), we derive approximate formulas for both phases and the phase angle. These are valid for a reasonable range of parameters (from rock magnetism point of view) and enable us to study their influence. The in-phase susceptibility depends very weakly on the fourth power of the skin ratio while the out-of-phase susceptibility depends more strongly on its second power. The coefficients of the dependence are expressed by means of relative permeability. The approximations of in-phase and out-of-phase susceptibilities provide a possibility to assess possible effects of eddy currents in rocks in case of low content of conductive minerals and solve problems of the type by which size one piece of a mineral in the measured sample can produce a phase shift that is observed by measurement. Examples of magnetite and pyrrhotite are given.

  9. Numerical Study of Eddy Shedding By The Loop Current With Ogcm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahara, S.; Crèpon, M.

    The high resolution CLIPPER model for the Atlantic Ocean running at 1/6o was used to study the dynamic of the Gulf of Mexico. The model was daily forced with the ECMWF re-analysis air-sea fluxes during 20 years. A spin-up phase of 10 years is done in the experience. The results show the formation of the Loop Current in the interior of the Gulf of Mexico. This loop detach an anticyclonic eddy northward to Yucatan shelf Peninsula. The size of the eddy is close to 290 Km and 1000 m depth. The eddy shedding periodicity is between 7 to 9 months for the 5 first years of numer- ical forcing simulation. After that, the eddy shedding is blocked and an intensification and deepening of the loop happens. It is found that barotropic transport through Yu- catan channel and vertical structure of cross velocity's Yucatan current are important for eddy shedding process. A hypothesis for the generation and blocking of westward propagation of eddies in the Gulf of Mexico is proposed according to the numerical results.

  10. Tunable Universal Filter with Current Follower and Transconductance Amplifiers and Study of Parasitic Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeřábek, Jan; Šotner, Roman; Vrba, Kamil

    2011-11-01

    A universal filter with dual-output current follower (DO-CF), two transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) and two passive elements is presented in this paper. The filter is tunable, of the single-input multiple-output (SIMO) type, and operates in the current mode. Our solution utilizes a low-impedance input node and high-impedance outputs. All types of the active elements used can be realized using our UCC-N1B 0520 integrated circuit and therefore the paper contains not only simulation results that were obtained with the help of behavioral model of the UCC-N1B 0520 element, but also the characteristics that were gained by measurement with the mentioned circuit. The presented simulation and measurement results prove the quality of designed filter. Similar multi-loop structures are very-well known, but there are some drawbacks that are not discussed in similar papers. This paper also contains detailed study of parasitic influences on the filter performance.

  11. Dark current and radiation shielding studies for the ILC main linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhov, Nikolai V. [Fermilab; Rakhno, I. L. [Fermilab; Solyak, N. A. [Fermilab; Sukhanov, A. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. S. [Fermilab

    2016-12-05

    Electrons of dark current (DC), generated in high-gradient superconducting RF cavities (SRF) due to field emission, can be accelerated up to very high energies—19 GeV in the case of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main linac—before they are removed by focusing and steering magnets. Electromagnetic and hadron showers generated by such electrons can represent a significant radiation threat to the linac equipment and personnel. In our study, an operational scenario is analysed which is believed can be considered as the worst case scenario for the main linac regarding the DC contribution to the radiation environment in the main linac tunnel. A detailed modelling is performed for the DC electrons which are emitted from the surface of the SRF cavities and can be repeatedly accelerated in the high-gradient fields in many SRF cavities. Results of MARS15 Monte Carlo calculations, performed for the current main linac tunnel design, reveal that the prompt dose design level of 25 μSv/hr in the service tunnel can be provided by a 2.3-m thick concrete wall between the main and service ls.

  12. A study of diffuser angle effect on ducted water current turbine performance using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adun Janyalertadun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The water current has used as the energy resource for long time however its velocity is very low therefore there arenot found in wide range of uses. This study purposes accelerate water velocity by installing diffuser. The problems wereanalyzed by one dimension analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD; the domain covers the diffuser and turbinewhich substituted by porous jump condition is install inside. The flow was identified as axisymmetric steady flow, the inletboundary is identified as uniform flow, all simulation use the same size of diffuser, only the diffuser angles are vary. The resultsshow that velocities of water current in diffuser are increase when the diffuser angle are widen. The angle of diffuser is 20°,the velocity is increase to 1.96 times, compared to free stream velocity. If the angle was about 0-20° and 50-70° the forcetoward diffuser became high instantly; where as the force toward the rotor will be still and the maximum rate of diffuseraugmentation possibly was 3.62 and rotor power coefficient was 2.14.

  13. Transport behavior of hairless mouse skin during constant current DC iontophoresis I: baseline studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Mark R; Li, S Kevin; Higuchi, William I

    2011-04-01

    The fluxes of charged and nonionic molecules across hairless mouse skin (HMS) were induced by direct current iontophoresis and used to characterize the transport pathways of the epidermal membrane. Experimental data were used to determine permeability coefficients from which the effective pore radii (Rp) of the transport pathways were calculated. Permeants used in these experiments were nonionic permeants (urea, mannitol, and raffinose), monovalent cationic permeants (sodium, tetraethylammonium, and tetraphenylphosphonium ions), and monovalent anionic permeants (chloride, salicylate, and taurocholate ions). The Rp estimates obtained by the anionic permeant pairs were 49, 22, and 20 Å for the chloride/salicylate (Cl:SA), chloride/taurocholate (Cl:TC), and salicylate/taurocholate (SA:TC) pairs, respectively; with the cationic permeant pairs, the Rp values obtained were 19, 30, and 24 Å for the sodium/tetraethylammonium (Na:TEA), sodium/tetraphenylphosphonium (Na:TPP), and the tetraethylammonium/tetraphenylphosphonium (TEA:TPP) pairs, respectively. Rp estimates for HMS obtained from nonionic permeant experiments ranged from 6.7 to 13.4 Å. When plotted versus their respective diffusion coefficients, all of the permeability coefficients for the cationic permeants were greater than those of the anionic permeants. Additionally, the magnitudes of permeability coefficients determined in the current study with HMS were of the same order of magnitude as those previously determined in our laboratory using human epidermal membrane under similar iontophoresis conditions.

  14. Preliminary Study on Element Leaching and Current Soil—Forming Process of Red Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANQI-GUO; XUESHI-KUI; 等

    1991-01-01

    The leaching characteristics and the element concentration in soil solution of red soils derived from sandstone,granite,Quaternary red clay and basalt have been studied in the Red Earth Ecological Experimental Station,Academia Sinica,using 12 lysimeters.Results obtained show that the element leaching process of red soils occurs mainly from January to the beginning of July annually.The elements with higher concentration in leaching solution of red soils are Si,Ca,Na,K,Mg,and N.The desilication and the leaching process of base cations occur simultaneously in the red soils.Using the first order differential equation and measured parameters of Si leaching,the leaching models of Si for red soils derived from different parent materials are constructed.The leaching process of Si is simulated with the models.Both the absolute and relative ages of red soils derived from different parent materials are discussed based on the simulation result.On the basis of element leaching,composition of soil solution and thermodynamics,the current soil-forming process is discussed.According to the phase diagram,the kaolinization is prevailing in the current formation of different red soils.

  15. A study of some political problems considering current geographical analytical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Adolfo Dupuy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to study some of the main problems presented, on different scales, by current politics, considering the spatial implications as well as various parameters offered lately by the geographical science. The proposal is supported by the theoretical bases developed from Emmanuel Wallerstein and Peter Taylor's statement about a world system structured as a world economy, based on the capitalist mode of production. Conversely, it attempts to provide a theoretical explanation for the dynamics experienced by the territories upon thee basis of such world system's mechanics. According to these assumptions, an analysis is proposed of some of the main phenomena resulting from the previous analysis and its spatial implications, such as the current power relations in the system, the subsistence of traditional power factors (Nation-states, ethnically based cultural configurations and the appearance of new ones (the forming of transnational blocs and associations, new social movements, new forms of local participation, the importance of hegemonic and counter-hegemonic discourses in the construction of symbolic representations and of the mass media in such processes or the new cultural identity and hybridization chart from population mobility.

  16. An Experimental Study on the Darrieus-Savonius Turbine for the Tidal Current Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyozuka, Yusaku

    The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops, a Darrieus turbine is hard to re-start until a fairly fast current is exerted on it. To improve the starting torque of the Darrieus turbine used for tidal power generation, a hybrid turbine, composed of a Darrieus turbine and a Savonius rotor is proposed. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a semi-circular section used for the Savonius bucket were measured in a wind tunnel. The torque of a two bucket Savonius rotor was measured in a circulating water channel, where four different configurations of the bucket were compared. A combined Darrieus and Savonius turbine was tested in the circulating water channel, where the effect of the attaching angle between Darrieus wing and Savonius rotor was studied. Finally, power generation experiments using a 48 pole electric generator were conducted in a towing tank and the power coefficients were compared with the results of experiments obtained in the circulating water channel.

  17. Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland von Känel

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables.We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47 ± 12 years, 70% women who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D, the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D were measured.Vitamin D deficiency ( 75 nmol/l were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values ≤ 0.023 or sufficient (p-values ≤ 0.008 vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007; BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005 and insufficiency (p = 0.041 relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings.Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels < 50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular.

  18. Vitamin D Deficiency and Depressive Symptomatology in Psychiatric Patients Hospitalized with a Current Depressive Episode: A Factor Analytic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Fardad, Nasser; Steurer, Nadine; Horak, Nicole; Hindermann, Esther; Fischer, Franz; Gessler, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels have been associated with depressive symptoms in population-based studies and non-clinical samples as well as with clinical depression. This study aimed to examine the association of vitamin D levels with the severity and dimensions of depressive symptoms in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression taking into account confounding variables. We investigated 380 patients (mean age 47 ± 12 years, 70% women) who were consecutively hospitalized with a main diagnosis of an ICD-10 depressive episode. All patients self-rated depressive symptom severity with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and the Brief Symptom Inventory. A principal component analysis was performed with all 34 items of these questionnaires and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D) were measured. Vitamin D deficiency ( 75 nmol/l) were present in 55.5%, 31.8% and 12.6%, respectively, of patients. Patients with vitamin D deficiency scored higher on the HADS-D scale and on an anhedonia symptom factor than those with insufficient (p-values ≤ 0.023) or sufficient (p-values ≤ 0.008) vitamin D. Vitamin D deficient patients also scored higher on the BDI-II scale than those with sufficient vitamin D (p = 0.007); BDI-II cognitive/affective symptoms, but not somatic/affective symptoms, were higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.005) and insufficiency (p = 0.041) relative to those with sufficient vitamin D. Effect sizes suggested clinically relevant findings. Low vitamin D levels are frequent in hospitalized patients with a current episode of depression. Especially 25-OH D levels < 50 nmol/l were associated with cognitive/affective depressive symptoms, and anhedonia symptoms in particular.

