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Sample records for current primary infertility

  1. Primary infertility (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...

  2. Prevalence of Primary Infertility in Iran in 2010.

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    Mohammad Mehdi Akhondi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most significant medical, as well as social problems that affect psychological health of families and societies. Determining the prevalence of infertility is important for evaluating the potential of fertility. There are different reports on the prevalence of infertility in Iran, but the current research employs fertility history in order to provide an unbiased estimation of primary infertility.Data from a national survey of Iranian women aged 20-40 years was used in this study in year 2011. Totally, 1011 clusters were randomly selected according to post office codes, proportional to the population of the province. We evaluated the history of fertility as the basis for gathering information. Accordingly, we designed a questionnaire. Subsequently, we recruited and trained nurses and obstetricians to call on married women to fill the questionnaires. Primary infertility refers to a condition in which couples have not been able to conceive a child after one year of un-protected intercourse.In this research, we questioned 17187 women in 1011 clusters. The mean age of the women at the time of their marriage was 20.1, and that of their husbands was 25.4 years. The mean age of women at the time of their first pregnancy was 21.1. This research revealed the prevalence of primary infertility to be 20.2% in Iran.The prevalence of primary infertility in Iran seems to be higher than the world average. Therefore, it is crucially important to support the large number of couples who face this problem.

  3. Isolated adrenocorticotropin deficiency presenting as primary infertility.

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    Atkin, S L; Masson, E A; White, M C

    1995-06-01

    A 31 year old female presented with primary infertility and gave a two year history of amenorrhea without symptoms or signs of endocrine dysfunction. Examination was normal and investigation showed low oestradiol and progesterone levels with decreased LH pulsatility. The cortisol responses were impaired following hypoglycaemic stress and a short synacthen test, but the cortisol response to a prolonged synacthen test was normal. An inadequate ACTH response to CRF testing confirmed the diagnosis of isolated ACTH deficiency. Hydrocortisone therapy was followed by an ovulatory menstrual cycle. Amenorrhea again ensued following the reduction of the steroid dose and normal menses resumed on normal steroid replacement therapy. Six hourly gonadotrophin pulsatility showed a significant increase in both pulse amplitude and mean LH and FSH levels following steroid treatment. Isolated ACTH deficiency is a rare but treatable cause of hypogonadism and infertility, and this case gives further insight on the role of cortisol on the hypothalamo-pituitary gonadal axis.

  4. Swyer syndrome presenting as primary infertility

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    Nidhi Chauhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Swyer syndrome was first described by Jim Swyer in 1955. It is a form of and ldquo;Pure gonadal dysgenesis and rdquo;. The affected female has 46, XY karyotype. A 21 year old married female came with complaints of primary infertility. On examination she has normal built with normal secondary sexual characteristics. She had normal vaginal opening with small uterus. Serum FSH was 71.54 mIU/ml. Thyroid and Prolactin was in normal range. Karyotype showed genotype of 46, XY. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed streak gonads, small uterus, and normal patent fallopian tubes. Diagnosis of Swyer syndrome was made. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 499-501

  5. Management of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener's syndrome in infertile male patients and current progress in defining the underlying genetic mechanism

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    Yan-Wei Sha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kartagener's syndrome (KS is an autosomal recessive genetic disease accounting for approximately 50% of the cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD. As it is accompanied by many complications, PCD/KS severely affects the patient's quality of life. Therapeutic approaches for PCD/KS aim to enhance prevention, facilitate rapid definitive diagnosis, avoid misdiagnosis, maintain active treatment, control infection and postpone the development of lesions. In male patients, sperm flagella may show impairment in or complete absence of the ability to swing, which ultimately results in male infertility. Assisted reproductive technology will certainly benefit such patients. For PCD/KS patients with completely immotile sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be very important and even indispensable. Considering the number of PCD/KS susceptibility genes and mutations that are being identified, more extensive genetic screening is indispensable in patients with these diseases. Moreover, further studies into the potential molecular mechanisms of these diseases are required. In this review, we summarize the available information on various aspects of this disease in order to delineate the therapeutic objectives more clearly, and clarify the efficacy of assisted reproductive technology as a means of treatment for patients with PCD/KS-associated infertility.

  6. Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose-Miller, Alaina B; Boyden, Jennifer W; Frey, Keith A

    2007-03-15

    Infertility is defined as failure to achieve pregnancy during one year of frequent, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation generally begins after 12 months, but it can be initiated earlier if infertility is suspected based on history or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Major causes of infertility include male factors, ovarian dysfunction, tubal disease, endometriosis, and uterine or cervical factors. A careful history and physical examination of each partner can suggest a single or multifactorial etiology and can direct further investigation. Ovulation can be documented with a home urinary luteinizing hormone kit. Hysterosalpingography and pelvic ultrasonography can be used to screen for uterine and fallopian tube disease. Hysteroscopy and/or laparoscopy can be used if no abnormalities are found on initial screening. Women older than 35 years also may benefit from ovarian reserve testing of follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels on day 3 of the menstrual cycle, the clomiphene citrate challenge test, or pelvic ultrasonography for antral follicle count to determine treatment options and the likelihood of success. Options for the treatment of male factor infertility include gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Infertility attributed to ovulatory dysfunction often can be treated with oral ovulation-inducing agents in a primary care setting. Women with poor ovarian reserve have more success with oocyte donation. In certain cases, tubal disease may be treatable by surgical repair or by in vitro fertilization. Infertility attributed to endometriosis may be amenable to surgery, induction of ovulation with intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Unexplained infertility may be managed with ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, or both. The overall likelihood of successful pregnancy with treatment is nearly 50 percent.

  7. Polycystic ovary syndrome: current infertility management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Mira; Legro, Richard S

    2011-12-01

    This review summarizes the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome and management of associated infertility. The goal is to guide clinicians through basic evaluation, initial treatment, and briefly describe more complex therapies.

  8. Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MALE INFERTILITY Male infertility may be due to: Decreased number of sperm Blockage that prevents the sperm ... from woman to woman. Infertility problems and miscarriage rates increase ... a successful pregnancy if childbearing is delayed until after age 35. ...

  9. Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...

  10. Prevalence and predictors of infertility-specific stress in women diagnosed with primary infertility: A clinic-based study

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    Ansha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to the existing literature on infertility, stress appears to be inevitably associated with infertility diagnosis and treatment in sub-fertile individuals. The epidemiological data on the prevalence and predictors of infertility-specific stress in cultural specific scenario are scarce. The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of infertility-specific stress and identify predictors of infertility-specific stress in women diagnosed with primary infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 infertile married women, diagnosed with primary infertility. The tools used for the assessment were “semi-structured questionnaire ” compiled by the authors, “ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioral Disorders (Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines, ” and “Psychological Evaluation Test for infertility. ” STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 15. Chi-square test was used for univariate analysis followed by multiple logistic regressions between stress and the predictor variables. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The prevalence of stress among women was 80%. Univariate analysis revealed that predictors of stress were years of marital life, duration of infertility, infertility type, history of gynecological surgery, cycles of ovulation induction with timed intercourse and intra-uterine inseminations, present and past psychiatric morbidity, coping difficulties, gynecological diagnosis, and severity of premenstrual dysphoria. Multivariate analysis showed leading associations of stress with infertility type and coping difficulties.

  11. SERUM PROLACTIN ASSAY: AN IMPORTANT SCREENING METHOD IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY INFERTILITY IN FEMALE

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    Sanjaya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infertility represents a common condition nowadays with important medical, economic and psychological implications. Traditionally, measurement of Prolactin has been considered an important component of infertility workup in women. AIMS The study was designed to evaluate the serum prolactin assay in patients with primary and secondary infertility. METHOD In this retrospective case control study, we investigated one fifty (150 infertile women in the age range of 20-40 years attending Department of Obs. and Gynae. MLB Medical College, Jhansi, for infertility treatment. Fifty (50 fertile women with similar age range were selected as controls. The association between infertility and levels of serum Prolactin was reviewed. RESULTS Hyperprolactinemia was depicted in 24.66% infertile women. Prevalence of primary infertility was 68%, while that of secondary infertility cases was 32%. There was a correlation between Prolactin levels in infertile subjects (p <0.05. CONCLUSION There was higher prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in infertile patients

  12. The role of the anti-sperm autoantibodies in the management of patients with primary infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, N; Ahmed, T A; Sultana, N; Khan, D A; Khan, N A; Hassan, W

    1995-08-01

    The role of antibody mediated infertility in patients with primary/secondary unexplained infertility is the subject of current interest worldwide. A prospective study was conducted to study the role of anti sperm antibodies in Pakistani patients with infertility. Patients reporting in the outpatient clinic of a local gynaecology department with problem of infertility were subjected to a detailed scrutiny by history and clinical examination including post-coital test and hysterosalpingography. Hormonal profile consisting of serum FSH, LH, Prolactin and Progesterone was assessed. Most of the ladies also underwent a pelviscopic examination. A total of 117 patients were selected where post-coital test was abnormal, semen analysis was not satisfactory or who had unexplained infertility. Tests were performed on the serum specimen from the husbands, wives and in some cases on the seminal plasma as well, for the measurement of the anti sperm agglutinating and anti-sperm immobilizing antibodies by the microagglutination technique. Fifteen of these patients were found positive for these antibodies, 7 were positive for the agglutinating antibody, 6 for the immobilizing antibody and two for both types. These results indicate that immunomodulation may be responsible for some cases of infertility in our population.

  13. Primary infertility associated with neuroendocrine tumor (Carcinoid) of the appendix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Brad B Swelstad; Paul R Brezina; Clark T Johnson; Nina Resetkova; Irene Woo; Lisa Kolp

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors of the appendix(NET-A), formerly called appendiceal carcinoids, are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.Appendiceal tumors have also been associated with infertility. However, in many of these cases, significant abdominal pathology, specifically pseudomyxoma peritonei, was identified during definitive surgical intervention.A34-year-old nulligravid woman undergoing infertility evaluation presented to an academic tertiary care fertility center. An abnormal mass was identified on hysterosalpingogram andCT confirmed appendiceal mass. Surgical removal of the mass was performed and histopathology was consistent with anNET-A with negative margins extending to the serosa.Two months after surgical intervention, the patient spontaneously conceived pregnancy and subsequently delivered a normal infant.This case exemplifies the importance of careful inspection of radiologic films by the gynecologic physician. Of added interest, this case describes an asymptomaticNET-A associated with primary infertility. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an incidentally indentifiedNET-A that resulted in primary infertility.

  14. A STUDY ON THE ROLE OF ELEVATED SERUM PROLACTIN IN PRIMARY FEMALE INFERTILITY

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    Ritu Saloi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infertility affects large number of couples both globally as well as in India. Primary infertility is a common, preventable, but neglected reproductive health problem in developing countries like India. The present study was undertaken in an attempt to find out the role of hyperprolactinaemia or elevated prolactin level in the development of primary infertility in female and analyse its effect in folliculogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this study, 52 female subjects with the complaint of primary infertility in the child bearing age group who have attended Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Outpatient Department, Gauhati Medical College and Hospital, Guwahati, for treatment were taken as the cases. RESULTS The incidence of hyperprolactinaemia, i.e. serum prolactin levels >25 ng/mL in the infertile women was 42.31%, whereas in the control group of fertile females, the incidence of hyperprolactinaemia was 13.46%. Anovulatory cycles were detected in 51.92% of the infertile group, whereas in the control group, it was detected in 7.69%. Galactorrhea was present in 9.62% of the infertile women. Menstrual disorders observed in the infertile and control groups were 61.54% and 17.31%, respectively. The results of the study were statistically analysed. CONCLUSION There is a high incidence of hyperprolactinaemia in infertile women. Percentage of anovulatory/delayed ovulatory cycles were also found to be higher in the infertile group than the fertile females.

  15. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

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    Joshua D Ring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene, estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole, and hormone replacement.

  16. Chromosomal aberrations and polymorphic evaluation in males with primary infertility from Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Ushang V; Pokale, Yamini S; Jadhav, Ajinkya M; Gangane, Suresh D

    2014-10-01

    The chromosomal abnormalities are one of the important causes of male infertility. In view of the genetic risks for the next generation, the importance of careful evaluation of karyotype is essential. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men with primary infertility from Indian population. The 78 infertile men with primary infertility, out of which 26 men were azoospermic, 19 men were oligospermic, 4 men were asthenospermic and 29 men were oligoasthenospermic were studied. Karyoptying was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes by using the Giemsa trypsin banding (GTG) banding technique. Additional data was collected from published studies in Indian population leading to a total of 1814 cases. Chromosome analysis of 78 infertile males showed major chromosome abnormalities in 10.2%, with 6.4% in autosomal chromosome abnormalities and 3.8% in sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of major chromosome abnormalities in oligospermic males were 21% and azoospermic males were 15.4 %. Chromosomal polymorphic variants were identified to be 16.7%. Combining the data from other published studies identified 153/ 1814 (8.4%) infertile men of chromosomal abnormalities; with 10.8% in azoospermia, 7.3% in oligospermia and 7.3% in oligoasthenoteratospermic from India. The overall high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile males suggests that the conventional chromosomal analysis is an important investigative tool for male infertility, especially prior to use of any assisted reproductive techniques.

  17. Introducing a Quantitative Method to Calculate the Rate of Primary Infertility

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    MM Akhondi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the previous studies, the rate of primary infertility was reported differently. It seems the main reasons are related to the different methods of data collection and information analysis. Therefore, introducing a precise method to determine the infertile couples and the population exposed to the risk of infertility is an important issue to study primary infertility.Methods: The proposed methodology for assessing primary infertility rate has been designed and applied by Avicenna Research Institute in a national survey. Sampling was conducted based on probability proportional to size cluster method. In this survey, after reviewing the former studies, the reproductive history was used as a basis for data collection. Every reproductive event was recorded with a code and a date in the questionnaire. To introduce a precise method, all possible events were considered thoroughly and for each situation, it was determined whether these cases should be considered in numerator, denominator or it should be eliminated from the study. Also in some situations where the correct diagnosis of infertility was not possible, a sensitivity analysis was recommended to see the variability of results under different scenarios.Conclusion: The proposed methodology can precisely define the infertile women and the population exposed to the risk of infertility. So, this method is more accurate than other available data collection strategies. To avoid bias and make a consistent methodology, using this method is recommended in future prevalence studies.

  18. Introducing a Quantitative Method to Calculate the Rate of Primary Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, MM; Kamali, K; Ranjbar, F; Shafeghati, S; Ardakani, Z Behjati; Shirzad, M; Eslamifar, M; Mohammad, K; Parsaeian, M

    2012-01-01

    Background In the previous studies, the rate of primary infertility was reported differently. It seems the main reasons are related to the different methods of data collection and information analysis. Therefore, introducing a precise method to determine the infertile couples and the population exposed to the risk of infertility is an important issue to study primary infertility. Methods: The proposed methodology for assessing primary infertility rate has been designed and applied by Avicenna Research Institute in a national survey. Sampling was conducted based on probability proportional to size cluster method. In this survey, after reviewing the former studies, the reproductive history was used as a basis for data collection. Every reproductive event was recorded with a code and a date in the questionnaire. To introduce a precise method, all possible events were considered thoroughly and for each situation, it was determined whether these cases should be considered in numerator, denominator or it should be eliminated from the study. Also in some situations where the correct diagnosis of infertility was not possible, a sensitivity analysis was recommended to see the variability of results under different scenarios. Conclusion: The proposed methodology can precisely define the infertile women and the population exposed to the risk of infertility. So, this method is more accurate than other available data collection strategies. To avoid bias and make a consistent methodology, using this method is recommended in future prevalence studies. PMID:23641391

  19. HIV infection and sexual behaviour in primary and secondary infertile relationships: a case-control study in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dhont; C. Muvunyi; S. Luchters; J. Vyankandondera; L. de Naeyer; M. Temmerman; J. van de Wijgert

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including HIV) and of high-risk sexual behaviour in the following three groups: primary infertile relationships, secondary infertile relationships and fertile relationships. Primary infertility is here defined as never ha

  20. Comparison of Hysterosalpingography and Combined Laparohysteroscopy for the Evaluation of Primary Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, A; Saxena, P; Mishra, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a useful screening test for the evaluation of female infertility. Laparoscopy has proven role in routine infertility work up but role of hysteroscopy in an infertile patient with normal HSG for additional information is a subject of debate. Hysteroscopy permits direct visualization of the cervical canal and the uterine cavity and thereby helping in the evaluation of shape, and cavitary lesion. Objective To detect uterine abnormalities in infertile women by various approaches i.e. HSG and hysteroscopy and evaluating the role of combining hysteroscopy with laparoscopy for the evaluation of tubo-uterine factor for primary infertility. Method One twenty eight infertile women were evaluated and HSG was performed as a basic test for evaluation of tubes and uterine cavity. Women were subjected to combined laparoscopic and hysteroscopic examination on evidence of HSG abnormalities. In absence of any HSG abnormality, women were subjected to ovulation induction for three to six months and if they did not conceive during this period they were undertaken for combined laparo-hysteroscopic evaluation. Result The positive predictive value of HSG for detecting the intrauterine abnormalities was 70% among 126 patients where the hysteroscopy could be performed successfully. The diagnostic accuracy of HSG for intrauterine abnormalities revealed false negative rate of 12.96%. The most frequent pathologies encountered by laparoscopy were tubal and/or peritoneal and were found in 68% (87/128) of women. Total 64.06% infertile women had some abnormality on laparoscopy. This detection rate has been increased from 64.06% to 71.86% on including the concomitant hysteroscopy. Conclusion HSG is a good diagnostic modality to detect uterine as well as tubal abnormalities in infertile patient. HSG and hysteroscopy are complementary to each other and whenever the patient is undertaken for diagnostic laparoscopy for the infertility, hysteroscopy should be

  1. Genetic factors contributing to human primary ciliary dyskinesia and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhi-Yong; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2016-06-07

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from the loss of normal ciliary function. Symptoms include neonatal respiratory distress, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, and infertility. However, only 15 PCD-associated genes have been identified to cause male infertility to date. Owing to the genetic heterogeneity of PCD, comprehensive molecular genetic testing is not considered the standard of care. Here, we provide an update of the progress on the identification of genetic factors related to PCD associated with male infertility, summarizing the underlying molecular mechanisms, and discuss the clinical implications of these findings. Further research in this field will impact the diagnostic strategy for male infertility, enabling clinicians to provide patients with informed genetic counseling, and help to adopt the best course of treatment for developing directly targeted personalized medicine.

  2. A CHROMOSOMAL KARYOTYPING STUDY IN MALE WITH PRIMARY INFERTILITY IN A WESTERN WEST BENGAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT It is interesting that the primary infertility is a major problem in a society like ours where the population is going to be exploded. It is because that infertility severely affects the family or couples psychological harmony, sexual life & social status. Of the many factors responsible for primary male infertility which may be manifested as azoospermia or oligozoospermia, one of the important etiological factors is genetic abnormality affecting the Y chromosome. Among the different parameters known to be responsible for normal spermatogenesis, a small region in the long arm of Y chromosome, containing genes or gene cluster, defined as ‘Azoospermia Factor’ (AZF is definitely maintains the normal spermatogenesis to occur. Any abnormality in that part of the Y chromosome in the form of deletion or deviation of normal gene arrangement produces azoospermia or oligozoospermia and subsequently produces primary male infertility. SETTINGS Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospitals, Bankura, West Bengal. DESIGN Simple random sampling method. DURATION OF STUDY November 2013 to march 2015 (One and a half year. METHOD 80 males suffering from primary infertility with azoospermia or oligozoospermia were selected attending the antenatal outpatient department. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 2.5% patients showed numerical chromosomal abnormality i.e. Klinefelter syndrome (47XXY. Structural abnormalities were detected in 3.75% patients in the form of deletion in the long arm of Y chromosome and ring chromosome. RESULT Out of 80 patients 5 patients showed chromosomal abnormalities in the form of both numerical as Klinefelter syndrome (2 patients & qualitative as deletions (2 patients & ring chromosome (1 patient. CONCLUSION Y chromosomal abnormalities either numerical or structural, is an important factor of male infertility as oligospermia or azoospermia. These abnormalities can be easily detected by simple aids like karyotyping and does not require high

  3. Primary tubal infertility in relation to the use of an intrauterine device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daling, J R; Weiss, N S; Metch, B J; Chow, W H; Soderstrom, R M; Moore, D E; Spadoni, L R; Stadel, B V

    1985-04-11

    Women who use an intrauterine device (IUD) are at increased risk of acute pelvic inflammatory disease, but the relation of the IUD to subsequent infertility is not established. We interviewed 159 nulligravid women with tubal infertility to determine their prior use of an IUD. Their responses were compared with those of a matched group who conceived their first child at the time the infertile women started trying to become pregnant. The risk of primary tubal infertility in women who had ever used an IUD was 2.6 times that in women who had never used one (95 per cent confidence interval, 1.3 to 5.2). The observed difference between cases and controls was not uniform for different types of IUD. The relative risk associated with use of a Dalkon Shield was 6.8 (1.8 to 25.2), and that associated with use of either a Lippes Loop or Saf-T Coil IUD was 3.2 (0.9 to 12.0). The smallest elevation in risk was found among users of copper-containing IUDs (relative risk, 1.9 [0.9 to 4.0] for all women who had ever used a copper-containing IUD). The relative risk for women who used only a copper-containing IUD was 1.3 (0.6 to 3.0). We conclude that use of the Dalkon Shield (and possibly of plastic IUDs other than those that contain copper) can lead to infertility in nulligravid women.

  4. Complex mullerian duct anomaly in a young female with primary amenorrhoea, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanyal Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mullerian duct anomalies, though rare, can be a treatable cause of pelvic pain and infertility. Various complex Mullerian duct anomalies may exist with combination of features of more than one class. Since there are no precise clinical or imaging criteria to enable specific categorisation, there is ambiguous classification of these anomalies by various radiologists and clinicians. A young female presented with complaints of chronic pelvic pain, primary amenorrhoea and infertility. The patient was evaluated by sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging and diagnosed as case of complex mullerian duct anomaly, a unicornuate uterus with cervical dysgenesis and cavitated, noncommunicating, rudimentary right horn. The findings were confirmed on laprohysteroscopy and the patient underwent hystertectomy. There should be an integrated clinico-radiological classification scheme and familiarity with rare and complex anomalies for appropriate diagnosis and management of complex Mullerian duct anomalies.

  5. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stem Cells as New Agents for the Treatment of Infertility: Current and Future Perspectives and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Volarevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine.

  7. Genetic variation of the E-cadherin gene is associated with primary infertility in patients with ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shan; Li, Yan; Li, Bin; Wang, Na; Zhou, Rong-Miao; Zhao, Xi-Wa

    2014-10-01

    To explore the association between the genetic variant of E-cadherin gene and endometriosis-related infertility. Case-control study. University hospital. Five hundred eighty-nine women with ovarian endometriosis including 127 patients with primary infertility and 589 female controls in northern China. None. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region, exons, and the 3' untranslated region of the E-cadherin gene were identified by direct sequencing in patients with ovarian endometriosis and with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Six candidate SNPs (rs16260, rs28372783, rs1801552, rs1801026, rs8049282, and rs13689) were genotyped by PCR and ligase detection reaction. The results revealed a significant association of rs8049282 SNP on E-cadherin gene with endometriosis-related infertility. When compared with control women or endometriosis patients who had a history of successful fertility, the CC genotype of rs8049282 may significantly increase the risk of primary infertility in patients with ovarian endometriosis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.45-5.00; OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.45-4.44, respectively). Our results suggested that genetic variants on the E-cadherin gene may be involved in endometriosis-related infertility. The rs8049282 SNP of the E-cadherin gene may be a potential molecular marker for the development of primary infertility in northern Chinese women with ovarian endometriosis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Y Choromosomal Microdeletion Screening in The Workup of Male Infertility and Its Current Status in India

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    Ramaswamy Suganthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF. Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and testicular sperm extraction (TESE helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India.

  9. Mitochondrial DNA mutations and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as difficulty in conceiving a child after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility can arise either because of the male factor or female factor or both. According to the current estimates, 15% of couples attempting their first pregnancy could not succeed. Infertility is either primary or secondary. Mitochondria have profound effect on all biochemical pathways, including the one that drivessperm motility. Sperm motility is heavily dependent on the ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial sheath. In this review, the very positive role of mitochondrial genome′s association with infertility is discussed

  10. Evaluating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Evaluating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Evaluating Infertility Page ... Evaluating Infertility FAQ136, June 2012 PDF Format Evaluating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is an infertility evaluation? When ...

  11. Treating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Treating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Treating Infertility Page ... Treating Infertility FAQ137, March 2015 PDF Format Treating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is infertility? What treatment options ...

  12. Evaluating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Evaluating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Evaluating Infertility Page ... Evaluating Infertility FAQ136, June 2012 PDF Format Evaluating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is an infertility evaluation? When ...

  13. Defining Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  14. Evaluation of Uterine Biophysical Profile and to Assess its Role in Predicting Conception among Unexplained Primary Infertility Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Gupta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infertility is a devastating disease which affects its victims at a very basic level the ability to reproduce. This can be divisive to the couples involved, their relatives and friends. The influence of infertility can be immense. There are a lot of medical and social consequences of infertility and the psychological sequelae are one of them. Affected patients and their families suffer from loss of esteem, disappointment and depression. Considering the immense effect of infertility on the life of not only the affected couples but also on their families and relatives the present study was conducted with following objective. Objective: To evaluate the Uterine Biophysical Profile and to assess its role in predicting the conception outcome in spontaneous cycles in patients with unexplained primary infertility. Material &Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, U.P. Rural Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Saifaion 55 women with unexplained primary infertility after standard diagnostic work up. Ultrasound (TVS measurement of all patients was performed in their midcycle of spontaneous cycle. The Uterine Biophysical Profile (UBP i.e. certain sonographic qualities of the uterus were noted during the normal mid-cycle of these patients. These included 7 parameters: Endometrial thickness in greatest AP dimension of 7 mm or greater (full-thickness measurement, a layered ("5 line" appearance to the endometrium, myometrial contractions causing a wave like motion of the endometrium, homogeneous myometrial echogenicity, uterine artery blood flow (as measured by PI, less than 3.0, blood flow within zone 3 using color doppler technique, myometrial blood flow seen on gray-scale examination. The Uterine Scoring System for Reproduction ("USSR" was used to evaluate the total score. Results: Among 55 unexplained primary infertility patients 24 i.e. 43.63% conceived by serial

  15. Hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia showed positive correlation in women with primary and secondary infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakant Valvekar

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Hence it is recommended to screen serum prolactin levels along with thyroid hormones screening in women with infertility problems. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2079-2083

  16. Unexplained infertility as primary presentation of celiac disease, a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Ghadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac sprue (gluten sensitive enteropathy is an autoimmune disease which is hereditary and its pathology mainly bases on immunologic intolerance to gluten. It has a vast variety of signs and symptoms and its clinical features range from a silent disease to a typical gastrointestinal disorder. In this study we reviewed and summarized some other related issues about this disease and its relation with infertility.Case: The case is a 26 years old lady who had referred to a gynecologist because of infertility for 2 years and later it revealed that she has celiac sprue.Conclusion: Screening for its silent or subtle types especially among suspicious cases such as unexplained infertility seems to be a cost effective action. Meanwhile, in time administration of a gluten-free diet can lead to an almost complete cure

  17. Association between methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphism and primary infertility in Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Ye, J Z; Ding, X P; Zhang, X H; Ma, T J; Zhong, R; Ren, H Y

    2015-04-15

    We examined the association between the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), and methionine synthase (MS A2756G) genotypes and non-obstructive male infertility in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 162 infertile Chinese patients with azoospermia (N = 100) or oligoasthenozoospermia (N = 62) and 120 fertile men as controls. The polymorphisms MTRR A66G, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MS A2756G were identified by direct DNA sequencing and the results were statistically analyzed. We found no association between the incidence of any of these variants in azoospermia patients and control populations. The frequency of the MTRR66 polymorphic genotypes (AG, AG+GG) was significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermia group compared to the controls (P = 0.013, 0.012). Our findings revealed an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism A66G in the MTRR gene and male infertility, particularly in oligoasthenozoospermia males, suggesting that this polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for male infertility in Chinese men.

  18. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  19. Infertility FAQ's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infertility FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions What is infertility? In general, infertility is defined as not being ...

  20. Metabolic syndrome in white European men presenting for primary couple's infertility: investigation of the clinical and reproductive burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, E; Capogrosso, P; Colicchia, M; Boeri, L; Serino, A; Castagna, G; Clementi, M C; La Croce, G; Regina, C; Bianchi, M; Mirone, V; Damiano, R; Montorsi, F; Salonia, A

    2016-09-01

    Despite complex interactions between obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and the reproductive axis, the impact of metabolic syndrome on human male reproductive function has not been analysed comprehensively. Complete demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 1337 consecutive primary infertile men were analysed. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (categorised 0 vs. 1 vs. 2 or higher). NCEP-ATPIII criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Semen analysis values were assessed based on the 2010 World Health Organisation (WHO) reference criteria. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models tested the association between semen parameters and clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was found in 128 (9.6%) of 1337 men. Patients with metabolic syndrome were older (p metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome patients had lower levels of total testosterone (p metabolic syndrome. Conversely, the two groups did not differ significantly in further hormonal levels, semen parameters, and rate of either obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia. At multivariate logistic regression analysis, testicular volume (OR: 0.90; p = 0.002) achieved independent predictor status for WHO pathological semen concentration; conversely, age, Charlson Comorbidity Index scores, metabolic syndrome, and inhibin B values did not. No parameters predicted normal sperm morphology and total progressive motility. Metabolic syndrome accounts for roughly 9% of men presenting for primary couple's infertility. Although metabolic syndrome patients have a lower general male health status, semen analysis values seem independent of the presence of metabolic syndrome.

  1. Hysterosalpingography in Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuda Islam Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a common medical problem. It can be due to problems in either partner, or both. Ovulatory dysfunction, tubal and peritoneal factors comprise the majority of female factor for infertility. Hysterosalpingography (HSG plays an important role in the evaluation of abnormalities related to the uterus and fallopian tubes. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hysterosalpingographic findings of women with infertility in our setting. Materials and method: This cross sectional study was carried out in the infertility centre at BIRDEM, Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period of September 2002 to February 2003. Out of 100 infertile patients 50 infertile women of reproductive age (21-40 years indicated for HSG were enrolled in this study. Results: Sixty percent patients had secondary infertility. Majority of the subjects of both primary and secondary infertility (55% and 60% were in 26-30 years age group. On HSG any sort of uterine pathology was found in 10% cases and unilateral and bilateral tubal block were present in 24% and 20% cases respectively. Conclusion: Hysterosalpingography, a safe, less invasive procedure, has an important role in diagnosing uterine and tubal factors of infertility.

  2. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed.

  3. Current approach to male infertility treatment: sperm selection procedure based on hyaluronic acid binding ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zobova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.

  4. Major Disease Prevalence and Menstrual Characteristics in Infertile Female Korean Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of smoking and factors associated with smoking in infertile Korean women. Smoking status, education, occupation, personal habits, past medical history, current illness, stress level, and menstrual characteristics were collected from self-report questionnaires. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess the degree of depression. Data on the causes of infertility and levels of six reproductive hormones were collected from medical records. Among 785 women less than 42 years of age, the prevalence of current, secondhand, past, and never smokers were 12.7%, 45.7%, 0.9%, and 40.6%, respectively. Primary infertility was more frequent in secondhand smokers. Causes of infertility were similar among current, secondhand, and never smokers. Current smokers were less educated (P infertility and diabetes mellitus were significantly different according to smoking status among infertile women. PMID:28049245

  5. Diagnostic Markers of Primary Infertility in Women of Reproductive Age with Hypothalamic Dysfunction in the Pubertal Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Zhukovets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess fertility in women of reproductive age with hypothalamic dysfunction (HD in the pubertal period and to determine the diagnostic significance of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and NF-kB activity in the diagnosis of primary infertility in these women. Materials and Methods: Fertility was assessed in 86 women of reproductive age with HD in the pubertal period. A comparative characteristic of fertile women (Group 1, n=46 and primary infertility women (Group 2, n=21 with HD in the pubertal period was performed. FPG and FPI were determined after 8 to 12 hours of fasting. Serum IRI concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 were determined in the venous blood serum after a 12-hour fasting, as well as in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using ELISA kits. The activity of NF-kB was determined in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Results: BMI in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2: 22.63±2.68 kg/m2 versus 27.05±4.03kg/m2 (p=0.000. WC in women of Group 1 was 66.11±5.66cm versus 78.52±10.54cm in Group 2 (p = 0.000; WC >80cm was found in 2(4.4% and 14(66.7% women, respectively (p = 0.000. The average levels of FPG and FPI were significantly higher in Group 2. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in Group 2 were significantly higher than in Group 1. The serum level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly lower in Group 2; accordingly, the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio in Group 2 was 1.8 times higher than in Group 1. The IL-1β level in UA (P=0.000 and the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio (P=0.02 were significantly higher in women of Group 2 than Group 1, which indicated the pronounced inflammatory effects of TNF-α in the endometrium. Imbalance in the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors indicated the activation of the Th-1 immune response with the formation of the

  6. Treating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by a number of factors. Both male and female factors can contribute to infertility. What treatment options are available for infertility? Treatment ... problems. A common problem that leads to male infertility, varicocele , sometimes can be ... are hormonal problems treated in women? Abnormal levels of hormones ...

  7. 原发不孕与继发不孕妇女生殖道感染的临床分析%Reproductive tract infections in women with primary infertilities and secondary infertilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马英英; 夏舟岚; 陈惠娟; 陆月红; 姚利萍

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解原发不孕与继发不孕妇女生殖道感染的情况及其病原体分布。方法对1462例不孕患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,分为原发不孕组和继发不孕组,分别对其阴道分泌物、宫颈分泌物及血清进行生殖道感染相关病原体的检测。结果1462例不孕妇女中,原发不孕477例,继发不孕985例。共检出生殖道感染者655例,总体感染率为44.80%。原发不孕组中共检出生殖道感染者186例,感染率为38.99%;继发不孕组中共检出生殖道感染者469例,感染率为47.61%。总体病原体检出率:依次为解脲支原体(25.72%)、阴道加德纳氏菌(15.87%)、假丝酵母菌(11.08%)、沙眼衣原体(5.06%)、人型支原体(2.33%)、阴道毛滴虫(0.75%)、梅毒螺旋体(0.55%)、淋球菌(0.34%)、人类免疫缺陷病毒(0.07%)。两组中衣原体感染率继发不孕组明显高于原发不孕组,其余病原体感染率差异无统计学意义。结论在不孕妇女中常规进行阴道分泌物病原体检测及血清梅毒螺旋体、HIV的检测非常重要。继发不孕妇女尤其要重视衣原体的检测。%Objective To assess reproductive tract infections(RTI) and pathogens distribution in women with primary in-fertilities and secondary infertilities. Methods The clinical data of 1462 women with infertilities, including 477 cases of primary infertilities and 985 cases with secondary infertilities, were retrospectively analyzed. The samples of vaginal secretion, cervical secretion and serum were col ected and pathogens of reproductive tract infection were detected. Results Among 1462 cases, reproductive tract infections were detected in 655 (44.80%); the infection rate in primary infertility group was 38.99%(186/477) and that in secondary infertility group was 47.61%(469/985). Ureaplasma urealyticum(25.72%) was the most common pathogen of RTI, fol owed by Gardnerel a vaginalis (15

  8. Low Birth Weight Is Associated with a Decreased Overall Adult Health Status and Reproductive Capability – Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Primary Infertile Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Luca; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Ippolito, Silvia; Pecoraro, Angela; Paciotti, Marco; Scano, Roberta; Galdini, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Luca; Papaleo, Enrico; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) risk cardiometabolic complications later in life. However the impact of LBW on general health status and male reproductive function has been scantly analysed. We investigated the clinical and seminal impact of different birth weights (BW) in white-European men presenting for primary couple’s infertility. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 827 primary infertile men were compared with those of 373 consecutive fertile men. Patients with BW ≤2500, 2500–4200, and ≥4200gr were classified as having LBW, normal (NBW), and high BW (HBW), respectively. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Testicular volume was assessed with a Prader orchidometer. Semen analysis values were assessed based on 2010 WHO reference criteria. Descriptive statistics and regression models tested associations between semen parameters, clinical characteristics and BW categories. LBW, NBW and HBW were found in 71 (8.6%), 651 (78.7%) and 105 (12.7%) infertile men, respectively. LBW was more frequent in infertile patients than fertile men (p = 0.002). Infertile patients with LBW had a higher rate of comorbidities (p = 0.003), lower mean testicular volume (p = 0.007), higher FSH (p = 0.02) and lower tT levels (p = 0.04) compared to other BW groups. Higher rates of asthenozoospermia (p = 0.02) and teratozoospermia (p = 0.03) were also found in LBW men. At logistic regression models, LBW was univariably associated with pathologic progressive motility (p≤0.02) and pathologic sperm morphology (p<0.005). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, LBW achieved independent predictor status for both lower sperm motility and pathologic sperm morphology (all p≤0.04). Only LBW independently predicted higher CCI values (p<0.001). In conclusion, we found that LBW was more frequent in infertile than in fertile men. Infertile individuals with LBW showed a higher rate of comorbidities and

  9. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  10. Apparent primary follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency is a rare cause of treatable male infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, JC; Deege, M; Blankenstein, RA; Kastrop, PMM; Wijmenga, C; Lock, TTWT

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find the underlying defect in a case of primary FSH deficiency and to estimate the beneficial effect of FSH treatment. Design: Case report. Setting: University hospital fertility clinic. Patient(s): Normal, healthy, 37-year-old male patient with severe oligoteratozoospermia. Interventi

  11. [Current treatment of primary immune thrombocytopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, María L; Vicente, Vicente

    2014-05-06

    Primary immune thrombocytopenia, also termed immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by premature platelet destruction and impaired platelet production. Traditional treatment of ITP has predominantly consisted of immune suppression and/or modulation. However, the understanding of the immune mediated impairment of platelet production has led to the development of new treatments that target the thrombopoietin receptor, promoting formation of megakaryocytes and increasing platelet counts. Best practice for the management of ITP has not yet been established because data from comparative studies are lacking. While some disagreement might still remain among experts concerning therapy (when, who, and how should be treated), in recent years different evidence-based practice guidelines have been published to assist healthcare professionals in the diagnosis and treatment of ITP. This review describes the current treatment landscape of ITP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Increasing trend of prevalence of infertility in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongxia; Wang Shuyu; Zhang Songwen; Wang Tao; Deng Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Background Infertility is one of the most important and underappreciated reproductive health problems in developing countries.However,epidemiological data in the Chinese population are still sparse.The aim of the present study was to determine the current prevalence and prevalence trend of infertility in Beijing,and to identify the risk factors associated with infertility.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing in 2012.A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 12 448 couples of whom the female partners were born between 1955 and 1985.All subjects were interviewed face to face.Infertility was defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.Results Of the 12 448 couples,12 342 (99.1%) answered the questions appropriately.The prevalence of infertility was 4.2% (3.1% as primary and 1.1% as secondary infertility).An increase in the prevalence of infertility according to the age of the female partner was found:1.3% infertility for married females born in the 1950s and 11.4% for married females born in the 1980s.The increase was found in both urban and suburban areas.In addition,a Logistic regression showed that for the female partner,higher education levels,an older age at first marriage,adverse occupational conditions,mental labor and pre-pregnancy contraception after marriage were all significantly associated with a higher risk of infertility.Conclusion The prevalence of infertility has increased significantly among couples in Beijing,possibly because of an interaction among multiple factors.

  13. Increasing trend of prevalence of infertility in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Wang, Shuyu; Zhang, Songwen; Wang, Tao; Deng, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most important and underappreciated reproductive health problems in developing countries. However, epidemiological data in the Chinese population are still sparse. The aim of the present study was to determine the current prevalence and prevalence trend of infertility in Beijing, and to identify the risk factors associated with infertility. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing in 2012. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 12 448 couples of whom the female partners were born between 1955 and 1985. All subjects were interviewed face to face. Infertility was defined as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. Of the 12 448 couples, 12 342 (99.1%) answered the questions appropriately. The prevalence of infertility was 4.2% (3.1% as primary and 1.1% as secondary infertility). An increase in the prevalence of infertility according to the age of the female partner was found: 1.3% infertility for married females born in the 1950s and 11.4% for married females born in the 1980s. The increase was found in both urban and suburban areas. In addition, a Logistic regression showed that for the female partner, higher education levels, an older age at first marriage, adverse occupational conditions, mental labor and pre-pregnancy contraception after marriage were all significantly associated with a higher risk of infertility. The prevalence of infertility has increased significantly among couples in Beijing, possibly because of an interaction among multiple factors.

  14. Is hyperprolactinemia the main cause of infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikaily J

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Hyperprolactinemia probably is one of infertility causes. Its incidence is 20% in infertile patients. In this study importance of hyperprolactinema was studied. Importance of hyperprolactinemia as a primary factor of infertility, is uncertain. We studied 500 infertile women in infertility center of Shariati hospital. Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia was 19%. Hyperprolactinemia as a sole cause of infertility was found in only 0.8%. There was a good correlation between galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia (P=0.00007. Galactorrhea is not a screening test for hyperprolactinemia (sensivity=25%, but its specifity is high (91%. If we omit prolactin assay for patients without galactorrhea, we will miss primary cause of infertility in probably 0.1% of patients, so we find that performing prolactin assay for patients without galactorrhea is under question. Subpopulation of infertile patients with hyperprolactinemia are not different with infertile population in mean age (P=0.09, mean duration of infertility (P=0.28 and type of infertility. We suggest that hyperprolactinemia is not a primary or sole factor of infertility

  15. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

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    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  16. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

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    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  17. Psychological Component of Infertility

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    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  18. Smoking and Infertility

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    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  19. Ovarian Drilling for Infertility

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    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  20. Stress and Infertility

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    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  1. Biomedical infertility care in sub-Saharan Africa: a social science-- review of current practices, experiences and view points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrits, T; Shaw, M

    2010-01-01

    Some sort of infertility treatments, including the use of advanced reproductive technologies (ARTs), is nowadays provided at several places in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, to date only a few studies have actually looked into the way these treatments are offered, used and experienced. In this review article the authors present and discuss empirical study findings that give insight into the way biomedical infertility care is provided, considered, experienced and/or used in sub-Saharan African countries. They concentrate on four themes that were often referred to in the reviewed studies and underline the importance of taking into account the local sociocultural context and notions when developing and implementing infertility care, namely: counselling, male involvement, acceptability of ARTs and the use of donor material (semen and embryos). In the conclusion the authors emphasize the importance of preventing infertility as part of integrated reproductive health programs and the need to improve the quality of (low tech) infertility care in the public health sector by means of standardized guidelines, training of health staff and improved counselling. In addition, from a reproductive rights perspective, they support initiatives to introduce low cost ARTs to treat tubal factor related infertility. They also point to potential unintended side effects of the introduction of ARTs and the use of donor material in the sub-Saharan African context, affecting gender inequity and inequity between citizens from different social classes, and argue that such effects should be acknowledged and avoided by all possible means. Finally, they present an agenda for future social science research on this topic in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Biomedical infertility care in sub-Saharan Africa: a social science review of current practices, experiences and view points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.; Shaw, M.

    2010-01-01

    Some sort of infertility treatments, including the use of advanced reproductive technologies (ARTs), is nowadays pro- vided at several places in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, to date only a few studies have actually looked into the way these treatments are offered, used and experienced. In this review

  3. Infertility and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with production or quality of sperm. What causes female infertility? About 25 percent of women with infertility have ... 40 percent of infertility cases are due to female infertility, but just as many cases are due to ...

  4. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: A protégé and potential threat towards mans extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeh Nnana Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Material and Method: using standard microbiological methods of isolating and identifying the organism, specimen was collected and processed which includes the susceptibility profile of isolates and sperm quality. In this study a total of 140 sperm samples was collected from patient who were referred from the consultant outpatient department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and then evaluated bacteriologically using standard bacterial cultural methods Results: Among the total cases, 92 (65.7% showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (28.3%, Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (13.0%, Pseudomonas aerouginosa (6.5%, Escherichia Coli (19.6% Proteus mirabilis (10.8% Klebsiella spp (10.8% and Proteus vulgaris (10.8%. Conclusion: There was an outstanding significant relationship between bacteriospermia and the rate of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms, The percentage of morphologically normal sperm was lower in this study. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus saprohyticus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogen having negative effects on sperm motility and morphology in this study.

  5. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  6. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  7. Current Perspectives on Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the original description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 1952, the number of independent primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs has expanded to more than 100 entities. By definition, a PID is a genetically determined disorder resulting in enhanced susceptibility to infectious disease. Despite the heritable nature of these diseases, some PIDs are clinically manifested only after prerequisite environmental exposures but they often have associated malignant, allergic, or autoimmune manifestations. PIDs must be distinguished from secondary or acquired immunodeficiencies, which are far more common. In this review, we will place these immunodeficiencies in the context of both clinical and laboratory presentations as well as highlight the known genetic basis.

  8. Measuring infertility in populations: constructing a standard definition for use with demographic and reproductive health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarenhas, Maya N; Cheung, Hoiwan; Mathers, Colin D; Stevens, Gretchen A

    2012-08-31

    Infertility is a significant disability, yet there are no reliable estimates of its global prevalence. Studies on infertility prevalence define the condition inconsistently, rendering the comparison of studies or quantitative summaries of the literature difficult. This study analyzed key components of infertility to develop a definition that can be consistently applied to globally available household survey data. We proposed a standard definition of infertility and used it to generate prevalence estimates using 53 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). The analysis was restricted to the subset of DHS that contained detailed fertility information collected through the reproductive health calendar. We performed sensitivity analyses for key components of the definition and used these to inform our recommendations for each element of the definition. Exposure type (couple status, contraceptive use, and intent), exposure time, and outcomes were key elements of the definition that we proposed. Our definition produced estimates that ranged from 0.6% to 3.4% for primary infertility and 8.7% to 32.6% for secondary infertility. Our sensitivity analyses showed that using an exposure measure of five years is less likely to misclassify fertile unions as infertile. Additionally, using a current, rather than continuous, measure of contraceptive use over five years resulted in a median relative error in secondary infertility of 20.7% (interquartile range of relative error [IQR]: 12.6%-26.9%), while not incorporating intent produced a corresponding error in secondary infertility of 58.2% (IQR: 44.3%-67.9%). In order to estimate the global burden of infertility, prevalence estimates using a consistent definition need to be generated. Our analysis provided a recommended definition that could be applied to widely available global household data. We also summarized potential biases that should be considered when making estimates of infertility prevalence using household survey data.

