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Sample records for current primary infertility

  1. Primary infertility (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary infertility is a term used to describe a couple that has never been able to conceive a pregnancy ... to do so through unprotected intercourse. Causes of infertility include a wide range of physical as well ...

  2. Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...

  3. Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... greatly after age 35 (and especially after age 40). The age when fertility starts to decline varies from woman to woman. Infertility problems and miscarriage rates increase significantly after 35 years of age. There are now options for early ...

  4. Family physicians' attitude and practice of infertility management at primary care--Suez Canal University, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldein, Hebatallah Nour

    2013-01-01

    The very particular natures of infertility problem and infertility care make them different from other medical problems and services in developing countries. Even after the referral to specialists, the family physicians are expected to provide continuous support for these couples. This place the primary care service at the heart of all issues related to infertility. to improve family physicians' attitude and practice about the approach to infertility management within primary care setting. This study was conducted in the between June and December 2010. The study sample comprised 100 family physician trainees in the family medicine department and working in family practice centers or primary care units. They were asked to fill a questionnaire about their personal characteristics, attitude, and practice towards support, investigations, and treatment of infertile couples. Hundred family physicians were included in the study. They were previously received training in infertility management. Favorable attitude scores were detected among (68%) of physicians and primary care was considered a suitable place for infertility management among (77%) of participants. There was statistically significant difference regarding each of age groups, gender and years of experience with the physicians' attitude. There was statistically significant difference regarding gender, perceiving PHC as an appropriate place to manage infertility and attitude towards processes of infertility management with the physicians' practice. Favorable attitude and practice were determined among the study sample. Supporting the structure of primary care and evidence-based training regarding infertility management are required to improve family physicians' attitude and practice towards infertility management.

  5. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Ring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene, estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole, and hormone replacement.

  6. Family physicians’ attitude and practice of infertility management at primary care - Suez Canal University, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldein, Hebatallah Nour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The very particular natures of infertility problem and infertility care make them different from other medical problems and services in developing countries. Even after the referral to specialists, the family physicians are expected to provide continuous support for these couples. This place the primary care service at the heart of all issues related to infertility. The aim of the work: to improve family physicians' attitude and practice about the approach to infertility management within primary care setting. Methods This study was conducted in the between June and December 2010. The study sample comprised 100 family physician trainees in the family medicine department and working in family practice centers or primary care units. They were asked to fill a questionnaire about their personal characteristics, attitude, and practice towards support, investigations, and treatment of infertile couples. Results Hundred family physicians were included in the study. They were previously received training in infertility management. Favorable attitude scores were detected among (68%) of physicians and primary care was considered a suitable place for infertility management among (77%) of participants. There was statistically significant difference regarding each of age groups, gender and years of experience with the physicians′ attitude. There was statistically significant difference regarding gender, perceiving PHC as an appropriate place to manage infertility and attitude towards processes of infertility management with the physicians′ practice. Conclusion Favorable attitude and practice were determined among the study sample. Supporting the structure of primary care and evidence-based training regarding infertility management are required to improve family physicians' attitude and practice towards infertility management. PMID:24244792

  7. Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... function of the ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes. Primary ovarian insufficiency (early menopause), when the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40. Although the cause is often unknown, certain ...

  8. Coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and risk of primary infertility in women: a Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Í Soylu, Lív; Jensen, Allan; Juul, Kirsten E; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hargreave, Marie

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine affects the risk of primary infertility in women. We selected nulliparous Danish women aged 20-29 years from a prospective cohort and retrieved information on coffee and tea consumption from a questionnaire and an interview at enrollment. We assessed the women's fertility by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort and retrieved information on children and vital status from the Civil Registration System. All 7574 women included for analysis were followed for primary infertility from the date of enrollment (1991-1993) until 31 December 2010. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models. During follow up, primary infertility was diagnosed in 822 women. Compared with never consumers, the risk of primary infertility among women who drank coffee or tea was not affected. The risk of primary infertility was neither associated with an increasing number of daily servings of coffee (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.03) or tea (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.03) in consumers only. Concerning total caffeine consumption (from coffee and tea), the risk of infertility was similar among consumers compared with never consumers. Finally, none of the additional daily 100 mg of caffeine affected the risk among consumers only (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0.98-1.02). In this population-based cohort study, not restricted to women seeking pregnancy, we found no association between coffee, tea or total caffeine consumption and the risk of primary infertility in women. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Psychologic and sexual dysfunction in primary and secondary infertile male patients

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    Aytac Sahin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare depression and sexual dysfunctions observed in primary and secondary infertile patients. Material and method: The study was performed in 39 primary and 31 secondary infertile male patients. Male sexual health was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF score and depression with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results: Mean age of the participants and their partners were 31.54 ± 5.37 (range, 24-48 yrs, and 28.16 ± 5.58 (range, 20- 46 yrs years, respectively. Mean duration of their marriage ranged between 1 and 17 years (mean, 5.06 ± 4.15 yrs. A statistically significant intergroup difference was detected between groups as for BDI scores (p = 0.015; p < 0. 05. BDI scores of the primary group were significantly lower than those of the secondary group. A statistically and extremely significant difference was detected between IIEF scores of the groups (p = 0.006; p < 0.01. IIEF scores of the primary infertile group were higher than those of the secondary group. Conclusion: Our study, frequency of the depression and erectile dysfunction seen in the patients with secondary infertility was seen significantly higher than the patients with primary infertility.

  10. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: a prot?g? and potential threat towards mans extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Isaiah, Ibeh Nnana; Nche, Bikwe Thomas; Nwagu, Ibeh Georgina; Nnanna, Ibeh Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Materi...

  11. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and male infertility: Current status and future directions

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    Connor M. Forbes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To summarise the current state of research into spermatogonial stem cell (SSC therapies with a focus on future directions, as SSCs show promise as a source for preserving or initiating fertility in otherwise infertile men. Materials and methods: We performed a search for publications addressing spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the treatment of male infertility. The search engines PubMed and Google Scholar were used from 1990 to 2017. Search terms were relevant for spermatogonial stem cell therapies. Titles of publications were screened for relevance; abstracts were read, if related and full papers were reviewed for directly pertinent original research. Results: In all, 58 papers were found to be relevant to this review, and were included in appropriate subheadings. This review discusses the various techniques that SSCs are being investigated to treat forms of male infertility. Conclusions: Evidence does not yet support clinical application of SSCs in humans. However, significant progress in the in vitro and in vivo development of SSCs, including differentiation into functional germ cells, gives reason for cautious optimism for future research. Keywords: Non-obstructive azoospermia, Fertility preservation, Onco-fertility, Male infertility, Stem cell therapy, Allograft

  12. Stem Cells as New Agents for the Treatment of Infertility: Current and Future Perspectives and Challenges

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    Vladislav Volarevic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, fetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility. Stem cells could be stimulated in vitro to develop various numbers of specialized cells including male and female gametes suggesting their potential use in reproductive medicine. During past few years a considerable progress in the derivation of male germ cells from pluripotent stem cells has been made. In addition, stem cell-based strategies for ovarian regeneration and oocyte production have been proposed as future clinical therapies for treating infertility in women. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and present future perspectives and challenges regarding the use of stem cells in reproductive medicine.

  13. Y Choromosomal Microdeletion Screening in The Workup of Male Infertility and Its Current Status in India

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    Ramaswamy Suganthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF. Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and testicular sperm extraction (TESE helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India.

  14. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and male infertility: Current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Connor M; Flannigan, Ryan; Schlegel, Peter N

    2018-03-01

    To summarise the current state of research into spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) therapies with a focus on future directions, as SSCs show promise as a source for preserving or initiating fertility in otherwise infertile men. We performed a search for publications addressing spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the treatment of male infertility. The search engines PubMed and Google Scholar were used from 1990 to 2017. Search terms were relevant for spermatogonial stem cell therapies. Titles of publications were screened for relevance; abstracts were read, if related and full papers were reviewed for directly pertinent original research. In all, 58 papers were found to be relevant to this review, and were included in appropriate subheadings. This review discusses the various techniques that SSCs are being investigated to treat forms of male infertility. Evidence does not yet support clinical application of SSCs in humans. However, significant progress in the in vitro and in vivo development of SSCs, including differentiation into functional germ cells, gives reason for cautious optimism for future research.