  19. A Study of Current Chopping Characteristics in Metal-Carbide Composite Contact Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kusano, Takashi; Okutomi, Tsutomu; Yokokura, Kunio; Homma, Mitsutaka

    To clarify the effect of carbides on current chopping characteristics chopping current was evaluated for various metalcarbide contact materials. As a result, it was found that the chopping current of metal-carbide contacts was related to the vapor pressure of metals and the work function of carbides. It was also found that the chopping current was reduced by the heat treatment when the melting point of contacts is lower than the temperature of heat teatment.

  20. Repetitive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induced Excitability Changes of Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Learning Effects-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would improve and cathodal tDCS would have minor or no effects on visual learning. Anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS were applied over V1 in a randomized, double-blinded design over four consecutive days (n = 30). During 20 min of tDCS, subjects had to learn a visual orientation-discrimination task (ODT). Excitability parameters were measured by analyzing paired-stimulation behavior of visual-evoked potentials (ps-VEP) and by measuring phosphene thresholds (PTs) before and after the stimulation period of 4 days. Compared with sham-tDCS, anodal tDCS led to an improvement of visual discrimination learning (p visual perceptual learning and increased cortical excitability. tDCS is a promising tool to alter V1 excitability and, hence, perceptual visual learning.

  1. Analysis of The Corporate Effective Tax Rate in Brazil: A study focusing on ETR and Current ETR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Otávio Monteiro Guimarães

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effective tax rate of public companies operating in stock market in Brazil over a period between 2003 and 2013, both to the total effective tax rate (ETRt as the curren (ETRc, seeking to verify evidence of the presence of tax management. This analysis consists of (i to assess whether average tax burden is upper, equal or less than the statutory rate of 34%; (ii verify that the ETR suffered influence of RTT adjustments arising from the introduction of IFRS; (iii identify proxies (size; profitability; inventory; properties, plants and equipment; debt; and deferred tax expenses which may explain the variation in ETR. The results showed that: (i companies have a significantly lower ETR than the statutory tax rate; (ii companies reported a lower ETR on the full adoption of IFRS period; (iii the ETR has relation to size (negative, debt (positive and components of assets (positive; and (iv there are deferral strategies considering the negative sign of deferred taxes in relation to the current ETR. The results confirm the practice of tax management and also demonstrate that the resulting RTT adjustments resulted in a lower tax burden, confirming previous studies that estimated less conservative earnings after the beginning of the convergence process. Finally, we observed that larger companies have a lower tax burden and that in general companies adopt choices that allow the deferral of taxes on income.

  2. The 11-year solar cycle in current reanalyses: a (non)linear attribution study of the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2015-06-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11-year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (support vector regression, neural networks) besides the multiple linear regression approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis data sets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how these types of data resolve especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the tropical stratosphere were found to be in qualitative agreement with previous attribution studies, although the agreement with observational results was incomplete, especially for JRA-55. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone data sets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. The results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all data sets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. The seasonal evolution of the solar response was also discussed in terms of dynamical causalities in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer-Dobson circulation at solar maxima was reviewed together with a discussion of polar vortex behaviour.

  3. Stuttering in Lima, Peru: a qualitative case study of current concepts, theories, and treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, L C

    1980-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate within an ethnographic framework, certain cultural variables which may be factors in the etiology and presentation of stuttering as well as in the care provided for those who stutter. An assessment was made of the cultural influences upon the following variables of the transcultural investigation of stuttering: 1) epidemiological characteristics of stuttering; 2) attitudes of the stutterer and the stutterer's family, friends, therapists towards the defect; 3) cultural expectations which may be part of the etiology/perpetuation of the problem of stuttering, including an examination of these cultural expectations within the context of the stutterer's past and present home, work, and recreational lifestyles: 4) current theories and therapies.

  4. Thymus is enlarged in children with current atopic dermatitis. A cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anne Braae; Andersen, G.; Jeppesen, D.L.;

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common skin disorder of unknown aetiology with peak incidence in early childhood. The disease is associated with peripheral T-cell accumulation in the skin. The thymus is a key organ of the cellular immune response early in life. We hypothesized that atopic dermatitis...... is associated with an unbalanced establishment of the peripheral T-lymphocyte system. This cross-sectional study was performed to compare thymus sizes in patients with atopic dermatitis and healthy controls. Thirty-seven children with current atopic dermatitis were enrolled and compared with 29 healthy controls....... An interview and medical examination were performed by one doctor, an ultrasound scan was performed within 3 days of the examination, and the thymus index, a marker of thymus size, was measured. The thymus index was on average 32% higher (95% CI 3%-67%) in children with active atopic dermatitis compared...

  5. Study of Flavour Changing Neutral Currents in Top Quark Decays with the CMS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Karafasoulis, C; Vermisoglou, Grigorios; Benucci, Leonardo; Giammanco, Andrea; Palla, Fabrizio

    2006-01-01

    This paper contains the first realistic estimate for the CMS sensitivity to Flavour Changing Neutral Currents (FCNC) in the top quark sector. The non Standard Model decays t -> Zq and t -> gamma q (q represents c or u quarks) have been studied at sqrts = 14 TeV exploiting leptonic decays of the Z boson and the photon. A realistic detector simulation has been adopted and the most relevant systematic effects have been addressed. The 5- sigma discovery limits for the two decays are BR(t-> qZ) =11.4 x 10^ -4 and BR(t -> gamma q ) =5.7 x 10^ -4, allowing some models of new physics to be tested.

  6. Pacemaker Created in Human Ventricle by Depressing Inward-Rectifier K+ Current: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Qince; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders are common diseases which cause slow heart rate and syncope. The best way to treat these diseases by now is to implant electronic pacemakers, which, yet, have many disadvantages, such as the limited battery life and infection. Biopacemaker has been expected to replace the electronic devices. Automatic ventricular myocytes (VMs) could show pacemaker activity, which was induced by depressing inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1). In this study, a 2D model of human biopacemaker was created from the ventricular endocardial myocytes. We examined the stability of the created biopacemaker and investigated its driving capability by finding the suitable size and spatial distribution of the pacemaker for robust pacing and driving the surrounding quiescent cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that the rhythm of the pacemaker is similar to that of the single cell at final stable state. The driving force of the biopacemaker is closely related to the pattern of spatial distribution of the pacemaker. PMID:26998484

  7. Pacemaker Created in Human Ventricle by Depressing Inward-Rectifier K+ Current: A Simulation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac conduction disorders are common diseases which cause slow heart rate and syncope. The best way to treat these diseases by now is to implant electronic pacemakers, which, yet, have many disadvantages, such as the limited battery life and infection. Biopacemaker has been expected to replace the electronic devices. Automatic ventricular myocytes (VMs could show pacemaker activity, which was induced by depressing inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1. In this study, a 2D model of human biopacemaker was created from the ventricular endocardial myocytes. We examined the stability of the created biopacemaker and investigated its driving capability by finding the suitable size and spatial distribution of the pacemaker for robust pacing and driving the surrounding quiescent cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that the rhythm of the pacemaker is similar to that of the single cell at final stable state. The driving force of the biopacemaker is closely related to the pattern of spatial distribution of the pacemaker.

  8. The contribution of Nikola Tesla to plasma physics and current status of plasmas that he studied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Zoran Lj.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main Interests in science of Nikola Tesla were gas discharges plasmas, their application in lighting and in production of ozone as well as their role in conduction of electricity through the atmosphere. In particular Tesla is well known as the first person to produce rf plasmas. Such plasmas in the present day constitute the main technology required to produce integrated circuits (IC and have been essential in the revolution that resulted from IC technologies. In addition Tesla participated in studies of arcs especially arcs used as a source of light, corona discharges required to induce plasma chemical reactions and produce ozone and was involved in various aspects of gas breakdown and gaseous dielectrics. His ideas, level of his understanding and current status of these fields are discussed in this review.

  9. A Study on New Current Controller for 7-Phase BLDC Motor Drive System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Surk; Jeon, Ywun Seok; Mok, Hyung Soo [Konkuk University (Korea); Kim, Duk Keun [Komotek Co., Ltd. (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Recently, the demand of motor for industrial, household machinery is increasing. As Switching devices and control technology are progressing, so the use of BLDC Motor is increasing. But 3-phase BLCD Motor generally used has pulsating torque and speed variation in commutation, so the range of its application is limited to high speed operation. Especially, to solve these problems, it is necessary to increase phase of Motor, so study of Poly-Phase BLDC Motor is progressing. However, when hysteresis current controller is used, switching frequency is highly increasing. In this paper, 7-Phase BLDC Motor drive system is designed. Also MSTC (Minimum Switching Time Controller) is proposed and with simulation and experiment, their validities are verified. (author). 10 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Cathodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improves Focal Hand Dystonia in Musicians: A Two-Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Marceglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Focal hand dystonia (FHD in musicians is a movement disorder causing abnormal movements and irregularities in playing. Since weak electrical currents applied to the brain induce persistent excitability changes in humans, cathodal tDCS was proposed as a possible non-invasive approach for modulating cortical excitability in patients with FHD. However, the optimal targets and modalities have still to be determined. In this pilot study, we delivered cathodal (2 mA, anodal (2 mA and sham tDCS over the motor areas bilaterally for 20 min daily for five consecutive days in two musicians with FHD. After cathodal tDCS, both patients reported a sensation of general wellness and improved symptoms of FHD. In conclusion, our pilot results suggest that cathodal tDCS delivered bilaterally over motor-premotor (M-PM cortex for 5 consecutive days may be effective in improving symptoms in FHD.

  11. Curriculum Planning: Trends in Communication Studies, Workplace Competencies, and Current Programs at 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Dale A.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2009-01-01

    Many communication scholars recognize the need to regularly explore current communication curriculum and to evaluate its contribution to meeting the needs of students and the demands of the workplace. However, within the communication discipline, current curricular decisions are based on studies conducted nearly a decade ago. This study (a)…

  12. Curriculum Planning: Trends in Communication Studies, Workplace Competencies, and Current Programs at 4-Year Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsen, Dale A.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2009-01-01

    Many communication scholars recognize the need to regularly explore current communication curriculum and to evaluate its contribution to meeting the needs of students and the demands of the workplace. However, within the communication discipline, current curricular decisions are based on studies conducted nearly a decade ago. This study (a)…

  13. Current asthma contributes as much as smoking to chronic bronchitis in middle age: a prospective population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmage SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shyamali C Dharmage,1 Jennifer L Perret,1,2, John A Burgess,1 Caroline J Lodge,1 David P Johns,3 Paul S Thomas,4 Graham G Giles,1,5 John L Hopper,1,6 Michael J Abramson,7,8 E Haydn Walters,3,9, Melanie C Matheson1 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, The University of Melbourne, 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep (IBAS, Melbourne, VIC, 3“Breathe Well” Center of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Ageing, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, 4Inflammation and Infection Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 5Cancer Epidemiology Center, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 6Department of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Allergy, Immunology and Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 8School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 9School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Background and objective: Personal smoking is widely regarded to be the primary cause of chronic bronchitis (CB in adults, but with limited knowledge of contributions by other factors, including current asthma. We aimed to estimate the independent and relative contributions to adult CB from other potential influences spanning childhood to middle age.Methods: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study cohort, people born in 1961, completed respiratory questionnaires and spirometry in 1968 (n=8,583. Thirty-seven years later, in 2004, two-thirds responded to a detailed postal survey (n=5,729, from which the presence of CB was established in middle age. A subsample (n=1,389 underwent postbronchodilator spirometry between 2006 and 2008 for the assessment of chronic airflow limitation, from which nonobstructive and obstructive CB were defined. Multivariable and multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate

  14. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  15. Aims or purposes of school mediation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Isabel Viana-Orta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediation continues to expand, both geographically and in terms of scope. Depending on its purpose, there are three main consolidated mediation models or schools worldwide: the Traditional-Linear Harvard model, which seeks to find an agreement between the parties; the Circular-Narrative model, which apart from the agreement also emphasizes communicational aspects; and the Transformational model, more focused on relational aspects between the parties than in the adoption of agreements. The aim of this study is to determine which is the goal or purpose of mediation, confining it to the school environment and to the Spanish context. A brief comparative study is presented to this end, in which the comparative units are all the Comunidades Autónomas [Autonomous Regions] that make up the Spanish territory (n = 17 and the variable compared is the aim or purpose of mediation in schools as established by all the regional rules on school life (n = 17 with the force of a decree.