  9. A comparative study of the efficacy of sonosalpingography and hysterosalpingogram to test the tubal patency in all women with primary and secondary infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Bhumika; Patil, Shaifali; Boricha, B G; Kurkal, Nidhi; Choudhry, Minal

    2014-06-01

    This study was done to compare sonohysterography and correlate by hysterosalpingogram (HSG) for evaluation of utero tubal factor in female infertility. Thirty women with primary or secondary infertility attending the outpatient department of the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital, Kalamboli, from May 2010 to May 2011 underwent a sonosalpingography (SSG) on day 7 of the menstrual cycle and an HSG on day 9 of the same or next menstrual cycle. Sonosalpingography was used as the reference standard for HSG. All patients with any positive findings underwent hysterolaparoscopy. For evaluation of tubal patency, SSG had sensitivity of 95.83% and specificity of 100% for evaluation of tubal patency. In contrast, in HSG for evaluation of tubal patency, the sensitivity is 91.67% and specificity is 100%. Sonohysterosalpingography appears to be inexpensive, minimally invasive, quick, of no risk of ionizing radiation, and well-tolerable first-line diagnostic method for determining the tubal status and uterine cavity and can be performed at the time of conventional ultrasound scan in place of HSG and laparoscopy.

  10. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and ... Page not found! Please click on one of the links in the navigation bar. FAQs Reproductive Health ...

  11. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  12. Variation in distress among women with infertility: evidence from a population-based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greil, Arthur L; Shreffler, Karina M; Schmidt, Lone

    2011-01-01

    with infertility with no prior pregnancies (primary infertility, n = 399). We further distinguish between women with infertility who were actually 'trying' to become pregnant (the infertile with intent) with those who met the medical definition of infertile but did not describe themselves as trying to become...... pregnant (infertile without intent). RESULTS Both types of infertility (primary versus secondary) (ß = 0.31*) and intentionality (infertile with and without intent) (ß = 0.08*) are associated with FSD. These associations persist when we control for resource and demographic variables, life course variables...

  13. Current Backpack Weight Status for Primary Schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo-Buenrostro, Bertha Alicia; Delgado-Enciso, Iván; Sánchez-Ramírez, Carmen Alicia; Cruz, Sergio Adrián Montero; Vásquez, Clemente; Mora-Brambila, Ana Bertha; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram P.; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the current status of backpack weight in primary schoolchildren in Colima, Mexico, in relation to gender, school grade level, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 240 randomly selected children from 20 primary schools. The participating children's parents signed statements of…

  14. Infertility trial outcomes: healthy moms and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted.

  15. [Hysteroscopic evaluation in patients with infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmar, Ricardo Bassil; Barrozo, Paulo Roberto Mussel; Parente, Raphael Câmara Medeiros; Lasmar, Bernardo Portugal; da Rosa, Daniela Baltar; Penna, Ivan Araujo; Dias, Rogério

    2010-08-01

    to describe hysteroscopy findings in infertile patients. this was a retrospective series of 953 patients with diagnosis of infertility evaluated by hysteroscopy. A total of 957 patients investigated for infertility were subjected to hysteroscopy, preferentially during the first phase of the menstrual cycle. When necessary, directed biopsies (under direct visualization during the exam) or guided biopsies were obtained using a Novak curette after defining the site to be biopsied during the hysteroscopic examination. Outcome frequencies were determined as percentages, and the χ2 test was used for the correlations. The statistical software EpiInfo 2000 (CDC) was used for data analysis. a normal uterine cavity was detected in 436 cases (45.8%). This was the most frequent diagnosis for women with primary infertility and for women with one or no abortion (pinfertility. Patients with a history of abortion and infertility should be submitted to hysteroscopy in order to rule out intrauterine synechiae as a possible cause of infertility.

  16. Integrated Current Balancing Transformer for Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Gökhan; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    A simple, PCB compatible integrated solution is proposed for the current balancing requirement of the primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC). Input inductor and the current balancing transformer are merged into the same core, which reduces the number of components allowing a cheaper...

  17. Integrated Current Balancing Transformer for Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Gökhan; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius;

    2011-01-01

    A simple, PCB compatible integrated solution is proposed for the current balancing requirement of the primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC). Input inductor and the current balancing transformer are merged into the same core, which reduces the number of components allowing a cheaper...

  18. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  19. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  20. Infertility Infertilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Práxedes Rojas Quintana

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Literature review on the main issues related to infertile couples. It includes concept and classification, physiology of ovulation, causes in women and men, basic tests that are commonly performed evolution and prognosis, and health actions to provide appropriate orientation to the infertile couple. It is aimed at creating a teaching complementary material for Medicine and Nursing students, as well as for residents and specialists in general medicine and gynecology.Revisión bibliográfica sobre los principales temas referidos a la infertilidad de las parejas. Incluye concepto y clasificación, fisiología de la ovulación, causas en la mujer y en el hombre, exámenes complementarios básicos que se les realiza, evolución y pronóstico, así como acciones de salud para la orientación correcta de la pareja infértil. Tiene como objetivo crear un material de apoyo a la docencia, para estudiantes de la carrera de Medicina y de Enfermería, así como para residentes y especialistas en Medicina General Integral y Ginecoobstetricia.

  1. A Survey on Infertility in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as failure in pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse.Several centers have reported different causes of infertility. The most common causes of infertility are:male factor such as sperm disturbance, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal factor,both male and female factor, and unexplained infertility .The aim of this study was to survey theepidemiology of infertility in Royan institute.Material and Methods: In this descriptive retrospective study, 2492 infertile couples were studied.These couples were selected by systematic sampling among couples referred to Royan institutebetween 1995 and 2001.All existing demographic data and diagnostic methods were recorded inquestionnaires .Results were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5.Results: In this study, the frequency of primary and secondary infertility was 90.1% and 9.9%,respectively. Among 2492 couples, 50.5% had male factor, 28.6% had female factor, 11.6% had bothmale and female factors and in 9.3% of couples, the cause of infertility was unknown .Results showedthat 32.3% of men had normal spermogram, 23.6% of couples had azoospermia, and 40.3% had spermdisturbance including oligospermia, asthenospermia, oligoasthenospermia and teratospermia .3.8%were not able to collect sample for semen analysis. Among women, different infertility factors included:ovarian factor (20.36%, tubal factor (12.64%, uterine factor (4.13%, endometriosis (1.28% andrecurrent abortion (0.68%. 50.48% of women were normal.Conclusion: Although male factor was the most common cause of infertility in Royan institute, we cannot conclude that this factor is the most common cause of infertility in Iran since this center isconsidered referral especially for male infertility. We suggest performance of similar researches inother centers to evaluate the most common causes of infertility in Iran.

  2. Infertility and Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Campo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Classically, the diagnosis of adenomyosis has only been possible on a hysterectomy specimen, usually in women in their late fourth and fifth decades, and, therefore, evaluating any relationship with infertility was simply not possible. As a consequence, to this day, no epidemiologic data exists linking adenomyosis to a state of subfertility. Today, new imaging techniques have enabled a noninvasive diagnosis at a much earlier time and a number of single-case or small series reports have appeared showing that medical, surgical, or combined treatment can restore fertility in women with adenomyosis, an indirect proof of an association. At the functional level, several anomalies found in the so-called junctional zone, or inner myometrium, in adenomyosis patients have been shown to be associated with poor reproductive performance, mainly through perturbed uterine peristalsis. Additional evidence for an association comes from experimental data: in baboons, adenomyosis is associated with lifelong primary infertility, as well as to endometriosis. Finally, indirect proof comes from studies of the eutopic and ectopic endometrium in women with adenomyosis proving the existence of an altered endometrial function and receptivity. In conclusion, sufficient indirect proof exists linking adenomyosis to infertility to warrant systematic clinical studies.

  3. CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES IN INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Smogavec

    2009-08-01

    Conclusions Chromosomal analysis is an important method in diagnostic procedures of infertility, because chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions. Sex chromosome aneuploidies are highly correlated to infertility of females and males.

  4. Immunology and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, D M

    1978-10-01

    This article has attempted to review evidence that suggests that immune factors may be operative in a small but significant number of infertile men. Although our current understanding of the possible processes by which autosensitization to previously sequestered reproductive antigens occurs is incomplete, there are laboratory assays presently available that give an indication, but do not prove, that immune factors may be contributing to the infertile state. Continued research is needed to develop new assays and more purified sperm antigens, which might enhance our knowledge of the underlying immunoreproductive changes. Until these are available, the following procedures should be considered when investigating a patient with infertility of suspected immune origin. The patient's history should be taken, and a physical examination should be performed. A complete blood count, urinalysis, and complete semen analysis and culture should be taken. Next, in vivo cervical tests (Sims-Huhner) are performed, followed by sperm antibody assessment (serum, semen) and perhaps in vitro cervical mucus sperm assays (especially the crossed hostility test). After the tests have been completed, the following possibe treatments exist: 1. Treatment of underlying infections 2. Correction of obstructions 3. Corticosteroid (or testosterone?) therapy 4. Washed sperm insemination 5. First portion of fresh ejaculate insemination 6. Artificial insemination with homologous donor 7. Adoption.

  5. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  6. Diagnostic Testing for Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  7. VALUE OF DIAGNOSTIC HYSTEROSCOPY IN INFERTILITY AS FIRST LINE INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the value of Diagnostic Hysteroscopy in a primary work-up of infertility To compare its use in primary versus secondary infert ility MATERIAL & METHODS: Prospective study from Jan 2012 – Oct 2012 at Radha krishna Multispecialty Hospital and IVF centre, Girinagar ,B angalore INCLUSION CRITERIA: Both primary and secondary infertile women A Total No. of patients – 170 (110 primary infertilit y & 60 secondary infertility were studied Intervention Office Hysteroscopy Main outcome measure Abnormalities of uterine cavity RESULTS: 30 %( n=51 of the total infertile patients studied had uterine a bnormalities .34% (n=37 of primary infertility patients had uterine ab normalities whereas 23 %( n=14 of secondary infertility patients also had uterine abno rmalities. The acquired and congenital causes for uterine abnormalities accounted for 20 % ( n=22 and 14% (n=15 respectively in the primary infertility group whereas it accounted for 17 %( n=10 and 6% (n=4 respectively in the secondary infertility group CONCLUSION: Routine use of diagnostic hysteroscopy in the work-up of infertility is recommended. Diagnostic hysteroscopy has a similar importance in the evaluation of both primary and secondary infertility

  8. Infertility experience and health differentials - a population-based comparative study on infertile and non-infertile women (the HUNT Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostad, Berit; Schmidt, Lone; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that health complaints, distress and poor life satisfaction are associated with infertility experience. Research on health consequences of infertility experience in women has relied heavily on clinic-based samples. This population-based study investigates the association...... between infertility and health and life satisfaction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based health study, conducted between 2006 and 2008. SETTING: All women in a county in Norway were invited. The current material is restricted to women aged 20-49 years. POPULATION: A total of 9200 women participated....... METHODS: Health measures were compared between women with infertility experience (infertile women) and women without infertility experience (non-infertile women). Disparities in health and life satisfaction among the infertile women were assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported health, functional...

  9. ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC HYSTEROLAPAROSCOPY IN EVALUATION OF FEMALE INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM To evaluate the role of hysterolaparoscopy in female infertility. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Kempegowda Institute of Medical sciences, Bengaluru were evaluated for infertility by hysterolaparoscopy and chromopertubation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to laparoscopy underwent ultra-sonography. Then all patients were subjected to combined hysterolaparoscopy including chromopertubation and the results were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED T-test. RESULTS We studied 70 patients comprising of 40(57.1% cases of primary infertility and 30(42.9% patients of secondary infertility. In our study most commonly found pathologies were PCOD, endometriosis and tubal blockage. CONCLUSIONS Results show that hysterolaparoscopy has a promising role in diagnosing and treating infertility. hysterolaparoscopy has emerged as a new hope for infertile couples before they proceed to time-consuming and expensive assisted reproduction techniques.

  10. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari; Ataollah Ghahiri; Mojtaba Habibi; Ali Zargham-Boroujeni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materi...

  11. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  12. Treatment of varicocele infertility men patients of different Chinese medical syndrome types by integrative medicine treatment selection:a primary research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the optimal treatment selection for treating varicocele(VC) male infertility patients accompanied with oligozoospermia or azoospermia of different Chinese medical syndrome types by comparing the efficacies of integrative medicine.Methods One hundred and

  13. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  14. Genetics of human male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongothai, J; Gopenath, T S; Manonayaki, S

    2009-04-01

    Infertility is defined as a failure to conceive in a couple trying to reproduce for a period of two years without conception. Approximately 15 percent of couples are infertile, and among these couples, male factor infertility accounts for approximately 50 percent of causes. Male infertility is a multifactorial syndrome encompassing a wide variety of disorders. In more than half of infertile men, the cause of their infertility is unknown (idiopathic) and could be congenital or acquired. Infertility in men can be diagnosed initially by semen analysis. Seminograms of infertile men may reveal many abnormal conditions, which include azoospermia, oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, necrospermia and pyospermia. The current estimate is that about 30 percent of men seeking help at the infertility clinic are found to have oligozoospermia or azoospermia of unknown aetiology. Therefore, there is a need to find the cause of infertility. The causes are known in less than half of these cases, out of which genetic or inherited disease and specific abnormalities in the Y chromosome are major factors. About 10-20 percent of males presenting without sperm in the ejaculate carry a deletion of the Y chromosome. This deleted region includes the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) locus, located in the Yq11, which is divided into four recurrently deleted non-overlapping subregions designated as AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd. Each of these regions may be associated with a particular testicular histology, and several candidate genes have been found within these regions. The Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family is reported to be the most frequently deleted AZF candidate gene and is located in the AZFc region. Recently, a partial, novel Y chromosome 1.6-Mb deletion, designated "gr/gr" deletion, has been described specifically in infertile men with varying degrees of spermatogenic failure. The DAZ gene has an autosomal homologue, DAZL (DAZ-Like), on the short arm of the chromosome 3 (3

  15. Hysteroscopic evaluation of post abortive infertile females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Elhelw

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the hysteroscopic findings in cases of secondary infertility following abortion compared to cases with primary infertility. Methods: This was a case control study of 200 selected infertile women undergoing diagnostic hysteroscopy as a part of their infertility work-up. These 200 patient were classified into the following: A – 100 patients in whom abortion has occurred whether evacuation and curettage (E.&C. was done or not and B – 100 patients complaining of primary infertility. Results: Hysteroscopy was normal in about 44% of patients group and 45% in control group. Observed abnormalities were septate uterus in 17 cases, intrauterine synechiae in 30 cases, submucus myoma in 10 cases, deformed cavity in 5 cases and endometrial polyp in 35 cases. Endometrial abnormalities (fibrosis, inflammation or atrophy were observed in 7 patients. No significance was found regarding the total number of intrauterine pathologies when comparing the groups of primary versus secondary infertility. Patients group showed higher prevalence of Intra Uterine Septum and Intra Uterine Adhesions. Control group showed higher prevalence of endometrial polyp, submucous myoma and Endometritis. Other findings showed nearly equal prevalence in the two groups. Conclusion: There is a direct correlation between the number of abortions, number of evacuations (E.&C. and degree of intra-uterine adhesion, and an increase in the number of abortions is associated with an increase in the degree of intra-uterine adhesions. However, in this study, there was no significant difference between degree of intra-uterine adhesions in the two groups (patient group and control group. Our data are an additional argument to suggest hysteroscopy as part of investigation in infertile woman. Routine diagnostic hysteroscopy should be part of an infertility work-up in primary and secondary infertility.

  16. Genetic aspects of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Witczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, infertility affects up to 140 million people worldwide. It is considered that the male factor is responsible for nearly a half of problems in obtaining pregnancy. Increasingly, infertility treatment clinics, as well as standard examinations, also offer genetic tests in the diagnostics of the male infertility factor, such as: karyotype analysis, detection of Y chromosome microdeletions, and examination of the chromosome composition of sperm by the fluorescent in situ hybridisation method (FISH. Genetic factors, defined to date, which cover both chromosomal aberrations and monogenic disorders, are responsible for approximately 10–15% of cases of male infertility. Usually, their phenotypic manifestations are disorders in spermatogenesis, structural changes in the genital organs (e.g. reduced size of the testicles, or sperm dysfunction. Molecular studies intensively carried out in the area of diagnostics and treatment of infertility indicate an increasingly large number of relationships between genetic factors and fertility; however, many genes related with human fertility still remain unidentified.

  17. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  18. [Systematization of primary headache: current and future prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinak, M M; Iskra, D A

    2014-02-01

    The article is devoted to the current state of the problem of systematization of primary headaches and main clinical forms. The conceptual evolution of ideas about the classification of certain options of cephalgia and identified major trends for its improvement is given. Verification of types and subtypes of individual cephalgia can present a significant challenge even for experienced neurologists, neurosurgeons, and internists. In this regard in most European countries and the US. have set up specialized centers for the treatment of headaches. Concluded that in the short term in the national health care system, including. Including the Armed Forces, it is advisable to create such centers.

  19. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis approach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion: The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their

  20. Molecular insights into the causes of male infertility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polani B Seshagiri

    2001-11-01

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem that affects many couples in the human population. About 13–18% of couple suffers from it and approximately one-half of all cases can be traced to either partner. Regardless of whether it is primary or secondary infertility, affected couples suffer from enormous emotional and psychological trauma and it can constitute a major life crisis in the social context. Many cases of idiopathic infertility have a genetic or molecular basis. The knowledge of the molecular genetics of male infertility is developing rapidly, new ``spermatogenic genes” are being discovered and molecular diagnostic approaches (DNA chips) established. This will immensely help diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to alleviate human infertility. The present review provides an overview of the causes of human infertility, particularly the molecular basis of male infertility and its implications for clinical practice.

  1. Psychological Factors Affecting Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sati Unal

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study was performed to determine the psychological factors affecting infertile women presenting at the infertility outpatients department. METHOD: The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women who presented at the IVF center of a special branch hospital or a university hospital, March 2008 through September 2008, as determined by the non-random sampling method. All participating women gave their informed consent. The data were collected using the Data Form that consisted of questions on socio-demographic features and the Infertility Distress Scale (IDS. In the results, percentages were provided along with the Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: The mean IDS was 39.01±9.6. There was a statistically significant linear relationship between the mean IDS score and age (r=0.106, p=0.048, marriage duration (r=0.232, p<0.001 and duration of desire to have a child (r=0.217, p<0.001. Women who were primary school graduates (X²=13.03, p=0.004, did not work (p=0.007, had no social security benefits (p=0.021 or from low socioeconomic status (X²=24.85, p<0.001 had significantly higher mean IDS scores. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show women become more adversely affected by infertility as their age, duration of marriage, and duration of desire to have a child increase. Women who are primary school graduates, do not work, have no social security benefits or have lower income are affected more negatively. We believe that taking these features into account when evaluating and planning supportive approaches for women presenting at the infertility treatment center and determining the psychological state of the women using the IDS will increase treatment success. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(5.000: 481-486

  2. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sepidarkish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood. Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD of participants was 31.28 (5.42. Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23% were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02% were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98% were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001, sex (P<0.001, a history of abortion (P=0.009, failure of previous treatment (P<0.001, and education (P=0.014 had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems.

  3. Evaluation and treatment of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Tammy J; Vitrikas, Kristen R

    2015-03-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation may be initiated sooner in patients who have risk factors for infertility or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Causes of infertility include male factors, ovulatory dysfunction, uterine abnormalities, tubal obstruction, peritoneal factors, or cervical factors. A history and physical examination can help direct the evaluation. Men should undergo evaluation with a semen analysis. Abnormalities of sperm may be treated with gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Ovulation should be documented by serum progesterone level measurement at cycle day 21. Evaluation of the uterus and fallopian tubes can be performed by hysterosalpingography in women with no risk of obstruction. For patients with a history of endometriosis, pelvic infections, or ectopic pregnancy, evaluation with hysteroscopy or laparoscopy is recommended. Women with anovulation may be treated in the primary care setting with clomiphene to induce ovulation. Treatment of tubal obstruction generally requires referral for subspecialty care. Unexplained infertility in women or men may be managed with another year of unprotected intercourse, or may proceed to assisted reproductive technologies, such as intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization.

  4. [Risk factors associated to female infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Ramos, Ricardo; Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Abortes Monroy, Ignacio; Medina Sánchez, Héctor Gerardo

    2008-12-01

    Incidence of female infertility is growing worldwide and the its rate varies from 10 to 20%. It has been reported diverse risk factors associated with this medical complication. To identify the risk factors with significant association with female infertility. A case-control study was carried out. There were included 440 patients, divided into 220 women with primary or secondary female infertility (cases) and 220 women without infertility recruited at mediate postpartum (controls). Twenty sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for female infertility were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with percentages, arithmetic media, standard error, Student t test and chi squared. An alpha value was set at 0.05. There were 6 factors with statistical significance: advanced age (p < 0.001), elevated body mass index (p < 0.001), age of onset of sexual activity (p < 0.001), prior pelvic surgeries (p < 0.001), and presence of stress (p < 0.001). Other risk factors such as smoking, chemical and radiological treatments, pelvic inflammatory disease, exercise, contraceptive use, alcohol intake, drugs, coffee, solvents, glue and insecticides, were not significant. There are clinical and demographic risk factors associated with female infertility. Them identification in women at reproductive age could diminish the frequency of female infertility and, thus, avoid them consequences.

  5. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Esmailnejad Moghaddam, Amir; Moslemizadeh, Narges; Peivandi, Sepideh; Barzegarnejad, Ayyub; Musanejad, Nadali; Jursarayee, Gholamali

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated. Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%. Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors. PMID:25356077

  6. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  7. Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunal Ray; Suddhasil Mookherjee

    2009-12-01

    Glaucoma is a group of heterogeneous optic neuropathies with complex genetic basis. Among the three principle subtypes of glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) occurs most frequently. Till date, 25 loci have been found to be linked to POAG. However, only three underlying genes (Myocilin, Optineurin and WDR36) have been identified. In addition, at least 30 other genes have been reported to be associated with POAG. Despite strong genetic influence in POAG pathogenesis, only a small part of the disease can be explained in terms of genetic aberration. Current concepts of glaucoma pathogenesis suggest it to be a neurodegenerative disorder which is triggered by different factors including mechanical stress due to intra-ocular pressure, reduced blood flow to retina, reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, and aberrant immune response. Here we present a mechanistic overview of potential pathways and crosstalk between them operating in POAG pathogenesis.

  8. Kisspeptin, unexplained infertility and embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaida Mumtaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Kisspeptin (KP is a neuropeptide that causes the release of the gonadotropin releasing hormone, which controls hypothalamo pituitary ovarian axis and exerts a number of peripheral effects on reproductive organs. The primary objective of this study was to compare baseline KP levels in females with different types of infertility and identify possible correlations with risk of failure to conceive, preclinical abortion and pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out from August 2014 until May 2015 by recruiting 124 female patients undergoing ICSI, after obtaining ethical approval from the Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center. Cause of infertility due to male, female and unexplained factors was at a frequency of 32 (24%, 33 (31% and 59 (45% among the individuals respectively. KP levels were measured by ELISA assay before the initiation of the ICSI treatment protocol. Outcome of ICSI was categorized into three groups of non-pregnant with beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG25 mIU/ml and no cardiac activity, and clinical pregnancy declared upon confirmation of cardiac activity. Results based on cause of infertility and outcome groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results Females with unexplained infertility had significantly lower levels of KP when compared with those with male factor infertility (176.69 ± 5.03 vs. 397.6 ± 58.2, P=0.001. Clinical pregnancy was observed in 28 (23% females of which 17 (71% had a female cause of infertility. In the non-pregnant group of 66 (53% females, common cause of infertility was unexplained 56(85%. A weak positive correlation of KP levels with fertilized oocytes and endometrial thickness was observed (P=0.04 and 0.01 respectively. Conclusion Deficiency of KP in females with unexplained infertility was associated with reduced chances of implantation after ICSI.

  9. 卵子发育障碍原发性不孕姐妹2例%Primary Infertility for Oocyte Developmental Disorders of Two Sister-cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛石龙; 张学红

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To report two sister-cases of primary infertility for oocyte developmental disorders. Methods: A retrospective clinical study was performed to analyze two sister-cases of oocyte developmental disorders. Results: Two sister-cases underwent outpatient ovulation induction by conventional GnRHa protocol. There were only cumulus granulosa cell clusters without oocytes through microscopic examination on retrieval day. Oocytes were also not obtained by remedial hCG treatment. Thus oocyte dys-plasia could be diagnosed. Subsequently it was acquired that their grandparents were cousin consanguineous marriages. Younger sister-patient with donor oocyte cycle surgery got successful pregnancy of intrauterine single fetal. Conclusion: The family and medical history should be asked in detail for IVF treatment. Donor scheme for oocyte developmental disorders is a feasible and effective option.%目的:报道2例IVF治疗中卵子发育障碍原发性不孕姐妹患者.方法:对本院收治的2例卵子发育障碍原发性不孕患者姐妹进行回顾性总结与分析.结果:均采用常规GnRHa长方案促排卵,取卵日卵泡穿刺镜检仅见卵丘颗粒细胞团,均未见到卵子,补救性hCG治疗亦未取得卵子,诊断为卵子发育异常.追问病史得知其祖父母为表兄妹近亲婚配.患者(妹妹)行受卵治疗,宫内单胎成功妊娠.结论:门诊IVF治疗建病历时应详细询问患者家族史,供卵方案是目前IVF治疗卵子发育障碍原发性不孕较常用且有效的方法.

  10. Basic infertility including polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Maryse; AinMelk, Youssef; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2008-09-01

    Infertility in women has many possible causes and must be approached systematically. The most common cause of medically treatable infertility is the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This syndrome is common in young women and is the cause of anovulatory infertility in 70% of cases. It is therefore an important condition to screen and manage in primary care medical settings. In the past 10 years, insulin sensitization with weight loss or metformin has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for PCOS infertility that eliminates the risk of multiple pregnancy and may reduce the risk of early pregnancy loss as compared with ovulation-inductor drugs. The authors believe metformin should be considered as first-line therapy because it has the advantage to allow for normal single ovulation, for reduced early pregnancy loss, and, most importantly, lifestyle modifications and weight loss before pregnancy. Losing weight not only improves fertility but also reduces adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  11. Primary appraisal of infertility: evaluation of the psychometric properties of a Greek version of the Appraisal of Life Events scale (ALE) in a Sample of infertile women undergoing fertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Vaslamatzis, Grigorios

    2010-10-01

    The Appraisal of Life Events is a self-report questionnaire that can be used retrospectively, asking respondents to reflect on the impact of a previously experienced event. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Appraisal of Life Events scale. The sample consisted of 137 women facing fertility problems and undergoing fertility treatment in a public hospital in Athens, Greece. The Appraisal of Life Events was 'forward-backward' translated from English to Greek language and was then pilot-tested to determine comprehensibility. Factor structure was investigated using exploratory factor analysis. Measures of stress (infertility-related stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, mood states), personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, optimism) and coping strategies were used to assess the convergent validity of the Appraisal of Life Events. Cronbach's α was used to measure internal consistency reliability. Two Appraisal of Life Events factors emerged from exploratory factor analysis. The threat and loss items were grouped together to form one factor. The original subscale of the challenge appraisal was reproduced. Convergent validity was confirmed by computing correlations between the two derived Appraisal of Life Events scales and the measures of stress, personality traits, and coping strategies. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (α = .79-.95). The Appraisal of Life Events had a meaningful factor structure and satisfactory reliability and convergent validity.

  12. Infertility, infertility treatment, and fetal growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Hammer Bech, Bodil

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between infertility, with or without treatment, and fetal growth, as well as perinatal and infant mortality. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51,041 singletons born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy 12 months or less......), 5,787 born of infertile couples conceiving naturally (time to pregnancy more than 12 months), and 4,317 born after treatment. We defined small for gestational age (SGA) as the lowest 5% of birth weight by sex and gestational age. RESULTS: Crude estimates suggested an increased risk of perinatal...... effect on fetal growth. A small-to-moderate increased risk of perinatal mortality in infertile couples cannot be ruled out due to the small number of cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Dec...

  13. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  14. An epidemiologic survey on the causes of infertility in patients referred to infertility center in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is considered as a major health care problem of different communities. The high prevalence of this issue doubled its importance. A significant proportion of infertility have been related to environmental conditions and also acquired risk factors. Different environmental conditions emphasized the need to study the different causes of infertility in each area. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency causes of infertility in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive study 1200 infertile men and women that were referred to infertility clinic of Fatemieh Hospital during 2010 to 2011, were examined. This center is the only governmental center for infertility in Hamadan. Sampling was based on census method. Information about the patients was obtained from medical examinations and laboratory findings. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics such as frequencies and the mean were used. Results: The prevalence of primary and secondary infertility was 69.5% and 30.5% respectively. Among the various causes of infertility women factors (88.6% had the highest regard. In the causes of female infertility, menstrual disorders, diseases (obesity, thyroid diseases, and diabetes, ovulation dysfunction, uterine factor, fallopian tubes and cervical factor had the highest prevalence respectively. The causes of male infertility based on their frequency included semen fluid abnormalities, genetic factors, vascular abnormalities, and anti-spermatogenesis factors, respectively. Conclusion: Etiology pattern of infertility in our study is similar with the many other patterns that have been reported by the World Health Organization. However, frequency of menstrual disorders is much higher than other studies that require further consideration.

  15. Gene therapy for primary immunodeficiencies: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Waseem; Gennery, Andrew R

    2014-06-01

    Gene therapy using autologous haematopoietic stem cells offers a valuable treatment option for patients with primary immunodeficiencies who do not have access to an HLA-matched donor, although such treatments have not been without their problems. This review details gene therapy trials for X-linked and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). X-linked SCID was chosen for gene therapy because of previous 'natural' genetic correction through a reversion event in a single lymphoid precursor, demonstrating limited thymopoiesis and restricted T-lymphocyte receptor repertoire, showing selective advantage of progenitors possessing the wild-type gene. In early studies, patients were treated with long terminal repeats-intact gamma-retroviral vectors, without additional chemotherapy. Early results demonstrated gene-transduced cells, sustained thymopoiesis, and a diverse T-lymphocyte repertoire with normal function. Serious adverse effects were subsequently reported in 5 of 20 patients, with T-lymphocyte leukaemia developing, secondary to the viral vector integrating adjacent to a known oncogene. New trials using self-inactivating gamma-retroviral vectors are progressing. Trials for ADA-SCID using gamma-retroviral vectors have been successful, with no similar serious adverse effects reported; trials using lentiviral vectors are in progress. Patients with WAS and CGD treated with early gamma-retroviral vectors have developed similar lymphoproliferative adverse effects to those seen in X-SCID--current trials are using new-generation vectors. Targeted gene insertion using homologous recombination of corrected gene sequences by cellular DNA repair pathways following targeted DNA breakage will improve efficacy and safety of gene therapy. A number of new techniques are discussed.

  16. Primary care in the Netherlands: current situation and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinny H. de Bakker

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Primary care in the Netherlands has a strong international reputation. However, this picture may be qualified in two respects. First of all, the Dutch primary care system is less cohesive than is sometimes suggested. Secondly, there are major challenges in the Dutch system (as is the case with other European health care systems, which have to be resolved in order to maintain and improve primary care. Methods: Description of primary care in the Netherlands based on nationally and internationally published sources. Identification of challenges and trends. Narrative review of the literature.

    Results: GPs have a strong position in the Netherlands. Their numbers are relatively low; they have a gatekeeping position, and there is no cost-sharing for GP care (unlike other forms of care. The primary care system as a whole, however, is characterised by weak coherence. Individual primary care disciplines have their own separate modes of funding. Challenges include a growing and changing demand for primary care services, and changes in manpower and organisation, that affect the balance between demand and supply regarding primary care services.

    Conclusions: Among the threats to strong primary care are the risk of increasing fragmentation of care, negative side effects of a transformation process from cottage industry to service industry, and reluctance to invest in integrated primary care. An opportunity lies in the consensus among stakeholders that integrated primary care has a future. Technological developments support this, especially the development of electronic patient records.

  17. Primary care in the Netherlands: current situation and trends.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Primary care in the Netherlands has a strong international reputation. However, this picture may be qualified in two respects. First of all, the Dutch primary care system is less cohesive than is sometimes suggested. Secondly, there are major challenges in the Dutch system (as is the

  18. [Genetic aspects of male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We examined 118 men with infertility. Among them we identified phenotypic syndromes associated with infertility in 4 and chromosomal abnormalities in 16. Further molecular genetic study of 98 infertile men found that microdeletions in AZFc-locus had 3, pathological AR allele had 2, CFTR gene mutation had 4 of them. In 37 infertile men an increased DNA fragmentation index (>20%) was found.

  19. Infertility: Inability or Disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Khetarpal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability.

  20. Iatrogenic causes of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoysman, R; Segal, L

    1990-01-01

    The Authors review the list of the iatrogenic causes of infertility. In their opinion the more delicate the structure, the more heavy the price paid to clumsy or erroneous investigation. Such eventual incompetence may lead to further damage of the already existing situation. The Authors however look at the future with relative optimism: incidents become rarer, specialists in gynecology and infertility pay more attention to the delicacy of genital structures and there is an encouraging tendency to refer to infertility specialists those cases who need adequate work-up of their condition.

  1. Medical Imaging and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Infertility affects many couples, and medical imaging plays a vital role in its diagnosis and treatment. Radiologic technologists benefit from having a broad understanding of infertility risk factors and causes. This article describes the typical structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems, as well as congenital and acquired conditions that could lead to a couple's inability to conceive. Medical imaging procedures performed for infertility diagnosis are discussed, as well as common interventional options available to patients. © 2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  2. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  3. Parietal transcranial direct current stimulation modulates primary motor cortex excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Urbina, Guadalupe Nathzidy; Batsikadze, Giorgi; Molero-Chamizo, Andrés; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    The posterior parietal cortex is part of the cortical network involved in motor learning and is structurally and functionally connected with the primary motor cortex (M1). Neuroplastic alterations of neuronal connectivity might be an important basis for learning processes. These have however not been explored for parieto-motor connections in humans by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Exploring tDCS effects on parieto-motor cortical connectivity might be functionally relevant, because tDCS has been shown to improve motor learning. We aimed to explore plastic alterations of parieto-motor cortical connections by tDCS in healthy humans. We measured neuroplastic changes of corticospinal excitability via motor evoked potentials (MEP) elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex (P3), and 3 cm posterior or lateral to P3, to explore the spatial specificity of the effects. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition/intracortical facilitation (SICI/ICF) over M1, and parieto-motor cortical connectivity were obtained before and after P3 tDCS. The results show polarity-dependent M1 excitability alterations primarily after P3 tDCS. Single-pulse TMS-elicited MEPs, M1 SICI/ICF at 5 and 7 ms and 10 and 15 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs), and parieto-motor connectivity at 10 and 15 ms ISIs were all enhanced by anodal stimulation. Single pulse-TMS-elicited MEPs, and parieto-motor connectivity at 10 and 15 ms ISIs were reduced by cathodal tDCS. The respective corticospinal excitability alterations lasted for at least 120 min after stimulation. These results show an effect of remote stimulation of parietal areas on M1 excitability. The spatial specificity of the effects and the impact on parietal cortex-motor cortex connections suggest a relevant connectivity-driven effect.

  4. Current Situation and Countermeasures of Rural Primary School English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国良

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of rural primary schools in English and open, influenced by many factors, there are many problems, making the rural and urban pupils compared to the poor standard of English is great, even when individual students graduated from elementary school even 26 English letters are read incomplete or pronunciation, this article will explain the status quo and countermeasures of teaching English in primary schools in rural areas.

  5. Male factor infertility and ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herman Tournaye

    2012-01-01

    For years,the management and treatment of male factor infertility has been ‘experience’ and not ‘evidence’ based.Although not evidence-based,current clinical practice involves extensive use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART).Where specific treatments are not indicated or have failed,ART have become popular adjunctive treatments for alleviating male factor infertility.According to the limited evidence available,intrauterine insemination (IUI) may be considered as a first-line treatment in a couple in which the female partner has a normal fertility status and at least 1x 106 progressively motile spermatozoa are recovered after sperm preparation.If no pregnancy is achieved after 3-6 cycles of IUI,optimized in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be proposed.When less than 0.5x 106 progressively motile spermatozoa are obtained after seminal fluid processing or sperm are recovered surgically from the testis or epididymis,intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be performed.Although the outcome of no other ART has ever been scrutinized as much before,no large-scale ‘macroproblems’ have as yet been observed after ICSI.Yet,ICSI candidates should be rigorously screened before embarking on IVF or ICSI,and thoroughly informed of the limitations of our knowledge on the hereditary aspects of male infertility and the safety aspects of ART.

  6. The status of depression and anxiety in infertile Turkish couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Kazandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a major psychosocial crisis as well as being a medical problem. The factors that predict psychosocial consequences of infertility may vary in different gender and different infertile populations.Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether Turkish infertile couples had higher levels of depression and anxiety when compared to non-infertile couples. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression and anxiety in Turkish infertile couples.Materials and Methods: We designed a descriptive cross sectional study of 248 infertile women and 96 infertile men with no psychiatric disturbance and 51 women and 40 men who have children to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels between infertile couples and fertile couples. A gynecologist evaluated participants for demographic data and then they were visited by a psychologist to perform questionnaire scales which were The Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for the evaluation of the degree of psychopathology. The data were statistically analyzed, with p<0.05 as the level of statistical significance.Results: We observed significant differences between the infertile couples and fertile couples with respect to state and trait anxiety (p<0.0001 while no difference was regarding with depression, both of women and men. Anxiety and depression were observed as independent from gender when infertile women and men were compared (p=0.213.Conclusion: We believed that the psychological management at infertile couples must be individualized with cultural, religious, and class related aspects.

  7. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  8. Endometriosis and Infertility: Can Surgery Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  9. Breast Cancer and Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women and may accompany infertility. The relationship between infertility treatment and breast cancer has not yet been proven. However, estrogen exposure is well known to cause breast cancer. Recent advances in treatment options have provided young patients with breast cancer a chance of being mother [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000): 317-323

  10. Primary hyperparathyroidism: epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tools and current management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Percivale

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT is a clinical condition characterized by overactive parathyroid gland secretion of parathyroid hormone with concurrent alteration of the phosphocalcemic metabolism. We present a literature review on primary hyperparathyroidism addressing key on clinical presentation, causes, medical and surgical treatment at the best of our knowledge. Based on this review we confirm the role of serum calcium and serum level examination, as well as we define the definitive treatment for PHPT being parathyroidectomy. In case of contraindication for surgery, medical treatment can play a relevant role.

  11. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Kesmodel, Ulrik S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment....... RESULTS: A total of 60 440 pregnancies were included, and 0.8% of the children developed epilepsy.The primary analyses showed no association between parental infertility or fertility treatment, and the overall risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard rate ratios (HRs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.08 (0......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...

  12. What every gynecologist should know about male infertility: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Hamada, Alaa; Kondray, Victor; Pitchika, Aruna; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-07-01

    Our article reviews the evolving concepts in the field of male infertility for gynecologists and other health professionals involved in the care of men and women experiencing difficulty in having a child. The increased knowledge will help in the better management and treatment of infertile couples. Review of literature through Pubmed, Science Direct, Online Library. Gynecologists are often the first healthcare providers to assess an infertile couple. Because half of all infertility problems stem from male factors, it is crucial for the gynecologist to remain updated on the main conditions that cause male infertility as well as current diagnostic tools and treatment options, including conventional strategies and assisted reproductive techniques. Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility over the past several years and many old concepts are now challenged. Therefore, it is imperative that male infertility physicians should update the gynecologists about the recent advances in the work-up of infertile men in terms of diagnosis and management. Such convention will help improve the standards of care for the infertile couple and enhance the cooperation between male and female reproductive endocrinologists.

  13. Epidemiology of infertility: social problems of the infertile couples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiology of infertility: social problems of the infertile couples. Margaret .... imbalance in the power relations between men and women to such an .... India in 1993, the African Academy of Sciences issued a dissent- ..... York: Plenum Press.

  14. What is the current role of endoscopy in primary sclerosingcholangitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopy has important roles in the managementof primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), ranging fromnarrowing down the differential diagnoses, screeningfor complications, determining prognosis and therapy.While the need for a diagnostic endoscopic retrogradecholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be obviated by apositive magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography(MRCP), a negative MRCP does not exclude PSC andmay therefore necessitate an ERCP, which is traditionallyregarded as the gold standard. In this editorial we havenot covered the endoscopic management of inflammatorybowel disease in the context of PSC nor of endoscopicsurveillance and treatment of portal hypertension complicatingPSC.

  15. Epigenetics of reproductive infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Laxmidhar; Parbin, Sabnam; Pradhan, Nibedita; Kausar, Chahat; Patra, Samir K

    2017-06-01

    Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis. To determine the causes of infertility it is necessary to understand the altered epigenetic modifications of associated gene and mechanisms involved therein. This review is devoted to elucidate the recent mechanistic advances in regulation of genes by epigenetic modification and emphasizes their possible role related to reproductive infertility. It includes environmental, nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors and influence of internal structural architecture of chromatin nucleosomes affecting DNA and histone modifications in both male and female gametes, early embryogenesis and offspring. Finally, we would like to emphasize that research on human infertility by gene knock out of epigenetic modifiers genes must be relied upon animal models.

  16. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus: current strategies and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K. Bhattacharya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to find evidence for primary prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, and the feasibility of applying these interventions in resource limited countries. T2DM, which accounts for more than nine-tenths of all diabetics, results from inadequate insulin secretion or underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of diabetes, mainly T2DM, has increased rapidly during the last few decades worldwide. Since the genetic background is unlikely to change during this short time period, the growing epidemic of T2DM is more likely due to changes in environmental or lifestyle risk factors including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and stress. The scope and feasibility for primary prevention of T2DM is based on elimination of these risk factors. This evidence that T2DM is preventable comes from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials of effect of lifestyle changes and drugs in development of T2DM. The positive effects are more profound and safer with lifestyle modifications (LSM compared to medications. This is shown to be effective globally, across various ethnicities and races and sustainable on long-term follow-up. However, there is a major challenge in translating this evidence into economically viable and sustained community programs, as these LSM interventions are expensive, even from western standards point of view. Future plan should focus on health education of the public, improving the national capacity to detect and manage the environmental risks including strategies to reduce stress, and development of innovative, cost effective, and scalable methodologies.

  17. Infertility Research at the NICHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Interviews & Selected Staff Profiles Multimedia Focus on Infertility Research at the NICHD Skip sharing on social ... Unravel the Complex Causes of and Treatments for Infertility According to the Centers for Disease Control and ...

  18. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was developed in collaboration with ... a surgical procedure called laparoscopy. Does endometriosis cause infertility? If you have endometriosis, it may be more ...

  19. [Genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Aguilar, Raúl Eduardo; Chima-Galán, María del Carmen; Yerena-de-vega, María de la Concepción A; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Guerrero, Cecilia; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Recently Mexican Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Colleges (Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, FEMECOG) published the Mexican guideline forthe management of male infertility, which suggests performing genetic laboratory tests as part of diagnosis and management of infertile patients and states that these should receive genetic counseling. This paper reviews the genetic approach proposed by Mexican guideline. A systematic review of medical literature was performed in Pubmed and Web of Knowledge from 1980 to 2012 in order to find reports of genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients. Also it is discussed the current knowledge of these variants, their clinical implications and finally the guidelines and recommendations for their molecular diagnosis. Most genetic variants in Mexican infertile patients are chromosome abnormalities. In relation to other variants there is only a report of Y chromosome microdeletions, repeated CAG in androgen receptor and more common mutations in CFTR, and other article reporting mutations in CFTR in patients with congenital absence of vas deferens. Little is known about the genetics of Mexican infertile patients apart from chromosome abnormalities. However, the contribution of genetics as etiology of male infertility is taking more relevance and currently the consensual management of infertile male should include the screening of genetic background. This review pretends to be a quick guide for clinicians who want to know about reports of genetic variants related to male infertility in Mexican population and how to approach their diagnosis.

  20. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports – focus on male factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szkodziak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60–80 mln. According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%, irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility.

  1. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports - focus on male factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkodziak, Piotr; Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Wozniakowska, Ewa; Milart, Paweł; Mroczkowski, Artur; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2016-06-02

    Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60-80 mln). According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%), irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility.

  2. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  3. Infertility: psychotherapeutic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, M B

    1992-01-01

    In supportive therapy with infertility patients, the clinician tries to relieve dysphoria and enhance self-esteem. Dynamically informed supportive interventions are designed to decrease guilt that may relate to past sexual activities, sexually related diseases, or abortions. These interventions should also be empathetic, promote optimism and reality testing, help with problem solving, allow catharsis and ventilation, decrease feelings of isolation and loneliness, educate and clarify, and praise and encourage where appropriate. Mental health clinicians have an important role to play in the treatment of these patients, provided they learn enough about the psychology of the experience of infertility and about the technology utilized in its treatment. As the number of people seeking treatment for infertility grows, the need for skilled therapists for this population will grow at a parallel rate.

  4. Imaging female infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadow, Cheryl A; Sahni, V Anik

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this pictorial review is to discuss causes of female infertility, in particular, those etiologies in which imaging plays a key role in detection. Included are disorders of cervical, ovarian, fallopian tube, and uterine origin. We also discuss the role of various imaging modalities including hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, hysterosonography, and pelvic MR imaging in elucidating the cause of female infertility. Radiologists need to know the conditions to be aware of when these patients are sent for diagnostic imaging, as well as how to direct further management, if necessary, should an abnormality be detected.