  15. Estimating infertility prevalence in low-to-middle-income countries: an application of a current duration approach to Demographic and Health Survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Chelsea B; Cox, Carie M; Tunçalp, Özge; McLain, Alexander C; Thoma, Marie E

    2017-05-01

    Can infertility prevalence be estimated using a current duration (CD) approach when applied to nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected routinely in low- or middle-income countries? Our analysis suggests that a CD approach applied to DHS data from Nigeria provides infertility prevalence estimates comparable to other smaller studies in the same region. Despite associations with serious negative health, social and economic outcomes, infertility in developing countries is a marginalized issue in sexual and reproductive health. Obtaining reliable, nationally representative prevalence estimates is critical to address the issue, but methodological and resource challenges have impeded this goal. This cross-sectional study was based on standard information available in the DHS core questionnaire and data sets, which are collected routinely among participating low-to-middle-income countries. Our research question was examined among women participating in the 2013 Nigeria DHS (n = 38 948). Among women eligible for the study, 98% were interviewed. We applied a CD approach (i.e. current length of time-at-risk of pregnancy) to estimate time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and 12-month infertility prevalence among women 'at risk' of pregnancy at the time of interview (n = 7063). Women who were 18-44 years old, married or cohabitating, sexually active within the past 4 weeks and not currently using contraception (and had not been sterilized) were included in the analysis. Estimates were based on parametric survival methods using bootstrap methods (500 bootstrap replicates) to obtain 95% CIs. The estimated median TTP among couples at risk of pregnancy was 5.1 months (95% CI: 4.2-6.3). The estimated percentage of infertile couples was 31.1% (95% CI: 27.9-34.7%)-consistent with other smaller studies from Nigeria. Primary infertility (17.4%, 95% CI: 12.9-23.8%) was substantially lower than secondary infertility (34.1%, 95% CI: 30.3-39.3%) in this population

  16. A Rare Case of Continuous Type Splenogonadal Fusion in a Young Male with Primary Infertility

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    Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenogonadal fusion is a rare developmental anomaly in which an abnormal connection between splenic tissue and gonads or mesonephric derivatives is present. Here we present a case of young man with the complaint of primary infertility for 3 years. On evaluation (USG and MRI abdomen and pelvis, his right scrotal testis was atrophied and left intra-abdominal undescended testis. On laparoscopic assessment, a mass was seen on the left side due to continuous type of splenogonadal fusion for which excision and left orchidectomy were done. Postoperative period was uneventful and he was discharged under satisfactory condition. Splenogonadal fusion is a rare entity and it is commonly mistaken for testicular tumour. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular masses especially when there are associated congenital anomalies and preoperative laparoscopic assessment, should be done to avoid unnecessary radical surgery.

  17. Defining Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  18. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: A protégé and potential threat towards mans extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Ibeh Nnana Isaiah; Bikwe Thomas Nche; Ibeh Georgina Nwagu; Ibeh Isaiah Nnanna

    2011-01-01

    Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Materi...

  19. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  20. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone for infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Toward a more-interventional approach.

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    Kesrouani, A; Abdallah, M A; Attieh, E; Abboud, J; Atallah, D; Makhoul, C

    2001-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a protocol of pulsatile gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) in treating infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Retrospective analysis of 44 cycles treated at an infertility center. Twenty-four patients with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea were treated intravenously with pulsatile GnRH using 5 micrograms per bolus every 90 minutes. Ultrasound monitoring and cervical assessment by Insler's scoring system allowed timed injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and intrauterine insemination if needed. Luteal support was provided with hCG. The ovulation rate was 95% with the 5-microgram dose. A single follicle was produced in 91% of cycles. The overall pregnancy rate per ovulatory cycle was 45%, and the pregnancy rate per patient was 83%. In patients treated previously with exogenous gonadotropins, poor results were observed. Only one case of mild overstimulation was reported. Pulsatile GnRH is an effective and safe method of treating infertility in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea, thus simulating normal ovulation; however, more-interventional management, including the qualitative estrogenic response, may lead to optimal results and increase the pregnancy rate.

  1. Unexplained infertility as primary presentation of celiac disease, a case report and literature review

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    Mohammadreza Ghadir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Celiac sprue (gluten sensitive enteropathy is an autoimmune disease which is hereditary and its pathology mainly bases on immunologic intolerance to gluten. It has a vast variety of signs and symptoms and its clinical features range from a silent disease to a typical gastrointestinal disorder. In this study we reviewed and summarized some other related issues about this disease and its relation with infertility.Case: The case is a 26 years old lady who had referred to a gynecologist because of infertility for 2 years and later it revealed that she has celiac sprue.Conclusion: Screening for its silent or subtle types especially among suspicious cases such as unexplained infertility seems to be a cost effective action. Meanwhile, in time administration of a gluten-free diet can lead to an almost complete cure

  2. Female infertility in India: Causes, treatment and impairment of fertility in selected districts with high prevalence

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    Shraboni Patra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the ‘universal access to sexual and reproductive health care’ has received priority in the SDG‐3, the rural women experiencing infertility problem in India are unable to access and afford quality reproductive health care. The study investigates the present infertility situation, with a focus on risk factors, treatment seeking for infertility, and impact of infertility on fertility in India and its districts with high infertility prevalence. The DLHS‐3 data is used. Top fifteen districts with high infertility prevalence are selected for analysis. Simple bivariate and multivariate techniques are applied. In India, the prevalence of ever‐experienced primary, secondary, and current infertility is 6.6%, 2.1% and 4.6% respectively, whereas, in the selected districts, the estimates for the same indicators are 15%, 3.1%, and 5% respectively. A higher prevalence of reported symptoms of RTIs/STIs and menstrual problems is observed among women who ever had infertility. Treatment seeking for infertility is low in Korba and Koryia. The MCEB is less among women who ever had experienced infertility. The prevalence of ever‐experienced infertility and current infertility is considerably higher among women from socio‐economically disadvantaged sections. Awareness of RTIs, STIs, and menstrual problems, and preventive care can reduce infertility among rural women.

  3. Treatment of Recurrent Ovarian Cysts and Primary Infertility by Iranian Traditional Medicine: A Case Report

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    Salehi, Mehdi; Setayesh, Mohammad; Mokaberinejad, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a medical and psychosocial problem with a high prevalence. There are different treatments for this problem in Iranian traditional medicine. A 28-year-old woman presented with the complaints of 4 emergency operations of the left ovarian cyst during 4 years and infertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed an ovarian cyst, adhesion, and endometriosis. Hysteroscopy was unremarkable. After 2 months of letrozole administration, the ovarian cyst ruptured again. Considering the failure of conventional treatments, Iranian traditional medicine products were administered to the patient. After 3 months, the patient conceived and delivered a healthy boy through normal vaginal delivery. These compounds may help with pregnancy as a uterine tonic, vitalizer, and aphrodisiac with brain and cardiac tonic properties. PMID:27932523

  4. Prostatitis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshahrani, Saad; McGill, John; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    The prostate gland plays an important role in male reproduction. Inflammation of the prostate gland (prostatitis) is a common health problem affecting many young and middle aged men. Prostatitis is considered a correctable cause of male infertility, but the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment options of prostatitis in male infertility remain unclear. This literature review will focus on current data regarding prostatitis and its impact on male infertility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating infertility prevalence in low-to-middle-income countries: an application of a current duration approach to Demographic and Health Survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Polis, Chelsea B.; Cox, Carie M.; Tun?alp, ?zge; McLain, Alexander C.; Thoma, Marie E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION Can infertility prevalence be estimated using a current duration (CD) approach when applied to nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data collected routinely in low- or middle-income countries? SUMMARY ANSWER Our analysis suggests that a CD approach applied to DHS data from Nigeria provides infertility prevalence estimates comparable to other smaller studies in the same region. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Despite associations with serious negative hea...

  6. Current approach to male infertility treatment: sperm selection procedure based on hyaluronic acid binding ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zobova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.

  7. Diagnostic Markers of Primary Infertility in Women of Reproductive Age with Hypothalamic Dysfunction in the Pubertal Period

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    Irina V. Zhukovets

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess fertility in women of reproductive age with hypothalamic dysfunction (HD in the pubertal period and to determine the diagnostic significance of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10 and NF-kB activity in the diagnosis of primary infertility in these women. Materials and Methods: Fertility was assessed in 86 women of reproductive age with HD in the pubertal period. A comparative characteristic of fertile women (Group 1, n=46 and primary infertility women (Group 2, n=21 with HD in the pubertal period was performed. FPG and FPI were determined after 8 to 12 hours of fasting. Serum IRI concentrations were measured using an ELISA kit. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 were determined in the venous blood serum after a 12-hour fasting, as well as in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using ELISA kits. The activity of NF-kB was determined in UA on the 21st day of the menstrual cycle using an enzyme immunoassay kit. Results: BMI in Group 1 was significantly lower than in Group 2: 22.63±2.68 kg/m2 versus 27.05±4.03kg/m2 (p=0.000. WC in women of Group 1 was 66.11±5.66cm versus 78.52±10.54cm in Group 2 (p = 0.000; WC >80cm was found in 2(4.4% and 14(66.7% women, respectively (p = 0.000. The average levels of FPG and FPI were significantly higher in Group 2. Serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in Group 2 were significantly higher than in Group 1. The serum level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly lower in Group 2; accordingly, the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio in Group 2 was 1.8 times higher than in Group 1. The IL-1β level in UA (P=0.000 and the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio (P=0.02 were significantly higher in women of Group 2 than Group 1, which indicated the pronounced inflammatory effects of TNF-α in the endometrium. Imbalance in the production of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors indicated the activation of the Th-1 immune response with the formation of the

  8. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

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    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  9. Apparent primary follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency is a rare cause of treatable male infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, JC; Deege, M; Blankenstein, RA; Kastrop, PMM; Wijmenga, C; Lock, TTWT

    Objective: To find the underlying defect in a case of primary FSH deficiency and to estimate the beneficial effect of FSH treatment. Design: Case report. Setting: University hospital fertility clinic. Patient(s): Normal, healthy, 37-year-old male patient with severe oligoteratozoospermia.