  16. Matching Investigation between Instrument Precision and Aiming Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the course of using precise visual instrument, aiming precision is an important parameter to analyze the measurement error. Usually, instrument calibrated error is set down as measurement error. In the paper, the precision theory of TC2003 theodolite is analyzed and some aiming experiments is done for different width line. Then, the relations between the width of line and aiming precision are shown by different aiming methods of two superposition solid lines and one line clipped by double lines. Finally, an effective method to improve aiming precision is proposed which adopts the aiming method of one line clipped by double lines.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration by Direct Mineral Carbonation: Results from Recent Studies and Current Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Nilsen, David N.; Rush, G.E.; Walters, Richard P.; Turner, Paul C.

    2001-01-01

    Direct mineral carbonation has been investigated as a process to convert gaseous CO2 into a geologically stable, solid final form. The process utilizes a solution of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), sodium chloride (NaCl), and water, mixed with a mineral reactant, such as olivine (Mg2SiO4) or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. Carbon dioxide is dissolved into this slurry, by diffusion through the surface and gas dispersion within the aqueous phase. The process includes dissolution of the mineral and precipitation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3) in a single unit operation. Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material, with a surface area of roughly 19 m2 per gram, and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% stoichiometric conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Studies suggest that the mineral dissolution rate is primarily surface controlled, while the carbonate precipitation rate is primarily dependent on the bicarbonate concentration of the slurry. Current studies include further examination of the reaction pathways, and an evaluation of the resource potential for the magnesium silicate reactant, particularly olivine. Additional studies include the examination of various pretreatment options, the development of a continuous flow reactor, and an evaluation of the economic feasibility of the process.

  18. The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia M Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been an explosion of research using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS for investigating and modulating human cognitive and motor function in healthy populations. It has also been used in many studies seeking to improve deficits in disease populations. With the slew of studies reporting ‘promising results’ for everything from motor recovery after stroke to boosting memory function, one could be easily seduced by the idea of tDCS being the next panacea for all neurological ills. However, huge variability exists in the reported effects of tDCS, with great variability in the effect sizes and even contradictory results reported. In this review, we consider the interindividual factors that may contribute to this variability. In particular, we discuss the importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain. We additionally consider how interindividual variability affects the results of motor evoked potential (MEP testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, which, in turn, can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.

  19. The rings of Saturn: State of current knowledge and some suggestions for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The state of our current knowledge of the properties of the ring system as a whole, and of the particles individually, is assessed. Attention is primarily devoted to recent results and possibilities for exploration of the ring system by a Saturn orbiter. In particular, the infrared and microwave properties of the ring system are discussed. The behavior of the ring brightness is not well understood in the critical transition spectral region from approximately 100 micrometers to approximately 1 cm. Also, the dynamical behavior of the ring system is discussed. Recent theoretical studies show that ongoing dynamical effects continually affect the ring structure in azimuth (possibly producing the A ring brightness asymmetry) and in the vertical direction. Orbital spacecraft-based studies of the rings will offer several unique advantages and impact important cosmogonical questions. Bistatic radar studies and millimeter-wavelength spectrometer/radiometry will give particle sizes and composition limits needed to resolve the question of the density of the rings, and provide important boundary conditions on the state of Saturn's protoplanetary nebula near the time of planetary formation.

  20. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  1. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  2. Current studies and future perspectives of synchrotron radiation imaging trials in human patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, Renata, E-mail: renata.longo@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, via Valerio 2 3410 Trieste (Italy); INFN- sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2 3410 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-02-11

    The coherent and monochromatic x-ray beams available at the synchrotron radiation (SR) laboratories are ideal tools for the development and the initial application of new imaging techniques. In the present paper the history of the clinical studies in k-edge subtraction imaging with SR is summarized, including coronary angiography and bronchography. The results of the recent trial in phase-contrast mammography at Elettra (Trieste, Italy) are discussed, in order to assess the clinical impact of the new imaging modality and the potential interest in its translation to clinical practice. The direct measurement of linear attenuation coefficient obtained during the SR mammography trial is also discussed. The new program of phase-contrast breast CT under development at Elettra is presented. Recently, 3D breast imaging (tomosynthesis and cone beam breast CT) has been introduced in clinical practice with significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy. The aim of this research is to study the contribution of the phase-contrast to the image quality of breast CT. Increasing the image quality of the x-ray medical images at the level of the results obtained at the SR laboratories is highly desirable, hence the promising techniques for the translation of the phase-contrast imaging to the hospitals are briefly discussed.

  3. Study of lower hybrid current drive system in tokamak fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    This report describes R and D of a high-power klystron, RF vacuum window, low-outgassing antenna and a front module for a plasma-facing antenna aiming the 5 GHz Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the next Tokamak Fusion Device. 5 GHz klystron with a low-perveances of 0.7 {mu}P is designed for a high-power and a high-efficiency, the output-power of 715 kW and the efficiency of 63%, which are beyond the conventional design scaling of 450 kW-45%, are performed using the prototype klystron which operates at the pulse duration of 15 {mu}sec. A new pillbox window, which has an oversized length in both the axial and the radial direction, are designed to reduce the RF power density and the electric field strength at the ceramics. It is evaluated that the power capability by cooling edge of ceramics is 1 MW with continuous-wave operation. The antenna module using Dispersion Strengthened Copper which combines high mechanical property up to 500degC with high thermal conductivity, are developed for a low-outgassing antenna in a steady state operation. It is found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 4x10{sup -6} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} at the module temperature of 300degC, which requires no active vacuum pumping of the LHCD antenna. A front module using Carbon Fiber Composite (CFC) are fabricated and tested for a plasma facing antenna which has a high heat-resistive. Stationary operation of the CFC module with water cooling is performed at the RF power of 46 MWm{sup -2} (about 2 times higher than the design value) during 1000 sec, it is found that the outgassing rate is less than 10{sup -5} Pam{sup 3}/sm{sup 2} which is low enough for an antenna material. (author)

  4. Antisense oligonucleotides on neurobehavior, respiratory, and cardiovascular function, and hERG channel current studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Won; Kim, Ki-Suk; Seo, Joung-Wook; Park, Shin-Young; Henry, Scott P

    2014-01-01

    Safety Pharmacology studies were conducted in mouse, rat, and non-human primate to determine in vivo effects of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) on the central nervous system, respiratory system, and cardiovascular system. Effects on the hERG potassium channel current was evaluated in vitro. ASOs contained terminal 2'-O-methoxyethyl nucleotides, central deoxy nucleotides, and a phosphorothioate backbone. Neurobehavior was evaluated by Functional Observatory Battery in rodents. Respiratory function was directly measured in rodents by plethysmograph; respiratory rate and blood gases were measured in monkey. Basic cardiovascular endpoints were measured in rat; cardiovascular evaluation in monkey involved implanted telemetry units. In single and repeat dose studies ASOs were administered by subcutaneous injection at up to 300 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg in mouse, rat, or monkey, respectively. Assays were performed in HEK293 or CHO-K1 cells, stably transfected with hERG cDNA, at ASO concentrations of up to 300 μM. No apparent effects were noted for respiratory or CNS function. Continuous monitoring of the cardiovascular system in monkey demonstrated no ASO-related changes in blood pressures, heart rate, or ECG and associated parameters (i.e., QRS duration). Specific assessment of the hERG potassium channel indicated no potential for actions on ventricular repolarization or modest effects only at excessive concentrations. The absence of direct actions on neurobehavior and respiratory function associated with the administration of ASOs in safety pharmacology core battery studies is consistent with published toxicology studies. The combination of in vitro hERG studies and in vivo studies in rat and monkey are consistent with no direct actions by ASOs on cardiac cell function or electrical conduction at relevant concentrations and dose levels. Taken as a whole, dedicated studies focused on the safety pharmacology of specific organ systems do not appear to add

  5. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric hemiparesis: randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data available for 11 participants. Based on the results of this study, tDCS appears to be safe

  6. Current transformers with nanocrystalline alloy toroidal core: analytical, computational and experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Antonio Luciano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented theoretical analysis and experimental results concerning the performance of toroidal cores used in current transformers. For most problems concerning transformers design, analytical methods are useful, but numerical methods provide a better understanding of the transformers electromagnetic behaviour. Numerical field solutions may be used to determine the electrical equivalent circuit parameters of toroidal core current transformers. Since the exciting current of current transformers alters the ratio and phase angle of primary and secondary currents, it is made as small as possible though the use of high permeability and low loss magnetic material in the construction of the core. According to experimental results presented in this work, in comparison with others soft magnetic materials, nanocrystalline alloys appear as the best material to be used in toroidal core for current transformers.

  7. Sclerochronological studies in the humboldt current system, a highly variable ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, M; Lazareth, Claire E.; Ortlieb, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The Humboldt Current that bathes the west coast of South America is affected by different influences at daily to decadal periodicities. Environmental influences such as upwelling or coastal trapped waves as well as climate influences such as El Nino southern oscillation and Pacific decadal oscillation events interact and modify the thermonutricline depth of this Humboldt Current System. The position of this thermonutricline plays a key role in Humboldt Current System functioning by driving se...

  8. Constant-Current and Constant-Voltage Stimulators for Wound Healing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEALING, *BURNS(INJURIES), * ELECTROTHERAPY , IONS, REPRINTS, STIMULATION(PHYSIOLOGY), DETECTION, RATES, LOW LEVEL, ANIMALS, WOUNDS AND INJURIES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DIRECT CURRENT, SILVER, MULTICHANNEL, GERMICIDES.