  5. Male infertility microsurgical training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanksha Mehta; Philip S Li

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility.Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills.Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence,and reduces stress and operating time,benefiting both the patient and the surgeon.This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models.The role of emerging techniques,such as robotic-assisted microsurgery,is also discussed.

  6. Do current indications for surgery of primary gastric lymphoma exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Rodríguez-Sanjuán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the results of our series in order to assess whether surgical excision is still a valid therapeutic option in case the patient needs surgery. Secondarily, to analyze Helicobacter pylori infection rate. Patients and method: a retrospective study of 69 consecutive patients having stage IE-IIE primary gastric lymphoma; of these, 65 were treated by gastrectomy between 1974 and 1999. Mean age: 62.6 years (28-85. New staining of paraffin-embedded samples from the surgical specimen were carried out (hematoxiline-eosine, Giemsa, immunohistochemistry and reviewed. The histological classification was performed according to Isaacson's criteria. The statistical analysis was done by Chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests, as well as Kaplan-Meier and Log-Rank tests. Results: mortality was 9.2%. There were non-fatal complications in 10.8%. Helicobacter pylori was identified in 62.7%. Seven patients (11.9% suffered a relapse. The 5-year survival probability was 87%. The statistical analysis did not show any influences of Ann Arbor stage, gastric wall invasion, Helicobacter pylori infection, histological type, or margin resection involvement on survival. Conclusions: surgical excision provides a high rate of complete remissions and excellent long-term survival with acceptable mortality. Therefore it appears to be a valid treatment in case of emergency surgery, incidental finding, or lack of histological diagnosis.

  7. Infertility: Medical and Social Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report illustrates a range of options for Congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: (1) collecting data on reproductive health; (2) preventing infertility; (3) information to inform and protect consumers; (4) providing access to infertility services; (5) reproductive health of veterans; (6) transfer…

  8. Infertility, infertility treatment and behavioural problems in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Basso, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Behavioural patterns in children of infertile couples may be influenced by both the underlying causes of infertility and stress in the couples. Treatment procedures, such as culture media and manipulation of gametes and embryos, may also result in developmental problems. We examined behavioural...... problems in children as a function of infertility and infertility treatment, using data from three population-based birth cohorts in Denmark (Aalborg-Odense Birth Cohort, Aarhus Birth Cohort and Danish National Birth Cohort). Information on time to pregnancy and infertility treatment was collected during...... to pregnancy of >12 months and no infertility treatment had a behavioural pattern similar to children of fertile parents. Teachers reported a higher total difficulties score for children born after infertility treatment, but no significant differences were seen on any subscales of the teachers' report...

  9. New insights into the genetic basis of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thejaswini Venkatesh,1 Padmanaban S Suresh,2 Rie Tsutsumi3 1Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, 2Centre for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, India; 3University of Tokushima, Institute of Health Bioscience, Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Tokushima, Japan Abstract: Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system characterized by inability to achieve pregnancy after 12 or more months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. A variety of factors, including ovulation defects, spermatogenic failure, parental age, obesity, and infections have been linked with infertility, in addition to specific karyotypes and genotypes. The study of genes associated with infertility in rodent models has expanded the field of translational genetics in identifying the underlying cause of human infertility problems. Many intriguing aspects of the molecular basis of infertility in humans remain poorly understood; however, application of genetic knowledge in this field looks promising. The growing literature on the genetics of human infertility disorders deserves attention and a critical concise summary is required. This paper provides information obtained from a systematic analysis of the literature related to current research into the genetics of infertility affecting both sexes. Keywords: infertility, genetics, polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure, spermatogenic failure, cystic fibrosis

  10. Psychosocial Problems during Infertility Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Kirca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a complex situation crisis which is often psychologically-threatening and emotionally stressful for both partners as well as economically expensive and causes physical pain due to the operations performed for diagnosis and treatment purposes. Infertility has physical, psychological, social, emotional and financial impacts. Infertile couples are under a great social pressure, and need to conceal the problem as it is exceptionally private for them. Infertile individuals are destitute of support when they do not share their pregnancy problems with their families and relatives. Couples define their infertility experience as the most stressful experience of their lives.

  11. Lycopene and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam; Ashok Agarwal; Chloe Ong; Pallavi Prashast

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inlficted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneifcial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  12. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglesang Jensen, Christian S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M

    2017-01-01

    to explain the differential effect of varicoceles on infertility. As a consequence, careful patient selection for treatment based on couple fertility status, varicocele grade, and semen quality is critical for achieving a chance of a subsequent pregnancy. A substantial amount of data on the effects...

  13. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  14. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  15. Lycopene and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  16. Female Infertility and Serum Auto-antibodies: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroux, Alban; Dumestre-Perard, Chantal; Dunand-Faure, Camille; Bouillet, Laurence; Hoffmann, Pascale

    2016-09-14

    On average, 10 % of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Auto-immune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome) accounts for a part of these cases. In the last 20 years, aspecific auto-immunity, defined as positivity of auto-antibodies in blood sample without clinical or biological criteria for defined diseases, has been evoked in a subpopulation of infertile women. A systematic review was performed (PUBMED) using the MESH search terms "infertility" and "auto-immunity" or "reproductive technique" or "assisted reproduction" or "in vitro fertilization" and "auto-immunity." We retained clinical and physiopathological studies that were applicable to the clinician in assuming joint management of both infertility associated with serum auto-antibodies in women. Thyroid auto-immunity which affects thyroid function could be a cause of infertility; even in euthyroidia, the presence of anti-thyroperoxydase antibodies and/or thyroglobulin are related to infertility. The presence of anti-phospholipid (APL) and/or anti-nuclear (ANA) antibodies seems to be more frequent in the population of infertile women; serum auto-antibodies are associated with early ovarian failure, itself responsible for fertility disorders. However, there exist few publications on this topic. The methods of dosage, as well as the clinical criteria of unexplained infertility deserve to be standardized to allow a precise response to the question of the role of serum auto-antibodies in these women. The direct pathogenesis of this auto-immunity is unknown, but therapeutic immunomodulators, prescribed on a case-by-case basis, could favor pregnancy even in cases of unexplained primary or secondary infertility.

  17. Hijama (wet cupping) for female infertility treatment: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Abduljabbar; Anhar Gazzaz; Samiha Mourad; Ayman Oraif

    2016-01-01

    Background: To assess the effectiveness of wet cupping (Hijama) as a treatment of female factor infertility. The primary outcome measured was pregnancy rates after Hijama. The secondary outcome measured was the effect on the reproductive hormonal profile before and after Hijama. Methods: A pilot clinical study was conducted for the use of Hijama as treatment for female infertility at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from September 2013 to May 2015. Inclusion criteria included: patients w...

  18. An Epidemiologic Survey of Infertility in Dalian District of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛秦生; 张党生; 赵珩; 徐苓; 徐人庆; 陈玉芬; 曲阿珠

    1994-01-01

    An epidemiologic survey of infertility was carried out in Dalian district from September to December 1989. A two-stage random sampling was used to select subjects. Date were collected by household, interview with standardized questionnaire.Quality control was strictly executed. The respondent rate was 96%. A total of 5 918 couples were included in the analysis. The prevalence of primary infertility was 1.01% in this district. There was no significant difference between urban and rural

  19. Markers of genital tuberculosis in infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, A; Agrawal, A

    2011-12-01

    Although genital tuberculosis is a condition that is prevalent worldwide, it is still a diagnostic dilemma. This study aimed to find an effective diagnostic modality for the condition. A total of 100 infertile women were clinically evaluated with haemoglobin estimation, total and differential count, Mantoux test, tubercle bacilli enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TB ELISA), hysterosalpingography, pelvic ultrasonography, laparohysteroscopy, premenstrual endometrial biopsy for histopathology, culture and tubercle bacilli polymerase chain reaction (TBPCR). The womens' Day 2 hormonal profile (luteinising, follicle-stimulating, prolactin and thyroidstimulating hormones) and their husbands' semen analysis were also conducted. A total of 58 women had primary infertility and 42 had secondary infertility. Female factor infertility was present in 63 percent of the cases (mostly tubal; 45.97 percent). 26 women tested positive for endometrial TBPCR. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Mantoux test, TB ELISA and hysterosalpingography were found to have high negative predictive value (greater than 80 percent), while the positive predictive value was 35-45 percent. Laparoscopy findings were suggestive of tuberculosis in 13 percent of the women, out of which 83.3 percent were positive for endometrial TBPCR. Hysteroscopy revealed intrauterine adhesions in 34.8 percent of the women, with 68.8 percent being positive for tubercular bacilli. Our study established that in cases of genital tuberculosis, the use of expensive endometrial TBPCR tests may be avoided with a detailed workup, which would also help in the institution of anti-tubercular treatment in early disease, thus enhancing the chance of pregnancy.

  20. Factors Contributing to the Current Academic Performance of Both Private Primary Schools and Public Primary Schools: A Case of Kitale Municipality, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Ochenje

    2015-01-01

    There have been current controversial discussions concerning the performance of private primary schools versus public primary schools in the Kenya Certificate of Primary Examination (K.C.P.E.). Lately, the private primary schools appear to be performing better than public primary schools. For example; in the 2003 K.C.P.E. results, more than 31% of…

  1. Hysteroscopic evaluation in infertile patients: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latika Sahu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hysteroscopy is the gold standard procedure for uterine cavity exploration. However, hysteroscopy is only recommended by the WHO when clinical or complementary exams (ultrasound, HSG suggest intrauterine abnormality or after in vitro fertilization failure. Nevertheless, many specialists feel that hysteroscopy is a more accurate tool. The aim of this prospective study is to assess the value of diagnostic hysteroscopy in a primary workup of infertility by describing hysteroscopy findings in a population of 324 infertile patients during 18 months (December 2010 - May 2012. Methods: We analysed prospectively 324 infertile patients in gynaecology OT setting. Diagnostic video-assisted hysteroscopy was performed using a flexible hysteroscope. Hysteroscopy was performed with a standard sequence, inspecting the endocervical canal, uterine cavity, endometrium, and tubal ostia and findings recorded. Results: Hysteroscopy was normal in 65.12% of patients. Cervico-isthmic abnormalities were present in 6.48% of patients with cervical stenosis being the major abnormality. Uterine cavity was normal in 86% of patients. Observed abnormalities were septate uterus in 10 cases, intrauterine synechiae in 16 cases, sub mucus myoma in 2 cases, deformed cavity in 10 cases and endometrial polyp in 2 cases. Ostial fibrosis was observed in 29 patients. Endometrial abnormalities (fibrosis, inflammation were observed in 30 patients. Seven patients turned out to be of genital tuberculosis with endometrial biopsy. No significance was found regarding the total number of intrauterine pathologies when comparing the groups of primary versus secondary infertility. Conclusions: Rates of abnormal findings in infertile patient who underwent diagnostic hysteroscopy was 34.88% in our study. Our data are an additional argument to suggest hysteroscopy as part of investigation in infertile woman. Routine diagnostic hysteroscopy should be part of an infertility workup in primary

  2. Management of Unexplained Infertility

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    Ozgur Kan

    2014-06-01

    In the management of the unexplained infertility, the initial treatment must be observational approach and changing the life style. It is demonstrated that using only the clomiphene citrate or intrauterine insemination is not effective. For this reason, as the patients age and ovarian reserve considered, after the observational approach, the initial treatment must be the combination of clomiphene citrate and intrauterine insemination. With this approach, pregnancy rate is rises to 10 percent for a cycle. Management wise, choosing the cheapest effective treatment for increased fertilization should be the priority, before moving onto more expensive and aggresive approaches. Apart from the diagnostic work-up, which more or less the same for every patient, treatment protocol should be individualised for every infertile couple. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(3.000: 506-518

  3. Chronic endometritis and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Kim, You Shin; Yoon, Tae Ki; Lee, Woo Sik

    2016-12-01

    Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition involving the breakdown of the peaceful co-existence between microorganisms and the host immune system in the endometrium. A majority of CE cases produce no noticeable signs or mild symptoms, and the prevalence rate of CE has been found to be approximately 10%. Gynecologists and pathologists often do not focus much clinical attention on CE due to the time-consuming microscopic examinations necessary to diagnose CE, its mild clinical manifestations, and the benign nature of the disease. However, the relationship between CE and infertility-related conditions such as repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage has recently emerged as an area of inquiry. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology of CE and how it may be associated with infertility, as well as the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of CE. In addition, we discuss the value of hysteroscopic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of CE.

  4. Chronic endometritis and infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jong; Kim, You Shin; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2016-01-01

    Chronic endometritis (CE) is a condition involving the breakdown of the peaceful co-existence between microorganisms and the host immune system in the endometrium. A majority of CE cases produce no noticeable signs or mild symptoms, and the prevalence rate of CE has been found to be approximately 10%. Gynecologists and pathologists often do not focus much clinical attention on CE due to the time-consuming microscopic examinations necessary to diagnose CE, its mild clinical manifestations, and the benign nature of the disease. However, the relationship between CE and infertility-related conditions such as repeated implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage has recently emerged as an area of inquiry. In this study, we reviewed the literature on the pathophysiology of CE and how it may be associated with infertility, as well as the literature regarding the diagnosis and treatment of CE. In addition, we discuss the value of hysteroscopic procedures in the diagnosis and treatment of CE. PMID:28090456

  5. Laparohysteroscopy in female infertility: A diagnostic cum therapeutic tool in Indian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Suman; Jain, Dinesh; Puri, Sandeep; Kaushal, Sandeep; Deol, Satjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the role of laparohysteroscopy in female infertility andto study the effect of therapeutic procedures in achieving fertility. Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Fifty consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to laparoscopy were subject to diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. T-test. We studied 50 patients comprising of 24 (48%) cases of primary infertility and 26 (52%) patients of secondary infertility. The average age of active married life for 50 patients was between 8 and 9 years. In our study, the most commonly found pathologies were PCOD, endometroisis and tubal blockage. 11 (28.2) patients conceived after laparohysteroscopy followed by artificial reproductive techniques. This study demonstrates the benefit of laparohysteroscopy for diagnosis and as a therapeutic tool in patients with primary and secondary infertility. We were able to achieve a higher conception rate of 28.2%.

  6. Tarlov cyst and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Azam, Amir; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Tarlov cysts or spinal perineurial cysts are uncommon lesions. These are mostly incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging or myelograms. The objectives of this study were to describe Tarlov cysts of the sacral region as a potential cause for retrograde ejaculations and review available management options. Case report and literature review. A 28-year-old man presented with back pain and retrograde ejaculations resulting in infertility. After microsurgical excision of large perineurial cysts, back pain resolved, but semen quality showed only marginal improvement. Later, the couple successfully conceived by intrauterine insemination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Tarlov cyst associated with retrograde ejaculation and infertility. Despite being mostly asymptomatic and an incidental finding, Tarlov cyst is an important clinical entity because of its tendency to increase in size with time. Tarlov cysts of the sacral and cauda equina region may be a rare underlying cause in otherwise unexplained retrograde ejaculations and infertility. Microsurgical excision may be a good option in a select group of patients.

  7. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information....... The period of infertility and the P-test are best scored as continuous variables, whereas the female infertility factor are best categorized in four classes, i.e., normal, ovulation or cervical disorder, anatomic disorder, or a combination of disorders. CONCLUSIONS: The three prognostic variables...

  8. EVIDENCE BASED INCIDENCE OF TUBAL FACTOR IN SECONDARY INFERTILITY AS DETECTED BY HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY IN WESTERN MAHARASHTRA

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    Anil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is documented that 15% of all women experience primary or secondary infertility at one point in time in their reproductive life. Tubal causes of infertility account for 35 to 40% of causes of infertility. HSG is still a commonly used investigation in the evaluation of the female genital tract and the main indication for the HSG is infertility. AIMS  To find out incidence of tubal factor in secondary infertility in Western Maharashtra population.  To establish reliability of Hysterosalpingography in evaluating tubal status. MATERIALS AND METHOD A retrospective study of 464 hysterosalpingographies of women having secondary infertility was done over period of two years. The patients having tubal defects were further studied and statistically analysed. Statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS computer software, version 17.0. Results were presented in tables and graphs. RESULTS  Hysterosalpingography has proved to be an ideal (or ‘gold standard’ test to detect tubal abnormalities in infertile women.  The commonest structural cause of infertility in Western Maharashtra as per this study was bilateral tubal blockage and was commoner in patients with secondary infertility. CONCLUSIONS Evaluation of tubal patency and tubal integrity is a key component of the diagnostic work-up in infertile couples. In conclusion, bilateral tubal occlusion remains the major tubal pathology in female infertility in Western Maharashtra. Tubal blockages with subsequent tubal factor infertility are still common among infertile couples. This may probably be due to chronic pelvic inflammatory disease or pelvic infection following sexually transmitted infections, mismanaged pregnancies and septic abortions, since the majority of the women presented with secondary infertility. Measures to prevent the occurrence of these infections should be paramount.

  9. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Y chromosome infertility Y chromosome infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Y chromosome infertility is a condition that affects the production of ...

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Primary Current Distribution in Parallel-Plate Electrochemical Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Aranda, Armando I.; Henquin, Eduardo R.; Torres, Israel Rodriguez; Bisang, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described to determine the primary current distribution in parallel-plate electrochemical reactors. The electrolyte is simulated by conductive paper and the electrodes are segmented to measure the current distribution. Experiments are reported with the electrolyte confined to the interelectrode gap, where the current…

  12. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP > 12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTP 12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS: Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  13. Male Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Retrograde ejaculation Semen analysis Sperm release pathway Testicular biopsy Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Female Infertility Infertility National Institutes of Health The ...

  14. Initial management of infertility: an audit of pre-referral investigations and exploration of couples' views at the interface of primary and secondary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, C; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, S; Hamilton, M; Templeton, A; Smith, B; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2007-03-01

    This study aimed to audit pre-referral investigations in primary care, and survey patients' views on the referral process from primary to secondary care. Referral letters and case notes of 250 consecutive couples referred to the Aberdeen Fertility Centre were audited in order to establish whether mid-luteal serum progesterone, rubella status and semen analysis had been performed. Couples attending a specialist hospital clinic for the first time completed a questionnaire on their experience of the referral process and consultation. Mid-luteal progesterone was performed in 105 (51%) cases, rubella status checked in 42 (20%) cases and semen analysis arranged in 70 (34%) cases. Overall, 274 (93%) patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the hospital consultation compared to 216 (84%) who utilised the general practitioner (GP) consultation (p direct self-referral. Despite high levels of satisfaction among couples, there is scope for further improvement in terms of pre-referral fertility investigations. Further evaluation of the referral process is needed, and potential changes to the existing system should be considered.

  15. Relationship between perceived social support and clinical variables in infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Eren BODUR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of perceived social support in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. It was also observed that perceieved social support from the family has a positive effect on the marital adjustment. The perceived social support level in men in infertil couples is lower than women in the same group, and this outcome is also related with the increasing anxiety in men. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 214-223

  16. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts

    OpenAIRE

    Punab, M.; Poolamets, O; Paju, P.; Vihljajev, V.; Pomm, K.; Ladva, R.; Korrovits, P.; Laan, M

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was cond...

  17. Laparascopic ventrosuspension in infertile patients. A new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, G I; Hefnawi, F

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Falope-Ring via laparascopy to the round ligaments in 86 infertile patients, for correction of retroversion of the uterus. Diagnostic laparascopy was performed on 2600 cases of infertility at Al-Azhar University Teaching Hospitals during a 3-year period. Laparascopy was performed as a primary mehtod of investigation of infertility, after clinical examination and semen analysis in 866 patients. These included long term cases of infertility, late marriage and cases where pelvic pathology was suspected on clinical grounds. Laparascopy was used as a final line of investigation of infertility in 1734 patients. In 86 patients with retroverted uterus as the only abnormality deteched, ventrosuspension was performed via the laparascope, by applying Falope-Rings to the round ligaments. These patients were followed up for periods varying from 6 months to 2 years. Pregnancy occurred in 24 patients and improvement of backache, deep dysparunea, congestive dysmenorrhea and leukorrhea occurred in 88.37%, 83.72%, 72.05% and 68.76%, respectively. The technique described in this paper is simple, easy to learn, can be performed under general or local anesthesia and is performed during the laparascopic investigation of the infertile cases and thus does not add an extra risk of operation or cost to the patient.

  18. Correlation of serum thyroid hormones and prolactin levels to female infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliki Hymavathi

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Identifying and treating hypothyroidism and hyperprolactinemia at an early stage can have potentially great preventive value in the screening of all infertile females levels should be included in the primary workup of the infertile female. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(11.000: 4018-4024

  19. Laparoscopy:As a First Line Diagnostic Tool for Infertility Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatuja, Ritu; Juneja, Atul; Mehta, Sumita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The role of diagnostic and therapeutic hystero-laparoscopy in women with infertility is well established. It is helpful not only in the identification of the cause but also in the management of the same at that time. Materials and Methods: In this study, the aim was to analyse the results of 203 women on whom laparoscopy for the evaluation of infertility was done. This study was carried out at a tertiary level hospital from 2005 to 2012. The study group included 121 women with primary infertility and 82 women with secondary infertility. Women with incomplete medical records and isolated male factor infertility were excluded from the study. Results: It was observed that tubal disease was the responsible factor in 62.8% women with primary infertility and 54.8% women with secondary infertility followed by pelvic adhesions in 33% and 31.5%, ovarian factor in 14% and 8.5%, pelvic endometriosis in 9.9% and 6.1% women respectively. Thus tubal factor infertility is still a major cause of infertility in developing countries and its management at an early stage is important to prevent an irreversible damage. At the same time, it also directs which couples would be benefited from assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:25478408

  20. Ethical issues in infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serour, Gamal I; Serour, Ahmed G

    2017-03-01

    Infertility is a global medico-socio-cultural problem with gender-based suffering particularly in developing countries. Conventional methods of treatment for infertility do not usually raise ethical concerns. However, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has initiated considerable ethical debate, disagreement, and controversy. There are three ethical principles that provide an ethical basis for ART: the principle of liberty, principle of utility, and principle of justice. Medical ethics are based on the moral, religious, and philosophical ideas and principles of the society and are influenced by economics, policies, and law. This creates tension between the principles of justice and utility, which can result in disparity in the availability of and access to ART services between the rich and the poor. The moral status of the embryo is the key for all the ethical considerations and law regarding ART in different societies. This has resulted in cross-border ART. Conscientious objection of healthcare providers should not deprive couples from having access to a required ART service.

  1. Thyroid dysfunction in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Perminova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the rate and structure of thyroid diseases in infertile women and to asses their reproductive system depending upon the thyroid pathology. Subjects and methods. The study was based on the results of screening of T status of 496 women with infertility (main group and 80 fertile women (control group. Traditional methods of diagnosis of infertility were used along with special methods of investigation including assessment of function and structure of T (TTH, fT4, fT3, AT-TPO, AT-rTTH, ultrasound examination of T, thin-niddle aspirational biopsy, scintigraphy of T. A complex evaluation of the reproductive system status in infertile women was done depending on the type of T pathology. Results. Infertile women were found to suffer from thyroid dysfunction 3.8 times as more often as fertile ones (48% and 12.5%, p <0.05. Its structure included mainly AT-TPO carrier phenomenon in combination with ultrasound markers of thyroid autoimmunity (24%, hypothyroidism following thyroid autoimmunity (9.4% demonstrating itself as clinical (0.8%, subclinical (8.6%, and euthyroid (7.8% goiters. The portion of women with infertility and hyperthyroidism was small (0.6%. An association of thyroid autoimmunity with idiopathic infertility, endometriosis, endocrine infertility was found. Conclusion. It is necessary to perform a screening assessment of the function and structure of T in infertile women within diagnostic search for the reasons of infertility and in-time correction of the revealed thyroid dysfunction.

  2. Searching for candidate genes for male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.N.Truong; E.K.Moses; J.E.Armes; D.J.Venter; H.W.G.Baker

    2003-01-01

    Aim: We describe an approach to search for candidate genes for male infertility using the two human genome databases: the public University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) and private Celera databases which list known and predicted gene sequences and provide related information such as gene function, tissue expression,known mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods and Results: To demonstrate this in silico research, the following male infertility candidate genes were selected: (1) human BOULE, mutations of which may lead to germ cell arrest at the primary spermatocyte stage, (2) mutations of casein kinase 2 alpha genes which may cause globozoospermia, (3) DMR-N9 which is possibly involved in the spermatogenic defect of myotonic dystrophy and (4) several testes expressed genes at or near the breakpoints of a balanced translocation associated with hypospermatogenesis. We indicate how information derived from the human genome databases can be used to confirm these candidate genes may be pathogenic by studying RNA expression in tissue arrays using in situ hybridization and gene sequencing. Conclusion: The paper explains the new approach to discovering genetic causes of male infertility using information about the human genome. ( Asian J Andro1 2003 Jun; 5:137-147 )

  3. 'Mama and papa nothing': living with infertility among an urban population in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, N; van de Wijgert, J; Coene, G; Gasarabwe, A; Temmerman, M

    2011-03-01

    Not being able to procreate has severe social and economic repercussions in resource-poor countries. The purpose of this research was to explore the consequences of female and/or male factor infertility for men and women in Rwanda. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Couples presenting with female and/or male factor infertility problems at the infertility clinic of the Kigali University Teaching Hospital (n = 312), and fertile controls who recently delivered (n = 312), were surveyed about domestic violence, current and past relationships and sexual functioning. In addition, five focus group discussions were held with a subsample of survey participants, who were either patients diagnosed with female- or male-factor fertility or their partners. Domestic violence, union dissolutions and sexual dysfunction were reported more frequently in the survey by infertile than fertile couples. The psycho-social consequences suffered by infertile couples in Rwanda are severe and similar to those reported in other resource-poor countries. Although women carry the largest burden of suffering, the negative repercussions of infertility for men, especially at the level of the community, are considerable. Whether the infertility was caused by a female factor or male factor was an important determinant for the type of psycho-social consequences suffered. In Rwanda, as in other resource-poor countries, infertility causes severe suffering. There is an urgent need to recognize infertility as a serious reproductive health problem and to put infertility care on the public health agenda.

  4. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  5. Foreign Languages in Vienna Primary Schools – in Mainstream Education and in Current Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Seebauer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting with a short retrospective and an overview of the incorporation of foreign language learning into the Austrian curriculum for primary schools the paper in hand describes the current situation of foreign language teaching in primary schools as well as various current models of foreign language education in primary schools in Vienna (school year 1 to 4. In terms of objectives these models exceed the requirements of the curriculum of the formal education system or regard themselves as quantitative and qualitative enrichment. They follow different didactic approaches and/or site-specific characteristics and needs. The formulation of basic skills is to be understood as an attempt to find a common basis of output indicators and to facilitate the transition to secondary education. Although English is the most commonly chosen resp. offered language the paper also refers to school experiments that focus on Romance or Slavic languages or on languages of Austra’s neighbouring countries.

  6. Biochemical infertility among females attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akande, A A; Idowu, A A; Jimoh, A K

    2009-03-01

    Biochemical laboratory investigations potentially contribute to the diagnosis of over 50-75% of couples being investigated for infertility. Both hormonal and anti-hormonal treatments have achieved great successes in the treatment of infertility. Our aim therefore was to investigate the pattern of biochemical abnormalities in females diagnosed as infertile form anovulation. One hundred and twenty women diagnosed clinically as primary or secondary infertility from anovulation referred from the gynecological clinic of UITH and private hospitals in Ilorin were investigated by routine fertility test profile. The age ranged between 20-40 years (mean = 32.9, sd +/- 4.7) for the primary infertility and 23-47 years (mean = 34.4, sd +/- 5.4) for the secondary infertility groups respectively. Ninety six (80%) subjects were found to have hormonal abnormalities. Pattern of biochemical diagnosis amongst the 33 (34.4%) primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism 21 (63.6%), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism 9 (27.3%), and hyperprolactinemia 3 (9.1%). Among the 63 (65.6%) cases of secondary infertility, there were 31 (49.2%) cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, 30 (47.6%) hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and 2 (3.2%) hyperprolactinemia. There was no statistical difference in the mean values in the various biochemical parameters. Hormonal profile should be a goal standard in the diagnosis of anovulation.

  7. Diagnostic Office Vaginohysteroscopy in Evaluation of Infertility Prior to IVF: A Retrospective Analysis of 1000 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen; Mohan, Surender; Talwar, Pankaj; Rai, Seema; Nagaraja, N; Sharma, Prashant

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the utility of routine use of diagnostic office vaginohysteroscopy in the evaluation of uterine cavity in infertility patients prior to IVF-ET. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 1000 women who had undergone routine diagnostic office vaginohysteroscopy as an institutional protocol in the evaluation of infertility prior to IVF-ET cycle at a tertiary care hospital. They were divided into two groups: primary infertility (group I) and secondary infertility (group II). The primary outcome was the finding of an abnormal uterine cavity (congenital abnormality vs acquired abnormality). One thousand women underwent routine diagnostic office vaginohysteroscopy in the evaluation of infertility prior to IVF-ET. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. Vaginohysteroscopy revealed an abnormal uterine cavity in 13.8% (1000 patients) of women. Primary infertility group (I) had 13.19% (811 patients), and secondary infertility group (II) had 16.4% (189 patients) abnormal uterine cavities. Diagnostic office vaginohysteroscopy has a definite role in the uterine cavity evaluation in infertility patients prior to IVF, but routine use should not be recommended considering the low incidence of abnormal uterine cavity findings. Moreover, the majority of these uterine cavity abnormalities can be detected by less invasive tests such as HSG, TVS, SSG and 3D ultrasound.

  8. Hysterosalpingographic findings in infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M. S.; Kim, K. S.; Kim, J. S.; Bai, B. C. [Seoul Red Cross Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1981-12-15

    Four hundred and fifty four cases of H.S.G. in infertility were analyzed and following brief results were obtained. 1. Most frequent age group was 25-29 year old, and those number of patient were 188 (41.4%). 2. Most frequent abnormal uterine findings was intravasation (113 cases), and malposition (119), irregular margin (104), filling defect (37), and diverticulum (6) in decreasing order. 3. Most frequent abnormal tubal finding was obstruction (199 cases), and hydrosalpinx (99), diverticulosis (22), intravasation (17), peritubal adhesion (13), and beaded tube (10) in decreasing order. 4. Nagative findings was seen in 155 cases (34.1%) of uterus and in 227 cases (50.0%) of fallopian tubes. 5. Nagative findings in both uterus and fallopian tubes was seen only 87 cases (19.2%)

  9. The role of intrauterine insemination in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanji Tijani, Hammed; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2010-12-01

    Male infertility is a common condition and intrauterine insemination (IUI) is used to treat the mild to moderate forms. Male subfertility determination is usually based on routine semen analysis but recent publications have questioned its diagnostic and prognostic accuracy as well as the effectiveness of IUI itself, as a treatment modality. We carried out a structured review of the literature to assess the current evidence regarding the diagnosis of male infertility, the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of IUI in male infertility and factors that affect the outcome of IUI. There is still uncertainty regarding the criteria for diagnosing male infertility and predicting treatment outcome based on standard semen parameters. The presence of seminal defects compromises the outcome of IUI in comparison with unexplained infertility. The total motile sperm count (TMSC) appears to have a consistent, direct relationship with treatment outcome, but there is no definite predictive threshold for success. However, it is reasonable to offer IUI as first-line treatment if TMSC is greater than 10 million when balancing the risk and cost of alternate treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). Sperm DNA studies and sperm preparation techniques warrant further studies in order to establish their clinical relevance. There are limited data on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of IUI in male infertility and large high-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted. However the difficulties in organizing such a study, at the present time, are a matter for discussion.

  10. Induced Abortion and the Risk of Tubal Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between induced abortion and tubal infertility in Chengdu, China.Methods A 1 :2 case-control study was designed. Infertile women with bilateral tubal occlusion in the case group compared with two control groups: infertile control group with bilateral tubal patency and pregnant control group with currently pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires through face-to-face interviews, covering the subjects' demographic details and histories of gynecology and obstetrics. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated as a measure of the association using stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis.Results Induced abortion was not found to be associated with tubal infertility in the analysis including either the infertile controls or the pregnant controls, but other risk factors were found, such as history of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), lower abdominal surgeries, dysmenorrhea and pregnancy.Conclusion It is contended that facing an increasing trend of infertile cases with tubal occlusion in China, it is emphasized that special attention should paid to the long term impact of reproductive tract infection, especially, asymptomatic ones, rather than induced abortion.

  11. A Primary and Backup Protection Algorithm based on Voltage and Current Measurements for HVDC Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Abedrabbo, Mudar; Van Hertem, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    DC grids are susceptible to DC side faults, which lead to a rapid rise of the DC side currents. DC side faults should be detected in a very short time before fault currents cause damage to the system or equipment, e.g., exceed the maximum interruptible limits of DC circuit breaker. This paper presents a primary and backup protective data-based algorithm. The proposed algorithm depends on the local voltage and current measurements to detect and identify various kinds of faults in the HVDC grid...

  12. Net primary productivity, upwelling and coastal currents in the Gulf of Ulloa, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Ulloa, a highly productive area off the western coast of Baja California Peninsula, is examined for five successive years (2003–2007 by using satellite data and seasonal net primary productivity estimates obtained by a vertical generalized production model. The results clearly identify a seasonal signal of coastal upwelling in productivity estimates. Highest values occur from May to June and sometimes July. We also find influence of an equatorward coastal current able of transporting water from neighboring north upwelling areas to the Gulf of Ulloa in winter–spring. This flow contributes to increase the seasonal net primary productivity. The opposite occurs in summer, when a warm poleward current of tropical characteristics arrives to the region. Our findings reveal that such warm coastal current suppressed the productivity in the whole.

  13. Dark currents and their effect on the primary beam in an X-band linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl L. F. Bane

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We numerically study properties of primary dark currents in an X-band accelerating structure. For the H60VG3 structure considered for the Next Linear Collider (NLC we first perform a fairly complete (with some approximations calculation of dark-current trajectories. These results are used to study properties of the dark current leaving the structure. For example, at accelerating gradient of 65  MV/m, considering two very different assumptions about dark-current emission around the irises, we find that the fraction of emitted current leaving the structure to be a consistent ∼1%. Considering that ∼1  mA outgoing dark current is seen in measurement, this implies that ∼100  mA (or 10 pC per period is emitted within the structure itself. Using the formalism of the Liénard-Wiechert potentials, we then perform a systematic calculation of the transverse kick of dark currents on a primary linac bunch. The result is ∼1   V kick per mA (or per 0.1  pC per period dark current emitted from an iris. For an entire structure we estimate the total kick on a primary bunch to be ∼15   V. For the NLC linac this translates to a ratio of (final vertical beam offset to beam size of about 0.2. However, with the assumptions that needed to be made—particularly the number of emitters and their distribution within a structure—the accuracy of this result may be limited to the order of magnitude.

  14. The relationship between dyadic adjustment with demographic and clinical variables in infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Eren Bodur

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of dyadic adjustment in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 51-62

  15. Human infertility: are endocrine disruptors to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Pinto, André; Carvalho, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiological studies have been reporting worrisome trends in the incidence of human infertility rates. Extensive detection of industrial chemicals in human serum, seminal plasma and follicular fluid has led the scientific community to hypothesise that these compounds may disrupt hormonal homoeostasis, leading to a vast array of physiological impairments. Numerous synthetic and natural substances have endocrine-disruptive effects, acting through several mechanisms. The main route of exposure to these chemicals is the ingestion of contaminated food and water. They may disturb intrauterine development, resulting in irreversible effects and may also induce transgenerational effects. This review aims to summarise the major scientific developments on the topic of human infertility associated with exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), integrating epidemiological and experimental evidence. Current data suggest that environmental levels of EDs may affect the development and functioning of the reproductive system in both sexes, particularly in foetuses, causing developmental and reproductive disorders, including infertility. EDs may be blamed for the rising incidence of human reproductive disorders. This constitutes a serious public health issue that should not be overlooked. The exposure of pregnant women and infants to EDs is of great concern. Therefore, precautionary avoidance of exposure to EDs is a prudent attitude in order to protect humans and wildlife from permanent harmful effects on fertility. PMID:23985363

  16. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    ... for long-term possibility of live birth. In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases...

  17. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takeshi Shin; Hiroshi Okada

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore im-portant in the m-anagem-ent of patients with IBD. However, relatively m-odest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by m-en with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatm-ent on m-ale fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a system-atic search for published studies. A PubM ed search were perform-ed using the m-ain search term-s "IBD AND m-ale infertility", "Crohn’s disease AND m-ale infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND m-ale infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, sm-oking, m-edications, and surgery m-ay cause infertility in m-en with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectom-y with ileal pouch-anal anastom-osis, rectal incision seem-s to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the m-edications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces m-ale fertility. No other m-edications appear to affect m-ale fertility significantly, although sm-all studies suggested som-e adverse effects. There are lim-ited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on m-ale fertility and pregnancy outcom-es; however, patients should be inform-ed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides inform-ation on fertility-related issues in m-en with IBD and discusses treatm-ent options.

  18. Focus Issue on Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility problems can occur when sperms are limited in number or function. In this paper, we describe the clinical evaluation of male infertility. A detailed history, physical examination, and basic semen analysis are required. In addition, ultrasound, karyotyping, and hormonal studies are needed to determine specific causes of infertility. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO, 2009 has developed a manual to provide guidance in performing a comprehensive semen analysis. Among the possible reasons for male infertility, nonobstructive azoospermia is the least treatable, because few or no mature sperm may be produced. In many cases, men with nonobstructive azoospermia typically have small-volume testes and elevated FSH. Although treatment may not completely restore the quality of semen from men with subnormal fertility, in some cases a successful pregnancy can still be achieved through assisted reproductive technology.

  19. Successful treatment of unilateral cryptorchid boys risking infertility with LH-RH analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Hadziselimovic

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Infertility is the primary concern for boys with uni- or bilateral undescended testes. An early and seemingly successful orchiopexy does not improve fertility in a substantial number of cryptorchid males. We confirmed that LH-RH analogue (LH-RHa treatment induces an increase in and maturation of the germ cells; however, it was uncertain if treatment would improve the chance of fertility later in life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty unilateral cryptorchid boys, with an average age of 3 years at the time of surgery, were included in the study. Testicular biopsy showed that they had impaired testicular maturation and were therefore at high risk for infertility. Fifteen of the 30 unilateral cryptorchid boys were treated with 10 µg LH-RHa (Buserelin nasal spray, administered on alternate days for a period of 6 months, following orchiopexy. The control group consisted of 15 cryptorchid boys who had been treated by Schoemakers type of orchiopexy, alone. After puberty, the ejaculates of both groups were analyzed. RESULTS: All males in the untreated group were severely oligospermic, with 20% being azoospermic. In contrast, 86% of the treated ex-cryptorchid males had a sperm concentration within the normal range; this was significantly different from the sperm concentration found in the untreated group (p = 0.000008. CONCLUSION: For the first time, we demonstrate that infertility in cryptorchidism can be successfully corrected when suitably treated with a LH-RHa. Sperm parameters normalized following therapy in the majority of cryptorchid males who, untreated, would have remained infertile. This innovative hormonal treatment will have a profound effect on the current recommended surgical treatment of boys with undescended testes.

  20. Isolated low follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Salama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males received a significant attention and exploration. Studies investigating the isolated deficiency of FSH in males are few, and its real prevalence is still unknown. Therefore, the objectives of the current study was to report the prevalence of isolated low FSH in infertile males and highlight their demographics and standard sperm parameters. Methods: Records of 3335 infertile men were retrospectively checked. Patients with isolated low FSH were retrieved. FSH levels were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of affected sperm parameter (s. Study variables were also arranged into 2 groups in relation to smoking history. A control group was included to document the changes in sperm morphology. Results: Isolated low FSH (1.146 ± 0.219 mIU/mL was found in 29 (0.87% patients. All patients showed at least one abnormal sperm parameter. The abnormal parameters were present in different combinations within the same patient but with no significant correlations with the FSH levels. The FSH levels got lower as the number of the affected sperm parameters increased although the decline was insignificant. The most frequent abnormal parameter presented was sperm morphology (86.2%. Anomalous sperm morphology was highly and significantly demonstrated in the head; specifically in acrosome. Abnormal sperm parameters were present in both smoking and nonsmoking groups but with no significant differences in between. Conclusions: Isolated low FSH among infertile males has a low prevalence. This may be associated with abnormality in semen parameters; particularly sperm morphology. These patients are suggested to be found as a primary entity. However, an additional work-up is highly recommended to validate this hypothesis.

  1. Infertility Counseling and Support: When and Where to Find It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  2. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Bieniek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling.

  3. The Impact of Galactorrhoea on Infertility In Port Harcourt.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    and contribution of galactorrhoea to female infertility and to determine ... women as seen in this study. 16.1% of the ... links it to her monthly dream of expected pregnancy. It is ... schizophrenia; prolactinoma and primary hypothyroidism are also ...

  4. A CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF INFERTILE COUPLES AMONG THE SUBURBAN/RURAL POPULATION OF BOKAKHAT, ASSAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabika

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse (WHO-ICMART. Infertility is the inability of a sexually active, non-contraception couple to achieve pregnancy in one year. Infertility affects relatively large number of couples, both globally as well as in India. There are sparse data on the prevalence of infertility in India. This study describes the correlates and prevalence of infertility among couples in Bokakhat, Assam, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study is a cross-sectional study done in the suburban/rural field practice area of Bokakhat Subdivisional Civil Hospital, during August 2008 to July 2009. Couples having infertility were identified using WHO definition by house to house survey and interviewed to know various epidemiological correlates including demographic characteristics, aetiology and treatment if taken for the same. RESULTS There were total of 1755 eligible couples and 167 were found to be having primary or secondary infertility. The study showed that among eligible couple’s prevalence of primary infertility was 6.4%, while secondary infertility was 3.01%. Among couples with primary infertility, male factors were responsible in 18 (15.78%, female factors in 32 (28.07%, both partners were accountable in 27 (23.68%, while 37 (32.45% couple’s cause of infertility was unexplained. CONCLUSION It was concluded that this study has provided significant information concerning the prevalence of infertility in our area and also provided information about different demographical and aetiological factors associated with infertility.

  5. Estimation of the frequency of involuntary infertility on a nation-wide basis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slama, R.; Hansen, O. K. H.; Ducot, B.; Bohet, A.; Sorensen, D.; Allemand, L. Giorgis; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Rosetta, L.; Thalabard, J. C.; Keiding, N.; Bouyer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing couple fecundity on a nation-wide basis without excluding couples who eventually remain infertile is challenging. Our aim was to describe couple fecundity (in terms of frequency of involuntary infertility) among the general population living in France. We used a current-duration design. A

  6. Infertility and assisted reproduction in Denmark. Epidemiology and psychosocial consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lone

    2006-11-01

    Management Training Programme, an intervention study among couples(n=74 participants) in fertility treatment at The Fertility Clinic, The Juliane Marie Centre, Rigshospitalet, 2001-2003. Included is also a literature review of population-based infertility studies from industrialised countries. Data from (iii) and (iv) are studies from The Copenhagen Multi-centre Psychosocial Infertility (COMPI) Research Programme (www.compipro.dk). Epidemiological and demographic studies investigating the prevalences of infertility differed in how they defined the numerator (the infertile participants) and the denominator (the population at risk). It was important to calculate reliable estimates of the infertility prevalence by including only women who had tried to have at least one child in the population at risk, as a notable proportion of women in the fertile ages had not (yet) attempted to become a mother. The lifetime prevalence of infertility in the representative population-based study was 26.4%. In the age group 35 to 44 years 5.8% were primarily involuntarily in fecund (involuntarily childless). Even in a country with access to fertility treatment in a public health-care system without self-payment lower education was a predictor of lower treatment seeking. In the cohort study (2000-2002)of couples starting a new period of assisted reproduction treatment 62.6% reported a treatment-related pregnancy at the one-year follow-up. In total 32.4% reported a treatment-related delivery. In total 24.2% reported a current continuing pregnancy and spontaneous pregnancies accounted for 2.7% of these. We developed measures of fertility problem stress, marital benefit(that infertility has brought the partners closer together and strengthened their marriage), partner communication, infertility related communication, coping strategies, attitudes to fertility treatment and evaluation of care. The medical sociological analyses showed that the variables of psychosocial consequences of infertility and

  7. New studies link IUDs, infertility; say copper devices safer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    2 studies sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) report direct evidence of a link between IUDs and infertility. Both studies indicate that copper-bearing IUDs are less likely than inert IUDs to lead to infertility, but increased risk was evident for both types of IUDs. 2 of the studies' authors said the findings confirm the current practice of many clinicians to discourage women who have no children from using IUDs as their contraceptive method. 1 study involved about 90% of the infertility specialists in Seattle. Janet R. Daling, Ph.D., University of Washington School of Public Health and Community Medicine, and colleagues compared rates of IUD use in 159 childless women who had tubal infertility with an equal number of new mothers. They reached the following conclusions: using any IUD more than doubled (2.6 times) the risk of tubal infertility compared with not using an IUD; the type of IUD affected risk with Dalkon Shield users having 6.8 times the risk of tubal infertility compared with women who never used IUDs, Lippes Loop or Saf-Toil users having 3.2 times the risk, and Copper-7 or Copper-T users having 1.9 times the risk if a copper device was used at 1 time and a plastic device at another time but 1.3 times the risk if only a copper device was used; and the risk of tubal infertility for IUD users increased among women who did not have symptoms of infection as well as those who did. A 2nd larger study involved 7 infertility centers and collaborating hospitals. Dr. Daniel W. Cramer, Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, headed the investigation, which evaluated IUD use in 283 childless women with tubal infertility, 69 women with tubal infertility after 1 child, and 3833 new mothers. The Boston-based study found the following: overall the cumulative experience with all IUD use doubled (2.0 relative risk) the risk of tubal infertility; the type of IUD affected the risk of tubal infertility; no increased risk of

  8. The Investigation of Primary School Teachers' Opinions Related to the Current Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Sağlam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine primary school teachers’ opinions related to current events. The study group is consisted of total 30 primary school teachers who take part in THE GROUPS OF 15 female (%50 and 15 male (%50 in Sakarya during 2015 -2016 the education year. The study is carried out under science facts pattern of qualitative research designs. In order to reveal teachers’ views on current events, the form of semi-structured interviews from which is qualitative data collection tools is used. There are two sections in this study. First section is about teachers' personal information and second section is about teachers' questions to determine their views on current events. For the content validity of the questions in the negotiation form, it has been consulted with three experts and made the necessary adjustments in line with their proposals. In addition, the clarity of the questions in the negotiation form has been checked by discussing with five teachers and then the form has been finalized. The data obtained from teachers ARE analyzed by using content analysis. In the study, it is concluded that 97% of the teachers follow the current events. It is shown that 93% of female teachers and 100% male teachers follow the current events. FURTHERMORE, it is indicated that %100 of the teachers use the internet in their house.