  10. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Low Birth Weight Is Associated with a Decreased Overall Adult Health Status and Reproductive Capability - Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Primary Infertile Patients.

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    Luca Boeri

    Full Text Available Individuals born with low birth weight (LBW risk cardiometabolic complications later in life. However the impact of LBW on general health status and male reproductive function has been scantly analysed. We investigated the clinical and seminal impact of different birth weights (BW in white-European men presenting for primary couple's infertility. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 827 primary infertile men were compared with those of 373 consecutive fertile men. Patients with BW ≤2500, 2500-4200, and ≥4200gr were classified as having LBW, normal (NBW, and high BW (HBW, respectively. Health-significant comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI. Testicular volume was assessed with a Prader orchidometer. Semen analysis values were assessed based on 2010 WHO reference criteria. Descriptive statistics and regression models tested associations between semen parameters, clinical characteristics and BW categories. LBW, NBW and HBW were found in 71 (8.6%, 651 (78.7% and 105 (12.7% infertile men, respectively. LBW was more frequent in infertile patients than fertile men (p = 0.002. Infertile patients with LBW had a higher rate of comorbidities (p = 0.003, lower mean testicular volume (p = 0.007, higher FSH (p = 0.02 and lower tT levels (p = 0.04 compared to other BW groups. Higher rates of asthenozoospermia (p = 0.02 and teratozoospermia (p = 0.03 were also found in LBW men. At logistic regression models, LBW was univariably associated with pathologic progressive motility (p≤0.02 and pathologic sperm morphology (p<0.005. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, LBW achieved independent predictor status for both lower sperm motility and pathologic sperm morphology (all p≤0.04. Only LBW independently predicted higher CCI values (p<0.001. In conclusion, we found that LBW was more frequent in infertile than in fertile men. Infertile individuals with LBW showed a higher rate of comorbidities and significantly

  12. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to have a baby? If treatment doesn’t work, what are our other options? Resources National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, What Causes Male Infertility? Last Updated: May 30, 2017 This ...

  13. Treating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... problem that leads to male infertility is the enlargement of a vein in the scrotum . It sometimes ... the testes. Sexual Intercourse: The act of the penis of the male entering the vagina of the ...

  14. Determinants of fertility and reproductive success after hysteroscopic septoplasty for women with unexplained primary infertility: a prospective analysis of 88 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeir, Tarek; Abdelshaheed, Mahmoud; El-Shafie, Mohamed; Sherif, Lotfy; Badawy, Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate prospectively the effect of hysteroscopic septoplasty as therapy for unexplained primary infertility in women with uterine septum as a sole cause for reproductive failure and to define the factors influencing reproductive success. In a prospective comparative study, we enrolled 103 infertile women with uterine septum as a sole cause for reproductive failure. They had had unexplained primary infertility >2 years and a follow-up >12 months. Uterine anomalies were diagnosed by means of hysterosalpingography (HSG) and 2D-transvaginal sonography (TVS) with intrauterine saline infusion. Hysteroscopic septoplasty was performed in the early follicular phase. Pregnancy rates (PR) according to patient and septum characteristics (septum size) were the main outcome measures. Follow-up was complete for 88 patients. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 36.1±2.1 years. Forty-two patients became pregnant (40.7%). The mean (±SD) delay in conception was 7.5±2.6 months. Nearly 80% of the pregnant women conceived spontaneously. Of 44 pregnancies in 42 women, 36 live newborns were delivered. The PR was significantly higher in women size larger than one-half of their uterine length the PR was significantly higher than those with septum size uterine septum as a sole cause for reproductive failure seems to depend on patient age, duration of infertility before septoplasty, and septum size. Women with a septum size larger than one-half of their uterine length have a higher chance of successful pregnancy after hysteroscopic septoplasty. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  16. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  17. Ovarian Drilling for Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  18. Stress and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  19. Smoking and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  20. Sperm DNA damage in male infertility: etiologies, assays, and outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Schulte, Ryan T.; Ohl, Dana A.; Sigman, Mark; Smith, Gary D.

    2009-01-01

    Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Current means of evaluation of male factor infertility remains routine semen analysis including seminal volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. However, approximately 15% of patients with male factor infertility have a normal semen analysis and a definitive diagnosis of male infertility often cannot be m...

  1. Biomedical infertility care in sub-Saharan Africa: a social science review of current practices, experiences and view points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, T.; Shaw, M.

    2010-01-01

    Some sort of infertility treatments, including the use of advanced reproductive technologies (ARTs), is nowadays pro- vided at several places in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, to date only a few studies have actually looked into the way these treatments are offered, used and experienced. In this review

  2. Variation in distress among women with infertility: evidence from a population-based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greil, Arthur L; Shreffler, Karina M; Schmidt, Lone

    2011-01-01

    with infertility with no prior pregnancies (primary infertility, n = 399). We further distinguish between women with infertility who were actually 'trying' to become pregnant (the infertile with intent) with those who met the medical definition of infertile but did not describe themselves as trying to become...... with primary infertility who were explicitly trying to become pregnant at the time of the infertility episode stand out as a particularly distressed group. Caregivers should be aware that the emotional needs of women with primary infertility may differ from those with secondary infertility....

  3. Social stigma and familial attitudes related to infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Rahime Nida; Polat, Aslıhan; Kars, Bülent; Öztekin, Deniz; Sofuoğlu, Kenan; Çalışkan, Eray

    2018-03-01

    To determine the perceived social stigma and familial attitides and perception of sexuality in infertile couples attending infertility clinics. Infertile couples attending infertility clinics between the years of 2014 and 2015 were requested to complete detailed evaluation forms including questions related to the social stigma on their infertility, their familial attitudes, and perception of sexuality. Any partner of the infertile couple accepting to enroll in the study was given the evaluation forms. Their scores related to answers and demographics, and parameters related to infertility were analyzed. A total 598 partners of infertile couples enrolled in the study, 58% represented 177 couples. Their infertility was primary in 98.3% and the duration of marriage and infertility was 9.81±5.58 and 9.76±5.53 years, respectively. The perception of social exclusion was present in 38% (psocial stigma on infertile couples.

  4. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: a protégé and potential threat towards mans extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Ibeh Nnana; Nche, Bikwe Thomas; Nwagu, Ibeh Georgina; Nnanna, Ibeh Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Material and Method: using standard microbiological methods of isolating and identifying the organism, specimen was collected and processed which includes the susceptibility profile of isolates and sperm quality. In this study a total of 140 sperm samples was collected from patient who were referred from the consultant outpatient department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and then evaluated bacteriologically using standard bacterial cultural methods Results: Among the total cases, 92 (65.7%) showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (28.3%), Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (13.0%), Pseudomonas aerouginosa (6.5%), Escherichia Coli (19.6%) Proteus mirabilis (10.8%) Klebsiella spp (10.8%) and Proteus vulgaris (10.8%). Conclusion: There was an outstanding significant relationship between bacteriospermia and the rate of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms, The percentage of morphologically normal sperm was lower in this study. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus saprohyticus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogen having negative effects on sperm motility and morphology in this study. PMID:22363079

  5. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: a protégé and potential threat towards mans extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaiah, Ibeh Nnana; Nche, Bikwe Thomas; Nwagu, Ibeh Georgina; Nnanna, Ibeh Isaiah

    2011-12-01

    The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis using standard microbiological methods of isolating and identifying the organism, specimen was collected and processed which includes the susceptibility profile of isolates and sperm quality. In this study a total of 140 sperm samples was collected from patient who were referred from the consultant outpatient department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and then evaluated bacteriologically using standard bacterial cultural methods Among the total cases, 92 (65.7%) showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (28.3%), Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (13.0%), Pseudomonas aerouginosa (6.5%), Escherichia Coli (19.6%) Proteus mirabilis (10.8%) Klebsiella spp (10.8%) and Proteus vulgaris (10.8%). There was an outstanding significant relationship between bacteriospermia and the rate of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms, The percentage of morphologically normal sperm was lower in this study. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus saprohyticus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogen having negative effects on sperm motility and morphology in this study.

