WorldWideScience

Sample records for current refinements instrument

  1. Current and Nascent SETI Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Siemion, Andrew P V; Chen, Henry; Cordes, Jim; Filiba, Terry; Foster, Griffin; Fries, Adam; Howard, Andrew; von Korff, Josh; Korpela, Eric; Lebofsky, Matt; McMahon, Peter L; Parsons, Aaron; Spitler, Laura; Wagner, Mark; Werthimer, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe our ongoing efforts to develop high-performance and sensitive instrumentation for use in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI). These efforts include our recently deployed Search for Extraterrestrial Emissions from Nearby Developed Intelligent Populations Spectrometer (SERENDIP V.v) and two instruments currently under development; the Heterogeneous Radio SETI Spectrometer (HRSS) for SETI observations in the radio spectrum and the Optical SETI Fast Photometer (OSFP) for SETI observations in the optical band. We will discuss the basic SERENDIP V.v instrument design and initial analysis methodology, along with instrument architectures and observation strategies for OSFP and HRSS. In addition, we will demonstrate how these instruments may be built using low-cost, modular components and programmed and operated by students using common languages, e.g. ANSI C.

  2. Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument: Initial Italian validation and proposed refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Dicembrino, Rita Bruna; Gionti, Luciano; Petre, Lucica; Ungurean, Liana

    2015-09-09

    Italy has become a target of immigration in the last three decades. Accordingly, the Italian population is progressively changing, becoming increasingly culturally different. Cultural competences are a fundamental requirement for many industries and, especially, for healthcare organizations. The aim of this paper is to propose an initial Italian validation of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI) and to propose a refinement of this scale in terms of measured constructs. The CCAI was translated into Italian through a team-based iterative approach and then administered to a sample of 289 nurses with symbolic and realistic threat scale and social dominance orientation scale. An on-line cross-sectional survey questionnaire was used. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original two dimensions of the CCAI can be divided into two other sub-scales, thus leaving us with the following dimensions: cultural awareness, cultural sensitivity, seeking information and active behavior. These dimensions appeared to be sufficiently reliable and independent one from another. Moreover, they showed specific and different correlations with other measured constructs. The Italian version of the CCAI would seem to be a useful instrument for measuring both attitudes and behavioral intention of nurses with respect to intercultural care. Using four dimensions instead of two appears to increase the understanding of professionals' cultural competence and supply a deeper picture of dimensions which compose cultural competence in healthcare settings.

  3. Current State and Prospect of China's Refining Sector%Current State and Prospect of China's Refining Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu He

    2012-01-01

    (1) China's refining capacity will reach 650 million tons per year, the cooperation with oil producing countries in refining sector will be strengthened and a diversified competitive framework for the sector will be further pushed forward.

  4. Modelling of an hydraulic excavator using simplified refined instrumental variable(SRIV)algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Instead of establishing mathematical hydraulic system models from physical laws usually done with the problems of complex modelling processes,low reliability and practicality caused by large uncertainties,a novel modelling method for a highly nonlinear system of a hydraulic excavator is presented.Based on the data collected in the excavator's arms driving experiments,a data-based excavator dynamic model using Simplified Refined Instrumental Variable(SRIV)identification and estimation algorithms is established.The validity of the proposed data-based model is indirectly demonstrated by the performance of computer simulation and the real machine motion control experiments.

  5. UAVSAR Instrument: Current Operations and Planned Upgrades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Hensley, Scott; Chao, Roger; Chapin, Elaine; Heavy, Brandon; Jones, Cathleen; Miller, Timothy; Naftel, Chris; Fratello, David

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) instrument is a pod-based Lband polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR), specifically designed to acquire airborne repeat track SAR data for differential interferometric measurements. This instrument is currently installed on the NASA Gulfstream- III (G-III) aircraft with precision real-time Global Positioning System (GPS) and a sensor-controlled flight management system for precision repeat-pass data acquisitions. UAVSAR has conducted engineering and preliminary science data flights since October 2007 on the G-III. We are porting the radar to the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne Vehicle (UAV) to enable long duration/long range data campaigns. We plan to install two radar pods (each with its own active array antenna) under the wings of the Global Hawk to enable the generation of precision topographic maps and single pass polarimetric-interferometry (SPI) providing vertical structure of ice and vegetation. Global Hawk's range of 8000 nm will enable regional surveys with far fewer sorties as well as measurements of remote locations without the need for long and complicated deployments. We are also developing P-band polarimetry and Ka-band single-pass interferometry capabilities on UAVSAR by replacing the radar antenna and front-end electronics to operate at these

  6. LEDA beam diagnostics instrumentation: Beam current measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, D.; Day, L.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.-U.; Martinez, D.; Power, J. F.; Shurter, R.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) accelerates protons to an energy of 6.7 MeV and current of 100 mA operating in either a pulsed or cw mode. Two types of current measurements are used. The first is an AC or pulsed-current measurement which uses three LANL built toroids. They are placed in the beamline in such a way as to measure important transmission parameters and act as a differential current-loss machine protection system. The second system is a DC current measurement used to measure cw beam characteristics and uses toroids from Bergoz Inc. There are two of these systems, so they can also be used for transmission measurements. The AC system uses custom processing electronics whereas the DC system uses a modified Bergoz® electronics system. Both systems feature data acquisition via a series of custom TMS320C40 Digital Signal Processing (DSP) boards. Of special interest to this paper is the operation of these systems, the calibration technique, the differential current loss measurements and fast-protection processing, current droop characteristics for the AC system, and existing system noise levels. This paper will also cover the DSP system operations and their interaction with the main accelerator control system.

  7. Using the refined ICF Linking Rules to compare the content of existing instruments and assessments: a systematic review and exemplary analysis of instruments measuring participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballert, Carolina S; Hopfe, Maren; Kus, Sandra; Mader, Luzius; Prodinger, Birgit

    2016-07-14

    Existing instruments measuring participation may vary with respect to various aspects. This study aimed to examine the comparability of existing instruments measuring participation based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) by considering aspects of content, the perspective adopted and the categorization of response options. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify instruments that have been commonly used to measure participation. Concepts of identified instruments were then linked to the ICF following the refined ICF Linking Rules. Aspects of content, perspective adopted and categorization of response options were documented. Out of 315 instruments identified in the full-text screening, 41 instruments were included. Concepts of six instruments were linked entirely to the ICF component Activities and Participation; of 10 instruments still 80% of their concepts. A descriptive perspective was adopted in most items across instruments (75%), mostly in combination with an intensity rating. An appraisal perspective was found in 18% and questions from a need or dependency perspective were least frequent (7%). Accounting for aspects of content, perspective and categorization of responses in the linking of instruments to the ICF provides detailed information for the comparison of instruments and guidance on narrowing down the choices of suitable instruments from a content point of view. Implications for Rehabilitation For clinicians and researchers who need to identify a specific instrument for a given purpose, the findings of this review can serve as a screening tool for instruments measuring participation in terms of the following: • Their content covered based on the ICF. • The perspective adopted in the instrument (e.g., descriptive, need/dependency or appraisal). • The categorization of their response options (e.g., intensity or frequency).

  8. Microstructural refinement of weld fusion zones in {alpha}-{beta} titanium alloys using pulsed current welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaresan, S.; Janaki Ram, G.D. [Indian Inst. of Technol., Chennai (India). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Madhusudhan Reddy, G. [Defence Metallurgical Research Lab., Hyderabad (India)

    1999-04-01

    Pulsing of the welding current is one approach for refining the fusion zone grain structure in {alpha}-{beta} titanium alloy welds. This paper reports work in which gas tungsten-arc welds were produced in two {alpha}-{beta} titanium alloys under a variety of conditions including direct current (d.c.) pulsing and alternating current (a.c.) pulsing. The results show that, while d.c. pulsing did also refine the weld metal {beta} grain structure, the effect of a.c. pulsing was much greater. Current pulsing enhances fluid flow, reduces temperature gradients and causes a continual change in the weld pool size and shape. These effects, which are believed to be responsible for refining the solidification structure, are much stronger in a.c. pulsing than in d.c. pulsing. The observed grain refinement was shown to result in an appreciable increase in fusion zone tensile ductility. Post-weld heat treatment improved ductility both in pulsed and unpulsed welds, but pulsed welds showed greater tensile elongation even in the heat treated condition. (orig.) 27 refs.

  9. What does the public know about environmental health? A qualitative approach to refining an environmental health awareness instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut; Middleton, Wendi K; Wodika, Alicia B; Brown, Stephen L; Preihs, Kristin

    2015-04-01

    Despite an increased level of interest in environmental health concerns among the American public, awareness of the risks associated with environmental hazards is generally lacking. Assessing population awareness is typically performed through surveys, yet a comprehensive national environmental health questionnaire is currently unavailable. In 2009, a Delphi study using environmental health experts from federal, state, and local government and academia identified 11 core areas of environmental health (air, water, radiation, food safety, emergency preparedness, healthy housing, infectious disease and vector control, toxicology, injury prevention, waste and sanitation, and weather and climate change) and provided content validity for 443 questions covering 25 specific topics for possible inclusion on a national instrument. The authors' study described in this article used the qualitative approach of focus groups to refine the questions. Questions were divided into four sections and randomly assigned to a focus group location; 32 individuals participated. Results indicated that many perceptions are based on misinformation (or lack of information), which may lead to poor environmental health decision making.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Current Sheet Formation in a Quasi-Separatrix Layer using Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Effenberger, Frederic; Arnold, Lukas; Grauer, Rainer; Dreher, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The formation of a thin current sheet in a magnetic quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) is investigated by means of numerical simulation using a simplified ideal, low-$\\beta$, MHD model. The initial configuration and driving boundary conditions are relevant to phenomena observed in the solar corona and were studied earlier by Aulanier et al., A&A 444, 961 (2005). In extension to that work, we use the technique of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to significantly enhance the local spatial resolution of the current sheet during its formation, which enables us to follow the evolution into a later stage. Our simulations are in good agreement with the results of Aulanier et al. up to the calculated time in that work. In a later phase, we observe a basically unarrested collapse of the sheet to length scales that are more than one order of magnitude smaller than those reported earlier. The current density attains correspondingly larger maximum values within the sheet. During this thinning process, which is finally limite...

  11. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  12. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Robin L.; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future January 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liljegren, JC

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of ACRF instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future May 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - March 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  2. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - February 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  3. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future October 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  4. Technical support to the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) demonstration projects: assessment of current research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, M.S.; Rodgers, B.R.; Brown, C.H.; Carlson, P.K.; Gambill, W.R.; Gilliam, T.M.; Holmes, J.M.; Krishnan, R.P.; Parsly, L.F.

    1980-12-01

    A program to demonstrate Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) technology has been initiated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with two industrial groups. Project management responsibility has been assigned to the Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) of DOE. ORO requested that the Oak Ridge National Laboratory assess current research and development (R and D) activities and develop recommendations for those activities that might contribute to successful completion of the SRC demonstration plant projects. The objectives of this final report are to discuss in detail the problem areas in SRC; to discuss the current and planned R and D investigations relevant to the problems identified; and to suggest appropriate R and D activities in support of designs for the SRC demonstration plants. Four types of R and D activities are suggested: continuation of present and planned activities; coordination of activities and results, present and proposed; extension/redirection of activities not involving major equipment purchase or modifications; and new activities. Important examples of the first type of activity include continuation of fired heater, slurry rheology, and slurry mixing studies at Ft. Lewis. Among the second type of activity, coordination of data acquisition and interpretation is recommended in the areas of heat transfer, vapor/liquid equilibria, and physical properties. Principal examples of recommendations for extension/redirection include screening studies at laboratory scale on the use of carbonaceous precoat (e.g., anthracite) infiltration, and 15- to 30-day continuous tests of the Texaco gasifier at the Texaco Montebello facility (using SRC residues).

  5. Programmable Input Mode Instrumentation Amplifier Using Multiple Output Current Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankiewicz Bogdan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a programmable input mode instrumentation amplifier (IA utilising second generation, multiple output current conveyors and transmission gates is presented. Its main advantage is the ability to choose a voltage or current mode of inputs by setting the voltage of two configuration nodes. The presented IA is prepared as an integrated circuit block to be used alone or as a sub-block in a microcontroller or in a field programmable gate array (FPGA, which shall condition analogue signals to be next converted by an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC. IA is designed in AMS 0.35 µm CMOS technology and the power supply is 3.3 V; the power consumption is approximately 9.1 mW. A linear input range in the voltage mode reaches ± 1.68 V or ± 250 µA in current mode. A passband of the IA is above 11 MHz. The amplifier works in class A, so its current supply is almost constant and does not cause noise disturbing nearby working precision analogue circuits.

  6. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future August 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  7. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future July 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future September 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development. New information is highlighted in blue text.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - December 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future March 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - January 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-03-02

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  13. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future February 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2009-02-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - August 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  15. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - April 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  16. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  17. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  18. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  19. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - June 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  20. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - July 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following five sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) field campaigns, (3) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (4) proposed future instrumentation, and (5) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  1. Open problems and perspectives offered by current and future instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérin M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize recent observational and theoretical results and discuss the open challenges for astrochemistry and the promises offered by the current and upcoming instruments. Some of the main challenges are listed below. Characterization of the structure of the interstellar medium Coupling of the matter with magnetic fields, role of cosmic rays Coupling of the dynamics with the evolution of matter (chemistry, ionization degree, depletion, desorption Characterization of dust grains (composition, size, emissivity, polarization Evolution of the carbonaceous matter, PAHs, aggregates and Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs carriers Oxygen chemistry and the low abundance of molecular oxygen Nitrogen chemistry and its seeds, the nitrogen hydrides Sulfur chemistry and the contribution of S+ to the charge balance of translucent matter Neutral-neutral reactions involving simple radicals (CH, CH2, OH, etc..

  2. Eddy current testing system for bottom mounted instrumentation welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Noriyasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of eddy current testing (ECT for the bottom mounted instrumentation (BMI weld area of reactor vessel in a pressurized water reactor was demonstrated by the developed ECT system and procedure. It is difficult to position and move the probe on the BMI weld area because the area has complexly curved surfaces. The space coordinates and the normal vectors at the scanning points were calculated as the scanning trajectory of probe based on the measured results of surface shape on the BMI mock-up. The multi-axis robot was used to move the probe on the mock-up. Each motion-axis position of the robot corresponding to each scanning point was calculated by the inverse kinematic algorithm. In the mock-up test, the probe was properly contacted with most of the weld surfaces. The artificial stress corrosion cracking of approximately 6 mm in length and the electrical-discharge machining slit of 0.5 mm in length, 1 mm in depth and 0.2 mm in width given on the weld surface were detected. From the probe output voltage, it was estimated that the average probe tilt angle on the surface under scanning was 2.6°.

  3. Preparative Separation of Six Rhynchophylla Alkaloids from Uncaria macrophylla Wall by pH-Zone Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available pH-Zone refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to the preparative isolation and purification of six alkaloids from the ethanol extracts of Uncaria macrophylla Wall. Because of the low content of alkaloids (about 0.2%, w/w in U. macrophylla Wall, the target compounds were enriched by pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–isopropanol–water (2:6:3:9, v/v, adding 10 mM triethylamine in organic stationary phase and 5 mM hydrochloric acid in aqueous mobile phase. Then pH-zone refining counter-current chromatography using the other two-phase solvent system was used for final purification. Six target compounds were finally isolated and purified by following two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE–acetonitrile–water (4:0.5:5, v/v, adding triethylamine (TEA (10 mM to the organic phase and HCl (5 mM to aqueous mobile phase. The separation of 2.8 g enriched total alkaloids yielded 36 mg hirsutine, 48 mg hirsuteine, 82 mg uncarine C, 73 mg uncarine E, 163 mg rhynchophylline, and 149 mg corynoxeine, all with purities above 96% as verified by HPLC Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy.

  4. Current status of some neutron instruments in Serpong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikram, A.; Hardi, T.; Maulana, A. [Neutron Scattering Lab., Materials Science Research Center, BATAN-Serpong, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1998-10-01

    Performances of the Small Angle Neutron Scattering Spectrometer, the High Resolution Small Angle Neutron Scattering Spectrometer and the High Resolution Neutron Powder Diffractometer in the last full one year are presented as well as problems, difficulties and limitations faced by each instrument. Efforts that have been done to overcome those shortcomings are also mentioned. Proposed collaboration in order to bring those instruments back to a state that can perform scientifically acceptable is described to a level that can be agreed in this workshop. (author)

  5. The Calar Alto Observatory: current status and future instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Barrado, D; Aceituno, J; Pedraz, S; Sanchez, S F; Aguirre, A; Alises, M; Bergond, G; Galadi, D; Guijarro, A; Hoyo, F; Mast, D; Montoya, L; Sengupta, Ch; de Guindos, E; Solano, E

    2010-01-01

    The Calar Alto Observatory, located at 2168m height above the sea level in continental Europe, holds a signi?cant number of astronomical telescopes and experiments, covering a large range of the electromagnetic domain, from gamma-ray to near-infrared. It is a very well characterized site, with excellent logistics. Its main telescopes includes a large suite of instruments. At the present time, new instruments, namely CAFE, PANIC and Carmenes, are under development. We are also planning a new operational scheme in order to optimize the observatory resources.

  6. Factoring - financial instrument supporting the current activity of an enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Czerwińska-Kayzer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises have a difficult access to classic financial sources. Therefore the factoring could be a financial instrument supporting effective management of the liabilities. Factoring improves the financial situation of a company, first of all financial liquidity. Moreover, factoring improves structure of financial statement and creates a possibility of risk transfer of debtor insolvency on factor.

  7. The methodologies and instruments of vehicle particulate emission measurement for current and future legislative regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Arai, Masataka; Xu, Min

    2015-09-01

    Since the health risks associated with fine particles whose aerodynamic diameters are smaller than 2.5 μm was first proven, regulations restricting particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from internal combustion engines have become increasingly severe. Accordingly, the gravimetric method of PM mass measurement is facing its lower limit of detection as the emissions from vehicles are further reduced. For example, the variation in the adsorption of gaseous components such as hydrocarbons from unburned fuel and lubricant oil and the presence of agglomerated particles, which are not directly generated in engine combustion but re-entrainment particulates from walls of sampling pipes, can cause uncertainty in measurement. The PM mass measurement systems and methodologies have been continuously refined in order to improve measurement accuracy. As an alternative metric, the particle measurement programme (PMP) within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) developed a solid particle number measurement method in order to improve the sensitivity of particulate emission measurement from vehicles. Consequently, particle number (PN) limits were implemented into the regulations in Europe from 2011. Recently, portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for in-use vehicle emission measurements are also attracting attention, currently in North America and Europe, and real-time PM mass and PN instruments are under evaluation.

  8. Current Status of Imaging Physics and Instrumentation In Nuclear Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Joung [Institute of Health Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    Diagnostic and functional imaging device have been developed independently. The recognition that combining of these two devices can provide better diagnostic outcomes by fusing anatomical and functional images. The representative examples of combining devices would be PET/CT and SPECT/CT. Development and their applications of animal imaging and instrumentation have been very active, as new drug development with advanced imaging device has been increased. The development of advanced imaging device resulted in researching and developing for detector technology and imaging systems. It also contributed to develop a new software, reconstruction algorithm, correction methods for physical factors, image quantitation, computer simulation, kinetic modeling, dosimetry, and correction for motion artifacts. Recently, development of MRI and PET by combining them together was reported. True integration of MRI and PET has been making the progress and their results were reported. The recent status of imaging and instrumentation in nuclear medicine is reported in this paper.

  9. Preparative Isolation of Seven Diterpenoid Alkaloids from Aconitum coreanum by pH-Zone-Refining Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyong Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to seek an efficient method to preparative separation of alkaloid compounds from Aconitum coreanum (Guanbaifu, a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal plant for heart disease. Seven alkaloid compounds were successfully purified by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v, 10 mM triethylamine in upper phase and 10 mM hydrochloric acid in lower phase. From 3.5 g of crude extract, 356 mg of Guanfu base I, 578 mg of Guanfu base A, 74 mg of atisine, 94 mg of Guanfu base F, 423 mg of Guanfu base G, 67 mg of Guanfu base R and 154 mg of Guanfu base P were obtained with the purity of 96.40%, 97.2%, 97.5%, 98.1%, 98.9%, 98.3% and 98.4%. Their chemical structures were identified by TOF-MS and 1H-NMR. This study indicated that pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was an efficient method for separating the kind of alkaloids with low absorbance values.

  10. WISM - A Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement: Past Accomplishments, Current Status, and Path Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Quenton; Racette, Paul; Durham, Tim (Principal Investigator)

    2016-01-01

    Presented are the prior accomplishments, current status and path forward for GSFC's Wideband Instrument for Snow Measurement (WISM). This work is a high level overview of the project, presented via Webinar to the IEEE young professionals.

  11. Comparative Study on the Grain Refinement of Al-Si Alloy Solidified under the Impact of Pulsed Electric Current and Travelling Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhu Zhang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is high of commercial importance to generate the grain refinement in alloys during solidification by means of electromagnetic fields. Two typical patterns of electromagnetic fields, pulsed electric currents (ECP and traveling magnetic field (TMF, are frequently employed to produce the finer equiaxed grains in solidifying alloys. Various mechanisms were proposed to understand the grain refinement in alloys caused by ECP and TMF. In this paper, a comparative study is carried out in the same solidification regime to investigate the grain refinement of Al-7 wt. %Si alloy driven by ECP and TMF. Experimental results show that the application of ECP or TMF can cause the same grain refinement occurrence period, during which the refinement of primary Al continuously occurs. In addition, the related grain refinement mechanisms are reviewed and discussed, which shows the most likely one caused by ECP and TMF is the promoted dendrite fragmentation as the result of the ECP-induced or TMF-induced forced flow. It suggests that the same grain refinement process in alloys is provoked when ECP and TMF are applied in the same solidification regime, respectively.

  12. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is

  13. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal.Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial experiences that describe significant advances in the instrumental science.The mission of the Instrumentation is to provide a platform for the researchers,academicians,

  14. Grain refinement, hardening and metastable phase formation by high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment under heating and melting modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosdidier, T., E-mail: Thierry.grosdidier@univ-metz.f [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, CNRS 3143), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Lab of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zou, J.X. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, CNRS 3143), Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Bolle, B. [Laboratoire d' Etude des Textures et Applications aux Materiaux (LETAM, CNRS 3143), ENIM, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz (France); Hao, S.Z.; Dong, C. [Lab of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2010-08-15

    High current pulsed electron beam is a recently developed technique for surface modification. The pulsed electron irradiation introduces concentrated energy depositions in the thin surface layer of the treated materials, giving rise to an extremely fast heating and subsequent rapid cooling of the surface together with the formation of dynamic stress waves. Improved surface properties (hardness, corrosion resistance) can be obtained under the 'melting' mode when the top surface is melted and rapidly solidified (10{sup 7} K/s). In steels, this is essentially the result of nanostructures formed from the highly undercooled melt, melt surface purification, strain hardening induced by the thermal stress waves as well as metastable phase selections in the rapidly solidified melted layers. The use of the 'heating' mode is less conventional, combining effects of the heavy deformation and recrystallization/recovery mechanisms. A detailed analysis of a FeAl alloy demonstrates grain size refinement, hardening, solid-state enhanced diffusion and texture modification without modification of the surface geometry.

  15. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation involves the assessment and the development of sensitive measurement systems used within a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the assessment of optical fibre components and their adaptability to radiation environments. The evaluation of ageing processes of instrumentation in fission plants, the development of specific data evaluation strategies to compensate for ageing induced degradation of sensors and cable performance form part of these activities. In 2000, particular emphasis was on in-core reactor instrumentation applied to fusion, accelerator driven and water-cooled fission reactors. This involved the development of high performance instrumentation for irradiation experiments in the BR2 reactor in support of new instrumentation needs for MYRRHA, and for diagnostic systems for the ITER reactor.

  16. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's R and D programme on instrumentation involves the development of advanced instrumentation systems for nuclear applications as well as the assessment of the performance of these instruments in a radiation environment. Particular emphasis is on the use of optical fibres as umbilincal links of a remote handling unit for use during maintanance of a fusion reacor, studies on the radiation hardening of plasma diagnostic systems; investigations on new instrumentation for the future MYRRHA accelerator driven system; space applications related to radiation-hardened lenses; the development of new approaches for dose, temperature and strain measurements; the assessment of radiation-hardened sensors and motors for remote handling tasks and studies of dose measurement systems including the use of optical fibres. Progress and achievements in these areas for 2001 are described.

  17. Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on instrumentation aims at evaluating the potentials of new instrumentation technologies under the severe constraints of a nuclear application. It focuses on the tolerance of sensors to high radiation doses, including optical fibre sensors, and on the related intelligent data processing needed to cope with the nuclear constraints. Main achievements in these domains in 1999 are summarised.

  18. Teachers' Autonomy in Today's Educational Climate: Current Perceptions from an Acceptable Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Luman E. G.; Yoshida, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of Friedman's (1999) Teacher Work-Autonomy Scale (TWA) to determine whether it was an acceptable instrument to measure U.S. teacher autonomy in the present educational context. A second purpose was to ascertain the current status of teachers' perceptions of their autonomy from a sample of U.S.…

  19. Teachers' Autonomy in Today's Educational Climate: Current Perceptions from an Acceptable Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Luman E. G.; Yoshida, Roland K.

    2014-01-01

    This research evaluated the psychometric properties of Friedman's (1999) Teacher Work-Autonomy Scale (TWA) to determine whether it was an acceptable instrument to measure U.S. teacher autonomy in the present educational context. A second purpose was to ascertain the current status of teachers' perceptions of their autonomy from a sample of U.S.…

  20. Development of Fiber Optically Driven Instrument for High-voltage Line Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The measurement theorem of fiber optically driven instrument for high-voltage line current is presented. The PLL voltage-frequency-narrow pulse principle and its micro-consumption mechanism are proposed, followed by analysis on the two main factors affecting PLL measurement precision. A software design scheme using 80C196KB micro-controller is introduced. The experiment result is satisfactory.

  1. A refined integro-surface energy-based model for vibration of magnetically actuated double-nanowire-systems carrying electric current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2017-02-01

    A novel surface energy-based model is developed to examine more precisely vibrations of current-carrying double-nanowire-systems immersed in a longitudinal magnetic field. Using Biot-Savart and Lorentz laws, a more refined version of interwire interactional magnetic forces is presented. By employing Rayleigh beam theory, the equations of motion are derived. In fact, these are coupled integro-differential equations which are more accurate with respect to those of the previously developed models. For simply supported and clamped nanosystems, governing equations are analyzed via assumed mode method. The effects of interwire distance, slenderness ratio, electric current, magnetic field strength, and surface effect on the fundamental frequency are addressed carefully. The obtained results display the importance of exploiting the refined model for vibration analysis of nanosystems with low interwire distance, high electric current, and high magnetic field strength.

  2. Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    The present paper mediates a basic knowledge of the most commonly used experimental techniques. We discuss the principles and concepts necessary to understand what one is doing if one performs an experiment on a certain instrument. (author) 29 figs., 1 tab., refs.

  3. Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Journal Scope:Instrumentation is a high quality open access peer reviewed research journal,Authors are solicited to contribute to these journals by submitting articles that illustrate most up-to-date research results,projects,surveying works and industrial

  4. Instrumentation for Gate Current Noise Measurements on sub-100 nm MOS Transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Gaioni, L; Ratti, L; Re, V; Speziali, V; Traversi, G

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a measuring system that was developed to characterize the gate current noise performances of CMOS devices with minimum feature size in the 100 nm span. These devices play an essential role in the design of present daymixedsignal integrated circuits, because of the advantages associated with the scaling process. The reduction in the gate oxide thickness brought about by CMOS technology downscaling leads to a non-negligible gate current due to direct tunneling phenomena; this current represents a noise source which requires an accurate characterization for optimum analog design. In this paper, two instruments able to perform measurements in two different ranges of gate current values will be discussed. Some of the results of gate current noise characterization will also be presented.

  5. An overview and the current status of instrumentation at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R. Mark; Edwards, Michelle L.; Kuhn, Olga; Thompson, David; Veillet, Christian

    2014-07-01

    An overview of instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is presented. Optical instrumentation includes the Large Binocular Camera (LBC), a pair of wide-field (24' × 24') mosaic CCD imagers at the prime focus, and the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS), a pair of dual-beam blue-red optimized long-slit spectrographs mounted at the left and right direct F/15 Gregorian foci incorporating multiple slit masks for multi-object spectroscopy over a 6' field and spectral resolutions of up to 2000. Infrared instrumentation includes the LBT Near-IR Spectrometer (LUCI), a modular near-infrared (0.9-2.5 μm) imager and spectrograph pair mounted at the left and right front-bent F/15 Gregorian foci and designed for seeing-limited (FOV: 4' × 4') imaging, long-slit spectroscopy, and multi-object spectroscopy utilizing cooled slit masks and diffraction limited (FOV: 0'.5 x 0'.5) imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. Strategic instruments under development that can utilize the full 23 m baseline of the LBT include an interferometric cryogenic beam combiner with near-infrared and thermal-infrared instruments for Fizeau imaging and nulling interferometry (LBTI) and an optical bench near- infrared beam combiner utilizing multi-conjugate adaptive optics for high angular resolution and sensitivity (LINC-NIRVANA). LBTI is currently undergoing commissioning and performing science observations on the LBT utilizing the installed adaptive secondary mirrors in both single-sided and two-sided beam combination modes. In addition, a fiber-fed bench spectrograph (PEPSI) capable of ultra high resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry (R = 40,000-300,000) will be available as a principal investigator instrument. Installation and testing of the bench spectrograph will begin in July 2014. Over the past four years the LBC pair, LUCI1, and MODS1 have been commissioned and are now scheduled for routine partner science observations. Both LUCI2 and MODS2 passed their laboratory

  6. 16 CFR Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 - Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suggested Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility 1 Figures 1 and 2 to Part 1204 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... Instrumentation for Current Monitoring Device and High Voltage Facility EC03OC91.008...

  7. A multi-frequency impedance analysing instrument for eddy current testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, W.; Dickinson, S. J.; Peyton, A. J.

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the design of a high-performance multi-frequency impedance analysing instrument (MFIA) for eddy current testing which has been developed primarily for monitoring a steel production process using an inductive sensor. The system consists of a flexible multi-frequency waveform generator and a voltage/current measurement unit. The impedance of the sensor is obtained by cross-spectral analysis of the current and voltage signals. The system contains high-speed digital-to-analogue, analogue-to-digital converters and dual DSPs with one for control and interface and one dedicated to frequency-spectra analysis using fast Fourier transformation (FFT). The frequency span of the signal that can be analysed ranges from 1 kHz to 8 MHz. The system also employs a high-speed serial port interface (USB) to communicate with a personal computer (PC) and to allow for fast transmission of data and control commands. Overall, the system is capable of delivering over 250 impedance spectra per second. Although the instrument has been developed mainly for use with an inductive sensor, the system is not restricted to inductive measurement. The flexibility of the design architecture is demonstrated with capacitive and resistive measurements by using appropriate input circuitry. Issues relating to optimizing the phase of the spectra components in the excitation waveform are also discussed.

  8. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - September – October 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-10-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  9. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future November-December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  10. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future November-December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JC Liljegren

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  11. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - November – December 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  12. ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future - October – November 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2007-11-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) SBIR instrument development.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  14. Refinement of the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ): An Instrument that Describes the Diverse Problems Seen in Milder Forms of PDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Catharina A.; Luteijn, Ellen; Serra, Marike; Minderaa, Ruud

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to refine the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ), to reduce its length, and to verify its psychometric properties. The CSBQ is a questionnaire for parents or caregivers of children with PDD. The items describe a broad range of features that are typical of PDD, particularly in its milder forms. Based on…

  15. Current Status of the Facility Instrumentation Suite at The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Rothberg, Barry; Edwards, Michelle L; Hill, John M; Thompson, David; Veillet, Christian; Wagner, R Mark

    2016-01-01

    We review the current status of the facility instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT has 2x 8.4m primary mirrors on a single mount with an effective collecting area of 11.8m or 23m when interferometrically combined. The facility instruments are: 1) the Large Binocular Cameras (LBCs), each with a 23'x25' field of view (FOV). The blue and red optimized optical LBCs are mounted at the prime focus of the left and right primary mirrors, respectively. The filter suite of the two LBCs covers 0.3-1.1{\\mu}m, including the new TiO (0.78{\\mu}m) and CN (0.82{\\mu}m) filters; 2) the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS), two identical optical spectrographs each mounted at a straight through f/15 Gregorian mount. MODS-1 & -2 can do imaging with Sloan filters and medium resolution (R~2000) spectroscopy, each with 24 interchangeable masks (multi-object or longslit) over a 6'x6' FOV. Each MODS is capable of blue (0.32-0.6{\\mu}m) and red (0.5-1.05{\\mu}m) wavelength only coverage or, using a dichro...

  16. Current Status of International Airborne Platform Data and Instrument Interface Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Matt; Webster, Chris; Freundinger, Larry

    2016-06-01

    Commission I of the International Society for Photogrammetric and Remote Sensing formed working group I/1 for the purpose of standardizing airborne platform interfaces. The primary mission of this working group is to promote the standardization of instrument interfaces, data formats, and supporting infrastructures; and to facilitate more efficient, flexible, and cost-effective international science flight operations. Within WGI/1 are a number of focused subgroups. This paper addresses the efforts of some of these subgroups having interdependent and overlapping interests; including the development of standard software interfaces for sensors, standardized approaches to management of information over potentially intermittent wireless data links, the development of standardized processing algorithms, and data archival format standards. The data in this report reflect the outcome of work-to-date in the current subgroups.

  17. Current status of the facility instrumentation suite at the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Barry; Kuhn, Olga; Edwards, Michelle L.; Hill, John M.; Thompson, David; Veillet, Christian; Wagner, R. Mark

    2016-07-01

    The current status of the facility instrumentation for the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) is reviewed. The LBT encompasses two 8.4 meter primary mirrors on a single mount yielding an effective collecting area of 11.8 meters or 23 meters when interferometrically combined. The three facility instruments at LBT include: 1) the Large Binocular Cameras (LBCs), each with a 23'× 25' field of view (FOV). The blue optimized and red optimized optical wavelength LBCs are mounted at the prime focus of the SX (left) and DX (right) primary mirrors, respectively. Combined, the filter suite of the two LBCs cover 0.3-1.1 μm, including the addition of new medium-band filters centered on TiO (0.78 μm) and CN (0.82 μm) 2) the Multi-Object Double Spectrograph (MODS), two identical optical spectrographs each mounted at the straight through f/15 Gregorian focus of the primary mirrors. The capabilities of MODS-1 and -2 include imaging with Sloan filters (u, g, r, i, and z) and medium resolution (R ˜ 2000) spectroscopy, each with 24 interchangeable masks (multi-object or longslit) over a 6'× 6' FOV. Each MODS is capable of blue (0.32-0.6 μm) and red (0.5-1.05 μm) wavelength only spectroscopy coverage or both can employ a dichroic for 0.32-1.05 μm wavelength coverage (with reduced coverage from 0.56- 0.57 μm) and 3) the two LBT Utility Camera in the Infrared instruments (LUCIs), are each mounted at a bent-front Gregorian f/15 focus of a primary mirror. LUCI-1 and 2 are designed for seeing-limited (4'× 4' FOV) and active optics using thin-shell adaptive secondary mirrors (0.5'× 0.5' FOV) imaging and spectroscopy over the wavelength range of 0.95-2.5 μm and spectroscopic resolutions of 400 advantage of the active optics SX secondary; and to install a grating designed primarily for use with high resolution active optics. Thus, like MODS-1 and -2, both LUCIs now have specifications nearly identical to each other. The software interface for both LUCIs have also been replaced

  18. Service refinement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JiFeng

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a refinement calculus for service components. We model the behaviour of individual service by a guarded design, which enables one to separate the responsibility of clients from the commitment made by the system, and to iden-tify a component by a set of failures and divergences. Protocols are introduced to coordinate the interactions between a component with the external environment. We adopt the notion of process refinement to formalize the substitutivity of components, and provide a complete proof method based on the notion of simulations.

  19. 探讨炼油装置自动化检测仪表的安装与维护%Installation and maintenance of automatic detecting instruments in refining units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高嗣晟

    2015-01-01

    The automatic detecting instruments applied in refining units are introduced in this paper along with related installation processes. The potential faults are analyzed as well to provide maintenance measures.%本文首先对炼油装置自动化检测仪表进行简单的介绍,然后说明自动化检测仪表的安装过程,最后针对可能出现的事故进行分析,提出相应的维护措施.

  20. Enrichment and separation of antitumor triterpene acids from the epidermis of Poria cocos by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongjing; Wu, Panpan; Yan, Renyi; Xu, Qihua; Li, Hua; Zhang, Fangbo; Li, Jianrong; Yang, Bin

    2015-06-01

    Triterpene acids were extracted from the epidermis of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf. These acids were found to inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. An efficient method for the preparative separation of antitumor triterpene acids was established that involves the combination of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography and conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography. We used pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography to concentrate the triterpene acids using a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (3:7:5:5, v/v/v/v), trifluoroacetic acid (10 mM) was added to the upper phase as a retainer, and ammonia (10 mM) was added to the lower phase as an eluter. As a result, 200 mg concentrate of triterpene acids was obtained from 1.0 g of crude extract. The concentrate was further separated by conventional high-speed counter-current chromatography using a solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (0.8:1.2:1.2:0.9, v/v), yielding 50 mg of poricoic acid A and 5 mg of poricoic acid B from 120 mg concentrate, respectively. The inhibitory activity of the major compound on lung A549 cells was examined and poricoic acid A was found to significantly inhibit the growth of A 549 cells.