  9. PRIMARY SIDE DETECTION AND PEAK CURRENT MODE CONTROL IN FLYBACK CONVERTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jian; Lu Zhiping; Yang Jian; Li Zhaoji

    2004-01-01

    A new cycle-by-cycle control flyback converter with primary side detection and peak current mode control is proposed and its dynamic characteristics are analyzed. The flyback converter is verified by the OrCAD simulator. The main advantages of this converter over the conventional one are simplicity, small size, rapid regulating and no sensing control signals over the isolation barrier. The circuit is suitable for digital control implementations.

  10. Clinical management and therapeutic outcome of infertile couples in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menuba IE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ifeanyi E Menuba,1 Emmanuel O Ugwu,1 Samuel N Obi,1 Lucky O Lawani,2 Chidinma I Onwuka11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2School of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Infertility is highly prevalent in Nigeria and most infertile couples in southeast Nigeria are offered conventional forms of treatment, which consist mainly of ovulation induction and tubal surgery, due to limited availability and high cost of endoscopic and assisted reproductive technologies like laparoscopy and in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infertility, outcome of infertility investigation, and the treatment outcome of infertile couples following therapeutic interventions in southeast Nigeria over a 12-month period.Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 218 consecutive infertile couples presenting for infertility management at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Infertility investigations were carried out on these couples using the available conventional diagnostic facilities. Following the results of the investigations/diagnosis, conventional treatment was offered to the couples as appropriate. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level.Results: The mean age of the women was 33.5±4.62 (range: 15–49 years. Most (58.3% [n=127] were nulliparous. The prevalence of infertility was 12.1%. Infertility was primary in 28.4% (n=62 and secondary in 71.6% (n=156. Female etiologic factors were responsible in 32.1% (n=70, male factors in 26.1% (n=57, and a combination of male/female factors in 29.4% (n=64. The etiology was unknown in 12.4% (n=27. Tubal factors 23.8 % (n=52 and ovulation failures 26.1% (n=57 are common female factors implicated

  11. Ultrastructural Study of an Atypical Case of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Sánchez Sánchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An atypical case of infertility associated with severe sperm abnormalities is presented. A 29-year-old man with 4 years of primary infertility had no history of significant illness, and no hereditary pathology or male infertility existed in his family. Physical examination of the patient showed no pathological findings. The analyses of four semen samples showed: sperm count, 67-83 106/ml; 0% motility. The morphological analysis showed absence of flagellum, 14-16%; short-tail spermatozoa, 45-64%; coiled tails, 12-17%; and an abnormal proportion of spermatids and spermatocytes. Normal spermatozoa were found in 11-16%. Endocrine profile was found within the normal range. Testicular biopsy revealed impaired spermatogenesis. Scanning electron microscopy revealed sperm heads with intact nuclei and acrosomal regions. To our surprise, some of the stunted tails were uniflagellate. To our knowledge, this is a very uncommon case of sperm tail defect.

  12. Association of Obesity with Hormonal Imbalance in Infertility: A Cross-Sectional Study in North Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Bhavna; Arora, Sarika; Singh, Ritu

    2013-01-01

    Hormones play an important role in the development and regulation of reproductive function and the menstrual cycle of women. Extremes of body weight tend to affect the homeostasis of the hypothalamo–pituitary–gonadal axis. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 113 women (57 with primary infertility and 56 with secondary infertility) in the age group 20–35 years, presenting for hormonal evaluation of infertility in a tertiary care hospital. After preliminary clinical evaluation, anthro...

  13. Service utilization patterns for presumed infertile women in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardalan, Ali; Vahidi, Serajeldin; Mohammad, Kazem; Russel, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    -seeking behavior were current primary infertility (OR = 4.15, CI0.95 = 2.53-6.80), higher education (OR = 1.39, CI0.95 = 1.04-1.86) and living with husband (OR = 1.83, CI0.95 = 1.01-3.32).The current study is the first attempt to present a population-based pattern of service utilization by infertile women in Iran. It shows that for these patients, the first contact with the health system takes the form of a visit to a specialist physician, and is more likely to involve the private sector. Copyright (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. ROLE OF HYSTEROSCOPIC IN EVALUATION OF FEMALE INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Jahan Syad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The causative agent for female infertility are often multifactorial. The role of hysteroscopy in current practice is an essential modality to direct visualise the different intrauterine abnormalities. Moreover, it allows both the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure at the same sitting. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective and descriptive study; 50 infertile women either primary or secondary was recruited for hysteroscopic evaluation. Study was done in Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital, Sawangi, Wardha, from July 2015 to June 2016. Hysteroscopy was performed in early follicular phase (6 to 10 day using 3.9 mm continuous-flow operative hysteroscopy based on rod lens scope with short general anaesthesia. The uterine cavity was distended by normal saline solution and intrauterine pressure was controlled by an irrigation device. Intrauterine pressure was set around 30 mmHg resulting in a balance irrigation flow of around 200 mL/minute and vacuum of 0.1 bar endometrial specimens were obtained. Specimen were collected in formalin solution and sent for histopathological examination. RESULTS In our study, most of the patients (50% were married for (1-3 years and (24% were in the group of (4-7 years married life. In our study, 4% of the patients had normal uterine cavity, but majority of the patients 96% had abnormal hysteroscopic findings comprising endometrial hyperplasia 19.79%, endometrial polyp 9.38%, submucous fibroid 8.33%, intrauterine adhesion 8.33% and incomplete septum 4.17%. CONCLUSION Hysteroscopy can be performed with minimal discomfort and superior sensitivity along with higher specificity.

  15. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  16. Genetic susceptibility to male infertility: news from genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, K I

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the genetic basis of male infertility has eluded researchers in spite of significant efforts to identify novel genetic causes of the disease, particularly over the past decade. Approximately half of male factor infertility cases have no known cause; however, it is likely that the majority of idiopathic male factor infertility cases have some unidentified genetic basis. Well-established genetic causes of male infertility are limited to Y chromosome microdeletions and Klinefelter's syndrome, together accounting for 10-20% of cases of severe spermatogenic failure. In addition to these, several genetic polymorphisms have been demonstrated to be significantly associated with male infertility. The discovery of new genetic associations with male infertility has been hampered by two primary factors. First, most studies are underpowered because of insufficient sample size and ethnic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Second, most studies evaluate a single gene, an approach that is very inefficient in the context of male infertility, considering that many hundreds of genes are involved in the process of testicular development and spermatogenesis. Significant recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the application of whole-genome approaches to the study of male infertility. We recently performed a pilot genome-wide association study (GWAS) for severe spermatogenic failure, and several additional male infertility GWAS have since been published. More recently, genomic microarray tools have been applied to the association of copy number variants with male infertility. These studies are beginning to shed additional light on the genetic architecture of male infertility, and whole-genome studies have proven effective in identifying novel genetic causes of the disease. This review will discuss some of the recent findings of these whole-genome studies as well as future directions for this research that will likely

  17. Controls of primary production in two phytoplankton blooms in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, C. J. M.; Klaas, C.; Ossebaar, S.; Soppa, M. A.; Cheah, W.; Laglera, L. M.; Santos-Echeandia, J.; Rost, B.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Bracher, A.; Hoppema, M.; Strass, V.; Trimborn, S.

    2017-04-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current has a high potential for primary production and carbon sequestration through the biological pump. In the current study, two large-scale blooms observed in 2012 during a cruise with R.V. Polarstern were investigated with respect to phytoplankton standing stocks, primary productivity and nutrient budgets. While net primary productivity was similar in both blooms, chlorophyll a -specific photosynthesis was more efficient in the bloom closer to the island of South Georgia (39 °W, 50 °S) compared to the open ocean bloom further east (12 °W, 51 °S). We did not find evidence for light being the driver of bloom dynamics as chlorophyll standing stocks up to 165 mg m-2 developed despite mixed layers as deep as 90 m. Since the two bloom regions differ in their distance to shelf areas, potential sources of iron vary. Nutrient (nitrate, phosphate, silicate) deficits were similar in both areas despite different bloom ages, but their ratios indicated more pronounced iron limitation at 12 °W compared to 39 °W. While primarily the supply of iron and not the availability of light seemed to control onset and duration of the blooms, higher grazing pressure could have exerted a stronger control toward the declining phase of the blooms.

  18. Novel concepts in male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility in the last decades. There are new concepts in sperm physiology and several modern tools for the assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo. New tests using molecular biology and DNA damage assays allow the clinician to correctly diagnose men so far classified as having idiopathic male infertility. In the field of treatment, microsurgery has increased success rates either for reconstruction of the reproductive tract or the retrieval of spermatozoa for assisted conception. Emerging evidence suggests that life-style and environmental conditions are of utmost importance in male fertility and subfertility. This review discusses several concepts that have changed over the last years, such as the duration of the spermatogenic cycle in humans, Y-chromosome infertility, the reproductive potential of non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome men, the impact of paternal age and sperm DNA in male infertility, the role of antioxidants in the treatment of infertile men, the predictive factors and techniques for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia, and the microsurgical treatment of clinical varicoceles. Whenever possible, levels of evidence are provided as suggested by the Oxford Center of Evidence-based Medicine.

  19. Growth monitoring: a survey of current practices of primary care paediatricians in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Scherdel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study current practices in growth monitoring by European primary care paediatricians and to explore their perceived needs in this field. METHODS: We developed a cross-sectional, anonymous on-line survey and contacted primary care paediatricians listed in national directories in the 18 European countries with a confederation of primary care paediatricians. Paediatricians participated in the survey between April and September 2011. RESULTS: Of the 1,198 paediatricians from 11 European countries (response rate 13% who participated, 29% used the 2006 World Health Organization Multicentre Growth Reference Study growth charts, 69% used national growth charts; 61% used software to draw growth charts and 79% did not use a formal algorithm to detect abnormal growth on growth charts. Among the 21% of paediatricians who used algorithms, many used non-algorithmic simple thresholds for height and weight and none used the algorithms published in the international literature. In all, 69% of paediatricians declared that a validated algorithm to monitor growth would be useful in daily practice. We found important between-country variations. CONCLUSION: The varied growth-monitoring practices declared by primary care paediatricians reveals the need for standardization and evidence-based algorithms to define abnormal growth and the development of software that would use such algorithms.

  20. Infertility and uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepiridis, Leonidas I; Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2016-07-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common tumors in women and their prevalence is higher in patients with infertility. At present, they are classified according to their anatomical location, as no classification system includes additional parameters such as their size or number. There is a general agreement that submucosal fibroids negatively affect fertility, when compared to women without fibroids. Intramural fibroids above a certain size (>4 cm), even without cavity distortion, may also negatively influence fertility. However, the presence of subserosal myomas has little or no effect on fertility. Many possible theories have been proposed to explain how fibroids impair fertility: mechanisms involving alteration of local anatomical location, others involving functional changes of the myometrium and endometrium, and finally endocrine and paracrine molecular mechanisms. Nevertheless, any of the above mentioned mechanisms can cause reduced reproductive potential, thereby leading to impaired gamete transport, reduced ability for embryo implantation, and creation of a hostile environment. The published experience defines the best practice strategy, as not many large, well-designed, and properly powered studies are available. Myomectomy appears to have an effect in fertility improvement in certain cases. Excision of submucosal myomas seems to restore fertility with pregnancy rates after surgery similar to normal controls. Removal of intramural myomas affecting pregnancy outcome seems to be associated with higher pregnancy rates when compared to non-operated controls, although evidence is still nοt sufficient. Treatment of subserosal myomas of reasonable size is not necessary for fertility reasons. The results of endoscopic and open myomectomy are similar; thus, endoscopic treatment is the recommended approach due to its advantages in patient's postoperative course.

  1. ASSOCIATION OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION AMONG INFERTILE WOMEN VISITING NEPALGUNJ MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL, KOHALPUR-NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shrewastwa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the medial, social, and psychological burdens in this part of world. Thyroid dysfunction can lead to menstrual disturbance, anovulatory cycles, and decreased fecundity. Proper management of thyroid dysfunction can result in restoration of normal fertility. Therefore it is very important to screen thyroid abnormalities among women with infertility. This study aimed to determine association of thyroid dysfunction among infertile women. This study comprises total of 735 primary infertile women with age ranging from 20 to 35 years. Blood samples were collected and subjected for estimation of thyroid hormones. Out of 635 cases 447 (74.4% were thyroid. A numberof 56 (7.6% have primary hypothyroidism, 31 (4.2% have primary hyperthyroidism, 87 (11.8% have subclinical hypothyroidism, and 8 (1.1% have subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  2. 无明确原因原发性不孕患者行体外受精-胚胎移植治疗中受精方式的选择%Fertilization method for primary infertility patients without definite cause undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新宇; 张金玉; 林德伟; 于妍; 姚元庆

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the optimal fertilization method for primary infertility patients without definite causes undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryos transfer (IVF-ET). Methods A total of 321 IVF-ET cycles for primary infertility without definite causes were divided into two groups, namely group A with infertility period≥5 years (165 cycles) and group B with infertility period 0.05). In group A, IVF resulted in a significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate (21.1%) than ICSI (43.3%, P<0.05), half ICSI (40.0%, P<0.05), IVF in the control group (48%, P<0.05), and IVF in group B (50.0%, P<0.05). Conclusion ICSI treatment can increase the fertilization rate in IVF-ET cycles in patients with primary infertility for unknown causes, and may improve the clinical outcome of patients with long infertility period.%目的 探讨无明确原因原发不孕患者体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)周期如何选择合适的受精方式.方法 回顾性分析无明确原因原发不孕患者行IVF-ET 321周期,按不孕年限分为A组≥5年共165周期,B组不孕年限<5年共156周期,各组中又按受精方式分为体外受精(IVF)、单精子卵细胞胞浆内注射(ICSI),部分ICSI组,以同时期输卵管因素行常规IVF受精周期和男性因素ICSI受精周期作为对照.分析比较各组间受精率、受精低下发生率和临床妊娠率.结果 A组IVF受精率低于ICSI与部分ICSI受精率(分别为67.5%,82.0%和77.7%,P<0.05),且低于同期IVF对照组(76.3%);A组IVF受精低下发生率明显高于ICSI与部分ICSI(33.3%,8.3%与15.8%,P<0.05),B组IVF受精低下发生率为12.3%,低于A组IVF受精方式,但与同组ICSI与halfICSI间受精低下发生率无统计学差异(P>0.05);A组IVF临床妊娠率21.1%,低于同期IVF对照组与同组ICSI与部分ICSI受精方式的临床妊娠率(分别为48%,43.3%与40.0%,P<0.05),且低于B组IVF妊娠率(50.0%,P<0.05).结论 无明确病因原发不孕患者

  3. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-11-01

    Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. This qualitative study was conducted in 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. One main theme emerged through analysis entitled "cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis" with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women.

  4. Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its symptoms is available from the NICHD PCOS topic page . Treatments for infertility in women with PCOS include ... this topic can be found on the NICHD topic page on endometriosis . Treatments for the infertility that can ...

  5. Subclinical Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Hillier, Sharon L; Meyn, Leslie A; Amortegui, Antonio J; Sweet, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:The reported incidence of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has decreased but rates of tubal infertility have not, suggesting that a large proportion of PID leading to infertility may be undetected...

  6. Access to infertility care in the developing world: the family promotion gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemota, Obehi A; Klatsky, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infertility in resource-poor settings is an overlooked global health problem. Although scarce health care resources must be deployed thoughtfully, prioritization of resources may be different for recipient and donor countries, the latter of whom focus on maternal health care, prevention, and family planning. For women and couples with involuntary childlessness, the negative psychosocial, sociocultural, and economic consequences in low-income countries are severe, possibly more so than in most Western societies. Despite the local importance of infertility, few resources are committed to help advance infertility care in regions like sub-Saharan Africa. The worldwide prevalence of infertility is remarkably similar across low-, middle-, and high-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes infertility as a global health problem and established universal access to reproductive health care as one of the United Nation's Millennium Developmental Goals for 2015. Currently, access to infertility care is varied and is usually only attainable by the very wealthy in low-income countries. We provide an overview on the current state of access to infertility care in low-income countries such as in sub-Saharan Africa and a rationale for providing comprehensive reproductive care and possible solutions for providing cost-effective infertility services in these settings.

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE: Infertility and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Chatterjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment is coming up as one of the causative factors for many physical and mental diseases. Infertility is not only a medicalproblem; it is a social and psychological problem as well. Air and soil pollutions are disturbing the male and female reproductiveprocesses in various ways. Endocrine disruptors otherwise called Estrogen Mimics not only induce endometriosis, but can influence the reproductive process by competing with estrogen receptors. Insecticides and environmental toxicants also disrupt the reproductive process. Psychological stress is an important factor for infertility. This is also a stimulating factor for many gynecological conditions like Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS. In treating the infertile couples, psychological treatment & support areof equal importance as that of medical treatment.

  8. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  9. Current Topics on Salvage Thoracic Surgery in Patients with Primary Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Salvage primary tumor resection is sometimes considered for isolated local failures after definitive chemoradiation, urgent matters, such as hemoptysis (palliative intent), and in cases judged to be contraindicated for chemotherapy or definite radiation due to severe comorbidities, despite an initial clinical diagnosis of stage III or IV disease. However, salvage surgery is generally considered to be technically more difficult, with a potentially higher morbidity. This review discusses the current topics on salvage thoracic surgery such as the definition of salvage surgery and its outcome, and future perspectives. PMID:26948299

  10. Mendelian genetics of male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kathleen; Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Nalam, Roopa Lata; Matzuk, Martin M.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive despite trying for a year, and it affects approximately 15% of the reproductive-age population. It is considered a genetically lethal factor, as the family lineage stops at that individual with no progeny produced. A genetic defect associated with an infertile individual cannot be transmitted to the offspring, ensuring the maintenance of reproductive fitness of the species. However, with the advent of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), we are now able to overcome sterility and bypass nature’s protective mechanisms that developed through evolution to prevent fertilization by defective or deficient sperm. PMID:21382200

  11. Infertility and Life Satisfaction among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Julia; Stone, Rosalie A. Torres; Greil, Arthur L.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from a random sample of 580 midwestern women, the authors explore the association between lifetime infertility and life satisfaction. Past research shows lower life satisfaction among those seeking help for infertility. The authors find no direct effects of lifetime infertility, regardless of perception of a problem, on life…

  12. Comparison of lifestyle in fertile and infertile couples in Kermanshah during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Khosrorad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a major reproductive health in gynecology. According to the world health organization, there are currently 50-80 million infertile couples in the world. Objective: Considering the critical effects of lifestyle on reproductive health, this study aimed to compare the lifestyle of fertile and infertile couples in Kermanshah during 2013. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive cross sectional study that was done on 216 fertile and infertile couples attending Infertility Center and six medical centers that were selected through the convenience sampling. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire containing demographic and fertility-related information and also lifestyle items on nutrition, physical activity, perceived social support, responsibility for health, and inappropriate health behaviors. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis, independent t, chi-square and Generalized Estimating equation were performed to analyze the data. Results: Fertile and infertile women (86.1% and 73. 1% respectively, p= 0. 03 as well as fertile and infertile men were significantly different in terms of physical activity (87% and 96.3% p<0.001, respectively and perceived social support (p<0.001. Moreover, there was a significant difference between fertile and infertile women in nutrition (p<0.001. Similar differences were observed in responsibility for health and inappropriate health behaviors between fertile and infertile men. However, all of the dimensions of lifestyle, except nutrition, were significantly different between fertile and infertile couples. Conclusion: As lifestyle plays a crucial role in reproductive health, the inappropriate lifestyle of infertile couples has to be modified through effective measures such as awareness promotion, behavioral changes, and development of a healthy environment.

  13. Enhanced Fertility after Diagnostic Hysterosalpingography in Unexplained Infertility

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    M Fallah- Tafti

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infertility is a common complication present in 10-15% of the population. It causes serious problems for the family. There are different methods for evaluation and treatment of infertility. One of the routine tests is hysterosalpingography that was first used in1922 and with changes in types of contrast media and its techniques, it is the primary test for simultaneous evaluation of tube, uterus body and cervix. Methods: This descriptive clinical outcome study was carried out on the base of a case series study. The study was performed on 117 patients who referred for HSG procedure and were followed for 2 years for detection of pregnancy. Data was analyzed by SPSS.14, and statistical tests included student’s t-test, chi-square and Fisher exact test. Results: The mean age of patients was 26±4.7 years. Duration of infertility was 6 years. Of the total, 98(83.8% cases had one or both patent tubes on HSG. They didn’t have any established causes of infertility after scrutiny of other findings and 51(43.6% cases became pregnant during 2 years (CI=95%,34.6-52.6%. Notable point was that 86.3% of pregnancies occurred in the first 6-months after HSG procedure. Conclusion: HSG plays a significant role in infertility diagnosis and treatment in spite of the new techniques and methods for infertility diagnosis and treatment; so follow up and control of patient for 6 months after HSG is recommended. If HSG fails, other procedures such as laparoscopy can be done.

  14. Prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among women attending infertility clinic in south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aduloju, Peter O; Olagbuji, Nelson B; Olofinbiyi, Ajayi B; Awoleke, Jacob O

    2015-05-01

    The study evaluated the prevalence and predictors of intimate partner violence among infertile women attending infertility clinic of Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. A cross sectional study of infertile women presenting at the clinic between 1st November 2012 and 31st October 2013 was done. A semi-structured questionnaire on violence was administered to 170 consecutive women who consented to participate. The data were analysed using SPSS 17 and significances test were performed on variables associated with violence with Student's t test and Chi square test. Logistic regression was done to determine predictive factors associated with intimate partner violence. The prevalence of intimate partner violence associated with infertility among the women was 31.2%. There were no significant differences in the age of the women, duration of marriage and duration of infertility between the women who had experienced violence and those who had not experienced it; p>0.05. Unemployment, polygamous marriage, husbands' social habits, primary infertility and prolonged duration of infertility were associated with violence in these women; pviolence; p>0.05. However with logistic regression, the unemployment status of the women and prolonged duration of infertility were the predictors of violence against women with infertility in this study, p valueviolence as the commonest form of violence experienced by them ever, since the diagnosis of infertility was made and in the past one year. All forms of violence experienced were aggravated by infertility in these women. Women with infertility are prone to intimate partner violence and this would further aggravate the challenges of infertility being faced by these women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol use as predictor for infertility in a representative population of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Holst, Claus

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine the association between use of alcohol and subsequent incidence of primary infertility. METHODS: The study subjects were chosen from a population-based cohort of Danish women aged 20-29 years. Eligible women were nulliparous and not pregnant (n = 7760). Informat......BACKGROUND: Our aim was to examine the association between use of alcohol and subsequent incidence of primary infertility. METHODS: The study subjects were chosen from a population-based cohort of Danish women aged 20-29 years. Eligible women were nulliparous and not pregnant (n = 7760...... and the Danish Infertility Cohort Register. Main outcome measures were hazard ratios of infertility according to alcohol intake at baseline estimated in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 4.9 years, 368 women had experienced infertility. Alcohol intake at baseline...... was unassociated with infertility among younger women, but was a significant predictor for infertility among women above age 30. In this age group, the adjusted hazard ratio for consuming seven or more drinks per week was 2.26 (95% confidence interval: 1.19-4.32) compared with women consuming less than one drink...

  16. Risk of major congenital malformations associated with infertility and its treatment by extent of iatrogenic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhi, Jacob; Fisch, Benjamin

    2007-06-01

    Cumulative evidence from large cohort studies, multicenter studies, and meta-analyses suggests that assisted reproductive technologies are associated with an elevated risk of congenital malformations. Theoretically, there are several putative factors in infertility treatments which may be related to the development of congenital malformations. These include, in part, the exposure to gonadotrophin stimulation and the exposure to supra-physiological levels of E2; the altered physiological environment of implantation; the in-vitro culture conditions at early stages of embryonic development; the artificial selection of sperm for fertilization and the sperm injection process in ICSI and the process of embryo cryopreservation. However, it is also possible that the culprit is not the infertility treatment that leads to the increased risk of congenital malformations but a factor or factors inherent to infertile patients. The aim of this review is to present the current data, summarize it and define the association between major congenital malformation and different types of infertility treatments as well as to infertility per se. We conducted an extensive search of the medical literature (Pubmed, 1985-2006) to identify all data relating major congenital malformations to infertile couples, infertility treatments or to characteristics of the infertile population. The rates of congenital malformations associated with infertility were analyzed by the degree of iatrogenic intervention to better define the relative risks. The findings confirmed the increased risk of congenital malformations in relation to in vitro fertilization even in singleton infants. There was no difference in the occurrence of major congenital malformations by either the laboratory maneuvers of sperm or embryos of varying complexity or by the specific medications used for ovarian stimulation or luteal support. Increased risk for congenital malformations was also found in infertile couples in relation to

  17. Improving current immunoglobulin therapy for patients with primary immunodeficiency: quality of life and views on treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espanol, Teresa; Prevot, Johan; Drabwell, Jose; Sondhi, Seema; Olding, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous or intravenous immunoglobulin replacement is the mainstay of treatment for most patients with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID). The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of how existing PID therapies affect patient lives and to identify desired improvements to immunoglobulin treatments. An online questionnaire was made available through the International Patient Organisation for Primary Immunodeficiencies to patients with PID and their caregivers regarding current treatment satisfaction, living with PID, and patient preferences using a conjoint approach. Health-related quality of life was canvassed via questionnaires using the Short Form 12 Health Survey and EuroQoL 5 Dimensions. A total of 300 responded to the survey (72% patients with PID and 28% caregivers) from across 21 countries, mostly the UK, Sweden, Canada, France, Germany, and Spain. Fifty-three percent and 45% of patients received intravenous and subcutaneous therapy, respectively. Most respondents (76%) were satisfied with their current treatment, reflecting the benefits that immunoglobulin therapy provides for patient health and well-being. However, patients remained below the physical and mental well-being norms for health-related quality of life as determined by the questionnaire. All respondents expressed a desire for 4-weekly infusions, the ability to administer these at home, self-administration, shorter duration of administration, and fewer needle sticks. The results of this survey highlight the importance of providing access to different treatment options and modes of administration to ensure individual patient needs are best met.

  18. Coping with infertility: a transcultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Botao; Li, Min

    2014-09-01

    To review the most important and interesting articles in infertility published in the last year. This systematic review covers 60 studies published in journals or dissertations in Science Direct and PubMed in the last year, including those related to prevention and treatment as well as related psychosocial services in infertility. We also propose some suggestions about coping with infertility in China. Infertility is a multidisciplinary problem that requires medical, social, and political efforts to prevent and offer infertile patients the best diagnostic, therapeutic, and psychosocial services. Cultural factors should be taken into consideration when designing coping strategies.

  19. Cigarette smoking and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified specific body systems affected by the hazardous effects of the cigarette smoking particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The effect of smoking on male reproduction has also been studied where semen quality was investigated in different cross-sectional studies including infertile patients with conflicting results. This article aimed to assess the relationship between smoking and male infertility. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and Scopus engine excluding the effects of smoking outside male infertility. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations were: smoking, semen, male infertility, sperm, humans, and fertility. Most of the reports showed that smoking reduces sperm production, sperm motility, sperm normal forms and sperm fertilising capacity through increased seminal oxidative stress and DNA damage. Few papers reported nonsignificant differences in semen parameters between smokers or non-smokers. It is concluded that although some smokers may not experience reduced fertility, men with marginal semen quality can benefit from quitting smoking.

  20. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility

  1. Unexplained infertility: association with inherited thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatini, Cinzia; Conti, Lucia; Turillazzi, Valentina; Sticchi, Elena; Romagnuolo, Ilaria; Milanini, Maria Novella; Cozzi, Cinzia; Abbate, Rosanna; Noci, Ivo

    2012-05-01

    Unexplained infertility represents one of the most common diagnoses in fertility care. Attention is being paid to the association between inherited thrombophilia and infertility causes. In this study we investigated the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia according to infertility causes. We studied Prothrombin gene G20210A mutation, Factor V Leiden, deficiencies in protein S and C and antithrombin in 930 Caucasian infertile women referred to Fertility Center of the Department of Sciences for Woman and Child's Health, University of Florence, of whom 230 with unexplained, 195 female and 283 male infertility, and in 240 women who have conceived naturally without hormonal stimulation therapy. A significant relationship between inherited thrombophilia [OR 95%CI 1.97 (1.05-3.68), p = 0.03] and unexplained infertility was observed, whereas no association between thrombophilia and female and male infertility was found. Significantly higher prevalence of prothrombin gene mutation in unexplained infertile women in comparison to that observed in fertile women was observed (5.7% vs 2.1% p = 0.04); the prevalence of the other thrombophilia determinants was higher, even if not significantly, in the unexplained infertile group. This study demonstrates the relationship between inherited thrombophilia and unexplained infertility, thus suggesting the contribution of genetic components in modulating unexplained infertility, behind anovulation, male and tubal factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hysterolaparoscopy in the Evaluation and Management of Female Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadi, Y M; Harsha, B

    2016-10-01

    To study the role of hysterolaparoscopy in the evaluation and management of female infertility. A retrospective study of the 94 case files of all the patients who underwent diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy for infertility between January 2014 to June 2015 in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences, Hubli. These infertile women were confirmed to have normal ovulatory cycles, hormonal assays and seminogram report. Dye studies as well as inspection for abnormal pelvic and intrauterine pathology and necessary therapeutic interventions were done during the procedure. Abnormal pelvic and intrauterine pathology by hysterolaparoscopy were categorized. Out of 94 cases, 53.1 % patients had primary, 17.1 % patients had secondary infertility, and 29.8 % came for tubal recanalization. As a whole pelvic pathology was confirmed in 51.7 % and intrauterine pathology in 18.1 % patients by hysterolaparoscopy. The most common laparoscopic abnormality detected was ovarian pathology (20.8 %), followed by pelvic inflammatory disease (17.5 %). Tubal block comprised 7.7 % whereas distorted uterus by fibroid in 6.6 % and pelvic endometriosis in 5.4 %. In hysteroscopy, the incidence of uterine anomaly was 13 (13.8 %). Septate uterus is the most common with a mean incidence of approximately 7 (53.8 %). Diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy is an effective diagnostic and therapeutic modality for certain significant and correctable abnormalities in pelvis, tubes and uterus which are missed by other imaging modalities.

  3. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Infertile Men from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Jaganathan; Kujur, Smita B; Selvaraj, Kamala; Suruli, Muthiah S; Haripriya, Geetha; Samuel, Chandra R

    2015-07-01

    Male infertility has been associated with aneuploidies and structural chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletions and specific gene mutations and/or polymorphisms. Besides genetic factors, any block in sperm delivery, endocrine disorders, testicular tumours, infectious diseases, medications, lifestyle factors and environmental toxins can also play a causative role. This study aimed to determine the constitutional karyotype in infertile males having normal female partners in a south Indian population. A total of 180 men with a complaint of primary infertility ranging from 1 to 25 years were screened for chromosomal abnormalities through conventional analysis of GTG-banded metaphases from cultured lymphocytes. Four individuals were diagnosed to have Klinefelter syndrome. Two cases exhibited reciprocal translocations and one showed a maternally inherited insertion. Polymorphisms were seen in sixty-seven patients (37.2%). The occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in 4.6% and variants involving the heterochromatic regions of Y, chromosome 9 and the acrocentric chromosomes in 38.2% of the infertile men with an abnormal seminogram strongly reiterates the inclusion of routine cytogenetic testing and counselling in the diagnostic work-up prior to the use of assisted reproduction technologies.

  4. Baicalein reverts L-valine-induced persistent sodium current up-modulation in primary cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caioli, Silvia; Candelotti, Elena; Pedersen, Jens Z; Saba, Luana; Antonini, Alessia; Incerpi, Sandra; Zona, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    L-valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) largely used as dietary integrator by athletes and involved in some inherited rare diseases such as maple syrup urine disease. This pathology is caused by an altered BCAA metabolism with the accumulation of toxic keto acids in tissues and body fluids with consequent severe neurological symptoms. In animal models of BCAA accumulation, increased oxidative stress levels and lipid peroxidation have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze both whether high BCAA concentrations in neurons induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and whether, by performing electrophysiological recordings, the neuronal functional properties are modified. Our results demonstrate that in primary cortical cultures, a high dose of valine increases ROS production and provokes neuronal hyperexcitability because the action potential frequencies and the persistent sodium current amplitudes increase significantly compared to non-treated neurons. Since Baicalein, a flavone obtained from the Scutellaria root, has been shown to act as a strong antioxidant with neuroprotective effects, we evaluated its possible antioxidant activity in primary cortical neurons chronically exposed to L-valine. The preincubation of cortical neurons with Baicalein prevents the ROS production and is able to revert both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the increase of the persistent sodium current, indicating a direct correlation between the ROS production and the altered physiological parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the electrophysiological alterations of cortical neurons elicited by high valine concentration are due to the increase in ROS production, suggesting much caution in the intake of BCAA dietary integrators.

  5. Pro. Xu Xiaofeng’s Experience in Treating Primary Amenorrhea Combined with Infertility with Combination of TCM and Western Medicine (WM)%许小凤教授中西医联合治愈原发性闭经伴不孕1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成婷; 许小凤

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Exploring from the specific case analysis of Chinese and western medicine treatment of primary amenorrhea with the clinical curative effect of infertility. [Method]In2013 January by Professor Xu Xiaofeng, doctor diagnosed primary amenorrhea with infertility and 1 patient of typicalcase, combined traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) and western medicine artificial menstrual cycle for 3 months, 3 months after the Chinese medicine Tiaozhou method combined with low dose of HMG with HCG inovulation induction treatment. [Result]After the treatment, the patients had pregnancy 70D, blood hormone and B Ultrasound examination were normal. [Conclusion]Combined treatment of TCM and western medicine is better than pure Chinese medicine or western medicine, suggesting that combination of TCM and western medicine is effective for the treatment of primary amenorrhea with infer-tility.%[目的]探究中西医联合治疗原发性闭经伴不孕的临床疗效。[方法]以许小凤教授2013年1月就诊的确诊为原发性闭经伴不孕的1患者为典型病例,先中药联合西药人工周期调经治疗3个月,3个月后中药调周法联合HMG小剂量递增配合HCG促排卵治疗。[结果]治疗后该患者成功妊娠,孕70d时,血激素及B超检查正常。[结论]中西医联合治疗优于单纯中医或西医治疗,提示中西医联合是治疗原发性闭经伴不孕的有效方法。

  6. Surprisingly low infertility rate in married type 2 diabetic women: A rather curious paradox to the current opinion of insulin resistance as the joint pathogenesis of poly cystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolian Arjmand, Abbas; Nouri, Mahnaz; Tavakolian Arjmand, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Sharing the same pathophysiologic principle which is insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and poly cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are usually considered closely related and easily interchangeable medical entities. Numerous attempts have been made to document this illusory perspective. Based on a delicate pathophysiologic notion, we believe that fully developed T2DM is infrequently observed with fully featured PCOS. In an observational descriptive study 257 married T2DM women were consecutively included and meticulously investigated for fertility history and, albeit, clinical and biochemical features of PCOS. Of 257 married diabetic women only six (2.3%) had no children. In one case a male problem (azoospermia) and in the second case, late marriage (aged 45 at wedding ceremony) was the cause of infertility. Thus, only four (1.6%) might have been labeled as true female factor infertility. Astounding to report was the average pregnancies for each participant which was 5.1±2.5, ranging from zero to fifteen. we would suggest that, despite the well-established fact of insulin resistance as the common pathophysiologic process for T2DM and PCOS, they are definitely separate medical entities. As a matter of fact T2DM and PCOS are the two opposite aspect of the insulin resistance coin. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma in Infertile Men in Van Region and Effects to Semen Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Taken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Mycoplasma hominis (MH in semen cultures of cases with primary infertility in the Van Province, and also to determine the effect of therapy on sperm parameters. Material and Method: The study included 106 individuals divided into three groups: The infertile group (41 cases, the group with lower urinary tract symptoms (33 cases, and the control group (32 cases. The patients in the infertile group had no history of varicocele, testicular torsion, hydrocele, undescended testis, and hormonal disorders. The control group included cases without infertility and lower urinary tract symptoms. The parameters of culture-positive cases in the infertile group were determined before and after therapy. The identification of Mycoplasma species was made using the Biomerieux® Mycoplasma IST 2 (RCS Lyon-France kit. The sperm count was carried out with the Makler counting chamber (Self Medical Industries, Haifa, Israel. Results: In the infertile group, UU was isolated from 17 and MH was isolated from 3 cases. In the group with lower urinary tract symptoms, UU was isolated from 15 (45.5% and MH was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases. In the control group, UU was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases, but MH was isolated from none of the cases. In the infertile group, the sperm counts in 3 culture-positive cases (15% and in 10 culture-negative cases (50% were

  8. A review of the current status of endoluminal therapy as a primary approach to obesity management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Birk, John

    2013-07-01

    Gastroenterologists are expected to play a pivotal role in the management of the global obesity epidemic in coming years as novel endoscopic approaches become more widely available, safe, and effective. This review focuses on the recent advances in the field of endoluminal therapy as a primary approach to obesity management with the aim of providing the interventional endoscopist an overview of currently available evidence along with an insight into upcoming devices and techniques. The intragastric balloon appears to be safe and effective in the short term, especially as a bridge to bariatric surgery. Although early trials support the safety and feasibility of endoscopic gastroplasty, it is technically demanding and staple-line dehiscence continues to be a problem. Moreover, with ongoing technical innovations, most devices that have been used in published trials are no longer manufactured and results of studies using newer endoscopic suturing systems are currently awaited. The duodenojejunal bypass sleeve mimics the physiology of intestinal bypass and shares the metabolic advantages of intestinal diversion. A high rate of premature device withdrawal has been its major limiting factor. Therapeutic endoscopy may be the next paradigm of bariatric care. Combining restrictive and barrier endoscopic techniques can potentially improve efficacy and should be evaluated in the setting of appropriate clinical trials.

  9. Partial decoupling of primary productivity from upwelling in the California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Deutsch, Curtis; McWilliams, James C.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Liang, Jun-Hong; Colas, François

    2016-07-01

    Coastal winds and upwelling of deep nutrient-rich water along subtropical eastern boundaries yield some of the ocean's most productive ecosystems. Simple indices of coastal wind strength have been extensively used to estimate the timing and magnitude of biological productivity on seasonal and interannual timescales and underlie the prediction that anthropogenic climate warming will increase the productivity by making coastal winds stronger. The effect of wind patterns on regional net primary productivity is not captured by such indices and is poorly understood. Here we present evidence, using a realistic model of the California Current system and satellite measurements, that the observed slackening of the winds near the coast has little effect on near-shore phytoplankton productivity despite a large reduction in upwelling velocity. On the regional scale the wind drop-off leads to substantially higher production even when the total upwelling rate remains the same. This partial decoupling of productivity from upwelling results from the impact of wind patterns on alongshore currents and the eddies they generate. Our results imply that productivity in eastern boundary upwelling systems will be better predicted from indices of the coastal wind that account for its offshore structure.

  10. Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehling WE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wolf E Mehling,1,2 Jennifer Daubenmier,1,3 Cynthia J Price,5 Mike Acree,1 Elizabeth Bartmess,1 Anita L Stewart41Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, 4School of Nursing, Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 5School of Nursing, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: Mind–body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind–body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind–body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind–body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients.Methods: We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale–scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures.Results: Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development.Conclusion: Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current

  11. Genetic causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffs, Katrien; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Male infertility, affecting around half of the couples with a problem to get pregnant, is a very heterogeneous condition. Part of patients are having a defect in spermatogenesis of which the underlying causes (including genetic ones) remain largely unknown. The only genetic tests routinely used in the diagnosis of male infertility are the analyses for the presence of Yq microdeletions and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. Yet, their causative effect often remains to be proven. The recent evolution in the development of whole genome-based techniques may help in clarifying the role of genes and other genetic factors involved in spermatogenesis and spermatogenesis defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Value of hysteroscopy in management of unexplained infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha M. Elbareg

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: As a cause of unexplained infertility, subtle uterine abnormalities are diagnosed only during hysteroscopy and they are relatively common in infertility women. Although the presence of these abnormalities is not detected by the basic investigations for infertility, their correction seems to be necessary when infertility is desired and other infertility causes are excluded.

  13. Severe oligospermia associated with a unique balanced reciprocal translocation t(6;12)(q23;q24.3): male infertility related to t(6;12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, B; Christofolini, D; Gava, M; Mafra, F; Moraes, E; Barbosa, C

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence of chromosome abnormalities is increased in infertile men, the incidence of a chromosomal factor being estimated to be about 8%. We report two brothers, a 38-year-old man with 10 years' primary infertility and severe oligospermia, but otherwise healthy, and a 35-year-old man with primary infertility and a history of mumps during puberty. Semen and karyotype analysis, and investigation of Y-chromosome microdeletions were performed. An apparently unique reciprocal translocation t(6;12)(q23;q24.3) was found in both infertile brothers. Semen analyses showed severe oligospermia. No Y-chromosome microdeletions were found. These two cases support the relationship between both environmental and chromosomal abnormalities, combined or separated, with male infertility. Investigation of genetic alterations in infertile males has to be performed prior to performing any assisted reproduction technique. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Cryptic infertility and therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H

    2001-01-01

    Too often infertile patients are given a "herd type" fertility investigation which ultimately leads to expensive, time consuming, and risky in vitro fertilization. However, attention to certain simple details available by non-invasive methods, e.g., checking for premature luteinization, luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome, or performing the post-coital test at the appropriate interval, can lead to a quick solution of the infertility problem. Caution about persistent infertility related to iatrogenic factors, e.g., development of poor post-coital tests or excessively thin endometrium from clomiphene citrate, or development of luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome or premature luteinization by taking follicle maturing drugs, or creating a hostile environment from taking follicle maturing drugs when the woman already made a mature follicle (and would have had a higher success rate with luteal phase support with progesterone) will help achieve pregnancies without necessarily proceeding to the most expensive and invasive procedure of in vitro fertilization. Finally, many wasted cycles of treatment could be avoided by including the simple but very important hypo-osmotic swelling test and measurement of sperm autoantibodies with the first initial semen analysis.

  15. Somatic chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mau-Holzmann, U A

    2005-01-01

    Infertility--the inability to achieve conception or sustain a pregnancy through to live birth--is very common and affects about 15% of couples. While chromosomal or genetic abnormalities associated with azoospermia, severe oligozoospermia or primary ovarian failure were of no importance for reproduction prior to the era of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), advances in assisted reproductive techniques (ART) now enable many infertile couples to have children. These developments have raised the question of the genetic consequences of ICSI: concerns of the potential harm of the invasive procedure and concerns about the genetic risk. The infertile male and female definitely have an increased risk to carry a chromosomal abnormality. Detection of such an abnormality is of fundamental importance for the diagnosis of infertility, the following treatment, the evaluation of the risk for the future child and the appropriate management of the pregnancy to be obtained. Therefore, cytogenetic screening of both partners is mandatory prior to any type of ART. The present review is based on several surveys on male and female infertility and analyzes the types and frequencies of the different reported chromosome abnormalities according to the type of impairment of spermatogenesis and the type of treatment planned or performed. With regard to assisted reproductive techniques (especially ICSI) the main types of chromosomal abnormalities are discussed and their potential risks for ICSI. If available, reported cases of performed ICSI and its outcome are presented. The detection of an abnormal karyotype should lead to comprehensive genetic counselling, which should include all well-known information about the individual type of anomaly, its clinical relevance, its possible inheritance, the genetic risk of unbalanced offspring, and the possibilities of prenatal diagnosis. Only this proceeding allows at-risk couples to make an informed decision

  16. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value...

  17. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  18. Relevance of genetic investigation in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asero, P; Calogero, A E; Condorelli, R A; Mongioi', L; Vicari, E; Lanzafame, F; Crisci, R; La Vignera, S

    2014-05-01

    Genetic causes can be directly responsible for various clinical conditions of male infertility and spermatogenic impairment. With the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies our understanding of genetic basis of male infertility has large implications not only for understanding the causes of infertility but also in determining the prognosis and management of such couples. For these reasons, the genetic investigations represent today an essential and useful tool in the treatment of male infertility. Several evidences are available for the clinical practice regarding the diagnosis; however, there are less information relative to the treatment of the genetic causes of male infertility. Focus of this review is to discuss the main and more common genetic causes of male infertility to better direct the genetics investigation in the treatment of spermatogenic impairment.

  19. The Effect of Marital Violence on Infertility Distress among A Sample of Turkish Women

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    Aygül Akyüz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level.

  20. Screening for chromosomal abnormalities in 2650 infertile couples undergoing ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayed, Hesham F; Mansour, Ragaa T; Aboulghar, Mohamed A; Serour, Gamal I; Amer, Alaa E; Abdrazik, Ashraf

    2006-03-01

    Chromosomal abnormalities are the major contributor to the genetic risks of infertility treatment associated with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The study objective was to assess prospectively the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in couples undergoing ICSI. A total of 2650 infertile couples (5300 patients) underwent chromosome analysis before undergoing ICSI in the Egyptian IVF-ET Centre. Heparinized blood samples were cultured, harvested and banded according to standard methods. Overall, 96.94% of the patients studied (5138/5300) had a normal karyotype, while the remaining 162 patients (3.06%) had an abnormal karyotype. Male patients constituted the majority of abnormalities; 138 males (85.19%) and 24 females (14.81%). These chromosomal aberrations included 117 cases (2.2%) of sex chromosome abnormalities; 113 males and four females. Forty-five patients (0.85%) had autosomal aberrations; 25 of them were males and 20 were females. The current data show that chromosomal abnormalities affect 3.06% of infertile patients, and occur in both sexes, but more predominantly in males undergoing ICSI for male factor infertility. It is recommended that chromosomal analysis be performed before undergoing ICSI, to identify patients who can be offered preimplantation genetic diagnosis.