  6. Fertility and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgebin-Crist, Marie-Claire; And Others

    In this report, emphasis is placed on major research developments in the reproductive sciences, their impact on the health of individuals as well as on that of society, and on current trends that may provide new opportunities for future research in fertility and infertility. In the first section, major developments in the reproductive sciences are…

  7. Laparoscopic evaluation of female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiderr, G.; Rani, S.; Zehra, N.; Munir, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sub-fertility is inability to ensure child bearing when it is wanted. Prevalence of sub-fertility in industrialised countries has been quoted as 20%, and seems to be on the rise. Traditional way to assess the uterine cavity, tubal structure and tubal patency was hysterosalpingography but it has now been largely superseded by laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. The objective of this study was to highlight the role of laparoscopy in establishing diagnosis of female infertility. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Gynaecology Unit of Liaquat University of Medical Health Sciences, Hyderabad, Pakistan from August 28, 2000 to July 1, 2001. Total 200 sub-fertile patients attended the gynaecology OPD. Out of these 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy and dye test who were suspected cases of endometriosis, abnormal HSG and unexplained infertility. Those patients who had medical disorders and contraindication for laparoscopy were excluded from study. Detailed history of every patient was recorded on a proforma and physical examination was performed. Laparoscopy was scheduled in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Data were analysed using SPSS 11. Frequency and percentages were calculated to describe the results. Results: Out of 200 sub-fertile patients total 30 patients were selected for laparoscopy. Twenty (66%) patients were in primary infertility group while 10 (33%) patients were in secondary infertility group. Eleven (55%) patients of primary infertility belong to age group of 18-25 years while 6(60%) patients of secondary infertility belong to age group of 26- 33 years. Mean duration of sub fertility at time of presentation in primary infertility group was 1.95 years while in secondary infertility was 2.70 years. In primary infertility group main associated symptoms were dysmenorrhoeal in 8 (40%), irregular cycles 5 (25%), and dyspareunia in 4 (20%). In secondary infertility group 3 (30%) patients had dysmenorrhoeal and dyspareunia while 2

  8. Hysterosalpingographic evaluation in infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Sik; Shin, Ma Rie; Jung, Eun Mi; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Lee, Chang Joon; Whang, In Soon; Kim, Han Suk

    1984-01-01

    H.S.G. has been proven to be an important diagnostic method in clinical gynecology for under 50 yrs. It is valuable in the investigation of the uterine and tubal factors of female infertility. Hysterosalpingograms of 81 patients with infertility were analyzed and following brief results were obtained. Ratio between primary and secondary infertility was 3 : 5, secondary infertility was more frequent. 2. Age distribution was more frequent under 30 years of age than over 30 years of age. 3. Abnormal uterine findings was only seen in 18 cases, abnormal tubal finding was only seen in 25 cases and combined uterine and tubal abnormalities were seen in 14 cases. 4. Abnormal uterine findings were malposition (12 cases), filling defect (5), spastic uterus (5), irregular contour (3), arcuate uterus (3), didelphia (1), in order of frequency. 5. Abnormal tubal findings were hydrosalpinx (21 cases), occlusion (19), intravasation (6), beaded appearance (3), and diverticula (2), in order of frequency. 6. Negative finding in both uterus tube was seen in 23 cases. 7. In 2 cases, pregnancy after the H.S.G. examination was confirmed.

  9. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Donate ASRM Store Site Endowment Menu Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and ...

  10. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  11. In vitro fertilization (IVF) versus gonadotropins followed by IVF as treatment for primary infertility: a cost-based decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal-Kalra, Suleena; Milad, Magdy P; Grobman, William A

    2005-09-01

    To compare the economic consequences of proceeding directly to IVF to those of proceeding with gonadotropins followed by IVF in patients cost and success of each infertility regimen as well as the pregnancy-associated costs of singleton or multiple gestations and the risk and cost of cerebral palsy. Cost per live birth. Both treatment arms resulted in a >80% chance of birth. The gonadotropin arm was over four times more likely to result in a high-order multiple pregnancy (HOMP). Despite this, when the base case estimates were utilized, immediate IVF emerged as more costly per live birth. In sensitivity analysis, immediate IVF became less costly per live birth when IVF was more likely to achieve birth (55.1%) or cheaper (11,432 dollars) than our base case assumptions. After considering the risk and cost of HOMP, immediate IVF is more costly per live birth than a trial of gonadotropins prior to IVF.

  12. Clinical Outcomes of Varicocele Repair in Infertile Men: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Chiba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Varicoceles are a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis and the most common correctable cause of male infertility. They are found in approximately 40% of men with primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility, although they also occur in 12% of men with normal semen parameters. The presence of a varicocele does not always affect spermatogenesis, as it has been reported that only 20% of men with documented varicoceles suffer fertility problems. However, varicocele repair appears to have beneficial effects in men with impaired semen parameters and palpable varicoceles. Currently, the main procedures employed for varicocele repair are microsurgical subinguinal or inguinal varicocelectomy, laparoscopic varicocelectomy, and radiological percutaneous embolization. Microsurgical varicocelectomy appears to be the optimal treatment in most cases, whereas the other procedures are useful only in specific cases. After treatment, it typically takes 3 to 6 months for patients’ semen parameters to improve; thus, other therapies, including assisted reproductive technology, should be considered if infertility persists after this interval, especially in older couples. Controversies still remain regarding how varicoceles in certain subgroups, such as adolescents or men with azoospermia, should be treated. Due to their relatively high prevalence rate among the general population, varicoceles can occur concomitantly with other conditions that cause impaired spermatogenesis. Further studies are necessary in order to identify the patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment. In this review, we sought to summarize the issues currently associated with varicocele treatment in infertile men.

  13. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  14. A Survey on Infertility in Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is defined as failure in pregnancy after one year of unprotected intercourse.Several centers have reported different causes of infertility. The most common causes of infertility are:male factor such as sperm disturbance, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal factor,both male and female factor, and unexplained infertility .The aim of this study was to survey theepidemiology of infertility in Royan institute.Material and Methods: In this descriptive retrospective study, 2492 infertile couples were studied.These couples were selected by systematic sampling among couples referred to Royan institutebetween 1995 and 2001.All existing demographic data and diagnostic methods were recorded inquestionnaires .Results were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5.Results: In this study, the frequency of primary and secondary infertility was 90.1% and 9.9%,respectively. Among 2492 couples, 50.5% had male factor, 28.6% had female factor, 11.6% had bothmale and female factors and in 9.3% of couples, the cause of infertility was unknown .Results showedthat 32.3% of men had normal spermogram, 23.6% of couples had azoospermia, and 40.3% had spermdisturbance including oligospermia, asthenospermia, oligoasthenospermia and teratospermia .3.8%were not able to collect sample for semen analysis. Among women, different infertility factors included:ovarian factor (20.36%, tubal factor (12.64%, uterine factor (4.13%, endometriosis (1.28% andrecurrent abortion (0.68%. 50.48% of women were normal.Conclusion: Although male factor was the most common cause of infertility in Royan institute, we cannot conclude that this factor is the most common cause of infertility in Iran since this center isconsidered referral especially for male infertility. We suggest performance of similar researches inother centers to evaluate the most common causes of infertility in Iran.

  15. Social stigma and familial attitudes related to infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime Nida Ergin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the perceived social stigma and familial attitides and perception of sexuality in infertile couples attending infertility clinics. Materials and Methods: Infertile couples attending infertility clinics between the years of 2014 and 2015 were requested to complete detailed evaluation forms including questions related to the social stigma on their infertility, their familial attitudes, and perception of sexuality. Any partner of the infertile couple accepting to enroll in the study was given the evaluation forms. Their scores related to answers and demographics, and parameters related to infertility were analyzed. Results: A total 598 partners of infertile couples enrolled in the study, 58% represented 177 couples. Their infertility was primary in 98.3% and the duration of marriage and infertility was 9.81±5.58 and 9.76±5.53 years, respectively. The perception of social exclusion was present in 38% (p<0.001 of infertile couple, which was more significantly pronounced in female partners (p=0.013. Fifteen percent of the infertile couples thought themselves as isolated in public and losing value in public (p<0.001. However, sixty percent of infertile couples thought that they would achieve a notable place in community after having a baby (p<0.001. Infertility was accepted as a reason of divorce in only 13% of infertile couples (p<0.001. The majority of perticipnats, irrespective of sex, rejected that infertile women or men lost sexual appeal (86%; p<0.001. Conclusions: There is significant effect of infertility on familial attitudes and perception of sexuality of infertile couples. Unfortunately, there is significant negative social stigma on infertile couples.