  1. Preparative separation of C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx by pH zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Dahui [Institute of Medicinal Plants, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming (China); Shu, Xikai; Wang, Xiao; Fang, Lei; Huang, Luqi, E-mail: wxjn1998@126.com [Shandong Analysis and Test Center, Shandong Academy of Sciences, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xi, Xingjun; Zheng, Zhenjia [China National institute of Standardization, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-01

    The technique of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to preparatively separate three C{sub 19}-diterpenoid alkaloids from the crude extracts of Aconitum carmichaelii for the first time using a two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v). Mesaconitine (I), hypaconitine (II), and deoxyaconitine (III) were obtained from 2.5 g of the crude alkaloids in a one-step separation; the yields were 4.16%, 16.96%, and 5.05%, respectively. The purities of compounds I, II, and III were 93.0%, 95%, and 96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of the three compounds were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and NMR. (author)

  2. Preparative separation of C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum carmichaelii Debx by pH‑zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahui Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was successfully applied to preparatively separate three C19-diterpenoid alkaloids from the crude extracts of Aconitum carmichaelii for the first time using a two-phase solvent system of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (5:5:1:9, v/v/v/v. Mesaconitine (I, hypaconitine (II, and deoxyaconitine (III were obtained from 2.5 g of the crude alkaloids in a one-step separation; the yields were 4.16%, 16.96%, and 5.05%, respectively. The purities of compounds I, II, and III were 93.0%, 95%, and 96%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of the three compounds were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS and NMR.

  3. Separation and purification of two new and two known alkaloids from leaves of Nitraria sibirica by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, Mahinur; Chen, Qibin; Ma, Qingling; Yang, Yi; Abdukadir, Abdumijit; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2015-12-01

    The total alkaloids from Nitraria sibirica leaves have been confirmed to exhibit significant protective effects against inflammatory renal injury, hypertension and albuminuria in angiotensin II-salt hypertension. In the present study, a separation method of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography was established for separation of the alkaloids from N. sibirica. The separation was performed with a solvent system of MtBE-n-BuOH-H2O (2:2:5, v/v) at a flow rate of 2.0mL/min. And 15mM triethylamine (TEA) was added to the upper organic phase, while 10mM hydrochloric acid was added to the lower aqueous phase. As a result, a new alkaloid, schobemine (5.6mg), and a known alkaloid, nitraramine (5.0mg), together with fractions A and B were obtained from the total alkaloids of N. sibirica. The fractions A and B were further purified by means of pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with solvent systems of n-hexane-n-BuOH-H2O (1.5:3.5:5, v/v) and (2:3:5, v/v), respectively. TEA (10mM) was added to the upper phase, and 10mM of HCl was added to the lower phase in above two solvent systems, respectively. As a result, a known alkaloid, schoberidine (5.0mg), and a new alkaloid, schoberimine (3.0mg) were obtained from fractions A and B, respectively. The purities of the compounds were measured by HPLC-ELSD, and their structures were identified by ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR.

  4. Preparation of salvianolic acid A by the degradation reaction of salvianolic acid B in subcritical water integrated with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaizhi; Cheng, Yan; Dong, Hongjing; Wang, Xiao; Li, Jia; Gao, Qianshan

    2016-10-14

    Salvianolic acid A is the major bioactive compound in Danshen, however, due to the chemical instability and low content in Danshen, it is difficult to extract amount of salvianolic acid A. Therefore, this study was to establish an effective strategy for obtaining adequate amount of salvianolic acid A, subcritical water extraction was used to degrade salvianolic acid B and prepare salvianolic acid A. Different reaction conditions including temperature, time, concentration and pH value in subcritical water were investigated. Under 40mg/mL of reactant concentration, 180°C of temperature, 4.0 of pH value and 60min of reaction time, the highest yield rate of salvianolic acid A reached 34.86%. Then, the degradation products were successfully separated by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with the solvent system Pet-EtAc-n-BuOH-H2O (2:3:1:9, v/v), where 10mM TFA was added in stationary phase and 10mM NH3·H2O in mobile phase. As a result, a total of 227.3mg of salvianolic acid A at 98.2% purity, 38.9mg of danshensu at 99.3% purity, 9.5mg of salvianolic acid D at 92.7% purity, and 32.8mg of protocatechuic aldehyde at 93.1% purity were obtained from 1.2g degradation products of salvianolic acid B by one-step purification. The results demonstrated that the combinative application of subcritical water and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography is a potential technique for the preparative separation of salvianolic acid A from salvianolic acid B.

  5. A Method to Increase Current Density in a Mono Element Internal Tin Processed Superconductor Utilizing Zr Oxide to Refine Grain Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Zeitlin, Eric Gregory

    2008-04-07

    The effect of Oxygen on (Nb1Zr)3Sn multifilament conductors manufactured by the Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) process was explored to improve the current density by refining the grain size. This followed work first done by General Electric on the Nb3Sn tape process. Techniques to fabricate the more difficult Nb1Zr composites are described and allowed fabrication of long lengths of .254 mm diameter wire from an 88.9 mm diameter billet. Oxygen was incorporated through the use of SnO2 mixed with tin powder and incorporated into the core. These were compared to samples with Ti+Sn and Cu+Sn cores. Heat treatments covered the range of 700 C to 1000 C. Current density vs. H, grain size, and reaction percentages are provided for the materials tested. The Oxygen gave superior results in the temperature range of 815-1000 C. It also stabilized the filament geometry of the array in comparison to the other additions at the higher temperatures. At 815 C a peak in layer Jc yielded values of 2537 A/mm2 at 12 T and 1353 A/mm2 at 15T, 8-22% and 30-73% greater respectively than 700 C values. Results with Oxygen at high temperature show the possibility of high speed continuous reaction of the composite versus the current batch or react in place methods. In general the Ti additions gave superior results at the lower reaction temperature. Future work is suggested to determine if the 815 C reaction temperature can lead to higher current density in high tin (Nb1Zr+Ox)3Sn conductors. A second technique incorporated oxygen directly into the Nb1Zr rods through heat treatment with Nb2O5 at 1100 C for 100 hours in vacuum prior to extrusion. The majority of the filaments reduced properly in the composite but some local variations in hardness led to breakage at smaller diameters.

  6. Realisation and instrumentation of high current power station for superconducting cables testing; Realisation et instrumentation d'une station fort courant pour le test de cables supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnaud, S

    2000-05-01

    This report deals with the designing of a high current station able to test electric properties of superconductors. This test station will be used for testing the superconducting wires of large hadron collider detectors in CERN. The high current test station will have to generate high intensity continuous current in a magnetic field of 0 to 5 tesla and in temperature conditions of 4.2 K. The length of wire samples submitted to the uniform magnetic field is 300 mm and the installation is fitted with equipment able to measure the magnetic field perpendicular to either faces of the wire. The peculiarity of this station is to use a superconducting transformer in order to generate the high current. The first part of this work recalls important notions concerning superconductivity. The second part presents the high current station by describing the superconducting transformer and the sample-holder. We have studied the designing of a transformer able to yield a secondary current whose intensity reaches 100 kA, such intensity generates powerful electromagnetic forces (566 kN/m) in case of defect, so the sample-holder has to be carefully design to bear them. The third part presents the cryogenic component of the station, the instrumentation of the sample-holder and the method used to measure secondary currents. In the last part we present the performance of a prototype transformer, this prototype is able to deliver a 22 kA secondary current for a 160 A primary current, the uncertainty on the measured value of the secondary current is about 3%.

  7. A new tropane alkaloid from the leaves of Erythroxylum subsessile isolated by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Rodrigo Alves Soares; Almeida, Henrique; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro; Rocha, Leandro; Leitão, Gilda Guimarães

    2016-04-01

    Tropane alkaloids are bioactive metabolites with great importance in the pharmaceutical industry and the most important class of natural products found in the Erythroxylum genus. However, these compounds are usually separated by traditional chromatographic techniques, in which the sample is progressively purified in multiple chromatographic steps, resulting in a time- and solvent-consuming procedure. In this work we present the isolation of a novel alkaloid, 6β,7β-dibenzoyloxytropan-3α-ol, together with the two known 3α-benzoyloxynortropan-6β-ol and 3α,6β-dibenzoyloxytropane alkaloids, directly from the crude alkaloid fraction from the leaves of Erythroxylum subsessile, by using a single run pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography method. The ethyl acetate/water (1:1, v/v) biphasic solvent system with triethylamine and HCl as retention and eluter agents, respectively, was used to isolate tropane alkaloids for the first time. The structures of the isolated alkaloids were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  8. Pediatric sleep questionnaires as diagnostic or epidemiological tools: a review of currently available instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-02-01

    An extensive list of published and unpublished instruments used to investigate or evaluate sleep issues in children was collected and assessed based on the fundamental operational principles of instrument development (11 steps). Of all the available tools identified, only a few were validated and standardized using appropriate psychometric criteria. In fact, only 2 fulfill all desirable criteria and approximately 11 instruments seem to adhere to most of the psychometric tool development requirements, and were therefore assessed in greater detail. Notwithstanding, in the rapidly developing scientific world of pediatric sleep, there are too many tools being used that have not undergone careful and methodical psychometric evaluation, and as such may be fraught with biased or invalid findings. It is hoped that this initial effort in categorizing and assessing available tools for pediatric sleep will serve as recognition of the relatively early developmental stage of our field, and provide the necessary impetus for future tool development using multicentered approaches and adequate methodologies.

  9. A Current List of Available Diagnostic Instruments for Speech, Language and Hearing Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Carol; Hoffman, Dennis W.

    Provided is a list of 40 diagnostic instruments for use by speech, language, and hearing clinicians. The list consists of five tests for aphasia, 10 for hearing, 15 for language, and 10 for speech. Information given for the tests usually includes the title, author, vendor, price, age range, time limits, and a brief description. The names and…

  10. Existential Measurement: A Factor Analytic Study of Some Current Psychometric Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauberger, Patrick C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Research in existentialism and ontology has given rise to several psychometric instruments. Used both exploratory and confirmatory principal-factor analyses to study relationships among 16 existential scales. Exploratory factor analysis provided some support of the theory that the avoidance of existential confrontation is a central function of…

  11. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arpita; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J. S. S. V.; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2016-08-01

    The PRL Advanced Radial-velocity Abu-sky Search (PARAS) instrument is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 Å, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching 1 m s-1 over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of 10 cm s-1 in the optical and <1 m s-1 in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the data reduction and RV analysis pipeline as instrument characterization progresses and we gather longer baselines of data. Secondly, we discuss how our experience with PARAS is a critical component in the development of future cutting edge instruments like (1) the Habitable Zone Planet Finder (HPF), a near-infrared spectrograph optimized to look for planets around M dwarfs, scheduled to be commissioned on the Hobby Eberly Telescope in 2017, and (2) the NEID optical spectrograph, designed in response to the NN-EXPLORE call for an extreme precision Doppler spectrometer (EPDS) for the WIYN telescope. In anticipation of instruments like TESS and GAIA, the ground-based RV support system is being reinforced. We emphasize that instruments like PARAS will play an intrinsic role in providing both complementary follow-up and battlefront experience for these next generation of precision velocimeters.

  12. CURRENT STATUS OF INSTRUMENTATION FOR A FLUORIDE SALT HEAT TRANSPORT DEMONSTRATION LOOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    A small forced convection liquid fluoride salt loop is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to examine the heat transfer behavior of FLiNaK in a heated pebble bed. Loop operation serves several purposes: (1) reestablishing the infrastructure necessary for fluoride salt loop testing, (2) demonstrating a wireless heating technique for simulating pebble type fuel, (3) demonstration of the integration of silicon carbide (SiC) and metallic components into a liquid salt loop, and (4) demonstration of the functionality of distinctive instrumentation required for liquid fluoride salts. Loop operation requires measurement of a broad set of process variables including temperature, flow, pressure, and level. Coolant chemistry measurements (as a corrosion indicator) and component health monitoring are also important for longer-term operation. Two dominating factors in sensor and instrument selection are the high operating temperature of the salt and its chemical environment.

  13. Forest Resources and Timber Production of Ghana : Current Instruments for Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Aferdi, Dadebo; Takeo, Shinohara; United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Kagoshima Universlty; Faculty of Agriculture, University of the Ryukyus

    1999-01-01

    The decline of the natural tropical high forest has reached a critical stage in Ghana's forestry history. Timber resources are overexploited, degraded and further production prospects are questionable and of concern to forest management. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the institutional measures and development instruments being taken in Ghana towards the feasibility of achieving sustainable management of the high forest for timber and other commodity products, as well as co...

  14. The Xinglong 2.16-m Telescope: Current Instruments and Scientific Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhou; Wang, Huijuan; Jiang, Xiaojun; Wu, Hong; Li, Hongbin; Huang, Yang; Xu, Dawei; Hu, Zhongwen; Zhu, Yinan; Wang, Jianfeng; Komossa, Stefanie; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-11-01

    The Xinglong 2.16-m reflector is the first 2-m class astronomical telescope in China. It was jointly designed and built by the Nanjing Astronomical Instruments Factory (NAIF), Beijing Astronomical Observatory (now National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NAOC), and Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1989. It is a Ritchey-Chrétien (R-C) reflector on an English equatorial mount and the effective aperture is 2.16 m. It had been the largest optical telescope in China for ˜18 years until the Guoshoujing Telescope (also called Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, LAMOST) and the Lijiang 2.4-m telescope were built. At present, there are three main instruments on the Cassegrain focus available: the Beijing Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (BFOSC) for direct imaging and low-resolution (R ˜ 500-2000) spectroscopy, the spectrograph made by Optomechanics Research Inc. (OMR) for low-resolution spectroscopy (the spectral resolutions are similar to those of BFOSC) and the fiber-fed High Resolution Spectrograph (HRS; R ˜ 30,000-65,000). The telescope is widely open to astronomers all over China as well as international astronomical observers. Each year there are more than 40 ongoing observing projects, including 6-8 key projects. Recently, some new techniques and instruments (e.g., astro-frequency comb calibration system, polarimeter, and adaptive optics) have been or will be tested on the telescope to extend its observing abilities.

  15. Ground-based instrumentation for measurements of atmospheric conduction current and electric field at the South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, G. J.; Benbrook, J. R.; Bering, E. A.; Few, A. A.; Morris, G. A.; Trabucco, W. J.; Paschal, E. W.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to instruments constructed to measure the atmospheric conduction current and the atmospheric electric field - two fundamental parameters of the global-electric circuit. The instruments were deployed at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in January 1991 and are designed to operate continuously for up to one year without operator intervention. The atmospheric current flows into one hemisphere, through the electronics where it is measured, and out the other hemisphere. The electric field is measured by a field mill of the rotating dipole type. Sample data from the first days of operation at the South Pole indicate variations in the global circuit over time scales from minutes to hours to days.

  16. Ultrasonic sensor to characterize wood pulp during refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M S; Panetta, P D; Bond, L J; McCaw, M W

    2006-12-22

    A novel sensor concept has been developed for measuring the degree of refining, the water retention value (WRV), and the weight percentage of wood pulp during the refining process. The measurement time is less than 5 min and the sensor can operate in a slip-stream of the process line or as an at-line instrument. The degree of refining and the WRV are determined from settling measurements. The settling of a pulp suspension (with a weight percentage less than 0.5 wt%) is observed, after the mixer, which keeps the pulp uniformly distributed, is turned off. The attenuation of ultrasound as a function of time is recorded and these data show a peak at a time designated as the "peak time." The peak time T increases with the degree of refining, as demonstrated by measuring pulp samples with known degrees of refining. The WRV can be determined using the relative peak time, defined as the ratio T(2)/T(1), where T(1) is an initial peak time and T(2) is the value after additional refining. This method offers an alternative WRV test for the industry to the current time-consuming method.

  17. Phase II Fort Ord Landfill Demonstration Task 8 - Refinement of In-line Instrumental Analytical Tools to Evaluate their Operational Utility and Regulatory Acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daley, P F

    2006-04-03

    The overall objective of this project is the continued development, installation, and testing of continuous water sampling and analysis technologies for application to on-site monitoring of groundwater treatment systems and remediation sites. In a previous project, an on-line analytical system (OLAS) for multistream water sampling was installed at the Fort Ord Operable Unit 2 Groundwater Treatment System, with the objective of developing a simplified analytical method for detection of Compounds of Concern at that plant, and continuous sampling of up to twelve locations in the treatment system, from raw influent waters to treated effluent. Earlier implementations of the water sampling and processing system (Analytical Sampling and Analysis Platform, A A+RT, Milpitas, CA) depended on off-line integrators that produced paper plots of chromatograms, and sent summary tables to a host computer for archiving. We developed a basic LabVIEW (National Instruments, Inc., Austin, TX) based gas chromatography control and data acquisition system that was the foundation for further development and integration with the ASAP system. Advantages of this integration include electronic archiving of all raw chromatographic data, and a flexible programming environment to support development of improved ASAP operation and automated reporting. The initial goals of integrating the preexisting LabVIEW chromatography control system with the ASAP, and demonstration of a simplified, site-specific analytical method were successfully achieved. However, although the principal objective of this system was assembly of an analytical system that would allow plant operators an up-to-the-minute view of the plant's performance, several obstacles remained. Data reduction with the base LabVIEW system was limited to peak detection and simple tabular output, patterned after commercial chromatography integrators, with compound retention times and peak areas. Preparation of calibration curves, method

  18. Cryogenic instrumentation for fast current measurement in a silicon single electron transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrus, T.; Hasko, D. G.; Morrissey, Q. R.; Burge, S. R.; Freeman, E. J.; French, M. J.; Lam, A.; Creswell, L.; Collier, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Briggs, G. A. D.

    2009-08-01

    We present a realization of high bandwidth instrumentation at cryogenic temperatures and for dilution refrigerator operation that possesses advantages over methods using radio frequency single electron transistor or transimpedance amplifiers. The ability for the low temperature electronics to carry out faster measurements than with room temperature electronics is investigated by the use of a phosphorous-doped single electron transistor. A single shot technique is successfully implemented and used to observe the real-time decay of a quantum state. A discussion on various measurement strategies is presented and the consequences on electron heating and noise are analyzed.

  19. The Xinglong 2.16-m Telescope: Current Instruments and Scientific Projects

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zhou; Jiang, Xiaojun; Wu, Hong; Li, Hongbin; Huang, Yang; Xu, Dawei; Hu, Zhongwen; Zhu, Yinan; Wang, Jianfeng; Komossa, Stefanie; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    The Xinglong 2.16-m reflector is the first 2-meter class astronomical telescope in China. It was jointly designed and built by the Nanjing Astronomical Instruments Factory (NAIF), Beijing Astronomical Observatory (now National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NAOC) and Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1989. It is Ritchey-Chr\\'{e}tien (R-C) reflector on an English equatorial mount and the effective aperture is 2.16 meters. It had been the largest optical telescope in China for $\\sim18$ years until the Guoshoujing Telescope (also called Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, LAMOST) and the Lijiang 2.4-m telescope were built. At present, there are three main instruments on the Cassegrain focus available: the Beijing Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (BFOSC) for direct imaging and low resolution ($R\\sim500-2000$) spectroscopy, the spectrograph made by Optomechanics Research Inc. (OMR) for low resolution spectroscopy (the spectral resolutions a...

  20. Developing a two-tiered instrument with confidence levels for assessing students' conceptions of Direct Current circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabah, Saed Ahmad

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a two-tier revised instrument (DIRECT-TTC) for measuring students understanding of Direct Current (DC) circuits and identifying their alternative conceptions. Another main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between students' understanding of DC circuits and their confidence in their answers. The revised instrument consists of 15 two-tier items with a confidence scale. Both the Rasch analysis and students' interviews were used in validating the instrument and obtaining evidences for the validity of inferences. Through a two-stage quantitative and qualitative validation process using both conventional statistics and Rasch modeling, the results indicate that the instrument is both valid and reliable. The results show a statistically significant association between students' answers to the first- tier questions and explanations, r = .65 (presearch shows that the more able students with regard to the construct of understanding DC circuits are more likely to be confident in their answers, r = +.39 (presearchers and teachers as well as recommendations for future research are presented.

  1. Current status of instrumentation developments at IRS: in situ investigations and airborne measurement campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdrich, Georg; Fertig, Markus; Lein, Sebastian; Löhle, Stefan; Preci, Arianit; Steinbeck, Andreas; Wernitz, Ricarda; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2010-04-01

    The participation of IRS in entry missions is two-fold: development activities e.g. in the field of TPS qualification using the IRS plasma wind tunnels are successfully performed such as for Titan Huygens or PARES. Another field is the development of in-flight instrumentations and measurement techniques for observation missions. On this basis such systems have been developed and/or flown aboard vehicles such as EXPRESS, MIRKA, IRDT and X38. In 2006 IRS participated in the airborne observation mission for STARDUST using a spectroscopic set-up developed specifically for this purpose on basis of a laboratory spectrometer. Presently, three different in-flight measurement systems are being developed at IRS for the aerothermodynamic demonstrator capsule EXPERT. A further combined system called COMPARE is in the design phase for SHEFEX2. In addition, the data of the observation mission for the entry of ATV the end of September 2008 is being evaluated.

  2. High impulse voltage and current measurement techniques fundamentals, measuring instruments, measuring methods

    CERN Document Server

    Schon, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Equipment to be installed in electric power-transmission and distribution systems must pass acceptance tests with standardized high-voltage or high-current test impulses which simulate the stress on the insulation caused by external lightning discharges and switching operations in the grid. High impulse voltages and currents are also used in many other fields of science and engineering for various applications. Therefore, precise impulse-measurement techniques are necessary, either to prevent an over- or understressing of the insulation or to guarantee the effectiveness and quality of the application. The book deals with: principal generator circuits for generating high-voltage and high-current impulses measuring systems and their calibration according to IEC 60060 and IEC 62475 methods of estimating uncertainties of measurement mathematical and experimental basis for characterizing the transfer behavior of spatially extended systems used for measuring fast transients. This book is intended for engineers and ...

  3. Current Sounding Capability From Satellite Meteorological Observation With Ultraspectral Infrared Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.

    2008-01-01

    Ultraspectral resolution infrared spectral radiance obtained from near nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud property information. The intent of the measurement of tropospheric thermodynamic state and trace abundances is the initialization of climate models and the monitoring of air quality. The NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I), designed to support the development of future satellite temperature and moisture sounders, aboard high altitude aircraft has been collecting data throughout many field campaigns. An advanced retrieval algorithm developed with NAST-I is now applied to satellite data collected with the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) on the Aqua satellite launched on 4 May 2002 and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the MetOp satellite launched on October 19, 2006. These instruments possess an ultra-spectral resolution, for example, both IASI and NAST-I have 0.25 cm-1 and a spectral coverage from 645 to 2760 cm-1. The retrieval algorithm with a fast radiative transfer model, including cloud effects, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. The physical inversion scheme has been developed, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiance observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, to simultaneously retrieve surface, atmospheric thermodynamic, and cloud microphysical parameters. A fast radiative transfer model, which applies to the clouded atmosphere, is used for atmospheric profile and cloud parameter retrieval. A one-dimensional (1-d) variational multi-variable inversion solution is used to improve an iterative background state defined by an eigenvector-regression-retrieval. The solution is iterated in order to account for non-linearity in the 1-d variational solution. It is shown that relatively accurate temperature and moisture retrievals can be achieved below optically thin clouds. For optically thick clouds, accurate temperature and moisture profiles down to

  4. 77 FR 39501 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  5. 75 FR 67749 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  6. 77 FR 5037 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  7. 76 FR 31969 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  8. Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxis substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 March 1981 - 19 February 1982 (NODC Accession 8200129)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, zooplankton, chemical, toxic substances, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments...

  9. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 March 1981 - 03 November 1981 (NODC Accession 8200042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, temperature, salinity, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from March 24,...

  10. Current direction, wind wave spectra, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 September 1977 - 31 August 1981 (NODC Accession 8100681)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in...

  11. Current direction, chemical, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 13 December 1980 - 01 March 1982 (NODC Accession 8200097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from December 13, 1980 to...

  12. Current direction, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 18 October 1977 to 01 May 1979 (NODC Accession 7900270)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, zooplankton, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the...

  13. Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 24 February 1977 (NODC Accession 7700458)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter, phytoplankton, and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from August 29, 1975 to...

  14. Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 21 November 1977 to 09 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  15. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 22 December 1977 - 30 September 1979 (NODC Accession 7900336)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  16. Current meter data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1992 to 15 March 1993 (NODC Accession 9400088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest and Southwest Pacific Ocean from October 1, 1992 to March...

  17. Current direction, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 11 October 1978 - 19 March 1980 (NODC Accession 8000368)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and EXCELLENCE in the...

  18. Current direction, temperature, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 14 September 1977 - 20 April 1981 (NODC Accession 8100585)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, temperature, salinity, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September...

  19. Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 15 September 1977 - 27 May 1981 (NODC Accession 8100657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  20. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 19 February 1982 - 23 March 1983 (NODC Accession 8300099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  1. Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 12 January 1978 - 01 June 1980 (NODC Accession 8000465)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments from the CAPT JACK and...

  2. Current direction, chemical, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 09 September 1978 - 19 November 1979 (NODC Accession 8000043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and chemical data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  3. Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 15 September 1977 - 30 June 1979 (NODC Accession 7900295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, marine toxic substances, and wind wave spectra data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  4. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 21 January 1981 - 27 July 1982 (NODC Accession 8200207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from...

  5. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 22 September 1978 - 22 January 1979 (NODC Accession 7900212)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September...

  6. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 10 March 1980 - 29 July 1981 (NODC Accession 8100727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from March...

  7. Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 14 October 1977 - 24 August 1979 (NODC Accession 7900335)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, benthic organisms, and wind direction data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  8. Current direction, fish shellfish resource, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 21 June 1978 - 24 June 1981 (NODC Accession 8200027)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, fish shellfish resource, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 18,...

  9. Current direction, zooplankton, phytoplankton, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 17 February 1981 - 22 June 1982 (NODC Accession 8200230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of...

  10. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Buccaneer Oil Field project, 12 December 1975 - 20 May 1980 (NODC Accession 8000461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from December 12, 1975 to...

  11. Current direction and wind data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Puget Sound during the Mesa Puget Sound/PSERP (MESA -PS) project, 21 June 1977 - 25 September 1977 (NODC Accession 7800257)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and wind data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Puget Sound from June 21, 1977 to September 25, 1977. Data...

  12. Current direction, chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 24 January 1980 - 22 June 1981 (NODC Accession 8100704)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  13. Current meter and pressure gauge data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Alaska as part of the Fisheries-Oceanography Cooperative Investigations (FOCI) project, 26 April 1989 - 26 September 1989 (NODC Accession 9100068)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and pressure gauge data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Alaska from April 22, 1989 to September...

  14. Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 07 February 1981 - 01 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8300055)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, phytoplankton, zooplankton, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of...

  15. The Current Status of Prime Focus Instrument of Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Huang, Pin-Jie; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Kimura, Masahiko; Chou, Richard C Y; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Sang; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Morantz, Chaz N; Reiley, Dan J; Mao, Peter; Braun, David F; Wen, Chih-Yi; Yan, Chi-Hung; Karr, Jennifer; Gunn, James E; Murray, Graham; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Shimono, Atsushi; Ferreira, Decio; Santosh, Leandro Henriqu dos; Oliveira, Ligia Souza; de Oliveira, Antonio Cesar; Marrara, Lucas Souza

    2016-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph design for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capability of Hyper SuprimeCam (HSC). The prime focus unit of PFS called Prime Focus Instrument (PFI) provides the interface with the top structure of Subaru telescope and also accommodates the optical bench in which Cobra fiber positioners are located. In addition, the acquisition and guiding cameras (AGCs), the optical fiber positioner system, the cable wrapper, the fiducial fibers, illuminator, and viewer, the field element, and the telemetry system are located inside the PFI. The mechanical structure of the PFI was designed with special care such that its deflections sufficiently match those of the HSC's Wide Field Corrector (WFC) so the fibers will stay on targets over the course of the observations within the required accuracy. In this report, the latest status of PFI develop...

  16. Current and Future IFU Instrumentation at the Sloan 2.5 m Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drory, Niv; Bershady, Matthew A.; MacDonald, Nick; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    I will discuss the IFU fiber feed system in use for the MaNGA survey in SDSS-IV, which is in the process of obtaining integral field spectroscopy at R~2000 covering 360-1000nm for and unbiased sample of 10k low-redshift galaxies. The bare-fiber IFUs are fabricated using novel hex-ferrule technology which produces very uniform dense hex packaged fiber arrays scalable from 7 fiber up to hundreds or thousands of fibers. MaNGA uses fiber arrays ranging from 19 to 127 fibers. For future projects at the Sloan Foundation 2.5 m telescope as well as other observatories, we are developing large lenslet-coupled hex-ferrule based IFUs of ~1500 fibers (> one arcmin diameter at the 2.5m) as well as scalable fiber array technologies allowing arbitrarily large IFUs made out of smaller abuttable units. I will discuss technologies and plans for such future instrumentation which can be matched to small-aperture telescopes up to ELTs.

  17. INFLUENCE OF CURRENT-TIME CURVE OF PROTECTIVE INSTRUMENTS ON FIRE SAFETY OF CABLE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Aushev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides results of experimental investigations on determination heating characteristics of ВВГ2x2.5, ВВГ2x4 and ВВГ2x6 cables and individual current-time curves of automatic switch-off series. Joint operation of automatic switch-offs and protected conductors are analyzed from the point of view of fire safety provision.

  18. Wide dynamic range 500 fA sensitivity current measurement instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelemeshko Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main technical features of Low Energy Charged Particle Sensor (LECPS are described, taking into account LECPS high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and conditions of in-flight operation on-board a satellite. LECPS input cascade is capable of current measurement as low as 1 pA within a 120 dB dynamic range, providing error level below 20%. Statistical calculations of acquired data, measuring time considerations and implementation of input cascade auto-calibration technique were applied to gain the best possible stability and accuracy over −20° to +50°C operation temperature.

  19. Current density distribution mapping in PEM fuel cells as an instrument for operational measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geske, M.; Heuer, M.; Heideck, G.; Styczynski, Z. A. [Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Chair Electric Power Networks and Renewable Energy Sources, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes. (author)

  20. Current Density Distribution Mapping in PEM Fuel Cells as An Instrument for Operational Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Geske

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed measurement system for current density distribution mapping has enabled a new approach for operational measurements in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC. Taking into account previously constructed measurement systems, a method based on a multi layer printed circuit board was chosen for the development of the new system. This type of system consists of a sensor, a special electronic device and the control and visualization PC. For the acquisition of the current density distribution values, a sensor device was designed and installed within a multilayer printed circuit board with integrated shunt resistors. Varying shunt values can be taken into consideration with a newly developed and evaluated calibration method. The sensor device was integrated in a PEM fuel cell stack to prove the functionality of the whole measurement system. A software application was implemented to visualize and save the measurement values. Its functionality was verified by operational measurements within a PEMFC system. Measurement accuracy and possible negative reactions of the sensor device during PEMFC operation are discussed in detail in this paper. The developed system enables operational measurements for different operating phases of PEM fuel cells. Additionally, this can be seen as a basis for new opportunities of optimization for fuel cell design and operation modes.

  1. Refining Inductive Types

    CERN Document Server

    Atkey, Robert; Ghani, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Dependently typed programming languages allow sophisticated properties of data to be expressed within the type system. Of particular use in dependently typed programming are indexed types that refine data by computationally useful information. For example, the N-indexed type of vectors refines lists by their lengths. Other data types may be refined in similar ways, but programmers must produce purpose-specific refinements on an ad hoc basis, developers must anticipate which refinements to include in libraries, and implementations must often store redundant information about data and their refinements. In this paper we show how to generically derive inductive characterisations of refinements of inductive types, and argue that these characterisations can alleviate some of the aforementioned difficulties associated with ad hoc refinements. Our characterisations also ensure that standard techniques for programming with and reasoning about inductive types are applicable to refinements, and that refinements can the...

  2. Evidence of underground electric current generation during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake: Real or instrumental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, F.; Thomas, J. N.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate magnetic effects in correspondence of the Mw6.1 L'Aquila earthquake. Magnetic and seismic records are analyzed. Rapid and distinct changes and an offset can be seen in magnetic field components after the main shock. We show that these effects result from electromagnetic induction due to the movement of the sensors through the Earth's magnetic field and from a permanent displacement of the sensors from their original position caused by the passing seismic waves. A transient signal in total field data from an overhauser magnetometer apparently occurs in correspondence with the earthquake. Our analysis shows that the transient was not observed by other sensors that were operating in close proximity to the overhauser. Thus, the transient signal in the total magnetic field data, and the offset in the magnetic field components, cannot be associated with a hypothetical underground electric current generated by the earthquake, as suggested by Nenovski (2015).

  3. Instrumentation problems for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G O

    1980-01-01

    The physician has, for whatever reasons, diminished his or her level of involvement on the team dedicated to developing, refining, and evaluating medical technology. As a result, the challenge confronting the physician and the technology development team today is to orchestrate a team structure that will ensure the greatest input and commitment from physicians and other professionals during current and future technology development. The charges of cost escalation and dehumanization in our system of health care delivery will also be discussed, as will the lack of, or confusion about, access to data concerning cost of a given instrument, and fuzzy semantics and perspectives on technology and instrumentation. The author suggests answers to, or means to ameliorate, the problems.

  4. Physical and other data from CTD casts, current meters, and other instruments from 01 January 1989 to 31 December 1989 (NODC Accession 9100163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data were collected from CTD casts, current meters, and other instruments. Data were collected by the Japanese Hydrographic Office from 01 January...

  5. Physical and other data from CTD casts, current meters, and other instruments from 01 January 1990 to 31 December 1990 (NODC Accession 9300092)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — hysical and other data were collected from CTD casts, current meters, and other instruments. Data were collected by the Japanese Hydrographic Office from 01 January...

  6. On the refinement calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, Trevor

    1992-01-01

    On the Refinement Calculus gives one view of the development of the refinement calculus and its attempt to bring together - among other things - Z specifications and Dijkstra's programming language. It is an excellent source of reference material for all those seeking the background and mathematical underpinnings of the refinement calculus.

  7. Precision velocimetry planet hunting with PARAS: Current performance and lessons to inform future extreme precision radial velocity instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Chaturvedi, Priyanka; Prasad, Neelam J S S V; Shah, Vishal; Pathan, F M; Anandarao, B G

    2016-01-01

    PARAS is a fiber-fed stabilized high-resolution cross-dispersed echelle spectrograph, located on the 1.2 m telescope in Mt. Abu India. Designed for exoplanet detection, PARAS is capable of single-shot spectral coverage of 3800 - 9600 A, and currently achieving radial velocity (RV) precisions approaching ~1 m/s over several months using simultaneous ThAr calibration. As such, it is one of the few dedicated stabilized fiber-fed spectrographs on small (1-2 m) telescopes that are able to fill an important niche in RV follow-up and stellar characterization. The success of ground-based RV surveys is motivating the push into extreme precisions, with goals of ~10 cm/s in the optical and <1 m/s in the near-infrared (NIR). Lessons from existing instruments like PARAS are invaluable in informing hardware design, providing pipeline prototypes, and guiding scientific surveys. Here we present our current precision estimates of PARAS based on observations of bright RV standard stars, and describe the evolution of the dat...

  8. Multidataset Refinement Resonant Diffraction, and Magnetic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Attfield, J. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The scope of Rietveld and other powder diffraction refinements continues to expand, driven by improvements in instrumentation, methodology and software. This will be illustrated by examples from our research in recent years. Multidataset refinement is now commonplace; the datasets may be from different detectors, e.g., in a time-of-flight experiment, or from separate experiments, such as at several x-ray energies giving resonant information. The complementary use of x rays and neutrons is exe...

  9. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vail Manfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carried out in to optimize the refining process and to identify the effects of refining variables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulp consistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluated against the pulp quality properties, such as physical strengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as the interactions with papermaking process, such as paper machine runnability, paper breaks and refining control.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, were obtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under the lowest intensity and the highest pulp consistency possible. Changes on the operational refining conditions will have the highest impact on total energy requirements (costs) without any significant effect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control the industrial operation, such as those based on drainage measurements, do not represent the best alternative to maximize the final paper properties neither the paper machine runability.

  10. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as

  11. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  12. Refinement Checking on Parametric Modal Transition Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benes, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    Modal transition systems (MTS) is a well-studied specification formalism of reactive systems supporting a step-wise refinement methodology. Despite its many advantages, the formalism as well as its currently known extensions are incapable of expressing some practically needed aspects in the refin...