  1. Risk factors for secondary infertility among women in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofar Sami

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Secondary infertility in developing countries is mostly attributable to blockage of the fallopian tubes due to adhesions caused by reproductive tract infections. There is a dearth of information on the prevalence and causes of secondary infertility from Pakistan. This paper presents results on factors associated with secondary infertility among married women in Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted. Cases were women aged 15-35 years with history of at least one previous conception and currently seeking treatment for secondary infertility. Controls were women residing in the neighborhood of cases with at least one live birth and not taking treatment for secondary infertility. The age of controls was matched by ±5 years to that of cases. Data was collected from June to August 2003. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI for factors associated with secondary infertility. RESULTS: The final multivariate logistic regression model revealed that after adjusting for age, cases were more likely to be the housewives (AOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.5-4.4, had used inappropriate material to absorb blood during menstruation (AOR = 9.0, 95% CI: 5.0-16.4, and at their last delivery, had a birth attendant who did not wash hands with soap and water (AOR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4-5.7. Moreover, women with secondary infertility were more likely to report current or past history of having STI symptoms (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.4-5.6 and use of intra-vaginal indigenous medicines during their last post-partum period (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.6-5.7. CONCLUSION: We recommend health education and awareness messages for safe practices during menstruation, delivery, and the postpartum period for women in general. Additionally, sanitary napkins should be made available at an affordable cost, and safe delivery kits should contain

  2. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoemena, Ofn; Ezugworie, Jo; Mbah, Au; Esom, Ea; Ayogu, Bo; Ejezie, Fe

    2011-01-01

    Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%-70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility. Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed. Of 216 men, 173 (80.1%) were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30-55) years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33-61) years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80%) primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%), and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%). Among the 111 (64.2%) cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55%) cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, 52 (46.85%) of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and four (3.60%) of hyperprolactinemia. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values between the two groups (χ(2) 0.05) for hormonal indices. The hormonal profile should be considered as the gold standard for diagnosis and management of male infertility.

  3. Understanding Infertility and the Potential Role of Stem Cells in Infertility Treatment: A Short Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Chirputkar R; Vaidya A

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is increasing at a great rate across the globe. Various male as well as female factors are known to contribute to infertility. Although hormonal replacement therapy and assisted reproduction treatments like in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are well established clinical modalities to treat infertility, stem cells are now being considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility due to their high differentiation potential. Sev...

  4. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infe...

  5. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; AlaviMajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence agai...

  6. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  7. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex improves word-retrieval in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eMeinzer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Language facilitation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in healthy individuals has generated hope that tDCS may also allow improving language impairment after stroke (aphasia. However, current stimulation protocols have yielded variable results and may require identification of residual language cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, which complicates incorporation into clinical practice. Based on previous behavioral studies that demonstrated improved language processing by motor system pre-activation, the present study assessed whether tDCS administered to the primary motor cortex (M1 can enhance language functions.This proof-of-concept study employed a sham-tDCS controlled, cross-over, within-subject design and assessed the impact of unilateral excitatory (anodal and bihemispheric (dual tDCS in eighteen healthy older adults during semantic word-retrieval and motor speech tasks. Simultaneous fMRI scrutinized the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS effects.Both active tDCS conditions significantly improved word-retrieval compared to sham-tDCS. The direct comparison of activity elicited by word-retrieval vs. motor-speech trials revealed bilateral frontal activity increases during both anodal- and dual-tDCS compared to sham-tDCS. This effect was driven by more pronounced deactivation of frontal regions during the motor-speech task, while activity during word-retrieval trials was unaffected by the stimulation. No effects were found in M1 and secondary motor regions.Our results show that tDCS administered to M1 can improve word-retrieval in healthy individuals, thereby providing a rationale to explore whether M1-tDCS may offer a novel approach to improve language functions in aphasia. fMRI revealed neural facilitation specifically during motor speech trials, which may have reduced switching costs between the overlapping neural systems for lexical retrieval and speech processing, thereby resulting in improved

  8. Guideline-based management of male infertility: Why do we need it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landon W Trost

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current clinical guidelines for the management of infertility as presented by the American Urologic Association and European Association of Urology represent consensus opinions for the management of male-factor infertility. The goal of the present study is to define the currently available guidelines for male-factor infertility, provide a rationale for why guidelines should be implemented, and review concerns and shortcomings towards their incorporation into clinical practice. Successfully integrating guidelines into clinical practice offers the potential benefit of creating a standardized, efficient, and cost-effective algorithm for the evaluation of infertility and facilitates future research. Despite their availability and ease of use, many clinicians fail to adopt clinical guidelines for numerous reasons including decreased awareness of available guidelines, insufficient time, lack of interest, and personal financial considerations. The current guidelines are limited by the inability to generalize recommendations to a heterogeneous patient sample, the lack of interdisciplinary adoption of guidelines, and the need for additional emphasis on prevention and lifestyle modifications. Future direction for the current guidelines will likely incorporate a multidisciplinary approach with increasing utilization of genetic analysis and novel treatment strategies. As the field of infertility continues to expand, the utility of guidelines combined with physician clinical judgment will remain prominent in the treatment of male-factor infertility.

  9. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punab, M.; Poolamets, O.; Paju, P.; Vihljajev, V.; Pomm, K.; Ladva, R.; Korrovits, P.; Laan, M.

    2017-01-01

    severe forms of impaired spermatogenesis were relatively well understood; causes were assigned: for aspermia in 46/46 cases (100%), for azoospermia in 321/388 cases (82.7%), and for cryptozoospermia in 54/130 cases (41.5%). In contrast, 75% of oligozoospermia cases remained unexplained. The main cause of aspermia was severe sexual dysfunction (71.7% of aspermia patients). Azoospermia patients accounted for 86.4% of all cases diagnosed with secondary hypogonadism and 97.1% of patients with seminal tract obstruction. Of patients with a known genetic factor, 87.4% had extreme infertility (azoo-, crypto- or aspermia). The prevalence of congenital anomalies in the uro-genital tract was not clearly correlated with the severity of impaired sperm production. Previously defined ‘potential contributing factors’ varicocele and leukocytospermia were excluded as the primary causes of male infertility. However, their incidence was >2-fold higher (31.0 vs 13.5% and 16.1 vs 7.4%; P < 0.001) in the idiopathic infertility group compared to controls. In addition, the proportions of overweight (or obese) patients and patients suffering from a chronic disease were significantly increased in almost all of the patient subgroups. LIMITATIONS REASONS FOR CAUTION The study included only subjects with reduced total spermatozoa counts. Thus, these findings cannot be automatically applied to all male factor infertility cases. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS The novel insights and improved clarity achieved in the comprehensive analysis regarding the absolute, causative and plausible factors behind male infertility, as well as the ‘potential contributing factors’, will be valuable tools in updating the current clinical guidelines. The study highlights knowledge gaps and reiterates an urgent need to uncover the causes and mechanisms behind, and potential treatments of, oligozoospermic cases, representing the majority of idiopathic infertility patients (86.3%). STUDY FUNDING

  10. Missing Motherhood: Jordanian Women's Experiences with Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Mahmoud Obeidat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim, Background, and Introduction. Bearing and rearing children are an important part of life in nearly all cultures and are a central role for Jordanian Muslim women. Infertility can create anxiety, stress, and depression for couples who are infertile. Women frequently bear the emotional stigma of a couple’s infertility. There is a paucity of literature focusing on Jordanian Muslim women experiencing infertility and failed assistive reproductive technology. Therefore, this study explored these women’s lived experience. Methods. Qualitative data were collected through interviews with 30 Jordanian Muslim women who experienced failed assistive reproductive technology for infertility. Perceptions of experiences with failed treatment of infertility were documented and analyzed. Results. Major themes were identified: missing out on motherhood and living with infertility, experiencing marital stressors, feeling social pressure, experiencing depression and disappointment, having treatment associated difficulties, appreciating support from family and friends, using coping strategies, and fear of an unknown future. Discussion, Conclusion, and Implications for Clinical Practice. Being infertile significantly influences the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual health of Jordanian Muslim women as well as their quality of life. Perceived social support and personal coping strategies were used by study participants to mediate failed attempts to conceive. Designing and implementing culturally appropriate interventions for Muslim women globally who are experiencing infertility are essential.

  11. Role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; McLaren, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as a couple's failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. The etiology of infertility can be due to female factors, male factors, combined male and female factors, or have an unknown etiology. This review focuses on the role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. Normal anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will be discussed, as well as the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes that cause infertility including ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, tubal blockage, mullerian anomalies, and abnormalities affecting the uterine cavity such as leiomyomata and endometrial polyps.

  12. Psychological Disturbances and Quality of Life in Obese and Infertile Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kocełak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Anovulatory cycles and endometriosis are the main causes of female infertility. The most frequently anovulatory cycles are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS commonly associated with obesity and hormonal disturbances in the course of obesity. Recently published studies revealed that infertility affects about one in six couples during their lifetime and is more frequent in obese. Obesity is also associated with male infertility related to erectile dysfunction, hormonal disturbances and lower semen quality. Any of these above mentioned disorder is the important risk factor of psychological disturbances and poor quality of life among women and men in the reproductive age. On the other hand the mood disorders may exacerbate the hormonal disturbances and worsen the effectiveness of infertility management. Infertility, its therapy with accompanying psychological disturbances may also significantly affect the partners relationships. The review summarize the results described in the current literature on the association between obesity and infertility and psychological disturbances as well as their impact on quality of life and sexual functioning in women and men. Moreover, the impact of infertility and psychological disturbances on partners relationships is discussed.

  13. Knowledge, perception and attitude of infertile women in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, perception and attitude of infertile women in Benin City, Nigeria to the ... has revolutionalized the management of couples with long standing infertility. ... METHODS: This was a questionnaire based survey of 178 infertile patients ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  15. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for reducing the impact of recurring errors in the

  16. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  17. Treatment of primary progressive aphasias by transcranial direct current stimulation combined with language training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelli, Maria; Manenti, Rosa; Petesi, Michela; Brambilla, Michela; Cosseddu, Maura; Zanetti, Orazio; Miniussi, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Borroni, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is an untreatable neurodegenerative disorder that disrupts language functions. Previous studies have demonstrated transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may improve language symptoms in patients with post stroke aphasia or neurodegenerative diseases. The present study investigated whether the application of anodal tDCS (AtDCS) to the scalp overlying the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which may increase cortical excitability, in combination with individualized speech therapy would improve naming accuracy in the agrammatic variant of PPA (avPPA). Sixteen avPPA patients were randomly allocated into two subgroups: AtDCS (n = 8) or placebo tDCS (PtDCS). tDCS was applied over the left DLPFC (BA 8/9) 25 minutes per day for two weeks (10 days). Each patient underwent 25 minutes of individualized speech therapy with either AtDCS or PtDCS during each treatment session. Neuropsychological assessment, experimental naming, and linguistic abilities in daily living were assessed at baseline (T0), after two weeks of intervention (T1) and at a 12-week follow-up (T2). Significant improvement in experimental naming was observed in both groups at T1 and T2, but this effect was significantly greater in AtDCS than PtDCS patients. Naming correctness, as assessed using the Aachener Aphasie Test, increased selectively in the AtDCS group from T0 to T1, and this effect remained significant at T2. The analysis of daily living language abilities improved selectively in AtDCS group. Our results support the beneficial effect of targeted language training in combination with brain stimulation in avPPA patients. tDCS should be considered a useful tool for the improvement of language functions in patients with neurodegenerative diseases in future trials.

  18. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: current state of the field and primary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Güray

    2010-05-15

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories--basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers--accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal trans boundary HW movements despite international regulations. Copyright (c

  19. Epigenetics, spermatogenesis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Avery, Kelsey; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications characterized by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling are important regulators in a number of biological processes, including spermatogenesis. Several genes in the testes are regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, indicating a direct influence of epigenetic mechanisms on the process of spermatogenesis. In the present article, we have provided a comprehensive review of the epigenetic processes in the testes, correlation of epigenetic aberrations with male infertility, impact of environmental factors on the epigenome and male fertility, and significance of epigenetic changes/aberrations in assisted reproduction. The literature review suggested a significant impact of epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) on spermatogenesis, and this could lead to male infertility. Epimutations (often hypermethylation) in several genes, namely MTHFR, PAX8, NTF3, SFN, HRAS, JHM2DA, IGF2, H19, RASGRF1, GTL2, PLAG1, D1RAS3, MEST, KCNQ1, LIT1, and SNRPN, have been reported in association with poor semen parameters or male infertility. Environmental toxins/drugs may affect fertility via epigenetic modifications. For example, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an anticancer agent, causes a decrease in global DNA methylation that leads to altered sperm morphology, decreased sperm motility, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased embryo survival. Similarly, Endocrine disruptors, such as methoxychlor (an estrogenic pesticide) and vinclozolin (an anti-androgenic fungicide) have been found by experiments on animals to affect epigenetic modifications that may cause spermatogenic defects in subsequent generations. Assisted reproduction procedures that have been considered rather safe, are now being implicated in inducing epigenetic changes that could affect fertility in subsequent generations. Techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) may increase the incidence of imprinting disorders and

  20. OVARIAN AGING AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to changes in the socio-economic environment the first pregnancy is being more often postponed to advanced age; an increasing number of women seek medical help for infertility in their late thirties. Degenerative processes in the ovary start as early as after 35 years of age. When the woman is over 38, the signs of hormonal changes occur (FSH, inhibin, the menstrual cycle changes, and fertility is being increasingly reduced. Infertility treatment by assisted reproduction technology (ART has proved less efficient in older than in younger women.Material and methods. In a retrospective analysis we evaluated the success rates achieved with homologous intrauterine insemination (IUI, in vitro fertilization and embryo-transfer (IVF-ET, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and compared them in regard to the women > 38 years vs. < 38 years.Results. After IUI the pregnancy rate in the women over 38 was 3.7% per patient (1.5% per cycle and 28.0% (9.9% in the women younger than 38 years. After IVF-ET the pregnancy rate in the over 38-year group was 16% per patient (14% per cycle, and 28% per patient (25% per cycle in the less than 38-year group. After ICSI, the pregnancy rate in the group over 38 years was 11% per patient (9% per cycle, and 25% per patient (22% per cycle in the less than 38-year group. In the analysed population, the spontaneous abortion rate was 26.0% in the group of women aged over 38 years, and 14.0% in the group of women aged less than 38 years.Conclusions. Before introduction of an ART procedure the woman with advanced age should be properly counselled and well informed about poor success of their infertility treatment and high spontaneous abortion rate.

  1. Age-Specific Serum Anti-Mullerian Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Concentrations in Infertile Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Raeissi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH is secreted by the granulosa cells of growing follicles during the primary to large antral follicle stages. Abnormal levels of AMH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH may indicate a woman’s diminished ability or inability to conceive. Our aim is to investigate the changes in serum AMH and FSH concentrations at different age groups and its correlation with ovarian reserves in infertile women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed serum AMH and FSH levels from 197 infertile women and 176 healthy controls, whose mean ages were 19-47 years. Sample collection was performed by random sampling and analyzed with SPSS version 16 software. Results: There were significantly lower mean serum AMH levels among infertile women compared to the control group. The mean AMH serum levels from different ages of infertile and control group (fertile women decreased with increasing age. However, this reduction was greater in the infertile group. The mean FSH serum levels of infertile women were significantly higher than the control group. Mean serum FSH levels consistently increased with increasing age in infertile women; however mean luteinizing hormone (LH levels were not consistent. Conclusion: We have observed increased FSH levels and decreased AMH levels with increasing age in women from 19 to 47 years of age. Assessments of AMH and FSH levels in combination with female age can help in predicting ovarian reserve in infertile women.

  2. How does lead induce male infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chi Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects.

  3. Is Infertility Associated with Childhood Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Judith K.; Qian, Yinge; Croughan, Mary S.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Schembri, Michael; Camarano, Loretta; Croen, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns persist about a possible link between infertility and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Interpretation of existing studies is limited by racial/ethnic homogeneity of study populations and other factors. Using a case-control design, we evaluated infertility history and treatment documented in medical records of members of Kaiser…

  4. Genes Causing Male Infertility in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence C. Layman

    2002-01-01

    There are an accumulating number of identified gene mutations that cause infertility in humans. Most of the known gene mutations impair normal puberty and subsequently cause infertility by either hypothalamic /pituitary deficiency of important tropic factors to the gonad or by gonadal genes.

  5. Is Infertility Associated with Childhood Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Judith K.; Qian, Yinge; Croughan, Mary S.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Schembri, Michael; Camarano, Loretta; Croen, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns persist about a possible link between infertility and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Interpretation of existing studies is limited by racial/ethnic homogeneity of study populations and other factors. Using a case-control design, we evaluated infertility history and treatment documented in medical records of members of Kaiser…

  6. Effect of the Modern Life on Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keziban Amanak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is defined as failing to become pregnant at the end of one year although unprotected sexual intercourse of the couples. Infertility affects 15 % of couples at the reproductive age according to data of the World Health Organization. It was stated that approximately 1,5-2 million individuals in our country face infertility problem and problem increases gradually. One of the most important factors of increasing infertility problem is the adverse effects of modern life on our existence. Adverse effects of modern life are the common problems of the whole World. Postponement of gestational age as the result of modern life, obesity, electromagnetic waves, hormone-injected and genetically modified foodstuffs, stress, smoking and using alcohol, sexually transmitted diseases are among the increasing infertility causes. Adverse effects of the modern life on infertility may be minimized if the midwives and nurses know the harmful effects of modern life on infertility and provide consultancy services to couples, wishing to have a child. Effects of modern life on infertility and consultancy role of the midwives-nurses are discussed in this article. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 345-350

  7. Chromosomal abnormalities and y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men with varicocele and idiopathic infertility of South Indian origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rao, Lakshmi; Babu, Arvind; Kanakavalli, Murthy; Padmalatha, Venkata; Singh, Amarpal; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Deenadayal, Mamata; Singh, Lalji

    2004-01-01

    .... The objective of our present study was to investigate the chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men of South Indian origin with varicocele and idiopathic infertility...

  8. [Trends and current questions of cardiovascular prevention in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyés, István; Jancsó, Zoltán; Simay, Attila

    2012-09-30

    Although an impressive progress has been achieved in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, they are at the top of the mortality statistics in Hungary. Prevention of these diseases is an essential task of the primary health care. Cardiovascular prevention is carried out at primary, secondary and tertiary levels using risk group and population preventive strategies. The two main tasks of primary cardiovascular prevention are health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention, and its main programs are ensuring healthy nutrition, improving physical training and accomplishing an anti-smoking program. The essential form of secondary prevention is the screening activity of the primary health care. The majority of cardiovascular risk factors can be discovered during the doctor-patient consultation, but laboratory screening is needed for assessing metabolic risks. The official screening rules of the cardiovascular risk factors and diseases are based on diagnostic criteria of the metabolic syndrome; however, nowadays revealing of global cardiometabolic risks is also necessary. In patients without cardiovascular diseases but with risk factors, a cardiovascular risk estimation has to be performed. In primary care, there is a possibility for long term follow-up and continuous care of patients with chronic diseases, which is the main form of the tertiary prevention. In patients with cardiovascular diseases, ranking to cardiovascular risk groups is a very important task since target values of continuous care depend on which risk group they belong to. The methods used during continuous care are lifestyle therapy, specific pharmacotherapy and organ protection with drugs. Combined health education and counselling is the next element of the primary health care prevention; it is a tool that helps primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Changes needed for improving cardiovascular prevention in primary care are the following: appropriate evaluation of primary prevention

  9. The treatment of infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome: a brief update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael F; Misso, Marie L; Wong, Jennifer; Hart, Roger; Rombauts, Luk; Melder, Angela; Norman, Robert J; Teede, Helena J

    2012-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. Lifestyle change alone is considered the first-line treatment for the management of infertile anovulatory PCOS women who are overweight or obese. First-line medical ovulation induction therapy to improve fertility outcomes is clomiphene citrate, whilst gonadotrophins, laparoscopic ovarian surgery or possibly metformin are second line in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS women. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend aromatase inhibitors over that of clomiphene citrate in infertile anovulatory PCOS women in general or specifically in therapy naive or clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS women. IVF/ICSI treatment is recommended either as a third-line treatment or in the presence of other infertility factors.

  10. Evidence of increased chromosomal instability in infertile males after exposure to mitomycin C and caffeine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fotini Papachristou; Theodore Lialiaris; Stavros Touloupidis; Christos Kalaitzis; Constantinos Simopoulos; Nikolaos Sofikitis

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the genetic instability of 11 fertile and 25 infertile men. Methods: The methodology of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was applied to cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and the levels of SCEss were analyzed as a quantitative index of genotoxicity, along with the values of the mitotic index (MI) and the proliferation rate index (PRI) as qualitative indices of cytotoxicity and cytostaticity, respectively. The genotoxic and antineoplastic agent, mitomycin C (MMC), and caffeine (CAF) - both well-known inhibitors of DNA repair mechanism - were used in an attempt to induce chromosomal instability in infertile men, so as to more easily detect the probable underlying damage on DNA. Results: Our experiments illustrated that infertile men, compared with fertile ones, demonstrated a statistically significant DNA instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes after being exposed simultaneously to MMC and CAF. Conclusion: The current study showed vividly that there was genetic instability in infertile men which probably contributes to the development of an impaired reproductive capacity.

  11. Mood disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and distress in women presenting for infertility evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, J; Yingling, S; McKinney, M; Husami, N; Jewelewicz, R; Maidman, J

    1989-09-01

    Women who undergo treatment for infertility frequently report depression, but it is crucial to distinguish between subjective distress, symptoms, and clinical depressive disorders. In the initial assessment of a prospective, longitudinal study, 59 women presenting for infertility treatment were compared with 35 women presenting for routine gynecological care. Infertility patients and controls were not significantly different on self-report measures of partner satisfaction, sexual functioning, or self-esteem. There was also no difference in psychiatric symptomatology, or in the percentage of subjects who were currently experiencing or had ever experienced a major depressive episode. However, the infertility patients perceived themselves to have been already quite affected by their inability to conceive. For instance, 49.2% reported changes in their sexual functioning and 74.6% reported changes in their mood.

  12. General aspects of fertility and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damario, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fertility rates have been declining in most Western nations over the past several decades, although it is not entirely clear if an increased rate of infertility substantially contributes to this. As compared to other species, the reproductive efficiency of humans is relatively low. Factors related to fertility include age, exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, frequency of intercourse, coital timing, as well as diet and lifestyle habits. Infertility is considered a disease due to its major disruption of major organ systems and life functions. An infertility evaluation is recommended after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected intercourse and may be considered after 6 months for those female patients over the age of 35 or with other known abnormalities. A proper infertility evaluation is a comprehensive examination of possibly identifiable infertility factors of both female and male partners, lending itself to the most appropriate and potentially effective treatment.

  13. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms associated with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Madon, Prochi F; Parikh, Firuza R

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is a complex human condition and is known to be caused by numerous factors including genetic alterations and abnormalities. Increasing evidence from studies has associated perturbed epigenetic mechanisms with spermatogenesis and infertility. However, there has been no consensus...... on whether one or a collective of these altered states is responsible for the onset of infertility. Epigenetic alterations involve changes in factors that regulate gene expression without altering the physical sequence of DNA. Understanding these altered epigenetic states at the genomic level along...... with higher order organisation of chromatin in genes associated with infertility and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, particularly 9 and Y, could further identify causes of idiopathic infertility. Determining the association between DNA methylation, chromatin state, and noncoding RNAs...

  14. Early Marriage: a Policy for Infertility Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Female fertility begins to decline many years prior to the onset of menopause despite continued regular ovulatory cycles. Age related infertility is due to oocyte abnormalities and decreased ovarian reserve. Treatment of infertility when the cause is limited to decreased ovarian reserve is empirical at present except for oocyte donation. This mini review of the literature covers all available English biomedical journals that have been published from 1995 to 2008. The search based on combination of the words age, fertility, infertility, and oocyte abnormalities. The important findings from this search strategy are summarized and presented in the sub headings including female age and fertility, miscarriage and in vitro fertilization. Regarding infertility prevention, this mini review suggested that early marriage is a primordial, effective, inexpensive and easy way to prevent infertility.

  15. An Epidemiological and Clinical Survey of Infertility Problems in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立法; 王敏峥; 杨文秀; 钱伟; 王一鑫

    1993-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of fertility was carried out in two cities and five counties of Henan province in China. 1.96% of couples were found to have primary infertility (2.01% if 12 women with recurrent rrdscarraiges were included ). The etiology, was analysed in 321 couples with primary infertility selected from the sample, In these 321 couples there were malefactors implicated in 26.8% of couples, female factors in 49% and both female and malefactors in 24%. The most commonly identified factors were: Varicocele ( 10.9% ) and ovulations disorders ( 32.08% ) in male and female respectively.

  16. The mediator role of emotion regulation processes on infertility-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, Ana; Cunha, M; Pinto-Gouveia, J; Matos, M

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate gender differences regarding the mediator role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the effects of external shame, internal shame, dyadic adjustment, on infertility-related stress. One hundred and sixty-two women and 147 men with a primary infertility diagnosis completed the following set of self-report measures: Others as Shamer, Experience of Shame Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, Self-Compassion Scale, and Fertility Problem Inventory. Path analyses results revealed that in women self-compassion fully mediated the effect of internal shame on infertility-related stress and partially mediated the effect of dyadic adjustment on this variable, while external shame had only a direct effect. In men self-judgment fully mediated the effect of external and internal shame on infertility-related stress. Dyadic adjustment had only a direct effect on infertility-related stress. In conclusion, there is a distinct role of self-compassion and self-judgment on the relationship between shame and infertility-related stress in men and women. Such differences should be taken into account in psychological interventions with these patients. Future research is warranted to further support our results.

  17. The Social Consequences of Infertility among Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanpoor-Azghdy, Syedeh Batool; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vedadhir, Abouali

    2015-01-01

    Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment. A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation. This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences.

  18. The Social Consequences of Infertility among Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syedeh Batool Hasanpoor-Azghdy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results: Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation. Conclusion: This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences.

  19. Association of obesity with hormonal imbalance in infertility: a cross-sectional study in north Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Bhavna; Arora, Sarika; Singh, Ritu

    2013-10-01

    Hormones play an important role in the development and regulation of reproductive function and the menstrual cycle of women. Extremes of body weight tend to affect the homeostasis of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 113 women (57 with primary infertility and 56 with secondary infertility) in the age group 20-35 years, presenting for hormonal evaluation of infertility in a tertiary care hospital. After preliminary clinical evaluation, anthropometric indices (height, weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist hip ratio) were measured in all subjects. Fasting blood sample drawn on second/third day of menstrual cycle was analysed for serum luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Serum FSH levels showed a significant positive correlation with indicators of central obesity (waist circumference and waist hip ratio in both the study groups). In primary infertility, significant positive correlation was also observed between serum FSH levels and other markers of obesity like body weight, hip circumference and BMI. In secondary infertility, serum prolactin and serum TSH levels demonstrated a significant positive correlation with body weight and BMI. Obesity is associated with hormonal derangements which are responsible for infertility. In overweight women with infertility, weight loss should be considered as a first line treatment.

  20. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  1. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  2. Selenium–vitamin E supplementation in infertile men: effects on semen parameters and pregnancy rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K Moslemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad K Moslemi1,2, Samaneh Tavanbakhsh31Highly Specialized Jihad Daneshgahi Infertility Center, Qom Branch (ACECR, Qom, Iran; 2Department of Urology, 3School of Medicine, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, IranObjectives: Infertility is an important medical and social problem that has an impact on well-being. A significant development in the last 10 years in the study of human infertility has been the discovery that oxidative sperm DNA damage has a critical role in the etiology of poor semen quality and male infertility. Selenium (Se is an essential element for normal testicular development, spermatogenesis, and spermatozoa motility and function. The predominant biochemical action of Se in both humans and animals is to serve as an antioxidant via the Se-dependent enzyme glutathione peroxidase and thus protect cellular membranes and organelles from peroxidative damage. We explored the efficacy of Se in combination with vitamin E for improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates in infertile men.Materials and methods: The study included 690 infertile men with idiopathic asthenoteratospermia who received supplemental daily Se (200 µg in combination with vitamin E (400 units for at least 100 days. The mean age of cases was 28.5 years (range 20–45, and the median age was 30 years. These cases had presented with male factor infertility (primary or secondary for at least 1 year. The longest and shortest duration of infertility was 10 years and 1 year, respectively. The median time of diagnosis of infertility was 1 year with a mean of 2.5 years.Results: We observed 52.6% (362 cases total improvement in sperm motility, morphology, or both, and 10.8% (75 cases spontaneous pregnancy in comparison with no treatment (95% confidence interval: 3.08 to 5.52. No response to treatment occurred in 253 cases (36.6% after 14 weeks of combination therapy. Mean difference between semen analyses of cases before and after treatment was 4.3% with a standard

  3. Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problems You've been diagnosed with endometriosis or pelvic inflammatory disease You've had multiple miscarriages You've undergone ... the fallopian tube (salpingitis). This can result from pelvic inflammatory disease, which is usually caused by a sexually transmitted ...

  4. Infertility and pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, S

    2010-12-01

    Management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually spans a woman's reproductive years. While treatment of androgenic symptoms is often a primary concern, periodically, the regimen has to be modified because of a desire for pregnancy. At this time the couple should be evaluated for factors that may contribute to infertility and this should include semen analysis. However, for many, anovulation is likely to be the cause of infertility and ovulation induction is generally required. The premise on which ovulation induction in PCOS is based is two-fold: increasing ovarian exposure to follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and/or correcting hormonal derangements. Potential differences in pathogenesis, evidenced clinically by phenotypic diversity, would suggest that treatment should be individualized. After a brief overview of factors relating to infertility, this paper outlines treatments available for ovulation induction in women with PCOS and provides a critical appraisal of management options. These options include the use of clomiphene citrate, insulin sensitizers, and the combination. Protocols for ovulation induction with FSH injections are outlined and the relative risks of multiple gestation and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome of these various protocols discussed. The use of aromatase inhibitors and the occasional use of glucocorticoids are briefly reviewed, and indications for in vitro fertilization and laparoscopic ovarian diathermy outlined. Pregnancy outcome in this patient population is also discussed.

  5. Mammographic breast density in infertile and parous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letizia, Meggiorini Maria; Rita, Vestri Anna; Grazia, De Stefano Maria; Valentina, Cipolla; Filippo, Bellati; Diana, Maffucci; Paola, Nusiner Maria; Cesare, Aragona; Carlo, De Felice

    2016-02-09

    Mammographic breast density is a useful marker for breast cancer risk, as breast density is considered one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. The study objective was to evaluate and compare mammographic breast density in infertile and parous women, as infertility may be associated with high breast density and cancer occurrence. This study evaluated mammographic breast density using two different systems, BIRADS and Boyd. A selected patient population of 151 women with primary infertility (case group) was compared to 154 parous women who had at least one previous pregnancy (control group). Both groups were premenopausal women aged ≥ 35. Evaluation of mammographic features showed that 66.9% of case group patients and 53.9% of control group patients were classified BIRADS-3/BIRADS-4; p BIRADS-3/BIRADS-4 was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.10-2.89). Using the Boyd classification system, 53.6% of case group patients and 31.8% of control group patients were classified E/F; p BIRADS classification systems indicate to what extend breast cancer lesions may be missed on mammography due to masking by dense tissue. Therefore, patients with a high BIRADS or Boyd score should undergo further investigation.

  6. A mechanistic overview on male infertility and germ cell cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépieux, Pascale; Lécureuil, Charlotte; Marion, Sébastien; Kara, Elodie; Piketty, Vincent; Martinat, Nadine; Guillou, Florian; Royère, Dominique; Reiter, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The testis is devoted to two important tasks: haploid cell production and sexual steroid synthesis. A number of highly sophisticated and unique strategies operate during spermatogenesis, a process crucial for reproduction, heredity and evolution. It is particularly important to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms whose function can be perverted in pathological situations, such as infertility and testicular cancers, which represent an increasing biomedical issue today. This review summarises the currently available data concerning some key molecular components that are altered or potentially involved in male infertility and testicular tumors, with the aim of defining some common "hot spots". We particularly focused on genetically engineered in vivo models in which testicular functions are altered and we pinpointed to the potential involvement of the targeted genes in testicular pathologies. Those molecular mechanisms peculiar to the male gonad can be envisioned as a basis for the design of novel drugs potentially dedicated to testicular dysfunction.

  7. ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC HYSTEROLAPAROSCOPY IN EVALUATION OF FEMALE INFERTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthy; Suvarna; Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the role of hysterolaparoscopy in female infertility. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Kempegowda Institute of Medical sciences, Bengaluru were evaluated for infertility by hysterolaparoscopy and chromopertubation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to ...

  8. Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in Human Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanet, Narjes; Tosca, Lucie; Brisset, Sophie; Liehr, Thomas; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by banding cytogenetics. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of sSMC frequency and characterization in a context of infertility and to review the literature describing sSMC in relation with male and female infertility. Therefore, a systematic literature review on sSMC associated with infertility was conducted by means of a PubMed literature and a sSMC database (http://ssmc-tl.com/sSMC.html) search. A total of 234 patients with infertility were identified as carriers of sSMC. All chromosomes, except chromosomes 10, 19 and the X, were involved in sSMC, and in 72% the sSMC originated from acrocentric chromosomes. Euchromatic imbalances were caused by the presence of sSMC in 30% of the cases. Putative genes have been identified in only 1.2% of sSMC associated with infertility. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to a partial trisomy of some genes but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis. Further precise molecular and interphase-architecture studies on sSMC are needed in the future to characterize the relationship between this chromosomal anomaly and human infertility.

  9. Definition and epidemiology of unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelbaya, Tarek A; Potdar, Neelam; Jeve, Yadava B; Nardo, Luciano G

    2014-02-01

    The diagnosis of unexplained infertility can be made only after excluding common causes of infertility using standard fertility investigations,which include semen analysis, assessment of ovulation, and tubal patency test. These tests have been selected as they have definitive correlation with pregnancy. It is estimated that a standard fertility evaluation will fail to identify an abnormality in approximately 15% to 30% of infertile couples. The reported incidence of such unexplained infertility varies according to the age and selection criteria in the study population. We conducted a review of the literature via MEDLINE. Articles were limited to English-language, human studies published between 1950 and 2013. Since first coined more than 50 years ago, the term unexplained infertility has been a subject of debate. Although additional investigations are reported to explain or define other causes of infertility, these have high false-positive results and therefore cannot be recommended for routine clinical practice. Couples with unexplained infertility might be reassured that even after 12 months of unsuccessful attempts, 50% will conceive in the following 12 months and another 12% in the year after.

  10. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN SONOHYSTEROSALPINGOGRAP HY AND HYSTEROSALPINGOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saanida

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries and a dnexa with the help of trans-vaginal ultrasonography, and to evalua te the efficacy of SSG as compared to HSG in detecting fallopian tube patency. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Prospective Study of 61 patients for two years in 20-40 yrs age groups referred to Ra diology Department in SAT hospital presenting with primary or secondary infertility, Al l the patients were evaluated with SSG and HSG. Patients with signs of acute genital inflammat ion or bleeding were excluded from the study. RESULTS: In all the 61 patients presenting with infertility s onosalpingograpy was performed in out of which 46 were primary infertility and 15 were secondary infertility. The detection and characterization of uterine cavity ab normalities was more accurate with SSG than by radiographic HSG. In addition, SSG could detect u terine wall abnormalities, peritoneal abnormalities and ovarian abnormalities which could not be detected on HSG CONCLUSION: Sonohysterosalpingography (SSG is an effective meth od for detecting fallopian tube patency. It has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 84% with respect to Hysterosalpingography (HSG.The absence of radiation and the fact that it can be performed as an outpatient procedure makes SSG an excellent screening test for evaluatio n of infertile women.

  12. Current state of information technology use in a US primary care practice-based research network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrews

    2004-02-01

    Conclusion While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.

  13. An Examination of Current Adapted Physical Activity Provision in Primary and Special Schools in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Disability in Sport Taskforce report examining adapted physical activity (APA) in the Irish context (Department of Education and Science, 1999) found that teachers involved in primary mainstream and specialist settings expressed a grave lack of self-confidence, due to lack of training, in the delivery of APA programmes to children with special…

  14. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  15. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amritha; Byatt, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy.

  16. Experimental autoimmune orchitis as a model of immunological male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Lustig, Livia; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Clinically, 60-75% of male infertility cases are categorized as idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In previous studies of this condition, lymphocytic infiltration and immune deposits were present in several testis biopsy specimens, indicating that inflammatory or immunological factors contribute to the occurrence of the lesions. However, there is currently little evidence regarding immunological infertility in men. Previously, we established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), that can be induced in mice by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells without the use of any adjuvant. In this EAO model, lymphocytes surround the tubuli recti and then induce spermatogenic disturbance. In addition, after the active inflammation stage of this model, the seminiferous epithelium is damaged irreversibly, resembling the histopathology of human male idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In the majority of patients with testicular autoimmunity, there is a chronic and asymptomatic development of the inflammatory reaction. Therefore, this disease is very difficult to diagnose at the ongoing stage, and it is possible that the histopathology of idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance in the clinic is reported at the post-active inflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis. In this review, the histopathology of EAO before and after inflammation is discussed, comparing it with human orchitis.

  17. Method to manufacture the thickened electrolyte for primary galvanic current sources. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyschev, L.L.; Chuvpilo, A.V.; Trizno, V.V.; Naumenko, V.A.; Penkova, L.F.; Gorochov, V.L.; Apirina, E.G.; Gantman, S.A.

    1978-06-16

    The method consists in mixing the aqueous solution of calcium chloride, zinc chloride and ammonium chloride with tannic acid and starch at room temperature and in allowing the obtained mixture to stand until the formation of the thickened electrolyte is of a viscosity sufficient for the cohesion of the electrolyte layer with the negative electrode of the primary cell. According to the invention, the mixture obtained is allowed to stand for a while necessary for the thickening of the electrolyte of 0.05 to 0.85kp/m/sup 2/ compressive strength. After the waiting time the thickened electrolyte is pressed through at least one casting filter at a rate of at least 0.05 m/s to obtain the sufficient viscosity to coat the electrolyte layer onto the negative electrode of the primary cell.

  18. ROMANIAN PUPILS AT THE SPANISH PRIMARY SCHOOLS: CONTINUITIES AND DISCONTINUITIES BETWEEN FORMER AND CURRENT EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Ion

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, East-Europeans, predominantly Romanians, have become the second largest cultural minority in Catalonia (Spain. Spanish educational institutions now have students from more than twenty different cultures. This paper focuses on the educational background and the factors which characterize the educational experience of Romanian students prior to attending schools in Spain, and how this affects their experiences into Catalonian primary schools. Twenty seven interviews were undertaken, of Catalonian and Romanian teachers, of experts and parents from the host primary schools where the proportion of Romanian students was highest. Two focus-group sessions were carried out with school teachers from Romania. The analysis shows that there is some consistency between educational practices and values in Romania and the practices and values of the host schools. The ability of children to assimilate into the host school is directly influenced by their previous experience in the schools in their country of origin.

  19. Current practice in primary total hip replacement: results from the National Hip Replacement Outcome Project

    OpenAIRE

    Best, A. J.; Fender, D.; Harper, W. M.; McCaskie, A. W.; Oliver, K; Gregg, P J

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Study of Primary Hip Replacement Outcome, 402 consultant orthopaedic surgeons from three regions were contacted by postal questionnaire which covered all aspects of total hip replacement (THR). There was a 70% response rate of which 71 did not perform hip surgery, a further 33 refused to take part, leaving 181 valid responses. Preoperative assessment clinics were used by 89% of surgeons, but anaesthetists and rehabilitation services were rarely involved at this stage. ...

  20. [Current evidence on the motivational interview in the approach to health care problems in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bóveda Fontán, Julia; Pérula de Torres, Luis Ángel; Campiñez Navarro, Manuel; Bosch Fontcuberta, Josep M; Barragán Brun, Nieves; Prados Castillejo, Jose Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The motivational interview has been widely used as a clinical method to promote behavioural changes in patients, helping them to resolve their ambivalence to obtain their own motivations. In the present article, a review is made of the main meta-analyses and systematic and narrative reviews on the efficacy of the motivational interview in the primary health care environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Upward electron beams measured by DE-1 - A primary source of dayside region-1 Birkeland currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Reiff, P. H.; Sugiura, M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements made by the High Altitude Plasma Instrument on DE-1 have shown that intense upward electron beams with energies from about 20 eV to about 200 eV are a common feature of the region just equatorward of the morning-side polar cusp. Computations of the currents carried by these beams and by the precipitating cusp electrons show excellent agreement with the simultaneous DE-1 magnetometer measurements for both upward and downward Birkeland currents. The data indicate that cold ionospheric electrons, which carry the downward region-1 Birkeland currents on the morning side, are accelerated upward by potential drops of a few tens of eV at altitudes of several thousand kilometers. This acceleration process allows spacecraft above those altitudes to measure routinely the charge carriers of both downward and upward current systems.

  2. Dyslipidemia management in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Current guidelines and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrani, Aditya D; Adesiyun, Tolulope; Quispe, Renato; Jones, Steven R; Stone, Neil J; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S

    2016-02-26

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that $444 billion was spent on cardiovascular diseases alone, about $1 of every $6 spent on health care. As life expectancy continues to increase, this annual cost will also increase, making cost-effective primary prevention of cardiovascular disease highly desirable. Because of its role in development of atherosclerosis and clinical events, dyslipidemia management is a high priority in cardiovascular prevention. Multiple major dyslipidemia guidelines have been published around the world recently, four of them by independent organizations in the United States alone. They share the goal of providing clinical guidance on optimal dyslipidemia management, but guidelines differ in their emphasis on pharmacotherapy, stratification of groups, emphasis on lifestyle modification, and use of a fixed target or percentage reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol. This review summarizes eight major guidelines for dyslipidemia management and considers the basis for their recommendations. Our primary aim is to enhance understanding of dyslipidemia management guidelines in patient care for primary prevention of future cardiovascular risk.

  3. Dyslipidemia management in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease:Current guidelines and strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aditya D Hendrani; Tolulope Adesiyun; Renato Quispe; Steven R Jones; Neil J Stone; Roger S Blumenthal; Seth S Martin

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that $444 billion was spent on cardiovascular diseases alone, about $1 of every $6 spent on health care. As life expectancy continues to increase, this annual cost will also increase, making costeffective primary prevention of cardiovascular disease highly desirable. Because of its role in development of atherosclerosis and clinical events, dyslipidemia management is a high priority in cardiovascular prevention. Multiple major dyslipidemia guidelines have been published around the world recently, four of them by independent organizations in the United States alone. They share the goal of providing clinical guidance on optimal dyslipidemia management, but guidelines differ in their emphasis on pharmacotherapy, stratification of groups, emphasis on lifestyle modification, and use of a fixed target or percentage reduction in low density lipoprotein cholesterol. This review summarizes eight major guidelines for dyslipidemia management and considers the basis for their recommendations. Our primary aim is to enhance understanding of dyslipidemia management guidelines in patient care for primary prevention of future cardiovascular risk.

  4. Impaired Leydig cell function in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A-M; Jørgensen, N; Frydelund-Larsen, L

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether an impaired Leydig cell function is present in severely oligospermic men, serum testosterone (T), LH, estradiol (E(2)), and SHBG levels in 357 idiopathic infertile men were compared with levels in 318 proven fertile men. In addition, the T/LH ratio, E(2)/T ratio...... of the fertile levels.Thus, the group of infertile men showed significant signs of impaired Leydig cell function in parallel to their impaired spermatogenesis. The association of decreased spermatogenesis and impaired Leydig cell function might reflect a disturbed paracrine communication between the seminiferous......, and calculated free T index (cFT) were compared between the two groups.A shift toward lower serum T levels, cFT, and T/LH ratio and higher serum LH, E(2), and E(2)/T levels was observed in the group of infertile men. On average, the infertile men had 18, 26, and 34% lower serum T, cFT, and T/LH levels...

  5. Unexplained male infertility: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C; Nizza, Mark; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  6. Unexplained Male infertility: diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hamada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  7. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below are links to publications authored by ASRM and its affiliated societies. Latest Additions: Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility Robotic surgery The Intrauterine Device (IUD): A Long-acting ...

  8. Psychological and ethical implications related to infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minucci, Daria

    2013-12-01

    Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings.

  9. Perspective in infertility: the ovarian stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestris, Erica; D'Oronzo, Stella; Cafforio, Paola; D'Amato, Giuseppe; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2015-08-07

    Infertility is a medical and social condition that affects millions of women worldwide and is today considered so far as a new disease. A considerable progress has been recently pursued in the field of the reproductive medicine and the infertility treatment may account for novel and modern procedures such as in vitro oocyte fertilization, egg donation, pregnancy surrogacy and preimplantation diagnosis. However, great interest has lately been reserved to the ovarian stem cells (OSCs) whose existence in woman ovaries has been proven. OSCs are thus suitable for developmental studies in infertility and in other clinical applications as endocrine derangements due to premature ovarian failure, or for infertility treatment after cancer chemotherapies, as well as in restoring the hormonal balance in postmenopausal age.

  10. Infertility Patients' Mental Health Problems Often Unaddressed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapy on top of that. To Pasch, the solution is for clinics to have a mental health ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Depression Infertility Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  11. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well.

  12. Global access to infertility care in developing countries: a case of human rights, equity and social justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, W.