  9. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Kanti Bera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Phantoms are essentially required to generate boundary data for studying the inverse solver performance in electrical impedance tomography (EIT. A MATLAB-based boundary data simulator (BDS is developed to generate accurate boundary data using neighbouring current pattern for assessing the EIT inverse solvers. Domain diameter, inhomogeneity number, inhomogeneity geometry (shape, size, and position, background conductivity, and inhomogeneity conductivity are all set as BDS input variables. Different sets of boundary data are generated by changing the input variables of the BDS, and resistivity images are reconstructed using electrical impedance tomography and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS. Results show that the BDS generates accurate boundary data for different types of single or multiple objects which are efficient enough to reconstruct the resistivity images for assessing the inverse solver. It is noticed that for the BDS with 2048 elements, the boundary data for all inhomogeneities with a diameter larger than 13.3% of that of the phantom are accurate enough to reconstruct the resistivity images in EIDORS-2D. By comparing the reconstructed image with an original geometry made in BDS, it would be easier to study the inverse solver performance and the origin of the boundary data error can be identified.

  10. A MATLAB-Based Boundary Data Simulator for Studying the Resistivity Reconstruction Using Neighbouring Current Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Tushar Kanti; Nagaraju, J

    2013-01-01

    Phantoms are essentially required to generate boundary data for studying the inverse solver performance in electrical impedance tomography (EIT). A MATLAB-based boundary data simulator (BDS) is developed to generate accurate boundary data using neighbouring current pattern for assessing the EIT inverse solvers. Domain diameter, inhomogeneity number, inhomogeneity geometry (shape, size, and position), background conductivity, and inhomogeneity conductivity are all set as BDS input variables. Different sets of boundary data are generated by changing the input variables of the BDS, and resistivity images are reconstructed using electrical impedance tomography and diffuse optical tomography reconstruction software (EIDORS). Results show that the BDS generates accurate boundary data for different types of single or multiple objects which are efficient enough to reconstruct the resistivity images for assessing the inverse solver. It is noticed that for the BDS with 2048 elements, the boundary data for all inhomogeneities with a diameter larger than 13.3% of that of the phantom are accurate enough to reconstruct the resistivity images in EIDORS-2D. By comparing the reconstructed image with an original geometry made in BDS, it would be easier to study the inverse solver performance and the origin of the boundary data error can be identified.

  11. Alternating current cloud point extraction on a microchip: a comprehensive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Naoki; Takemura, Azusa; Sato, Kae

    2012-11-01

    We present a comprehensive study of alternating current cloud point extraction (ACPE) on a microchip. ACPE is an extraction technique for preconcentration of membrane-associated biomolecules. To characterize and optimize ACPE, we carried out ACPE experiments under various experimental conditions including amplitude and frequency of applied voltages, flow velocity, and concentration of surfactant, analyte, and salt. We found that ACPE has an amplitude threshold (15 V(p-p)), above which the extraction was more efficient. The dependence of the extraction on frequency (>5 MHz) was insignificant. Efficient extraction was achieved when the velocity of the test solution was 0.10∼0.67 mm s⁻¹ and the concentration of surfactant was 0.10∼1.0%. In contrast, the extraction was independent of the concentration of analytes (0.20∼20 μmol dm⁻³). The technique was applicable to solutions with a salt concentration of 0.050∼0.15 mol dm⁻³ under temperature control of the devices. Solution temperature in ACPE was also studied. These results provide guidelines for use of the ACPE technique in microfluidic chemical and biochemical analyses.

  12. A Study of Heavy Metal Pollution in China: Current Status, Pollution-Control Policies and Countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Hu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past 30 years, China’s economy has experienced rapid development, which led to a vast increase in energy consumption and serious environmental pollution. Among the different types of pollution, heavy metal pollution has become one of the major environmental issues in China. A number of studies show that high level of heavy metal exposure is a frequent cause of permanent intellectual and developmental disabilities. In recent years, some traditional pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide, have been put under control in China. However, heavy metal pollution, which poses even greater risks to public health and sustainable development, has yet to gain policymakers’ attention. The purpose of this paper is to explore effective countermeasures for heavy metal pollution in China. The present study reviews the current status of China’s heavy metal pollution and analyzes related public policies and countermeasures against that pollution. It also presents a few recommendations and measures for prevention of heavy metal pollution.

  13. Current status and prospects for the study of Nicotiana genomics, genetics, and nicotine biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L

    2015-02-01

    Nicotiana, a member of the Solanaceae family, is one of the most important research model plants, and of high agricultural and economic value worldwide. To better understand the substantial and rapid research progress with Nicotiana in recent years, its genomics, genetics, and nicotine gene studies are summarized, with useful web links. Several important genetic maps, including a high-density map of N. tabacum consisting of ~2,000 markers published in 2012, provide tools for genetics research. Four whole genome sequences are from allotetraploid species, including N. benthamiana in 2012, and three N. tabacum cultivars (TN90, K326, and BX) in 2014. Three whole genome sequences are from diploids, including progenitors N. sylvestris and N. tomentosiformis in 2013 and N. otophora in 2014. These and additional studies provide numerous insights into genome evolution after polyploidization, including changes in gene composition and transcriptome expression in N. tabacum. The major genes involved in the nicotine biosynthetic pathway have been identified and the genetic basis of the differences in nicotine levels among Nicotiana species has been revealed. In addition, other progress on chloroplast, mitochondrial, and NCBI-registered projects on Nicotiana are discussed. The challenges and prospects for genomic, genetic and application research are addressed. Hence, this review provides important resources and guidance for current and future research and application in Nicotiana.

  14. What are the current barriers to effective cancer care coordination? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Michael J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background National cancer policies identify the improvement of care coordination as a priority to improve the delivery of health services for people with cancer. Identification of the current barriers to effective cancer care coordination is needed to drive service improvement. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken in which semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups were conducted with those best placed to identify issues; patients who had been treated for a range of cancers and their carers as well as health professionals involved in providing cancer care. Data collection continued until saturation of concepts was reached. A grounded theory influenced approach was used to explore the participants' experiences and views of cancer care coordination. Results Overall, 20 patients, four carers and 29 health professionals participated. Barriers to cancer care coordination related to six aspects of care namely, recognising health professional roles and responsibilities, implementing comprehensive multidisciplinary team meetings, transitioning of care: falling through the cracks, inadequate communication between specialist and primary care, inequitable access to health services and managing scarce resources. Conclusions This study has identified a number of barriers to coordination of cancer care. Development and evaluation of interventions based on these findings is now required.

  15. Current studies of biomarkers for the early diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekara S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available S Chandrashekara ChanRe Rheumatology and Immunology Center and Research, Basaveshwaranagar, Bangalore, India Abstract: Early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs will improve the outcome significantly. Early diagnosis of RA continues to be a challenge. The disease needs to be distinguished from other self-limiting arthritis and connective tissue disease. Currently available autoantibodies like rheumatoid factors and anticitrullinated cyclic peptide have limited sensitivity and specificity. RA, being a heterogeneous disease, with no unique or distinct defect that has been described, is less likely to have a single pathognomonic marker. There are defined predisposing genetic factors, cell characteristics, cytokine changes, autoantibodies, and products of disease process that have been demonstrated to distinguish rheumatoid from normal and other arthritis. Studies have demonstrated that combinations of factors allow for more specific RA diagnosis; however, when considerations are given to the factors separately, sensitivity increases at the cost of specificity. The present review briefly describes the value of some of the candidate factors and their combinations as diagnostic markers of early RA. Well-designed multicenter studies to evaluate these combinations using a scoring system are recommended for the development of precise and widely applicable biomarkers for early diagnosis of RA. Keywords: autoantibodies, combination, early RA, specificity

  16. Predictive study of the poloidal field coil insert behaviour under pulsed current tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Ciazynski, D.; Duchateau, J. L.; Nicollet, S.; Pauty, N.

    2008-02-01

    Within the ITER Poloidal Field conductor design validation, the Poloidal Field Conductor Insert (PFCI) has been manufactured and will be tested in the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) facility at JAEA Naka (Japan). In this test facility, the PFCI can be tested under ITER-relevant operating conditions, the field produced by the CSMC being varied to simulate the real situation of the PF coils in ITER. Predictive analyses have been performed in order to study the electromagnetic and thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the PFCI, under two scenarios proposed for pulsed current tests. During these scenarios, simulations have been performed with the THEA code, in which classical formulas for the AC losses in a cable have been introduced. The study focuses on the lower part of the winding, which is a 44 m long conductor including a joint. It covers the sample thermal-hydraulic behaviour with particular emphasis on the losses. Due to the overcompaction in the joint area, the total energy dissipated during a scenario can be equivalent in the joint and in the conductor, in spite of the reduced length of the joint (0.45 m). This particular point is discussed and has led to the analysis of the temperature margin in the joint.

  17. A qualitative study of senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Phillips, Rosemary; Middleton, Sandy; Gould, Dinah

    2014-11-18

    Despite universal recognition of the importance of hand hygiene in reducing the incidence of healthcare associated infections, health care workers' compliance with best practice has been sub-optimal. Senior hospital managers have responsibilities for implementing patient safety initiatives and are therefore ideally placed to provide suggestions for improving strategies to increase hand hygiene compliance. This is an under-researched area, accordingly the aim of this study was to identify senior hospital managers' views on current and innovative strategies to improve hand hygiene compliance. Qualitative design comprising face-to-face interviews with thirteen purposively sampled senior managers at a major teaching and referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. Data were analysed thematically. Seven themes emerged: culture change starts with leaders, refresh and renew the message, connect the five moments to the whole patient journey, actionable audit results, empower patients, reconceptualising non-compliance and start using the hammer. To strengthen hand hygiene programmes, strategies based on the five moments of hand hygiene should be tailored to specific roles and settings and take into account the whole patient journey including patient interactions with clinical and non-clinical staff. Senior clinical and non-clinical leaders should visibly champion and mandate best practice initiatives and articulate that hand hygiene non-compliance is culturally and professionally unacceptable to the organization. Strategies that included a disciplinary component and which conceptualise hand hygiene non-compliance as a patient safety error may be worth evaluating in terms of staff acceptability and effectiveness.

  18. Antidepressant monotherapy and combination of antidepressants in the treatment of resistant depression in current clinical practice: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Martin; Novak, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Stopkova, Pavla; Höschl, Cyril

    2010-11-01

    Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of antidepressant monotherapies and combinations of antidepressants in the treatment of resistant patients in current clinical practice. Methods. We reviewed chart documents of resistant depressive inpatients treated at least 4 weeks with a new treatment. Depressive symptoms and clinical status were assessed using Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form and Clinical Global Impression at the baseline, week 2 and in the end of treatment. Results. We identified 81 patients (27 with combinations and 51 with monotherapies) that were suitable for analyses. The combination group achieved higher reduction of MADRS score (14.6 vs 10.2 pts., p=0.02) and response rate (≥ 50% reduction of MADRS, 67% vs 39%, p=0.03). Number needed to treat for response was 4. Conclusions. Based on our results, we suggest that combination of antidepressants might be more effective than monotherapy in clinical practice.