  13. Cut-off characterisation of energy spectra of bright fermi sources: Current instrument limits and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoli, C.; Taylor, A. M.; Aharonian, F.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper some of the brightest GeV sources observed by the Fermi-LAT were analysed, focusing on their spectral cut-off region. The sources chosen for this investigation were the brightest blazar flares of 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 and the Vela pulsar with a reanalysis with the latest Fermi-LAT software. For the study of the spectral cut-off we first explored the Vela pulsar spectrum, whose statistics in the time interval of the 3FGL catalog allowed strong constraints to be obtained on the parameters. We subsequently performed a new analysis of the flaring blazar SEDs. For these sources we obtained constraints on the cut-off parameters under the assumption that their underlying spectral distribution is described by a power-law with a stretched exponential cut-off. We then highlighted the significant potential improvements on such constraints by observations with next generation ground based Cherenkov telescopes, represented in our study by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Adopting currently available simulations for this future observatory, we demonstrate the considerable improvement in cut-off constraints achievable by observations with this new instrument when compared with that achievable by satellite observations.

  14. A Refined Self-Tuning Filter-Based Instantaneous Power Theory Algorithm for Indirect Current Controlled Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filters under Non-sinusoidal Source Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a refined reference current generation algorithm based on instantaneous power (pq theory is proposed, for operation of an indirect current controlled (ICC three-level neutral-point diode clamped (NPC inverter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF under non-sinusoidal source voltage conditions. SAPF is recognized as one of the most effective solutions to current harmonics due to its flexibility in dealing with various power system conditions. As for its controller, pq theory has widely been applied to generate the desired reference current due to its simple implementation features. However, the conventional dependency on self-tuning filter (STF in generating reference current has significantly limited mitigation performance of SAPF. Besides, the conventional STF-based pq theory algorithm is still considered to possess needless features which increase computational complexity. Furthermore, the conventional algorithm is mostly designed to suit operation of direct current controlled (DCC SAPF which is incapable of handling switching ripples problems, thereby leading to inefficient mitigation performance. Therefore, three main improvements are performed which include replacement of STF with mathematical-based fundamental real power identifier, removal of redundant features, and generation of sinusoidal reference current. To validate effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm, simulation work in MATLAB-Simulink and laboratory test utilizing a TMS320F28335 digital signal processor (DSP are performed. Both simulation and experimental findings demonstrate superiority of the proposed algorithm over the conventional algorithm.

  15. Refining the theory of basic individual values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Shalom H; Cieciuch, Jan; Vecchione, Michele; Davidov, Eldad; Fischer, Ronald; Beierlein, Constanze; Ramos, Alice; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Demirutku, Kursad; Dirilen-Gumus, Ozlem; Konty, Mark

    2012-10-01

    We propose a refined theory of basic individual values intended to provide greater heuristic and explanatory power than the original theory of 10 values (Schwartz, 1992). The refined theory more accurately expresses the central assumption of the original theory that research has largely ignored: Values form a circular motivational continuum. The theory defines and orders 19 values on the continuum based on their compatible and conflicting motivations, expression of self-protection versus growth, and personal versus social focus. We assess the theory with a new instrument in 15 samples from 10 countries (N = 6,059). Confirmatory factor and multidimensional scaling analyses support discrimination of the 19 values, confirming the refined theory. Multidimensional scaling analyses largely support the predicted motivational order of the values. Analyses of predictive validity demonstrate that the refined values theory provides greater and more precise insight into the value underpinnings of beliefs. Each value correlates uniquely with external variables.

  16. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  17. A chopper current-feedback instrumentation amplifier with a 1 mHz 1/f noise corner and an AC-coupled ripple reduction loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, R.; Makinwa, K.A.A.; Huijsing, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a chopper instrumentation amplifier for interfacing precision thermistor bridges. For high CMRR and DC gain, the amplifier employs a three-stage current-feedback topology with nested-Miller compensation. By chopping both the input and intermediate stages of the amplifier, a 1 mHz

  18. Industrial instrumentation and control system in current information era%信息时代背景下的工业仪表与控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周巍巍

    2015-01-01

    本文对工业仪表和控制系统在当前信息时代的发展进行了研究。%The development of industrial instrumentation and control system in current information era are discussed in this paper.

  19. OPTIMIZING EUCALYPTUS PULP REFINING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VailManfredi

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the refining of bleachedeucalyptus kraft pulp (BEKP).Pilot plant tests were carded out in to optimize therefining process and to identify the effects of refiningvariables on final paper quality and process costs.The following parameters are discussed: pulpconsistency, disk pattern design, refiner speed,energy input, refiner configuration (parallel or serial)and refining intensity.The effects of refining on pulp fibers were evaluatedagainst the pulp quality properties, such as physicalstrengths, bulk, opacity and porosity, as well as theinteractions with papermaking process, such as papermachine runnability, paper breaks and refiningcontrol.The results showed that process optimization,considering pulp quality and refining costs, wereobtained when eucalyptus pulp is refined under thelowest intensity and the highest pulp consistencypossible. Changes on the operational refiningconditions will have the highest impact on totalenergy requirements (costs) without any significanteffect on final paper properties.It was also observed that classical ways to control theindustrial operation, such as those based on drainagemeasurements, do not represent the best alternative tomaximize the final paper properties neither the papermachine runability.

  20. A strategy for producing refined currents in the Equatorial Atlantic in the context of the search of the AF447 wreckage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drévillon, Marie; Greiner, Eric; Paradis, Denis; Payan, Christophe; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Reffray, Guillaume; Durand, Edmée; Law-Chune, Stéphane; Cailleau, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    On the night of 1st June 2009, a Rio-Paris Air France flight (AF447) disappeared in a highly variable and poorly observed part of the western tropical Atlantic Ocean. The first debris was located 5 days after the accident. Several reverse drift computations were conducted in order to define the likely position of the wreckage. Unfortunately, the performance of the operational ocean analyses available in the region of interest ranges from 80 to 100 km of positioning error after 5 days of inverse drift computation. In preparation of the third phase of research of the wreckage at sea, a series of numerical experiments was performed at Météo-France and Mercator Océan in an attempt to better compute the surface currents in the region and for the period of the accident of the AF447 (May and June 2009). Tailored high-resolution atmosphere and ocean reanalyses were first produced respectively at Météo-France and Mercator Océan. Several nested experiments were then performed with a small and flexible ocean model limited to the region of interest. The date of the initial conditions and the type of atmospheric forcing fields were varied in order to produce a small ensemble from which information on the sensitivity to these changes could be derived. Probabilistic and statistical combinations between model and observations were tested and a solution was finally selected by means of a comparison of drift computations with independent surface drift observations.

  1. Refined Semilattices of Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Zhang; K.P. Shum; Ronghua Zhang

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of refined semilattices of semigroups. This is a modified concept of the generally strong semilattice of semigroups initiated by Zhang and Huang. By using the concept of generally strong semilattice, Zhang and Huang showed that a regular band can be expressed by a generally strong semilattice of rectangular bands. However, the proof of the associativity for the multiplication is not complete and there exist some gaps in their construction of regular bands. We now revise the generally strong semilattices and call them refined semilattices. In this way, we are able to remove the gaps,and the associative law of the multiplication can be verified. As an application, we prove that a band is regular if and only if it is a refined semilattice of rectangular bands. In fact, refined semilattices provide a new device in the construction of new semigroups from the old ones.

  2. Multidataset Refinement Resonant Diffraction, and Magnetic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attfield, J Paul

    2004-01-01

    The scope of Rietveld and other powder diffraction refinements continues to expand, driven by improvements in instrumentation, methodology and software. This will be illustrated by examples from our research in recent years. Multidataset refinement is now commonplace; the datasets may be from different detectors, e.g., in a time-of-flight experiment, or from separate experiments, such as at several x-ray energies giving resonant information. The complementary use of x rays and neutrons is exemplified by a recent combined refinement of the monoclinic superstructure of magnetite, Fe3O4, below the 122 K Verwey transition, which reveals evidence for Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) charge ordering. Powder neutron diffraction data continue to be used for the solution and Rietveld refinement of magnetic structures. Time-of-flight instruments on cold neutron sources can produce data that have a high intensity and good resolution at high d-spacings. Such profiles have been used to study incommensurate magnetic structures such as FeAsO4 and β-CrPO4. A multiphase, multidataset refinement of the phase-separated perovskite (Pr0.35Y0.07Th0.04Ca0.04Sr0.5)MnO3 has been used to fit three components with different crystal and magnetic structures at low temperatures.

  3. Refinement by interface instantiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Hoang, Thai Son

    2012-01-01

    be easily refined. Our first contribution hence is a proposal for a new construct called interface that encapsulates the external variables, along with a mechanism for interface instantiation. Using the new construct and mechanism, external variables can be refined consistently. Our second contribution...... is an approach for verifying the correctness of Event-B extensions using the supporting Rodin tool. We illustrate our approach by proving the correctness of interface instantiation....

  4. NAFTA opportunities: Petroleum refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) creates a more transparent environment for the sale of refined petroleum products to Mexico, and locks in access to Canada's relatively open market for these products. Canada and Mexico are sizable United States export markets for refined petroleum products, with exports of $556 million and $864 million, respectively, in 1992. These markets represent approximately 24 percent of total U.S. exports of these goods.

  5. Proof of concept test and evaluation (pilot/mill testing) of Lasentec refining sensor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.E.

    1994-06-03

    On-line measurement of refining development is of vital concern to the papermaker since its control directly affects the uniformity of the product, drainage, drying and energy consumption. The current methods of monitoring fiber development during refining rely on secondary measures such as: Drainage rate, either measured off-line as Canadian standard freeness, or on-line with a number of commercial sample and test devices; energy consumption at the refiner; or changes in vacuum on the paper machine. To overcome these limitations of the existing technology, this project was designed to evaluate the use of a new type of sensor to monitor fiber development during refining. This sensor, a Lasentec Scanning Laser Microscope (SLM), is currently used as a particle size analyzer for slurries. The sensor will be described in more detail later. The use of this sensor had been successful in the laboratory. This project, was to establish this instrument as an in-line means to directly monitor refining.

  6. Refinement Modal Logic

    CERN Document Server

    Bozzelli, Laura; French, Tim; Hales, James; Pinchinat, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present refinement modal logic. A refinement is like a bisimulation, except that from the three relational requirements only 'atoms' and 'back' need to be satisfied. Our logic contains a new operator 'forall' in additional to the standard modalities 'Box' for each agent. The operator 'forall' acts as a quantifier over the set of all refinements of a given model. We call it the refinement operator. As a variation on a bisimulation quantifier, it can be seen as a refinement quantifier over a variable not occurring in the formula bound by the operator. The logic combines the simplicity of multi-agent modal logic with some powers of monadic second order quantification. We present a sound and complete axiomatization of multiagent refinement modal logic. We also present an extension of the logic to the modal mu-calculus, and an axiomatization for the single-agent version of this logic. Examples and applications are also discussed: to software verification and design (the set of agents can also be s...

  7. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constancio, Silva

    2006-07-01

    In 2004, refining margins showed a clear improvement that persisted throughout the first three quarters of 2005. This enabled oil companies to post significantly higher earnings for their refining activity in 2004 compared to 2003, with the results of the first half of 2005 confirming this trend. As for petrochemicals, despite a steady rise in the naphtha price, higher cash margins enabled a turnaround in 2004 as well as a clear improvement in oil company financial performance that should continue in 2005, judging by the net income figures reported for the first half-year. Despite this favorable business environment, capital expenditure in refining and petrochemicals remained at a low level, especially investment in new capacity, but a number of projects are being planned for the next five years. (author)

  8. Using OpenRefine

    CERN Document Server

    Verborgh, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    The book is styled on a Cookbook, containing recipes - combined with free datasets - which will turn readers into proficient OpenRefine users in the fastest possible way.This book is targeted at anyone who works on or handles a large amount of data. No prior knowledge of OpenRefine is required, as we start from the very beginning and gradually reveal more advanced features. You don't even need your own dataset, as we provide example data to try out the book's recipes.

  9. Global Monitoring of Atmospheric Trace Gases, Clouds and Aerosols from UV/vis/NIR Satellite Instruments: Currents Status and Near Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Beirle, S.; Deutschmann, T.; Frankenberg, C.; Grzegorski, M.; Khokhar, M. F.; Kühl, S.; Marbach, T.; Mies, K.; de Vries, M. Penning; Platt, U.; Pukite, J.; Sanghavi, S.

    2008-04-01

    A new generation of UV/vis/near-IR satellite instruments like GOME (since 1995), SCIAMACHY (since 2002), OMI (since 2004), and GOME-2 (since 2006) allows to measure several important stratospheric and tropospheric trace gases like O3, NO2, OClO, HCHO, SO2, BrO, and H2O as well as clouds and aerosols from space. Because of its extended spectral range, the SCIAMACHY instrument also allows the retrieval of Greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4) and CO in the near IR. Almost all of the tropospheric trace gases are observed by these instruments for the first time. From satellite data it is possible to investigate the temporal and spatial variation. Also different sources can be characterised and quantified. The derived global distributions can serve as input and for the validation of atmospheric models. Here we give an overview on the current status of these new instruments and data products and their recent applications to various atmospheric and oceanic phenomena.

  10. Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 17 April 1980 - 17 July 1981 (NODC Accession 8100731)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  11. Deformable elastic network refinement for low-resolution macromolecular crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Gunnar F; Levitt, Michael; Brunger, Axel T

    2014-09-01

    Crystals of membrane proteins and protein complexes often diffract to low resolution owing to their intrinsic molecular flexibility, heterogeneity or the mosaic spread of micro-domains. At low resolution, the building and refinement of atomic models is a more challenging task. The deformable elastic network (DEN) refinement method developed previously has been instrumental in the determinion of several structures at low resolution. Here, DEN refinement is reviewed, recommendations for its optimal usage are provided and its limitations are discussed. Representative examples of the application of DEN refinement to challenging cases of refinement at low resolution are presented. These cases include soluble as well as membrane proteins determined at limiting resolutions ranging from 3 to 7 Å. Potential extensions of the DEN refinement technique and future perspectives for the interpretation of low-resolution crystal structures are also discussed.

  12. Incremental Bisimulation Abstraction Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Jens Christian; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    an abstraction refinement approach for the probabilistic computation tree logic (PCTL), which is based on incrementally computing a sequence of may- and must-quotient automata. These are induced by depth-bounded bisimulation equivalences of increasing depth. The approach is both sound and complete, since...

  13. Are the physical activity parenting practices reported by U.S. and Canadian parents captured in currently published instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature. PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPPs measures obtained from current systematic re...

  14. Perspicuity and Granularity in Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Boiten, Eerke

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconsiders refinements which introduce actions on the concrete level which were not present at the abstract level. It draws a distinction between concrete actions which are "perspicuous" at the abstract level, and changes of granularity of actions between different levels of abstraction. The main contribution of this paper is in exploring the relation between these different methods of "action refinement", and the basic refinement relation that is used. In particular, it shows how the "refining skip" method is incompatible with failures-based refinement relations, and consequently some decisions in designing Event-B refinement are entangled.

  15. Refinement for Administrative Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, MAC; Etalle, S Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Flexibility of management is an important requisite for access control systems as it allows users to adapt the access control system in accordance with practical requirements. This paper builds on earlier work where we defined administrative policies for a general class of RBAC models. We present a formal definition of administrative refinnement and we show that there is an ordering for administrative privileges which yields administrative refinements of policies. We argue (by giving an examp...

  16. Grain Refinement of Deoxidized Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balart, María José; Patel, Jayesh B.; Gao, Feng; Fan, Zhongyun

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the current status of grain refinement of copper accompanied in particular by a critical appraisal of grain refinement of phosphorus-deoxidized, high residual P (DHP) copper microalloyed with 150 ppm Ag. Some deviations exist in terms of the growth restriction factor ( Q) framework, on the basis of empirical evidence reported in the literature for grain size measurements of copper with individual additions of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 wt pct of Mo, In, Sn, Bi, Sb, Pb, and Se, cast under a protective atmosphere of pure Ar and water quenching. The columnar-to-equiaxed transition (CET) has been observed in copper, with an individual addition of 0.4B and with combined additions of 0.4Zr-0.04P and 0.4Zr-0.04P-0.015Ag and, in a previous study, with combined additions of 0.1Ag-0.069P (in wt pct). CETs in these B- and Zr-treated casts have been ascribed to changes in the morphology and chemistry of particles, concurrently in association with free solute type and availability. No further grain-refining action was observed due to microalloying additions of B, Mg, Ca, Zr, Ti, Mn, In, Fe, and Zn (~0.1 wt pct) with respect to DHP-Cu microalloyed with Ag, and therefore are no longer relevant for the casting conditions studied. The critical microalloying element for grain size control in deoxidized copper and in particular DHP-Cu is Ag.

  17. 国外成品油管道运输发展现状与启示%The Current Situation of Pipeline Transportation of Overseas Refined Oil and Its Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兆吉; 欧毅; 李应晓

    2012-01-01

    The pipeline transportation of the refined oil has many advantages.At the present stage,although the pipeline transportation network of the refined oil is gradually matured,there still exist aspects to be improved.Based on the research of the distribution of the overseas pipeline transportation of the refined oil,the paper puts forward a scientific and reasonable suggestion to map out the construction of the pipeline transportation of the refined oil in the future,which can better improves the productive and marketing efficiency of our refined oil.The study is of profound significance.%成品油管道运输有诸多明显优势,现阶段我国成品油运输管网正逐步走向成熟,但仍有部分不完善之处。本文通过对国外成品油管道运输分布情况的研究,提出科学合理规划我国未来成品油管网建设的建议,可更好地提高我国成品油的生产、销售等环节效率,研究内容具有重要而长远的意义。

  18. Cut-off Characterisation of Energy Spectra of Bright Fermi Sources: Current instrument limits and future possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    Romoli, C; Aharonian, F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper some of the brightest GeV sources observed by the Fermi-LAT were analysed, focusing on their spectral cut-off region. The sources chosen for this investigation were the brightest blazar flares of 3C 454.3 and 3C 279 and the Vela pulsar using catalogue data and reanalysis with the latest Fermi-LAT software. For the study the spectral cut-off we first explored the Vela pulsar spectrum, whose statistics in the 3FGL catalog allowed strong constraints to be obtained on the parameters. We subsequently performed a new analysis of the flaring blazar SEDs. For these sources we obtained constraints on the cut-off parameters under the assumption that their underlying spectral distribution is described by a power-law with a stretched exponential cut-off. We then highlighted the significant potential improvements on such constraints by observations with next generation ground based Cherenkov telescopes, represented in our study by the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Adopting currently available simulations ...

  19. Hirshfeld atom refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan

    2014-09-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  20. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E.; Alario, F

    2004-07-01

    In 2003, refining margins showed a clear improvement that continued throughout the first three quarters of 2004. Oil companies posted significantly higher earnings in 2003 compared to 2002, with the results of first quarter 2004 confirming this trend. Due to higher feedstock prices, the implementation of new capacity and more intense competition, the petrochemicals industry was not able to boost margins in 2003. In such difficult business conditions, aggravated by soaring crude prices, the petrochemicals industry is not likely to see any improvement in profitability before the second half of 2004. (author)

  1. Refining and petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benazzi, E

    2003-07-01

    Down sharply in 2002, refining margins showed a clear improvement in the first half-year of 2003. As a result, the earnings reported by oil companies for financial year 2002 were significantly lower than in 2001, but the prospects are brighter for 2003. In the petrochemicals sector, slow demand and higher feedstock prices eroded margins in 2002, especially in Europe and the United States. The financial results for the first part of 2003 seem to indicate that sector profitability will not improve before 2004. (author)

  2. Design of Pulsed Eddy Current Exciting Source Based on Virtual Instrument%基于虚拟仪器的脉冲涡流激励源设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱选兵; 魏计林; 崔小朝; 黄祥康; 刘路路

    2013-01-01

    Pulsed eddy current testing is a new research field of eddy current testing technology. A square waveform with adjusting duty is employed as exciting source. Combined with virtual instrument technology, the pulsed eddy current exciting source of direct digital synthesizer is designed based on USB interface. The experimental results indicate that the exciting source has the performance of the continuous adjustable frequency (0. 5 — 500 kHz) and duty (10% — 90%), high resolution (0. 011 6 Hz) , stability, friendly interface and so on. It is very suitable for the driving requirements of the pulsed eddy current probe, and has some application prospect.%脉冲涡流检测是电涡流检测技术的一个最新研究,激励源采用一定占空比的方波信号.结合虚拟仪器技术,设计了一种USB接口的直接数字合成的脉冲涡流激励源.实验结果表明该激励源有占空比(10%~90%),频率(0.5 k~500 kHz)连续可调,分辨率高(0.011 6 Hz),稳定可靠,界面友好等优点,能够满足脉冲涡流探头驱动要求,具有一定应用前景.

  3. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.

    2014-03-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Storm Surge

    CERN Document Server

    Mandli, Kyle T

    2014-01-01

    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the \\geoclaw framework and compared to \\adcirc for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run.

  5. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of California as part of the North California Coastal Circulation Study (NCCCS) project, 1987-03-09 to 1989-11-01 (NCEI Accession 9000209)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of...

  6. Current meter and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Deep Ocean Mining and Environmental Study (DOMES) project, 29 August 1975 - 01 December 1977 (NODC Accession 7800741)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the North Pacific Ocean from August 29, 1975...

  7. Current direction and bathythermograph (xbt) data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, and North American Coastline-South as part the North Carolina Frontal Eddy Dynamics Experiment (FRED) project, 1985-01-23 to 1987-01-31 (NCEI Accession 8900214)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and bathythermograph (xbt) data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico, Northwest Atlantic...

  8. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Gulf of Mexico Physical Oceanography (GMPO) project, 1985-06-11 to 1986-09-03 (NCEI Accession 8700196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Mid-Atlantic Bight and NW...

  9. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean (limit-40 W) and North American Coastline-South as part of the North Carolina FRontal Eddy Dynamics Experiment (FRED) project, 1987-05-07 to 1987-11-01 (NCEI Accession 8900181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean...

  10. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Gulf of Mexico Physical Oceanography (GMPO) project, 1987-04-04 to 1988-11-02 (NCEI Accession 8900259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from April...

  11. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Gulf of Mexico Physical Oceanography (GMPO) project, 1985-06-11 to 1986-09-03 (NCEI Accession 8900186)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June...

  12. Macromolecular crystallographic estructure refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonine, Pavel V.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Model refinement is a key step in crystallographic structure determination that ensures final atomic structure of macromolecule represents measured diffraction data as good as possible. Several decades have been put into developing methods and computational tools to streamline this step. In this manuscript we provide a brief overview of major milestones of crystallographic computing and methods development pertinent to structure refinement.El refinamiento es un paso clave en el proceso de determinación de una estructura cristalográfica al garantizar que la estructura atómica de la macromolécula final represente de la mejor manera posible los datos de difracción. Han hecho falta varias décadas para poder desarrollar nuevos métodos y herramientas computacionales dirigidas a dinamizar esta etapa. En este artículo ofrecemos un breve resumen de los principales hitos en la computación cristalográfica y de los nuevos métodos relevantes para el refinamiento de estructuras.

  13. Chemical, benthic organisms, zooplankton, marine toxic substances, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 30 August 1979 - 21 September 1981 (NODC Accession 8200012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, marine toxic substances, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf...

  14. Chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 07 September 1982 - 30 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8300075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September 7,...

  15. Chemical, zooplankton, phytoplankton, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 17 February 1981 - 27 May 1982 (NODC Accession 8200183)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from February 17,...

  16. Chemical, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Gulf of Mexico North Continental Slope Study (MNCSS) project, 11 November 1983 - 13 November 1984 (NODC Accession 8400119)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from November 11, 1983 to...

  17. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico as part of the Brine Disposal project, 22 September 1979 - 01 May 1980 (NODC Accession 8000462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from September 22, 1979 to May 1, 1980....

  18. Chemical, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 12 February 1981 - 05 January 1982 (NODC Accession 8200064)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, phytoplankton, benthic organisms, zooplankton, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico...

  19. Physical, taxonomic code, and other data from current meter and other instruments in New York Bight from DOLPHIN and other platforms; 14 March 1971 to 03 August 1975 (NODC Accession 7601385)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, taxonomic code, and other data were collected using current meter and other instruments from DOLPHIN and other platforms in New York Bight. Data were...

  20. Chemical data from moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey as part of the Mesa New York Bight (MESA - NYB) project, 18 May 1978 - 19 October 1978 (NODC Accession 7900280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of New Jersey from May 18, 1978 to October 19,...

  1. Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 02 June 1978 - 02 June 1979 (NODC Accession 8000002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical, zooplankton, and marine toxic substances data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 2, 1978...

  2. Chemical data from moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 23 June 1978 - 30 June 1978 (NODC Accession 7900006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chemical data were collected using moored current meter, bottle casts, and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from June 18, 1978 to June 24, 1981. Data were...

  3. Current, pressure gauge, and other data from instruments attached to fixed platforms in the Bering Sea as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from 16 September 1977 to 20 September 1978 (NODC Accession 8000024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current, pressure gauge, and other data were collected from instruments attached to fixed platforms in the Bering Sea from the 16 September 1977 to 20 September...

  4. Hirshfeld atom refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Capelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly–l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree–Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs are freely refined without constraints or restraints – even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's, all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules, the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å2 as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements – an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  5. 临床医务人员锐器伤现状调查分析%Current status of sharp instrument injuries of clinical medical staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一瑶; 王海燕; 邓钰; 于子旭

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the current situation and relevant influencing factors of sharp instrument injuries of medical staff, to provide the scientific hasis for further formulating prevention measures. METHODS By means of filling out questionnaires, a certain number of medical staff were randomly selected according to the stratified cluster sampling. RESULTS Of 571 subjects investigated, the sharp instrument injuries occurred in 389 cases with the incidence rate of 68. 13% , there were totally 1058 case-times of sharp instrument injuries with the mean sharp injuries of 2. 72 times; the incidence rates of the sharp instrument injuries in the medical staff with the work experience less than 5 years, 6 - 10 years, and more than 11 years were 78. 73% , 71. 52% , and 46. 05% , respectively, the difference was statistically significant ( x2 = 48. 790, P < 0. 01); of 318 cases who got contaminated sharp injuries, 270 cases were reported with the report rate of 84. 91%, the report rates of the medical staff with sharp injuries contaminated by the patients with HBV or HCV were 100. 00% and 75. 76% of the medical staff with sharp injuries contaminated by unknown infections; the sharp injuries mainly occurred in the preoperative preparation and intraoperative procedure, accounting for 33. 18% and 35. 35%, respectively. CONCLUSION The incidence of sharp instrument injuries is relatively high in the clinical medical staff; it is necessary to intensify the occupational prevention education, standardize the operation procedure, and implement the prevention criterions so as to reduce the incidence of sharp instrument injuries.%目的 了解临床医务人员锐器伤现状及相关影响因素,为进一步制定职业防护措施提供科学依据.方法 按照分层整群抽样抽取一定数量的医务人员,采用填写调查问卷的方式收集资料.结果 571名调查对象中,发生锐器伤者389人,锐器伤发生率为68.13%,共计发生1058人次,人均被刺伤2.72

  6. Structure refinement of astrophyllite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Zhesheng

    2001-01-01

    [1]Abdel-Fattah M. Abdel-Rahman., Mineral chemistry and paragenesis of astrophyllite from Egypt, Mineralogical Magazine, 1992, 56: 17-26.[2]Liu Yan, Ma Zhesheng, Han Xiuling et al, Astrophyllite from the Namjabarwa Area, Eastern Tibet, Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica, 1997,16(4): 338-340.[3]Peng Zhizhong, Ma Zhesheng, The crystal structure of astrophyllite (in Russian), Scientia Sinica, 1963, 12(2): 272-276.[4]Pen Zhizhong, Ma Zhesheng, The crystal structure of Tricinic Mangano-astrophyllite (in Russian), Scientia Sinica (Scien-ce in China), 1964, 13(7): 1180-1183.[5]Shi Nicheng, Ma Zhesheng, Li Guowu et al., Stucyure Refinement of Monoclinic astrophyllite, Acta Crystallographica, Section B, 1998, B54: 109-114.[6]Woodrow, P. J., The Crystal structure of astrophyllite, Acta Crystallographica, 1967, 22: 673-678.[7]СеменовЕ. И., Куплетскит-Новый Минерал Группы Астрофиллита, ДАН, 1956, 108(5), 933-936.[8]Nickel, E. H., Rowland, J. E., Charette, D. J., Niobophyllite the niobium analogue of astrophyllite: A new mineral from Sead Laxe Labrador, Canad. Mine., 1964, 8(1): 40.[9]X-Ray Laboratory of Hubei Geologic College, The crystal chemistry of astrophyllite group minerals (in Chinese), Scientia Geologica Sinica, 1974, (1): 18-30.[10]Sheldrick, G. M., Program for the solution of crystal structures, SHELX86, University of G?ttingen, 1985, Germany.[11]Sheldrick, G. M., Program for the refinement of crystal structures, SHELXL93, University of G?ttingen, 1993, Germany.[12]Liebau, F., Structural Chemistry of Silicates Structure, Bonding, and Classification, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag QD181, S6L614, 1985.[13]Ferraris, G., Ivaldi, G., Khomyakov, A. P. et al., Nafertisite, a layer titanosilicate member of a polysomatic series including mica, Eur. J. Mineral.,1996, 8: 241-249.[14]Ferraris, G., Polysomatism as a tool for correlating properties and structure, in EMU Notes in

  7. Refining Learned Repertoire for Percussion Instruments in an Elementary Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teaching effectiveness in an elementary music setting using student achievement as a dependent measure. Because Orff Schulwerk instruction is one of the most prevalent pedagogies in elementary music education, this study examined the rehearsal strategies of recognized Orff Schulwerk teachers as they worked…

  8. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheldrick, George M., E-mail: gsheldr@shelx.uni-ac.gwdg.de [Department of Structural Chemistry, Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Tammannstraße 4, Göttingen 37077 (Germany)

    2015-01-01

    New features added to the refinement program SHELXL since 2008 are described and explained. The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as ‘a CIF’) containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  9. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diachin, L; Hornung, R; Plassmann, P; WIssink, A

    2005-03-04

    As large-scale, parallel computers have become more widely available and numerical models and algorithms have advanced, the range of physical phenomena that can be simulated has expanded dramatically. Many important science and engineering problems exhibit solutions with localized behavior where highly-detailed salient features or large gradients appear in certain regions which are separated by much larger regions where the solution is smooth. Examples include chemically-reacting flows with radiative heat transfer, high Reynolds number flows interacting with solid objects, and combustion problems where the flame front is essentially a two-dimensional sheet occupying a small part of a three-dimensional domain. Modeling such problems numerically requires approximating the governing partial differential equations on a discrete domain, or grid. Grid spacing is an important factor in determining the accuracy and cost of a computation. A fine grid may be needed to resolve key local features while a much coarser grid may suffice elsewhere. Employing a fine grid everywhere may be inefficient at best and, at worst, may make an adequately resolved simulation impractical. Moreover, the location and resolution of fine grid required for an accurate solution is a dynamic property of a problem's transient features and may not be known a priori. Adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is a technique that can be used with both structured and unstructured meshes to adjust local grid spacing dynamically to capture solution features with an appropriate degree of resolution. Thus, computational resources can be focused where and when they are needed most to efficiently achieve an accurate solution without incurring the cost of a globally-fine grid. Figure 1.1 shows two example computations using AMR; on the left is a structured mesh calculation of a impulsively-sheared contact surface and on the right is the fuselage and volume discretization of an RAH-66 Comanche helicopter [35]. Note the

  10. Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes toward science fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Claudia A.

    Science fairs are woven into the very fabric of science instruction in the United States and in other countries. Even though thousands of students participate in science fairs every year, no instrument to measure student attitudes toward partaking in this hands-on learning experience has been fully developed and available for school administrators and teachers to assess the perceived value that current students attribute to participation in science fairs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue the development and refinement of an instrument that measured student attitudes towards science fairs based on an unpublished instrument created by Michael (2005). The instrument developed and tested using 110 students at two different middle schools in southwest Virginia. The instrument consisted of 45 questions. After applying a principal component factor analysis, the instrument was reduced to two domains, enjoyment and value. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and showed good internal consistency of .89 between the two domains. Further analysis was conducted using a Pearson product-moment test and showed a significant positive correlation between enjoyment and value (r = .78). Demographic information was explored concerning the domains using a series of statistical tests, and results revealed no significant differences among race and science fair category. However, a significant difference was found among gender and students who won awards and those who did not. The conclusion was that further development and refinement of the instrument should be conducted.

  11. Computer technology in oil refining: cost or benefit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B. (KBC Process Technology (GB))

    1990-04-01

    There is undoubtedly a commitment in the oil refining industry to computerise wherever possible, and to develop advanced mathematical modelling techniques to improved profitability. However, many oil refiners are now asking themselves whether computer solutions are a cost, or are truly a benefit to their organisation. Problems have been caused by distributed computing running out of control in many organisations. This has been partly brought to reign recently, by advanced networking of PCs along with mainframe facilities, and development of management information systems with common data bases for all users to build their applications on. Implementation of information technology strategies helped many refiners to plan the way ahead for the future. The use of computers across the refining sector in the current marketplace is reviewed. The conclusion drawn is that although computer technology is a cost it can also be ranked as a significant benefit and success in the refining industry at present. (author).

  12. Investigation of current status of sharp instrument injuries in 1320 medical staff%1320名医务人员锐器伤现状调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田青; 吕婕; 李蕾

    2012-01-01

    目的 对医务人员锐器伤情况进行回顾性调查,以期对锐器伤的预防和处理提供指导.方法 采用复旦大学附属中山医院设计的调查问卷,对1320名医务人员在2011年8月1 -31日的锐器伤发生情况进行调查.结果 共发放1320份问卷,均为有效问卷;27名医务人员发生锐器伤,其中护士22人,占81.48%,为锐器伤发生的主要人群,锐器伤发生场地主要在普通病房,占45.71%,造成锐器伤发生的医疗器械主要是一次性注射器,占54.29%,造成锐器伤的发生时机主要为补液配置,占51.43%;有68.86%的被调查者参加过培训,仅有8.57%的伤者报告了锐器伤.结论护士是锐器伤发生的高危人群,应加强重点部门锐器伤的防护培训;锐器伤的发生率较高,但是上报率较低;发布与宣传血源性职业暴露的防护指南十分关键.%OBJECTIVE To survey the current situation of the sharp instrument injuries in clinical staff, and to provide scientific evidence for the prevention and treatment of sharp instrument injuries. METHODS A total of 1320 medical staff were surveyed during 1st Aug to 31st Aug, 2011 on sharp injuries with the questionnaires designed by Zhongshan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University. RESULTS All the 1320 distributed questionnaires were valid;there 27 medical staff who suffered the sharp instrument injuries, including 22 nurses (81. 48%); injured; and the general ward was ranked as the highest risk department for sharp injuries(45. 71%); the disposable syringes (54. 29%) were the major medical equipments which caused sharp injuries. Drug reconstitution(51. 43%) was the key link where the sharp injuries occurred. There were 68. 86% of the respondents who had ever attended the related training, and only 8. 57% of the injured respondents reported their sharp injuries. CONCLUSIONS The nurses are the population at high risk of sharp injuries; the training about the prevention of sharp injuries in key

  13. An Instrument to Measure Anomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allen B.

    1980-01-01

    Four hundred and eighty-six disadvantaged adults from North Carolina were the subjects in a study that factor-analyzed three instruments designed to measure anomia, yielding a 12-item unidimensional scale. (The refined combination scale is presented as of potential usefulness for research on the effects of educational intervention on anomia.) (LRA)

  14. Electron Beam Melting and Refining of Metals: Computational Modeling and Optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katia Vutova; Veliko Donchev

    2013-01-01

    ..., instrument engineering, electronics, etc. A time-dependent 3D axis-symmetrical heat model for simulation of thermal transfer in metal ingots solidified in a water-cooled crucible at electron beam melting and refining (EBMR) is developed...

  15. Crystal structure refinement with SHELXL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrick, George M

    2015-01-01

    The improvements in the crystal structure refinement program SHELXL have been closely coupled with the development and increasing importance of the CIF (Crystallographic Information Framework) format for validating and archiving crystal structures. An important simplification is that now only one file in CIF format (for convenience, referred to simply as `a CIF') containing embedded reflection data and SHELXL instructions is needed for a complete structure archive; the program SHREDCIF can be used to extract the .hkl and .ins files required for further refinement with SHELXL. Recent developments in SHELXL facilitate refinement against neutron diffraction data, the treatment of H atoms, the determination of absolute structure, the input of partial structure factors and the refinement of twinned and disordered structures. SHELXL is available free to academics for the Windows, Linux and Mac OS X operating systems, and is particularly suitable for multiple-core processors.

  16. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...... notions of implementation, is shown to be computationally hard (co-NP hard). Second, we consider four forms of consistency (existence of implementations) for modal specifications. We characterize each operationally, giving algorithms for deciding, and for synthesizing implementations, together...

  17. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  18. Gemini Instrument Upgrade Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ruben; Goodsell, Stephen; Kleinman, Scot

    2016-08-01

    The Gemini Observatory* remains committed to keeping its operational instrumentation competitive and serving the needs of its user community. Currently the observatory operates a 4 instruments + 1 AO system at each site. At Gemini North the GMOS-N, GNIRS, NIFS and NIRI instruments are offered supported by the ALTAIR AO system. In the south, GMOS-S, F-2, GPI and GSAOI are offered instrumentation and GeMS is the provided AO System. This paper reviews our strategy to keep our instrumentation suite competitive, examines both our current funded upgrade projects and our potential future enhancements. We summarize the work done and the results so far obtained within the instrument upgrade program.