    2011-01-01

    According to WHO data more than 180 million couples in developing countries suffer from primary or secondary infertility. The social stigma of childlessness still leads to isolation and abandonment in many developing countries. Differences between the developed and developing world are emerging because of the different availability in infertility care and different socio-cultural value surrounding procreation and childlessness. Although reproductive health education and prevention of infertility are number one priorities, the need for accessible diagnostic procedures and new reproductive technologies (ART) is very high. The success and sustainability of ART in resource-poor settings will depend to a large extend on our ability to optimise these techniques in terms of availability, affordability and effectiveness. Accessible infertility treatment can only be successfully introduced in developing countries if socio-cultural and economic prerequisites are fulfilled and governments can be persuaded to support their introduction. We have to liaise with the relevant authorities to discuss the strengthening of infertility services, at the core of which lies the integration of infertility, contraceptive and maternal health services within public health care structures. After a fascinating period of more than 30 years of IVF, only a small part of the world population benefits from these new technologies. Time has come to give equitable access to effective and safe infertility care in resource-poor countries as well. PMID:24753875

  13. Net primary productivity, upwelling and coastal currents in the Gulf of Ulloa, Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González-Rodríguez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Ulloa, a highly productive area off the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, is examined for five successive years (2003–2007 by using satellite data and seasonal net primary productivity (NPP estimates obtained from a vertical generalised production model. The results identify that northwestern winds blow parallel to the coast throughout the year. However, highest NPP occurs from March to June. During this period, an equatorward coastal current transports water from neighbouring upwelling areas to the northern Gulf of Ulloa and in combination with local upwelling, which injects nutrients into the euphotic zone, produce the observed increase in NPP. The opposite situation occurs in late summer when a warm poleward current of tropical characteristics arrives and inhibits the productivity in the whole region and generates the yearly lowest NPP levels. Our findings reveal the importance of lateral advection in the modulation of the primary productivity in this subtropical upwelling region.

  14. Wound-Induced Changes of Membrane Voltage, Endogenous Currents, and Ion Fluxes in Primary Roots of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A. J.; Weisenseel, M. H.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of mechanical wounding on membrane voltage, endogenous ion currents, and ion fluxes were investigated in primary roots of maize (Zea mays) using intracellular microelectrodes, a vibrating probe, and ion-selective electrodes. After a wedge-shaped wound was cut into the proximal elongation zone of the roots, a large inward current of approximately 60 [mu]A cm-2 was measured, together with a change in the current pattern along the root. The changes of the endogenous ion current were accompanied by depolarization of the membrane voltage of cortex cells up to 5 mm from the wound. Neither inhibitors of ion channels nor low temperature affected the large, wound-induced inward current. The fluxes of H+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl- contributed only about 7 [mu]A cm-2 to the wound-induced ion current. This suggests the occurrence of a large mass flow of negatively charged molecules, such as proteins, sulfated polysaccharides, and galacturonic acids, from the wound. Natural wounding of the root cortex by developing lateral roots caused an outwardly directed current, which was clearly different in magnitude and direction from the current induced by mechanical injury.

  15. Parental infertility and cerebral palsy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Basso, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Children born after in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been reported to have a higher risk of cerebral palsy (CP), perhaps due to the higher frequency of preterm birth, multiple births or vanishing embryo in the pregnancies. However, it has been suggested...... that the underlying infertility may be part of the pathway. In this study, we examined whether untreated subfecundity (measured by time to pregnancy) or infertility treatment was associated with an increased risk of CP in the offspring....

  16. Perspective in infertility: the ovarian stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    SILVESTRIS, ERICA; D’Oronzo, Stella; Cafforio, Paola; D’Amato, Giuseppe; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a medical and social condition that affects millions of women worldwide and is today considered so far as a new disease. A considerable progress has been recently pursued in the field of the reproductive medicine and the infertility treatment may account for novel and modern procedures such as in vitro oocyte fertilization, egg donation, pregnancy surrogacy and preimplantation diagnosis. However, great interest has lately been reserved to the ovarian stem cells (OSCs) whose exi...

  17. Risk of adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcomes after high technology infertility treatment: a comprehensive systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, Stefano; Homburg, Roy; Santagni, Susanna; La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Orvieto, Raoul

    2016-11-04

    In the literature, there is growing evidence that subfertile patients who conceived after infertility treatments have an increased risk of pregnancy and perinatal complications and this is particularly true for patients who conceived through use of high technology infertility treatments. Moreover, high technology infertility treatments include many concomitant clinical and biological risk factors. This review aims to summarize in a systematic fashion the current evidence regarding the relative effect of the different procedures for high technology infertility treatments on the risk of adverse pregnancy and perinatal outcome. A literature search up to August 2016 was performed in IBSS, SocINDEX, Institute for Scientific Information, PubMed, Web of Science and Google Scholar and an evidence-based hierarchy was used to determine which articles to include and analyze. Data on prepregnancy maternal factors, low technology interventions, specific procedures for male factor, ovarian tissue/ovary and uterus transplantation, and chromosomal abnormalities and malformations of the offspring were excluded. The available evidences were analyzed assessing the level and the quality of evidence according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine guidelines and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system, respectively. Current review highlights that every single procedure of high technology infertility treatments can play a crucial role in increasing the risk of pregnancy and perinatal complications. Due to the suboptimal level and quality of the current evidence, further well-designed studies are needed.

  18. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEZGIN, Hacer; HOCAOGLU, Cicek; GUVENDAG-GUVEN, Emine Seda

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. Aim We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ2=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ2=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Conclusions Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have

  19. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  20. Psychological interactions with infertility among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, J; Gidron, Y; Sheiner, E

    2004-12-01

    Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the importance of the mind-body connection and fertility, the psychosocial aspects of infertility have not been adequately addressed. Fertility treatments, ranging from medical monitoring, to hormonal remedies and in vitro fertilization (IVF), are both a physical and emotional burden on women and their partners. Psychological factors such as depression, state-anxiety, and stress-induced changes in heart rate and cortisol are predictive of a decreased probability of achieving a viable pregnancy. A couple that is trying to conceive will undoubtedly experience feelings of frustration and disappointment if a pregnancy is not easily achieved. However, if the difficulties progress and the man and or woman are labelled as having fertility problems, then this may result in a severe insult to self-esteem, body image, and self-assessed masculinity or femininity. Three types of relationships have been hypothesized between psychological factors and infertility. These include: (1) psychological factors are risk factors of subsequent infertility; (2) the experience of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility causes subsequent psychological distress; (3) a reciprocal relationship exists between psychological factors and infertility. The evidence for these three relationships is reviewed and an alternative approach to the treatment of infertility including stress evaluation that precedes or is concurrent to fertility treatment is suggested.

  1. Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Nishida, Yukihiro; Sugawara, Masayuki

    2014-08-11

    The wide-gamut system colorimetry has been standardized for ultra-high definition television (UHDTV). The chromaticities of the primaries are designed to lie on the spectral locus to cover major standard system colorimetries and real object colors. Although monochromatic light sources are required for a display to perfectly fulfill the system colorimetry, highly saturated emission colors using recent quantum dot technology may effectively achieve the wide gamut. This paper presents simulation results on the chromaticities of highly saturated non-monochromatic light sources and gamut coverage of real object colors to be considered in designing wide-gamut displays with color filters for the UHDTV.

  2. First Contact: the intersection of demographics, knowledge, and appraisal of treatment at the initial infertility visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHILDRESS, Krista J.; LAWSON, Angela K.; GHANT, Marissa S.; MENDOZA, Gricelda; CARDOZO, Eden R.; CONFINO, Edmond; MARSH, Erica E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the initial infertility visit on treatment-related knowledge, patient anxiety, and appraisals of treatment. Study Design Prospective survey. Setting Academic medical center. Patients 234 English-speaking women, ages 18-50, attending their first infertility visit Intervention(s) Participants completed a survey assessing health literacy, knowledge, anxiety, and appraisals of the treatment process before and after their infertility visit. Main Outcome Measure(s) 1) Knowledge of infertility and treatment and, 2) Anxiety and appraisal scores. Results Most participants were white and earned >$100,000/year and had at least a college education. Baseline knowledge of reproductive anatomy, ART, and fertility factors was modest, but improved after the initial visit. Factors associated with higher knowledge included higher education and income, White or Asian ethnicity, and English as their primary language. Patient appraisals of treatment represented by the positive (Challenge) and negative (Threat and Loss) subscale scores on the Appraisal of Life Events (ALE) scale, changed from the pre-visit survey to the post-visit survey. Negative appraisals of treatment and anxiety scores decreased and positive appraisals of treatment increased after the initial visit. Lower knowledge was associated with higher positive appraisal scores lower health literacy was associated with higher anxiety and appraisal scores (positive and negative) post-visit. Black women had higher Challenge scores compared to White and Asian women. Hispanic women had higher anxiety scores than non-Hispanic women. Conclusions Infertility patients have modest baseline knowledge of fertility and infertility treatment. The initial infertility visit can improve this knowledge and decrease both negative appraisals of treatment and anxiety levels. Differences in knowledge and appraisal were seen across ethnic groups and other demographic variables. Physicians should individualize

  3. Ketotifen, a mast cell blocker improves sperm motility in asthenospermic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Saharkhiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ketotifen on sperm motility of asthenospermic infertile men. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vivo. Materials and Methods: In this interventional experimental study, a total of 40 infertile couples with asthenospermic infertility factor undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles were enrolled. The couples were randomly assigned to one of two groups at the starting of the cycle. In control group (n = 20, the men did not receive Ketotifen, while in experiment group (n = 20, the men received oraly ketotifen (1 mg Bid for 2 months. Semen analysis, under optimal circumferences, was obtained prior to initiation of treatment. The second semen analysis was done 2-3 weeks after stopped ketotifen treatment and sperm motility was defined. Clinical pregnancy was identified as the presence of a fetal sac by vaginal ultrasound examination. Statistical Analysis Used: All data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of mean (SEM. t test was used for comparing the data of the control and treated groups. Results: The mean sperm motility increased significantly (from 16.7% to 21.4% after ketotifen treatment (P < 0.001. This sperm motility improvement was more pronounced in the primary infertility cases (P < 0.003. The rate of pregnancy was 12.5% in infertile couples that their men receiving 1 mg/twice a day ketotifen. In 52% of infertile men′s semen, the percentage of sperm motility was increased from 5% to 35% and this sperm motility improvement was also observed in 33% of necrospermia (0% motility cases. Conclusion: These results suggest that ketotifen may represent as a novel therapeutic approach to improve sperm motility in the infertile men with cause of asthenospermia or necrospermia.

  4. Right to assisted reproductive technology: overcoming infertility in low-resource countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C

    2009-08-01

    This article examines the high prevalence of primary and secondary infertility in low-resource countries. Provision of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to overcome both female and male infertility is in line with the reproductive rights agenda developed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo 15 years ago. In addition to the right to control fertility, reproductive rights must encompass the right to facilitate fertility when fertility is threatened. Facilitation of fertility may require resort to ART, among both men and women. Egypt is highlighted as a positive example of progress in this regard.

  5. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  6. Psychopathology, emotional aspects and psychological counselling in infertility: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berardis, D; Mazza, M; Marini, S; Del Nibletto, L; Serroni, N; Pino, M C; Valchera, A; Ortolani, C; Ciarrocchi, F; Martinotti, G; Di Giannantonio, M

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, infertility has been variably defined. Infertility affects approximately 80 million people from all parts of the world. An important area of discussion has been represented by the possible causal link between psychopathology and infertility. In the past, the prevalence of psychiatric problems among infertile couples was estimated to be 25-60%. The incidence of depression and anxiety in infertile couples is significantly high than in fertile controls and in the general population respectively. Infertility has been linked to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, psychoticism, substance abuse and eating disorders. Psychological impact of infertility is greater in women than in men. Additionally, authors found that infertile patients were more alexithymic than healthy controls. In relation to the different needs, different psychological therapeutic interventions may be indicated. Psychological counseling can provide valuable assistance in dealing with infertility treatments and their eventual failures.

  7. The impact of infertility on sexuality: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maycock3

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most studies address medical treatment of infertility and psychosocial outcomes caused by infertility-related stress, but few studies examine the infertility’s impact on sexuality.Aim: A literature review was conducted to answer the questions: 1 How is sexual self concept impacted in infertile individuals and their partners? 2 Does infertility have a negative impact on sexual relationships? 3 Is sexual function affected by infertility? In answering these questions, we may develop a better understanding of sexuality in the context of infertility, and thus better inform infertility management. Ultimately the aim is to improve the quality of life for infertile couples.Method: A literature search was conducted for publications from 1990 to 2011 via the electronic databases PubMed, PsycInfo and Scopus, which focused on sexuality in infertile subjects or couples.Results: In this review, all studies were descriptive quantitative studies which mapped the different aspects of sexuality in the context of infertility. The results suggested that infertility and its treatment approaches for fertilisationcould lead to changes in sexual self-esteem, sexual relationship and sexual function.Conclusion: The literature substantiated that many infertile subjects experienced trouble in various aspects of sexuality. However, further research should examine the reciprocal relations between sexual self concept, sexual relationship and sexual function in the context of infertility. How these changes affect the partners of infertile subjects should also be addressed.

  8. Heat transfer characteristics of current primary packaging systems for pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Susanne; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-11-01

    In the field of freeze-drying, the primary packaging material plays an essential role. Here, the packaging system not only contains and protects the drug product during storage and shipping, but it is also directly involved in the freeze-drying process itself. The heat transfer characteristics of the actual container system influence product temperature and therefore product homogeneity and quality as well as process performance. Consequently, knowledge of the container heat transfer characteristics is of vital importance for process optimization. It is the objective of this review article to provide a summary of research focused on heat transfer characteristics of different container systems for pharmaceutical freeze-drying. Besides the common tubing and molded glass vials and metal trays, more recent packaging solutions like polymer vials, LYOGUARD® trays, syringes, and blister packs are discussed. Recent developments in vial manufacturing are also taken into account.

  9. Sexual function in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael P; Legro, Richard S; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D; Casson, Peter A; Christman, Gregory M; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G Wright; Rosen, R Mitchell; Schlaff, William; Haisenleder, Daniel; Krawetz, Stephen A; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J C; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-01

    While female sexual dysfunction is a frequent occurrence, characteristics in infertile women are not well delineated. Furthermore, the impact of infertility etiology on the characteristics in women with differing androgen levels observed in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility has not been assessed. The objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of sexual dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility. A secondary data analysis was performed on 2 of Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Networks clinical trials: Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Study II and Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations From Ovarian Stimulation. Both protocols assessed female sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Inventory and the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome had higher weight and body mass index than women with unexplained infertility (each P hormonal (testosterone, free testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone; each P Female Sexual Function Inventory, were nearly identical. The Female Sexual Distress Scale total score was higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The mean Female Sexual Function Inventory total score increased slightly as the free androgen index increased, mainly as a result of the desire subscore. This association was more pronounced in the women with unexplained infertility. Reproductive-age women with infertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility, despite phenotypic and biochemical differences in androgenic manifestations, do not manifest clinically significant differences in sexual function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of the internet related to infertility by infertile women and men in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satir, Duygu Gulec; Kavlak, Oya

    2017-01-01

    To determine differences in use of the Internet related to infertility between infertile women and men, whether they benefit or are negatively affected from information on the Internet, and share this information with health professional. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 285 infertile women and 158 men between December 2015 and February 2016. Data were collected by a survey Form which included questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, related to infertility (duration of treatment, type of treatment) and questions about use of the Internet. Chi-square analysis was used to evaluate the differences in Internet use and independent variables for patients. Seventy-four percent of women and 68.4% of men used the Internet related to infertility. Women and men most often looked for information related to assisted reproductive technology and the causes of infertility. Men searched for information related to fertility drugs used in treatment significantly less than women. They often visited the websites of fertility centers and doctors. A high percentage of them have benefited from information on the Internet. Almost half of the women and men shared the information obtained from the Internet with health professional. Most frequently, infertile patients use the Internet to obtain information related to infertility and they benefited from information on the Internet. For health professional it is important to direct Internet users to safe and true information resources.

  11. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozoemena OF

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OFN Ozoemena1, JO Ezugworie2, AU Mbah3, EA Esom4, BO Ayogu5, FE Ejezie61Department of Anatomy and Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, 4Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus; 5Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla; 6Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%–70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility.Methods: Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed.Results: Of 216 men, 173 (80.1% were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30–55 years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33–61 years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80% primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%, and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%. Among the 111 (64.2% cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55% cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism

  12. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P sperm count (P sperm (P sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  13. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  14. Role of diagnostic hystero-laparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility: A retrospective study of 300 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility in tertiary care centres. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at two tertiary care centres (the infertility clinics of Sriram Chandra Bhanj Medical College and Prachi hospital at Cuttack, Odisha throughout the year in 2008. Women aged 20-40 years with normal hormone profile without male factor infertility were included. Results: Out of 300 cases, 206 (69% patients had primary infertility. While laparoscopy detected abnormalities in 34% of the cases, significant hysteroscopy findings were noted in 18% of cases. Together, diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy detected abnormalities in 26% of the infertile patients in both groups. While the most common laparoscopic abnormality was endometriosis (14% and adnexal adhesion (12% in primary and secondary infertile patients, respectively, hysteroscopy found intrauterine septum as the most common abnormality in both groups. Conclusions: Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain significant and correctable tubo-peritoneal and intrauterine pathologies like peritoneal endometriosis, adnexal adhesions, and subseptate uterus, which are usually missed by other imaging modalities.

  15. Prevalence of primary aldosteronism in patient's cohorts and in population-based studies--a review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, A; Wallaschofski, H

    2012-03-01

    There is an ongoing controversy on the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA). We aimed to update a meta-analysis published in 2008, that compiled studies reporting the prevalence of positive ARR screening tests and PA. We therefore reviewed original studies published in 2008 or later to examine whether current reports provide similar, higher or lower prevalences of elevated ARRs or PA than reports included in the original meta-analysis. A systematic review of English articles using PubMed was conducted. Search and extraction of articles were performed by one review author; the second review author checked all extracted data. We identified 11 eligible studies. The updated, weighted mean prevalences of elevated ARRs and PA in primary care (prevalence of high ARRs 16.5%; prevalence of PA 4.3%) and referred patients (prevalence of high ARRs 19.6%; prevalence of PA 9.5%) were only marginally different from the mean values obtained in the original meta-analysis. Among the current studies the maximum values for the prevalence of elevated ARRs and PA were substantially lower than among the older studies. Our results confirm the main conclusions from the original meta-analysis. The prevalence of PA increases with the severity of hypertension and the inclusion of current study results did not alter the mean prevalences of elevated ARRs and PA in primary care and referred patients. Additionally, we found that current studies focus increasingly on patients in referral centers or special subgroups, while the prevalence of PA in the general hypertensive population is yet unknown.

  16. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National BirthCohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP>12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTPwith TTP>12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  17. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco

    OpenAIRE

    Noone Peadar G

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a genetic disorder of abnormal ciliary structure and function that leads to defective mucociliary clearance, resulting in oto-sino-pulmonary disease, and infertility. The disease is currently under intense investigation by a number of research groups worldwide. At the recent American Thoracic Society meeting in San Francisco in May 2001, two sessions focused on PCD; a symposium session on May 21 with several featured expert speakers was followed by...

  18. Current Indications for Surgical Treatment of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polistena, Andrea; Lucchini, Roberta; Monacelli, Massimo; Triola, Roberta; Avenia, Stefano; Barillaro, Ivan; Johnson, Louis Banka; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Avenia, Nicola

    2017-03-01

    This study presents the results of surgery in the elderly for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) from a single institution's experience. We retrospectively analyzed 898 cases of surgically treated PHPT, divided into two groups: 135 elderly patients (A) and 763 patients younger than 65 years (B). PHPT was symptomatic in 68.8 per cent patients in group A and in 81.6 per cent in group B. Unilateral temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy was observed in 0.9 per cent in group A and 0.1 per cent in group B (P > 0.05). No cervical hematomas, mortality or major cardiovascular, neurological, respiratory or metabolic postoperative complications were registered. All the patients evaluated at one year had improvement in the quality of life, with increase of bone mineral density (BMD) in 85.6 per cent and 79.8 per cent of patients in groups A and B, with no significant differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Parathyroidectomy in elderly PHPT patients is safe, with rate of morbidity similar to what observed in younger individuals. Further investigations are recommended to confirm the role of surgery as an effective approach in elderly PHPT patients.

  19. [Current status and future prospects of stem cell gene therapy for primary immunodeficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Toru; Onodera, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Patients affected by primary immunodeficiency (PID) can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the absence of HLA-matched donors, however, incidence of HSCT-related complications is observed. Therefore, gene therapy has been developed as a highly desirable alternative treatment for patients lacking suitable donors. Retrovirus-based gene therapy was begun in 1990 for the patients of adenosine deaminase deficiency, followed by X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and chronic granulomatous disease. Although treated patients have had excellent immune reconstitution and resolution of ongoing infections, complications such as a lymphoproliferative syndrome and a disappearance of gene-modified cells were observed in some clinical trials. To overcome these, ongoing and upcoming clinical trials use some new strategies. The use of preconditioning chemotherapy makes space in the bone marrow for the gene-treated stem cells and allows engraftment of multi lineage stem/progenitor cells. Self-inactivating vectors in which strong enhancers of long terminal repeat are eliminated may reduce the risk of insertional activation of proto-oncogene resulting in leukemia. These modifications will surely increase the safety and efficacy of stem cell gene therapy for PID.

  20. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters....

  1. Counseling-supportive interventions to decrease infertile women's perceived stress: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Fereshteh; Elyasi, Forouzan; Peyvandi, Sepideh; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Galekolaee, Keshvar Samadaee; Kalantari, Fereshteh; Rahmani, Zahra; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Infertility all around the world and in every culture is recognized as a stressful and critical experience that threatens individual, familial, marital, and social stability. Thus, in accordance with the importance of a woman's mental health and the possible impact of mental health on treatment outcome, finding a way to deal with perceived stress in women can help improve pregnancy outcomes. This study is a systematic review on reducing perceived infertility stress in infertile women. The current study was undertaken using multiple databases such as SID, Irandoc, Magi ran, Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Cochrane library, and CINAHL selected from articles pertinent to the study. The selection of papers was undertaken from 1990 through May 2016. The methodological quality was assessed. The initial search yielded a list of 725 papers, and then reviewers studied titles and abstracts. Thereafter, 68 papers were incorporated, and researchers reviewed summaries of all of the searched articles. Finally, the researchers utilized the data gained from 29 full articles so as to compile this review paper. Reviewing the studies conducted on reducing infertility perceived stress, the researchers classified related findings into two main categories: supportive and counseling intervention. Considering the fact that there is an international agreement that fertility centers need to offer counseling programs for psychological problems of the infertile, it is especially important to recognize counseling-supportive interventions for decreasing infertile women's perceived stress and to program plans for decreasing women's perceived stress. By investigating counseling-supportive stress, we hope that this study has stepped forward toward health care agent's familiarity with decreasing infertile women's perceived stress and, therefore, improving treatment consequences.

  2. Lessons from elective in vitro fertilization (IVF in, principally, non-infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicher Norbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We here report the first investigation of exclusively elective in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles in women with no apparent history of infertility. Since IVF outcome in women with infertility are always influenced by underlying causes of infertility, a study on non-infertile women may offer new insights. Methods We investigated 88 females without history of infertility in 109 consecutive elective IVF cycles, almost exclusively performed for purposes of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS; i.e., elective gender selection. The following questions were addressed: (i impact of PGS on IVF pregnancy chances; (ii impact of transfer of 1 vs. ≥2 embryos on IVF pregnancy chances; (iii correlation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels to embryo ploidy (iv effect of gonadotropin dosage used in stimulation on available embryos for transfer; and (v in form of a 1:1 case control study, compared 33 elective PGS cycles with matched control cycles without PGS, performed in couples with either prior tubal ligations and/or severe male factor infertility as indication of IVF. Results The overall clinical pregnancy rate for the group was 36.7%; pregnancy was associated with number of euploid (P = 0.009 and number of embryos transferred (P = 0.001. Odds of pregnancy were 3.4-times higher if ≥4 euploid embryos were produced in comparison to Conclusions This study suggests that outcomes of elective IVF cycles may significantly deviate from infertility-associated cycles. Affirming proof of concept for PGS, utilizing day-3 embryo biopsy and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, both widely held responsible for earlier failures to establish such proof, suggests that the principal cause of prior failures were likely not insufficient laboratory techniques but poor patient selection for PGS. Such a conclusion questions the current reintroduction of PGS with improved techniques and technologies in absence of prior determination of suited

  3. Prediction of Infertility Treatment Outcomes Using Classification Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milewska Anna Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is currently a common problem with causes that are often unexplained, which complicates treatment. In many cases, the use of ART methods provides the only possibility of getting pregnant. Analysis of this type of data is very complex. More and more often, data mining methods or artificial intelligence techniques are appropriate for solving such problems. In this study, classification trees were used for analysis. This resulted in obtaining a group of patients characterized most likely to get pregnant while using in vitro fertilization.

  4. Might uterus transplantation be an option for uterine factor infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Münire Erman

    2015-01-01

    Current data on uterus allotransplantation research has been reviewed and summarized. Over the past 15 years, progress in uterus transplantation research has increased dramatically. As a consequence, the first pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation in rats have been reported. The technique has been better defined. Although clinical pregnancy and delivery following uterus allotransplantation has been reported in humans, there are still many questions to be answered before clinical application. Gestational surrogacy still remains an important option for being a genetic parent in selected cases with uterine factor infertility.

  5. Women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba Yassini; Majd, Hamid Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem and its prevalence is increasing in developing countries. This problem has some significant effects on the sexual behaviors of infertile women, especially during infertility treatment periods. Discovering the existing beliefs in the field of sexual and reproductive health and also determining the misconceptions would define the educational needs for providing sexual health programs for infertile women. Women should be able to distinguish risky behaviors from healthy behaviors that falsely have been marked as infertility-related behaviors. This qualitative study was conducted to determine women's beliefs about infertility and sexual behaviors among Iranian infertile women. The present study was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted on 15 infertile women and 8 key informants until reaching data saturation. Guba and Lincoln evaluative criteria were used for ensuring rigor of the study. Data analysis defined three classes of beliefs that directly or indirectly affected sexual behaviors in infertile women: 1) Cultural, religious, or ethnic beliefs, 2) believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and 3) effect of the type of intercourse on getting pregnant. Three themes of religious, cultural, and ethnic beliefs, believing in the effect of diet on infertility, and the effect of the type of intercourse were the most important factors indicating sexual behaviors among infertile women. It seems that cultural and social matters are the most effective factors on sexual behaviors of infertile Iranian women.

  6. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  7. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  8. Hormonal and seminal parameters in infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B; Francavilla, S; Properzi, G; Martini, M; Fabbrini, A

    1986-01-01

    500 infertile patients (250 with and 250 without left side varicocele) and 33 fertile men were evaluated as far as seminal parameters and the hormonal status were concerned. Sperm motility was constantly lower in infertile patients also when infertile group was compared to fertile one with the same sperm density. Serum testosterone levels were lower in infertile groups when compared to fertile men, and this confirms the existence of an androgenic deficit as a common finding in infertility associated or not to varicocele. FSH and LH increased (p less than 0.001) when sperm density dropped to less than 5 X 10(6) spermatozoa/ml. A negative correlation was found between both gonadotropins and sperm count (p less than 0.001), also after exclusion of azoo- and oligozoospermic (less than 5 X 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) patients (p less than 0.01). Gonadotropins were moreover tightly correlated between each other (p less than 0.001). Our data suggest that both gonadotropins are tightly tuned with sperm output and thus with the spermatogenic potential.

  9. Leptin as a Predictive Marker in Unexplained Infertility in North Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Pratibha; Jaiswar, S P; Shankhwar, Pushplata; Deo, Sujata; Ahmad, Kalim; Iqbal, Bushra; Mahdi, A A

    2017-03-01

    According to WHO, the primary infertility in India is about 3.9% (age-standardized to 25-49 year) and 16.8% (age-standardized to 15-49 year), using the "age but no birth" definition. Several factors which affect fertility include low sperm production in men, poor egg quality and blocked fallopian tubes in women and also hormonal imbalances. Leptin plays a critical role in women's reproduction and neuroendocrine health. It is used for treating exercise-induced bone loss, eating disorders and infertility. To evaluate the serum leptin levels in Indians and to ascertain the relationship between serum leptin levels, Unexplained Infertility (UI) and related variables [height, weight, Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Mass Index (BMI)] between obese infertile, non-obese infertile and healthy subjects. The present case-control study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow, India and funded by Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India. The study included 229 female participants in the age group of 18-40 years (120 cases and 109 controls) who were randomly selected. The blood samples were collected from the Infertility Clinic, Queen Mary's Hospital, KGMU, Lucknow, India. All the participants underwent complete physical examination. Initially, the participants were categorized into fertile and infertile groups, they were further divided on the basis of BMI, normal (BMI- 18.5-24.5) and overweight or obese (BMI≥25). Leptin level was measured by Active Human Leptin ELISA kit and BMI of all subjects was calculated in kg/m(2) (weight in kg and height in m). A highly positive linear correlation (R=0.754, pinfertile women, which indicates a strong relationship between BMI and serum leptin. The variation in serum leptin is explained by the independent variable, BMI. There was a partial positive linear correlation between BMI and serum leptin in the control group. Statistically there was no significant

  10. Measuring male infertility: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualotto Fábio Firmbach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human semen quality may have been deteriorating in recent years. Most of the evidence is retrospective, based on analysis of data sets collected for other purposes. Measures of male infertility are needed if we want to monitor the biological capacity for males to reproduce over time or between different populations. We also need these measures in analytical epidemiology if we want to identify risk indicators, risk factors, or even causes of an impaired male fecundity-that is, the male component in the biological ability to reproduce. The most direct evaluation of fecundity is to measure the time it takes to conceive. Since the time of conception may be missed in the case of an early abortion, time to get pregnant is often measured as the time it takes to obtain a conception that survives until a clinically recognized pregnancy or even a pregnancy that ends with a live born child occurs. A prolonged time required to produce pregnancy may therefore be due to a failure to conceive or a failure to maintain a pregnancy until clinical recognition. Studies that focus on quantitative changes in fecundity (that does not cause sterility should in principle be possible in a pregnancy sample. The most important limitation in fertility studies is that the design requires equal persistency in trying to become pregnant and rather similar fertility desires and family planning methods in the groups to be compared. This design is probably achievable in exposure studies that make comparisons with reasonable comparable groups concerning social conditions and use of contraceptive methods.

  11. The risk factor profile of women with secondary infertility: an unmatched case-control study in Kigali, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Naeyer Ludwig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary infertility is a common, preventable but neglected reproductive health problem in resource-poor countries. This study examines the association of past sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV, bacterial vaginosis (BV and factors in the obstetric history with secondary infertility and their relative contributions to secondary infertility. Methods Between November 2007 and May 2009 a research infertility clinic was set up at the Kigali University Teaching Hospital in Rwanda. Cases were defined as sexually-active women aged 21-45 years presenting with secondary infertility (n = 177, and controls as multiparous women in the same age groups who recently delivered (n = 219. Participants were interviewed about socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric history using structured questionnaires, and were tested for HIV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs. Results Risk factors in the obstetric history for secondary infertility were lack of prenatal care in the last pregnancy, the first pregnancy before the age of 21 years, a history of unwanted pregnancy, a pregnancy with other than current partner, an adverse pregnancy outcome, stillbirth, postpartum infection and curettage. Presence of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, or Treponema pallidum antibodies, and bacterial vaginosis (BV, were significantly more common in women in secondary infertile relationships than those in fertile relationships. The population attributable fractions (PAF% for obstetric events, HIV, other (STIs, and BV were 25%, 30%, 27%, and 14% respectively. Conclusions The main finding of this study is that obstetric events, HIV and other STIs contribute approximately equally to secondary infertility in Rwanda. Scaling up of HIV/STI prevention, increased access to family planning services, improvement of prenatal and obstetric care and reduction of stillbirth and infant mortality rates are all likely to decrease secondary

  12. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported researchers may lead ... androgens, symptoms of PCOS include irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and insulin resistance (difficulty using insulin.) The condition ...

  13. What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications What treatment options are available for male infertility? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... deliver a live-born infant, in most cases, infertility has no other outward symptoms. The evaluation of ...

  14. Treatments for Infertility Resulting from Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Treatments for Infertility Resulting from PCOS Skip sharing on social media ... reason for these problems. Before beginning treatment for infertility possibly related to PCOS, be sure that your ...

  15. Individualised gonadotrophin ovulation induction in women with normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Loft, Anne; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate an individualised gonadotrophin starting dose regimen for women with anovulatory infertility. STUDY DESIGN: We included 71 normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertile women in a prospective, observational study. All underwent one ovulation induction...

  16. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  17. [Which is the method of choice for evaluating uterine cavity in infertility workup?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Benkaddour, Y; Gervaise, A; Fernandez, H

    2010-12-01

    Uterine factors represent only 2 to 3 % of infertility, but intra-uterine lesions are much more common in infertile women (40-50 %). These lesions can interfere with spontaneous fertility and can compromise pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction. Exploration of the uterine cavity is actually one of the basic explorations in infertility workup. Classically, hysterosalpingography and transvaginal sonography are most communally used for this purpose. Hysteroscopy, with the development and miniaturization of equipment, is currently simple, outpatient cost-effective exploration and it is considered the gold standard for diagnosis of intrauterine lesions. However, the benefit of the systematic use of hysteroscopy in the initial assessment of infertility remains unclear and the exploration of the uterine cavity in the initial assessment of infertility should be based on hysterosalpingography or hysterosonography. Systematic hysteroscopy before IVF is widely accepted practice that is supposed to improve pregnancy rates but still lacks scientific evidence. After repeated implantation failure in IVF cycles, uterine cavity should be reevaluated by hysteroscopy and this practice has been demonstrated to improve pregnancy rates.

  18. A case-control study of risk factors for male infertility in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Friday Okonofua; Uche Menakaya; S. O. Onemu; L. O. Omo-Aghoja; Staffan Bergstrom

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the association between selected potential socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and infertility in Nigerian men. Methods: There were two groups in this study. One group consisted of 150 men with proven male infertility, and the other consisted of 150 fertile men with normal semen parameters. Both were matched for age,place of residence and key socio-demographic variables. They were compared for sexual history, past medical and surgical history, past exposures to sexually transmitted infections and treatment, past and current use of drugs as well as smoking and alcohol intake history. Results: Infertile men were significantly more likely than fertile men to report having experienced penile discharge, painful micturition and genital ulcers, less likely to seek treatment for these symptoms and more likely to seek treatment with informal sector providers. Multivariate analysis showed that male infertility was significantly associated with bacteria in semen cultures, self-reporting of previous use of traditional medications and moderate to heavy alcohol intake, but not with smoking and occupational types. Conclusion:Infertility is associated with various proxies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and poor healthcare-seeking behavior for STIs in Nigerian men.

  19. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igberase, Gabriel O

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  20. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. EVIDENCE...... ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published before January 1, 2016, using the MeSH terms for a variety of STDs and infertility. The search was restricted to human studies...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...

  1. REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION INDICATORS COUPLES BRYANSK REGION, INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekhnich Svetlana Nikolaevna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research - the study of the dynamics and trends of the major reproductive health Bryansk region. Novelty: established medical-social aspects of reproductive health at the regional level. The methodology of the work. Direct observation of the state of the reproductive health, clinical tools, functional methods, statistical methods, data from vykopirovka "outpatient medical card" applied to autonomous public institutions Bryansk Regional Health Center for Family Planning and Reproduction (Gause BOTSPSR from 2008 to 2012. Results. Revealed a high incidence of infertility, high frequency tube-peritoneal and endocrine factors of the disease. Among patients with infertility, most suffered various gynecological surgeries, which significantly reduced ovarian reserve and the quality of oocytes during IVF. Field of application of the results. The data obtained can be used in reproductive medicine clinics, which will allow a more considered approach to the appointment of surgical interventions in patients with infertility, greater use of assisted reproduction techniques.

  2. The social epidemiology of coping with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Christensen, Ulla; Holstein, B E

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To analyse the cross-sectional association between coping responses with infertility and occupational social class. Infertility is evenly distributed across social classes in Denmark, and there is free access to high-quality assisted reproduction technology. METHODS: Data were based...... passive-avoidance coping and significantly less active-avoidance coping. CONCLUSION: Due to the significant social differences in coping with infertility, the study suggested that elements of coping may be learned from one's social network and reference group....... was developed in four categories: active-avoidance coping; active-confronting coping; passive-avoidance coping; meaning-based coping. These subscales were later confirmed by factor analysis. Occupational social class was measured in a standardized way. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, the logistic regression...

  3. Forgotten intrauterine device contributing to infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel O. Igberase

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show that long standing forgotten intrauterine device contributes to infertility, reporting three cases presented at Central Hospital Warri, Nigeria, a government tertiary health center. Three cases of forgotten intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD contributing to infertility were seen. Two were inserted for contraceptive reasons while one was inserted while being managed for uterine synechae. Health care providers should ensure proper documentation of all procedures carried out, adequate counseling which should include taking an informed consent and also ensuring both short and long term follow up of their clients. Also all patients being evaluated for infertility and clients with past history of intrauterine device must have a speculum examination and ultrasound scan carried out.

  4. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-07-11

    Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases of an arbitrary menstrual cycle. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH, AMH, inhibin B, estradiol, progesterone, PRL and TSH were determined. The predictive value of ovulation and hormonal analysis was determined by identifying the proportion of women with at least one live birth. Mann Whitney U test, chi2 test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A value of p hormone values and live birth rates between women with unexplained infertility and male infertility. The best sole predictors of live birth were age of the women, followed by ovulatory cycle, defined as serum progesterone concentration of greater than or equal to 32 nmol/L, and a serum TSH concentration of less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L. Combining the age with the ovulatory cycle and serum TSH less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L or serum AMH greater than or equal to 10 pmol/L the predictive value was close to 90%. Age in combination with the presence of an ovulatory cycle and serum TSH or serum AMH is predictive for long-term live birth. The advantage of serum AMH compared with serum TSH is the very little variation throughout the menstrual cycle, which makes it a useful tool in infertility diagnosis.

  5. Infertility: Ongoing Global challenge of new millennium

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    Kantibhai Naranbhai Sonaliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility tends to be the global challenge even in the second decade of the new millennium. Especially in developing countries like India, it is still one the most lethal social evil responsible for a big proportion of cases of psychological disturbances including suicide. Again, recently, few conditions other than communicable or Non-communicable diseases are given place among the categories of significant public health problems like Road Traffic Accidents, Burns, Poisoning, drowning and few more. But, for developing countries like India, the list is incomplete without inclusion of Infertility (there may be several others also. In public health, tuberculosis, leprosy and some other diseases are considered social diseases which produce social stigma for the patients and/or his family members.1 In same manner, Infertility is an important cause of social stigmatization since centuries for a couple suffering from, especially for woman involved. During a transitory phase of industrialization and socio-economic development, the situation is changed a minute smidgen at urban areas of India but at rural parts, sub-urban or even at urban slums (mainly among pockets of recent migrants the situation is as same as a few hundred years ago. A female of no religion, caste, social status or higher level of education are barred from some stringent mores related to infertility. Infertile females are still not allowed to take part in so many religious or social ceremonies; on the contrary, they have to face more harassment including domestic violence than their counterparts, who have given birth to the child. Due to social, psychological, economic disturbances, they are forced to take multiple sorts of treatments including religious quacks. So many infertile women are exploited physically and economically also in such weird ways of treatment to gain a pregnancy.

  6. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  7. Evidence-based lifestyle and pharmacological management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Michael F; Ledger, William L

    2012-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age and by far the most common cause of anovulatory infertility. Lifestyle change alone, and not in combination with pharmacological ovulation induction such as clomifene citrate or metformin, is generally considered the first-line treatment for the management of infertile anovulatory women with PCOS who are overweight or obese. Clomifene citrate should be considered as a first-line pharmacological therapy to improve fertility outcomes. Second-line medical treatments may include ovulation induction with gonadotropins (in clomifene citrate-resistant or clomifene citrate failure women) or laparoscopic ovarian drilling (in clomifene citrate-resistant women) or possibly with metformin combined with clomifene citrate (in clomifene citrate-resistant women). There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend aromatase inhibitors over that of clomifene citrate in infertile anovulatory women with PCOS in general or specifically in therapy-naive or clomifene citrate-resistant women with PCOS.

  8. Combined manual therapy techniques for the treatment of women with infertility: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Mary Ellen

    2012-10-01

    Current management options for infertility, including hormone therapy, intrauterine insemination, and in vitro fertilization, tend to be expensive, are not necessarily covered by insurance, and carry different levels of short-term and long-term health risks. Many of the issues that contribute to infertility can be traced to scar tissue, fascial restriction, and lymphatic congestion in the pelvic region. Manual therapy techniques exist to release fascial restrictions, to mobilize tight ligaments, and to drain congested lymphatics, all of which can be applied to the reproductive system. In this case series, 10 infertile women were treated with 1 to 6 sessions of manual therapy applied to the pelvic region. Techniques included muscle energy, lymphatic drainage, and visceral manipulation. Six of the 10 women conceived within 3 months of the last treatment session, and all 6 of those women delivered at full term.

  9. Addressing the particular recordkeeping needs of infertile Orthodox Jewish couples considering the use of donated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2014-03-01

    Infertility counseling is a specialized field that will continue to grow in coming years as the impact of infertility and its treatment is documented more and more in terms of emotional, physical, social and life consequences. Counselors should anticipate issues that may arise in the future and assist couples in their efforts to address them. We report here on recordkeeping issues of possible future concern that should be addressed when Orthodox Jewish couples make use of donor eggs. Good medical practice values the importance of understanding the patient's individual concerns and values, including the complex psychological, sociological and cultural context in which they experience their infertility. Good counseling anticipates and addresses future problems about which patients might not currently be aware.

  10. Overtreatment in couples with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, F A M; Hermens, R P G M; Braat, D D M; Hoek, A; Mol, B W J; Goddijn, M; Nelen, W L D M

    2015-01-01

    What is the percentage of overtreatment, i.e. fertility treatment started too early, in couples with unexplained infertility who were eligible for tailored expectant management? Overtreatment occurred in 36% of couples with unexplained infertility who were eligible for an expectant management of at least 6 months. Prognostic models in reproductive medicine can help to identify infertile couples that would benefit from fertility treatment. In couples with unexplained infertility with a good chance of natural conception within 1 year, based on the Hunault prediction model, an expectant management of 6-12 months, as recommended in international fertility guidelines, prevents unnecessary treatment. A retrospective cohort study in 25 participating clinics, with follow-up of all couples who were seen for infertility in 2011-2012. In all, 9818 couples were seen for infertility in the participating clinics. Couples were eligible to participate if they were diagnosed with unexplained infertility and had a good prognosis of natural conception (>30%) within 1 year based on the Hunault prediction model. Data to assess overtreatment were collected from medical records. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of overtreatment with patient and clinic characteristics. Five hundred and forty-four couples eligible for expectant management were included in this study. Among these, overtreatment, i.e. starting medically assisted reproduction within 6 months, occurred in 36%. The underlying quality indicators showed that in 34% no prognosis was calculated and that in 42% expectant management was not recommended. Finally, 16% of the couples for whom a correct recommendation of expectant management for at least 6 months was made, started treatment within 6 months anyway. Overtreatment was associated with childlessness, higher female age and a longer duration of infertility. No associations between overtreatment and clinic characteristics were found. The

  11. ASSESSMENT OF INFERTILITY PROBLEMS AMONG FEMALE IN RAMANATHAPURAM, TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    G. Veerarajeswari; L. Jeyapraba; R. Ajaz Haja Mohideen

    2017-01-01

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. Identifiable factors affecting female infertility include hormonal or endocrine disturbances (menstrual or ovulatory disturbances), tubal factors (occlusions, pelvic adhesions and other tubal abnormalities), acquired non-tubal factors (cervical or uterine disturbances), sexual dysfunction and congenital abnormalities. The present research work aimed to study the infertility problem according to demographic and...

  12. Infertility classification: a work in progress sounds like SOAP revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Joseph S

    2005-04-01

    Documentation and communication regarding infertility evaluation and management continue to be a work in progress. Grading systems focused on the degree of infertility and the associated prognosis are a step in the right direction. A subjective, objective, assessment, plan (SOAP) approach is a logical way to provide a detailed method of communication and documentation when dealing with infertile couples.

  13. Infertility treatments and counselling in the context of patriarchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility treatments and counselling in the context of patriarchy among Ijebu, south ... Infertility, as a social and cultural problem affecting individuals and families, makes ... 62% agreed that government should intensify legislation, health education; legal ... Infertility, Health-seeking behaviour, Counselling, Gender inequality.

  14. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Treat Infertility Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.

    2011-01-01

    Women and men diagnosed with infertility experience a variety of infertility-related stressors, including changes to their family and social networks, strain on their sexual relationship, and difficulties and unexpected challenges in their relationship. Infertility stress is linked with depression and psychological distress, and can lead to…

  15. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Treat Infertility Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.

    2011-01-01

    Women and men diagnosed with infertility experience a variety of infertility-related stressors, including changes to their family and social networks, strain on their sexual relationship, and difficulties and unexpected challenges in their relationship. Infertility stress is linked with depression and psychological distress, and can lead to…

  16. Use of complementary and alternative medicines by a sample of Turkish women for infertility enhancement: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolusari Ali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility patients are a vulnerable group that often seeks a non-medical solution for their failure to conceive. World-wide, women use CAM for productive health, but only a limited number of studies report on CAM use to enhance fertility. Little is known about traditional and religious forms of therapies that are used in relation to conventional medicine in Turkey. We investigated the prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM used by infertile Turkish women for fertility enhancement. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information and types of CAM used for fertility enhancement were completed by hundred infertility patients admitted to a primary care family planning centre in Van, Turkey between January and July 2009. Results The vast majority of infertile women had used CAM at least once for infertility. CAM use included religious interventions, herbal products and recommendations of traditional "hodja's" (faith healers. Of these women, 87.8% were abused in the last 12 months, 36.6% felt not being supported by her partner and 80.5% had never spoken with a physician about CAM. Conclusions Infertile Turkish women use complementary medicine frequently for fertility enhancement and are in need of information about CAM. Religious and traditional therapies are used as an adjunct to, rather than a substitute for, conventional medical therapy. Physicians need to approach fertility patients with sensitivity and should be able to council their patients about CAM accordingly.