  16. Primary Geography Education in China: Past, Current and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Xiaowei; Duan, Yushan; Sun, Yue

    2015-01-01

    In China, geography education in primary schools (grades 1 to 6) has not been emphasized, although some scholars have done research in this area. In order to deepen the understanding of primary geography education in China, this paper examines its history, current situation, and future trends. The authors used the method of document analysis and…

  17. Diagnostic Testing for Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  18. Integrated Current Balancing Transformer for Primary Parallel Isolated Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Gökhan; Ouyang, Ziwei; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    A simple, PCB compatible integrated solution is proposed for the current balancing requirement of the primary parallel isolated boost converter (PPIBC). Input inductor and the current balancing transformer are merged into the same core, which reduces the number of components allowing a cheaper...

  19. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  20. Sexual dysfunction in infertile couples: evaluation and treatment of infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayar, U.; Arikan, I.I.; Barut, A.; Harma, M.; Harma, M.; Atasoy, N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic and the predictive value of Arizona Sexual Experience Scale among primary infertile couples regarding sexual dysfunction. Methods: The cross-sectional and prospective pre, post study comprising primary infertile patients was carried out at Bulent Ecevit University Hospital, Zonguldak, Turkey. Fifty consecutive primary infertile couples not treated previously were investigated between 2003 and 2007 for the presence of sexual dysfunction by a psychiatrist. Arizona Sexual Experience Scale scoring was self-administered to determine sexual dysfunction among couples before treatment and also 3 months after the initiation of the treatment. Results: Pretreatment mean values of the index parametres in both women and men were significantly increased after treatment. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between pre- and post-treatment total scores in both women (r=0.83; p 14 (Sensitivity: 57%; Specificity: 90%) and >13 (Sensitivity: 83%; Specificity: 93%), respectively. Pre- and post-treatment scores in men were >10 (Sensitivity: 65%; Specificity: 61%), >11 (Sensitivity: 83%; Specificity: 62%), respectively. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed women's pre-treatment and post-treatment scores as a significant factor for prediction of sexual dysfunction independent of sociodemographic factors (p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Evaluation and treatment of infertility is an important risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Pre- and post-treatment Arizona Sexual Experience Scale score could be used as a screening test for sexual dysfunction and might be used to decide pre/post-treatment consultation of couples with a specialist. (author)

  1. Infertility experience and health differentials - a population-based comparative study on infertile and non-infertile women (the HUNT Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostad, Berit; Schmidt, Lone; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    between infertility and health and life satisfaction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based health study, conducted between 2006 and 2008. SETTING: All women in a county in Norway were invited. The current material is restricted to women aged 20-49 years. POPULATION: A total of 9200 women participated......OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest that health complaints, distress and poor life satisfaction are associated with infertility experience. Research on health consequences of infertility experience in women has relied heavily on clinic-based samples. This population-based study investigates the association....... METHODS: Health measures were compared between women with infertility experience (infertile women) and women without infertility experience (non-infertile women). Disparities in health and life satisfaction among the infertile women were assessed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported health, functional...

  2. Immunologic mechanism at infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, İlknur; Erci, Behice

    2006-01-01

    Infertility has been serious problem for couples that want to have a child. It is estimated that %10-15 of marriages are involuntary childless; that is, there is the serious problem of infertility. In more than 40% of infertility couples that is the reason of their infertility was unknown. In those couples, probably immunological factors were found to be responsible for the infertility. In the article, it was aimed to review the immunologic causes of male and female infertility in the light o...

  3. ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC HYSTEROLAPAROSCOPY IN EVALUATION OF FEMALE INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM To evaluate the role of hysterolaparoscopy in female infertility. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Kempegowda Institute of Medical sciences, Bengaluru were evaluated for infertility by hysterolaparoscopy and chromopertubation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to laparoscopy underwent ultra-sonography. Then all patients were subjected to combined hysterolaparoscopy including chromopertubation and the results were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED T-test. RESULTS We studied 70 patients comprising of 40(57.1% cases of primary infertility and 30(42.9% patients of secondary infertility. In our study most commonly found pathologies were PCOD, endometriosis and tubal blockage. CONCLUSIONS Results show that hysterolaparoscopy has a promising role in diagnosing and treating infertility. hysterolaparoscopy has emerged as a new hope for infertile couples before they proceed to time-consuming and expensive assisted reproduction techniques.

  4. Experiencing Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  5. Infertility and Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infertility. Although there may be some overlap, the causes of pregnancy loss, recurrent pregnancy loss, and stillbirth are often different from the causes of infertility. Citations Open Citations Practice Committee of ...

  6. Molecular complexity of primary open angle glaucoma: current ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... ment nor does it develop any glaucomatous phenotype (Kim ... vestigial genomic region; only to cause harm in case of any .... level, current knowledge of genetic studies suggests that the ...... rizes the unfolding network of events in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and has been created based on the ...

  7. Estimating the prevalence of infertility in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Cook, Jocelynn L.; Yuzpe, A. Albert; Tough, Suzanne; Collins, John

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Over the past 10 years, there has been a significant increase in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in Canada, however, little is known about the overall prevalence of infertility in the population. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of current infertility in Canada according to three definitions of the risk of conception. METHODS Data from the infertility component of the 2009–2010 Canadian Community Health Survey were analyzed for married and common-law couples with a female partner aged 18–44. The three definitions of the risk of conception were derived sequentially starting with birth control use in the previous 12 months, adding reported sexual intercourse in the previous 12 months, then pregnancy intent. Prevalence and odds ratios of current infertility were estimated by selected characteristics. RESULTS Estimates of the prevalence of current infertility ranged from 11.5% (95% CI 10.2, 12.9) to 15.7% (95% CI 14.2, 17.4). Each estimate represented an increase in current infertility prevalence in Canada when compared with previous national estimates. Couples with lower parity (0 or 1 child) had significantly higher odds of experiencing current infertility when the female partner was aged 35–44 years versus 18–34 years. Lower odds of experiencing current infertility were observed for multiparous couples regardless of age group of the female partner, when compared with nulliparous couples. CONCLUSIONS The present study suggests that the prevalence of current infertility has increased since the last time it was measured in Canada, and is associated with the age of the female partner and parity. PMID:22258658

  8. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhan, Zohre; Ozgoli, Giti; Azar, Mahyar; Alavimajd, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Millions of men and women suffer from infertility worldwide. In many cultures, infertile women are at risk of social and emotional problems. Infertility may affect the public health in many countries. Domestic violence is the intentional use of physical force, power or threat against oneself, another person or another group or community which leads to injury, death, mental harm, lack of development or deprivation. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of domestic violence against infertile women who referred to the infertility centres of Tehran, Iran in 2011. Methods: This was cross- sectional descriptive study conducted on 400 infertile women who were selected through convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used in this study included two sections: a demographic section with questions about demographic characteristics of the infertile women and their husbands; and the domestic violence questionnaire with questions about physical, emotional and sexual violence. Data were analysed by SPSS16; descriptive statistics, Spearman’s test, t- test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: Four hundred women with the average age of 30.50 ± 6.16 years participated in the study; of whom, 34.7% experienced domestic violence physical violence (5.3%), emotional violence (74.3%) and sexual violence (47.3%). Domestic violence was significantly associated with unwanted marriage, number of IVFs, drug abuse, emotional status of the women, smoking and addiction or drug abuse of the spouse, mental and physical diseases of the husband (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Many of the current problems in this society, particularly in families are due to the transition of the society from a traditional model to a modern one. The majority of the infertile women experience violence in Iran. Domestic violence against infertile women is a problem that should not be ignored. Clinicians should identify abused women. Providing

  9. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis approach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion: The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their

  10. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  11. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sepidarkish

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood. Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student’s t test. A generalized linear model (GLM was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. Results: The mean age (SD of participants was 31.28 (5.42. Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23% were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02% were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98% were as high prevalence. Age (P<0.001, sex (P<0.001, a history of abortion (P=0.009, failure of previous treatment (P<0.001, and education (P=0.014 had a significant relationship with FPI scores. Conclusion: Bases on the results of current study, an younger male with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems.

  12. Is Any Press Good Press? The Impact of Media Portrayals of Infertility on Young Adults' Perceptions of Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster, Sarah L; Lawson, Karen L

    2015-12-01

    Infertility is an issue of current concern across North America. The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada advocates for public education regarding infertility issues. Public education is supposed to be a fundamental objective of news media. However, it is uncertain whether the media are acting as good partners to the medical profession in this objective of educating the public, and young women in particular. Recent findings suggest that print news tends to present infertility using high-alarm framing strategies; however, the impact of this framing on news consumers is unknown. The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of high- versus low-alarm frames on consumers of infertility-related news. In this experiment, 131 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to read infertility-focused news articles judged to employ either high- or low-alarm framing strategies in presenting infertility. Participants subsequently completed various psychological, emotional, and knowledge measures to gauge the impact of the news exposure. The participants exposed to the high-alarm framing showed higher levels of perceived personal susceptibility to infertility, marginally higher levels of worry about infertility, and significantly lower levels of infertility-related knowledge than those exposed to the low-alarm framing. The manner in which the news media report on infertility has repercussions on how individuals think and feel about infertility. The findings of this study can inform health care providers about how the media are shaping perceptions of infertility, and can assist professional bodies interested in undertaking public education initiatives.