  19. Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical analyses of terrestrial impact structures: Current analytical procedures at the University of Vienna Geochemistry Activation Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Dieter [Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: dieter.mader@univie.ac.at; Koeberl, Christian [Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: christian.koeberl@univie.ac.at

    2009-12-15

    The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory at the Department of Lithospheric Research, University of Vienna, has been upgraded in the year 2006. This paper describes the sample preparation, new instrumentation and data evaluation for hundreds of rock samples of two terrestrial impact structures. The measurement and data evaluation are done by using Genie{sup TM} 2000 and a custom-made batch software for the used analysis sequences.

  20. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Michael S. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The zone refining process was applied to Pu metal containing known amounts of impurities. Rod specimens of plutonium metal were melted into and contained in tantalum boats, each of which was passed horizontally through a three-turn, high-frequency coil in such a manner as to cause a narrow molten zone to pass through the Pu metal rod 10 times. The impurity elements Co, Cr, Fe, Ni, Np, U were found to move in the same direction as the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. The elements Al, Am, and Ga moved in the opposite direction of the molten zone as predicted by binary phase diagrams. As the impurity alloy was zone refined, {delta}-phase plutonium metal crystals were produced. The first few zone refining passes were more effective than each later pass because an oxide layer formed on the rod surface. There was no clear evidence of better impurity movement at the slower zone refining speed. Also, constant or variable coil power appeared to have no effect on impurity movement during a single run (10 passes). This experiment was the first step to developing a zone refining process for plutonium metal.

  1. Bauxite Mining and Alumina Refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Neale; Olney, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe bauxite mining and alumina refining processes and to outline the relevant physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic, and psychosocial health risks. Methods: Review article. Results: The most important risks relate to noise, ergonomics, trauma, and caustic soda splashes of the skin/eyes. Other risks of note relate to fatigue, heat, and solar ultraviolet and for some operations tropical diseases, venomous/dangerous animals, and remote locations. Exposures to bauxite dust, alumina dust, and caustic mist in contemporary best-practice bauxite mining and alumina refining operations have not been demonstrated to be associated with clinically significant decrements in lung function. Exposures to bauxite dust and alumina dust at such operations are also not associated with the incidence of cancer. Conclusions: A range of occupational health risks in bauxite mining and alumina refining require the maintenance of effective control measures. PMID:24806720

  2. Data refinement for true concurrency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Dongol

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of modern systems exhibit sophisticated concurrent behaviour, where several system components modify and observe the system state with fine-grained atomicity. Many systems (e.g., multi-core processors, real-time controllers also exhibit truly concurrent behaviour, where multiple events can occur simultaneously. This paper presents data refinement defined in terms of an interval-based framework, which includes high-level operators that capture non-deterministic expression evaluation. By modifying the type of an interval, our theory may be specialised to cover data refinement of both discrete and continuous systems. We present an interval-based encoding of forward simulation, then prove that our forward simulation rule is sound with respect to our data refinement definition. A number of rules for decomposing forward simulation proofs over both sequential and parallel composition are developed.

  3. Pointing Refinement of SIRTF Images

    CERN Document Server

    Masci, F; Moshir, M; Shupe, D; Fowler, J W; Fowler, John W.

    2002-01-01

    The soon-to-be-launched Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) shall produce image data with an a-posteriori pointing knowledge of 1.4 arcsec (1 sigma radial) with a goal of 1.2 arcsec in the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS). To perform robust image coaddition, mosaic generation, extraction and position determination of faint sources, the pointing will need to be refined to better than a few-tenths of an arcsecond. We use a linear-sparse matrix solver to find a "global-minimization" of all relative image offsets in a mosaic from which refined pointings and orientations can be computed. This paper summarizes the pointing-refinement algorithm and presents the results of testing on simulated data.

  4. DSm Vector Spaces of Refined Labels

    CERN Document Server

    Kandasamy, W B Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    In this book the authors introduce the notion of DSm vector spaces of refined labels. They also realize the refined labels as a plane and a n-dimensional space. Further, using these refined labels, several algebraic structures are defined. Finally DSm semivector space or refined labels is described. Authors also propose some research problems.

  5. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  6. Instrumentation a reader

    CERN Document Server

    Pope, P

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a selection of papers and articles in instrumentation previously pub­ lished in technical periodicals and journals of learned societies. Our selection has been made to illustrate aspects of current practice and applications of instrumentation. The book does not attempt to be encyclopaedic in its coverage of the subject, but to provide some examples of general transduction techniques, of the sensing of particular measurands, of components of instrumentation systems and of instrumentation practice in two very different environments, the food industry and the nuclear power industry. We have made the selection particularly to provide papers appropriate to the study of the Open University course T292 Instrumentation. The papers have been chosen so that the book covers a wide spectrum of instrumentation techniques. Because of this, the book should be of value not only to students of instrumen­ tation, but also to practising engineers and scientists wishing to glean ideas from areas of instrumen...

  7. Refining Nodes and Edges of State Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallerstede, Stefan; Snook, Colin

    2011-01-01

    State machines are hierarchical automata that are widely used to structure complex behavioural specifications. We develop two notions of refinement of state machines, node refinement and edge refinement. We compare the two notions by means of examples and argue that, by adopting simple convention...... refinement theory and UML-B state machine refinement influences the style of node refinement. Hence we propose a method with direct proof of state machine refinement avoiding the detour via Event-B that is needed by UML-B....

  8. Conformal refinement of unstructured quadrilateral meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmella, Rao [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present a multilevel adaptive refinement technique for unstructured quadrilateral meshes in which the mesh is kept conformal at all times. This means that the refined mesh, like the original, is formed of only quadrilateral elements that intersect strictly along edges or at vertices, i.e., vertices of one quadrilateral element do not lie in an edge of another quadrilateral. Elements are refined using templates based on 1:3 refinement of edges. We demonstrate that by careful design of the refinement and coarsening strategy, we can maintain high quality elements in the refined mesh. We demonstrate the method on a number of examples with dynamically changing refinement regions.

  9. Refining analgesia strategies using lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    Sound programs for the humane care and use of animals within research facilities incorporate experimental refinements such as multimodal approaches for pain management. These approaches can include non-traditional strategies along with more established ones. The use of lasers for pain relief is growing in popularity among companion animal veterinary practitioners and technologists. Therefore, its application in the research sector warrants closer consideration.

  10. On Interaction Refinement in Middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Truyen, Eddy; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Joosen, Wouter;

    2000-01-01

    components together. We have examined a reflective technique that improve the dynamics of this gluing process such that interaction between components can be refined at run-time. In this paper, we show how we have used this reflective technique to dynamically integrate into the architecture of middleware...

  11. Instrumentation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides instrumentation support for flight tests of prototype weapons systems using a vast array of airborne sensors, transducers, signal conditioning and encoding...

  12. Refining Visually Detected Object poses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Preben; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Automated industrial assembly today require that the 3D position and orientation (hereafter ''pose`) of the objects to be assembled are known precisely. Today this precision is mostly established by a dedicated mechanical object alignment system. However, such systems are often dedicated...... that enables direct assembly. Conventional vision systems and laser triangulation systems can locate randomly placed known objects (with 3D CAD models available) with some accuracy, but not necessarily a good enough accuracy. In this paper, we present a novel method for refining the pose accuracy of an object...... that has been located based on the appearance as detected by a monocular camera. We illustrate the quality of our refinement method experimentally....

  13. Iterative Goal Refinement for Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Iterative Goal Refinement for Robotics Mark Roberts1, Swaroop Vattam1, Ronald Alford2, Bryan Auslander3, Justin Karneeb3, Matthew Molineaux3... robotics researchers and practitioners. We present a goal lifecycle and define a formal model for GR that (1) relates distinct disciplines concerning...researchers to collaborate in exploring this exciting frontier. 1. Introduction Robotic systems often act using incomplete models in environments

  14. Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 25 March 1977 - 01 February 1980 (NODC Accession 8000320)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, wind wave spectra, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from March 25, 1977 to...

  15. Current direction, benthic organisms, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico during the Brine Disposal project, 01 September 1978 - 19 May 1982 (NODC Accession 8200154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, benthic organisms, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Gulf of Mexico from July 15, 1980 to March 20, 1981. Data...

  16. Medical instruments in museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderqvist, Thomas; Arnold, Ken

    2011-01-01

    This essay proposes that our understanding of medical instruments might benefit from adding a more forthright concern with their immediate presence to the current historical focus on simply decoding their meanings and context. This approach is applied to the intriguingly tricky question of what...... actually is meant by a "medical instrument." It is suggested that a pragmatic part of the answer might lie simply in reconsidering the holdings of medical museums, where the significance of the physical actuality of instruments comes readily to hand....

  17. Current, temperature, salinity, and other data from bottom instrument packages off Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina, from 02 April 1996 to 22 May 1996 (NODC Accession 0066099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Measurements of bottom currents and waves to investigate the flow field and sediment transport in a rippled scour depression offshore of Wrightsville Beach, NC.

  18. The Refined Function-Behaviour-Structure Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diertens, B.

    2013-01-01

    We refine the function-behaviour-structure framework for design introduced by John Gero in order to deal with complexity. We do this by connecting the frameworks for the desing of two models, one the refinement of the other. The result is a refined framework for the design of an object on two levels

  19. Luminescence Instrumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an introduction to instrumentation for stimulated luminescence studies, with special focus on luminescence dating using the natural dosimeters, quartz and feldspars. The chapter covers basic concepts in luminescence detection, and thermal and optical stimulation, and reference...

  20. Refining United States Policy on Offensive Cyber Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    address state- sponsored cyber threats with a very different set of tools ranging from diplomacy to kinetic strikes. Categorizing attacks by actor will...AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY REFINING UNITED STATES POLICY ON OFFENSIVE CYBER OPERATIONS by Max...to offensive cyber warfare, specifically cyber exploitation and cyber attack. Current domestic and international policies lack mechanisms to

  1. The relationship of current depressive symptoms and past depression with cognitive impairment and instrumental activities of daily living in an elderly population: the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppermund, S; Brodaty, H; Crawford, J D; Kochan, N A; Slavin, M J; Trollor, J N; Draper, B; Sachdev, P S

    2011-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in the elderly and they have been associated with cognitive and functional impairment. However, relatively less is known about the relationship of a lifetime history of depression to cognitive impairment and functional status. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether current depressive symptoms and past depression are associated with cognitive or functional impairment in a community-based sample representative of east Sydney, Australia. We also examined whether there was an interaction between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. Eight hundred non-demented aged participants received a neuropsychological assessment, a past psychiatric history interview and the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. The Bayer-Activities of Daily Living scale was completed by an informant to determine functional ability. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were present in 6.1% of the sample and 16.6% reported a history of depression. Participants with current depression had significantly higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction and performed worse on memory and executive function compared to participants without current depression. After controlling for anxiety the effect on executive function was no longer significant while the effect on memory remained significant. A history of depression was associated with worse executive function, higher levels of psychological distress and anxiety, and lower life satisfaction. After controlling for psychological distress the effect of past depression on executive function was no longer significant. There were no significant interactions between current and past depression in their effects on cognitive performance. There were no differences between participants with or without current depression and with or without past depression on functional abilities. These results support the view that current and past depressive

  2. Inflation in a refined racetrack

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Wen-Yu

    2007-01-01

    In this note, we refine the racetrack inflation model constructed in arXiv:hep-th/0406230 by including the open string modulus. This modulus encodes the embedding of our braneworld inside some Calabi-Yau throat. We argue that in generic this open string modulus dynamically runs with the inflaton field thanks to its nonlinear coupling. A full analysis becomes difficult because the scalar potential changes progressively during the inflation epoch. Nevertheless, by explicit construction we are still able to build a realistic model through appropriate choices of the initial conditions.

  3. Design of Ionization Chamber Current Measuring Instrument Based on DDC112%基于DDC112的电离室电流测量仪设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒿书利; 庹先国; 王洪辉; 奚大顺

    2012-01-01

    For the ionization radiation detectors, the output current of current ionization chamber is very weak and the current range is wide, proposed the use of direct current digital chip DDC112,to realize the dual channel continuous measurement of fA (10-15A) current. By one single -chip, charge signal is directly converted into 20 - bit digital output data, which simplify electronic circuit design, suppress the interference noise, improve the resolution, combining circuit anti - leakage current design process, achieve the system of high - performance ionization chamber measurement micro - current. After the actual circuit design and test, integration time can be adjusted in the range of 50 ~ 1×106μs, current range can be set up in the range of 5 ×104 ~ 7× 109fA by setting the integral time.%针对电离辐射探测器中电流电离室输出电流微弱,且电流范围较宽等特点,提出利用直接电流数字化集成芯片DDC112,实现双通道fA(飞安,10-15A)级微弱电流的连续测量.利用单芯片将电荷信号直接转化为20位数字输出,简化电子电路设计,降低干扰噪声,提高分辨率,配合电路防泄漏电流设计工艺,实现高性能电离室微电流测量系统.经过实际电路设计和调试,积分时间可在50~1×106μs范围内控制调整,电流量程可在5×104~7×109fA范围内根据积分时间进行选择.

  4. Rotary impeller refinement of 7075Al alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liping; GUO Erjun; HUANG Yongchang; LU Bin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of four parameters, gas flow, rotational speed, refining time, and stewing time, on the rotary impeller refinement of 7075 Al were studied. The effects of C2Cl6refining, rotary impeller refuting, and composite refining of 7075 AI alloy were compared with each other. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of rotary impeller refinement was rotational speed, followed by gas flow, refining time, and stewing time. The optimum purification parameters obtained by orthogonal analysis were as follows: rotor speed of 400 r/min, inert gas flow of 0.4 mL/h, refining time of 15 min, and stewing time of 6 min. The best degassing effect can be obtained by the composite refuting of C2Cl6 and rotary impeller. The degassing rate of C2Cl6 rotary impeller, and composite refining was 34.5%, 69.2%, and 78%, respectively. The mechanical properties of the specimen refined by rotary impeller were higher than those by C2C16 refining, but lower than those by composite refining.

  5. Zone refining of plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate zone refining techniques for the purification of plutonium metal. The redistribution of 10 impurity elements from zone melting was examined. Four tantalum boats were loaded with plutonium impurity alloy, placed in a vacuum furnace, heated to 700{degrees}C, and held at temperature for one hour. Ten passes were made with each boat. Metallographic and chemical analyses performed on the plutonium rods showed that, after 10 passes, moderate movement of certain elements were achieved. Molten zone speeds of 1 or 2 inches per hour had no effect on impurity element movement. Likewise, the application of constant or variable power had no effect on impurity movement. The study implies that development of a zone refining process to purify plutonium is feasible. Development of a process will be hampered by two factors: (1) the effect on impurity element redistribution of the oxide layer formed on the exposed surface of the material is not understood, and (2) the tantalum container material is not inert in the presence of plutonium. Cold boat studies are planned, with higher temperature and vacuum levels, to determine the effect on these factors. 5 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  6. Automated Assume-Guarantee Reasoning by Abstraction Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Giannakopoulous, Dimitra; Glannakopoulou, Dimitra

    2008-01-01

    Current automated approaches for compositional model checking in the assume-guarantee style are based on learning of assumptions as deterministic automata. We propose an alternative approach based on abstraction refinement. Our new method computes the assumptions for the assume-guarantee rules as conservative and not necessarily deterministic abstractions of some of the components, and refines those abstractions using counter-examples obtained from model checking them together with the other components. Our approach also exploits the alphabets of the interfaces between components and performs iterative refinement of those alphabets as well as of the abstractions. We show experimentally that our preliminary implementation of the proposed alternative achieves similar or better performance than a previous learning-based implementation.

  7. Investigation of Structural, Compositional and Anti-Microbial Properties of Copper Thin Film Using Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering for Surgical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvam, S.; Sandhya, J.; Krishnan, K. V. Hari; Kedharnath, A.; Arulkumar, G.; Roseline, A. Ameelia

    Surgical instruments and other bioimplant devices, owing to their importance in the biomedical industry require high biocompatibility to be used in the human body. Nevertheless, issues of compatibility, bacterial infections are quite common in such devices. Hence development of surface coatings on various substrates for implant applications is a promising technique to combat the issues arising in these implant materials. The present investigation aims at coating copper on stainless steel substrate using DC Magnetron sputtering which is used to achieve film of required thickness (0.5-8μm). The deposition pressure, substrate temperature, power supply, distance between the specimen and target are optimized and maintained constant, while the sputtering time (30-110min) is varied. The sputtered copper thin film’s morphology, composition are characterized by SEM and EDAX. X-ray diffraction analysis shows copper oriented on (111) and (002) and copper oxide on (111) planes. The contact angle of copper thin film is 92∘ while AISI 316L shows 73∘. The antimicrobial studies carried in Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia Coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans show that the maximum reduction was seen upto 35, 26, 54, 39CFU/mL, respectively after 24h. The cell viability is studied by MTT assay test on Vero cell line for 24h, 48h and 72h and average cell viability is 43.85%. The copper release from the thin film to the culture medium is 6691μg/L (maximum) is estimated from AAS studies. The copper coated substrate does not show much reaction with living Vero cells whereas the bacteria and fungi are found to be destroyed.

  8. A systematic review of the current state of dental shade guides and shade-matching instruments%牙科比色板和比色仪的研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽娟; 袁坤

    2012-01-01

    比色对于牙科医生来说仍然具有挑战性.牙科色彩学研究的不断深入促生了新型比色板和可用于临床的比色仪,这些比色板和比色仪的出现提高了牙齿颜色测量、交流和再现的成功率,但其应用和研究仍存在一些问题.本文就比色板和比色仪的研究现状作一综述.%Shade selection for dental restorations has always been a challenge for the dentist. Color research in dentistry has promoted the growth of a new generation of technologies, marked by the birth of new kinds of shade guides and commercially available shade-matching instruments. Though today' s shade guides and shade - matching instruments have been developed in an effort to increase the success of color matching, communication, and reproduction , there are still problems in their clinical and research application. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to provide a systematic review of the current state of shade guides and shade-matching instruments.

  9. Instrumented SSH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Scott; Campbell, Scott

    2009-05-27

    NERSC recently undertook a project to access and analyze Secure Shell (SSH) related data. This includes authentication data such as user names and key fingerprints, interactive session data such as keystrokes and responses, and information about noninteractive sessions such as commands executed and files transferred. Historically, this data has been inaccessible with traditional network monitoring techniques, but with a modification to the SSH daemon, this data can be passed directly to intrusion detection systems for analysis. The instrumented version of SSH is now running on all NERSC production systems. This paper describes the project, details about how SSH was instrumented, and the initial results of putting this in production.

  10. Adaptive mesh refinement in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Wen, Tong

    2005-01-21

    In this paper, we evaluate Titanium's usability as a high-level parallel programming language through a case study, where we implement a subset of Chombo's functionality in Titanium. Chombo is a software package applying the Adaptive Mesh Refinement methodology to numerical Partial Differential Equations at the production level. In Chombo, the library approach is used to parallel programming (C++ and Fortran, with MPI), whereas Titanium is a Java dialect designed for high-performance scientific computing. The performance of our implementation is studied and compared with that of Chombo in solving Poisson's equation based on two grid configurations from a real application. Also provided are the counts of lines of code from both sides.

  11. Algorithm refinement for fluctuating hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Sarah A.; Bell, John B.; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2007-07-03

    This paper introduces an adaptive mesh and algorithmrefinement method for fluctuating hydrodynamics. This particle-continuumhybrid simulates the dynamics of a compressible fluid with thermalfluctuations. The particle algorithm is direct simulation Monte Carlo(DSMC), a molecular-level scheme based on the Boltzmann equation. Thecontinuum algorithm is based on the Landau-Lifshitz Navier-Stokes (LLNS)equations, which incorporate thermal fluctuations into macroscopichydrodynamics by using stochastic fluxes. It uses a recently-developedsolver for LLNS, based on third-order Runge-Kutta. We present numericaltests of systems in and out of equilibrium, including time-dependentsystems, and demonstrate dynamic adaptive refinement by the computationof a moving shock wave. Mean system behavior and second moment statisticsof our simulations match theoretical values and benchmarks well. We findthat particular attention should be paid to the spectrum of the flux atthe interface between the particle and continuum methods, specificallyfor the non-hydrodynamic (kinetic) time scales.

  12. SILICON REFINING BY VACUUM TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Alexandrino Lotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to investigate the phosphorus removal by vacuum from metallurgical grade silicon (MGSi (98.5% to 99% Si. Melting experiments were carried out in a vacuum induction furnace, varying parameters such as temperature, time and relation area exposed to the vacuum / volume of molten silicon. The results of chemical analysis were obtained by inductively coupled plasma (ICP, and evaluated based on thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the reaction of vaporization of the phosphorus in the silicon. The phosphorus was decreased from 33 to approximately 1.5 ppm after three hours of vacuum treatment, concluding that the evaporation step is the controlling step of the process for parameters of temperature, pressure and agitation used and refining by this process is technically feasible.

  13. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    ) show the dynamic nature of policy processes, and (3) consider the search for policy reference points among the different actors. We present rankers in motion, policies in motion, and finally the complex nature of the ranking device that needs to be both a relevant and malleable policy instrument...

  14. Instruments of Transformative Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    production and distribution channels. PDPs aim at overcoming current market and government failures by pooling resources in the attempt to solve this global social challenge. Thus, PDPs are a case of instruments of transformative research and innovation, operating in a transnational governance context...

  15. Accounting Issues On Financial Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shiba, Kenji

    1995-01-01

    Financial Instruments should be measured at the present value by using the current effective yield as the discount rate by reference to the current market interest rate and the risk premium. The fair value or the current market price are surrogates of the present value. The present value determined by using the historical effective yield as the discount rate is allowed under limited circumstances. However, the historical cost is not allowed as a measurement basis of financial instruments. Thi...

  16. Improved successive refinement for wavelet-based embedded image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creusere, Charles D.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we consider a new form of successive coefficient refinement which can be used in conjunction with embedded compression algorithms like Shapiro's EZW (Embedded Zerotree Wavelet) and Said & Pearlman's SPIHT (Set Partitioning in Hierarchical Trees). Using the conventional refinement process, the approximation of a coefficient that was earlier determined to be significantly is refined by transmitting one of two symbols--an `up' symbol if the actual coefficient value is in the top half of the current uncertainty interval or a `down' symbol if it is the bottom half. In the modified scheme developed here, we transmit one of 3 symbols instead--`up', `down', or `exact'. The new `exact' symbol tells the decoder that its current approximation of a wavelet coefficient is `exact' to the level of precision desired. By applying this scheme in earlier work to lossless embedded compression (also called lossy/lossless compression), we achieved significant reductions in encoder and decoder execution times with no adverse impact on compression efficiency. These excellent results for lossless systems have inspired us to adapt this refinement approach to lossy embedded compression. Unfortunately, the results we have achieved thus far for lossy compression are not as good.

  17. Zone refining of cadmium and related characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N R Munirathnam; D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; J V Rao; T L Prakash

    2005-06-01

    We present the zone refining results of cadmium using horizontal resistive zone refiner under constant flow of moisture free hydrogen gas. The boron impurity in cadmium can be avoided using quartz (GE 214 grade) boat in lieu of high pure graphite boat. The analytical results using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICPOES) show that majority of the impurities are less than the detection limits. Comparatively, zinc is the most difficult impurity element to remove in cadmium matrix by zone refining.

  18. Refined curve counting on complex surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Göttsche, Lothar; Shende, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    We define refined invariants which "count" nodal curves in sufficiently ample linear systems on surfaces, conjecture that their generating function is multiplicative, and conjecture explicit formulas in the case of K3 and abelian surfaces. We also give a refinement of the Caporaso-Harris recursion, and conjecture that it produces the same invariants in the sufficiently ample setting. The refined recursion specializes at y = -1 to the Itenberg-Kharlamov-Shustin recursion for Welschinger invari...

  19. Quantitative characterization of the impact of pulp refining on enzymatic saccharification of the alkaline pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanfei; Li, Bin; Mu, Xindong; Yu, Guang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yuedong; Wang, Haisong

    2014-10-01

    In this work, corn stover was refined by a pulp refining instrument (PFI refiner) after NaOH pretreatment under varied conditions. The quantitative characterization of the influence of PFI refining on enzymatic hydrolysis was studied, and it was proved that the enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by PFI refining of the pretreated corn stover was largely due to the significant increment of porosity of substrates and the reduction of cellulose crystallinity. Furthermore, a linear relationship between beating degree and final total sugar yields was found, and a simple way to predict the final total sugar yields by easily testing the beating degree of PFI refined corn stover was established. Therefore, this paper provided the possibility and feasibility for easily monitoring the fermentable sugar production by the simple test of beating degree, and this will be of significant importance for the monitoring and controlling of industrial production in the future.

  20. Measurement, instrumentation, and sensors handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Eren, Halit

    2014-01-01

    The Second Edition of the bestselling Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook brings together all aspects of the design and implementation of measurement, instrumentation, and sensors. Reflecting the current state of the art, it describes the use of instruments and techniques for performing practical measurements in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the life sciences and discusses processing systems, automatic data acquisition, reduction and analysis, operation characteristics, accuracy, errors, calibrations, and the incorporation of standards for control purposes. Organized acco

  1. Standard NIM instrumentation system

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    NIM is a standard modular instrumentation system that is in wide use throughout the world. As the NIM system developed and accommodations were made to a dynamic instrumentation field and a rapidly advancing technology, additions, revisions and clarifications were made. These were incorporated into the standard in the form of addenda and errata. This standard is a revision of the NIM document, AEC Report TID- 20893 (Rev 4) dated July 1974. It includes all the addenda and errata items that were previously issued as well as numerous additional items to make the standard current with modern technology and manufacturing practice.

  2. Protein structure refinement by optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Martin; Røgen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge-based protein potentials are simplified potentials designed to improve the quality of protein models, which is important as more accurate models are more useful for biological and pharmaceutical studies. Consequently, knowledge-based potentials often are designed to be efficient in ordering a given set of deformed structures denoted decoys according to how close they are to the relevant native protein structure. This, however, does not necessarily imply that energy minimization of this potential will bring the decoys closer to the native structure. In this study, we introduce an iterative strategy to improve the convergence of decoy structures. It works by adding energy optimized decoys to the pool of decoys used to construct the next and improved knowledge-based potential. We demonstrate that this strategy results in significantly improved decoy convergence on Titan high resolution decoys and refinement targets from Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction competitions. Our potential is formulated in Cartesian coordinates and has a fixed backbone potential to restricts motions to be close to those of a dihedral model, a fixed hydrogen-bonding potential and a variable coarse grained carbon alpha potential consisting of a pair potential and a novel solvent potential that are b-spline based as we use explicit gradient and Hessian for efficient energy optimization.

  3. Model Checking Linearizability via Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yanhong A.; Sun, Jun

    Linearizability is an important correctness criterion for implementations of concurrent objects. Automatic checking of linearizability is challenging because it requires checking that 1) all executions of concurrent operations be serializable, and 2) the serialized executions be correct with respect to the sequential semantics. This paper describes a new method to automatically check linearizability based on refinement relations from abstract specifications to concrete implementations. Our method avoids the often difficult task of determining linearization points in implementations, but can also take advantage of linearization points if they are given. The method exploits model checking of finite state systems specified as concurrent processes with shared variables. Partial order reduction is used to effectively reduce the search space. The approach is built into a toolset that supports a rich set of concurrent operators. The tool has been used to automatically check a variety of implementations of concurrent objects, including the first algorithms for the mailbox problem and scalable NonZero indicators. Our system was able to find all known and injected bugs in these implementations.

  4. Refining animal experiments: the first Brazilian regulation on animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de A e Tréz, Thales

    2010-06-01

    The very first law on animal experimentation has been approved recently in Brazil, and now is part of a set of the legal instruments that profile the Brazilian government's attitude toward the use of animals in experiments. Law 11794/08 establishes a new legal instrument that will guide new methods of conduct for ethics committees, researchers and representatives of animal protection societies. This comment aims to analyse critically the implications that this law brings to Brazilian reality. The link between it and the Russell and Burch's Three Rs concept is defined, and certain problems are identified. The conclusion is that the body of the law emphasises the refinement of animal experiments, but gives little importance to the principles of reduction and replacement.

  5. Physical and other data from CTD casts, current meters, and other instruments from the SHOYO and other platforms from the North Pacific Ocean and other locations by the Japanese Hydrographic Office and the Maritime Safety Agency; Hydrographic Division from 01 January 1990 to 31 December 1991 (NODC Accession 9300113)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data from CTD casts, current meters, and other instruments from the SHOYO and other platforms from the North Pacific Ocean and other locations...

  6. Physical and other data from current meters, bottle casts, CTD casts, meteorological sensors, and other instruments from the GYRE as part of the Texas-Louisiana Shelf Circulation and Transport Processes Study (LATEX PART A) from 09 April 1992 to 02 October 1994 (NODC Accession 9500056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data were collected from current meters, bottle casts, CTD casts, meteorological sensors, and other instruments from the GYRE from 09 April 1992...

  7. Physical, biological, current, and other data from CTD, XBT, ADCP, bottle casts, net casts, and other instruments from the N. E. Atlantic Ocean in support of the OMEX 1 project from 01 April 1993 to 01 December 1995 (NODC Accession 0000172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, biological, current, and other data were collected from CTD, XBT, ADCP, bottle casts, net casts, and other instruments from the N. E. Atlantic Ocean in...

  8. Physical and other data from CTD casts, XBT casts, current meters, and other instruments from the SHOYO and other platforms from the NE Pacific (limit-180) and other locations by the Japanese Hydrographic Office and the Maritime Safety Agency; Hydrographic Division from 16 January 1993 to 01 December 1995 (NODC Accession 9600079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and other data from CTD casts, XBT casts, current meters, and other instruments from the SHOYO and other platforms from the NE Pacific (limit-180) and other...

  9. Hydrographic, current profile, and other data from STD and other instruments from the NW Pacific (limit-180) from the YAQUINA and other platforms as part of the International Decade of Ocean Exploration / Cooperative Investigations of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (IDOE/CICAR) and related projects from 31 July 1972 to 25 August 1972 (NODC Accession 7500531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hydrographic, current profiles, and other data were collected from STD and other instruments in the NW Pacific (limit-180) from the YAQUINA from 31 July 1972 to 25...

  10. Refined large N duality for torus knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Kameyama, Masaya

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  11. Refined Black Hole Ensembles and Topological Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, Mina

    2012-01-01

    We formulate a refined version of the Ooguri-Strominger-Vafa (OSV) conjecture. The OSV conjecture that Z_{BH} = |Z_{top}|^2 relates the BPS black hole partition function to the topological string partition function Z_{top}. In the refined conjecture, Z_{BH} is the partition function of BPS black holes counted with spin, or more precisely the protected spin character. Z_{top} becomes the partition function of the refined topological string, which is itself an index. Both the original and the refined conjecture are examples of large N duality in the 't Hooft sense. The refined conjecture applies to non-compact Calabi-Yau manifolds only, so the black holes are really BPS particles with large entropy, of order N^2. The refined OSV conjecture states that the refined BPS partition function has a large N dual which is captured by the refined topological string. We provide evidence that the conjecture holds by studying local Calabi-Yau threefolds consisting of line bundles over a genus g Riemann surface. We show that...

  12. Refined large N duality for torus knots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Kameyama, Masaya

    We formulate large N duality of U(N) refined Chern-Simons theory with a torus knot/link in S³. By studying refined BPS states in M-theory, we provide the explicit form of low-energy effective actions of Type IIA string theory with D4-branes on the Ω-background. This form enables us to relate...

  13. University of Washington/ Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center Tidal Current Technology Test Protocol, Instrumentation, Design Code, and Oceanographic Modeling Collaboration: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-452

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Frederick R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The University of Washington (UW) - Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center (UW-NNMREC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) will collaborate to advance research and development (R&D) of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy technology, specifically renewable energy captured from ocean tidal currents. UW-NNMREC is endeavoring to establish infrastructure, capabilities and tools to support in-water testing of marine energy technology. NREL is leveraging its experience and capabilities in field testing of wind systems to develop protocols and instrumentation to advance field testing of MHK systems. Under this work, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to develop a common instrumentation system and testing methodologies, standards and protocols. UW-NNMREC is also establishing simulation capabilities for MHK turbine and turbine arrays. NREL has extensive experience in wind turbine array modeling and is developing several computer based numerical simulation capabilities for MHK systems. Under this CRADA, UW-NNMREC and NREL will work together to augment single device and array modeling codes. As part of this effort UW NNMREC will also work with NREL to run simulations on NREL's high performance computer system.

  14. China Becomes Globe's Second Largest Oil Refiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Weijun

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's refining capacity of crude oil reached 477 million tons by the end of last year,ranking the second in the world.CNPC and Sinopec now own 27 percent of the country's oil refineries with a combined refining capacity amounting to 76 percent of the country's total.As the country's biggest oil refiner,Sinopec's refining ability has increased 72.8 percent in the past ten years with a growth rate of 6.3 percent per year,ranking the third in the world,according to statistics released by Sinopec.Meanwhile,China's local oil refining enterprises' total capacity has reached 88 million tons per year.According to Sinopec,China has built 17 ten-million-ton-oil refineries which amount to half of the country's total capacity.

  15. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  16. Boxlib with tiling: an adaptive mesh refinement software framework

    OpenAIRE

    Unat, Didem; Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Day, M.; Nguyen, T.; Shalf, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a block-structured adaptive mesh refinement software framework that incorporates tiling, a well-known loop transformation. Because the multiscale, multiphysics codes built in boxlib are designed to solve complex systems at high resolution, performance on current and next generation architectures is essential. With the expectation of many more cores per node on next generation architectures, the ability to effectively utilize threads within a node is essential, and t...

  17. Grain refinement of AZ31 magnesium alloy by electromagnetic stirring under effect of grain-refiner

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Y Gao; Q C Le; Z Q Zhang; J Z Cui

    2012-08-01

    The effects of electromagnetic stirring and Al4C3 grain refiner on the grain refinement of semicontinuously cast AZ31 magnesium alloy were discussed in this investigation. The results indicate that electromagnetic stirring has an effective refining effect on the grain size of AZ31 magnesium alloy under the effect of Al4C3 grain refiner. Electromagnetic stirring can `activate’ the Al4C3 particles, resulting in more heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary -Mg grains. But, longer holding time can `deactivate’ the Al4C3 particles and poison the grain refining effect.

  18. Linear Prediction Using Refined Autocorrelation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shahidur Rahman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new technique for improving the performance of linear prediction analysis by utilizing a refined version of the autocorrelation function. Problems in analyzing voiced speech using linear prediction occur often due to the harmonic structure of the excitation source, which causes the autocorrelation function to be an aliased version of that of the vocal tract impulse response. To estimate the vocal tract characteristics accurately, however, the effect of aliasing must be eliminated. In this paper, we employ homomorphic deconvolution technique in the autocorrelation domain to eliminate the aliasing effect occurred due to periodicity. The resulted autocorrelation function of the vocal tract impulse response is found to produce significant improvement in estimating formant frequencies. The accuracy of formant estimation is verified on synthetic vowels for a wide range of pitch frequencies typical for male and female speakers. The validity of the proposed method is also illustrated by inspecting the spectral envelopes of natural speech spoken by high-pitched female speaker. The synthesis filter obtained by the current method is guaranteed to be stable, which makes the method superior to many of its alternatives.

  19. Refinement for Probabilistic Systems with Nondeterminism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Streader

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Before we combine actions and probabilities two very obvious questions should be asked. Firstly, what does "the probability of an action" mean? Secondly, how does probability interact with nondeterminism? Neither question has a single universally agreed upon answer but by considering these questions at the outset we build a novel and hopefully intuitive probabilistic event-based formalism. In previous work we have characterised refinement via the notion of testing. Basically, if one system passes all the tests that another system passes (and maybe more we say the first system is a refinement of the second. This is, in our view, an important way of characterising refinement, via the question "what sort of refinement should I be using?" We use testing in this paper as the basis for our refinement. We develop tests for probabilistic systems by analogy with the tests developed for non-probabilistic systems. We make sure that our probabilistic tests, when performed on non-probabilistic automata, give us refinement relations which agree with for those non-probabilistic automata. We formalise this property as a vertical refinement.

  20. Protein NMR structures refined without NOE data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hyojung; Kim, Tae-Rae; Ahn, SeonJoo; Ji, Sunyoung; Lee, Jinhyuk

    2014-01-01

    The refinement of low-quality structures is an important challenge in protein structure prediction. Many studies have been conducted on protein structure refinement; the refinement of structures derived from NMR spectroscopy has been especially intensively studied. In this study, we generated flat-bottom distance potential instead of NOE data because NOE data have ambiguity and uncertainty. The potential was derived from distance information from given structures and prevented structural dislocation during the refinement process. A simulated annealing protocol was used to minimize the potential energy of the structure. The protocol was tested on 134 NMR structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) that also have X-ray structures. Among them, 50 structures were used as a training set to find the optimal "width" parameter in the flat-bottom distance potential functions. In the validation set (the other 84 structures), most of the 12 quality assessment scores of the refined structures were significantly improved (total score increased from 1.215 to 2.044). Moreover, the secondary structure similarity of the refined structure was improved over that of the original structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the combination of two energy potentials, statistical torsion angle potential (STAP) and the flat-bottom distance potential, can drive the refinement of NMR structures.