  19. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  20. Effect of Calcium-Activated Chloride Current Blockade on the Delayed Afterdepolarizations. Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    dog and rabbit ventricular cells [4, 6]. The ionic nature of Iti is still subject to debate. Several authors propose two ionic currents to contribute to...activated Cl currents in the heart: a computer model. Computers in Cardiology 1999; 26: 109-112. Julio Gomis-Tena Dolz U.P.V. Departamento de Ingeniería

  1. Current use of intraosseous infusion in Danish emergency departments: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Rune; Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel;

    2010-01-01

    Intraosseous infusion (IOI) is recommended when intravenous access cannot be readily established in both pediatric and adult resuscitation. We evaluated the current use of IOI in Danish emergency departments (EDs).......Intraosseous infusion (IOI) is recommended when intravenous access cannot be readily established in both pediatric and adult resuscitation. We evaluated the current use of IOI in Danish emergency departments (EDs)....

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Primary Current Distribution in Parallel-Plate Electrochemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Aranda, Armando I.; Henquin, Eduardo R.; Torres, Israel Rodriguez; Bisang, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described to determine the primary current distribution in parallel-plate electrochemical reactors. The electrolyte is simulated by conductive paper and the electrodes are segmented to measure the current distribution. Experiments are reported with the electrolyte confined to the interelectrode gap, where the current…

  3. Origin of current-induced forces in an atomic gold wire: A first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy Philip;

    2003-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the current-induced forces by analyzing results of first principles density functional calculations of atomic gold wires connected to two gold electrodes with different electrochemical potentials. We find that current induced forces are closely related...

  4. Current State of Clinical Studies on Diagnosis and Treatment of Sudden Deafness in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yaping; YANG Shiming; GUO Wei; YANG Weiyan; GU Rui

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the current status of clinical studies on diagnosis and treatment of sudden deafness (SD) in China by retrospective reviewing articles on SD published in Chinese journals in the past 5 years.Special attention is given to whether the diagnosis and treatment standards established in 1996 by the otolaryngology branch of Chinese Medical Association (the"1996 standard") were followed. Methods The terms of "Sudden deafness" and "treatment" were used as the keywords in searching articles published between 2000 and 2004 in the Chinese biomedicine literature database and Chinese journal network. Principles of evidence-based medicine were applied in reviewing the articles. Results Two hundreds and thirty- four articles were identified, including 176 between 2000 and 2002 and 58 between 2003 and 2004. Among the 176 articles published between 2000 and 2002,effects of medications were studies in 126 articles, of which only 26 (20.6%) followed the"1996 standards".Eighty-nine (70.6%) were reported based on controlled clinical trials (CCT) and 36 (28.5%) met the criteria of randomized controlled trails (RCT). Of the 58 articles published between 2003 and 2004, drug effects were evaluated in 25 articles, which were all based on the "1996 standards". However, there lacked placebo control, follow-up data or statistical analysis in these papers. Only 6 articles reported side-effects from pharmacological treatment. Conclusions While a significant number of articles on SD were published in the past 5 years, the "1996 standards" were followed only in a small number of them. The standards may not be appropriate in guiding research and need to be modified for improved guidance to SD management. Multi-center, RCTs should be a crucial part in studies on SD.

  5. Ocean Science for Decision-Making: Current Activities of the National Research Council's Ocean Studies Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S.; Glickson, D.; Mengelt, C.; Forrest, S.; Waddell, K.

    2012-12-01

    The National Research Council is a private, nonprofit organization chartered by Congress in 1916 as an expansion of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to improve the use of science in government decision making and public policy, increase public understanding, and promote the acquisition and dissemination of knowledge in matters involving science, engineering, technology, and health. Within the National Research Council, the Ocean Studies Board (OSB) mission is to explore the science, policies, and infrastructure needed to understand, manage, and conserve coastal and marine environments and resources. OSB undertakes studies and workshops on emerging scientific and policy issues at the request of federal agencies, Congress, and others; provides program reviews and guidance; and facilitates communication on oceanographic issues among different sectors. OSB also serves as the U.S. National Committee to the international, nongovernmental Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR). OSB has produced reports on a wide range of topics of interest to researchers and educators, the federal government, the non-profit sector, and industry. Recent reports have focused on ecosystem services in the Gulf of Mexico after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, sea level rise on the U.S. west coast, scientific ocean drilling needs and accomplishments, requirements for sustained ocean color measurements, critical infrastructure for ocean research, tsunami warning and preparedness, ocean acidification, and marine and hydrokinetic power resource assessments. Studies that are currently underway include responding to oil spills in the Arctic, evaluating the effectiveness of fishery stock rebuilding plans, and reviewing the National Ocean Acidification Research Plan. OSB plays an important role in helping create policy decisions and disseminating important information regarding various aspects of ocean science.

  6. Study of Co-Current and Counter-Current Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow Through Packed Bed in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Shripad T.

    2002-11-01

    The main goal of the project is to obtain new experimental data and development of models on the co-current and counter-current gas-liquid two-phase flow through a packed bed in microgravity and characterize the flow regime transition, pressure drop, void and interfacial area distribution, and liquid hold up. Experimental data will be obtained for earth gravity and microgravity conditions. Models will be developed for the prediction of flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration, which are key parameters to characterize the packed bed performance. Thus the specific objectives of the proposed research are to: (1) Develop experiments for the study of the gas liquid two-phase flow through the packed bed with three different flow combinations: co-current down flow, co-current upflow and counter current flow. (2) Develop pore scale and bed scale two-phase instrumentation for measurement of flow regime transition, void distribution and gas-liquid interfacial area concentration in the packed bed. (3) Obtain database on flow regime transition, pressure drop, void distribution, interfacial area concentration and liquid hold up as a function of bed characteristics such as bed particle size, porosity, and liquid properties such as viscosity and surface tension. (4) Develop mathematical model for flow regime transition, void fraction distribution and interfacial area concentration for co-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions.(4) Develop mathematical model for the flooding phenomena in counter-current gas-liquid flow through the porous bed in gravity and micro gravity conditions. The present proposal addresses the most important topic of HEDS-specific microgravity fluid physics research identified by NASA 's one of the strategic enterprises, OBPR Enterprise. The proposed project is well defined and makes efficient use of the ground-based parabolic flight research aircraft facility. The

  7. Sustained attention in skilled and novice martial arts athletes: a study of event-related potentials and current sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Fernandez, Thalia

    2016-01-01

    Background. Research on sports has revealed that behavioral responses and event-related brain potentials (ERP) are better in expert than in novice athletes for sport-related tasks. Focused attention is essential for optimal athletic performance across different sports but mainly in combat disciplines. During combat, long periods of focused attention (i.e., sustained attention) are required for a good performance. Few investigations have reported effects of expertise on brain electrical activity and its neural generators during sport-unrelated attention tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of expertise (i.e., skilled and novice martial arts athletes) analyzing the ERP during a sustained attention task (Continuous Performance Task; CPT) and the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density, using the sLORETA technique. Methods. CPT consisted in an oddball-type paradigm presentation of five stimuli (different pointing arrows) where only one of them (an arrow pointing up right) required a motor response (i.e., target). CPT was administered to skilled and novice martial arts athletes while EEG were recorded. Amplitude ERP data from target and non-target stimuli were compared between groups. Subsequently, current source analysis for each ERP component was performed on each subject. sLORETA images were compared by condition and group using Statistical Non-Parametric Mapping analysis. Results. Skilled athletes showed significant amplitude differences between target and non-target conditions in early ERP components (P100 and P200) as opposed to the novice group; however, skilled athletes showed no significant effect of condition in N200 but novices did show a significant effect. Current source analysis showed greater differences in activations in skilled compared with novice athletes between conditions in the frontal (mainly in the Superior Frontal Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus) and limbic (mainly in the Anterior Cingulate Gyrus) lobes

  8. Sustained attention in skilled and novice martial arts athletes: a study of event-related potentials and current sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanchez-Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on sports has revealed that behavioral responses and event-related brain potentials (ERP are better in expert than in novice athletes for sport-related tasks. Focused attention is essential for optimal athletic performance across different sports but mainly in combat disciplines. During combat, long periods of focused attention (i.e., sustained attention are required for a good performance. Few investigations have reported effects of expertise on brain electrical activity and its neural generators during sport-unrelated attention tasks. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of expertise (i.e., skilled and novice martial arts athletes analyzing the ERP during a sustained attention task (Continuous Performance Task; CPT and the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density, using the sLORETA technique. Methods. CPT consisted in an oddball-type paradigm presentation of five stimuli (different pointing arrows where only one of them (an arrow pointing up right required a motor response (i.e., target. CPT was administered to skilled and novice martial arts athletes while EEG were recorded. Amplitude ERP data from target and non-target stimuli were compared between groups. Subsequently, current source analysis for each ERP component was performed on each subject. sLORETA images were compared by condition and group using Statistical Non-Parametric Mapping analysis. Results. Skilled athletes showed significant amplitude differences between target and non-target conditions in early ERP components (P100 and P200 as opposed to the novice group; however, skilled athletes showed no significant effect of condition in N200 but novices did show a significant effect. Current source analysis showed greater differences in activations in skilled compared with novice athletes between conditions in the frontal (mainly in the Superior Frontal Gyrus and Medial Frontal Gyrus and limbic (mainly in the Anterior Cingulate

  9. Using text mining for study identification in systematic reviews: a systematic review of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James; McNaught, John; Miwa, Makoto; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-14

    The large and growing number of published studies, and their increasing rate of publication, makes the task of identifying relevant studies in an unbiased way for inclusion in systematic reviews both complex and time consuming. Text mining has been offered as a potential solution: through automating some of the screening process, reviewer time can be saved. The evidence base around the use of text mining for screening has not yet been pulled together systematically; this systematic review fills that research gap. Focusing mainly on non-technical issues, the review aims to increase awareness of the potential of these technologies and promote further collaborative research between the computer science and systematic review communities. Five research questions led our review: what is the state of the evidence base; how has workload reduction been evaluated; what are the purposes of semi-automation and how effective are they; how have key contextual problems of applying text mining to the systematic review field been addressed; and what challenges to implementation have emerged? We answered these questions using standard systematic review methods: systematic and exhaustive searching, quality-assured data extraction and a narrative synthesis to synthesise findings. The evidence base is active and diverse; there is almost no replication between studies or collaboration between research teams and, whilst it is difficult to establish any overall conclusions about best approaches, it is clear that efficiencies and reductions in workload are potentially achievable. On the whole, most suggested that a saving in workload of between 30% and 70% might be possible, though sometimes the saving in workload is accompanied by the loss of 5% of relevant studies (i.e. a 95% recall). Using text mining to prioritise the order in which items are screened should be considered safe and ready for use in 'live' reviews. The use of text mining as a 'second screener' may also be used cautiously

  10. Approaches to Grammar Instruction in Teaching Materials: A Study in Current L2 Beginning-Level Spanish Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how grammar instruction is conceptualized and applied in published Spanish materials. It sought to answer the following questions: What are the approaches to grammar instruction in current, college-level, beginning Spanish textbooks? How do they reflect current perspectives on grammar teaching? Six widely adopted Spanish…