  13. Hysterosalpingography and laparoscopy in infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konarzewska, J.; Bianek-Bodzak, A.; Mielcarek, P.; Kobierski, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Despite dynamic development of diagnostic imaging methods and endoscopic procedures, X-ray hysterosalpingography remains the basic diagnostic procedure when anatomical cause of infertility is suspected. The aim of the study was to assess the correlation between HSG results and laparoscopy findings, especially in infertile women with normal results of hysterosalpingography. Material/Methods: The results of HSG and laparoscopies performed between 2002 and 2005 years in 53 infertile women were analyzed retrospectively. The indication for HSG was primary infertility in 44 cases and secondary infertility in 9 cases.Results: The result of HSG was normal in 51%. Pathological findings were observed in 49% of HSG and in 93% of laparoscopies. The most common pathological findings observed during laparoscopy were tubal occlusion (26% cases) and endometriosis (25% cases). Polycystic ovaries and myomas were observed in 20% of the performed laparoscopies. HSG and laparoscopy yield consistent results in evaluation of tubal patency (p < 0.001). Conclusions: HSG remains the method of first choice in the diagnostics of uterine malformations and tubal diseases as causes of infertility. When mechanical factors of female infertility are suspected, HSG allows the optimal choice of more invasive procedure. (authors)

  14. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadali Musanejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran.Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran.Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated.Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%.Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors.

  15. Testicular cancer and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Darius A

    2006-11-01

    Testicular cancer and infertility affect a similar age group of patients and have common biologic, epidemiologic, and environmental backgrounds. In this review, we provide current literature on links between infertility and testicular cancer, and new developments in the management of testicular cancer aimed at improving quality of life in men with testicular cancer. In-utero environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors modulates the genetically determined fate of primitive gonad and results in testicular dysgenesis syndrome, which may result in infertility and testicular cancer. Excellent response of testicular cancer to radiation and chemotherapy results in over 90% of survival and quality of life--fertility and sexual function--is of significant concern to patients and clinicians. The testicular-sparing management of testicular masses emerges as a sound alternative to radical orchiectomy and allows for preservation of spermatogenesis and hormonal function, and at the same time achieving similar survival rates. Secondary malignancies, pulmonary, and cardiovascular complications are recognized as late complications of treatment for testicular cancer. Better understanding of common mechanisms involved in infertility and testicular cancer, and scientifically driven evidence-based treatment options should improve quality of life in young men faced with this potentially life-threatening disease.

  16. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RESOURCES Overview Infographic Gallery Educational Videos State Infertility Insurance Laws Protect Your Fertility Campaign Find a Health Professional ABOUT ASRM Vision of ASRM ASRM's Mission ...

  17. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RESOURCES Overview Infographic Gallery Educational Videos State Infertility Insurance Laws Protect Your Fertility Campaign Find a Health Professional ABOUT ASRM Vision of ASRM ASRM's Mission ...

  18. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakera, Ali J; Pearce, Simon HS; Vaidya, Bijay

    2012-01-01

    Primary hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism is often considered simple, there are large numbers of people with this condition who are suboptimally treated. Even in those people with hypothyroidism who are biochemically euthyroid on levothyroxine replacement there is a significant proportion who report poorer quality of life. This review explores the historical and current treatment options for hypothyroidism, reasons for and potential solutions to suboptimal treatment, and future possibilities in the treatment of hypothyroidism. PMID:22291465

  19. Kisspeptin, unexplained infertility and embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaida Mumtaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Kisspeptin (KP is a neuropeptide that causes the release of the gonadotropin releasing hormone, which controls hypothalamo pituitary ovarian axis and exerts a number of peripheral effects on reproductive organs. The primary objective of this study was to compare baseline KP levels in females with different types of infertility and identify possible correlations with risk of failure to conceive, preclinical abortion and pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out from August 2014 until May 2015 by recruiting 124 female patients undergoing ICSI, after obtaining ethical approval from the Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center. Cause of infertility due to male, female and unexplained factors was at a frequency of 32 (24%, 33 (31% and 59 (45% among the individuals respectively. KP levels were measured by ELISA assay before the initiation of the ICSI treatment protocol. Outcome of ICSI was categorized into three groups of non-pregnant with beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG25 mIU/ml and no cardiac activity, and clinical pregnancy declared upon confirmation of cardiac activity. Results based on cause of infertility and outcome groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results Females with unexplained infertility had significantly lower levels of KP when compared with those with male factor infertility (176.69 ± 5.03 vs. 397.6 ± 58.2, P=0.001. Clinical pregnancy was observed in 28 (23% females of which 17 (71% had a female cause of infertility. In the non-pregnant group of 66 (53% females, common cause of infertility was unexplained 56(85%. A weak positive correlation of KP levels with fertilized oocytes and endometrial thickness was observed (P=0.04 and 0.01 respectively. Conclusion Deficiency of KP in females with unexplained infertility was associated with reduced chances of implantation after ICSI.

  20. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  1. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b whether the primary infertile women (n=18 are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12 with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  2. Infertility trial outcomes: healthy moms and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Fuglesang S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  4. Diagnostic methods in finding out the causes of infertility, results of HSG examination and laparoscopy in infertile women examined at the Gynecological Ward of the City Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwasniewski, S.; Kukulski, P.; Szymanski, J.; Kwasniewska, A.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents diagnostic methods and the results of hysterosalpingography (HSG) and laparoscopy examination, with special attention being drawn to the usefulness of these methods in finding out the causes of infertility. 51 patients with primary and second infertility were examined. HSG and laparoscopy make it possible to diagnose correctly the cause of infertility. They also enable adequate and early classification of patients for further diagnosis and treatment at highly specialized centers dealing with the problems of infertility. (author)

  5. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  6. Primary Pediatric Hypertension: Current Understanding and Emerging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiu, Andrew C; Bishop, Michael D; Asico, Laureano D; Jose, Pedro A; Villar, Van Anthony M

    2017-09-01

    The rising prevalence of primary pediatric hypertension and its tracking into adult hypertension point to the importance of determining its pathogenesis to gain insights into its current and emerging management. Considering that the intricate control of BP is governed by a myriad of anatomical, molecular biological, biochemical, and physiological systems, multiple genes are likely to influence an individual's BP and susceptibility to develop hypertension. The long-term regulation of BP rests on renal and non-renal mechanisms. One renal mechanism relates to sodium transport. The impaired renal sodium handling in primary hypertension and salt sensitivity may be caused by aberrant counter-regulatory natriuretic and anti-natriuretic pathways. The sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems are examples of antinatriuretic pathways. An important counter-regulatory natriuretic pathway is afforded by the renal autocrine/paracrine dopamine system, aberrations of which are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, including that associated with obesity. We present updates on the complex interactions of these two systems with dietary salt intake in relation to obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, and oxidative stress. We review how insults during pregnancy such as maternal and paternal malnutrition, glucocorticoid exposure, infection, placental insufficiency, and treatments during the neonatal period have long-lasting effects in the regulation of renal function and BP. Moreover, these effects have sex differences. There is a need for early diagnosis, frequent monitoring, and timely management due to increasing evidence of premature target organ damage. Large controlled studies are needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of the treatment of elevated BP during childhood, especially to establish the validity of the current definition and treatment of pediatric hypertension.

  7. Infertility, infertility treatment, and fetal growth restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Obel, Carsten; Hammer Bech, Bodil

    2007-01-01

    mortality and SGA among infertile couples (treated and untreated), but the odds ratios (ORs) of perinatal mortality among infertile couples were attenuated after adjustment for maternal age and body mass index (1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.84 among untreated and 1.26, 95% CI 0.86-1.85 among......OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between infertility, with or without treatment, and fetal growth, as well as perinatal and infant mortality. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51,041 singletons born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy 12 months or less...... treated couples). The elevated risk of SGA among infertile couples persisted after adjustment for maternal age, parity, and smoking (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.10-1.40 among untreated, and OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.23-1.60 among treated). The risk of SGA increased with time to pregnancy, and a longer time to pregnancy...

  8. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) findings: Of infertile patients in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose/Background: Infertility is a major gynecological complaint in Nigeria, constituting about fifty percent (50%) of gynecological clinic attendance1-3. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is used as a first line investigative procedure for evaluating infertility cases. An analysis of HSG findings of patients with primary and ...