  1. Evaluation of an immunosuppressant side effect instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsett, Rebecca P; Arheart, Kris; Stratta, Robert J; Alloway, Rita; Wicks, Mona N; Gaber, A Osama; Hathaway, Donna K

    2004-09-01

    Clinicians continue to be compelled to evaluate the impact of immunosuppressive medication side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. We Were asked to develop an instrument to measure side effects in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. To construct an instrument that measures the impact and severity of side effects of immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation and to assess the reliability and validity of the newly developed instrument called the Memphis Survey. The instrument was constructed by a panel of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with experience in treating transplant recipients. A small group of kidney transplant recipients (n= 13) provided pilot data for refining and testing the instrument. A national sample of kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients (n = 505) provided data that were used to further develop the instrument. Factor analysis was used to determine the psychological dimensions underlying the instrument and to guide the construction of scales from the survey items. The instrument scales were then computed from the dataset of 505 transplant recipients to quantify the impact of immunosuppressant side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. Analyses showed the final instrument scales to be valid and reliable. Exploratory analysis suggests the need for further testing of the instrument to determine gender differences.

  2. Lossless, Near-Lossless, and Refinement Coding of Bi-level Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren Otto

    1997-01-01

    We present general and unified algorithms for lossy/lossless codingof bi-level images. The compression is realized by applying arithmetic coding to conditional probabilities. As in the current JBIG standard the conditioning may be specified by a template.For better compression, the more general...... to the specialized soft pattern matching techniques which work better for text. Template based refinement coding is applied for lossy-to-lossless refinement.We demonstrate that both single pass refinement coding and multiple pass refinement coding yielding progressive build-up may be carried out very efficiently....... Introducing only a small amount of loss in halftoned test images, compression is increased by up to a factor of four compared with JBIG. Lossy, lossless, and refinement decoding speed and lossless encoding speed are less than a factor of two slower than JBIG. The (de)coding method is proposed as part of JBIG...

  3. Spectral-element adaptive refinement magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the island coalescence instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D.; Pouquet, A.; Germaschewski, K.; Ng, C. S.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2006-10-01

    A recently developed spectral-element adaptive refinement incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is applied to simulate the problem of island coalescence instability (ICI) in 2D. The MHD solver is explicit, and uses the Elsasser formulation on high-order elements. It automatically takes advantage of the adaptive grid mechanics that have been described in [Rosenberg, Fournier, Fischer, Pouquet, J. Comp. Phys., 215, 59-80 (2006)], allowing both statically refined and dynamically refined grids. ICI is a MHD process that can produce strong current sheets and subsequent reconnection and heating in a high-Lundquist number plasma such as the solar corona [cf., Ng and Bhattacharjee, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 4028 (1998)]. Thus, it is desirable to use adaptive refinement grids to increase resolution, and to maintain accuracy at the same time. Results are compared with simulations using finite difference method with the same refinement grid, as well as pesudo-spectral simulations using uniform grid.

  4. A Matricial Algorithm for Polynomial Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    King, Emily J

    2011-01-01

    In order to have a multiresolution analysis, the scaling function must be refinable. That is, it must be the linear combination of 2-dilation, $\\mathbb{Z}$-translates of itself. Refinable functions used in connection with wavelets are typically compactly supported. In 2002, David Larson posed the question, "Are all polynomials (of a single variable) finitely refinable?" That summer the author proved that the answer indeed was true using basic linear algebra. The result was presented in a number of talks but had not been typed up until now. The purpose of this short note is to record that particular proof.

  5. Bipolar Neutrosophic Refined Sets and Their Applications in Medical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Deli, Irfan; Yusuf, Şubaş

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes concept of bipolar neutrosophic refined set and its some operations. Firstly, a score certainty and accuracy function to compare the bipolar neutrosophic refined information is defined. Secondly, to aggregate the bipolar neutrosophic refined information, a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted average operator and a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted geometric operator is developed.

  6. Bipolar Neutrosophic Refined Sets and Their Applications in Medical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Deli, Irfan; Yusuf, Şubaş

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes concept of bipolar neutrosophic refined set and its some operations. Firstly, a score certainty and accuracy function to compare the bipolar neutrosophic refined information is defined. Secondly, to aggregate the bipolar neutrosophic refined information, a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted average operator and a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted geometric operator is developed.

  7. Development and application of micro-electric current electro-enhance-ment instrument in tissue culture%电脉冲植物愈伤组织激活仪的研制及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保民; 李明; 乔宪生; 赵改荣; 俞宏; 崔学晨; 王贺

    2011-01-01

    微电流处理可以加强或调节植物自身微电流的作用.从而促进植物培养组织的生长和分化。系统地介绍了电脉冲植物愈伤组织激活仪(专利号:ZL200720090104.1)研制的系统设计原理、硬件系统设计和软件系统设计等情况。该仪器可用于植物生物技术相关领域的研究,处理的植物材料可以是细胞、花粉、叶片、叶柄、茎段或愈伤组织等外植体。%Micro-electric current could regulate and enhance the growth and differentiation of the plant cell, tissue and organ in vitro. The design principles, hardware and software system design, feature and technical parameters of the micro-electric current electro-enhancement instrument (patent number: ZL200720090104.1 )are introduced in detail. It could be applied in plant biotechnology field. Plant materials include cell, pollen, leaf, petiole, stem or callus et al.

  8. Multivariate refinement equation with nonnegative masks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with multivariate refinement equations of the type ψ = ∑α∈Zs a(α)ψ(Mx - α),where ψ is the unknown function defined on the s-dimensional Euclidean space Rs, a is a finitely supported nonnegative sequence on Zs, and M is an s × s dilation matrix with m := |detM|. We characterize the existence of L2-solution of refinement equation in terms of spectral radius of a certain finite matrix or transition operator associated with refinement mask a and dilation matrix M. For s = 1 and M = 2, the sufficient and necessary conditions are obtained to characterize the existence of continuous solution of this refinement equation.

  9. Progressive refinement for robust image registration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Song; Yuanhua Zhou; Jun Zhou

    2005-01-01

    @@ A new image registration algorithm with robust cost function and progressive refinement estimation is developed on the basis of direct method (DM). The robustness lies in M-estimation to avert larger local noise and outliers.

  10. Oil Refining Giants to Cut Output

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dingmin

    2002-01-01

    @@ China's refined oil product output rose slightly in the first five months of this year on strong demand,but the two biggest domestic producers plan to cut production rates in an attempt to bolster the sluggish price.

  11. Optical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  12. Corrosion problems and solutions in oil refining and petrochemical industry

    CERN Document Server

    Groysman, Alec

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses corrosion problems and their solutions at facilities in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, including cooling water and boiler feed water units. Further, it describes and analyzes corrosion control actions, corrosion monitoring, and corrosion management. Corrosion problems are a perennial issue in the oil refining and petrochemical industry, as they lead to a deterioration of the functional properties of metallic equipment and harm the environment – both of which need to be protected for the sake of current and future generations. Accordingly, this book examines and analyzes typical and atypical corrosion failure cases and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical facilities, including problems with: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, heat exchangers, and pumps. In addition, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically induced corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion...

  13. JDL level 5 fusion model: user refinement issues and applications in group tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2002-07-01

    The 1999 Joint Director of Labs (JDL) revised model incorporates five levels for fusion methodologies including level 0 for preprocessing, level 1 for object refinement, level 2 for situation refinement, level 3 for threat refinement, and level 4 for process refinement. The model was developed to define the fusion process. However, the model is only for automatic processing of a machine and does not account for human processing. Typically, a fusion architecture supports a user and thus, we propose a Level 5 User refinement to delineate the human from the machine in the process refinement. Typical human in the loop models do not deal with a machine fusion process, but only present the information to the human on a display. We seek to address issues for designing a fusion system which supports a user: trust, workload, attention and situation awareness. In this paper, we overview the need for a Level 5, the issues concerning the human for realizable fusion architectures, and examples where the human is instrumental in the fusion process such as group tracking.

  14. Mechanism of pulse magneto-oscillation grain refinement on pure Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Ning

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulse magneto-oscillation (PMO was developed as a novel technique to refine the solidification structure of pure aluminium. Its grain refining mechanism was proposed. The PMO refinement mechanism is that the nucleus falls off from the mould wall and drifts into the melt under the action of PMO. The solidification structure of Al melt depends on the linear electric current density, and also the discharge and oscillation frequencies. The radial pressure of PMO sound wave is the major factor that contributes to the migration of nucleus into the melt.

  15. Fatigue strength of MAR-M509 alloy with structure refined by rapid crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mróz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents test results of high-cycle (N>2⋅107 fatigue bending strength of MAR-M-509 cobalt alloy samples, as cast and aftersurface refining with a concentrated stream of heat. Tests were conducted on samples of MAR-M59 alloy casts, obtained using the lostwax method. Cast structure refining was performed with the GTAW method in argon atmosphere, using the current I = 200 A andelectrical arc scanning velocity vs = 250 mm/min. The effect of rapid crystallization occurring after the fusion process is refinement of the MAR-M509 alloy cast microstructure and significant improvement in bending fatigue strength.

  16. Some Strategies for the Refinement of Disordered Structures with the SHELXL-97 Refinement Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ng Seik Weng

    2005-01-01

    Examples of the refinement of disordered structures taken from work published in Acta Crystallographica are presented together with explanations on how the disordered structures are dealt with. The constraint and restraint commands in the SHELXL-97 refinement program that are specific to the particular type of disorder are described. Some ways to divine the hydrogen atoms on water are given in detail. The refinements of the Flack parameters and twinned structures are briefly discussed.

  17. A unified framework for mesh refinement in random and physical space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Stinis, Panos

    2016-10-01

    In recent work we have shown how an accurate reduced model can be utilized to perform mesh refinement in random space. That work relied on the explicit knowledge of an accurate reduced model which is used to monitor the transfer of activity from the large to the small scales of the solution. Since this is not always available, we present in the current work a framework which shares the merits and basic idea of the previous approach but does not require an explicit knowledge of a reduced model. Moreover, the current framework can be applied for refinement in both random and physical space. In this manuscript we focus on the application to random space mesh refinement. We study examples of increasing difficulty (from ordinary to partial differential equations) which demonstrate the efficiency and versatility of our approach. We also provide some results from the application of the new framework to physical space mesh refinement.

  18. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alan L.; Youtie, Jan; Shapira, Philip; Schoeneck, David J.

    2008-05-01

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as "nano") given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  19. Refining search terms for nanotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Alan L. [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Youtie, Jan [Georgia Institute of Technology, Enterprise Innovation Institute (United States)], E-mail: jan.youtie@innovate.gatech.edu; Shapira, Philip [Georgia Institute of Technology (United States); Schoeneck, David J. [Search Technology, Inc. (United States)

    2008-05-15

    The ability to delineate the boundaries of an emerging technology is central to obtaining an understanding of the technology's research paths and commercialization prospects. Nowhere is this more relevant than in the case of nanotechnology (hereafter identified as 'nano') given its current rapid growth and multidisciplinary nature. (Under the rubric of nanotechnology, we also include nanoscience and nanoengineering.) Past efforts have utilized several strategies, including simple term search for the prefix nano, complex lexical and citation-based approaches, and bootstrapping techniques. This research introduces a modularized Boolean approach to defining nanotechnology which has been applied to several research and patenting databases. We explain our approach to downloading and cleaning data, and report initial results. Comparisons of this approach with other nanotechnology search formulations are presented. Implications for search strategy development and profiling of the nanotechnology field are discussed.

  20. The evolution of oil refining in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    Back in 1963 when CONCAWE was founded, the world looked very different from what it is today, and so did the global and European refining industry. Oil product markets were expanding fast and new refineries were being built at a steady rate. The oil crisis of the 1970s brought an abrupt end to this, heralding a long era of consolidation and stepwise adaptation. At the same time the nature of the global oil business shifted from fully integrated companies producing, transporting and refining their own oil to a much more diversified situation where oil production ('upstream') and refining/distribution ('downstream') gradually became two essentially separate businesses. From being purely a 'cost centre' in an integrated chain, refining has become a separate activity in its own right, operating as a 'profit centre' between two global markets - crude oil and products - which, although not entirely independent, have their own dynamics and influences. In addition demand gradually shifted towards lighter products while the quality requirements on all products were considerably tightened. This article explores the new challenges that these changes have imposed on EU refiners, and describes CONCAWE's contributions to understanding their impact on refinery production and investments.

  1. Nose tip refinement using interdomal suture in caucasian nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasinato, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Refinement of the nose tip can be accomplished by a variety of techniques, but currently, the use of sutures in the nasal tip with conservative resection of the alar cartilage is the most frequently recommended approach. Objective: To classify the nasal tip and to demonstrate the interdomal suture applied to nasal tip refinement in the Caucasian nose, as well as to provide a simple and practical presentation of the surgical steps. Method: Development of surgical algorithm for nasal tip surgery: 1. Interdomal suture (double binding suture, 2. Interdomal suture with alar cartilage weakening (cross-hatching, 3. Interdomal suture with cephalic removal of the alar cartilage (McIndoe technique based on the nasal tip type classification. This classification assesses the interdomal distance (angle of domal divergence and intercrural distance, domal arch width, cartilage consistency, and skin type. Interdomal suture is performed through endonasal rhinoplasty by basic technique without delivery (Converse-Diamond technique under local anesthesia Conclusion: This classification is simple and facilitates the approach of surgical treatment of the nasal tip through interdomal suture, systematizing and standardizing surgical maneuvers for better refinement of the Caucasian nose.

  2. The role of optimization in structural model refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the role that optimization can play in structural model refinement, it is necessary to examine the existing environment for the structural design/structural modification process. The traditional approach to design, analysis, and modification is illustrated. Typically, a cyclical path is followed in evaluating and refining a structural system, with parallel paths existing between the real system and the analytical model of the system. The major failing of the existing approach is the rather weak link of communication between the cycle for the real system and the cycle for the analytical model. Only at the expense of much human effort can data sharing and comparative evaluation be enhanced for the two parallel cycles. Much of the difficulty can be traced to the lack of a user-friendly, rapidly reconfigurable engineering software environment for facilitating data and information exchange. Until this type of software environment becomes readily available to the majority of the engineering community, the role of optimization will not be able to reach its full potential and engineering productivity will continue to suffer. A key issue in current engineering design, analysis, and test is the definition and development of an integrated engineering software support capability. The data and solution flow for this type of integrated engineering analysis/refinement system is shown.

  3. A new refinement indicator for adaptive parameterization: Application to the estimation of the diffusion coefficient in an elliptic problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Mohamed; Ackerer, Philippe; Sonnendrücker, Éric

    2009-02-01

    We propose a new refinement indicator (NRI) for adaptive parameterization to determine the diffusion coefficient in an elliptic equation in two-dimensional space. The diffusion coefficient is assumed to be a piecewise constant space function. The unknowns are both the parameter values and the zonation. Refinement indicators are used to localize parameter discontinuities in order to construct iteratively the zonation (parameterization). The refinement indicator is obtained usually by using the first-order effect on the objective function of removing degrees of freedom for a current set of parameters. In this work, in order to reduce the computation costs, we propose a new refinement indicator based on the second-order effect on the objective function. This new refinement indicator depends on the objective function, and its first and second derivatives with respect to the parameter constraints. Numerical experiments show the high efficiency of the new refinement indicator compared to the standard one.

  4. Refined exposure assessment for Brilliant Black BN (E 151

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA carried out an exposure assessment of Brilliant Black BN (E 151, taking into account new information on its use as a food additive in foods. In 2010, the EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS adopted a scientific opinion on the re-evaluation of Brilliant Black BN and concluded that dietary exposure in 1- to 10-year-old children at the high level may exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI for Brilliant Black BN of 5 mg/kg body weight (bw/day at the upper end of the range. Following this conclusion, the European Commission requested that EFSA performs a refined exposure assessment for this food colour. Data on the presence of Brilliant Black BN in foods were requested from relevant stakeholders through a call for usage and concentration data. Usage levels were provided to EFSA for 11 out of 37 food categories in which Brilliant Black is authorised. In addition, 4 337 analytical results were also reported to EFSA, with the majority of values being below the limit of detection (LOD or limit of quantification (LOQ. Exposure assessment was performed using the EFSA Comprehensive Food Consumption Database. Three scenarios were considered: (1 exposure estimates based on Maximum Permitted Levels (MPLs, (2 a refined brand-loyal exposure scenario, and (3 a refined non-brand-loyal exposure scenario. Considering the first scenario, high exposure levels (95th percentile exceeded the ADI for toddlers and children in four dietary surveys. In comparison with the previous assessment, for both children and adults, the current mean exposure estimates are of the same order of magnitude, whereas the 95th percentile exposure is lower, particularly in adults. The mean and high-level exposure estimates of Brilliant Black BN are below the ADI for all population groups when considering the refined scenarios (brand-loyal and non-brand-loyal.

  5. Refining Animal Models to Enhance Animal Welfare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia V.Turner

    2012-01-01

    The use of animals in research will be necessary for scientific advances in the basic and biomedical sciences for the foreseeable future.As we learn more about the ability of animals to experience pain,suffering,and distress,and particularly for mammals,it becomes the responsibility of scientists,institutions,animal caregivers,and veterinarians to seek ways to improve the lives of research animals and refine their care and use.Refinement is one of the three R's emphasized by Russell and Burch,and refers to modification of procedures to minimise the potential for pain,suffering and distress. It may also refer to procedures used to enhance animal comfort. This paper summarizes considerations for refinements in research animal.

  6. FEM electrode refinement for electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartlomiej; Adler, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) reconstructs images of electrical tissue properties within a body from electrical transfer impedance measurements at surface electrodes. Reconstruction of EIT images requires the solution of an inverse problem in soft field tomography, where a sensitivity matrix, J, of the relationship between internal changes and measurements is calculated, and then a pseudo-inverse of J is used to update the image estimate. It is therefore clear that a precise calculation of J is required for solution accuracy. Since it is generally not possible to use analytic solutions, the finite element method (FEM) is typically used. It has generally been recommended in the EIT literature that FEMs be refined near electrodes, since the electric field and sensitivity is largest there. In this paper we analyze the accuracy requirement for FEM refinement near electrodes in EIT and describe a technique to refine arbitrary FEMs.

  7. Model refinement for offshore platforms: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Zongli; Wu, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    Offshore jacket platforms are widely used in offshore oil and gas exploitation. Finite element models of such structures need to have many degrees of freedom (DOFs) to represent the geometrical detail of complex structures, thereby leading to incompatibility in the number of DOFs of experimental models. To bring them both to the same order while ensuring that the essential eigen- properties of the refined model match those of experimental models, an extended model refinement procedure is presented in this paper. Vibration testing of an offshore jacket platform model is performed to validate the applicability of the proposed approach. A full-order finite element model of the platform is established and then tuned to meet the measured modal properties identified from the acceleration signals. Both model reduction and modal expansion methods are investigated, as well as various scenarios of sensor arrangements. Upon completion of the refinement, the updated jacket platform model matches the natural frequencies of the measured model well.

  8. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

    1996-01-01

    Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

  9. The Influence of Grain Refiners on the Efficiency of Ceramic Foam Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towsey, Nicholas; Schneider, Wolfgang; Krug, Hans-Peter; Hardman, Angela; Keegan, Neil J.

    An extensive program of work has been carried out to evaluate the efficiency of ceramic foam filters under carefully controlled conditions. Work reported at previous TMS meetings showed that in the absence of grain refiners, ceramic foam filters have the capacity for high filtration efficiency and consistent, reliable performance. The current phase of the investigation focuses on the impact grain refiner additions have on filter performance. The high filtration efficiencies obtained using 50 or 80ppi CFF's in the absence of grain refiners diminish when Al-3%Ti-1%B grain refiners are added. This, together with the impact of incoming inclusion loading on filter performance and the level of grain refiner addition are considered in detail. The new generation Al-3%Ti-0.15%C grain refiner has also been included. At typical addition levels (1kg/tonne) the effect on filter efficiency is similar to that for TiB2based grain refiners. The work was again conducted on a production scale using AA1050 alloy. Metal quality was determined using LiMCA and PoDFA. Spent filters were also analysed.

  10. Grid refinement for entropic lattice Boltzmann models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorschner, B; Frapolli, N; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V

    2016-11-01

    We propose a multidomain grid refinement technique with extensions to entropic incompressible, thermal, and compressible lattice Boltzmann models. Its validity and accuracy are assessed by comparison to available direct numerical simulation and experiment for the simulation of isothermal, thermal, and viscous supersonic flow. In particular, we investigate the advantages of grid refinement for the setups of turbulent channel flow, flow past a sphere, Rayleigh-Bénard convection, as well as the supersonic flow around an airfoil. Special attention is paid to analyzing the adaptive features of entropic lattice Boltzmann models for multigrid simulations.

  11. Grid refinement for entropic lattice Boltzmann models

    CERN Document Server

    Dorschner, B; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel multi-domain grid refinement technique with extensions to entropic incompressible, thermal and compressible lattice Boltzmann models. Its validity and accuracy are accessed by comparison to available direct numerical simulation and experiment for the simulation of isothermal, thermal and viscous supersonic flow. In particular, we investigate the advantages of grid refinement for the set-ups of turbulent channel flow, flow past a sphere, Rayleigh-Benard convection as well as the supersonic flow around an airfoil. Special attention is payed to analyzing the adaptive features of entropic lattice Boltzmann models for multi-grid simulations.

  12. Contextual Distance Refining for Image Retrieval

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Almasri

    2014-09-16

    Recently, a number of methods have been proposed to improve image retrieval accuracy by capturing context information. These methods try to compensate for the fact that a visually less similar image might be more relevant because it depicts the same object. We propose a new quick method for refining any pairwise distance metric, it works by iteratively discovering the object in the image from the most similar images, and then refine the distance metric accordingly. Test show that our technique improves over the state of art in terms of accuracy over the MPEG7 dataset.

  13. Concrete Cutting Refinement for Crater Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 15 -2 9 Concrete Cutting Refinement for Crater Repair G eo te ch ni ca l a nd S tr uc tu re s La bo ra to ry...by ERDC, visit the ERDC online library at http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/GSL TR-15-29 August 2015 Concrete Cutting Refinement...equipment in both soft and hard aggregate-mixed concrete . The investigated equipment included the Vermeer RW1236W and CC1531, Caterpillar SW45 and

  14. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  15. Relativistic MHD with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, M; Liebling, S L; Neilsen, D; Anderson, Matthew; Hirschmann, Eric; Liebling, Steven L.; Neilsen, David

    2006-01-01

    We solve the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations using a finite difference Convex ENO method (CENO) in 3+1 dimensions within a distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) infrastructure. In flat space we examine a Balsara blast wave problem along with a spherical blast wave and a relativistic rotor test both with unigrid and AMR simulations. The AMR simulations substantially improve performance while reproducing the resolution equivalent unigrid simulation results. We also investigate the impact of hyperbolic divergence cleaning for the spherical blast wave and relativistic rotor. We include unigrid and mesh refinement parallel performance measurements for the spherical blast wave.

  16. Refining - Panorama 2008; Raffinage - Panorama 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Investment rallied in 2007, and many distillation and conversion projects likely to reach the industrial stage were announced. With economic growth sustained in 2006 and still pronounced in 2007, oil demand remained strong - especially in emerging countries - and refining margins stayed high. Despite these favorable business conditions, tensions persisted in the refining sector, which has fallen far behind in terms of investing in refinery capacity. It will take renewed efforts over a long period to catch up. Looking at recent events that have affected the economy in many countries (e.g. the sub-prime crisis), prudence remains advisable.

  17. An ice lithography instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Anpan; Chervinsky, John; Branton, Daniel; Golovchenko, J. A.

    2011-06-01

    We describe the design of an instrument that can fully implement a new nanopatterning method called ice lithography, where ice is used as the resist. Water vapor is introduced into a scanning electron microscope (SEM) vacuum chamber above a sample cooled down to 110 K. The vapor condenses, covering the sample with an amorphous layer of ice. To form a lift-off mask, ice is removed by the SEM electron beam (e-beam) guided by an e-beam lithography system. Without breaking vacuum, the sample with the ice mask is then transferred into a metal deposition chamber where metals are deposited by sputtering. The cold sample is then unloaded from the vacuum system and immersed in isopropanol at room temperature. As the ice melts, metal deposited on the ice disperses while the metals deposited on the sample where the ice had been removed by the e-beam remains. The instrument combines a high beam-current thermal field emission SEM fitted with an e-beam lithography system, cryogenic systems, and a high vacuum metal deposition system in a design that optimizes ice lithography for high throughput nanodevice fabrication. The nanoscale capability of the instrument is demonstrated with the fabrication of nanoscale metal lines.

  18. THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT IN EATING DISORDERS DEVELOPED BY MACIEJ PILECKI AND BARBARA JÓZEFIK - A SUMMARY OF THE CURRENT STAGE OF WORK ON THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilecki, Maciej

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To create the most coherent version of the scales of The Questionnaire on Sociocultural Context developed by Maciej Pilecki and Barbara Józefik and to assess the relationship that they have with disordered eating and eating disorders. Method. Firstly, a factor analysis on selected items of the research instrument based on a population of 614 girls attending Krakow schools was conducted. Then, in the same group, an analysis of the relationship between the obtained factors and the results of the Polish version of the The Eating Attitude Test (EAT26 was performed. Subsequently, a comparison of the obtained factors was conducted between 47 teenage female patients diagnosed with restrictive anorexia nervosa, 16 diagnosed with binge/purge anorexia, 34 with a diagnosis of bulimia and 76 schoolgirls with a low risk of presenting eating disorders (EAT26≤19 points. Results. Coherent 7-scaled factorial structure of the tool including 32 out of 62 of the items of the questionnaire was obtained, relating to areas such as: the importance of thinness and media pressure on it, pressure for thinness, family success, a negative assessment of family context, the importance of control, the cultural importance of the problem, peer group pressure. The created scales retain 50.4% common factor variance and the achieved Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the scales were as follows respectively: 0.747; 0.850; 0.737; 0.617; 0.593; 0.668; 0.544. Obtained scales significantly differentiated the girls in the context of the prevalence of disturbed eating and eating disorders, particularly the girls with bulimic symptoms. Conclusions. The results of the current stage of work on the in strument are promising. However, the questionnaire does require further transformations.

  19. Mesh Generation via Local Bisection Refinement of Triangulated Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    tb [Maubach 1995, Theorem 5.1]. This is exploited in the recursive algorithm RefineTriangle (Algorithm 2) to com- patibly refine a given triangle; the... recursion depth of RefineTriangle is bounded by the maximum level of refinement in T [Maubach 1995]. RefineTriangle calls itself repeatedly on a... sequence of triangles until a compatibly divisible triangle is found. This sequence of triangles is then bisected in reverse order to preserve

  20. POLY-SCALE REFINABLE FUNCTION AND THEIR PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shou-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Poly-scale refinable function with dilation factor a is introduced. The existence of solution of poly-scale refinable equation is investigated. Specially, necessary and sufficient conditions for the orthonormality of solution function φ of poly-scale refinable equation with integer dilation factor a are established. Some properties of poly-scale refinable function are discussed. Several examples illustrating how to use the method to construct poly-scale refinable function are given.

  1. Anomalies in the refinement of isoleucine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berntsen, K.R.M.; Vriend, G.

    2014-01-01

    A study of isoleucines in protein structures solved using X-ray crystallography revealed a series of systematic trends for the two side-chain torsion angles chi1 and chi2 dependent on the resolution, secondary structure and refinement software used. The average torsion angles for the nine rotamers w

  2. Structural refinement and coarsening in deformed metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N.; Huang, X.; Xing, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural refinement by plastic deformation is analysed in terms of key parameters, the spacing between and the misorientation angle across the boundaries subdividing the structure. Coarsening of such structures by annealing is also characterised. For both deformed and annealed structur...

  3. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  4. SOME REFINEMENTS OF ENESTROM-KAKEYA THEOREM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.Aziz; B.A.Zargar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present certain interesting refinements of a well-known Enestrom-Kakeya theorem in the theory of distribution of zeros of polynomials which among other things also improve upon some results of Aziz and Mohammad, Govil and Rehman and others.

  5. Refinement from a control problem to program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenke, Michael; Ravn, Anders P.

    1996-01-01

    for a control task, exemplified by a steam boiler.The same formalism is used to refine requirements to a functional design.Through a suitable transformation this is taken to an event andaction based formalism. Finally components in this design for a distributedarchitecture are transformed to occam-like programs....

  6. Satellite SAR geocoding with refined RPC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Liao, Mingsheng

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have proved that the Rational Polynomial Camera (RPC) model is able to act as a reliable replacement of the rigorous Range-Doppler (RD) model for the geometric processing of satellite SAR datasets. But its capability in absolute geolocation of SAR images has not been evaluated quantitatively. Therefore, in this article the problems of error analysis and refinement of SAR RPC model are primarily investigated to improve the absolute accuracy of SAR geolocation. Range propagation delay and azimuth timing error are identified as two major error sources for SAR geolocation. An approach based on SAR image simulation and real-to-simulated image matching is developed to estimate and correct these two errors. Afterwards a refined RPC model can be built from the error-corrected RD model and then used in satellite SAR geocoding. Three experiments with different settings are designed and conducted to comprehensively evaluate the accuracies of SAR geolocation with both ordinary and refined RPC models. All the experimental results demonstrate that with RPC model refinement the absolute location accuracies of geocoded SAR images can be improved significantly, particularly in Easting direction. In another experiment the computation efficiencies of SAR geocoding with both RD and RPC models are compared quantitatively. The results show that by using the RPC model such efficiency can be remarkably improved by at least 16 times. In addition the problem of DEM data selection for SAR image simulation in RPC model refinement is studied by a comparative experiment. The results reveal that the best choice should be using the proper DEM datasets of spatial resolution comparable to that of the SAR images.

  7. Evaluating musical instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-04-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians.

  8. Technical Training seminar: Texas Instruments

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Monday 6 November TECHNICAL TRAINING SEMINAR 14:00 to 17:30 - Training Centre Auditorium (bldg. 593) Texas Instruments Technical Seminar Michael Scholtholt, Field Application Engineer / TEXAS INSTRUMENTS (US, D, CH) POWER - A short approach to Texas Instruments power products Voltage mode vs. current mode control Differentiating DC/DC converters by analyzing control and compensation schemes: line / load regulation, transient response, BOM, board space, ease-of-use Introduction to the SWIFT software FPGA + CPLD power solutions WIRELESS / CHIPCON Decision criteria when choosing a RF platform Introduction to Texas Instruments wireless products: standardized platforms proprietary platforms ( 2.4 GHz / sub 1 GHz) development tools Antenna design: example for 2.4 GHz questions, discussion Industrial partners: Robert Medioni, François Caloz / Spoerle Electronic, CH-1440 Montagny (VD), Switzerland Phone: +41 24 447 0137, email: RMedioni@spoerle.com, http://www.spoerle.com Language: English. Free s...

  9. MITIGATING INNOVATION RISKS CONCERNING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea DUMITRESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As protection of innovation is possible using a variety of intellectual property instruments, the current paper aims at emphasizing the vulnerabilities of these instruments in order to facilitate the right choice in terms of protection, exploitation and dissemination of innovation. Based on a review of the intellectual property instruments and their related risk factors, the study identifies and formulates specific proactive strategies which arise from the fact that an instrument alone does not allow for effective protection, exploitation and dissemination and oftentimes the owners of innovation should combine traditional and alternative instruments. Therefore, the results of this analysis represent a helpful tool for managers in the decisional process.

  10. FHR Process Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    electrochemical techniques and optical spectroscopy are candidate fluoride salt redox measurement methods. Coolant level measurement can be performed using radar-level gauges located in standpipes above the reactor vessel. While substantial technical development remains for most of the instruments, industrially compatible instruments based upon proven technology can be reasonably extrapolated from the current state of the art.

  11. Technical presentation - KEITHLEY Instruments - CANCELLED

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2009-01-01

    10 March 2009 13:30 – 15:30, Council Chamber, Bldg. 503 Keithley markets highly accurate instruments and data acquisition products, as well as complete system solutions for high-volume production and assembly testing. Keithley Instruments, Inc. designs, develops, manufactures and markets complex electronic instruments and systems geared to the specialized needs of electronics manufacturers for high-performance production testing, process monitoring, product development and research. Products and Services: Digital Multimeters and Data Acquisition Systems Current / Voltage Source and Measure Products Low Current / High Resistance Measurement Products Function/Pulse/Arbitrary/Pattern Generators Low Voltage/Low Resistance Measurement Products RF Spectrum Analyzer / RF Signal Generator / RF Switching Semiconductor Device Characterization Program: Topic 1: Welcome and short overview of new Products SMU 26XXA / ARB Generator 3390 / DMM 3706 / E-Meter 6517B Topic 2a: Te...

  12. IOT Overview: IR Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, E.

    In this instrument review chapter the calibration plans of ESO IR instruments are presented and briefly reviewed focusing, in particular, on the case of ISAAC, which has been the first IR instrument at VLT and whose calibration plan served as prototype for the coming instruments.

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation: In Search of Reliable Instruments for Assessing Complex Personality-Related Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ineichen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last 25 years, more than 100,000 patients have been treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS. While human clinical and animal preclinical research has shed light on the complex brain-signaling disturbances that underpin e.g., Parkinson’s disease (PD, less information is available when it comes to complex psychosocial changes following DBS interventions. In this contribution, we propose to more thoroughly investigate complex personality-related changes following deep brain stimulation through refined and reliable instruments in order to help patients and their relatives in the post-surgery phase. By pursuing this goal, we first outline the clinical importance DBS has attained followed by discussing problematic and undesired non-motor problems that accompany some DBS interventions. After providing a brief definition of complex changes, we move on by outlining the measurement problem complex changes relating to non-motor symptoms currently are associated with. The latter circumstance substantiates the need for refined instruments that are able to validly assess personality-related changes. After providing a brief paragraph with regard to conceptions of personality, we argue that the latter is significantly influenced by certain competencies which themselves currently play only a tangential role in the clinical DBS-discourse. Increasing awareness of the latter circumstance is crucial in the context of DBS because it could illuminate a link between competencies and the emergence of personality-related changes, such as new-onset impulse control disorders that have relevance for patients and their relatives. Finally, we elaborate on the field of application of instruments that are able to measure personality-related changes.

  14. Parabolic refined invariants and Macdonald polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Donagi, Ron; Pantev, Tony

    2013-01-01

    A string theoretic derivation is given for the conjecture of Hausel, Letellier, and Rodriguez-Villegas on the cohomology of character varieties with marked points. Their formula is identified with a refined BPS expansion in the stable pair theory of a local root stack, generalizing previous work of the first two authors in collaboration with G. Pan. Haiman's geometric construction for Macdonald polynomials is shown to emerge naturally in this context via geometric engineering. In particular this yields a new conjectural relation between Macdonald polynomials and refined local orbifold curve counting invariants. The string theoretic approach also leads to a new spectral cover construction for parabolic Higgs bundles in terms of holomorphic symplectic orbifolds.

  15. Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Characteristic Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    I consider techniques for Berger-Oliger adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) when numerically solving partial differential equations with wave-like solutions, using characteristic (double-null) grids. Such AMR algorithms are naturally recursive, and the best-known past Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm, that of Pretorius & Lehner (J. Comp. Phys. 198 (2004), 10), recurses on individual "diamond" characteristic grid cells. This leads to the use of fine-grained memory management, with individual grid cells kept in 2-dimensional linked lists at each refinement level. This complicates the implementation and adds overhead in both space and time. Here I describe a Berger-Oliger characteristic AMR algorithm which instead recurses on null \\emph{slices}. This algorithm is very similar to the usual Cauchy Berger-Oliger algorithm, and uses relatively coarse-grained memory management, allowing entire null slices to be stored stored in contiguous arrays in memory. The algorithm is very efficient in both space and ti...

  16. Crystallization in lactose refining-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shin Yee; Hartel, Richard W

    2014-03-01

    In the dairy industry, crystallization is an important separation process used in the refining of lactose from whey solutions. In the refining operation, lactose crystals are separated from the whey solution through nucleation, growth, and/or aggregation. The rate of crystallization is determined by the combined effect of crystallizer design, processing parameters, and impurities on the kinetics of the process. This review summarizes studies on lactose crystallization, including the mechanism, theory of crystallization, and the impact of various factors affecting the crystallization kinetics. In addition, an overview of the industrial crystallization operation highlights the problems faced by the lactose manufacturer. The approaches that are beneficial to the lactose manufacturer for process optimization or improvement are summarized in this review. Over the years, much knowledge has been acquired through extensive research. However, the industrial crystallization process is still far from optimized. Therefore, future effort should focus on transferring the new knowledge and technology to the dairy industry.