  11. Approaches to Grammar Instruction in Teaching Materials: A Study in Current L2 Beginning-Level Spanish Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    This study explores how grammar instruction is conceptualized and applied in published Spanish materials. It sought to answer the following questions: What are the approaches to grammar instruction in current, college-level, beginning Spanish textbooks? How do they reflect current perspectives on grammar teaching? Six widely adopted Spanish…

  12. Spintronics with metals: Current perpendicular-to-the-plane magneto-transport studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit

    In this thesis, we present studies to produce new information about three topics: current perpendicular to the plane magnetoresistance (CPP-MR), spin transfer torque (STT), and antiferromagnetic spintronics. Large values of CPP-MR interface parameters---specific interface resistance (Area times resistance), 2AR*, and scattering asymmetry, gamma---are desirable for the use of CPP-MR in devices. Stimulated by a nanopillar study by the Cornell Group, we first discovered that Py/Al had an unusually large 2AR*, but a small gamma. In the hope of finding metal pairs with large values of both the interface parameters, the Py/Al studies led us to study the following interfaces: (a) F/Al with F: Py (= Ni84Fe16). Co, Fe, Co91Fe9, and (b) F/N: Py/Pd, Fe/V, Fe/Nb and Co/Pt. None of the metal pairs looks better for CPP-MR devices. The Cornell group also found that bracketing Al with thin Cu in Py/Al/Py nanopillars, gave an MR similar to Py/Al/Py rather than to Py/Cu/Py. To try to understand this result, we studied the effect of Cu/Al/Cu spacers on ADeltaR = AR(AP) - AR(P) of Py exchange biased spin valves (EBSVs). Here AR(AP) and AR(P) are the specific resistances in the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) configurations of the F layers. Intriguingly, fixing the Al thickness tAl = 10 nm and varying tCu has no effect on ADeltaR, but fixing tCu = 10 nm and varying t Al significantly affected ADeltaR. These unusual behaviors are probably due to strong Al and Cu intermixing, with probable formation of some fraction of ordered alloys. Recent calculations predicted that 2AR of Al/Ag interfaces would vary substantially with orientation and with alloying. The latter is a special potential problem, because Al and Ag interdiffuse at room temperature. To compare with the calculations, we determined 2AR of sputtered Al/Ag interfaces with (111) orientation. Our estimate agrees with calculations that assume 4 monolayers of interfacial disorder, consistent with modest intermixing. To aid in

  13. Job stress is associated with migraine in current workers: the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, I S; Griep, R H; Alves, M G M; Goulart, A C; Lotufo, P A; Barreto, S M; Chor, D; Benseñor, I M

    2014-10-01

    Migraine is an important source of social burden and work-related costs. Studies addressing the association of migraine with job stress are rare. The aim of this paper was to study the association of job stress components and migraine using structured, validated questionnaires that were part of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). The ELSA-Brasil is a multicentre cohort of 15,105 civil servants (12,096 current workers) in Brazil. Job strain was assessed using the 17-item Brazilian version of the Swedish Demand-Control-Support Questionnaire. Headache episodes in the preceding 12 months were assessed using a questionnaire based on the International Headache Society criteria. We analysed the association between job stress domains and migraine in men and women using adjusted logistic regression and interaction models. We included 3113 individuals without headache and 3259 migraineurs. Low job control [odds ratio (OR) 1.30; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.10-1.53], high job demands (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.18-1.59) and low social support (OR 1.49; 95% CI 1.29-1.71) were associated with migraine. Job control was more strongly associated with migraine in women (p for interaction = 0.02). High-strain (high demand and low control) jobs were associated with migraine in both men (OR 1.48; 95% CI 1.11-1.97) and women (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.17-1.95). We observed a strong association between high-strain jobs and migraine. Job control was a stronger migraine-related factor for women. Low social support was associated with migraine in both sexes. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying transcranial direct current stimulation in aphasia: A feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena eUlm

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioural stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS-effects on brain functions in aphasia.

  15. Laboratory study of magnetic reconnection with a density asymmetry across the current sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Myers, Clayton E; Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-08-29

    The effects of a density asymmetry across the current sheet on anti-parallel magnetic reconnection are studied systematically in a laboratory plasma. Despite a significant density ratio of up to 10, the in-plane magnetic field profile is not significantly changed. On the other hand, the out-of-plane Hall magnetic field profile is considerably modified; it is almost bipolar in structure with the density asymmetry, as compared to quadrupolar in structure with the symmetric configuration. Moreover, the ion stagnation point is shifted to the low-density side, and the electrostatic potential profile also becomes asymmetric with a deeper potential well on the low-density side. Nonclassical bulk electron heating together with electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range is observed near the low-density-side separatrix. The dependence of the ion outflow and reconnection electric field on the density asymmetry is measured and compared with theoretical expectations. The measured ion outflow speeds are about 40% of the theoretical values.

  16. Current Progresses in Study of Impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian Summer Climate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoxiong; MAO Jiangyu; DUAN Anmin; ZHANG Qiong

    2006-01-01

    The current progresses in the study of impacts of the Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer climate in the last decade are reviewed. By analyzing evolution of the transitional zone between westerly to the north and easterly to the south (WEB), it is shown that due to the strong heating over the Tibetan Plateau in spring, the overturning in the prevailing wind direction from easterly in winter to westerly in summer occurs firstly over the eastern Bay of Bengal (BOB), accompanied with vigorous convective precipitation to its east. The area between eastern BOB and western Indo-China Peninsula thus becomes the area with the earliest onset of Asian monsoon, which may be referred as BOB monsoon in short. It is shown that the summertime circulations triggered by the thermal forcing of the Iranian Plateau and the Tibetan Plateau are embedded in phase with the continental-scale circulation forced by the diabatic heating over the Eurasian Continent. As a result, the East Asian summer monsoon is intensified and the drought climate over the western and central Asian areas is enhanced. Together with perturbations triggered by the Tibetan Plateau,the above scenarios and the associated heating have important influences on the climate patterns over Asia.Furthermore, the characteristics of the Tibetan mode of the summertime South Asian high are compared with those of Iranian mode. Results demonstrate that corresponding to each of the bimodality of the South Asian high, the rainfall anomaly distributions over Asia exhibit different patterns.

  17. Current Trends in the Studies of Allelochemicals for Their Application in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsen V.Viter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The allelochemicals have been largely used in agriculture, forestry, landscape design and ornamental plant growing for many decades. However, there is a lack of the comprehensive studies, where existing publications are analyzed and synthesized with regards to the theoretic aspects for such usage. The objective of this paper was to systemize the advances in the research on allelochemicals’ application in practice. Numerous novel methodological propositions have risen recently. We classified them into the physical, chemical, biological, biotechnological and cropgrowing approaches. The allelochemicals consist of the wide diversity of the substances according to their chemical nature. Among these substances we outlined, firstly, the unidentified plant exudates and the products of green manuring, secondly, the chemically characterized or purified substances, which include alcohols, organic acids, aliphatic compounds, aromatic, alicyclic and nitrogen-contain organic compounds. Several groups of the biotic sources of allelochemicals were described: dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, particularly under their colonization by non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium oxysporum, marine flora and fungi, which exhibit the herbicidal activity. Different targets of the allelochemical application were listed in the paper and they were categorized into several groups: higher flora, animals, unicellular and multi-cellular fungi. We concluded that there is lack of the modern multifaceted knowledge bases for the information about the allelochemical application. Those knowledge bases must be useful in order to choose the appropriate biological method for solving each particular problem of plant cultivation. To that end we systemized the results of current investigation about the usage of allelochemicals in practice.

  18. ERP indices of persisting and current inhibitory control: a study of saccadic task switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S C; Swainson, R; Jackson, G M

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have found that inhibition of a biologically dominant prepotent response tendency is required during the execution of a less familiar, non-prepotent response. However, the lasting impact of this inhibition and the cognitive mechanisms to flexibly switch between prepotent and non-prepotent responses are poorly understood. We examined the neurophysiological (ERP) correlates of switching between prosaccade and antisaccade responses in 22 healthy volunteers. The behavioural data showed significant switch costs in terms of response latency for the prosaccade task only. These costs occurred exclusively in trials when preparation for the switch was limited to 300 ms, suggesting that inhibition of the prepotent prosaccade task either passively dissipated or was actively overcome during the longer 1000 ms preparation interval. In the neurophysiological data, a late frontal negativity (LFN) was visible during preparation for a switch to the prosaccade task that was absent when switching to the antisaccade task, which may reflect the overcoming of persisting inhibition. During task implementation both saccade types were associated with a late parietal positivity (LPP) for switch relative to repetition trials, possibly indicating attentional reorienting to the switched-to task, and visible only with short preparation intervals. When the prosaccade and antisaccade task were contrasted directly during task implementation, the antisaccade task exhibited increased stimulus-locked N2 and decreased P3 amplitudes indicative of active inhibition. The present findings indicate that neurophysiological markers of persisting and current inhibition can be revealed using a prosaccade/antisaccade-switching task.

  19. Demagnetization Treatment of Remanent Composite Microspheres Studied by Alternating Current Susceptibility Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben H. Erné

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample.

  20. A Study on the Current Status and Prospects of Development of the Tourism Services Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnyk Mariia V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the world trends in the developmet of services market, and it has been determined that the service sector is about 70% of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP. It has been noted that the tourism sector is one of the largest in the world economy, and its market in terms of investment efficiency is among the highly profitable markets along with the gas and oil producing, industrial, and automotive markets. The tourism market in Ukraine is only about 2% of the country’s GDP, but has great potential for innovation development and tourism perspectives. Such a situation requires constant monitoring and analyzing, which makes the selected study relevant. The purpose of the article was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current status of the market for tourism services in Ukraine and to determine the main tendencies in its further development. It has been found that the tourism industry sector in Ukraine is formed by three components: outbound (international, internal, and inbound (foreign tourism, the quantitative increase of which will increase the efficiency of the country’s tourism potential and reinforce its positive image abroad.

  1. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  2. A dynamic Monte Carlo study of anomalous current voltage behaviour in organic solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feron, K., E-mail: Krishna.Feron@csiro.au; Fell, C. J. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); CSIRO Energy Flagship, Newcastle, NSW 2300 (Australia); Zhou, X.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C. [Centre for Organic Electronics, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-07

    We present a dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) study of s-shaped current-voltage (I-V) behaviour in organic solar cells. This anomalous behaviour causes a substantial decrease in fill factor and thus power conversion efficiency. We show that this s-shaped behaviour is induced by charge traps that are located at the electrode interface rather than in the bulk of the active layer, and that the anomaly becomes more pronounced with increasing trap depth or density. Furthermore, the s-shape anomaly is correlated with interface recombination, but not bulk recombination, thus highlighting the importance of controlling the electrode interface. While thermal annealing is known to remove the s-shape anomaly, the reason has been not clear, since these treatments induce multiple simultaneous changes to the organic solar cell structure. The DMC modelling indicates that it is the removal of aluminium clusters at the electrode, which act as charge traps, that removes the anomalous I-V behaviour. Finally, this work shows that the s-shape becomes less pronounced with increasing electron-hole recombination rate; suggesting that efficient organic photovoltaic material systems are more susceptible to these electrode interface effects.