  9. Family physicians' attitude and practice of infertility management at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The very particular natures of infertility problem and infertility care make them different from other medical problems and services in developing countries. Even after the referral to specialists, the family physicians are expected to provide continuous support for these couples. This place the primary care service ...

  10. Molecular insights into the causes of male infertility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem that affects many couples in the human population. About 13–18% of couple suffers from it and approximately one-half of all cases can be traced to either partner. Regardless of whether it is primary or secondary infertility, affected couples suffer from enormous emotional and ...

  11. Infertility: Inability or Disability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abha Khetarpal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Disability is a complex phenomenon. It reflects an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives. International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF, lays stress on the functional as well as the structural problem of a person. All the definitions of disability also include the disorders of the reproductive and endocrine system. So infertility and impotency should also be included in the category of disability. It affects the participation in areas of life and can have a disabling affect on an individual. Like any other disability the couple has to adapt and integrate infertility in their sense of self thus infertility comes as a major life crisis. Medically, infertility, in most cases, is considered to be the result of a physical impairment or a genetic abnormality. Socially, couples are incapable of their reproductive or parental roles. On social level, infertility in most cultures remains associated with social stigma and taboo just like the social model of disability. Couples who are unable to reproduce may be looked down upon due to social stigmatisation. Infertility can lead to divorces and separation leading to a broken family life. Without labelling infertility as a disability, it is difficult for the people to access services and welfare benefits offered by the government. Infertility treatments are highly sophisticated so they are very expensive and are even not covered by insurance and government aid.In the light of all this it becomes imperative to categorise infertility as disability.

  12. Medical Imaging and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Infertility affects many couples, and medical imaging plays a vital role in its diagnosis and treatment. Radiologic technologists benefit from having a broad understanding of infertility risk factors and causes. This article describes the typical structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems, as well as congenital and acquired conditions that could lead to a couple's inability to conceive. Medical imaging procedures performed for infertility diagnosis are discussed, as well as common interventional options available to patients. © 2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  13. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    James M Dupree

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of h...

  14. An epidemiologic survey on the causes of infertility in patients referred to infertility center in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is considered as a major health care problem of different communities. The high prevalence of this issue doubled its importance. A significant proportion of infertility have been related to environmental conditions and also acquired risk factors. Different environmental conditions emphasized the need to study the different causes of infertility in each area. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency causes of infertility in infertile couples. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive study 1200 infertile men and women that were referred to infertility clinic of Fatemieh Hospital during 2010 to 2011, were examined. This center is the only governmental center for infertility in Hamadan. Sampling was based on census method. Information about the patients was obtained from medical examinations and laboratory findings. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics such as frequencies and the mean were used. Results: The prevalence of primary and secondary infertility was 69.5% and 30.5% respectively. Among the various causes of infertility women factors (88.6% had the highest regard. In the causes of female infertility, menstrual disorders, diseases (obesity, thyroid diseases, and diabetes, ovulation dysfunction, uterine factor, fallopian tubes and cervical factor had the highest prevalence respectively. The causes of male infertility based on their frequency included semen fluid abnormalities, genetic factors, vascular abnormalities, and anti-spermatogenesis factors, respectively. Conclusion: Etiology pattern of infertility in our study is similar with the many other patterns that have been reported by the World Health Organization. However, frequency of menstrual disorders is much higher than other studies that require further consideration.

  15. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

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  16. Causes of Male Infertility

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  17. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

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  18. Causes of Male Infertility

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  19. Endometriosis and Infertility: Can Surgery Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  20. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  1. Inequity between male and female coverage in state infertility laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M; Dickey, Ryan M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-06-01

    To analyze state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility and identify possible inequities between male and female coverage in state insurance laws. We identified states with laws or codes related to infertility insurance coverage using the National Conference of States Legislatures' and the National Infertility Association's websites. We performed a primary, systematic analysis of the laws or codes to specifically identify coverage for male factor infertility services. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. The presence or absence of language in state insurance laws mandating coverage for male factor infertility care. There are 15 states with laws mandating insurance coverage for female factor infertility. Only eight of those states (California, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Montana, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and West Virginia) have mandates for male factor infertility evaluation or treatment. Insurance coverage for male factor infertility is most specific in Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York, yet significant differences exist in the male factor policies in all eight states. Three states (Massachusetts, New Jersey, and New York) exempt coverage for vasectomy reversal. Despite national recommendations that male and female partners begin infertility evaluations together, only 8 of 15 states with laws mandating infertility coverage include coverage for the male partner. Excluding men from infertility coverage places an undue burden on female partners and risks missing opportunities to diagnose serious male health conditions, correct reversible causes of infertility, and provide cost-effective treatments that can downgrade the intensity of intervention required to achieve a pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The status of depression and anxiety in infertile Turkish couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Kazandi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a major psychosocial crisis as well as being a medical problem. The factors that predict psychosocial consequences of infertility may vary in different gender and different infertile populations.Objective: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether Turkish infertile couples had higher levels of depression and anxiety when compared to non-infertile couples. Our secondary aim was to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and levels of depression and anxiety in Turkish infertile couples.Materials and Methods: We designed a descriptive cross sectional study of 248 infertile women and 96 infertile men with no psychiatric disturbance and 51 women and 40 men who have children to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels between infertile couples and fertile couples. A gynecologist evaluated participants for demographic data and then they were visited by a psychologist to perform questionnaire scales which were The Beck Depression Inventory and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for the evaluation of the degree of psychopathology. The data were statistically analyzed, with p<0.05 as the level of statistical significance.Results: We observed significant differences between the infertile couples and fertile couples with respect to state and trait anxiety (p<0.0001 while no difference was regarding with depression, both of women and men. Anxiety and depression were observed as independent from gender when infertile women and men were compared (p=0.213.Conclusion: We believed that the psychological management at infertile couples must be individualized with cultural, religious, and class related aspects.

  3. The Fertility Problem Inventory: measuring perceived infertility-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, C R; Sherrard, W; Glavac, I

    1999-07-01

    To develop a reliable, valid instrument to evaluate perceived infertility-related stress. Prospective study. University-affiliated teaching hospital. Consecutively referred patients (1,153 women and 1,149 men) seen for infertility treatment. None. Participants' infertility-related stress was assessed by written questionnaire using the Fertility Problem Inventory. Current levels of anxiety, depression, and marital satisfaction also were determined. Women described greater global stress than men and higher specific stress in terms of social concerns, sexual concerns, and need for parenthood. Both men and women facing male infertility reported higher global stress and more social and sexual concerns than men and women experiencing female infertility. Social, sexual, and relationship concerns related to infertility were more effective predictors of depression and marital dissatisfaction than expressed needs for parenthood or attitudes toward child-free living. The Fertility Problem Inventory provides a reliable measure of perceived infertility-related stress and specific information on five separate domains of patient concern. Patterns of infertility-related stress differed depending on gender, fertility history, and infertility diagnosis. Among patients receiving treatment, social, sexual, and relationship concerns appear central to current distress. Counseling interventions that target these domains appear likely to offer maximal therapeutic benefit.

  4. Infertility and the provision of infertility medical services in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombelet, Willem; Cooke, Ian; Dyer, Silke; Serour, Gamal; Devroey, Paul

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Worldwide more than 70 million couples suffer from infertility, the majority being residents of developing countries. Negative consequences of childlessness are experienced to a greater degree in developing countries when compared with Western societies. Bilateral tubal occlusion due to sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy-related infections is the most common cause of infertility in developing countries, a condition that is potentially treatable with assisted reproductive technologies (ART). New reproductive technologies are either unavailable or very costly in developing countries. This review provides a comprehensive survey of all important papers on the issue of infertility in developing countries. METHODS Medline, PubMed, Excerpta Medica and EMBASE searches identified relevant papers published between 1978 and 2007 and the keywords used were the combinations of ‘affordable, assisted reproduction, ART, developing countries, health services, infertility, IVF, simplified methods, traditional health care'. RESULTS The exact prevalence of infertility in developing countries is unknown due to a lack of registration and well-performed studies. On the other hand, the implementation of appropriate infertility treatment is currently not a main goal for most international non-profit organizations. Keystones in the successful implementation of infertility care in low-resource settings include simplification of diagnostic and ART procedures, minimizing the complication rate of interventions, providing training-courses for health-care workers and incorporating infertility treatment into sexual and reproductive health-care programmes. CONCLUSIONS Although recognizing the importance of education and prevention, we believe that for the reasons of social justice, infertility treatment in developing countries requires greater attention at National and International levels. PMID:18820005

  5. Physical and psychological violence against infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Moghadam

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of physical and psychological violence against women with female factor infertility.Materials and methods: A total of 400 women with primary infertility attending the Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center in Tehran, Iran, were interviewed using the conflict tactics Scales (CTS2 questionnaire to investigate their experiences of physical and psychological violence.Results: The prevalence of psychological violence was 135 (33.8%, followed by physical 56 (14%. All women reported their husbands to be the perpetrators.Conclusion: Clinicians should identify the abused women and provide them with medical care and supportive counseling.