  17. Cleaning Data with OpenRefine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth van Hooland

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Duplicate records, empty values and inconsistent formats are phenomena we should be prepared to deal with when using historical data sets. This lesson will teach you how to discover inconsistencies in data contained within a spreadsheet or a database. As we increasingly share, aggregate and reuse data on the web, historians will need to respond to data quality issues which inevitably pop up. Using a program called OpenRefine, you will be able to easily identify systematic errors such as blank cells, duplicates, spelling inconsistencies, etc. OpenRefine not only allows you to quickly diagnose the accuracy of your data, but also to act upon certain errors in an automated manner.

  18. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2014-11-25

    This is a method to reactively refine hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20.degree. and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. The reaction portion of the method delivers lighter weight, more volatile hydrocarbons to an attached contacting device that operates in mixed subcritical or supercritical modes. This separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques. This method produces valuable products with fewer processing steps, lower costs, increased worker safety due to less processing and handling, allow greater opportunity for new oil field development and subsequent positive economic impact, reduce related carbon dioxide, and wastes typical with conventional refineries.

  19. European refiners re-adjust margins strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R.G. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    Refiners in Europe are adjusting operating strategies to reflect the volatilities of tight operating margins. From the unexpected availability of quality crudes (e.g., Brent, 0.3% sulfur), to the role of government in refinery planning, the European refining industry is positioning itself to reverse the past few years of steadily declining profitability. Unlike expected increases in US gasoline demand, European gasoline consumption is not expected to increase, and heavy fuel oil consumption is also declining. However, diesel fuel consumption is expected to increase, even though diesel processing capacity has recently decreased (i.e., more imports). Some of the possible strategies that Europeans may adapt to improve margins and reduce volatility include: Increase conversion capacity to supply growing demand for middle distillates and LPG; alleviate refinery cash flow problems with alliances; and direct discretionary investment toward retail merchandising (unless there is a clear trend toward a widening of the sweet-sour crude price differential).

  20. Security Policy Enforcement Through Refinement Process

    CERN Document Server

    Stouls, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    In the area of networks, a common method to enforce a security policy expressed in a high-level language is based on an ad-hoc and manual rewriting process. We argue that it is possible to build a formal link between concrete and abstract terms, which can be dynamically computed from the environment data. In order to progressively introduce configuration data and then simplify the proof obligations, we use the B refinement process. We present a case study modeling a network monitor. This program, described by refinement following the layers of the TCP/IP suite protocol, has to warn for all observed events which do not respect the security policy. To design this model, we use the event-B method because it is suitable for modeling network concepts. This work has been done within the framework of the POTESTAT project, based on the research of network testing methods from a high-level security policy.

  1. Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-24

    and a coarser microstructure forms (See Figure 17). ROLE OF COBALT ALUMINATE CoAI204 produced very different results in the 1010 and 1030 TA...determine what role CoAl204 played in both steels. Other researchers have observed refinement with cobalt aluminate .2"󈧙 Their work has been using...produced in this work. The one unexplained result for CoAl204 is the different undercooling behavior found. Cobalt aluminate reduced undercooling in the

  2. Mesh refinement strategy for optimal control problems

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Luis Tiago; Fontes, Fernando,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Direct methods are becoming the most used technique to solve nonlinear optimal control problems. Regular time meshes having equidistant spacing are frequently used. However, in some cases these meshes cannot cope accurately with nonlinear behavior. One way to improve the solution is to select a new mesh with a greater number of nodes. Another way, involves adaptive mesh refinement. In this case, the mesh nodes have non equidistant spacing which allow a non uniform node...

  3. Understanding Solidification Based Grain Refinement in Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    interatomic spacing along [uvw]s, and 0 = the angle between the [uvwjjand [uvw]n.^’ Work on the grain refinement of aluminum and magnesium alloys has found...chemistry ternary plot from ASPEX system. The author found some evidence of reactions occurring with some rare earth oxide or sulfide inclusions and... sulfide .^^"^^ Another approach would be to react a sample of misch metal or rare earth silicide at elevated temperatures to form the desired oxide or

  4. REFINEMENTS OF THE FAN-TODD'S INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄国基

    2002-01-01

    Refinements to inequalities oninner product spaces are presented. In this respect, inequalities dealt with in this paper are: Cauchy's inequality, Bessel's inequality, Fan-Todd's inequality and Fan-Todd's determinantal inequality. In each case, a strictly increasing function is put forward, which lies between the smaller and the larger quantities of each inequality. As a result,an improved condition for equality of the Fan-Todd's determinantal inequality is deduced.

  5. CARMENES instrument overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Reiners, A.; Ribas, I.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona Jiménez, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Azzaro, M.; Bauer, F.; Barrado, D.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Casal, E.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Doellinger, M.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Galadí, D.; Gálvez-Ortiz, M. C.; García-Piquer, A.; García-Vargas, M. L.; Garrido, R.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González Álvarez, E.; González Hernández, J. I.; Grözinger, U.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Helmling, J.; Henning, T.; Hermann, D.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Herrero, E.; Hidalgo, D.; Holgado, G.; Huber, A.; Huber, K. F.; Jeffers, S.; Joergens, V.; de Juan, E.; Kehr, M.; Klein, R.; Kürster, M.; Lamert, A.; Lalitha, S.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, Mauro; López Martí, B.; López-Santiago, J.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Martínez-Rodríguez, H.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Morales Muñoz, R.; Moya, A.; Naranjo, V.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Passegger, V.-M.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Pluto, M.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez-Pérez, E.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Storz, C.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Zechmeister, M.; Abellán de Paco, F. J.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; del Burgo, C.; Klutsch, A.; Lizon, J. L.; López-Morales, M.; Morales, J. C.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Tulloch, S. M.; Xu, W.

    2014-07-01

    fibers are continually actuated to reduce modal noise. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within +/-0.01°C over 24 hours. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, while the near-IR spectrograph will be cooled to ~ 140 K. The CARMENES instrument passed its final design review in February 2013. The MAIV phase is currently ongoing. First tests at the telescope are scheduled for early 2015. Completion of the full instrument is planned for the fall of 2015. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame until 2018. A data base of M stars (dubbed CARMENCITA) has been compiled from which the CARMENES sample can be selected. CARMENCITA contains information on all relevant properties of the potential targets. Dedicated imaging, photometric, and spectroscopic observations are underway to provide crucial data on these stars that are not available in the literature.

  6. Crystal Structure Refinement of Synthetic Pure Gyrolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Baltušnikas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pure calcium silicate hydrate – gyrolite was prepared under the saturated steam pressure at 473 K temperature in rotating autoclave. The crystal structure of synthetic gyrolite was investigated by X-ray diffraction and refined using Le Bail, Rietveld and crystal structure modelling methods. Background, peak shape parameters and verification of the space group were performed by the Le Bail full pattern decomposition. Peculiarities of interlayer sheet X of gyrolite unit cell were highlighted by Rietveld refinement. Possible atomic arrangement in interlayer sheet X was solved by global optimization method. Most likelihood crystal structure model of gyrolite was calculated by final Rietveld refinement. It was crystallographically showed, that cell parameters are: a = 0.9713(2 nm, b = 0.9715(2 nm, c = 2.2442(3 nm and alfa = 95.48(2 º, beta = 91.45(2 °, gamma = l20.05(3 °.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.1.5460

  7. Mesh refinement strategy for optimal control problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, L. T.; Fontes, F. A. C. C.

    2013-10-01

    Direct methods are becoming the most used technique to solve nonlinear optimal control problems. Regular time meshes having equidistant spacing are frequently used. However, in some cases these meshes cannot cope accurately with nonlinear behavior. One way to improve the solution is to select a new mesh with a greater number of nodes. Another way, involves adaptive mesh refinement. In this case, the mesh nodes have non equidistant spacing which allow a non uniform nodes collocation. In the method presented in this paper, a time mesh refinement strategy based on the local error is developed. After computing a solution in a coarse mesh, the local error is evaluated, which gives information about the subintervals of time domain where refinement is needed. This procedure is repeated until the local error reaches a user-specified threshold. The technique is applied to solve the car-like vehicle problem aiming minimum consumption. The approach developed in this paper leads to results with greater accuracy and yet with lower overall computational time as compared to using a time meshes having equidistant spacing.

  8. Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Yanlai; Tang, Shuze [Department of Food Science and Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang, Xingguo; Liu, Yuanfa [School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214112 (China)

    2009-03-15

    A ceramic membrane separation process for biodiesel refining was developed to reduce the considerable usage of water needed in the conventional water washing process. Crude biodiesel produced by refined palm oil was micro-filtered by ceramic membranes of the pore size of 0.6, 0.2 and 0.1 {mu}m to remove the residual soap and free glycerol, at the transmembrane pressure of 0.15 MPa and temperature of 60 C. The flux through membrane maintained at 300 L m{sup -} {sup 2} h{sup -} {sup 1} when the volumetric concentrated ratio reached 4. The content of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in the whole permeate was 1.40, 1.78, 0.81 and 0.20 mg/kg respectively, as determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. These values are lower than the EN 14538 specifications. The residual free glycerol in the permeate was estimated by water extraction, its value was 0.0108 wt.%. This ceramic membrane technology was a potential environmental process for the refining of biodiesel. (author)

  9. Using Induction to Refine Information Retrieval Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudin, Catherine; Pell, Barney; Kedar, Smadar

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual information retrieval systems use structured document indices, domain knowledge and a set of heuristic retrieval strategies to match user queries with a set of indices describing the document's content. Such retrieval strategies increase the set of relevant documents retrieved (increase recall), but at the expense of returning additional irrelevant documents (decrease precision). Usually in conceptual information retrieval systems this tradeoff is managed by hand and with difficulty. This paper discusses ways of managing this tradeoff by the application of standard induction algorithms to refine the retrieval strategies in an engineering design domain. We gathered examples of query/retrieval pairs during the system's operation using feedback from a user on the retrieved information. We then fed these examples to the induction algorithm and generated decision trees that refine the existing set of retrieval strategies. We found that (1) induction improved the precision on a set of queries generated by another user, without a significant loss in recall, and (2) in an interactive mode, the decision trees pointed out flaws in the retrieval and indexing knowledge and suggested ways to refine the retrieval strategies.

  10. Parallel object-oriented adaptive mesh refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsara, D.; Quinlan, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper we study adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) for elliptic and hyperbolic systems. We use the Asynchronous Fast Adaptive Composite Grid Method (AFACX), a parallel algorithm based upon the of Fast Adaptive Composite Grid Method (FAC) as a test case of an adaptive elliptic solver. For our hyperbolic system example we use TVD and ENO schemes for solving the Euler and MHD equations. We use the structured grid load balancer MLB as a tool for obtaining a load balanced distribution in a parallel environment. Parallel adaptive mesh refinement poses difficulties in expressing both the basic single grid solver, whether elliptic or hyperbolic, in a fashion that parallelizes seamlessly. It also requires that these basic solvers work together within the adaptive mesh refinement algorithm which uses the single grid solvers as one part of its adaptive solution process. We show that use of AMR++, an object-oriented library within the OVERTURE Framework, simplifies the development of AMR applications. Parallel support is provided and abstracted through the use of the P++ parallel array class.

  11. Formal refinement of extended state machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fayolle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In a traditional formal development process, e.g. using the B method, the informal user requirements are (manually translated into a global abstract formal specification. This translation is especially difficult to achieve. The Event-B method was developed to incrementally and formally construct such a specification using stepwise refinement. Each increment takes into account new properties and system aspects. In this paper, we propose to couple a graphical notation called Algebraic State-Transition Diagrams (ASTD with an Event-B specification in order to provide a better understanding of the software behaviour. The dynamic behaviour is captured by the ASTD, which is based on automata and process algebra operators, while the data model is described by means of an Event-B specification. We propose a methodology to incrementally refine such specification couplings, taking into account new refinement relations and consistency conditions between the control specification and the data specification. We compare the specifications obtained using each approach for readability and proof complexity. The advantages and drawbacks of the traditional approach and of our methodology are discussed. The whole process is illustrated by a railway CBTC-like case study. Our approach is supported by tools for translating ASTD's into B and Event-B into B.

  12. Validation and refinement of the Questionnaire for Lung Transplant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vito Dabbs, Annette; Kim, Yookyung; Vensak, Judith; Studer, Sean; Iacono, Aldo

    2004-12-01

    The Questionnaire for Lung Transplant Patients was designed to assess symptoms and activity tolerance in lung transplant recipients during their post-transplant evaluations. The initial psychometric evaluation determined that the questionnaire was clinically useful, reliable, and valid. To report the results of further psychometric analyses in a new, expanded sample of lung transplant recipients and to demonstrate the iterative manner by which instruments are refined and tested. Internal consistency, test-retest stability, convergent validity, factorial validity, and group differences attributable to age, gender, and transplant type were determined in a pooled sample of 177 lung transplant recipients. Sensitivity to change over time was measured in a subsample (n = 51) who provided repeated measures data. The Questionnaire for Lung Transplant Patients and its subscales were internally consistent (Kuder Richardson reliability of 0.73-0.95). Test-retest stability was high (intraclass correlations >0.70). Symptoms showed a significant curvilinear pattern with a tendency to decrease over time before rising again at the 12-month measurement for the total questionnaire (F=6.8, P=.012) and 2 subscales--Respiratory (F=5.6, P=.022) and Activities of Daily Living (F=19.7, PGeneral, and Activities of Daily Living subscales. The Questionnaire for Lung Transplant Patients is a reliable and valid measure for assessing physical symptoms and activity intolerance after lung transplantation in individual recipients, recipients in aggregate, and comparison groups, on one occasion and serially over time. These results will guide future refinement and testing of the Questionnaire for Lung Transplant Patients.

  13. The Refinement of The Preliminary Genetic Decomposition of Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, K.

    2017-04-01

    Mathematics proof is one of the characteristics of advanced mathematics thinking, and proof plays an important role in learning the abstract algebra included group theory. The depth and complexity of individual’s understanding of a concept depend on his/her ability to establish connections among the mental structure that constitute it. One of the cognitive styles is field dependent/independent. Field independent (FI) and field dependent (FD) learners have different characteristics. Our research question is (1)How is the proposed refinement of preliminary genetic decomposition of group that is designed with a preliminary study of the learning with APOS works; (2) What understanding about group that is generated by student (Field Independent, Field Neutral, and Field Dependent) when learning through designed material. This study was a descriptive qualitative. The participants of this study were nine (9) undergraduate students who were taking Introduction of Algebraic Structure 1, which included group, in the even semester of academic year 2015/2016 at Universitas Negeri Semarang. Each of type of cognitive styles consisted of 3 participants. There were two instruments used to gather data: written examination in the course and a set of the interview. The FD and FN participants generated Action for a binary operation. The FI participant generated Action and Process for a binary operation. The FD, FN and FI participants generated Action, Process, Object, and Scheme for the set. The FD and FN participant did not generate mental structure for axiom. The FI participant generated Scheme for axiom. The FD, FN and FI participants tend to have no Coherence of Scheme of the group. Not all mental structure on the refinement of the preliminary genetic decomposition can be constructed by participants so well that there are still obstacles in the process of proving.

  14. A Formal Software Development Approach Using Refinement Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云峰; 庞军; 等

    2001-01-01

    The advantage of COOZ(Complete Object-Oriented Z) is to specify large scale software,but it does not support refinement calculus.Thus its application is comfined for software development.Including refinement calculus into COOZ overcomes its disadvantage during design and implementation.The separation between the design and implementation for structure and notation is removed as well .Then the software can be developed smoothly in the same frame.The combination of COOZ and refinement calculus can build object-oriented frame,in which the specification in COOZ is refined stepwise to code by calculus.In this paper,the development model is established.which is based on COOZ and refinement calculus.Data refinement is harder to deal with in a refinement tool than ordinary algorithmic refinement,since data refinement usually has to be done on a large program component at once.As to the implementation technology of refinement calculus,the data refinement calculator is constructed and an approach for data refinement which is based on data refinement calculus and program window inference is offered.

  15. A Formal Software Development Approach Using Refinement Calculus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunfeng; PANG Jun; ZHA Ming; YANG Zhaohui; ZHENG Guoliang

    2001-01-01

    The advantage of COOZ (Complete Object-Oriented Z) is to specify large scale software, but it does not support refinement calculus. Thus its applica tion is confined for software development. Including refinement calculus into COOZ overcomes its disadvantage during design and implementation. The separation be tween the design and implementation for structure and notation is removed as well. Then the software can be developed smoothly in the same frame. The combina tion of COOZ and refinement calculus can build object-oriented frame, in which the specification in COOZ is refined stepwise to code by calculus. In this paper, the development model is established, which is based on COOZ and refinement calculus. Data refinement is harder to deal with in a refinement tool than ordinary algorithmic refinement, since data refinement usually has to be done on a large program compo nent at once. As to the implementation technology of refinement calculus, the data refinement calculator is constructed and an approach for data refinement which is based on data refinement calculus and program window inference is offered.

  16. Level 5: user refinement to aid the fusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The revised JDL Fusion model Level 4 process refinement covers a broad spectrum of actions such as sensor management and control. A limitation of Level 4 is the purpose of control - whether it be for user needs or system operation. Level 5, User Refinement, is a modification to the Revised JDL model that distinguishes between machine process refinement and user refinement. User refinement can either be human control actions or refinement of the user's cognitive model. In many cases, fusion research concentrates on the machine and does not take full advantage of the human as not only a qualified expert to refine the fusion process, but also as customer for whom the fusion system is designed. Without user refinement, sensor fusion is incomplete, inadequate, and the user neglects its worthiness. To capture user capabilities, we explore the concept of user refinement through decision and action based on situational leadership models. We develop a Fuse-Act Situational User Refinement (FASUR) model that details four refinement behaviors: Neglect, Consult, Rely, and Interact and five refinement functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling. Process refinement varies for different systems and different user information needs. By designing a fusion system with a specific user in mind, vis Level 5, a fusion architecture can meet user's information needs for varying situations, extend user sensing capabilities for action, and increase the human-machine interaction.

  17. Grain Refinement of Permanent Mold Cast Copper Base Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.Sadayappan; J.P.Thomson; M.Elboujdaini; G.Ping Gu; M. Sahoo

    2005-04-01

    Grain refinement is a well established process for many cast and wrought alloys. The mechanical properties of various alloys could be enhanced by reducing the grain size. Refinement is also known to improve casting characteristics such as fluidity and hot tearing. Grain refinement of copper-base alloys is not widely used, especially in sand casting process. However, in permanent mold casting of copper alloys it is now common to use grain refinement to counteract the problem of severe hot tearing which also improves the pressure tightness of plumbing components. The mechanism of grain refinement in copper-base alloys is not well understood. The issues to be studied include the effect of minor alloy additions on the microstructure, their interaction with the grain refiner, effect of cooling rate, and loss of grain refinement (fading). In this investigation, efforts were made to explore and understand grain refinement of copper alloys, especially in permanent mold casting conditions.

  18. The Analysis of the Refined Financial Management of Modern Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Li Ran

    2016-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the concept of the refined financial management, elaborates on its characteristics and puts forward some main points about it. It also comes up with some personal suggestions for reference on effective ways of refining financial management.

  19. The MICE PID Instrumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Bonesini, M

    2008-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will carry out a systematic investigation of ionization cooling of a muon beam. As the emittance measurement will be done on a particle-by-particle basis, sophisticated beam instrumentation is needed to measure particle coordinates and timing vs RF. A PID system based on three time-of-flight stations, two Aerogel Cerenkov detectors and a KLOE-like calorimeter has been constructed in order to keep beam contamination ($e, \\pi$) well below 1%. The MICE time-of-flight system will measure timing with a resolution better than 70 ps per plane, in a harsh environment due to high particle rates, fringe magnetic fields and electron backgrounds from RF dark current.

  20. Introducing BioSARN - an ecological niche model refinement tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Marshall J

    2016-08-01

    Environmental niche modeling outputs a biological species' potential distribution. Further work is needed to arrive at a species' realized distribution. The Biological Species Approximate Realized Niche (BioSARN) application provides the ecological modeler with a toolset to refine Environmental niche models (ENMs). These tools include soil and land class filtering, niche area quantification and novelties like enhanced temporal corridor definition, and output to a high spatial resolution land class model. BioSARN is exemplified with a study on Fraser fir, a tree species with strong land class and edaphic correlations. Soil and land class filtering caused the potential distribution area to decline 17%. Enhanced temporal corridor definition permitted distinction of current, continuing, and future niches, and thus niche change and movement. Tile quantification analysis provided further corroboration of these trends. BioSARN does not substitute other established ENM methods. Rather, it allows the experimenter to work with their preferred ENM, refining it using their knowledge and experience. Output from lower spatial resolution ENMs to a high spatial resolution land class model is a pseudo high-resolution result. Still, it maybe the best that can be achieved until wide range high spatial resolution environmental data and accurate high precision species occurrence data become generally available.

  1. REFINEMENT OF PRODUCER GAS GENERATED FROM BIOMASS GASIFIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. KUMARARAJA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Producer gas (PG generated from biomass by thermo-chemical gasification process has been proved to be a reliable and renewable substitute for petroleum fuels to drive internal combustion engines. The gasification technology has been developed well and also commercialised. However, more technological advancements must happen in the refining of PG. Generally, the refinement is confined to the removal of tar and particulates from PG before supplying it to the engines. This paper proposes to remove additionally carbon dioxide and water vapour from PG so that its heating value can be increased and faster combustion can be attained in the engine cylinder. In this direction, the various CO2 removal technologies which are currently employed for combustion flue gas, natural gas and biogas have been first studied in detail. They are: physical absorption in solvents, chemical absorption by reagents, adsorption, membrane separation and refrigeration. In the present research, a batch of experiments has been conducted by washing PG with water to absorb CO2 physically and in a separate batch of experiments PG has been treated with aqueous ammonia to absorb CO2 chemically. For both experiments, the PG was generated by a downdraft biomass gasifier fed with wood pieces. The CO2 reduction obtained was 10.9% in physical absorption by water and 95% in chemical absorption by aqueous ammonia. Along with the reduction of CO2 and H2O from PG, the tar and particulates content of PG could also be reduced by absorption method.

  2. Coloured Petri Net Refinement Specification and Correctness Proof with Coq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choppy, Christine; Mayero, Micaela; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we address the formalisation of symmetric nets, a subclass of coloured Petri nets, refinement in COQ. We first provide a formalisation of the net models, and of their type refinement in COQ. Then the COQ proof assistant is used to prove the refinement correctness lemma. An example adapted from a protocol example illustrates our work.

  3. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Costa Castanho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments pose an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment.

  4. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Teresa C.; Amorim, Liliana; Zihl, Joseph; Palha, Joana A.; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C.

    2013-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments can be an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment. PMID:24611046

  5. Telephone-based screening tools for mild cognitive impairment and dementia in aging studies: a review of validated instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Teresa C; Amorim, Liliana; Zihl, Joseph; Palha, Joana A; Sousa, Nuno; Santos, Nadine C

    2014-01-01

    The decline of cognitive function in old age is a great challenge for modern society. The simultaneous increase in dementia and other neurodegenerative diseases justifies a growing need for accurate and valid cognitive assessment instruments. Although in-person testing is considered the most effective and preferred administration mode of assessment, it can pose not only a research difficulty in reaching large and diverse population samples, but it may also limit the assessment and follow-up of individuals with either physical or health limitations or reduced motivation. Therefore, telephone-based cognitive screening instruments can be an alternative and attractive strategy to in-person assessments. In order to give a current view of the state of the art of telephone-based tools for cognitive assessment in aging, this review highlights some of the existing instruments with particular focus on data validation, cognitive domains assessed, administration time and instrument limitations and advantages. From the review of the literature, performed using the databases EBSCO, Science Direct and PubMed, it was possible to verify that while telephone-based tools are useful in research and clinical practice, providing a promising approach, the methodologies still need refinement in the validation steps, including comparison with either single instruments or neurocognitive test batteries, to improve specificity and sensitivity to validly detect subtle changes in cognition that may precede cognitive impairment.

  6. Quantum Geometry of Refined Topological Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Aganagic, Mina; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Krefl, Daniel; Vafa, Cumrun

    2011-01-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wave-functions satisfy a Schr\\"odinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant rotations approaches zero, the brane partition function satisfies a time-independent Schroedinger equation. We use this observation, as well as the back reaction of the brane on the closed string geometry, to offer an explanation of the connection between integrable systems and N=2 gauge systems in four dimensions observed by Nekrasov and Shatashvili.

  7. Quantum geometry of refined topological strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aganagic, Mina; Cheng, Miranda C. N.; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Krefl, Daniel; Vafa, Cumrun

    2012-11-01

    We consider branes in refined topological strings. We argue that their wavefunctions satisfy a Schrödinger equation depending on multiple times and prove this in the case where the topological string has a dual matrix model description. Furthermore, in the limit where one of the equivariant rotations approaches zero, the brane partition function satisfies a time-independent Schrödinger equation. We use this observation, as well as the back reaction of the brane on the closed string geometry, to offer an explanation of the connection between integrable systems and {N}=2 gauge systems in four dimensions observed by Nekrasov and Shatashvili.

  8. A refinement driven component-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhenbang; Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders Peter;

    2007-01-01

    to integrate sophisticated checkers, generators and transformations. A feasible approach to ensuring high quality of such add-ins is to base them on sound formal foundations. This paper summarizes our research on the Refinement of Component and Object Systems (rCOS) and illustrates it with experiences from...... the work on the Common Component Modelling Example (CoCoME). This gives evidence that the formal techniques developed in rCOS can be integrated into a model-driven development process and shows where it may be integrated in computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools for adding formally supported...

  9. Liquid rheology study on refined rapeseed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其梅; 罗迎社; 殷水平; 陈胜铭; 张党权; 彭万喜

    2008-01-01

    The rapeseed oil extracted from the mature seeds was purified by refining processing,and the rheological characteristic analysis of the viscosity and dynamic shear rate at gradient temperatures was made.The result shows that at 20,40,60 and 80 ℃ respectively,when the shear rate gradually rises,the torque increases accordingly but its viscosity does not vary distinctly.The result suggests that when rapeseed oil is used as the raw of edible oils and industries,the working procedures at high temperature will not influence its rheological characteristic distinctly.

  10. Retrenchment. An engineering variation on refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banach, R.; Poppleton, M

    1999-07-01

    It is argued that refinement, in which I/O signatures stay the same, preconditions are weakened and postconditions strengthened, is too restrictive to describe all but a fraction of many realistic developments. An alternative notion is proposed called retrenchment, which allows information to migrate between I/O and state aspects of operations at different levels of abstraction, and which allows only a fraction of the high level behaviour to be captured at the low level. This permits more of the informal aspects of design to be formally captured and checked. The details are worked out for the B-Method. (author)

  11. Surface biotechnology for refining cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fei; Walshe, Peter; Viani, Laura; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2013-12-01

    The advent of the cochlear implant is phenomenal because it is the first surgical prosthesis that is capable of restoring one of the senses. The subsequent rapid evolution of cochlear implants through increasing complexity and functionality has been synchronized with the recent advancements in biotechnology. Surface biotechnology has refined cochlear implants by directly influencing the implant–tissue interface. Emerging surface biotechnology strategies are exemplified by nanofibrous polymeric materials, topographical surface modification, conducting polymer coatings, and neurotrophin-eluting implants. Although these novel developments have received individual attention in the recent literature, the time has come to investigate their collective applications to cochlear implants to restore lost hearing.

  12. Adaptive refinement tools for tetrahedral unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, S. Paul (Inventor); Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An exemplary embodiment providing one or more improvements includes software which is robust, efficient, and has a very fast run time for user directed grid enrichment and flow solution adaptive grid refinement. All user selectable options (e.g., the choice of functions, the choice of thresholds, etc.), other than a pre-marked cell list, can be entered on the command line. The ease of application is an asset for flow physics research and preliminary design CFD analysis where fast grid modification is often needed to deal with unanticipated development of flow details.

  13. Computing Refined Buneman Trees in Cubic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, G.S.; Fagerberg, R.; Östlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary tree for a set of n species based on pairwise distances between the species is a fundamental problem in bioinformatics. Neighbor joining is a popular distance based tree reconstruction method. It always proposes fully resolved binary trees despite missing evidence...... in the underlying distance data. Distance based methods based on the theory of Buneman trees and refined Buneman trees avoid this problem by only proposing evolutionary trees whose edges satisfy a number of constraints. These trees might not be fully resolved but there is strong combinatorial evidence for each...

  14. Acoustic Logging Modeling by Refined Biot's Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plyushchenkov, Boris D.; Turchaninov, Victor I.

    An explicit uniform completely conservative finite difference scheme for the refined Biot's equations is proposed. This system is modified according to the modern theory of dynamic permeability and tortuosity in a fluid-saturated elastic porous media. The approximate local boundary transparency conditions are constructed. The acoustic logging device is simulated by the choice of appropriate boundary conditions on its external surface. This scheme and these conditions are satisfactory for exploring borehole acoustic problems in permeable formations in a real axial-symmetrical situation. The developed approach can be adapted for a nonsymmetric case also.

  15. Refining thick brane models via electroweak data

    CERN Document Server

    Chumbes, A E R; Hott, M B

    2015-01-01

    After discussing the localization of Abelian and non-Abelian gauge fields and Higgs fields on a thick brane, we introduce a procedure of dimensional reduction and its consequences to the rescaled parameters of the boson sector of the Standard Model. The parameters encodes some power dependence on the extra dimension, usually narrow, warp factor and hence it also depend on the position related with the extra dimension inside the thick brane. In this vein, the observable parameters may be used to refine the braneworld models via the brane thickness.

  16. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-07-19

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages).

  17. A Technical Refinement of the Vernier Optometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Naa Aeropc Meia Reeac - -.- .r* ES * A TECHNICAL REFINEMENT OF THE VERNIER OPTOMETER William B. Cushman and Leonard A. Temme N DTIC fELECTE NOVI 6 W8...Vernier Optometer 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) William B. Cushman* and Leonard A. Temme 14._ DATE_ OF_ REPORT_(YearMonth, _Day)_15_______COUN 13a14. DATE OF...Fellow 17 COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Vernier optometer , laser

  18. Refining the asteroid taxonomy by polarimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belskaya, I. N.; Fornasier, S.; Tozzi, G. P.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cellino, A.; Antonyuk, K.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Dovgopol, A. N.; Faggi, S.

    2017-03-01

    We present new results of polarimetric observations of 15 main belt asteroids of different composition. By merging new and published data we determined polarimetric parameters characterizing individual asteroids and mean values of the same parameters characterizing different taxonomic classes. The majority of asteroids show polarimetric phase curves close to the average curve of the corresponding class. We show that using polarimetric data it is possible to refine asteroid taxonomy and derive a polarimetric classification for 283 main belt asteroids. Polarimetric observations of asteroid (21) Lutetia are found to exhibit possible variations of the position angle of the polarization plane over the surface.

  19. Relativistic MHD with adaptive mesh refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Matthew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Hirschmann, Eric W [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Liebling, Steven L [Department of Physics, Long Island University-C W Post Campus, Brookville, NY 11548 (United States); Neilsen, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2006-11-22

    This paper presents a new computer code to solve the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) equations using distributed parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The fluid equations are solved using a finite difference convex ENO method (CENO) in 3 + 1 dimensions, and the AMR is Berger-Oliger. Hyperbolic divergence cleaning is used to control the {nabla} . B = 0 constraint. We present results from three flat space tests, and examine the accretion of a fluid onto a Schwarzschild black hole, reproducing the Michel solution. The AMR simulations substantially improve performance while reproducing the resolution equivalent unigrid simulation results. Finally, we discuss strong scaling results for parallel unigrid and AMR runs.

  20. Unitary appreciative inquiry: evolution and refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard; Repede, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Unitary appreciative inquiry (UAI), developed over the past 20 years, provides an orientation and process for uncovering human wholeness and discovering life patterning in individuals and groups. Refinements and a description of studies using UAI are presented. Assumptions and conceptual underpinnings of the method distinguishing its contributions from other methods are reported. Data generation strategies that capture human wholeness and elucidate life patterning are proposed. Data synopsis as an alternative to analysis is clarified and explicated. Standards that suggest enhancing the legitimacy of knowledge and credibility of research are specified. Potential expansions of UAI offer possibilities for extending epistemologies, aesthetic integration, and theory development.

  1. Leadership Effectiveness Assessment Profile (LEAP): Officer Instrument Field Testing and Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    1985). Recent work by Conger and Kanungo (1988) and Conger (1989) have helped to elaborate and operationalize this complex concept. Their work suggests...Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 20-28. Conger , J.A. (1989). The charismatic leader. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc. Conger , J.A., & Kanungo , R.N...1988). Charismatic leadership. San Francisco: Jessey-Bass, Inc. Conger , J.A., & Kanungo , R.N. (Eds.) (1988). Charismatic leadership. San Francisco

  2. Influence of hydrogen content on the behavior of grain refinement in hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Hu; Xiufang Bian; Youfeng Duan

    2004-01-01

    Dissolved hydrogen is harmful to mechanical properties of refined hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys. In the present work, by using a stepped-form mold and the hydrogen-detecting instrument HYSCAN Ⅱ, the relationship between the initial hydrogen content in the melt and the refinement effect on the casting of hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloy was investigated. The experimental results show that the cooling rate, the hydrogen content and the grain refinement effect are three interactive factors. When the hydrogen content is above 0.20 mL/100 g and the cooling rate is lower than that in 50 mm-thick step, hydrogen dissolved in the alloy melt influences the grain refinement effect. With increasing the cooling rate, the critical hydrogen content increases too. It is expected that much hydrogen in the melt make the net interfacial energy larger than or equal to zero, resulting in the shielding of the particles AlP during solidification and that the critical gas content is closely related to the critical radius of embryo bubbles.

  3. Introduction to instrumentation and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Northrop, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    Weighing in on the growth of innovative technologies, the adoption of new standards, and the lack of educational development as it relates to current and emerging applications, the third edition of Introduction to Instrumentation and Measurements uses the authors' 40 years of teaching experience to expound on the theory, science, and art of modern instrumentation and measurements (I&M). What's New in This Edition: This edition includes material on modern integrated circuit (IC) and photonic sensors, micro-electro-mechanical (MEM) and nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) sensors, chemical and radiation sensors, signal conditioning, noise, data interfaces, and basic digital signal processing (DSP), and upgrades every chapter with the latest advancements. It contains new material on the designs of micro-electro-mechanical (MEMS) sensors, adds two new chapters on wireless instrumentation and microsensors, and incorporates extensive biomedical examples and problems. Containing 13 chapters, this third edition: Describ...

  4. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  5. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...... provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator...

  6. Performing the Super Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria

    2016-01-01

    provides the performer extensive virtuoso capabilities in terms of instrumental range, harmony, timbre, or spatial, textural, acoustic, technical, or technological qualities. The discussion will be illustrated by a composition case study involving augmented musical instrument electromagnetic resonator......The genre of contemporary classical music has seen significant innovation and research related to new super, hyper, and hybrid instruments, which opens up a vast palette of expressive potential. An increasing number of composers, performers, instrument designers, engineers, and computer programmers...

  7. The Development of the Bottom Machine in the Direct Current Electric Resistance Instrument%基于SCPI的直流低阻表底层协议的开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕大祝; 程明

    2007-01-01

    随着自动测试的发展,对仪器的可编程性提出了挑战,在这个前提下,SCPI(Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments)协议的出现,带动了标准编程语言的发展,最后被工业界所接受.本文就是以SCPI为基准完成的下位机的编程.

  8. Multi-Scale (cm to km) Hydrodynamic and Morphologic Interactions in Tidal Inlets, Dynamics of Sandwaves with Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and Instrumentation for Measuring Nearshore Morphologic Change and Hydrodynamic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    resolving differential GPS and sidescan and multibeam sonar system as described in our DURIP proposal (“Instrumentation for Measuring Nearshore Morphologic...elevation is a suitable reference for measuring bedforms under swell. The multibeam will provide digital elevation with a swath width roughly twice the...to several other proposed ONR efforts including an OASIS project with John Trowbridge to measure wave boundary layer stresses in support of optical

  9. THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON SOCIOCULTURAL CONTEXT IN EATING DISORDERS DEVELOPED BY MACIEJ PILECKI AND BARBARA JÓZEFIK - A SUMMARY OF THE CURRENT STAGE OF WORK ON THE RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Pilecki, Maciej; Sałapa,Kinga; Józefik, Barbara; Kozłowska-Jasnos, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To create the most coherent version of the scales of The Questionnaire on Sociocultural Context developed by Maciej Pilecki and Barbara Józefik and to assess the relationship that they have with disordered eating and eating disorders. Method. Firstly, a factor analysis on selected items of the research instrument based on a population of 614 girls attending Krakow schools was conducted. Then, in the same group, an analysis of the relationship between the obtained factors and ...

  10. Conditions for preparation of ultrapure beryllium by electrolytic refining in molten alkali-metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Hagen

    1982-02-01

    Electrolytic refining is regarded as the most suitable process for the production of beryllium with impurity contents below 1 at.-ppM. Several parameters are important for electrolytic refining of beryllium in a BeCl/sub 2/-containing LiCl-KCl melt: current density, BeCl/sub 2/ content, electrolyte temperature, composition of the unpurified beryllium and impurity-ion concentrations in the melt, as well as apparatus characteristics such as rotation speed of the cathode and condition of the crucible material. These factors were studied and optimized such that extensive removal of the maximum number of accompanying and alloying elements was achieved.

  11. Aeroacoustics of Musical Instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabre, B.; Gilbert, J.; Hirschberg, A.; Pelorson, X.