  17. Hepatitis B virus infection status and infertility causes in couples seeking fertility treatment-Indicator of impaired immune response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Mak, Jennifer S M; Li, Tin-Chiu

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between hepatitis B (HBV) infection in infertile couples seeking in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and infertility causes is unknown. A total of 831 infertile couples attending our unit seeking IVF during January to December 2015 were recruited. HBV infection was found in 6.3% and 7.3% of female and male partners, respectively, and infection in one or both partners was associated with less primary infertility (44.2% vs 55.1%, P=.038). Infected female partners had increased tubal (69.2% vs 43.2%, Pinfertility, while infected male partners were associated with increased tubal (62.3% vs 43.4%, P=.004) causes and reduced endometriosis (62.3% vs 73.9%, P=.050). Our results suggest HBV infection in either partner was associated with tubal infertility. HBV infection in either partner probably increases the risk of pelvic infection in female partner through impaired immune response to sexually transmitted infections, with consequent tubal damage and infertility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. General psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self-esteem in couples undergoing infertility treatment: a comparative study between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kissi, Yousri; Romdhane, Asma Ben; Hidar, Samir; Bannour, Souhail; Ayoubi Idrissi, Khadija; Khairi, Hedi; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2013-04-01

    To compare measures of psychological distress between men and women undergoing ART in the Unit of Reproductive Medicine "UMR" in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at "Farhat Hached" Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. We conducted a gender comparative study of psychological profile in infertile couples. Recruitment was done during period from January to May 2009. 100 infertile couples with primary infertility were recruited. Scores of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem were evaluated. We administrated questionnaires on psychological factors among infertile couples before starting a new infertility treatment cycle. Psychological factors included the symptom check-list (SCL-90-R), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD-S) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Infertile women had higher scores than their spouses in the three global scores of the SCL-90-R and in several items such as somatisation, obsessive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobias. Scores of HADS were higher among women for both depression and anxiety. Scores of self-esteem were lower among women. Women endorsed higher psychological distress than men across multiple symptoms domains: general psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC LAPAROHYSTEROSCOPY IN THE MANAGE MENT OF INFERTILE FEMALES

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    Richa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: AIMS: To evaluate the role of diagnostic laparohysterosco py in the management of infertile females. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study was conducted in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology, S.N. Medi cal College, Agra. Total 100 infertile couples attending the outpatient department of obst etrics and Gynaecology were selected. 60 couples belonged to primary infertility group wh ile 40 couples belonged to secondary infertility group. METHODS AND MATERIAL : All patients underwent transvaginal sonography with sonosalpingography. Then all patien ts were subjected to combined laparohysteroscopy including chromopertubation and the results were recorded. All the findings were noted on case sheet and a master char t was prepared. X 2 test was applied to find out significance of tests. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The laparoscopy was abnormal in 68% cases: Peritoneal a nd peri-tubal adhesions (29%, phimosis / hydrosalpinx (19%, polycystic ovaries ( 26%, tubo-ovarian masses (16%, endometriosis (4%, congenital abnormalities (10%, myomas (3%, bilateral tubal blockage(49% and unilateral tubal blockage(17%. T he operative laparoscopy was performed in 53% of cases. The hysteroscopy was abn ormal in 50% cases : uterine synechias (11%, thick endometrium (15%, endometri al polyps (7%, myomas (2%, atrophy (6%, congenital abnormalities (7% and foe tal bones (2%. The operative hysteroscopy procedure was performed in 38% cases. The pregnancy rate was 32.30%. CONCLUSION: . Results show that laparohysteroscopy has a promis ing role in diagnosing and treating infertility. Thus laparohysteroscopy h as emerged as a new hope for infertile couples before they proceed to time-consuming and e xpensive in-vitro fertilization

  20. Anxiety and depression among infertile women: a cross-sectional survey from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Enikő; Szigeti, Judit F; Ujma, Péter P; Sexty, Réka; Balog, Piroska

    2017-07-24

    Infertility is often associated with a chronic state of stress which may manifest itself in anxiety-related and depressive symptoms. The aim of our study is to assess the psychological state of women with and without fertility problems, and to investigate the background factors of anxiety-related and depressive symptoms in women struggling with infertility. Our study was conducted with the participation of 225 (134 primary infertile and 91 fertile) women, recruited in a clinical setting and online. We used the following questionnaires: Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), Shortened Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI). We also interviewed our subjects on the presence of other sources of stress (the quality of the relationship with their mother, financial and illness-related stress), and we described sociodemographic and fertility-specific characteristics. We tested our hypotheses using independent-samples t-tests (M ± SD) and multiple linear regression modelling (ß). Infertile women were younger (33.30 ± 4.85 vs. 35.74 ± 5.73, p = .001), but had significantly worse psychological well-being (BDI = 14.94 ± 12.90 vs. 8.95 ± 10.49, p anxiety in infertile women were associated with age, social concern, sexual concern and maternal relationship stress. Trait anxiety was also associated with financial stress. Our model was able to account for 58% of the variance of depressive symptoms and 62% of the variance of trait anxiety. Depressive and anxiety-related symptoms of infertile women are more prominent than those of fertile females. The measurement of these indicators and the mitigation of underlying distress by adequate psychosocial interventions should be encouraged.

  1. Infertility service use in the United States: data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 1982-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anjani; Copen, Casey E; Stephen, Elizabeth Hervey

    2014-01-22

    This report presents nationally representative estimates and trends for infertility service use among women aged 15-44 and 25-44 in the United States in 1982-2010. While greater detail on types of infertility service is shown for women, basic data on types of infertility service use, as reported by men aged 25-44, are also presented. Data for this report come primarily from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), consisting of 22,682 interviews with men and women aged 15-44, conducted from June 2006 through June 2010. The response rate for females in the 2006-2010 NSFG was 78%, and for males was 75%. Selected trends are shown based on prior NSFG cycles. Twelve percent of women aged 15-44 in 2006-2010 (7.3 million women), or their husbands or partners, had ever used infertility services. Among women aged 25-44, 17% (6.9 million) had ever used any infertility service, a significant decrease from 20% in 1995. Thirty-eight percent of nulliparous women with current fertility problems in 2006-2010 had ever used infertility services, significantly less than 56% of such women in 1982. In all survey years, ever-use of medical help to get pregnant was highest among older and nulliparous women, non-Hispanic white women, women with current fertility problems, and women with higher levels of education and household income. The most commonly used infertility services among women aged 25-44 in 2006-2010 were advice, testing, medical help to prevent miscarriage, and ovulation drugs. Ever-use of infertility services was reported by 9.4% of men aged 25-44 in 2006-2010, similar to levels seen in 2002. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  2. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  3. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  4. PRESCRIBING OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY CARE CLINICS – IS IT IN ACCORDANCE WITH CURRENT EVIDENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJARI J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large population surveys in Malaysia have consistently shown minimal improvement of blood pressure control rates over the last 10 years. Poor adherence to antihypertensive medication has been recognized as a major reason for poor control of hypertension. This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents in 2 public primary care clinics and assess its appropriateness in relation to current evidence and guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional survey to describe the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents was carried out in 2 publicprimary care clinics in Selangor from May to June 2009. Hypertensive patients on pharmacological treatment for ≥1 year who attended the clinics within the study period of 7 weeks were selected. Appropriate use of antihypertensive agents was defined based on current evidence and the recommendations by the Malaysian Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG on the Management of Hypertension, 2008. Data were obtained from patients’ medical records and were analysed using the SPSS software version 16.0. Results: A total of 400 hypertensive patients on treatment were included. Mean age was 59.5 years (SD ±10.9, range 28 to91 years, of which 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. With regards to pharmacotherapy, 45.7% were on monotherapy,43.3% were on 2 agents and 11.0% were on ≥3 agents. Target blood pressure of <140/90mmHg was achieved in 51.4% of patients on monotherapy, and 33.2% of patients on combination of ≥2 agents. The commonest monotherapy agents being prescribed were β-blockers (atenolol or propranolol, followed by the short-acting calcium channel blocker (nifedipine. The commonest combination of 2-drug therapy prescribed was β-blockers and short-acting calcium channel blocker. Conclusion: This study shows that the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents in the 2 primary care clinics was not in accordance with current evidence and guidelines.

  5. Primary health care and disasters-the current state of the literature: what we know, gaps and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Abrahams, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    The 2009 Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction/Emergency Preparedness (DRR/EP) and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 demonstrate increased international commitment to DRR/EP in addition to response and recovery. In addition, the World Health Report 2008 has re-focused the world's attention on the renewal of Primary Health Care (PHC) as a set of values/principles for all sectors. Evidence suggests that access to comprehensive PHC improves health outcomes and an integrated PHC approach may improve health in low income countries (LICs). Strong PHC health systems can provide stronger health emergency management, which reinforce each other for healthier communities. The global re-emphasis of PHC recently necessitates the health sector and the broader disaster community to consider health emergency management from the perspective of PHC. How PHC is being described in the literature related to disasters and the quality of this literature is reviewed. Identifying which topics/lessons learned are being published helps to identify key lessons learned, gaps and future directions. Fourteen major scientific and grey literature databases searched. Primary Health Care or Primary Care coupled with the term disaster was searched (title or abstract). The 2009 ISDR definition of disaster and the 1978 World Health Organization definition of Primary Health Care were used. 119 articles resulted. Literature characteristics; 16% research papers, only 29% target LICs, 8% of authors were from LICs, 7% clearly defined PHC, 50% used PHC to denote care provided by clinicians and 4% cited PHC values and principles. Most topics related to disaster response. Key topics; true need for PHC, mental health, chronic disease, models of PHC, importance of PHC soon after a natural disaster relative to acute care, methods of surge capacity, utilization patterns in recovery, access to vulnerable populations, rebuilding with the PHC approach and using current PHC infrastructure to build

  6. Coital frequency and infertility: which male factors predict less frequent coitus among infertile couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Nathan; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Spencer, Leia; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-08-01

    To determine the coital frequency among infertile couples and which factors are associated with less frequent coitus. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-level male infertility clinic. A total of 1,298 infertile men. Administration of computer-based survey, semen analysis, and serum hormone evaluation. Monthly coital frequency. A total of 1,298 patients presented to clinic for infertility consultation and completed the computer-based survey. The median male age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-39 years) and the median duration of infertility was 2 years (IQR 1-4 years) before consultation. Median monthly coital frequency was seven (IQR 5-10; range 0-40); 24% of couples were having intercourse ≤ 4 times per month. Overall, 0.6%, 2.7%, 4.8%, 5.8%, and 10.8% of the men reported having intercourse 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times per month, respectively. When simultaneously taking into account the influence of age, libido, erectile function, and semen volume on coital frequency, older patients had 1.05 times higher odds (per year of age) of less frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.08). In addition, patients with better erectile function had 1.12 times higher odds (per point on Sexual Health Inventory for Men scale) of more frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.18). Similar to the general population, most infertile couples report having coitus more than four times per month. Older male age and erectile dysfunction are independent risk factors for less frequent coitus among infertile men, which could have an impact on fertility. Coital frequency should be considered in infertility assessments. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bariatric Surgery, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Butterworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary. Results. A detailed review of the literature was performed. Only 6 manuscripts were relevant and contained quantitative data. They demonstrated that bariatric surgery results in postoperative conception rates varying from 33% to 100%. Surgery is also associated with amelioration of menstrual irregularities, hormonal abnormalities, and hirsutism that are associated with PCOS. These studies were retrospective and only had a small number of participants with infertility. Conclusions. Bariatric surgery has been shown to conclusively improve life expectancy, quality of life, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. However, further research is required to identify whether weight loss surgery results in significant improvement in fertility of women with PCOS and to investigate which operation has the best results.

  8. Bariatric Surgery, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, James; Deguara, Jean; Borg, Cynthia-Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary. Results. A detailed review of the literature was performed. Only 6 manuscripts were relevant and contained quantitative data. They demonstrated that bariatric surgery results in postoperative conception rates varying from 33% to 100%. Surgery is also associated with amelioration of menstrual irregularities, hormonal abnormalities, and hirsutism that are associated with PCOS. These studies were retrospective and only had a small number of participants with infertility. Conclusions. Bariatric surgery has been shown to conclusively improve life expectancy, quality of life, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. However, further research is required to identify whether weight loss surgery results in significant improvement in fertility of women with PCOS and to investigate which operation has the best results.

  9. Cultural Constructions of Infertility in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    infertility in other cultural groups indicating the disruptive influence of missing motherhood (Afr J .... for all members of the group18, 19. .... When the girl grew up I started using my .... feel that you too should have had children, a ..... and has pain in his heart, he will not show it. I ... be influenced by factors such as class, race,.

  10. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  11. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption and infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Rachootin, P; Schiødt, A V

    1983-01-01

    for infertility at Odense University Hospital during the period 1977-1980 were eligible for participation as cases. A control group was chosen consisting of 4305 women who had each delivered a healthy child with a gestational age over 258 days at the same hospital in the period 1977-1979. Data regarding...

  12. Hypnosis in the treatment of functional infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravitz, M A

    1995-07-01

    The literature was reviewed and found to contain sparse information regarding the applicability of clinical hypnosis in the treatment of functional infertility. Two cases were then described in which hypnosis based on imagery and a relaxation strategy was successful in facilitating pregnancy in both instances. The treatment was considered to have resulted in beneficial modification of attitude, optimism, and mind-body interaction.

  13. Germ cell transplantation in infertility mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This work investigated the spermatogenesis in an infertility BALB/c-nu mouse model by reinfusing germline stem cells into seminiferous tubules.Donor germ cells were isolated from male FVB/NJ-GFP transgenic mice.Seminiferous tubule microiniection was applied to achieve intratubular germ cell transfer.The germ cells were injected into exposed testes of the infertility mice.We used green fluorescence and DNA analysis of donor cells from GFP transgenic mice as genetic marker.The natural mating and Southern blot methods were applied to analyze the effect of sperm cell transplantation and the sperm function after seminiferous tubule microinjecUon.The spermatogenesis was morphologically observed from the seminiferous tubules in 41/60(68.33%)of the injected recipient mice using allogeneic donor cells.In the colonized testes,matured spermatozoa were seen in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules.In this research,BALB/c-nu infertility mouse model,the recipient animal,was used to avoid immunological rejection of donor cells,and germ cell transplantation was applied to overcome infertility caused by busulfan treatment.These results demonstrate that this technique of germ cell transplantation is of great use.Germ cell transplantation could be potentially valuable to oncological patients.

  14. [CHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES IN PATIENTS WITH INFERTILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylyp, L Y; Spinenko, L O; Verhoglyad, N V; Kashevarova, O O; Zukin, V D

    2015-01-01

    To assess the frequency and structure of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with infertility, a retrospective analysis of cytogenetic studies of 3414 patients (1741 females and 1673 males), referred to the Clinic of reproductive medicine "Nadiya" from 2007 to 2012, was performed. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 2.37% patients: 2.79% in males and 1.95% in females. Balanced structural chromosomal abnormalities prevailed over numerical abnormalities and corresponded to 80.2% of all chromosomal abnormalities detected in the studied group. Sex chromosome abnormalities made up 23.5% of chromosomal pathology (19/81) and included gonosomal aneuploidies in 84% of cases (16/19) and structural abnormalities of chromosome Y in 16% of cases (3/19). The low level sex chromosome mosaicism was detected with the frequency of 0.55%. Our results highlight the importance of cytogenetic studies in patients seeking infertility treatment by assisted reproductive technologies, since an abnormal finding not only provide a firm diagnosis to couples with infertility, but also influences significantly the approach to infertility treatment in such patients.

  15. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  16. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects...

  17. The Prevalence of Infertility and Loneliness among Women Aged 18-49 Years Who Are Living in Semi-Rural Areas in Western Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Enes Gokler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the correlates and the prevalence of infertility in a group of women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 subjects aged 18-49 years in a town of western Turkey between July and August 2012. Women who have inability to become pregnant despite regular sexual intercourse during the last year were considered to be infertile. UCLA Loneliness Scale was used to assess the severity of loneliness. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square tests. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35.48 ± 8.39 years. The frequency of the infertility in our study was 12.8% (n=73. The prevalence of infertility was higher in those with a history of gynecological disease or gynecologic surgery and in those with menstrual irregularity (p<0.05; for each. The mean score on the UCLA Loneliness Scale was 32.16 ± 9.49 (from 20 to 70. In this study, no difference was found between the level of loneliness and who is responsible for infertility among infertile/fertile women (p≥0.05. Level of loneliness among the women with primary infertility was higher compared to the women with secondary infertility (p<0.05. Conclusion: The prevalence of infertility among the women was relatively high. It was concluded that prospective studies are needed in order to expose the relationship between the infertility and the level of loneliness in women.

  18. Infertility as a transformational process: a framework for psychotherapeutic support of infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L O

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to investigate the phenomenon of infertility as experienced by infertile women. A purposive sample of 25 infertile women participated in the study. Data were extracted from taped interviews and the researcher's observational field notes. Data analysis was conducted according to the techniques described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Participant responses to interviews were categorized by examining the interview transcripts and identifying significant statements and meanings. Themes which emerged from the statements were then ascertained and cross-case comparisons were made in order to confirm or to reconsider these themes. Five key themes emerged from the data: failure to fulfill a prescribed societal norm, assault on personal identity, mourning, transformation, and restitution. The women experienced infertility as a transformational process in which they mourned their loss of reproductive function and parenting roles and struggled to make restitution for the perceived stigma and powerlessness associated with nonfulfillment of a prescribed societal norm, the exclusion from cherished societal rituals, and the deprivation of ties of descent. Findings from this study have provided a framework for increased awareness of the phenomenon of infertility and for the essential components of supportive counseling or psychotherapy, regardless of the outcome of the infertility experience.

  19. Evaluation of the general health of the infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Baghiani Moghadam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of infertility is variable between 5-30% around the world. In Iran, more than 2 million couples suffer from infertility. Infertility causes depression, anxiety, social isolation and sexual dysfunction. Objective: This descriptive study was undertaken to determine general health in infertile couples.Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty infertile couples attending Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility were randomly selected during March till September 2009. The GHQ-28 questionnaires were completed by researchers, based on face to face interview. It contains 28 items, which have been divided to four sub- items. The results come out by scoring the patients answer from 0 to 84. All data were analyzed by Chi-square and t-test in SPSS software. Results: GHQ scores of all sub-scales and total in women were more than men, which shows general health condition in women is worse than men. There was no relation between the duration of infertility and general health scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that the infertility has significant effect (p=0.001 on health situation of infertile couples, especially infertile women. They are at risk of somatic symptoms (p=0.0001, social dysfunction (p=0.0001 and severe depression (p=0.0001. GHQ could provided help and support in order to improve the health situation of infertile couples.

  20. Association of Positive History of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Eshrati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of infertility has direct influence on the plan and outcome of its management.In this paper we showed the effect of history of tuberculosis (TB on female infertility among infertilecouples admitted to Royan infertility management center.Material and Methods: This case control study was performed on cases that were diagnosed withfemale infertility (308 women. Controls were women whose husbands were infertile due to some malefactor (314 women. Those who had both female and male infertility were excluded from the study. Theobserved variables were BMI>25 kg/m2, positive history of smoking, tuberculosis, sexually transmitteddisease and pelvic inflammatory diseases.Results: The age adjusted odds ratio of history of tuberculosis for female infertility was 6.21(95 CI:1.31-29.56.The attributable risk in exposed group was about 1%.Conclusion: According to our study, positive history of tuberculosis may be responsible for femaleinfertility.

  1. Analysis on Current Situation of English Teaching in Rural Primary Schools-Take Tai gu County in Shan Xi Province as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, English education in rural areas draws more attention in the society. However, the current situation of Eng-lish teaching is worrying. Visit and investigated Limeizhuang primary school in Taigu County, Shanxi province and found some problems, so as to promote English teaching in rural primary schools.

  2. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-03-02

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] -0.64 [-1.01, -0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: -0.99 [-1.60, -0.38], -1.82 [-2.63, -1.01], and -0.75 [-1.37, -0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility.

  3. 'It's like taking a bit of masculinity away from you': towards a theoretical understanding of men's experiences of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Alan; Lomas, Tim; Ghobara, Tarek; Hartshorne, Geraldine

    2017-07-01

    In the UK, nearly half of all cases of infertility involve a 'male-factor'. Yet, little empirical work has explored how men as men negotiate this terrain. Three interrelated concepts; 'hegemonic masculinity', 'embodied masculinity' and the linkages between 'masculinities' and male help-seeking, provide the theoretical framework that guided a qualitative study conducted with 22 men experiencing infertility. The paper explores men's propensity to delay their help-seeking in relation to infertility despite their desire for children. It also demonstrates how, in the context of infertility, the male body can be defined as both a failed entity in itself (unable to father a child) and a subordinated social entity (unable to measure up to hegemonic ideals) that characterises men's masculine identities. The paper also illustrates how men appear willing to accept responsibility for their infertility and adopt aspects of hitherto subordinate masculine practice. This does not, however, constitute the total unravelling of well understood and accepted expressions of masculinity. Finally, the paper demonstrates how infertility is perceived as having the potential to fracture current and even future relationships. Moreover, regardless of how well men measured up to other hegemonic ideals, ultimately they can do little to counteract the threat of other (fertile) men. © 2017 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  4. The pattern of abnormalities on sperm analysis: A study of 1186 infertile male in Yasmin IVF clinic Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, S. N.; Lestari, S. W.; Pratama, G.; Harzief, A. K.; Sumapraja, K.; Hestiantoro, A.; Wiweko, B.

    2017-08-01

    A declined in semen quality resulted an increase of male infertility has been reported. The pattern of abnormalities differs from one country to another. Conflicting results from different studies may be influenced by many factor. The aims are to evaluate the pattern of semen analysis of male partners of infertile couples and identify the current status of the contribution of male factor towards the infertility in our environment. The study is a descriptive analysis of the semen analysis of male partners in infertile couples, who were present at Yasmin IVF Clinic, infertility clinic of a Tertiary Care University Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2015. A total of 1186 consenting male partners of infertile couple were recruited into the study. According to 2010 WHO normal reference values for semen parameters, 795 (67%) of patients were normozoospermia which had normal semen parameters and 391 (33%) patients had abnormal semen parameters. Oligozospermia was evident in 155 (39.5%) patients, being the most common disorder observed. It is followed by azoospermia (24.4%), oligoasthenozospermia (17.8%), asthenozospermia (5.9%), oligoasthenotera-tozospermia (5,7%), teratozospermia (2.6%), asthenoteratozospermia (2.8%), cryptozoospermia (0.8%), necrozospermia (0.3%), and oligoteratozospermia (0.3%). Abnormal semen quality remains a significant contribution to the overall infertility with oligozospermia being the most common semen quality abnormality. This condition is an indication for the need to focus on the prevention and management of male infertility. In addition, further studies are needed to address possible etiologies and treatment in order to improve fertility rates.

  5. The calcium current activated by T cell receptor and store depletion in human lymphocytes is absent in a primary immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partiseti, M; Le Deist, F; Hivroz, C; Fischer, A; Korn, H; Choquet, D

    1994-12-23

    Stimulation of antigen receptors of lymphocytes triggers a transitory release of Ca2+ from internal stores and the opening of a transmembrane Ca2+ conductive pathway. The latter underlies the sustained increase of intracellular free calcium concentration, and it seems to be a key event in the Ca(2+)-dependent biochemical cascade leading to T cell proliferation. Alternatively, pharmacological depletion of internal stores by itself activates Ca2+ influx. This has led to the hypothesis that antigen-triggered Ca2+ influx is secondary to Ca2+ release from internal stores. However, the precise relationship between antigen and Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ currents remains unclear, particularly since neither of them has been electrophysiologically recorded in normal lymphocytes. Using the whole-cell and the perforated configurations of the patch clamp technique on peripheral blood lymphocytes, we found that a low amplitude Ca(2+)-selective current was triggered when intracellular stores were depleted by stimuli such as the intracellular perfusion of inositol triphosphate or thapsigargin and the extracellular perfusion of ionomycin. A similar current was elicited by the cross-linking of the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. This current displayed an inward rectification below 0 mV and was completely blocked by the divalent cation Cd2+. It was very selective for Ca2+ over Na+ and insensitive to changes in chloride concentration. The physiological relevance of this conductance was investigated with the analysis of abnormal Ca2+ signaling in lymphocytes from a patient suffering from a primary immunodeficiency associated with a defective T cell proliferation. Using fura-2 video imaging, an absence of Ca2+ influx was established in the patient's lymphocytes, whereas the Ca2+ release from internal stores was normal. This was the case whether cells were stimulated physiologically through their antigen receptors or with store depleting pharmacological agents. Most importantly, no Ca(2

  6. Quantification of mid and late evoked sinks in laminar current source density profiles of columns in the primary auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Markus K; Hechavarría, Julio C; Kössl, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Current source density (CSD) analysis assesses spatiotemporal synaptic activations at somatic and/or dendritic levels in the form of depolarizing current sinks. Whereas many studies have focused on the short (primary auditory cortex of Mongolian gerbils. By applying an algorithm for contour calculation, three distinct mid and four late evoked sinks were identified in layers I, III, Va, VIa, and VIb. Our results further showed that the patterns of intracortical information-flow remained qualitatively similar for low and for high sound pressure level stimuli at the characteristic frequency (CF) as well as for stimuli ± 1 octave from CF. There were, however, differences associated with the strength, vertical extent, onset latency, and duration of the sinks for the four stimulation paradigms used. Stimuli one octave above the most sensitive frequency evoked a new, and quite reliable, sink in layer Va whereas low level stimulation led to the disappearance of the layer VIb sink. These data indicate the presence of input sources specifically activated in response to level and/or frequency parameters. Furthermore, spectral integration above vs. below the CF of neurons is asymmetric as illustrated by CSD profiles. These results are important because synaptic feedback associated with mid and late sinks-beginning at 50 ms post stimulus latency-is likely crucial for response modulation resulting from higher order processes like memory, learning or cognitive control.

  7. Meiotic recombination and male infertility:from basic science to clinical reality?%减数分裂重组和男性不育:从基础研究到临床实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael C Hann; Patricio E Lau; Helen G Tempest

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is a common problem that affects approximately 15% of the population. Although many advances have been made in the treatment of infertility, the molecular and genetic causes of male infertility remain largely elusive. This review will present a summary of our current knowledge on the genetic origin of male infertility and the key events of male meiosis. It focuses on chromosome synapsis and meiotic recombination and the problems that arise when errors in these processes occur, specifically meiotic arrest and chromosome aneuploidy, the leading cause of pregnancy loss in humans. In addition, meiosis-specific candidate genes will be discussed, including a discussion on why we have been largely unsuccessful at identifying disease-causing mutations in infertile men.Finally clinical applications of sperm aneuploidy screening will be touched upon along with future prospective clinical tests to better characterize male infertility in a move towards personalized medicine.

  8. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty.

  9. Dyadic goal appraisal during treatment for infertility: how do different perspectives relate to partners' adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Elizabeth H; Woodward, Julia T; Stanton, Annette L

    2012-09-01

    Infertility often is a dyadic stressor that constitutes blockage of a major life goal. This study's primary aims were to examine heterosexual partners' goal appraisals during treatment for infertility and to test whether the direct effects of and interactions between partners' goal-related perceptions were associated with each partner's adjustment. Women (n = 37) receiving fertility treatment and their male partners (n = 37) completed measures of goal appraisal and psychological adjustment. Partners did not differ on ratings of the importance of the goal of parenthood, but women indicated lower perceived chance of becoming pregnant and higher perceived goal blockage than their partners. Goal appraisals were moderately correlated between partners and uncorrelated with the number of treatment procedures undergone by the couple. Women reported greater depressive symptoms, more infertility-specific thought intrusion, and lower positive states of mind than their partners. Women's appraisal of greater likelihood of becoming pregnant was psychologically protective, but greater perceived likelihood of becoming pregnant reported by their partners was associated with women's negative psychological adjustment. Examining the associations between couples' goal appraisals and psychological adjustment may aid in developing targeted interventions to promote psychological adjustment to infertility. The small sample may have prevented identifying interactions between partners' goal assessment measures.

  10. High incidence of sperm dysfunction in a varicocele infertile man:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vineeth VS; Suttur S Malini; Sreenivasa G; Usha R Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Studies indicate abnormal semen indicators among varicocele infertile men can be reversed to normal status after surgical repair.While semen indicators andDNA damage of sperms are reported frequently, sperm function tests are rarely performed to assess the functional status of sperms among these individuals.We report a35-year-old male with4 years of primary infertility who otherwise has a normal sexual life.Various analyses performed revealed the interplay of multiple abnormalities leading to the observed phenotype.The individual was diagnosed with severe sperm defects, bilateral varicocele(gradeII) and endocrinopathy.The percentage of functionally normal sperms were found to be24% for hypo-osmotic swelling,28% for acrosome reaction and21% for nuclear chromatin decondensationtest.Cytogenetic analyses showed normal karyotype and sequence-tagged-site markers basedPCR showed no deletions involving key candidate genes of theY chromosome.A thorough investigation of infertile subjects and simple diagnostic tests are essential to detect the treatable defects, in general as well as severe infertile cases, which can improve the chances of normal conception or the success rates ofin-vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  11. Impact of seminal trace element and glutathione levels on semen quality of Tunisian infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atig Fatma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress can be a primary cause of male infertility. Non-enzymatic antioxidants play an important protective role against oxidative damages and lipid peroxidation. Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine glutathione (GSH concentrations, trace element levels (zinc and selenium and the lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA, in the seminal plasma of men with different fertility potentials. Methods Semen samples from 60 fertile men (normozoospermics and 190 infertile patients (74 asthenozoospermics, 56 oligozoospermics, and 60 teratozoospermics were analyzed for physical and biochemical parameters. Zinc (Zn and selenium (Se levels were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total GSH (GSHt, oxidized GSH (GSSG, reduced GSH (GSHr and MDA concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Zn and Se concentrations in seminal plasma of normozoospermics were more elevated than the three abnormal groups. Nevertheless, only the Zn showed significant differences. On the other hand, Zn showed positive and significant correlations with sperm motility (P = 0.03, r = 0.29 and count (P Conclusions This report revealed that decreased seminal GSH and trace element deficiencies are implicated in low sperm quality and may be an important indirect biomarker of idiopathic male infertility. Our results sustain that the evaluation of seminal antioxidant status in infertile men is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment from early stages.

  12. Genetic screening for infertility: When should it be done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Kara

    2010-07-01

    Primary amenorrhea should be investigated by karyotype analysis and selected mutation screening according to the patient's clinical features. Karyotype analyses and FMR1 gene screening is recommended in cases of POF. At present the infertility of patients with POF cannot be restored if the diagnosis is made after complete follicular depletion, but in some cases, early diagnosis by genetic investigation may instead lead to the advice of early conception or oocyte harvesting and preservation. In addition, the accumulation and annotation of array comparative genomic hybridization data might, in the near future, lead to the identification of pathogenetic copy number variations and genes involved in POF. Karyotype analysis of both partners is recommended in all couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. No routine genetic test can be recommended so far in patients with PCOS.

  13. EFFECT OF RUSSIAN CURRENT ON QUADRICEPS MUSCLE STRENGTH IN SUBJECTS WITH PRIMARY OSTEOARTHRITIS OF KNEE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand B Heggannavar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance: OA knee is one of the most common conditions leading functional disabilities seen worldwide. There are different methods to manage osteoarthritis, conservatively, and/or surgically. Physiotherapy treatment, as a part of conservative management, involves reduction of pain, improvement of muscle strength and improvement of functional ability by various approaches like exercise therapy, electrotherapy and manual therapy techniques. Quadriceps muscle weakness is one of the main features seen in OA knee. Russian current stimulation has been successfully used to increase muscle strength in healthy athletes but its effect on quadriceps muscle strength in OA knee has not been studied. Hence the present study was undertaken to know the effect of Russian current stimulation on quadriceps muscle strength in patients with primary OA knee. Participants: 30 subjects (mean age 50.25±6.35 years diagnosed with primary OA knee were recruited from Out-Patient Department of Physiotherapy of KLES Dr. Prabhakar Kore Hospital and Medical Research Centre, Belgaum. Method: Subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups namely Group A (n=15 who received Short Wave Diathermy (SWD and exercises and Group B (n=15 who received SWD, exercises and Russian current stimulation for 10 days. The outcome measures were Visual Analog Scale (VAS for pain, muscle strength by using Handheld dynamometer, and WOMAC osteoarthritis index for functional disability. Analysis: Within group and between group analysis after intervention was done to assess changes using paired t-test and unpaired t - tests. Result: The VAS scores for group A reduced from 6.8±1.49 (baseline to1.4±0.91 (post-intervention and for group B from 6.3±1.29 (baseline to 1±1.14 (post-intervention. The WOMAC score of group A decreased from 59.7±11.56 (baseline to 24.1±6.01 (post-intervention and of group B decreased from 50.4±22.30 (baseline to 12.5±7.54 (post-intervention. The muscle strength of group A

  14. Outdoor air pollution and human infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; González-Comadran, Mireia; Jacquemin, Benedicte

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution is a current research priority because of its adverse effects on human health, including on fertility. However, the mechanisms through which air pollution impairs fertility remain unclear. In this article, we perform a systematic review to evaluate currently available evidence on the impact of air pollution on fertility in humans. Several studies have assessed the impact of air pollutants on the general population, and have found reduced fertility rates and increased risk of miscarriage. In subfertile patients, women exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants while undergoing IVF showed lower live birth rates and higher rates of miscarriage. After exposure to similar levels of air pollutants, comparable results have been found regardless of the mode of conception (IVF versus spontaneous conception), suggesting that infertile women are not more susceptible to the effects of pollutants than the general population. In addition, previous studies have not observed impaired embryo quality after exposure to air pollution, although evidence for this question is sparse.

  15. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices transiently improves tactile spatial discrimination in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei eFujimoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In healthy subjects, dual hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS over the primary (S1 and secondary somatosensory cortices (S2 has been found to transiently enhance tactile performance. However, the effect of dual hemisphere tDCS on tactile performance in stroke patients with sensory deficits remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dual hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 could enhance tactile discrimination in stroke patients. We employed a double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experimental design. Eight chronic stroke patients with sensory deficits participated in this study. We used a grating orientation task (GOT to measure the tactile discriminative threshold of the index finger on the lesioned side before, during, and 10 min after four tDCS conditions. For both the S1 and S2 conditions, we placed an anodal electrode over the lesioned hemisphere and a cathodal electrode over the opposite hemisphere. We applied tDCS at an intensity of 2 mA for 15 min in both S1 and S2 conditions. We included two sham conditions in which the positions of the electrodes and the current intensity were identical to that in the S1 and S2 conditions except that current was delivered for the initial 15 s only. We found that GOT thresholds during and 10 min after the S1 and S2 conditions were significantly lower compared with each sham condition. GOT thresholds were not significantly different between the S1 and S2 conditions at any time point. We concluded that dual-hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 can transiently enhance tactile discriminative task performance in chronic stroke patients with sensory dysfunction.

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Over the Primary and Secondary Somatosensory Cortices Transiently Improves Tactile Spatial Discrimination in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Shuhei; Kon, Noriko; Otaka, Yohei; Yamaguchi, Tomofumi; Nakayama, Takeo; Kondo, Kunitsugu; Ragert, Patrick; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    In healthy subjects, dual hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary (S1) and secondary somatosensory cortices (S2) has been found to transiently enhance tactile performance. However, the effect of dual hemisphere tDCS on tactile performance in stroke patients with sensory deficits remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether dual hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 could enhance tactile discrimination in stroke patients. We employed a double-blind, crossover, sham-controlled experimental design. Eight chronic stroke patients with sensory deficits participated in this study. We used a grating orientation task (GOT) to measure the tactile discriminative threshold of the affected and non-affected index fingers before, during, and 10 min after four tDCS conditions. For both the S1 and S2 conditions, we placed an anodal electrode over the lesioned hemisphere and a cathodal electrode over the opposite hemisphere. We applied tDCS at an intensity of 2 mA for 15 min in both S1 and S2 conditions. We included two sham conditions in which the positions of the electrodes and the current intensity were identical to that in the S1 and S2 conditions except that current was delivered for the initial 15 s only. We found that GOT thresholds for the affected index finger during and 10 min after the S1 and S2 conditions were significantly lower compared with each sham condition. GOT thresholds were not significantly different between the S1 and S2 conditions at any time point. We concluded that dual-hemisphere tDCS over S1 and S2 can transiently enhance tactile discriminative task performance in chronic stroke patients with sensory dysfunction.

  17. The Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOS II) trial: rationale and design of a double-blind randomized trial of clomiphene citrate and letrozole for the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Kunselman, Allen R; Brzyski, Robert G; Casson, Peter R; Diamond, Michael P; Schlaff, William D; Christman, Gregory M; Coutifaris, Christos; Taylor, Hugh S; Eisenberg, Esther; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping

    2012-05-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of female infertility and first line treatment is currently oral clomiphene citrate, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, which results in both a high nonresponse rate and multiple pregnancy rate. Aromatase inhibitors such as letrozole may have more favorable ovarian and endometrial effects. The goal of the Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome II (PPCOSII) study is to determine the safety and efficacy of clomiphene citrate (CC) compared to letrozole, in achieving live birth in infertile women with PCOS. The population will consist of 750 infertile women with PCOS. Additionally, the couple will have no other major infertility factor. This will be a multi-center, prospective, double-blind clinical trial of CC vs. letrozole for 5 treatment cycles (or approximately up to 25 weeks). The randomization scheme will be coordinated through the central data coordinating center (DCC) and the randomization is stratified by each participating site. After progestin withdrawal as needed, 750 women will be equally randomized to two different treatment arms: A) CC 50mg every day for 5 days (days 3-7 of cycle), or B) letrozole 2.5mg every day for 5 days (days 3-7 of cycle), for a total of 5 cycles or 25 weeks. The dose will be increased in subsequent cycles in both treatment groups for non-response or poor ovulatory response up to a maximum of 150 mg of CC a day (×5 days) or 7.5mg of letrozole a day (×5 days). The primary analysis will use an intent-to-treat approach to examine differences in the live birth rate in the two treatment arms.

  18. Qualitative research on infertile Chinese couples' understanding of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuoran, Wang; Wanpeng, Liu; Tao, Peng; Coates, Rosemary

    2017-07-23

    Family physicians play an important role in the initial counselling and evaluation of infertility. Despite infertility regarded as a stressor and a life crisis for individuals or couples, little is known about the psychosexual aspects of infertility. On the basis that sexuality is a crucial part of quality of life, it is worthwhile to give more attention to sexuality of infertile couples during their time of experiencing infertility. This study aimed to gain insight into the dynamic features of the sexuality of infertile couples and to provide meaningful evidence for improving their quality of life. We employed a qualitative approach to conduct this study. Utilizing purposive sampling method, 56 participants (28 infertile Chinese couples) were recruited from the reproductive medicine centre of a general hospital, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the transcripts. Four themes emerged from the respondents' narratives; these themes relate to the infertile couples' understanding of sexuality: (i) gender identity, (ii) communication about sex, (iii) sexual life and (iv) sexual satisfaction. It was further found that Chinese culture's values of fertility, perceptions about sexuality and sex, social norms regarding gender, and expectations about marital sexual life can have significant effects on infertile Chinese couples' sexuality. These findings should be highly considered by family physicians in their practice to provide infertile couples with information related to sexual well-being, coping styles, relationship, etc.

  19. Comparison Efficacy of Interferential Currents and Desmopressin in Primary Enuresis Children of 5-15 Years Old

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    P Yazdanpanah

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nocturnal enuresis as a common disorder in children can create many problems. A variety of modalities has been used for its treatment but applying new and effective modalities can be of much interest. In this study efficacy of interferential currents (IFC, as a new modality, has been compared with nasal spray of desmopressin in treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis in 5-15 year old children. Materials & Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, clinical trial in which 39 patients received desmopressin (20µg/day for 3 weeks and left off gradually in six months, if it was responsive. The other 36 patients received IFC therapy (5 times/week, 20 minutes each session, up to 15 sessions. Efficacy of treatment was evaluated after completion of therapeutic sessions and recurrence rate was calculated one month later. Results: About 66.7% of patients were 5-10 and 33.3% were 11-15 years old. Of all subjects, 58.7% were male and 41.3% were female. In those patients who received IFC, complete response was observed in 25%, partial response in 36.1% and 38.9% had no response while in desmopressin group, complete response was achieved in 61.5%, and partial response in 25.6% of cases and 12.8% had no response to the treatment. The recurrence rate in IFC and desmopressin groups were 16.7 % and 23.1%, respectively. In 11-15 year old children, response rate was better than those for 5-10 years old. Male patients had the most rate of recurrence. Therapeutic side effects were not observed in any of the patients in both groups. Conclusion: Desmopressin and IFC are effective and safe modalities for treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis of children with less recurrence in females. Moreover, desmopressin had better efficacy while IFC had less recurrence rate. In addition, desmopressin showed better efficacy in females. IFC can be recommended as an effective and safe modality for treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis, with less

  20. Quantitative sensory test for primary restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease using the current perception threshold test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Won; Kang, Min-Sung; Kim, Keun Tae; Do, So Young; Lim, Jung-Geun; Lee, So Young; Motamedi, Gholam K

    2017-02-01

    Restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED) is a sensorimotor neurological disorder, and it is especially aggravated at night. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diurnal sensory dysfunction in primary RLS/WED using the current perception threshold (CPT) test, compared to healthy controls. Thirty primary RLS/WED subjects and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The severity of RLS/WED and sleep problems were evaluated in all subjects. Peripheral polyneuropathy was excluded through neurological examination and nerve conduction study. We used the Neurometer(®) system for the CPT test and applied three different parameters (2000 Hz, 250 Hz, and 5 Hz), to stimulate both big toes. The CPT test was performed twice, once during the asymptomatic daytime period and again in the evening, when the patients were symptomatic. The mean ages of the RLS/WED group and controls were 50.5 ± 11.7 (22; 73.3% female), and 46.3 ± 11.4 (24; 80.0% female), respectively. The mean international RLS/WED study group severity scale score was 28.6 ± 4.25. There was no significant difference in the current perception thresholds between the RLS/WED patients and controls in daytime. However, the RLS/WED patients had lower mean CPT measurements for all three stimulation protocols in the evening (2000 Hz: 393.2 ± 93.7 vs 430.8 ± 79.6, 250 Hz: 172.0 ± 48.4 vs 198.5 ± 38.2, and 5 Hz: 98.0 ± 34.1 vs 124.6 ± 31.3), while the healthy controls showed no difference. RLS patients showed a lower CPT in the evening. The diurnal variation of hyperalgesia in RLS/WED patients indicates a central (circadian) sensory processing disturbance rather than a peripheral disturbance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, E; Palazzo, S; Argirò, S; El, Oksha S; Riva, E

    2012-01-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  2. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Auria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  3. Management of female infertility from hormonal causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Antony A; Lanzone, Antonio; Goverde, Angelique J

    2013-12-01

    Hormonal causes of female infertility involve ovulatory dysfunctions that may result from dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, peripheral endocrine glands, nonendocrine organs, or metabolic disorders. It is important to think of anovulation not as a diagnosis but as a symptom of a metabolic or endocrine disorder that requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation to identify the specific cause and to implement effective therapies that assure the best possible pregnancy outcome and avoid long-term adverse health consequences. In most instances, the medical history points to the underlying dysfunction, which can usually be confirmed with laboratory or imaging tests. For more challenging cases, more extensive evaluations may be needed, including perturbation studies. Nevertheless, the management of anovulatory infertility is gratifying because its causes are often manifest and the treatment usually results in resumption of ovulatory cycles, restoration of fertility, and healthy offspring through natural conception without requiring expensive and intrusive assisted reproductive technologies. © 2013.

  4. [Treatment options for age-related infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaisch-Allart, Joëlle

    2010-06-20

    There has been a consistent trend towards delayed childbearing in most Western countries. Treatment options for age-related infertility includes controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with intrauterine insemination and in vitro fertilization (IVF). A sharp decline in pregnancy rate with advancing female age is noted with assisted reproductive technologies (ART) including IVF. Evaluation and treatment of infertility should not be delayed in women 35 years and older. No treatment other than oocyte donation has been shown to be effective for women over 40 and for those with compromised ovarian reserve, but its pratice is not easy in France hence the procreative tourism. As an increasing number of couples choose to postpone childbearing, they should be informed that maternal age is an important risk factor for failure to conceive.

  5. A scorpion venom neurotoxin paralytic to insects that affects sodium current inactivation: Purification, primary structure, and mode of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eitan, M.; Fowler, E.; Herrmann, R.; Duval, A.; Pelhate, M.; Zlotkin, E. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

    1990-06-26

    A new toxin, Lqh alpha IT, which caused a unique mode of paralysis of blowfly larvae, was purified from the venom of the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus, and its structural and pharmacological properties were compared to those of three other groups of neurotoxins found in Buthinae scorpion venoms. Like the excitatory and depressant insect-selective neurotoxins, Lqh alpha IT was highly toxic to insects, but it differed from these toxins in two important characteristics: (a) Lqh alpha IT lacked strict selectivity for insects; it was highly toxic to crustaceans and had a measurable but low toxicity to mice. (b) It did not displace an excitatory insect toxin, 125I-AaIT, from its binding sites in the insect neuronal membrane; this indicates that the binding sites for Lqh alpha IT are different from those shared by the excitatory and depressant toxins. However, in its primary structure and its effect on excitable tissues, Lqh alpha IT strongly resembled the well-characterized alpha scorpion toxins, which affect mammals. The amino acid sequence was identical with alpha toxin sequences in 55%-75% of positions. This degree of similarity is comparable to that seen among the alpha toxins themselves. Voltage- and current-clamp studies showed that Lqh alpha IT caused an extreme prolongation of the action potential in both cockroach giant axon and rat skeletal muscle preparations as a result of the slowing and incomplete inactivation of the sodium currents. These observations indicate that Lqh alpha IT is an alpha toxin which acts on insect sodium channels.