  3. Experimental Study on Vortex-Induced Vibrations of Submarine Pipeline near Seabed Boundary in Ocean Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Unlike most previous studies on vortex-induced vibrations of a cylinder far from a boundary, this paper focuses on the influences of close proximity of a submarine pipeline to a rigid seabed boundary upon the dynamic responses of the pipeline in ocean currents. The effects of gap-to-diameter ratio and those of the stability parameter on the amplitude and frequency responses of a pipeline are investigated experimentally with a novel hydro-elastic facility. A comparison is made between the present experimental results of the amplitude and frequency responses for the pipes with seabed boundary effects and those for wall-free cylinders given by Govardhan and Williamson (2000) and Anand (1985). The comparison shows that the close proximity of a pipeline to seabed has much influence on the vortex-induced vibrations of the pipeline. Both the width of the lock-in ranges in terms of Vr and the dimensionless amplitude ratio Amax/D become larger with the decrease of the gap-to-diameter ratio e/D. Moreover, the vibration of the pipeline becomes easier to occur and its amplitude response becomes more intensive with the decrease of the stability parameter, while the pipeline frequency responses are affected slightly by the stability parameter.

  4. Application of Caco-2 Cell Line in Herb-Drug Interaction Studies: Current Approaches and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awortwe, C.; Fasinu, P.S.; Rosenkranz, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Caco-2 model is employed in pre-clinical investigations to predict the likely gastrointestinal permeability of drugs because it expresses cytochrome P450 enzymes, transporters, microvilli and enterocytes of identical characteristics to the human small intestine. The FDA recommends this model as integral component of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS). Most dedicated laboratories use the Caco-2 cell line to screen new chemical entities through prediction of its solubility, bioavailability and the possibility of drug-drug or herb-drug interactions in the gut lumen. However, challenges in the inherent characteristics of Caco-2 cell and inter-laboratory protocol variations have resulted to generation of irreproducible data. These limitations affect the extrapolation of data from pre-clinical research to clinical studies involving drug-drug and herb-drug interactions. This review addresses some of these caveats and enumerates the plausible current and future approaches to reduce the anomalies associated with Caco-2 cell line investigations focusing on its application in herb-drug interactions. PMID:24735758

  5. Demagnetization treatment of remanent composite microspheres studied by alternating current susceptibility measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkum, Susanne; Erné, Ben H

    2013-09-04

    The magnetic remanence of silica microspheres with a low concentration of embedded cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is studied after demagnetization and remagnetization treatments. When the microspheres are dispersed in a liquid, alternating current (AC) magnetic susceptibility spectra reveal a constant characteristic frequency, corresponding to the rotational diffusion of the microparticles; this depends only on particle size and liquid viscosity, making the particles suitable as a rheological probe and indicating that interactions between the microspheres are weak. On the macroscopic scale, a sample with the dry microparticles is magnetically remanent after treatment in a saturating field, and after a demagnetization treatment, the remanence goes down to zero. The AC susceptibility of a liquid dispersion, however, characterizes the remanence on the scale of the individual microparticles, which does not become zero after demagnetization. The reason is that an individual microparticle contains only a relatively small number of magnetic units, so that even if they can be reoriented magnetically at random, the average vector sum of the nanoparticle dipoles is not negligible on the scale of the microparticle. In contrast, on the macroscopic scale, the demagnetization procedure randomizes the orientations of a macroscopic number of magnetic units, resulting in a remanent magnetization that is negligible compared to the saturation magnetization of the entire sample.

  6. Private Finance Initiative (PFI for Road Projects in UK: Current Practice with a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Akbiyikli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainable provision of new and high quality maintained road stock is vitally important, especially in times of economic constraint such as Europe is currently experiencing. The Private Finance Initiative (PFI is one method of financing such large-scale, capital intensive projects. An important aspect of this form of financing projects is that the risks are borne not only by the sponsors but are shared by different types of investors such as equity holders, debt providers, and quasi-equity investors. Consequently, a comprehensive and heuristic risk management process is essential for the success of the project. The proposition made within this paper is that the PFI mechanism provides a Value-for-Money and effective mechanism to achieve this. The structure of this PFI finance and investment on a particular road project therefore enables all project stakeholders to take a long-term perspective. This long-term perspective is reflected in the mechanism of a case study of UK – Class A trunk roads which are examined in detail. This paper presents a novel solution to a modern dilemma.

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation and cognitive training in the rehabilitation of Alzheimer disease: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penolazzi, Barbara; Bergamaschi, Susanna; Pastore, Massimiliano; Villani, Daniele; Sartori, Giuseppe; Mondini, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we tested the cognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in a case of probable Alzheimer disease (AD). The patient (male, 60 years, mild AD) underwent two cycles of treatments, separated by 2 months. In the first cycle, active stimulation (10 sessions, 2 mA for 20 min; anode over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) was followed by computerised tasks (CTs) specifically chosen to engage the most impaired cognitive processes in the patient (tDCS+CT condition). In the second cycle, which was structured as the first, CTs were administered after placebo stimulation (sham+CT condition). Effects on cognitive performance were evaluated not only by the CTs, but also by neuropsychological tests assessing global cognitive functioning. Statistical analyses revealed that whereas the tDCS+CT condition had few effects on the CTs, it induced a stability of the patient's global cognitive functioning lasting approximately 3 months, which was not achieved when the patient underwent sham+CT condition. Therefore, the synergetic use of tDCS and CTs appeared to slow down the cognitive decline of our patient. This preliminary result, although in need of further confirmation, suggests the potentiality of tDCS as an adjuvant tool for cognitive rehabilitation in AD.

  8. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Perilesional Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Aphasia: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, Lena; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Meinzer, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the neural mechanisms by which transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) impacts on language processing in post-stroke aphasia. This was addressed in a proof-of-principle study that explored the effects of tDCS application in aphasia during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We employed a single subject, cross-over, sham-tDCS controlled design, and the stimulation was administered to an individualized perilesional stimulation site that was identified by a baseline fMRI scan and a picture naming task. Peak activity during the baseline scan was located in the spared left inferior frontal gyrus and this area was stimulated during a subsequent cross-over phase. tDCS was successfully administered to the target region and anodal- vs. sham-tDCS resulted in selectively increased activity at the stimulation site. Our results thus demonstrate that it is feasible to precisely target an individualized stimulation site in aphasia patients during simultaneous fMRI, which allows assessing the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS application. The functional imaging results of this case report highlight one possible mechanism that may have contributed to beneficial behavioral stimulation effects in previous clinical tDCS trials in aphasia. In the future, this approach will allow identifying distinct patterns of stimulation effects on neural processing in larger cohorts of patients. This may ultimately yield information about the variability of tDCS effects on brain functions in aphasia. PMID:26500522

  9. Probing for hemispheric specialization for motor skill learning: a transcranial direct current stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Heidi M; Abe, Mitsunari; Luckenbaugh, David A; Reis, Janine; Krakauer, John W; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2011-08-01

    Convergent findings point to a left-sided specialization for the representation of learned actions in right-handed humans, but it is unknown whether analogous hemispheric specialization exists for motor skill learning. In the present study, we explored this question by comparing the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over either left or right motor cortex (M1) on motor skill learning in either hand, using a tDCS montage to better isolate stimulation to one hemisphere. Results were compared with those previously found with a montage more commonly used in the field. Six groups trained for three sessions on a visually guided sequential pinch force modulation task with their right or left hand and received right M1, left M1, or sham tDCS. A linear mixed-model analysis for motor skill showed a significant main effect for stimulation group (left M1, right M1, sham) but not for hand (right, left) or their interaction. Left M1 tDCS induced significantly greater skill learning than sham when hand data were combined, a result consistent not only with the hypothesized left hemisphere specialization for motor skill learning but also with possible increased left M1 responsiveness to tDCS. The unihemispheric montage effect size was one-half that of the more common montage, and subsequent power analysis indicated that 75 subjects per group would be needed to detect differences seen with only 12 subjects with the customary bihemispheric montage.

  10. Study on Recovery Performance of High Tc Superconducting Tapes for Resistive Type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    kar, Soumen; Kulkarni, Sandeep; Dixit, Manglesh; Singh, Kuwar Pal; Gupta, Alok; Balasubramanyam, P. V.; Sarangi, S. K.; Rao, V. V.

    Recent advances in reliable production of long length high temperature superconducting (HTS) tapes have resulted in commercial application of superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) in electrical utility networks. SFCL gives excellent technical performance when compared to conventional fault current limiters. The fast self-recovery from normal state to superconducting state immediately after the fault removal is an essential criterion for resistive type SFCL operation. In this paper, results on AC over-current testing of 1st generation (1G) Bi2223 tapes and 2nd generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors operating at 77 K are reported. From these results, the recovery time is estimated for different available HTS tapes in the market. The current limiting tests have also been performed to study the effective current limitation. Further, the recovery characteristics after the current limitation are quantitatively discussed for repetitive faults for different time intervals in the range of 100 ms to few seconds.

  11. Numerical study on water waves and wave-induced longshore currents in Obaköy coastal water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Jun; LYU Yigang; SHEN Yongming

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the water waves and wave-induced longshore currents in Obaköy coastal water which is lo-cated at the Mediterranean coast of Turkey were numerically studied. The numerical model is based on the parabolic mild-slope equation for coastal water waves and the nonlinear shallow water equation for the wave-induced currents. The wave transformation under the effects of shoaling, refraction, diffraction and breaking is considered, and the wave provides radiation stresses for driving currents in the model. The numerical results for the water wave-induced longshore currents were validated by the measured data to demonstrate the efficiency of the numerical model. Then the water waves and longshore currents induced by the waves from main directions were numerically simulated and analyzed based on the numerical re-sults. The numerical results show that the movement of the longshore currents was different while the wave propagated to a coastal zone from different directions.