    2012-01-01

    We are interested in the quality of sound produced by musical instruments and their playability. In wind instruments, a hydrodynamic source of sound is coupled to an acoustic resonator. Linear acoustics can predict the pitch of an instrument. This can significantly reduce the trial-and-error process

  12. Electronic Instrumentation in A-Level Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellse, Mark

    1986-01-01

    Describes: (1) the light beam galvanometer; (2) the electrometer/direct current amplifier; and (3) digital multimeters. Focuses on the uses or potential uses of these instruments in teaching A-level physics. (JN)

  13. Refined localization of the Prieto-syndrome locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, F.; Prieto, F. [Unidad de Genetica, Valencia (Spain); Gal, A. [Universitaets-Krankenhaus Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-07-12

    PRS designates the locus for a syndromal form of X-linked mental retardation (Prieto syndrome) characterized by minor facial anomalies, ear malformation, abnormal growth of teeth, clinodactyly, sacral dimple, patellar luxation, malformation of lower limbs, abnormalities of the fundus of the eye, and subcortical cerebral atrophy. Linkage analysis localized the disease locus between DXS84 (Xp21.1) and DXS255. Here we present additional linkage data that provide further support and refinement of this localization. Individual III-18 gave birth to a male, currently aged 2 7/12 years, who clearly shows delayed psychomotor development. He began to walk at 23 months and his speech is delayed. In addition, he shows the characteristic facial anomalies, {open_quotes}dysplastic{close_quotes} ears, sacral dimple, and clinodactyly, as do all other affected males in this family. 7 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Proposals for refinements in international nuclear knowledge management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bum Jin; Kang, Doo Hyuk; Ko, Sang Hyuk; Kim, Hyung Seok [Cheju National University, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Concerns are raised world-wide on the sustainability of nuclear society due to the aging of nuclear manpower, coming massive retirements of senior workers within the next several years, declination of nuclear education and training, as well as the shortage of nuclear manpower supply. These concerns were reflected in the international activities such as the OECD/NEA report on the nuclear education and training and the IAEA conference on Nuclear Knowledge Management. Many more follow-up activities are currently being formulated and implemented. This paper discusses the nature of the issue, proposes a Four-Season Model of nuclear industry and manpower demand and supply, and raises an issue regarding the possibility of manpower shortage propagation from the advanced countries to the developing countries. The international activities are also reviewed and proposals for further refinements of the nuclear knowledge management activities are made.

  15. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  16. Multiuser Successive Refinement and Multiple Description Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Chao; Diggavi, Suhas

    2007-01-01

    We consider the multiuser successive refinement (MSR) problem, where the users are connected to a central server via links with different noiseless capacities, and each user wishes to reconstruct in a successive-refinement fashion. An achievable region is given for the two-user two-layer case and it provides the complete rate-distortion region for the Gaussian source under the MSE distortion measure. The key observation is that this problem includes the multiple description (MD) problem (with two descriptions) as a subsystem, and the techniques useful in the MD problem can be extended to this case. We show that the coding scheme based on the universality of random binning is sub-optimal, because multiple Gaussian side informations only at the decoders do incur performance loss, in contrast to the case of single side information at the decoder. We further show that unlike the single user case, when there are multiple users, the loss of performance by a multistage coding approach can be unbounded for the Gaussi...

  17. Parallel Adaptive Mesh Refinement for High-Order Finite-Volume Schemes in Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Alan Michael

    comparisons across a range of regimes. Unsteady and steady applications are considered in both subsonic and supersonic flows. Inviscid and viscous simulations achieve similar results at a much reduced cost when employing dynamic mesh adaptation. Several techniques for guiding adaptation are compared. Detailed analysis of statistics from the instrumented solver enable understanding of the costs associated with adaptation. Adaptive mesh refinement shows promise for the test cases presented here. It can be considerably faster than using conventional grids and provides accurate results. The procedures for adapting the grid are light-weight enough to not require significant computational time and yield significant reductions in grid size.

  18. Lossless, Near-Lossless, and Refinement Coding of Bi-level Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo; Forchhammer, Søren Otto

    1999-01-01

    We present general and unified algorithms for lossy/lossless coding of bi-level images. The compression is realized by applying arithmetic coding to conditional probabilities. As in the current JBIG standard the conditioning may be specified by a template.For better compression, the more general...... to the specialized soft pattern matching techniques which work better for text. Template based refinement coding is applied for lossy-to-lossless refinement. Introducing only a small amount of loss in halftoned test images, compression is increased by up to a factor of four compared with JBIG. Lossy, lossless......, and refinement decoding speed and lossless encoding speed are less than a factor of two slower than JBIG. The (de)coding method is proposed as part of JBIG2, an emerging international standard for lossless/lossy compression of bi-level images....

  19. X-ray structure refinement using aspherical atomic density functions obtained from quantum-mechanical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilaka, Dylan; Dittrich, Birger

    2008-05-01

    An approach is outlined for X-ray structure refinement using atomic density fragments obtained by Hirshfeld partitioning of quantum-mechanical density fragments. Results are presented for crystal structure refinements of urea and benzene using these 'Hirshfeld atoms'. Using this procedure, the quantum-mechanical non-spherical electron density is taken into account in the structural model based on the conformation found in the crystal. Contrary to current consensus in structure refinement, the anisotropic displacement parameters of H atoms can be reproduced from neutron diffraction measurements simply from a least-squares fit using the Hirshfeld atoms derived from the BLYP level of theory and including a simple point-charge model to treat the crystal environment.

  20. Overview on gold-refining technology%黄金精炼工艺综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍松龄

    2014-01-01

    The paper summarizes major methods of domestic gold-refining technology and current status of them , such as electrolytic refining ,extraction refining and electric control chlorination methods ,and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages each methods has ,and finally came up with the problems needing solving for the refinery work in the future .%综述了目前国内黄金精炼工艺的主要方法及现状,如电解精炼法、萃取精炼法、控电氯化法,并对各工艺方法的利弊进行了阐述,同时提出了未来精炼工艺需要解决的问题。

  1. 40 CFR 80.235 - How does a refiner obtain approval as a small refiner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... small refiner status, plus any subsidiary companies, any parent company and subsidiaries of the parent company, and any joint venture partners: (1)(i) A listing of the name and address of each location where... corporate contact person. (d) For joint ventures, the total number of employees includes the...

  2. Reintroducing electrostatics into macromolecular crystallographic refinement: application to neutron crystallography and DNA hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Timothy D; Schnieders, Michael J; Mustyakimov, Marat; Wu, Chuanjie; Langan, Paul; Pande, Vijay S; Brunger, Axel T

    2011-04-13

    Most current crystallographic structure refinements augment the diffraction data with a priori information consisting of bond, angle, dihedral, planarity restraints, and atomic repulsion based on the Pauli exclusion principle. Yet, electrostatics and van der Waals attraction are physical forces that provide additional a priori information. Here, we assess the inclusion of electrostatics for the force field used for all-atom (including hydrogen) joint neutron/X-ray refinement. Two DNA and a protein crystal structure were refined against joint neutron/X-ray diffraction data sets using force fields without electrostatics or with electrostatics. Hydrogen-bond orientation/geometry favors the inclusion of electrostatics. Refinement of Z-DNA with electrostatics leads to a hypothesis for the entropic stabilization of Z-DNA that may partly explain the thermodynamics of converting the B form of DNA to its Z form. Thus, inclusion of electrostatics assists joint neutron/X-ray refinements, especially for placing and orienting hydrogen atoms.

  3. LEDA and APT Beam Diagnostics Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpatrick, J. D.; Power, J. F.; Rose, C. R.; Shafer, R. E.; Shurter, R. B.

    1997-05-01

    A 20-MeV, 100-mA-CW proton-accelerator, Low Energy Development Accelerator (LEDA), is presently being developed, fabricated, and tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The beam diagnostics instrumentation for LEDA and the final 1700-GeV Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), may be classified into two categories: operational and characterization instrumentation. The operational instrumentation for both facilities must not intercept the beam and must be sufficiently prompt and robust to provide accurate information to the operators and commissioners during full-current CW beam operation. The characterization instrumentation, primarily utilized during commissioning project-phases and off-normal tuning procedures, operate under more traditional 100-mA-peak and approximately 0.1-mA-average beam-current conditions. This paper will review some of the LEDA operational and characterization beam diagnostics instrumentation.

  4. Instrument safety in explosive atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, J A

    1975-01-01

    The current "Energy Crisis" has dramatically increased our potential need for coal, the worlds most abundant fossil fuel. This will probably lead to a greater use of automation and instrumentation in the coal mining industry. The presence of methane in coal mines and in the coal itself plus the presence of coal dust, both of which can form an explosive atmosphere in air, means that the possibility of a gas or coal dust ignition must be considered when designing, purchasing and installing new equipment in this industry. In addition, many metallurgical processes involve the use of potentially explosive substances against which similar safety precautions must be taken. This paper outlines the various methods of protection currently in use and proposed for electrical instruments in explosive atmospheres, with particular emphasis on the work of the International Electrotechnical Commission.

  5. Instrumentation of the fast detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barczyk, A.; Malgeri, L.; Casella, C.; Pohl, M.; Deiters, K.; Dick, P.; Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J.; Mana, C.; Marin, J.; Martinez, G.; Sanchez, E.; Willmott, C.

    2008-01-01

    The Fiber Active Scintillator Target (FAST) is an imaging particle detector intended for high precision muon lifetime measurement. This measurement will lead to a determination of the Fermi coupling constant (GF) with an uncertainty of 1 ppm, one order of magnitude better than the current world average. This contribution presents a description of the detector instrumentation and the first results, which have validated the design of the system.

  6. GRChombo: Numerical relativity with adaptive mesh refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Katy; Figueras, Pau; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A.; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we introduce {\\mathtt{GRChombo}}: a new numerical relativity code which incorporates full adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) using block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation. The code supports non-trivial ‘many-boxes-in-many-boxes’ mesh hierarchies and massive parallelism through the message passing interface. {\\mathtt{GRChombo}} evolves the Einstein equation using the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. The AMR capability permits the study of a range of new physics which has previously been computationally infeasible in a full 3 + 1 setting, while also significantly simplifying the process of setting up the mesh for these problems. We show that {\\mathtt{GRChombo}} can stably and accurately evolve standard spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers and scalar collapses into black holes, demonstrate the performance characteristics of our code, and discuss various physics problems which stand to benefit from the AMR technique.

  7. Formal language theory: refining the Chomsky hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerhard; Rogers, James

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this article gives a brief overview of the four levels of the Chomsky hierarchy, with a special emphasis on context-free and regular languages. It then recapitulates the arguments why neither regular nor context-free grammar is sufficiently expressive to capture all phenomena in the natural language syntax. In the second part, two refinements of the Chomsky hierarchy are reviewed, which are both relevant to the extant research in cognitive science: the mildly context-sensitive languages (which are located between context-free and context-sensitive languages), and the sub-regular hierarchy (which distinguishes several levels of complexity within the class of regular languages). PMID:22688632

  8. Algorithm refinement for stochastic partial differential equations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, F. J. (Francis J.); Garcia, Alejandro L.,; Tartakovsky, D. M. (Daniel M.)

    2001-01-01

    A hybrid particle/continuum algorithm is formulated for Fickian diffusion in the fluctuating hydrodynamic limit. The particles are taken as independent random walkers; the fluctuating diffusion equation is solved by finite differences with deterministic and white-noise fluxes. At the interface between the particle and continuum computations the coupling is by flux matching, giving exact mass conservation. This methodology is an extension of Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement to stochastic partial differential equations. A variety of numerical experiments were performed for both steady and time-dependent scenarios. In all cases the mean and variance of density are captured correctly by the stochastic hybrid algorithm. For a non-stochastic version (i.e., using only deterministic continuum fluxes) the mean density is correct, but the variance is reduced except within the particle region, far from the interface. Extensions of the methodology to fluid mechanics applications are discussed.

  9. Performance of a streaming mesh refinement algorithm.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2004-08-01

    In SAND report 2004-1617, we outline a method for edge-based tetrahedral subdivision that does not rely on saving state or communication to produce compatible tetrahedralizations. This report analyzes the performance of the technique by characterizing (a) mesh quality, (b) execution time, and (c) traits of the algorithm that could affect quality or execution time differently for different meshes. It also details the method used to debug the several hundred subdivision templates that the algorithm relies upon. Mesh quality is on par with other similar refinement schemes and throughput on modern hardware can exceed 600,000 output tetrahedra per second. But if you want to understand the traits of the algorithm, you have to read the report!

  10. Refinement and stability of grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Humphreys, F.; Bate, P.S. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Manchester Materials Science Centre

    2001-07-01

    The various methods of producing fine-grained alloys are discussed and it is concluded that thermomechanical processing routes are most suitable for the economic production of the large quantities of material required for structural applications. The limits of grain refinement by conventional discontinuous recrystallization are considered, and the production of micron-grained alloys by continuous recrystallization processes during or after large strain deformation is discussed. The stability of highly deformed microstructures against recrystallization is analysed, and the effect of second-phase particles on grain growth is discussed. It is shown that perturbations of the Zener drag during high temperature deformation may lead to dynamic grain growth in two-phase alloys. (orig.)

  11. Error bounds from extra precise iterative refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demmel, James; Hida, Yozo; Kahan, William; Li, Xiaoye S.; Mukherjee, Soni; Riedy, E. Jason

    2005-02-07

    We present the design and testing of an algorithm for iterative refinement of the solution of linear equations, where the residual is computed with extra precision. This algorithm was originally proposed in the 1960s [6, 22] as a means to compute very accurate solutions to all but the most ill-conditioned linear systems of equations. However two obstacles have until now prevented its adoption in standard subroutine libraries like LAPACK: (1) There was no standard way to access the higher precision arithmetic needed to compute residuals, and (2) it was unclear how to compute a reliable error bound for the computed solution. The completion of the new BLAS Technical Forum Standard [5] has recently removed the first obstacle. To overcome the second obstacle, we show how a single application of iterative refinement can be used to compute an error bound in any norm at small cost, and use this to compute both an error bound in the usual infinity norm, and a componentwise relative error bound. We report extensive test results on over 6.2 million matrices of dimension 5, 10, 100, and 1000. As long as a normwise (resp. componentwise) condition number computed by the algorithm is less than 1/max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, the computed normwise (resp. componentwise) error bound is at most 2 max{l_brace}10,{radical}n{r_brace} {center_dot} {var_epsilon}{sub w}, and indeed bounds the true error. Here, n is the matrix dimension and w is single precision roundoff error. For worse conditioned problems, we get similarly small correct error bounds in over 89.4% of cases.

  12. Technical Considerations for Filler and Neuromodulator Refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony J.; Chang, Brian L.; Percec, Ivona

    2016-01-01

    Background: The toolbox for cosmetic practitioners is growing at an unprecedented rate. There are novel products every year and expanding off-label indications for neurotoxin and soft-tissue filler applications. Consequently, aesthetic physicians are increasingly challenged by the task of selecting the most appropriate products and techniques to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Methods: We employed a PubMed literature search of facial injectables from the past 10 years (2005–2015), with emphasis on those articles embracing evidence-based medicine. We evaluated the scientific background of every product and the physicochemical properties that make each one ideal for specific indications. The 2 senior authors provide commentary regarding their clinical experience with specific technical refinements of neuromodulators and soft-tissue fillers. Results: Neurotoxins and fillers are characterized by unique physical characteristics that distinguish each product. This results in subtle but important differences in their clinical applications. Specific indications and recommendations for the use of the various neurotoxins and soft-tissue fillers are reviewed. The discussion highlights refinements in combination treatments and product physical modifications, according to specific treatment zones. Conclusions: The field of facial aesthetics has evolved dramatically, mostly secondary to our increased understanding of 3-dimensional structural volume restoration. Our work reviews Food and Drug Administration–approved injectables. In addition, we describe how to modify products to fulfill specific indications such as treatment of the mid face, décolletage, hands, and periorbital regions. Although we cannot directly evaluate the duration or exact physical properties of blended products, we argue that “product customization” is safe and provides natural results with excellent patient outcomes. PMID:28018778

  13. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  14. Technical Considerations for Filler and Neuromodulator Refinements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, José Raúl; Wilson, Anthony J; Chang, Brian L; Percec, Ivona

    2016-12-01

    Background: The toolbox for cosmetic practitioners is growing at an unprecedented rate. There are novel products every year and expanding off-label indications for neurotoxin and soft-tissue filler applications. Consequently, aesthetic physicians are increasingly challenged by the task of selecting the most appropriate products and techniques to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Methods: We employed a PubMed literature search of facial injectables from the past 10 years (2005-2015), with emphasis on those articles embracing evidence-based medicine. We evaluated the scientific background of every product and the physicochemical properties that make each one ideal for specific indications. The 2 senior authors provide commentary regarding their clinical experience with specific technical refinements of neuromodulators and soft-tissue fillers. Results: Neurotoxins and fillers are characterized by unique physical characteristics that distinguish each product. This results in subtle but important differences in their clinical applications. Specific indications and recommendations for the use of the various neurotoxins and soft-tissue fillers are reviewed. The discussion highlights refinements in combination treatments and product physical modifications, according to specific treatment zones. Conclusions: The field of facial aesthetics has evolved dramatically, mostly secondary to our increased understanding of 3-dimensional structural volume restoration. Our work reviews Food and Drug Administration-approved injectables. In addition, we describe how to modify products to fulfill specific indications such as treatment of the mid face, décolletage, hands, and periorbital regions. Although we cannot directly evaluate the duration or exact physical properties of blended products, we argue that "product customization" is safe and provides natural results with excellent patient outcomes.

  15. Refinement, Application, and Evaluation of Cognitive and Affective Chemistry Measures for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Keily

    provide a significant addition to the psychometric information available on existing instruments. This work makes an emphasis on the importance of pilot testing instruments and gathering psychometric information to provide evidence that the instrument is functioning as intended when used with different samples. This work provides a model for researchers to follow when refining an instrument, and implications for the use of assessment tools in chemistry curricula evaluation.

  16. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  17. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K T Kashyap; T Chandrashekar

    2001-08-01

    Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminium alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific literature. The nucleant effects i.e. which particle and its characteristics nucleate -Al, has been the subject of intensive research. Lately the solute effect i.e. the effect of dissolved titanium on grain refinement, has come into forefront of grain refinement research. The present paper attempts to review the literature on the nucleant effects and solute effects on grain refinement and addresses the importance of dissolved titanium in promoting nucleation of -Al on nucleant particles.

  18. On macromolecular refinement at subatomic resolution withinteratomic scatterers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afonine, Pavel V.; Grosse-Kunstleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.; Lunin, Vladimir Y.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2007-11-09

    A study of the accurate electron density distribution in molecular crystals at subatomic resolution, better than {approx} 1.0 {angstrom}, requires more detailed models than those based on independent spherical atoms. A tool conventionally used in small-molecule crystallography is the multipolar model. Even at upper resolution limits of 0.8-1.0 {angstrom}, the number of experimental data is insufficient for the full multipolar model refinement. As an alternative, a simpler model composed of conventional independent spherical atoms augmented by additional scatterers to model bonding effects has been proposed. Refinement of these mixed models for several benchmark datasets gave results comparable in quality with results of multipolar refinement and superior of those for conventional models. Applications to several datasets of both small- and macro-molecules are shown. These refinements were performed using the general-purpose macromolecular refinement module phenix.refine of the PHENIX package.

  19. Refinement of herpesvirus B-capsid structure on parallel supercomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z H; Chiu, W; Haskell, K; Spears, H; Jakana, J; Rixon, F J; Scott, L R

    1998-01-01

    Electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral reconstruction are used to obtain the three-dimensional structure of the 1250-A-diameter herpesvirus B-capsid. The centers and orientations of particles in focal pairs of 400-kV, spot-scan micrographs are determined and iteratively refined by common-lines-based local and global refinement procedures. We describe the rationale behind choosing shared-memory multiprocessor computers for executing the global refinement, which is the most computationally intensive step in the reconstruction procedure. This refinement has been implemented on three different shared-memory supercomputers. The speedup and efficiency are evaluated by using test data sets with different numbers of particles and processors. Using this parallel refinement program, we refine the herpesvirus B-capsid from 355-particle images to 13-A resolution. The map shows new structural features and interactions of the protein subunits in the three distinct morphological units: penton, hexon, and triplex of this T = 16 icosahedral particle.

  20. IVA Ultrasonic and Eddy Current NDE for ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phased array ultrasonic testing (PAUT) instruments and array eddy current testing instruments were tested on hypervelocity impact damaged aluminum plates simulating...

  1. Aircrew Screening Instruments Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    available tools . Several vendors indicated that they will have new selection instruments available within a few months. These are not listed. As noted...AFCAPS-FR-2011-0012 AIRCREW SCREENING INSTRUMENTS REVIEW Diane L. Damos Damos Aviation Services, Inc...June 2007 – August 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Aircrew Screening Instruments Review 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA3089-06-F-0385 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  2. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havskov, Jens; Alguacil, Gerardo

    Here is unique and comprehensive coverage of modern seismic instrumentation, based on the authors' practical experience of a quarter-century in seismology and geophysics. Their goal is to provide not only detailed information on the basics of seismic instruments but also to survey equipment on the market, blending this with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles. Seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments will find here the answers to their practical problems.

  3. Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data from current meter and other instruments in the Gulf of Mexico from 26 January 1993 to 13 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9500088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine chemistry, fish / shell-fish surveys, benthic organisms, and marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using current meter and other...

  4. Current, temperature, backscatter, and other data from bottom instrument packages deployed from the RV Oceanus and other platforms in support of sediment transport observation in the Middle Atlantic Bight from 11 December 1975 to 30 October 1980 (NODC Accession 0066005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of studies to assess environmental hazards to petroleum development in the Middle Atlantic Bight. Long-term observations of currents and near-bottom...

  5. Mirror of the refined topological vertex from a matrix model

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B

    2011-01-01

    We find an explicit matrix model computing the refined topological vertex, starting from its representation in terms of plane partitions. We then find the spectral curve of that matrix model, and thus the mirror symmetry of the refined vertex. With the same method we also find a matrix model for the strip geometry, and we find its mirror curve. The fact that there is a matrix model shows that the refined topological string amplitudes also satisfy the remodeling the B-model construction.

  6. [Controlling instruments in radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, M

    2013-10-01

    Due to the rising costs and competitive pressures radiological clinics and practices are now facing, controlling instruments are gaining importance in the optimization of structures and processes of the various diagnostic examinations and interventional procedures. It will be shown how the use of selected controlling instruments can secure and improve the performance of radiological facilities. A definition of the concept of controlling will be provided. It will be shown which controlling instruments can be applied in radiological departments and practices. As an example, two of the controlling instruments, material cost analysis and benchmarking, will be illustrated.

  7. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  8. Networked Instrumentation Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a networked instrumentation system that connects modern experimental payloads to existing analog and digital communications...

  9. Satellite oceanography - The instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that no instrument is sensitive to only one oceanographic variable; rather, each responds to a combination of atmospheric and oceanic phenomena. This complicates data interpretation and usually requires that a number of observations, each sensitive to somewhat different phenomena, be combined to provide unambiguous information. The distinction between active and passive instruments is described. A block diagram illustrating the steps necessary to convert data from satellite instruments into oceanographic information is included, as is a diagram illustrating the operation of a radio-frequency radiometer. Attention is also given to the satellites that carry the various oceanographic instruments.

  10. 井下杂散电流及接缝电阻集成测试仪的设计%Design of measuring instrument of stray current and seaming resistance of underground traction network of coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克军; 程辉; 付立华

    2012-01-01

    井下杂散电流是指在井下架线电机车的运输系统中任何不按指定通路流动的电流,它是随机事件,而且是连续变化的量,是影响煤矿安全的主要因素之一.对井下杂散电流的测试是指导井下架线、防治杂散电流的前提,详细介绍了集成杂散电流及接缝电阻测试仪的设计原理和实现方法,并给出了主要的硬件电路和软件主流程图.%Stray current flow is defined as the flows in route in designated the wiring of electric locomotive transportation system. Stray current is a random event and changes continuously. Stray current is one of the elements that affect the safety of coal mines. To measure stray current is the prerequisite to direct wiring of traction network and prevention of stray current. The design principles and realization methods of measuring meter of stray current and seaming resistance between two rails in detail is introduced, and the main hardware schematic circuit diagram and software main flow chart are given.

  11. 工具理性视域下大学生思想政治教育现状分析%Current Situation of Ideological and Political Education under Instrumental Rational Horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苗

    2011-01-01

    工具理性视域下大学生思想政治教育主客体关系呈绝对化的倾向,教育过程呈单向化的倾向,教育效果呈功利化的倾向。大学生思想政治教育要从物化转向人本化,从注重施教过程转向注重受教过程,以人为本,实现大学生的全面发展。%In view of instrumental rationality,the relations between subject and object are characterized with absolutization in ideological and political education,unilateralization in education process,and utilitarian tendency in education effectiveness.The ideological and political education must turn materialization to people first and turn instruction to acceptance to realize the overall development of college students.

  12. GIPP: Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haberland

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Geophysical Instrument Pool Potsdam (GIPP consists of field instruments, sensors and equipment for temporary seismological studies (both controlled source and earthquake seismology as well as for magnetotelluric (electromagnetic experiments. These instruments are mainly mobile digital recorders, broadband seis­mometers and short period sensors, and they are used to reveal the subsurface structure and to investigate earth­quakes. Sensors for magnetotellurics include induction coil and fluxgate magnetometers and non-polarizing silver / silver-chloride electrodes. It is operated by the Helmholtz Centre Potsdam GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. The instru­ment facility is open to all academic applicants, both national and international. Instrument applications are evalu­ated and ranked by an external steering board. Currently, for seismological applications >850 geophysical recorders, >170 broadband seis­mo­meters and >1300 short period geophones are available (among others. Available for magnetotelluric experiments are > 50 real-time data-loggers, >150 induction coils, and >500 electrodes. User guidelines and data policy are in force and data archives are provided (standard exchange formats.

  13. Physical model of aluminium refining process in URC-7000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saternus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents short characteristics of the most frequently used reactors for the continuous refining of aluminium and its alloys. Refining depends on the flow rate of refining gas. It influences the shape and size of gas bubbles. So the physical model was created to determine the level of gas bubble dispersion in liquids. Schemes of gas dispersion in liquid metal were presented taking into consideration that the gas flow rate is changing from 2 to 30 dm3/min. The range selection of the flow rate of refining gas value for five patterns of the dispersion (no dispersion, minimum, intimate, uniform and overdispersion was also done.

  14. New Process for Grain Refinement of Aluminum. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Joseph A. Megy

    2000-09-22

    A new method of grain refining aluminum involving in-situ formation of boride nuclei in molten aluminum just prior to casting has been developed in the subject DOE program over the last thirty months by a team consisting of JDC, Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, GRAS, Inc., Touchstone Labs, and GKS Engineering Services. The Manufacturing process to make boron trichloride for grain refining is much simpler than preparing conventional grain refiners, with attendant environmental, capital, and energy savings. The manufacture of boride grain refining nuclei using the fy-Gem process avoids clusters, salt and oxide inclusions that cause quality problems in aluminum today.

  15. Microstructural characterization and grain refinement of AA6082 gas tungsten arc welds by scandium modified fillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, N. Kishore, E-mail: nkishorebabu@gmail.com [Joining Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Talari, Mahesh Kumar [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam (Malaysia); Pan, D.; Sun, Z.; Wei, J. [Joining Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 638075 (Singapore); Sivaprasad, K. [Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirapalli 620015, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-12-14

    The refinement in weld metal grain size and shape results in both improved mechanical properties (ductility and toughness) as well as a significant improvement in weldability. In the present study, the influence of scandium (Sc) additions to the fillers on the structure and mechanical properties of AA6082 gas tungsten arc (GTA) weldments were investigated. Controlled amounts of scandium as grain refiner were introduced into the molten pool of AA6082 by pre-deposited cast inserts (AA4043 and AA5356) by GTA welding. Full penetration GTA welds were prepared using alternating current (AC). It was observed that grain size decreased with increasing amounts of scandium. The grain refinement is mainly caused by the Al{sub 3}Sc particles, which act as heterogeneous nucleation of {alpha}-Al grains. It has been shown that welds prepared with AA5356 cast insert exhibited high strength and ductility when compared with other welds. The observed grain refinement was shown to result in an appreciable increase in fusion zone hardness, strength and ductility. Post-weld aging treatment resulted in improved tensile strength and hardness of the weldments and this aging response could be attributed to the weld dilution from the base metal. The slow diffusion of Sc in Al matrix and stability of Al{sub 3}Sc precipitates at elevated temperatures were suggested to be responsible for the improved high temperature yield strength of welds made from Sc modified fillers. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primary Al{sub 3}Sc particles resulted in grain refinement by heterogeneous nucleation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weld metal strength and hardness improved due to grain refinement caused by Sc. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weld metal responded to post-weld aging treatment due to dilution from base metal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sc addition improved the high temperature mechanical properties of welds.

  16. Instrumentation Design and Development Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — RTTC has facilities for design, development and fabrication of: custominstrumentation, mobile instrumentation, miniaturized instrumentation, wirelessinstrumentation,...

  17. A comparison of spectral element and finite difference methods using statically refined nonconforming grids for the MHD island coalescence instability problem

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, C S; Germaschewski, K; Pouquet, A; Bhattacharjee, A

    2007-01-01

    A recently developed spectral-element adaptive refinement incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code [Rosenberg, Fournier, Fischer, Pouquet, J. Comp. Phys. 215, 59-80 (2006)] is applied to simulate the problem of MHD island coalescence instability (MICI) in two dimensions. MICI is a fundamental MHD process that can produce sharp current layers and subsequent reconnection and heating in a high-Lundquist number plasma such as the solar corona [Ng and Bhattacharjee, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 4028 (1998)]. Due to the formation of thin current layers, it is highly desirable to use adaptively or statically refined grids to resolve them, and to maintain accuracy at the same time. The output of the spectral-element static adaptive refinement simulations are compared with simulations using a finite difference method on the same refinement grids, and both methods are compared to pseudo-spectral simulations with uniform grids as baselines. It is shown that with the statically refined grids roughly scaling linearly with effec...

  18. BAA instrument no. 93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2006-12-01

    Instrument no. 93 has been in almost continual use for more than a hundred years. Since it left the workshop of its maker, George Calver, it has kept company with several other notable instruments and has been used by many eminent astronomers. It was added to the Association's collection in 1945.

  19. Instrumentation in endourology

    OpenAIRE

    Khanna, Rakesh; Monga,Manoj

    2011-01-01

    Success with endourological procedures requires expertise and instrumentation. This review focuses on the instrumentation required for ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and provides a critical assessment of in vitro and clinical studies that have evaluated the comparative effectiveness of these medical devices.

  20. GRChombo : Numerical Relativity with Adaptive Mesh Refinement

    CERN Document Server

    Clough, Katy; Finkel, Hal; Kunesch, Markus; Lim, Eugene A; Tunyasuvunakool, Saran

    2015-01-01

    Numerical relativity has undergone a revolution in the past decade. With a well-understood mathematical formalism, and full control over the gauge modes, it is now entering an era in which the science can be properly explored. In this work, we introduce GRChombo, a new numerical relativity code written to take full advantage of modern parallel computing techniques. GRChombo's features include full adaptive mesh refinement with block structured Berger-Rigoutsos grid generation which supports non-trivial "many-boxes-in-many-boxes" meshing hierarchies, and massive parallelism through the Message Passing Interface (MPI). GRChombo evolves the Einstein equation with the standard BSSN formalism, with an option to turn on CCZ4 constraint damping if required. We show that GRChombo passes all the standard "Apples-to-Apples" code comparison tests. We also show that it can stably and accurately evolve vacuum black hole spacetimes such as binary black hole mergers, and non-vacuum spacetimes such as scalar collapses into b...

  1. Time Critical Isosurface Refinement and Smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascucci, V.; Bajaj, C.L.

    2000-07-10

    Multi-resolution data-structures and algorithms are key in Visualization to achieve real-time interaction with large data-sets. Research has been primarily focused on the off-line construction of such representations mostly using decimation schemes. Drawbacks of this class of approaches include: (i) the inability to maintain interactivity when the displayed surface changes frequently, (ii) inability to control the global geometry of the embedding (no self-intersections) of any approximated level of detail of the output surface. In this paper we introduce a technique for on-line construction and smoothing of progressive isosurfaces. Our hybrid approach combines the flexibility of a progressive multi-resolution representation with the advantages of a recursive sub-division scheme. Our main contributions are: (i) a progressive algorithm that builds a multi-resolution surface by successive refinements so that a coarse representation of the output is generated as soon as a coarse representation of the input is provided, (ii) application of the same scheme to smooth the surface by means of a 3D recursive subdivision rule, (iii) a multi-resolution representation where any adaptively selected level of detail surface is guaranteed to be free of self-intersections.

  2. Worldsheet realization of the refined topological string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, I., E-mail: ignatios.antoniadis@cern.ch [Department of Physics, CERN – Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Florakis, I., E-mail: florakis@mppmu.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Werner-Heisenberg-Institut, 80805 München (Germany); Hohenegger, S., E-mail: stefan.hohenegger@cern.ch [Department of Physics, CERN – Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Narain, K.S., E-mail: narain@ictp.trieste.it [High Energy Section, The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera, 11-34014 Trieste (Italy); Zein Assi, A., E-mail: zeinassi@cern.ch [Department of Physics, CERN – Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Centre de Physique Théorique (UMR CNRS 7644), Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-10-01

    A worldsheet realization of the refined topological string is proposed in terms of physical string amplitudes that compute generalized N=2 F-terms of the form F{sub g,n}W{sup 2g}ϒ{sup 2n} in the effective supergravity action. These terms involve the chiral Weyl superfield W and a superfield ϒ defined as an N=2 chiral projection of a particular anti-chiral T{sup ¯}-vector multiplet. In Heterotic and Type I theories, obtained upon compactification on the six-dimensional manifold K3×T{sup 2}, T is the usual Kähler modulus of the T{sup 2} torus. These amplitudes are computed exactly at the one-loop level in string theory. They are shown to reproduce the correct perturbative part of the Nekrasov partition function in the field theory limit when expanded around an SU(2) enhancement point of the string moduli space. The two deformation parameters ϵ{sub −} and ϵ{sub +} of the Ω supergravity background are then identified with the constant field strength backgrounds for the anti-self-dual graviphoton and self-dual gauge field of the T{sup ¯} vector multiplet, respectively.

  3. Refining and blending of aviation turbine fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R D

    1999-02-01

    Aviation turbine fuels (jet fuels) are similar to other petroleum products that have a boiling range of approximately 300F to 550F. Kerosene and No.1 grades of fuel oil, diesel fuel, and gas turbine oil share many similar physical and chemical properties with jet fuel. The similarity among these products should allow toxicology data on one material to be extrapolated to the others. Refineries in the USA manufacture jet fuel to meet industry standard specifications. Civilian aircraft primarily use Jet A or Jet A-1 fuel as defined by ASTM D 1655. Military aircraft use JP-5 or JP-8 fuel as defined by MIL-T-5624R or MIL-T-83133D respectively. The freezing point and flash point are the principle differences between the finished fuels. Common refinery processes that produce jet fuel include distillation, caustic treatment, hydrotreating, and hydrocracking. Each of these refining processes may be the final step to produce jet fuel. Sometimes blending of two or more of these refinery process streams are needed to produce jet fuel that meets the desired specifications. Chemical additives allowed for use in jet fuel are also defined in the product specifications. In many cases, the customer rather than the refinery will put additives into the fuel to meet their specific storage or flight condition requirements.

  4. FPGA Congestion-Driven Placement Refinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente de, J.

    2005-07-01

    The routing congestion usually limits the complete proficiency of the FPGA logic resources. A key question can be formulated regarding the benefits of estimating the congestion at placement stage. In the last years, it is gaining acceptance the idea of a detailed placement taking into account congestion. In this paper, we resort to the Thermodynamic Simulated Annealing (TSA) algorithm to perform a congestion-driven placement refinement on the top of the common Bounding-Box pre optimized solution. The adaptive properties of TSA allow the search to preserve the solution quality of the pre optimized solution while improving other fine-grain objectives. Regarding the cost function two approaches have been considered. In the first one Expected Occupation (EO), a detailed probabilistic model to account for channel congestion is evaluated. We show that in spite of the minute detail of EO, the inherent uncertainty of this probabilistic model impedes to relieve congestion beyond the sole application of the Bounding-Box cost function. In the second approach we resort to the fast Rectilinear Steiner Regions algorithm to perform not an estimation but a measurement of the global routing congestion. This second strategy allows us to successfully reduce the requested channel width for a set of benchmark circuits with respect to the widespread Versatile Place and Route (VPR) tool. (Author) 31 refs.

  5. Elliptic Solvers for Adaptive Mesh Refinement Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D.J.; Dendy, J.E., Jr.; Shapira, Y.