  6. Endometriosis & infertility: How and when to treat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis eFadhlaoui

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial-like tissue (glands or stroma outside the uterus, which induces a chronic inflammatory reaction. Although endometriosis impairs fertility, it does not usually completely prevent conception. The question of evidence based-medicine guidelines in endometriosis-associated infertility is week in many situations. Therefore, we will highlight in this issue where the challenges are.

  7. Reconstructive metroplastic myomectomy of an infertile woman

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Esmailpoor; Mitra Ahmad Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Background: While myoma is the most common pelvic mass of women, most women do not seek screening tests for uterine myoma and if they have any fibroid they are not volunteer for its surgical removal. Case: We present here a novel technique of vascular skeletonization to preserve uterus, making pregnancy possible for an infertile woman with a large uterine myoma, situated in the uterine lower segment. Conclusion: Vascular skeletonization to preserve vessels for a case of myomectomy helped pres...

  8. Polycystic ovaries and infertility: Our experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lavanya Rajashekar; Deepika Krishna; Madhuri Patil

    2008-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common (15-20%) endocrine disorders in women of childbearing age. Although it is a major cause of infertility, its etiology remains unknown and its treatment difficult. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of patients with PCOS. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: PCOS patients (914 of the 1057) attending the outpatient department (OPD) from June 2003 to February 2008 were evaluated for this ...

  9. [Stress and distress in infertility among women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damti, Osnat Bloch; Sarid, Orly; Sheiner, Eyal; Zilberstein, Tali; Cwikel, Julie

    2008-03-01

    In the industrialized world, approximately 12% of couples suffer from infertility. As a result of its collective political and historical experience, Israel boasts one of the world's most progressive fertility policies ranging from hormonal treatment to In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). Approximately 40% of the causes of infertility are attributed to the woman. Among the factors contributing to reduced fertility are endocrine factors, immune factors and mechanical factors. Studies have accumulated information regarding the contribution of psychological factors to infertility in women. Among the identified risk factors are depression, anxiety and stress-dependent changes like altered heart rate and increased blood cortisol levels. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) has been shown to be an important mediator of infertility, involved in the excretion of CRH, ACTH and cortisol, respectively. Data gathered in the literature suggests the involvement of the HPA axis on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadotropic axis (HPG). Specifically, changes in diurnal excretion patterns of cortisol have been shown to accompany mental stress and to mediate the down-regulation of the HPG axis. This impact could possibly involve inhibitory mechanisms at the pituitary level, by reducing the release of FSH and LH by GnRH. Furthermore, research has shown that the effect of cortisol on the HPG axis is dependent on the endocrine status of the ovary in its different stages within the menstrual cycle. From the studies presented in this review it can be hypothesized that stress can induce altered cortisol-excretion patterns along the menstrual cycle, which ultimately affect the hormonal profile in critical stages of the fertilization process.

  10. The effects of infertility on sexual functions and dyadic adjustment in couples that present for infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Gülcan; Hassa, Hikmet; Yalçın, Elif Güneş; Yenilmez, Cınar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of infertility on sexual functions and dyadic adjustment in infertile couples that seek infertility treatment. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Golombok-Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), and Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) were administered to the infertility group (n = 220) and control group (n = 110). None of the study participants had an Axis I psychiatric disorder. There wasn't a significant difference in BDI score between the 2 groups. None of the study participants had clinical depression. Men in both groups reported more problems according to GRISS total scale and subscale scores (except the avoidance subscale) than the women. Women in both groups reported more problems according to GRISS avoidance subscale score than did the men. Men in the control group reported more problems on the GRISS frequency subscale, as compared men in the infertile group. Women in the control group reported more problems based on GRISS total score, and GRISS frequency, satisfaction, touch, and avoidance subscale scores, as compared to the women in the infertile group. The men in the infertile group were more satisfied with dyadic adjustment than the women in the infertile group. The men and women in the control group had higher DAS total score, and DAS consensus and emotional expression subscale scores. The differences in sexual functions between the infertile and control groups were not significant. Both women and men in the infertility group reported more dyadic adjustment problems than those in the control group.

  11. Psychological and emotional concomitants of infertility diagnosis in women with diminished ovarian reserve or anatomical cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoloro-SantaBarbara, Jennifer M; Lobel, Marci; Bocca, Silvina; Stelling, James R; Pastore, Lisa M

    2017-07-01

    To examine the magnitude and predictors of emotional reactions to an infertility diagnosis in two groups of women: those with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and those clinically diagnosed with an anatomical cause of infertility (ACI). Cross-sectional study. Academic and private fertility clinics. Women diagnosed with DOR (n = 51) and women diagnosed with ACI (n = 51). Not applicable. Fertility Problem Inventory (infertility distress), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Health Orientation Scale (emotional reactions to receiving a diagnosis). Women with DOR had statistically significantly higher infertility distress scores than women with ACI and higher scores on subscales assessing distress from social concerns, sexual concerns, and a need for parenthood. In both groups, higher self-esteem was associated with lower infertility distress. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that for women with DOR and those with ACI lower infertility distress but not self-esteem predicted a more positive emotional reaction toward receiving a fertility diagnosis. Women diagnosed with DOR have greater infertility distress but similar self-esteem and emotional reactions to their diagnosis compared with women who have an anatomical cause of infertility. These results suggest that for both groups distress surrounding infertility itself may influence the way women respond to learning the cause of their infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities and y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men with varicocele and idiopathic infertility of South Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lakshmi; Babu, Arvind; Kanakavalli, Murthy; Padmalatha, Venkata; Singh, Amarpal; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Deenadayal, Mamata; Singh, Lalji

    2004-01-01

    Various factors cause spermatogenesis arrest in men and, in a large number of cases, the underlying reason still remains unknown. Little attention is paid to determining the genetic defects of varicocele-related infertility. The objective of our present study was to investigate the chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men of South Indian origin with varicocele and idiopathic infertility. Metaphase chromosomes of 251 infertile men with varicocele and unexplained infertility were analyzed using Giemsa-Trypsin-Giemsa (GTG) banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The microdeletions in 6 genes and 18 sequence-tagged-sites (STS) in the Yq region were screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Out of 251 infertile men, 57 (22.7%) men were with varicocele, of which 8.77% were azoospermic, 26.31% were severely oligozoospermic, 21.05% were mildly oligozoospermic, and 43.85% were oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT), and 194 (77.29%), with idiopathic infertility, of which 51% were azoospermic, 13.40% were severely oligozoospermic, 19.07% were mildly oligozoospermic, and 16.4% were with OAT. Genetic defects were observed in 38 (15.13%) infertile individuals, including 14 (24.56%) men with varicocele and 24 (12.37%) men with idiopathic infertility. The frequencies of chromosomal defects in varicocele and idiopathic infertility were 19.3% and 8.76%, respectively, whereas Y chromosome microdeletions were 5.26% and 3.60%, respectively. Overall rate of incidence of chromosomal anomalies and microdeletions in 251 infertile men were 11.5% and 3.98%, respectively, indicating a very significant higher association of genetic defects with varicocele than idiopathic male infertility. Our data also demonstrate that, among infertile men with varicocele, severely oligozoospermic and OAT men with varicocele have higher incidences of genetic defects than mildly oligozoospermic and azoospermic men.

  13. Pathogenic mechanisms in endometriosis-associated infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sajal; Goldberg, Jeffrey M; Aziz, Nabil; Goldberg, Eric; Krajcir, Natalie; Agarwal, Ashok

    2008-08-01

    To review the mechanisms by which endometriosis may affect reproductive function. Review of the English literature from 1986 to 2007 after searching Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, and BIOSIS, as well as relevant meeting abstracts. Fertility research center and obstetrics and gynecology department in a tertiary care hospital. There is compelling evidence in the literature that endometriosis has detrimental effects on ovarian and tubal function and uterine receptivity, resulting in female infertility. The mechanisms of infertility associated with endometriosis remain controversial and include abnormal folliculogenesis, elevated oxidative stress, altered immune function, and hormonal milieu in the follicular and peritoneal environments, and reduced endometrial receptivity. These factors lead to poor oocyte quality, impaired fertilization, and implantation. Through unraveling the mechanisms by which endometriosis leads to infertility, researchers are sure to find a nonsurgical means to diagnose endometriosis, most likely through serum and peritoneal markers. Cytokines, interleukins, oxidative stress markers, and soluble cellular adhesion molecules all show potential to be used as a reliable marker for diagnosing endometriosis. After analyzing the pathogenic mechanisms of endometriosis, it seems that the future treatment of this entity may include cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, immunomodulators, or hormonal suppressive therapy to eliminate the need for surgical treatment of endometriosis.

  14. Y chromosome microdeletions in Turkish infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamani Ayse

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To detect the frequency and types of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in infertile men attending to our university intracytoplasmic sperm injection ICSI/IVF centre and fertile control subjects in our patient population. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A total of 50 infertile men who were referred to IVF center of Meram medical faculty were selected for the molecular azospermia factor (AZF screening program. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Karyotype analysis and polymerase chain reaction amplification using 15 Y-specific sequence-tagged sites of AZF region were done. RESULTS: The total prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities was found to be 10% (5/50, including 4 patients with numerical and 1 patient with structural abnormalities. Overall, 4 of the 50 patients tested (8% exhibited deletions of the Y chromosome, 3 of them being azospermic and 1 of them oligospermic men. The frequency of the microdeletions in subgroups with azospermia and oligozoospermia was found to be 10.7% (3/29 and 4.7% (1/21 respectively. Microdeletions of AZFb and AZFc regions were detected in all of the 4 patients. Neither AZFa nor AZFd microdeletions were indicated. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that one must know whether there is a genetic cause for male infertility before patients can be subjected to ISCI or testicular sperm extraction (TESE/ISCI treatment.

  15. Resolved Parental Infertility and Children's Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Amelia R; Helgertz, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Although difficulty conceiving a child has long been a major medical and social preoccupation, it has not been considered as a predictor of long-term outcomes in children ultimately conceived. This is consistent with a broader gap in knowledge regarding the consequences of parental health for educational performance in offspring. Here we address that omission, asking how resolved parental infertility relates to children's academic achievement. In a sample of all Swedish births between 1988 and 1995, we find that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement (both test scores and GPA) in children at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own. Our results support a conceptualization of infertility as a cumulative physical and social experience with effects extending well beyond the point at which a child is born, and emphasize the need to better understand how specific parental health conditions constrain children's educational outcomes.

  16. Repetitive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induced Excitability Changes of Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Learning Effects-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would improve and cathodal tDCS would have minor or no effects on visual learning. Anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS were applied over V1 in a randomized, double-blinded design over four consecutive days (n = 30). During 20 min of tDCS, subjects had to learn a visual orientation-discrimination task (ODT). Excitability parameters were measured by analyzing paired-stimulation behavior of visual-evoked potentials (ps-VEP) and by measuring phosphene thresholds (PTs) before and after the stimulation period of 4 days. Compared with sham-tDCS, anodal tDCS led to an improvement of visual discrimination learning (p visual perceptual learning and increased cortical excitability. tDCS is a promising tool to alter V1 excitability and, hence, perceptual visual learning.

  17. Polarity-specific cortical effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in primary somatosensory cortex of healthy humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eRehmann

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a noninvasive stimulation method that has been shown to modulate the excitability of the motor and visual cortices in human subjects in a polarity dependent manner in previous studies. The aim of our study was to investigate whether anodal and cathodal tDCS can also be used to modulate the excitability of the human primary somatosensory cortex (S1. We measured paired-pulse suppression (PPS of somatosensory evoked potentials in 36 right-handed volunteers before and after anodal, cathodal or sham stimulation over the right non-dominant S1. Paired-pulse stimulation of the median nerve was performed at the dominant and non-dominant hand. After anodal tDCS, PPS was reduced in the ipsilateral S1 compared to sham stimulation, indicating an excitatory effect of anodal tDCS. In contrast, PPS in the stimulated left hemisphere was increased after cathodal tDCS, indicating an inhibitory effect of cathodal tDCS. Sham stimulation induced no pre-post differences. Thus, tDCS can be used to modulate the excitability of S1 in polarity-dependent manner, which can be assessed by paired-pulse suppression. An interesting topic for further studies could be the investigation of direct correlations between sensory changes and excitability changes induced by tDCS.

  18. Somatic cytogenetic and azoospermia factor gene microdeletion studies in infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina-Neto J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of somatic chromosomal anomalies and Y chromosomal microdeletions (azoospermia factor genes, AZF in infertile males who seek assisted reproduction. These studies are very important because the assisted reproduction techniques (mainly intracytoplasmic sperm injection bypass the natural selection process and some classical chromosomal abnormalities, microdeletions of AZF genes or some deleterious genic mutations could pass through generations. These genetic abnormalities can cause in the offspring of these patients male infertility, ambiguous external genitalia, mental retardation, and other birth defects. We studied 165 infertile men whose infertility was attributable to testicular problems (60 were azoospermic, 100 were oligospermic and 5 were asthenospermic. We studied 100 metaphases per patient with GTG banding obtained from temporary lymphocyte culture for chromosomal abnormality detection and performed a genomic DNA analysis using 28 Y chromosome-specific sequence-tagged sites for Y AZF microdeletion detection. Karyotyping revealed somatic anomalies in 16 subjects (16/165 = 9.6%. Of these 16, 12 were in the azoospermic group (12/60 = 20% and 4 were in the oligospermic group (4/100 = 4%. The most common chromosomal anomaly was Klinefelter syndrome (10/165 = 6%. Microdeletions of AZF genes were detected in 12 subjects (12/160 = 7.5%. The frequencies detected are similar to those described previously. These results show the importance of genetic evaluation of infertile males prior to assisted reproduction. Such evaluation can lead to genetic counseling and, consequently, to primary and secondary prevention of mental retardation and birth defects.

  19. ROLE OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IN THE EVALUATION OF MALE INFERTILITY

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    Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male infertility is a common problem and needs a minimally invasive method to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis . Alternative to open testicular biopsy the fine needle aspiration cytology of the testis is being increasingly used as a minimally invasive method of evaluating testicular function . AIM OF THE STUDY: To know whether FNAC of testes is as informative as biopsy in cases of male infertility . To establish that FNAC is cost effective , safe , out p atient investigation with no complications . METHODOLOGY: Fifty patients with primary male infertility in the age group of 20 - 40 years were included in the study . All the cases with oligospermia and azoospermia were subjected for Doppler study to rule out varicocele . Cord block was achieved with 1% lignocaine and aspiration was done with 23 gauge 1 . 5 inch needle . Smears were made on albuminised slides and stained with Leishman Stain . Forresta et al scoring system was adopted to analyse the smears . In the same sitting testicular biopsy was taken , fixed in Bouins fluid , routinely processed and stained with H&E stain . RESULTS: The commonest group with infertility were in the age group 21 - 30 years . On semen analysis 78% were azoospermic and 22% were oligozoospermic . The testicular size was normal in 90 % of subjects and 10% had small testis . Out of fifty subjects with infertility , 40% subjects had varicocele . Varicocele was commonly associated with duct obstruction . The commonest patterns observed on cytology were; normal spermatogenesis ( 14/50 , 28 % , duct obstruction ( 8/50 , 16 % , maturation arre st ( 7/50 , 14 % and testicular atrophy ( 7/50 , 14 % . In the present study diagnostic accuracy was 93 . 4% . CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration cytology is as informative as biopsy and can be done as a routine procedure . It is a simple and cost effective . In cases where FNAC shows normal spermatogenesis with azoospermia and oligospermia , biopsy and doppler study

  20. An evaluation of the effect of infertility on marital, sexual satisfaction indices and health-related quality of life in women

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    Sameer Valsangkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of infertility on marital and sexual functioning, health-related quality of life (QoL and the acceptability of the treatment modalities is a poorly researched area in India. Aims and Objectives : To measure and compare the impact of infertility on marital adjustment, sexual functioning, QoL and the acceptability of various treatment modalities in infertility. Design and Setting : Hospital-based cross-sectional controlled study. Materials and Methods : Data regarding infertility, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment acceptability was obtained via a semi-structured questionnaire. validated, standardized scales were used to measure marital adjustment (abbreviated dyadic adjustment scale, sexual functioning (abbreviated sexual functioning questionnaire in cases and controls, and quality of life (FertiQol in cases. Data from 106 women attending tertiary infertility centers who met the definition of primary infertility and 212 controls attending the medical outpatient department in the same centers was obtained. Results : Body mass index and socioeconomic status were significant (P < 0.006 and < 0.0001 respectively for infertility. Fertility-enhancing regimens and adoption had the highest acceptability with a wide dispersion of range for adoption and least acceptance for sperm, egg, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect size of infertility on marital adjustment (Nagelkerke R 2 0.725, Cohen′s D 0.86 and sexual functioning (Nagelkerke R 2 0.73, Cohen′s D 0.815. QoL showed a decrease in mean scores on the FertiQol scale similar to normative data. Conclusions : Effective counseling, reassurance and measures to reduce the impact of the condition on marital and sexual life, overall QoL are needed to impart a holistic treatment in infertility.

  1. Changes of β3 Integrins and Extracellular Matrix Proteins in the Endometrium of Unexplained Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王化丽; 曲陆荣; 何丽霞; 张颐

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes of β3 integrins and extracellular matrix proteins including fibronectin (FN) , laminin (LN) and collagen type Ⅳ (CL type Ⅳ) on the endometrium of secretory phase from 31 fertile women (fertility group)and 34 women with unexplained infertility (infertility group) by a histochemical method. The results were as follows : In glandular epithelium, β3 integrin appeared in the mid secretory phase and continued to late secretory phase in the fertility group, but was not expressed during the secretory phase in the infertility group.Extracellular matrix proteins from the fertility group were expressed more strongly in mid secretory phase than that in the early secretory phase, and were weakest in the late secretory phase. Compared with the fertility group, the levels of extracellular matrix proteins in the infertility group were elevated in the secretory phase. In conclusion: our current study demonstrate that fie integrin and extracellular matrix proteins are expressed at different levels in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle. They are involved in endometrial changes during the menstrual cycle and during the implantation of the blastocyst. Their unusual expression result in the failure of implantation.

  2. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.

  3. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brackett, N.L.; Lynne, C.M.; El Dib, Hussein Ibrahim El Desouki Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses...... of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male...... factor infertility...

  4. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brackett, N.L.; Lynne, C.M.; El Dib, Hussein Ibrahim El Desouki Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses...... of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male...... factor infertility...

  5. Do alterations in follicular fluid proteases contribute to human infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are known to play critical roles in follicular rupture, ovulation, and fertility in mice. Similar studies in humans are limited; however, both are known to increase during the periovulatory period. No studies have examined either protease in the follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility or infertility related to advanced maternal age (AMA). We sought to determine if alterations in cathepsin L and/or ADAMTS-1 existed in these infertile populations. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility were prospectively recruited for the study; patients with tubal or male factor infertility were recruited as controls. Follicular fluid was collected to determine gene expression (via quantitative polymerase chain reaction), enzyme concentrations (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), and enzymatic activities (via fluorogenic enzyme cleavage assay or Western blot analysis) of cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1. The analysis included a total of 42 patients (14 per group). We found no statistically significant difference in gene expression, enzyme concentration, or enzymatic activity of cathepsin L or ADAMTS-1 in unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility as compared to controls. We also found no statistically significant difference in expression or concentration with advancing age. Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are not altered in women with unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility undergoing IVF, and they do not decline with advancing age. It is possible that differences exist in natural cycles, contributing to infertility; however, our findings do not support a role for protease alterations as a common cause of infertility.

  6. Incidence of infertility and risk factors of impaired fecundity among newly married couples in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinqin; Ren, Aiguo; Zhang, Le; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Yan; Li, Rong; Ma, Le

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to obtain the incidence of infertility, to examine the causes of infertility and to explore risk factors for impaired fecundity in a rural region of northern China using a prospective follow-up design. A total of 2151 newly married couples planning to become pregnant within the next 12 months were enrolled between 2009 and 2012 from two counties of Shanxi Province in northern China. Couples were followed up for at least 1 year or until a clinical pregnancy occurred. Information about clinical pregnancy was obtained. The 12-month and 24-month infertility rates were 13.6% (95% CI 11.9 to 15.3) and 8.5% (95% CI 6.7 to 10.3), respectively. About 63% of women became pregnant within 6 months of follow up, and 86% did so within 12 months of follow up. The main causes of female infertility were ovulation disorders, fallopian tube problems and polycystic ovary syndrome. The primary cause of male infertility was sperm quality problems. Couples who used coal as cooking fuel, women with a higher body mass index, women with long-term health problems, and men who had married at later ages were more likely to have delayed pregnancies.

  7. Structured exercise training programme versus hypocaloric hyperproteic diet in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients with anovulatory infertility: a 24-week pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, S; Giallauria, F; Falbo, A; Russo, T; Oppedisano, R; Tolino, A; Colao, A; Vigorito, C; Zullo, F; Orio, F

    2008-03-01

    Lifestyle modifications are successfully employed to treat obese and overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aims of the current pilot study were (i) to compare the efficacy on reproductive functions of a structured exercise training (SET) programme with a diet programme in obese PCOS patients and (ii) to study their clinical, hormonal and metabolic effects to elucidate potentially different mechanisms of action. Forty obese PCOS patients with anovulatory infertility underwent a SET programme (SET group, n = 20) and a hypocaloric hyperproteic diet (diet group, n = 20). Clinical, hormonal and metabolic data were assessed at baseline, and at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Primary endpoint was cumulative pregnancy rate. The two groups had similar demographic, anthropometric and biochemical parameters. After intervention, a significant improvement in menstrual cycles and fertility was noted in both groups, with no differences between groups. The frequency of menses and the ovulation rate were significantly (P diet group but the increased cumulative pregnancy rate was not significant. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, insulin resistance indexes and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate changed significantly (P diet interventions improve fertility in obese PCOS patients with anovulatory infertility. We hypothesize that in both interventions an improvement in insulin sensitivity is the pivotal factor involved in the restoration of ovarian function but potentially acting through different mechanisms.

  8. Clinical Observation on Treatment of 2,062 Cases of Immune Infertility with Integration of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To study the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on female immune infertility. 3,496 women suffering from primary or secondary infertility had their ASAb, EMAb,AOAb and ACAb level tested, with the positive rate of 23.11%, 34.95%, 20.77% and 30.41% respectively.2,062 positive cases were periodically treated with the Chinese drug Xiaokangwan (消抗丸) plus dexamethasone, vitamin E and vitamin C for 2 periods as a course of treatment. At the end of a treatment course, the rate for the antibodies to turn negative reached over 85% and the average pregnant rate reached 36.66%. The treatment of immune infertility with the integrated approach can reduce or eliminate the influence of antibodies in the serum of patients on various links of pregnancy, thus reaching the goal of curing infertility.

  9. Association of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men With Varicocele

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    Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Varicocele is one of the most common reasons for male infertility and could impair spermatogenesis through mechanisms that are not well known. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major reason for male infertility caused by varicocele. Objectives In the current study, we aimed to assess the TAC (total antioxidant capacity and MDA (malondialdehyde as stress oxidative markers in infertile men with varicocele and fertile men, and moreover, their correlation with sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was performed on 43 infertile men with varicocele and 46 men with proven fertility. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods were used for seminal plasma TAC and MDA assay, respectively. Results Lower TAC levels (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = 0.0004 and higher MDA levels (2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 were observed in infertile men with varicocele compared to fertile men. There was no correlation between TAC and MDA in fertile men (r = 0.02, P = 0.9, however, a negative correlation was found between TAC and MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = −0.44, P = 0.003. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between sperm count and sperm motility with TAC levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.4, P = 0.02 and r = 0.6, P < 0.0001, respectively. There was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (r = 0.5, P = 0.001, but other parameters did not correlate with TAC in this group. A negative correlation was shown between semen volume, sperm count, total sperm, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.3, P = 0.045; r = −0.4, P = 0.009; r = −0.5, P = 0.002; r = −0.5, P = 0.001 and r = −0.4, P = 0.008, respectively. There was no correlation between these parameters and MDA in fertile men. Conclusions Our findings indicated that oxidative stress could

  10. Online negotiations of infertility: Knowledge production in (in)fertility blogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, K.

    2014-01-01

    Although now used for a wide range of functions such as education, marketing and political commentary, blogs were originally a space for narrating personal life stories and have much in common with autobiography and diary genres. This article examines (in)fertility blogs written by women trying...... and traditional discourses concerning fertility. I show how bloggers use their blogs to 'make sense' of their (in)fertility experiences by looking at the distinctive content, style and format of their blogs. Finally, the knowledge produced in the blogs is problematized by 'situating' them within a broader...

  11. Assessing infertility-related stress: the factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory in Italian couples undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donarelli, Zaira; Gullo, Salvatore; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Marino, Angelo; Scaglione, Piero; Volpes, Aldo; Allegra, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) and its invariance across gender were examined in Italian couples undergoing infertility treatment. About 1000 subjects (both partners of 500 couples) completed two questionnaires prior to commencing infertility treatment at a private Clinic in Palermo, Italy. Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the original factor structure of the FPI was partially confirmed. Two correlated factors (Infertility Life Domains and Importance of Parenthood) were obtained via a post hoc Exploratory Factor Analysis. Finally, the invariance of this factor structure across gender was confirmed. The study supported the relevance of two interrelated factors specific to infertility stress which could help clinicians to focus on the core infertility-related stress domains of infertile couples.

  12. Barriers to the diagnosis of somatoform disorders in primary care: protocol for a systematic review of the current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Alexandra M; Toussaint, Anne; Althaus, Astrid; Löwe, Bernd

    2013-11-08

    Somatoform-type disorders and functional medically unexplained symptoms are extremely common in primary care settings. These disorders, however, are consistently underdiagnosed and under-recognised which precludes effective treatment. Given that somatoform symptoms are associated with high impairment, healthcare costs and both physician and patient frustration, it is critical to improve early detection. The first step in improving patient care is to identify the current barriers which obstruct successful diagnosis to enable the design of targeted interventions. We aim to conduct a systematic review to identify the possible physician-, patient- and society-related factors and other practical constraints which may impede successful diagnosis. In the process, we will also be able to recognise the differences in methodological techniques, recommend potential avenues for future research and comment on the literature in this field as a whole. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature published in English or German in the past 10 years in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Additional studies may be identified from the reference lists of included studies. Title and abstract screening and data extraction from full text manuscripts will be conducted by two independent reviewers. Because we are including a combination of qualitative and quantitative studies, the review will provide a broad understanding of the current situation. Wherever possible, the method and reporting of the review will adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement and bias will be assessed using the Cochrane collaboration's recommendations. We envisage that data will be synthesised using a multilevel (qualitative and quantitative) approach which combines textual narrative and thematic analysis. Barriers will be categorised as modifiable or non-modifiable according to a conceptual framework. The review has been

  13. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in human infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guediche, N; Tosca, L; Kara Terki, A; Bas, C; Lecerf, L; Young, J; Briand-Suleau, A; Tou, B; Bouligand, J; Brisset, S; Misrahi, M; Guiochon-Mantel, A; Goossens, M; Tachdjian, G

    2012-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by conventional banding cytogenetics. This study describes four patients with sSMC in relation with infertility. Patient 1 had primary infertility. His brother, fertile, carried the same sSMC (patient 2). Patient 3 presented polycystic ovary syndrome and patient 4 primary ovarian insufficiency. Cytogenetic studies, array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and sperm analyses were compared with cases previously reported. sSMC corresponded to the 15q11.2 region (patients 1 and 2), the centromeric chromosome 15 region (patient 3) and the 21p11.2 region (patient 4). Array CGH showed 3.6-Mb gain for patients 1 and 2 and 0.266-Mb gain for patient 4. Sperm fluorescent in-situ hybridization analyses found ratios of 0.37 and 0.30 of sperm nuclei with sSMC(15) for patients 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.001). An increase of sperm nuclei with disomy X, Y and 18 was noted for patient 1 compared with control and patient 2 (P < 0.001). Among the genes mapped in the unbalanced chromosomal regions, POTE B and BAGE are related to the testis and ovary, respectively. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to duplication, but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis.

  14. Diagnostic and therapeutic value of selective salpingography and tubal catheterization in an unselected infertile population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Spyros; Afnan, Masood; Girling, Alan J; Ola, Bolarinde; Olufowobi, Olufemi; Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Sharif, Kaldoun

    2003-03-01

    To present diagnostic findings and fertility outcome after selective salpingography and tubal catheterization in an unselected infertile population. Cohort study. Tertiary reproductive medicine unit. One hundred ten consecutive infertile women. No exclusion criteria were applied. Follow-up ranged from 16 to 54 months. Selective salpingography and tubal catheterization under fluoroscopic guidance as the primary test for the assessment of the fallopian tubes. Incidence of tubal disease at selective salpingography, therapeutic effectiveness of tubal catheterization, and fertility outcome after the procedure. Tubal disease was present in 31.4% of the tubes examined. Of tubes proximally blocked at selective salpingography, 52.1% were found to be normal after tubal catheterization. Proximal tubal blockage (bilateral or unilateral) was detected in 34.8% of women. This was reduced to 5.5% after tubal catheterization. Spontaneous conceptions occurred in 21.9% of the women. In total, 36.2% conceived without IVF or ICSI. Selective salpingography and tubal catheterization can be useful as a primary tubal assessment tool in the investigation of infertility. In cases of proximal tubal blockage, an effective see-and-treat approach can be adopted. More research into the possible therapeutic benefits of the procedure is justified.

  15. Health And Morbidity Profile Of Khairwar Tribe With Special Emphasis On Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakma T

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: 1. What is the status of health and morbidity pattern of khairwar community? 2. What is the etiology of infertility? Objectives: 1. To study the cause of infertility in this tribal community. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size: 1345 Khairwar individuals . Setting: Four blocks of district Sidhi (M.P Statistical analysis : ‘Z’ test & Chi square test . Results: A total of 1345 Khairwar individuals were clinically examined. Acute respiratory infection (ARI. Gastrointestinal tract infection (GIT, skin infection and malaria were the common morbidities found in preschool & school going children. 63% blood samples were found VDRL & TPHA reactive in adult population(18+age group of Kusmi block indicating the high prevalence of syphilis. Approximately 35.4% preschool children were nutritionally normal.. Availability of health service through primary health services (PHC for Khairwar & their utilization pattern was not up to the mark.

  16. Age-friendly primary health care: an assessment of current service provision for older adults in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jean; Mak, Benise; Yeung, Fannie

    2013-01-01

    There has been no study evaluating whether primary care services are sufficiently oriented towards the older population in Hong Kong, particularly those with increasing frailty. Since primary care is a key first interface in promotion and maintenance of health in older people, an assessment of the age-friendliness of service provisions is of critical importance in optimizing the health of aging populations. The age-friendliness of primary care services for older people was assessed using focus groups of elderly people and also of service providers who care for them. Discussion content was based on the WHO guidelines for age-friendly primary care in the following areas: Information, education and training, community-based health care management systems, and the physical environment. Desirable improvements were identified in all domains. The findings underscore the need for wider dissemination of health care needs of older people in the primary care setting.

  17. Infertility-related stress in men and women predicts treatment outcome 1 year later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boivin, J; Schmidt, Lone

    2005-01-01

    stress, psychology, psychosocial, reproduction, marital, gender, counselling, infertility, in vitro fertilization, fertility......stress, psychology, psychosocial, reproduction, marital, gender, counselling, infertility, in vitro fertilization, fertility...

  18. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS IN INFERTILE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Vogler

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endometriosis is nowadays probably the most frequent cause of infertility or subfertility and is revealed in approximately 30–40% of infertile women. The association between fertility and minimal or mild endometriosis remains unclear and controversial. Moderate and severe forms of the disease distort anatomical relations in the minor pelvis, resulting in infertility. The goals of endometriosis treatment are relief of pain symptoms, prevention of the disease progression and fertility improvement. Treatment of stages I and II endometriosis (according to the R-AFS classification may be expectative, medical or surgical. In severely forms of the disease (stage III and IV the method of choice is surgical treatment. Combined medical and surgical treatment is justified only in cases, in which the complete endometriotic tissue removal is not possible or recurrence of pain symptoms occur. Nowadays, laparoscopic surgical treatment is the golden standard being the diagnostic and therapeutic tool during the same procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility rate after surgical treatment of different stages of endometriosis.Patients and methods. In prospectively designed study 100 infertile women were included. The only known cause of infertility was endometriosis. In group A there were 51 patients with stage I and II endometriosis, whereas in group B there were 49 patients with stage III and IV of the disease. Endometriosis was diagnosed and treated laparoscopically. Endometriotic implants were removed either with bipolar coagulation or CO2 laser vaporisation, whereas adhesions were sharp or blunt dissected, and endometriomas stripped out of ovaries. Pregnancy rates were calculated for both groups of patients, and statistically compared between the groups.Results. Mean age of patients was 29.25 (SD ± 4.08 years and did not significantly differ between the groups of patients (29.5 years in group A and 29 years in group B. In

  19. Coenzyme Q10 and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balercia, G; Mancini, A; Paggi, F; Tiano, L; Pontecorvi, A; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Littarru, G P

    2009-07-01

    We had previously demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 [(CoQ10) also commonly called ubiquinone] is present in well-measurable levels in human seminal fluid, where it probably exerts important metabolic and antioxidant functions; seminal CoQ10 concentrations show a direct correlation with seminal parameters (count and motility). Alterations of CoQ10 content were also shown in conditions associated with male infertility, such as asthenozoospermia and varicocele (VAR). The physiological role of this molecule was further clarified by inquiring into its variations in concentrations induced by different medical or surgical procedures used in male infertility treatment. We therefore evaluated CoQ10 concentration and distribution between seminal plasma and spermatozoa in VAR, before and after surgical treatment, and in infertile patients after recombinant human FSH therapy. The effect of CoQ10 on sperm motility and function had been addressed only through some in vitro experiments. In two distinct studies conducted by our group, 22 and 60 patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia were enrolled, respectively. CoQ10 and its reduced form, ubiquinol, increased significantly both in seminal plasma and sperm cells after treatment, as well as spermatozoa motility. A weak linear dependence among the relative variations, at baseline and after treatment, of seminal plasma or intracellular CoQ10, ubiquinol levels and kinetic parameters was found in the treated group. Patients with lower baseline value of motility and CoQ10 levels had a statistically significant higher probability to be responders to the treatment. In conclusion, the exogenous administration of CoQ10 increases both ubiquinone and ubiquinol levels in semen and can be effective in improving sperm kinetic features in patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia.

  20. [L-arginine and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibona, M; Meschini, P; Capparelli, S; Pecori, C; Rossi, P; Menchini Fabris, G F

    1994-12-01

    The clinical efficacy and acceptance of L-arginina HCL was tested in 40 infertile men. All of these men had a normal number of spermatozoa (> 20 million/ml), but a decreased motility; this decreased motility was not due to infection or to immunological disorders. The treatment consisted of 80 ml of 10% L-arginine HCL administered daily per os for 6 months. L-arginine HCL showed to be able to improve the motility of spermatozoa without any side-effects.

  1. Infertility Part I: Pathophysiology and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, T

    1977-03-01

    There appears to be an increasing incidence of infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after a year of unprotected coitus. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis of sexual development and function is briefly reviewed. The history-taking procedure and physical examination of the female and male is described. Basic screening procedures to define the general problem areas are: 1) basal body temperature recordings, 2) further evaluation of ovulatory function through an endometrial biopsy and plasma progesterone analysis, 3) semen analysis, 4) tubal patency tests by tubal insufflation or hysterosalpingography, and 5) Sims-Huhner postcoital examination.

  2. Augmentation of spelling therapy with transcranial direct current stimulation in primary progressive aphasia: Preliminary results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Frangakis, Constantine; Gomez, Yessenia; Davis, Cameron; Hillis, Argye E

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects language functions and often begins in the fifth or sixth decade of life. The devastating effects on work and family life call for the investigation of treatment alternatives. In this article, we present new data indicating that neuromodulatory treatment, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a spelling intervention, shows some promise for maintaining or even improving language, at least temporarily, in PPA. The main aim of the present article is to determine whether tDCS plus spelling intervention is more effective than spelling intervention alone in treating written language in PPA. We also asked whether the effects of tDCS are sustained longer than the effects of spelling intervention alone. We present data from six PPA participants who underwent anodal tDCS or sham plus spelling intervention in a within-subject crossover design. Each stimulation condition lasted 3 weeks or a total of 15 sessions with a 2-month interval in between. Participants were evaluated on treatment tasks as well as on other language and cognitive tasks at 2-week and 2-month follow-up intervals after each stimulation condition. All participants showed improvement in spelling (with sham or tDCS). There was no difference in the treated items between the two conditions. There was, however, consistent and significant improvement for untrained items only in the tDCS plus spelling intervention condition. Furthermore, the improvement lasted longer in the tDCS plus spelling intervention condition compared to sham plus spelling intervention condition. Neuromodulation with tDCS offers promise as a means of augmenting language therapy to improve written language function at least temporarily in PPA. The consistent finding of generalisation of treatment benefits to untreated items and the superior sustainability of treatment effects with tDCS justifies further investigations. However

  3. A Study of Couple Burnout in Infertile Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi, Fatemeh; Jamale, Safieh; Mosalanejad, Leili; Mosallanezhad, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is a major crisis that can cause psychological problems and emotionally distressing experiences, and eventually affect a couples’ relationship. The objective of this study is to investigate couple burnout in infertile couples who were undergoing treatmentat the Infertility Clinic of Yazd, Iran. Method: The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive one on 98 infertile couples referringto the Infertility Centerof Yazd, Iran, who were chosen on a simple random sampling basis. The measuring tools consisted of the Couple Burnout Measure (CBM) and a demographic questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16 and the statistical tests of ANOVA and t-test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: The results show that infertile women experience higher levels of couple burnout than their husbands (pburnout—psychological burnout (pburnout (pburnout (p<0.001)—between wives and husbands show that women are at greater risk. Conclusion: Infertile couples’ emotional, mental, and sexual problems need to be addressed as part of the infertility treatment programs, and psychotherapists should be included in the medical team. PMID:26573033

  4. Treatment of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Female Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Female infertility is when a woman of reproductive age and sexual active, without contraception, cannot get pregnant after a year and more or keeps having miscarriages. Although conventional treatments for infertility such as hormone therapy, in vitro fertilization and many more, helped many female patients with infertility get pregnant during past a few decades, it is far from satisfactory with prolonging treatment time frames and emotional and financial burden. In recent years, more patients with infertile problems are seeking to alternative and complementary medicines to achieve a better outcome. In particular, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly popular for treating infertility due to its effectiveness and complimentary with conventional treatments. However, the mechanisms of action of CHM in treating female infertility are not well understood. In this chapter authors reviewed research development of CHM applied in many infertile models and CHM clinical studies in many conditions associated with female infertility, published in past 15 years. The data of review showed that CHM has either specific target mechanisms of action or multitarget mechanisms of action, via regulating relevant hormone levels in female reproductive system, improving ovary function, enhancing uterine receptivity. More studies are warranted to explore the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Obesity and Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Erdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse, affects approximately 15% of couples. Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Thus, male factor infertility is present in approximately half of all infertile couples. Known etiologies of male infertility include cryptorchidism, testicular torsion or trauma, varicocele, seminal tract infections, anti-sperm antibodies, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gonadal dysgenesis, and obstruction of the reproductive channels. Recently in some studies, it has been reported that increased body mass index negatively affect on male fertility or semen parameters.Overweight and obesity have become a major public health concern worldwide. The prevalence of male obesity or overweight in the united states was reported to be 71%. This ratio changes between 10% and 60% in the world. Negative effects of obesity on male fertility are postulated to occur through several mechanisms. Obese men have been shown to exhibit higher levels of circulating estradiol. Several studies reveal a direct correlation between a rise in BMI and a decline in both free and total blood testosterone levels. In addition, obesity may cause to oxidative stress. All these changes may affect to semen parameters in obese cases. However, the relationship between male obesity and fertility parameters has not been well established. The aim of this review is to evaluate the relationship between the obesity and male infertility.

  6. Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Remah M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG, American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM, Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS, and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG. Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians.

  7. Procreative sex in infertile couples: the decay of pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marci Roberto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility represents a major challenge to the emotional balance and sexual life of couples, with long-lasting and gender-specific effects. The objective of this study is to explore personality features of infertile patients and detect possible sexual disorders in couples undergoing infertility treatment. Materials and methods In this prospective study 60 infertile couples and 52 fertile control couples were asked to complete standardized and validated questionnaires: the Adjective Check List (ACL to enquire about personality features and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI or the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF to assess sexual functioning of female and male partners. The study population was divided into 3 groups: Group A (N = 30, recently diagnosed infertile couples Group B (N = 30, infertile couples already undergoing Intrauterine Insemination and Group C (N = 52, fertile control group. Results Infertile patients did not display any distinguishing personality features. Regarding sexual function, men of all the three groups scored higher in both questionnaires (sexual satisfaction, desire and orgasm than their female partners. Comparing results between groups, Group A male partners obtained lower scores in all the subscales. Women belonging to Group A and Group B showed an impairment of sexual arousal, satisfaction, lubrification and orgasm when compared to fertile controls. Conclusions Even if at the very first stages of infertility treatment no personality disturbances can be detected, the couples’ sexual life is already impaired with different sexual disorders according to gender.

  8. Psychosocial characteristics of female infertility in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    several aspects of a woman's life; her religious faith, self esteem, occupation, relationship with her partner, family and ... infertile women include depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation. .... Job satisfaction (n = those employed). Yes. No. 30 (81.1) .... was no significant association between women in the infertility group who ...

  9. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men randoml

  10. Is There a Relationship between Ovarian Epithelial Dysplasia and Infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Chene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Since infertility is also a risk factor for ovarian neoplasia, the aim of this study was to study the relationship between infertility and ovarian dysplasia. Methods. We blindly reviewed 127 histopathological slides of adnexectomies or ovarian cystectomies according to three groups—an exposed group to ovulation induction (n = 30, an infertile group without stimulation (n = 35, and a spontaneously fertile control group (n = 62—in order to design an eleven histopathological criteria scoring system. Results. The ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in exposed group whereas dysplasia score was low in infertile and control groups (resp., 8.21 in exposed group, 3.69 for infertile patients, and 3.62 for the controls. In the subgroup with refractory infertility there was a trend towards a more severe dysplasia score (8.53 in ovulation induction group and 5.1 in infertile group. Conclusion. These results raise questions as to the responsibility of drugs used to induce ovulation and/or infertility itself in the genesis of ovarian epithelial dysplasia.

  11. Oxidative stress induces idiopathic infertility in Egyptian males

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Oxidative stress (OS) would play a vital role in etiology of ... To examine OS effect on Egyptian men fertility, sperm samples were obtained from infertile .... 1 ml semen. According to seminal quality profile, the infertile patients were .... donors and idiopathic men in terms of semen volume (ml) and leukocytes ...

  12. Counseling and diagnostic evaluation for the infertile couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshburn, Paul B

    2015-03-01

    Educating couples about natural means to improve fertility should include a discussion about appropriate timing to initiate a diagnostic evaluation for infertility. Complete infertility testing for both male and female factors allows directed care for all abnormalities to optimize chances for conception.

  13. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men

  14. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in subgroups of infertile men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dul, E. C.; Groen, H.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C. M. A.; Dijkhuizen, T.; van Echten-Arends, J.; Land, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities is assumed to be higher in infertile men and inversely correlated with sperm concentration. Although guidelines advise karyotyping infertile men, karyotyping is costly, therefore it would be of benefit to identify men with the highest risk of c

  15. Genomics: Tool to predict and prevent male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ashutosh; Kumar, Prashant; Jain, Manish; Kalsi, Amanpreet Kaur

    2017-06-01

    A large number of human diseases arise as a result of genetic abnormalities. With the advent of improved molecular biology techniques, the genetic etiology of male infertility is increasing. The common genetic factors responsible for male infertility are chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletion and cystic fibrosis. These are responsible for approximately 30 percent cases of male infertility. About 40 percent cases of male infertility are categorized as idiopathic. These cases may be associated with genetic and genomic abnormalities. During last few years more and more genes are implicated in male infertility leading to decline in prevalence of idiopathic etiology. In this review we will summarize up to date published works on genetic etiologies of male infertility including our own works. We also briefly describe reproductive technologies used to overcome male infertility, dangers of transmitting genetic disorders to offspring and ways to prevent transmission of genetic disorders during assisted reproduction. At the end we will provide our points on how genomic information can be utilized for prediction and prevention of male infertility in coming years.

  16. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (Pinfertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (Pseminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (Phormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (Pinfertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  17. The Sexual Impact of Infertility Among Women Seeking Fertility Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Winkelman, MD

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: In women seeking fertility treatment, younger age and female factor infertility were associated with increased sexual impact and thus these women are potentially at higher risk of sexual dysfunction. Providers should consider the role young age and an infertility diagnosis plays in a women’s sexual well-being.

  18. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with the Stress of Infertility Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Myra G.; Forthofer, Melinda S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial factors thought to be associated with perceived stress over the course of infertility treatment. The research was based on secondary analysis of data from the Study of Marriage, Family, and Life Quality with a sample of 128 people who completed an infertility-related stress instrument at all three measurement…

  19. Periodontal status in infertile women attending in vitro fertilization clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godavarthi Lalasa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that altered hormonal levels in infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy and infertile women not undergoing this treatment can lead to increased attachment loss, suggesting that these women may require constant periodontal monitoring.

  20. Current and future use of point-of-care tests in primary care : an international survey in Australia, Belgium, The Netherlands, the UK and the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howick, Jeremy; Cals, Jochen W L; Jones, Caroline; Price, Christopher P; Plüddemann, Annette; Heneghan, Carl; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Buntinx, Frank; Hickner, John; Pace, Wilson; Badrick, Tony; Van den Bruel, Ann; Laurence, Caroline; van Weert, Henk C; van Severen, Evie; Parrella, Adriana; Thompson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the growing number of point-of-care (POC) tests available, little research has assessed primary care clinician need for such tests. We therefore aimed to determine which POC tests they actually use or would like to use (if not currently available in their practice). DESIGN: Cross-