  12. Studies of the energy and power of current commercial prismatic and cylindrical Li-ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Kevin; Li, P. K. C.; Ip, C. W.; Li, C. W.; Wan, Levin; Lam, Y. F.; Lai, P. Y.; Fan, Jiang; Magnuson, Doug

    We studied the specific energy, energy density, specific power, and power density of current commercial 18650 cylindrical and 103450 prismatic Li-ion cells. It was found that the specific energy, energy density, specific power, and power density have been increased dramatically since 1999. The highest specific energy obtained in this study is 193 Wh/kg, which is 90% more than that reported in 1999 and is only 5% lower than 200 Wh/kg, the long-term DOE goal [The International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement for Electric Vehicle Technologies and Programs, Annex V, Outlook Document, 1996-1997, p. 16.]. The cell energy density has also doubled since 1999 and is as much as about 70% more than 300 Wh/l, the long-term DOE goal. The cells studied here can deliver over 80% of their designed energy at the specific power 200 W/kg while the 18650 cell studied previously could only deliver 10% of their designed energy at the same specific power. Various kinds of the factors in the cell-specific energy and energy density were studied. It seems that the geometric difference can cause as much as a 9% difference in the specific energy and a 12% difference in the energy density between 18650 cylindrical and 103450 prismatic cells. Use of an aluminum can seems to lead to about a 16% improvement in the specific energy of 103450 cells compared with steel can. The decrease in the cell discharge voltage can cause as much as a 9% decrease in the cell energy at the 2 C rate while it has a relatively small effect on the cell energy or specific energy at the 0.2 C rate. Compared with what has been obtained at room temperature, there are 17-35% at -20 °C, 43-76% at -30 °C, and 78-100% decreases at -40 °C, respectively, in the cell discharge energy and specific energy depending on the cell manufacturer. The decrease in the cell average discharge voltage during the cycling test can contribute as much as a 6% decrease in the cell energy at the 1 C rate after 300 cycles, which is 21% of

  13. Taking Aim at Moving Targets in Computational Cell Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzzo, Paola; Van Troys, Marleen; Ampe, Christophe; Martens, Lennart

    2016-02-01

    Cell migration is central to the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Fundamental understanding of cell migration can, for example, direct novel therapeutic strategies to control invasive tumor cells. However, the study of cell migration yields an overabundance of experimental data that require demanding processing and analysis for results extraction. Computational methods and tools have therefore become essential in the quantification and modeling of cell migration data. We review computational approaches for the key tasks in the quantification of in vitro cell migration: image pre-processing, motion estimation and feature extraction. Moreover, we summarize the current state-of-the-art for in silico modeling of cell migration. Finally, we provide a list of available software tools for cell migration to assist researchers in choosing the most appropriate solution for their needs.

  14. Flapping current sheet motions in magnetotail excited by non-adiabatic ions: case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The current sheet is a crucial region of the magnetotail, where energy reserve and release take place. The origin of the up-down motions of the current sheet, referred to as flapping motions, is among the most fundamental issues of magnetotail dynamics. Observational evidences suggest that the flapping motion is a kind of internal excited kink-like waves, but its particular propagating features such as the low phase speeds and the propagating direction from the tail center toward flanks do not match any local generation mechanisms previously established so far. Here we report observations of the current sheet flapping motions induced by non-adiabatic ions in the magnetic field configurations with a finite guiding component, whose population present periodic hemispherical asymmetries. Three type of current sheet flapping event in this paper will be discussed. This current sheet flapping phenomenon implies that the excitation mechanism of the current sheet flapping motions is a self-circulation process between the non-adiabatic ion population and the current sheet equilibrium itself.

  15. Experimental study of a high-current FEM with a broadband microwave system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, G.G.; Bratman, V.L.; Ginzburg, N.S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    One of the main features of FELs and FEMs is the possibility of fast and wideband tuning of the resonant frequency of active media, which can be provided by changing the particle energy. For a frequency adjustable FEM-oscillator, a broadband microwave system, which is simply combined with an electron-optical FEM system and consists of an oversized waveguide and reflectors based on the microwave beams multiplication effect has been proposed and studied successfully in {open_quotes}cold{close_quotes} measurements. Here, the operating ability of a cavity, that includes some key elements of the broadband microwave system, was tested in the presence of an electron beam. To provide large particle oscillation velocities in a moderate undulator field and the presence of a guide magnetic field, the FEM operating regime of double resonance was chosen. In this regime the cyclotron as well as undulator resonance conditions were satisfied. The FEM-oscillator was investigated experimentally on a high-current accelerator {open_quotes}Sinus-6{close_quotes} that forms an electron beam with particle energy 500keV and pulse duration 25ns. The aperture with a diameter 2.5mm at the center of the anode allows to pass through only the central fraction of the electron beam with a current about 100A and a small spread of longitudinal velocities of the particles. Operating transverse velocity was pumped into the electron beam in the pulse plane undulator of a 2.4cm period. The cavity with a frequency near 45GHz consists of a square waveguide and two reflectors. The broadband up-stream reflector based on the multiplication effect had the power reflectivity coefficient more than 90% in the frequency band 10% for the H{sup 10} wave of the square waveguide with the maximum about 100% at a frequency 45GHz. The down-stream narrow-band Bragg reflector had the power reflection coefficient approximately 80% in the frequency band of 4% near 45GHz for the operating mode.

  16. CURRENT ISSUES ON JOB STRESS IN JAPAN AND WORKSITE MENTAL HEALTH APPLICATION AMONG JAPANESE COMPANY A Case Study Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Purnawati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Issues about job stress is more popular in the world currently. Not just for Japan, Korea and Taiwan, but also an important issue in EU countries, especially the UK and Finland Increase of awareness about job stress effects on work performance, productivity and mental health is as onereason of the phenomenon.Objective: The present study aimed to explore the issue of job stress in Japan for the reference of good practices to Indonesia.Methods: This study, based on observationalstudies in the period of September-December in year 2010 in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Kitakyushu Japan. Observations on Japanese Company and discussions with experts, such as: occupational physician of Riken Company, experts from: Tokyo University and Tokyo University’s occupational physician, Department of ergonomics, the Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences UOEH (University ofOccupational and Environmental Health, Institute for Science of Labor, and researcher of Japan NIOSH. Two stress management training and occupational mental health’ application program were observed in the period of October-December.Result: The trend of current occupational mental health research in Japan has being moved from job stress to more advanced issues of work engagement andwork-life balance. There are three approaches to prevention of job stress. Considering the three approach could improve of worker productivity and well-being. The training for Tokyo University’s staffs was as one session of individual-oriented stress prevention approach. It was conducted in very interactive class lecture. During 2 hours session, the participants learned some knowledge about job stress and its risk factors, exercised to construct better cognitive for stress prevention and productivity, practiced of progressive muscle relaxation technique, group work, did some home works and filled an evaluation sheet after the session was finish. We also observed the occupational mental

  17. Mars ISRU for Production of Mission Critical Consumables - Options, Recent Studies, and Current State of the Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Paz, A.; Oryshchyn, L.; Araghi, K.; Muscatello, A.; Linne, D.; Kleinhenz, J.; Peters, T.

    2015-01-01

    In 1978, a ground breaking paper titled, "Feasibility of Rocket Propellant Production on Mars" by Ash, Dowler, and Varsi discussed how ascent propellants could be manufactured on the Mars surface from carbon dioxide collected from the atmosphere to reduce launch mass. Since then, the concept of making mission critical consumables such as propellants, fuel cell reactants, and life support consumables from local resources, commonly known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), for robotic and human missions to Mars has been studied many times. In the late 1990's, NASA initiated a series of Mars Human Design Reference Missions (DRMs), the first of which was released in 1997. These studies primarily focused on evaluating the impact of making propellants on Mars for crew ascent to Mars orbit, but creating large caches of life support consumables (water & oxygen) as a backup for regenerative life support systems for long-duration surface stays (>500 days) was also considered in Mars DRM 3.0. Until science data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter and subsequent robotic missions revealed that water may be widely accessable across the surface of Mars, prior Mars ISRU studies were limited to processing Mars atmospheric resources (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon, oxygen, and water vapor). In December 2007, NASA completed the Mars Human Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study which considered water on Mars as a potential resource for the first time in a human mission architecture. While knowledge of both water resources on Mars and the hardware required to excavate and extract the water were very preliminary, the study concluded that a significant reduction in mass and significant enhancements to the mission architecture were possible if Mars water resources were utilized. Two subsequent Mars ISRU studies aimed at reexamining ISRU technologies, processing options, and advancements in the state-of-the-art since 2007 and to better understand the volume and packaging associated

  18. Current radiological techniques used to evaluate unilateral partial ureteral obstruction: an experimental rabbit study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Mehmet; Celebi, Suleyman; Kuzdan, Özgür; Koçan, Hüseyin; Ayyıldız, Halil Suat; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Yapıcı, Oktay; Kefeli, Mehmet; Arıtürk, Ender

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate functional and prognostic benefits of Doppler ultrasonography (DU), diuretic renal scintigraphy (DRS), and magnetic resonance urography (MRU) during diagnosis and follow-up of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and to examine apoptosis rates caused by UPJO in an experimental rabbit model. Twenty-four rabbits were divided randomly into two groups. The left kidneys of 15 rabbits from the first group underwent Ulm-Miller surgery to create UPJO, whereas the left kidneys of nine rabbits from the second group underwent sham surgery. A pressure flow study (Whitaker's test) was done during postoperative week 6. Based on the Whitaker test, the DU, DRS, and MRU findings were compared. The number of apoptotic renal cells was counted after death. The Whitaker test run during postoperative week 6 revealed obstructions in 15 rabbits from group 1; the nine rabbits of the sham group had no obstructions. Sensitivity and specificity of DRS were 93.3 and 88.8 %, respectively, and those of MRU were 93.3 and 88.8 %, respectively. The postoperative mean RI values were significantly higher than the preoperative values, associated with sensitivity of 86.6 % and specificity of 77.5 % for detecting UPJO. DRS, MRU, and RI could not predict UPJO in one (8 %), one (8 %), and two (16 %) kidneys, respectively. Likelihood ratio (LR) was 8.4 for MRU and scintigraphy, while for RI, LR was 3.9. Pathology specimens revealed that all kidneys with UPJO underwent apoptosis, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly higher on the UPJO-created side than on the contralateral and in the sham group (p < 0.05). No test predicted all apoptosis related to UPJO. The RI, DRS, and DMRU results correlated with the pressure flow results for detecting UPJO. No single radiological technique predicted all initial UPJO-created kidneys that concluded with apoptosis. Further studies are required to seek with better methods for diagnosing an obstruction or to define a

  19. Study of eddy current power loss from outer-winding coils of a magnetic position sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, C P; Chang, Y H; Yu, C S; Wu, K T; Wang, S J; Ying, T F; Huang, D R

    2000-01-01

    The present analysis is concerned with eddy current power loss of a magnetic position sensor, which arises from a non-uniform flux linkage distribution between magnetic material and position sensor. In the paper, a magnetic position sensor system is simplified to be an outer-winding coil along the axial direction of a low carbon steel bar, and developed a numerical model to compute the electrical characteristics by an excited current source. According to the simulated and measured data in this proposed model from 2.52 to 11.37 Oes, eddy current power losses of conducting material have a variation of 6.1% and 9.77%, respectively. Finally, the phases of waveform of the induced output voltage will also be obtained in the conducting material, and have a variation of 3.68% obtained by using the current source in the proposed model.

  20. Critical current studies on fine filamentary NbTi accelerator wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, M.; Suenaga, M.; Sampson, W.B.; Sabatini, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    The magnets for the Superconductig Super Collider, a high energy proton colliding beam accelerator, require a superconductor with very high current density (>2400 A/mm/sup 2/ at 5 T) and very small filaments (approx. 2..mu..m in diameter). Previous work has shown that by controlling the formation of Cu/sub 4/Ti compound particles on the filament surfaces it is possible to make fine filamentary NbTi wire with high critical current density. The performance of multi-filamentary wire is characterized by the current density and the quantity ''n'' which describes the superconducting-normal transition. Micrographs of wires having high J/sub c/ and high n show smooth, uniform filaments. Recently wires of very high critical current and high n have been produced in experimental quantities by commercial manufactures.