    1999-06-03

    We are developing multigrid methods that will efficiently solve elliptic problems with anisotropic and discontinuous coefficients on adaptive grids. The final product will be a library that provides for the simplified solution of such problems. This library will directly benefit the efforts of other Laboratory groups. The focus of this work is research on serial and parallel elliptic algorithms and the inclusion of our black-box multigrid techniques into this new setting. The approach applies the Los Alamos object-oriented class libraries that greatly simplify the development of serial and parallel adaptive mesh refinement applications. In the final year of this LDRD, we focused on putting the software together; in particular we completed the final AMR++ library, we wrote tutorials and manuals, and we built example applications. We implemented the Fast Adaptive Composite Grid method as the principal elliptic solver. We presented results at the Overset Grid Conference and other more AMR specific conferences. We worked on optimization of serial and parallel performance and published several papers on the details of this work. Performance remains an important issue and is the subject of continuing research work.

  6. Water Refining By the Membrane Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Bolanca

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigations in this paper refer to the possibility of wastewater refining from deinking flotation process by the method of membrane separation. The offset impressions made with the conventional printing inks as wellas the models based on the raw materials of renewable origin were used in the recycling process. Before andafter the water treatment, the concentration of the sulphate, chloride, nitrate, total organic substance, oxygenconsumption, pH and electric conductivity was determinedin all the samples by standard analytical methods.The results point at the dependence of the concentration of the investigated inorganic and organic pollution with the characteristics of the prints used in the recycling process. The concentration decrease of the investigated pollution using the method of the membrane separation in relation to the boundary values of the water quality necessary for the paper production has been discussed. Besides the specific scientific contribution, the practical application of the investigation is the contribution to the closing of water circuit in paper production.

  7. Integrating Climate Change Resilience Features into the Incremental Refinement of an Existing Marine Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Lynnath E.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Lombard, Amanda T.; Radford, Ben; Heyward, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Marine protected area (MPA) designs are likely to require iterative refinement as new knowledge is gained. In particular, there is an increasing need to consider the effects of climate change, especially the ability of ecosystems to resist and/or recover from climate-related disturbances, within the MPA planning process. However, there has been limited research addressing the incorporation of climate change resilience into MPA design. This study used Marxan conservation planning software with fine-scale shallow water (<20 m) bathymetry and habitat maps, models of major benthic communities for deeper water, and comprehensive human use information from Ningaloo Marine Park in Western Australia to identify climate change resilience features to integrate into the incremental refinement of the marine park. The study assessed the representation of benthic habitats within the current marine park zones, identified priority areas of high resilience for inclusion within no-take zones and examined if any iterative refinements to the current no-take zones are necessary. Of the 65 habitat classes, 16 did not meet representation targets within the current no-take zones, most of which were in deeper offshore waters. These deeper areas also demonstrated the highest resilience values and, as such, Marxan outputs suggested minor increases to the current no-take zones in the deeper offshore areas. This work demonstrates that inclusion of fine-scale climate change resilience features within the design process for MPAs is feasible, and can be applied to future marine spatial planning practices globally. PMID:27529820

  8. VLT/VLTI Second-Generation Instrumentation: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmozzi, R.; Pasquini, L.; Russell, A.

    2016-12-01

    The five second-generation instruments already delivered for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) represent worthy successors to the first generation of instrumentation development. Despite this success, it is still possible to learn many lessons for the future. A review, preceded by a workshop, on the lessons learned from the second-generation instrumentation for the VLT and VLT Interferometer took place in November 2015, following a previous review twelve years ago on lessons learned from the first-generation instruments. The aim of the workshop was to identify lessons in order to help define/refine good practice and make recommendations for the future. This article briefly reports on the workshop and summarises the findings of the review panel, their recommendations and some of the steps to implement them.

  9. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  10. High resolution tomographic instrument development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Our recent work has concentrated on the development of high-resolution PET instrumentation reflecting in part the growing importance of PET in nuclear medicine imaging. We have developed a number of positron imaging instruments and have the distinction that every instrument has been placed in operation and has had an extensive history of application for basic research and clinical study. The present program is a logical continuation of these earlier successes. PCR-I, a single ring positron tomograph was the first demonstration of analog coding using BGO. It employed 4 mm detectors and is currently being used for a wide range of biological studies. These are of immense importance in guiding the direction for future instruments. In particular, PCR-II, a volume sensitive positron tomograph with 3 mm spatial resolution has benefited greatly from the studies using PCR-I. PCR-II is currently in the final stages of assembly and testing and will shortly be placed in operation for imaging phantoms, animals and ultimately humans. Perhaps the most important finding resulting from our previous study is that resolution and sensitivity must be carefully balanced to achieve a practical high resolution system. PCR-II has been designed to have the detection characteristics required to achieve 3 mm resolution in human brain under practical imaging situations. The development of algorithms by the group headed by Dr. Chesler is based on a long history of prior study including his joint work with Drs. Pelc and Reiderer and Stearns. This body of expertise will be applied to the processing of data from PCR-II when it becomes operational.

  11. Refinements of the Weyl tensor classification in five dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coley, A.; Hervik, S.; Ortaggio, M.; Wylleman, L.

    2012-01-01

    We refine the null alignment classification of the Weyl tensor of a five-dimensional spacetime. The paper focusses on the algebraically special alignment types N, III, II and D, while types I and G are briefly discussed. A first refinement is provided by the notion of spin type of the components of

  12. Crystal structure refinement a crystallographers guide to SHELXL

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    A crystallographers guide to SHELXL, covering various aspects of practical crystal structure refinement, from the treatment of hydrogen atoms to the assignment of atom types, and more. After an introduction to SHELXL, a brief survey of crystal structure refinement is provided.

  13. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  14. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the

  15. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Driven by the steady and rapid development of domestic economy and the rapid growth of oil demand in recent years, China's oil refining industry has overcome the influence of fluctuating international crude oil price and international financial crisis, and witnessed rapid increase in refining capacity and continuous rising of processed crude oil and production of gasoline,

  16. The Analysis of the Refined Financial Management of Modern Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly introduces the concept of the refined financial management, elaborates on its characteristics and puts forward some main points about it. It also comes up with some personal suggestions for reference on effective ways of refining financial management.

  17. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditi

  18. REFMAC5 for the refinement of macromolecular crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murshudov, Garib N., E-mail: garib@ysbl.york.ac.uk [Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom); Skubák, Pavol [Biophysical Structural Chemistry, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lebedev, Andrey A. [Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom); Pannu, Navraj S. [Biophysical Structural Chemistry, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Steiner, Roberto A. [Randall Division of Cell and Molecular Biophysics, New Hunt’s House, King’s College London, London (United Kingdom); Nicholls, Robert A. [Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom); Winn, Martyn D. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Long, Fei; Vagin, Alexei A. [Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5YW (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-01

    The general principles behind the macromolecular crystal structure refinement program REFMAC5 are described. This paper describes various components of the macromolecular crystallographic refinement program REFMAC5, which is distributed as part of the CCP4 suite. REFMAC5 utilizes different likelihood functions depending on the diffraction data employed (amplitudes or intensities), the presence of twinning and the availability of SAD/SIRAS experimental diffraction data. To ensure chemical and structural integrity of the refined model, REFMAC5 offers several classes of restraints and choices of model parameterization. Reliable models at resolutions at least as low as 4 Å can be achieved thanks to low-resolution refinement tools such as secondary-structure restraints, restraints to known homologous structures, automatic global and local NCS restraints, ‘jelly-body’ restraints and the use of novel long-range restraints on atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) based on the Kullback–Leibler divergence. REFMAC5 additionally offers TLS parameterization and, when high-resolution data are available, fast refinement of anisotropic ADPs. Refinement in the presence of twinning is performed in a fully automated fashion. REFMAC5 is a flexible and highly optimized refinement package that is ideally suited for refinement across the entire resolution spectrum encountered in macromolecular crystallography.

  19. RBT—A Tool for Building Refined Buneman Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, Søren; Mailund; Westh-Nielsen, Lasse;

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a tool implementing an efficient algorithm for refined Buneman tree reconstruction. The algorithm—which has the same complexity as the neighbour-joining method and the (plain) Buneman tree construction—enables refined Buneman tree reconstruction on large taxa sets....

  20. CNPC Hits New High in Refining & Petrochemical Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Shichao

    2010-01-01

    @@ During the "11th Five-Year Plan" period, CNPC adjusts the distribution of refining territory, and increases processed crude oil steadily, which is significant to sustained and fast development of upstream, midstream and downstream business.Of the 28 main economic and technical indicators of refining and chemical business, 21 hit record high.

  1. Refined Orbital Architecture for Targets of Naval Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    pioneered the Walker delta pattern.29 The technique distributes t total satellites into p orbital planes, evenly spaced with a f relative phasing...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REFINED ORBITAL ...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS REFINED ORBITAL ARCHITECTURE FOR TARGETS OF NAVAL INTEREST 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrew Konowicz 7

  2. Carpet: Adaptive Mesh Refinement for the Cactus Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnetter, Erik; Hawley, Scott; Hawke, Ian

    2016-11-01

    Carpet is an adaptive mesh refinement and multi-patch driver for the Cactus Framework (ascl:1102.013). Cactus is a software framework for solving time-dependent partial differential equations on block-structured grids, and Carpet acts as driver layer providing adaptive mesh refinement, multi-patch capability, as well as parallelization and efficient I/O.

  3. Refined analysis results for multimedia network costs and profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahkokorpi, M.; Falch, Morten; Skouby, Knud Erik

    This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations......This deliverable describes the techno-economic business model developed in EURORIM WP3 and presents the refined results of the multimedia service delivery cost-profit calculations...

  4. Application of Thermodynamic Calculations to the Pyro-refining Process for Production of High Purity Bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezbahul-Islam, Mohammad; Belanger, Frederic; Chartrand, Patrice; Jung, In-Ho; Coursol, Pascal

    2017-02-01

    The present work has been performed with the aim to optimize the existing process for the production of high purity bismuth (99.999 pct). A thermo-chemical database including most of the probable impurities of bismuth (Bi-X, X = Ag, Au, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Sn, Si, Te, Zn) has been constructed to perform different thermodynamic calculations required for the refining process. Thermodynamic description for eight of the selected binaries, Bi-Ca, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, and Sn, has been given in the current paper. Using the current database, different thermodynamic calculations have been performed to explain the steps involved in the bismuth refining process.

  5. The SeaWinds Scatterometer Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C.; Graf, J.; Freilich, M.; Long, D.; Spencer, M.; Tsai, W.; Lisman, D.; Winn, C.

    1994-01-01

    The SeaWinds scatterometer instrument is currently being developed by NASA/JPL, as part of the NASA EOS Program, for flight on the Hapanese ADEOS II mission in 1999. This Ku-band radar scatterometer will infer surface wind speed and direction by measuring the radar normalized backscatter cross-section over several different azimuth angles. This paper presents the design characteristics of and operational approach to the instrument itself.

  6. Influence of Current Transformer Saturation on Operation of Current Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romaniouk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the influence of instrument current transformer errors on operation of current protection of power supply diagram elements has been carried out in the paper. The paper shows the influence of an aperiodic component of transient current and secondary load on current  transformer errors.Peculiar operational features of measuring elements of electromechanical and microprocessor current protection with their joint operation with electromagnetic current transformers have been analyzed in the paper.

  7. An approach of requirements tracing in formal refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Leuschel, Michael;

    2010-01-01

    results that we have obtained for tracing informal natural-language requirements into formal models across refinement levels. The approach uses the WRSPM reference model for requirements modeling, and Event-B for formal modeling and formal refinement. The combined use of WRSPM and Event-B is facilitated......Formal modeling of computing systems yields models that are intended to be correct with respect to the requirements that have been formalized. The complexity of typical computing systems can be addressed by formal refinement introducing all the necessary details piecemeal. We report on preliminary...... by the rudimentary refinement notion of WRSPM, which provides the foundation for tracing requirements to formal refinements. We assume that requirements are evolving, meaning that we have to cope with frequent changes of the requirements model and the formal model. Our approach is capable of dealing with frequent...

  8. Action Refinement for Real-Time Concurrent Processes with Urgency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Ping Qin; Jin-Zhao Wu

    2005-01-01

    Action refinement for real-time concurrent processes with urgent interactions is studied, where a partial-order setting, i.e., timed bundle event structures, is used as the system model and a real-time LOTOS-like process algebra is used as the specification language. It is shown that the proposed refinement approaches have the commonly expected properties:(1) the behaviour of the refined process can be inferred compositionally from the behaviour of the original process and from the behaviour of the processes substituted for actions; (2) the timed extensions of pomset (partially ordered multiset) trace equivalence and history preserving bisimulation equivalence are both congruences under the refinement; (3) the syntactic and semantic refinements coincide up to the aforementioned equivalence relations with respect to a cpo-based denotational semantics.

  9. Review and Prospect of China's Oil Refining Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yun; Zhu He

    2012-01-01

    Prospect of China's oil refining industry during the "12th Five-Year Plan" period The "12th Five-Year Plan" period is critical to China oil refining industry to transform growth mode and grow from big to strong. China oil refining industry will base itself on domestic market demand and maintain rapider development through construction and reconstruction. The total scale will continue to grow, crude runs and product oil output will rise steadily, and the structure and layout of refining units will be further adjusted and optimized. During the period, the number of 10-million-tonnage refineries will rise to about 30, the quality of oil products will be upgraded, overseas interest capability will be improved, and the diversified of oil refining industry will be market competition pattern developed further.

  10. Wireless Instrumentation Use on Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the results of a study on the use of wireless instrumentation and sensors on future launch vehicles. The use of wireless technologies would if feasible would allow for fewer wires, and allow for more flexibility. However, it was generally concluded that wireless solutions are not currently ready to replace wired technologies for launch vehicles. The recommendations of the study were to continue to use wired sensors as the primary choice for vehicle instrumentation, and to continue to assess needs and use wireless instrumentation where appropriate. The future work includes support efforts for wireless technologies, and continue to monitor the development of wireless solutions.

  11. The Ethical Issues Rating Scale: An Instrument for Measuring Ethical Orientation of College Students toward Various Business Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Larry G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Factor analysis of data from 213 college business students supported the existence of 5 constructs for the Ethical Issues Rating Scale, an instrument measuring respondents' assessment of the importance of various ethical issues. Suggestions about refining the instrument and using it are discussed. (SLD)

  12. Development and validation of a survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction alerts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Fear, Kathleen; Chaffee, Bruce W; Zimmerman, Christopher R; Karls, Edward M; Gatwood, Justin D; Stevenson, James G; Pearlman, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    To develop a theoretically informed and empirically validated survey instrument for assessing prescribers' perception of computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts. The survey is grounded in the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology and an adapted accident causation model. Development of the instrument was also informed by a review of the extant literature on prescribers' attitude toward computerized medication safety alerts and common prescriber-provided reasons for overriding. To refine and validate the survey, we conducted a two-stage empirical validation study consisting of a pretest with a panel of domain experts followed by a field test among all eligible prescribers at our institution. The resulting survey instrument contains 28 questionnaire items assessing six theoretical dimensions: performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, perceived fatigue, and perceived use behavior. Satisfactory results were obtained from the field validation; however, a few potential issues were also identified. We analyzed these issues accordingly and the results led to the final survey instrument as well as usage recommendations. High override rates of computerized medication safety alerts have been a prevalent problem. They are usually caused by, or manifested in, issues of poor end user acceptance. However, standardized research tools for assessing and understanding end users' perception are currently lacking, which inhibits knowledge accumulation and consequently forgoes improvement opportunities. The survey instrument presented in this paper may help fill this methodological gap. We developed and empirically validated a survey instrument that may be useful for future research on DDI alerts and other types of computerized medication safety alerts more generally.

  13. Apoios de decisão: instrumento de auxílio à medicina baseada em preferências. Uma revisão conceitual Decision aids: an instrument to eliciting patient preference. Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhelen Mendes de Abreu

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade da incorporação das preferências dos pacientes nas tomadas de decisão é uma realidade da assistência médica contemporânea, que caracteriza a medicina baseada em preferências. Os apoios de decisão são instrumentos que surgem como mecanismos de auxílio ao médico a expor riscos e benefícios de uma determinada tomada de decisão, sendo um mecanismo facilitador para a decisão compartilhada. Na literatura médica, particularmente em reumatologia, nota-se um emergente interesse pelo estudo das preferências dos pacientes nos ensaios clínicos. Este artigo de revisão tem por objetivo conceituar e caracterizar os apoios de decisão e suas implicações na pesquisa e prática clínicas, bem como ressaltar os princípios metodológicos necessários para a sua utilização e desenvolvimento.Patient preferences in decision making is one reality of the medical assistance, which characterizes the value based medicine. The decision aids are instruments that appear as support mechanisms for the doctor to exercise this model of decision making. In medical literature, particularly in rheumatology, an emergent interest on patient's preference study is noticed in clinical trials. The aim of this article is to appraise and to characterize the decision aids and its implications in the practical research and clinics, as well as standing out the necessary methodology principles for its use and development.

  14. Instrumentation reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Boyes, Walt

    2002-01-01

    Instrumentation is not a clearly defined subject, having a 'fuzzy' boundary with a number of other disciplines. Often categorized as either 'techniques' or 'applications' this book addresses the various applications that may be needed with reference to the practical techniques that are available for the instrumentation or measurement of a specific physical quantity or quality. This makes it of direct interest to anyone working in the process, control and instrumentation fields where these measurements are essential.* Comprehensive and authoritative collection of technical information* Writte

  15. Jones' instrument technology

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Ernest Beachcroft; Kingham, Edward G; Radnai, Rudolf

    1985-01-01

    Jones' Instrument Technology, Volume 5: Automatic Instruments and Measuring Systems deals with general trends in automatic instruments and measuring systems. Specific examples are provided to illustrate the principles of such devices. A brief review of a considerable number of standards is undertaken, with emphasis on the IEC625 Interface System. Other relevant standards are reviewed, including the interface and backplane bus standards. This volume is comprised of seven chapters and begins with a short introduction to the principles of automatic measurements, classification of measuring system

  16. Mass spectrometers: instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, R. G.; Hoke, S. H., II; Morand, K. L.; Lammert, S. A.

    1992-09-01

    Developments in mass spectrometry instrumentation over the past three years are reviewed. The subject is characterized by an enormous diversity of designs, a high degree of competition between different laboratories working with either different or similar techniques and by extremely rapid progress in improving analytical performance. Instruments can be grouped into genealogical charts based on their physical and conceptual interrelationships. This is illustrated using mass analyzers of different types. The time course of development of particular instrumental concepts is illustrated in terms of the s-curves typical of cell growth. Examples are given of instruments which are at the exponential, linear and mature growth stages. The prime examples used are respectively: (i) hybrid instruments designed to study reactive collisions of ions with surfaces: (ii) the Paul ion trap; and (iii) the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the area of ion/surface collisions, reactive collisions such as hydrogen radical abstraction from the surface by the impinging ion are studied. They are shown to depend upon the chemical nature of the surface through the use of experiments which utilize self-assembled monolayers as surfaces. The internal energy deposited during surface-induced dissociation upon collision with different surfaces in a BEEQ instrument is also discussed. Attention is also given to a second area of emerging instrumentation, namely technology which allows mass spectrometers to be used for on-line monitoring of fluid streams. A summary of recent improvements in the performance of the rapidly developing quadrupole ion trap instrument illustrates this stage of instrument development. Improvements in resolution and mass range and their application to the characterization of biomolecules are described. The interaction of theory with experiment is illustrated through the role of simulations of ion motion in the ion trap. It is emphasized that mature instruments play a

  17. Manual of Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Sánchez Sarría

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgical instruments are the group of tools used in surgical procedures. They are very expensive and sophisticated. Consequently, a standardized and meticulous care is essential; they should go through the decontamination, cleaning and sterilization process. These instruments are designed in order to provide surgeons with tools that help them to perform a basic surgical procedure; there are multiple variations and the design depends on their function. This paper aims at showing all surgical instruments that can be used in an operating room during surgery and are not generally included in the medical literature.

  18. Biomedical Sensors and Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    The living body is a difficult object to measure: accurate measurements of physiological signals require sensors and instruments capable of high specificity and selectivity that do not interfere with the systems under study. As a result, detailed knowledge of sensor and instrument properties is required to be able to select the "best" sensor from one of the many designed to meet these challenges. From the underlying principles to practical applications, this updated edition of Biomedical Sensors and Instruments provides an easy-to-understand introduction to the various kinds of biome

  19. Improvement of neutronic calculations on a Masurca core using adaptive mesh refinement capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, D.; Archier, P.; Le Tellier, R.; Suteau, C., E-mail: damien.fournier@cea.fr, E-mail: pascal.archier@cea.fr, E-mail: romain.le-tellier@cea.fr, E-mail: christophe.suteau@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DER/SPRC/LEPh, Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    The simulation of 3D cores with homogenized assemblies in transport theory remains time and memory consuming for production calculations. With a multigroup discretization for the energy variable and a discrete ordinate method for the angle, a system of about 10{sup 4} coupled hyperbolic transport equations has to be solved. For these equations, we intend to optimize the spatial discretization. In the framework of the SNATCH solver used in this study, the spatial problem is dealt with by using a structured hexahedral mesh and applying a Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DGFEM). This paper shows the improvements due to the development of Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) methods. As the SNATCH solver uses a hierarchical polynomial basis, p−refinement is possible but also h−refinement thanks to non conforming capabilities. Besides, as the flux spatial behavior is highly dependent on the energy, we propose to adapt differently the spatial discretization according to the energy group. To avoid dealing with too many meshes, some energy groups are joined and share the same mesh. The different energy-dependent AMR strategies are compared to each other but also with the classical approach of a conforming and highly refined spatial mesh. This comparison is carried out on different quantities such as the multiplication factor, the flux or the current. The gain in time and memory is shown for 2D and 3D benchmarks coming from the ZONA2B experimental core configuration of the MASURCA mock-up at CEA Cadarache. (author)

  20. Refining Housing, Husbandry and Care for Animals Used in Studies Involving Biotelemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Hawkins

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotelemetry can contribute towards reducing animal numbers and suffering in disciplines including physiology, pharmacology and behavioural research. However, the technique can also cause harm to animals, making biotelemetry a ‘refinement that needs refining’. Current welfare issues relating to the housing and husbandry of animals used in biotelemetry studies are single vs. group housing, provision of environmental enrichment, long term laboratory housing and use of telemetered data to help assess welfare. Animals may be singly housed because more than one device transmits on the same wavelength; due to concerns regarding damage to surgical sites; because they are wearing exteriorised jackets; or if monitoring systems can only record from individually housed animals. Much of this can be overcome by thoughtful experimental design and surgery refinements. Similarly, if biotelemetry studies preclude certain enrichment items, husbandry refinement protocols can be adapted to permit some environmental stimulation. Nevertheless, long-term laboratory housing raises welfare concerns and maximum durations should be defined. Telemetered data can be used to help assess welfare, helping to determine endpoints and refine future studies. The above measures will help to improve data quality as well as welfare, because experimental confounds due to physiological and psychological stress will be minimised.

  1. Enhancing the accuracy of virtual screening: molecular dynamics with quantum-refined force fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, Alessandro; Mordasini, Tiziana; Andreoni, Wanda

    2004-12-01

    A methodology aimed at improving the accuracy of current docking-scoring procedures is proposed, and validated through detailed tests of its performance in predicting the activity of HIV-1 protease inhibitors. This methodology is based on molecular dynamics simulations using a force field whose effective charges are refined by means of a novel procedure that relies on quantum-mechanical calculations and preserves the internal consistency of the parameterization scheme.

  2. Keep it together: restraints in crystallographic refinement of macromolecule–ligand complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Roberto A.; Tucker, Julie A.

    2017-01-01

    A short introduction is provided to the concept of restraints in macromolecular crystallographic refinement. A typical ligand restraint-generation process is then described, covering types of input, the methodology and the mechanics behind the software in general terms, how this has evolved over recent years and what to look for in the output. Finally, the currently available restraint-generation software is compared, concluding with some thoughts for the future. PMID:28177305

  3. Refining personality disorder subtypes and classification using finite mixture modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Rebecca J; Stern, Barry L; Lenzenweger, Mark F; Tiersky, Lana A

    2013-04-01

    The current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic system for Axis II disorders continues to be characterized by considerable heterogeneity and poor discriminant validity. Such problems impede accurate personality disorder (PD) diagnosis. As a result, alternative assessment tools are often used in conjunction with the DSM. One popular framework is the object relational model developed by Kernberg and his colleagues (J. F. Clarkin, M. F. Lenzenweger, F. Yeomans, K. N. Levy, & O. F. Kernberg, 2007, An object relations model of borderline pathology, Journal of Personality Disorders, Vol. 21, pp. 474-499; O. F. Kernberg, 1984, Severe Personality Disorders, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; O. F. Kernberg & E. Caligor, 2005, A psychoanalytic theory of personality disorders, in M. F. Lenzenweger & J. F. Clarkin, Eds., Major Theories of Personality Disorder, New York, NY: Guilford Press). Drawing on this model and empirical studies thereof, the current study attempted to clarify Kernberg's (1984) PD taxonomy and identify subtypes within a sample with varying levels of personality pathology using finite mixture modeling. Subjects (N = 141) were recruited to represent a wide range of pathology. The finite mixture modeling results indicated that 3 components were harbored within the variables analyzed. Group 1 was characterized by low levels of antisocial, paranoid, and aggressive features, and Group 2 was characterized by elevated paranoid features. Group 3 revealed the highest levels across the 3 variables. The validity of the obtained solution was then evaluated by reference to a variety of external measures that supported the validity of the identified grouping structure. Findings generally appear congruent with previous research, which argued that a PD taxonomy based on paranoid, aggressive, and antisocial features is a viable supplement to current diagnostic systems. Our study suggests that Kernberg's object relational model offers a

  4. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  5. Surgical instrument similarity metrics and tray analysis for multi-sensor instrument identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Bernhard; Schellenberg, Tobias; Franke, Stefan; Dänzer, Stefan; Neumuth, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    A robust identification of the instrument currently used by the surgeon is crucial for the automatic modeling and analysis of surgical procedures. Various approaches for intra-operative surgical instrument identification have been presented, mostly based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) or endoscopic video analysis. A novel approach is to identify the instruments on the instrument table of the scrub nurse with a combination of video and weight information. In a previous article, we successfully followed this approach and applied it to multiple instances of an ear, nose and throat (ENT) procedure and the surgical tray used therein. In this article, we present a metric for the suitability of the instruments of a surgical tray for identification by video and weight analysis and apply it to twelve trays of four different surgical domains (abdominal surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedics and urology). The used trays were digitized at the central sterile services department of the hospital. The results illustrate that surgical trays differ in their suitability for the approach. In general, additional weight information can significantly contribute to the successful identification of surgical instruments. Additionally, for ten different surgical instruments, ten exemplars of each instrument were tested for their weight differences. The samples indicate high weight variability in instruments with identical brand and model number. The results present a new metric for approaches aiming towards intra-operative surgical instrument detection and imply consequences for algorithms exploiting video and weight information for identification purposes.

  6. Refining the definition of hypereosinophilic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Hans-Uwe; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Bochner, Bruce S.; Weller, Peter Fahey; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Wechsler, Michael E.; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.; Roufosse, Florence; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.

    2010-01-01

    Because of advances in our understanding of the hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and the availability of novel therapeutic agents, the original criteria defining these disorders are becoming increasingly problematic. Here, we discuss shortcomings with the current definition of HES and recent developments in the classification of these disorders. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of some forms of HES, the current state of knowledge is still insufficient to f...

  7. Cognitive interviews to test and refine questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alexandra A

    2011-01-01

    Survey data are compromised when respondents do not interpret questions in the way researchers expect. Cognitive interviews are used to detect problems respondents have in understanding survey instructions and items, and in formulating answers. This paper describes methods for conducting cognitive interviews and describes the processes and lessons learned with an illustrative case study. The case study used cognitive interviews to elicit respondents' understanding and perceptions of the format, instructions, items, and responses that make up the Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Inventory (DSSCI), a questionnaire designed to measure Mexican Americans' symptoms of type 2 diabetes and their symptom management strategies. Responses to cognitive interviews formed the basis for revisions in the format, instructions, items, and translation of the DSSCI. All those who develop and revise surveys are urged to incorporate cognitive interviews into their instrumentation methods so that they may produce more reliable and valid measurements.

  8. Challenges in marine instrumentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Joseph, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Nayak, M.R.; Ranade, G.

    . Acoustic and optical instrumentation combined on the same platform would be able to address these problems. For this autonomous vehicles with extremely low power requirements, long term deployment and data transmission capability via satellites after...

  9. UV and EUV Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, K

    2010-01-01

    We describe telescopes and instruments that were developed and used for astronomical research in the ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The wavelength ranges covered by these bands are not uniquely defined. We use the following convention here: The EUV and UV span the regions ~100-912 and 912-3000 Angstroem respectively. The limitation between both ranges is a natural choice, because the hydrogen Lyman absorption edge is located at 912 Angstroem. At smaller wavelengths, astronomical sources are strongly absorbed by the interstellar medium. It also marks a technical limit, because telescopes and instruments are of different design. In the EUV range, the technology is strongly related to that utilized in X-ray astronomy, while in the UV range the instruments in many cases have their roots in optical astronomy. We will, therefore, describe the UV and EUV instruments in appropriate conciseness and refer to the respective chapters of this volume for more technic...

  10. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance

    2010-01-01

    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  11. Instrumentation for Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Richard S.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses how sophisticated instrumentation techniques yield practical results in three typical materials problems: fracture analysis, joining, and compatibility. Describes techniques such as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and Auger spectroscopy. (MLH)

  12. Hetdex: Virus Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, G. J.; DePoy, D. L.; Tuttle, S.; Marshall, J. L.; Vattiat, B. L.; Prochaska, T.; Chonis, T. S.; Allen, R.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Visible Integral-field-unit Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is made up of 150+ individually compact and identical spectrographs, each fed by a fiber integral-field unit. The instrument provides integral field spectroscopy at wavelengths between 350nm and 550nm of over 33,600 spatial elements per observation, each 1.8 sq. arcsec on the sky, at R 700. The instrument will be fed by a new wide-field corrector (WFC) of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) with increased science field of view as large as 22arcmin diameter and telescope aperture of 10m. This will enable the HETDEX, a large area blind survey of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at redshift z VIRUS instrument construction is summarized.

  13. Rodent laparoscopy: refinement for rodent drug studies and model development, and monitoring of neoplastic, inflammatory and metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Szczepan W; Perret-Gentil, Marcel I; Johnson, Elizabeth J; Miedel, Emily L; Kehler, James

    2011-10-01

    The refinement of surgical techniques represents a key opportunity to improve the welfare of laboratory rodents, while meeting legal and ethical obligations. Current methods used for monitoring intra-abdominal disease progression in rodents usually involve euthanasia at various time-points for end of study, one-time individual tissue collections. Most rodent organ tumour models are developed by the introduction of tumour cells via laparotomy or via ultrasound-guided indirect visualization. Ischaemic rodent models are often generated using laparotomies. This approach requires a high number of rodents, and in some instances introduces high degrees of morbidity and mortality, thereby increasing study variability and expense. Most importantly, most laparotomies do not promote the highest level of rodent welfare. Recent improvements in laparoscopic equipment and techniques have enabled the adaptation of laparoscopy for rodent procedures. Laparoscopy, which is considered the gold standard for many human abdominal procedures, allows for serial biopsy collections from the same animal, results in decreased pain and tissue trauma as well as quicker postsurgical recovery, and preserves immune function in comparison to the same procedures performed by laparotomy. Laparoscopy improves rodent welfare, decreases inter-animal variability, thereby reducing the number of required animals, allows for the replacement of larger species, decreases expense and improves data yield. This review article compares rodent laparotomy and laparoscopic surgical methods, and describes the utilization of laparoscopy for the development of cancer models and assessment of disease progression to improve data collection and animal welfare. In addition, currently available rodent laparoscopic equipment and instrumentation are presented.

  14. Magnetospheric multiprobes: Investigations and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Fields, S. A.; Falthammar, C. G.; Winningham, J. D.; Hanson, W. B.; Heelis, R. A.; Heikkila, W. J.; Sugira, M.; Farthing, W. H.

    1980-01-01

    The multiprobe scientific objectives are to: (1) determine the spatial structure of plasma phenomena such as the aurora, convection reversals, and ion troughs; (2) separate spatial and temporal variations in these phenomena; (3) determine field aligned current densities; (4) perform multiple point analysis of particle beams, wave fields, and plasma clouds that are injected into the ionosphere and magnetosphere by Spacelab active experiment facilities. Trade studies described include: instrument accommodations, power, attitude determination, electric field antennas, storage and ejection, thermal control, tracking communications, command and data management, payload and mission specialist support, functional objectives, and orbital analysis.

  15. VIRUS instrument collimator assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennifer L.; DePoy, Darren L.; Prochaska, Travis; Allen, Richard D.; Williams, Patrick; Rheault, Jean-Philippe; Li, Ting; Nagasawa, Daniel Q.; Akers, Christopher; Baker, David; Boster, Emily; Campbell, Caitlin; Cook, Erika; Elder, Alison; Gary, Alex; Glover, Joseph; James, Michael; Martin, Emily; Meador, Will; Mondrik, Nicholas; Rodriguez-Patino, Marisela; Villanueva, Steven; Hill, Gary J.; Tuttle, Sarah; Vattiat, Brian; Lee, Hanshin; Chonis, Taylor S.; Dalton, Gavin B.; Tacon, Mike

    2014-07-01

    The Visual Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument is a baseline array 150 identical fiber fed optical spectrographs designed to support observations for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). The collimator subassemblies of the instrument have been assembled in a production line and are now complete. Here we review the design choices and assembly practices used to produce a suite of identical low-cost spectrographs in a timely fashion using primarily unskilled labor.

  16. Modeling of Musical Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Rolf; Hansen, Uwe

    Signal processing techniques in acoustics address many concerns. Included are such things as wave propagation variables, amplitude considerations, spectral content, wavelength, and phase. Phase is primarily of concern when waves interact with each other, as well as with a medium, and the imposition of boundary conditions leads to normal mode vibrations. Such conditions are prevalent in all musical instruments, and thus relevant signal processing techniques are essential to both understanding and modeling the structure of musical instruments and the sound radiated.

  17. The Glasgow Outcome Scale - 40 years of application and refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Tom; Wilson, Lindsay; Ponsford, Jennie; Levin, Harvey; Teasdale, Graham; Bond, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was first published in 1975 by Bryan Jennett and Michael Bond. With over 4,000 citations to the original paper, it is the most highly cited outcome measure in studies of brain injury and the second most-cited paper in clinical neurosurgery. The original GOS and the subsequently developed extended GOS (GOSE) are recommended by several national bodies as the outcome measure for major trauma and for head injury. The enduring appeal of the GOS is linked to its simplicity, short administration time, reliability and validity, stability, flexibility of administration (face-to-face, over the telephone and by post), cost-free availability and ease of access. These benefits apply to other derivatives of the scale, including the Glasgow Outcome at Discharge Scale (GODS) and the GOS paediatric revision. The GOS was devised to provide an overview of outcome and to focus on social recovery. Since the initial development of the GOS, there has been an increasing focus on the multidimensional nature of outcome after head injury. This Review charts the development of the GOS, its refinement and usage over the past 40 years, and considers its current and future roles in developing an understanding of brain injury.

  18. Refining the quantitative pathway of the Pathways to Mathematics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Kamawar, Deepthi; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2015-03-01

    In the current study, we adopted the Pathways to Mathematics model of LeFevre et al. (2010). In this model, there are three cognitive domains--labeled as the quantitative, linguistic, and working memory pathways--that make unique contributions to children's mathematical development. We attempted to refine the quantitative pathway by combining children's (N=141 in Grades 2 and 3) subitizing, counting, and symbolic magnitude comparison skills using principal components analysis. The quantitative pathway was examined in relation to dependent numerical measures (backward counting, arithmetic fluency, calculation, and number system knowledge) and a dependent reading measure, while simultaneously accounting for linguistic and working memory skills. Analyses controlled for processing speed, parental education, and gender. We hypothesized that the quantitative, linguistic, and working memory pathways would account for unique variance in the numerical outcomes; this was the case for backward counting and arithmetic fluency. However, only the quantitative and linguistic pathways (not working memory) accounted for unique variance in calculation and number system knowledge. Not surprisingly, only the linguistic pathway accounted for unique variance in the reading measure. These findings suggest that the relative contributions of quantitative, linguistic, and working memory skills vary depending on the specific cognitive task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee

    2017-08-11

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Task Refinement for Autonomous Robots using Complementary Corrective Human Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Mericli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A robot can perform a given task through a policy that maps its sensed state to appropriate actions. We assume that a hand-coded controller can achieve such a mapping only for the basic cases of the task. Refining the controller becomes harder and gets more tedious and error prone as the complexity of the task increases. In this paper, we present a new learning from demonstration approach to improve the robot's performance through the use of corrective human feedback as a complement to an existing hand-coded algorithm. The human teacher observes the robot as it performs the task using the hand-coded algorithm and takes over the control to correct the behavior when the robot selects a wrong action to be executed. Corrections are captured as new state-action pairs and the default controller output is replaced by the demonstrated corrections during autonomous execution when the current state of the robot is decided to be similar to a previously corrected state in the correction database. The proposed approach is applied to a complex ball dribbling task performed against stationary defender robots in a robot soccer scenario, where physical Aldebaran Nao humanoid robots are used. The results of our experiments show an improvement in the robot's performance when the default hand-coded controller is augmented with corrective human demonstration.