  6. Is hysterosalpingography still relevant in workup of infertility? A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To examine the current role of Hysterosalpingography in the investigation of the infertile couple in view of the increasing use of Laparoscopy in the evaluation and management of infertility. Materials: Electronic search of published literature was done using the Pubmed, Cochrane libraries and Google search ...

  7. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Kesmodel, Ulrik S

    2016-01-01

    . RESULTS: A total of 60 440 pregnancies were included, and 0.8% of the children developed epilepsy.The primary analyses showed no association between parental infertility or fertility treatment, and the overall risk of childhood epilepsy (hazard rate ratios (HRs); 95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.08 (0......BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility treatment...

  8. Pain management in primary care – current perspectives | Meyer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to a 1998 World Health Organization Survey of 26 000 primary care ... in pain medicine and continue to follow the biomedical approach, which ... The modern paradigm of pain management has moved from this biomedical to the ...

  9. Health and life style among infertile men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revonta, M; Raitanen, J; Sihvo, S; Koponen, P; Klemetti, R; Männistö, S; Luoto, R

    2010-08-01

    Lifetime prevalence of infertility among couples is approximately 10-15%, but studies addressing their health behavior are few. Our aim was to describe health and life style of Finnish men and women who had experienced infertility. Cross-sectional survey. Finland. Data from a population-based survey (n=7021) was utilized. Life style of infertile men (n=289) and women (n=155) were compared to other men and fertile women. Life style (dietary factors, use of alcohol, physical activity), reproductive factors, other diseases and symptoms. After adjusting for age, area and education, infertile women under 50 years consumed more polyunsaturated fat (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46), less saturated fat (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.92) and had experienced more hangovers during previous year (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.05) than fertile women. Infertile men under 50 years consumed more total fat (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), polyunsaturated fat (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37) and monounsaturated fat (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.28) compared to other men. Infertile men did not consume more alcohol nor smoke more cigarettes but reported more often allergies than fertile men. Infertile women also had Chlamydia trachomatis infection, benign tumor in their uterus and intestinal disease more often than fertile women. Infertile women over 50 years were more often current smokers than fertile women, but the differences in other age-groups were not significant. Women with infertility experience reported more diseases and less use of oral contraceptives than other women, possibly reflecting reasons to infertility. Since both infertility and unhealthy use of alcohol are an increasing public health issues in western societies, more attention should be paid towards life style, especially alcohol use of infertile women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetics of reproductive infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Laxmidhar; Parbin, Sabnam; Pradhan, Nibedita; Kausar, Chahat; Patra, Samir K

    2017-06-01

    Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis. To determine the causes of infertility it is necessary to understand the altered epigenetic modifications of associated gene and mechanisms involved therein. This review is devoted to elucidate the recent mechanistic advances in regulation of genes by epigenetic modification and emphasizes their possible role related to reproductive infertility. It includes environmental, nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors and influence of internal structural architecture of chromatin nucleosomes affecting DNA and histone modifications in both male and female gametes, early embryogenesis and offspring. Finally, we would like to emphasize that research on human infertility by gene knock out of epigenetic modifiers genes must be relied upon animal models.

  11. Infertility: Medical and Social Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report illustrates a range of options for Congressional action in nine principal areas of public policy related to infertility: (1) collecting data on reproductive health; (2) preventing infertility; (3) information to inform and protect consumers; (4) providing access to infertility services; (5) reproductive health of veterans; (6) transfer…

  12. Treatment for primary hypothyroidism: current approaches and future possibilities

    OpenAIRE

    Chakera, Ali J; Pearce, Simon HS; Vaidya, Bijay

    2011-01-01

    Ali J Chakera1, Simon HS Pearce2, Bijay Vaidya11Department of Endocrinology, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital and Peninsula Medical School, Exeter, 2Endocrine Unit, Royal Victoria Infirmary and Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UKAbstract: Primary hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of hypothyroidism is often considered simple, there are large numbers of people with this condition who are suboptimally treated. Even in those people ...

  13. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports – focus on male factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szkodziak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60–80 mln. According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%, irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility.

  14. Female sexual distress in infertile Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Aydın

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effect of infertility on sexual distress in women attending the infertility clinic. 
 Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study we evaluated sexual distress among 88 women who attended the infertility clinic in our institute between January and June 2015. All women who were experiencing primary or secondary infertility during the study sampling were included in the sudy. Sexual distress was measured using the Female sexual distress scale-revised (FSDS-R, a cross-validated patient-reported outcomes measure. Correlations of FSDS-R with patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation tests. Results: With the exceptions of the age of couples and serum anti-mullerian hormone (AMH levels, no predictor of high sexual distress was found in the univariate analysis when comparing groups with regard to the FSDS-R cut-off score. The mean age of the sexually distressed women (33.6±5.8 years vs. 29.3±5.1 years and their partners (35.4±4.8 years vs. 31.6±4.2 years was significantly higher than those of the non distressed women, according to a FSDS-R score over 11 (p<0.05. The serum level of AMH was significantly lower in infertile women with high total sexual distress scores (1.4 vs. 7.6 ng/mL (p<0.001. Conclusion: In infertile women, age of woman, age of partner, and serum AMH levels are related with the hope of women to have a child despite an association with sexual distress. Serum AMH, which is perceived as necessary for fertility, had a significant inverse correlation with levels of sexual stress.

  15. Causes of Male Infertility

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos State Infertility Insurance Laws Protect Your Fertility Campaign Find a Health Professional ABOUT ASRM Vision of ASRM ASRM's Mission Statement Site Endowment ASRM Board of Directors ASRM Office of Public Affiars Social Media Contact Us Donate ASRM Cookie Policy Donate ASRM ...

  16. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos State Infertility Insurance Laws Protect Your Fertility Campaign Find a Health Professional ABOUT ASRM Vision of ASRM ASRM's Mission Statement Site Endowment ASRM Board of Directors ASRM Office of Public Affiars Social Media Contact Us Donate ASRM Cookie Policy Donate ASRM ...

  17. Parenting after Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Becoming a parent after experiencing infertility can pose unique challenges to early parenthood. Parents may struggle with the normal anxiety and fatigue, as well as possible depression, that accompany new parenthood, but with added guilt or shame because of how much they wanted a child and how hard they worked to become parents. These feelings…

  18. Semen proteomics and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, Meritxell; Soler-Ventura, Ada; Oliva, Rafael

    2017-06-06

    Semen is a complex body fluid containing an admixture of spermatozoa suspended in secretions from the testes and epididymis which are mixed at the time of ejaculation with secretions from other accessory sex glands such as the prostate and seminal vesicles. High-throughput technologies have revealed that, contrary to the idea that sperm cells are simply a silent delivery vehicle of the male genome to the oocyte, the sperm cells in fact provide both a specific epigenetically marked DNA together with a complex population of proteins and RNAs crucial for embryogenesis. Similarly, -omic technologies have also enlightened that seminal fluid seems to play a much greater role than simply being a medium to carry the spermatozoa through the female reproductive tract. In the present review, we briefly overview the sperm cell biology, consider the key issues in sperm and seminal fluid sample preparation for high-throughput proteomic studies, describe the current state of the sperm and seminal fluid proteomes generated by high-throughput proteomic technologies and provide new insights into the potential communication between sperm and seminal fluid. In addition, comparative proteomic studies open a window to explore the potential pathogenic mechanisms of infertility and the discovery of potential biomarkers with clinical significance. The review updates the numerous proteomics studies performed on semen, including spermatozoa and seminal fluid. In addition, an integrative analysis of the testes, sperm and seminal fluid proteomes is also included providing insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the generation, maturation and transit of spermatozoa. Furthermore, the compilation of several differential proteomic studies focused on male infertility reveals potential pathways disturbed in specific subtypes of male infertility and points out towards future research directions in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Laparoscopic evaluation of tubal pathology in cases of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maherunnessa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a public health problem in developed and developing countries. Diagnostic laparoscopy is a generally accepted procedure to detect pelvic organ pathologies affecting fertility. This study was undertaken to find out the tubal pathology contributing to primary and secondary infertility by laparoscopic examination. The study was carried out in the department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, BIRDEM during the period of January 2001 to December 2001. The study group comprised of 100 cases of infertile patients of age between 20 to 40 years. Sixty seven percent patients had primary infertility and 33% patients had secondary infertility. Size and shape of the uterus was normal in 69% cases and bicornuate uterus was found in 2% cases. Out of total cases, 71% and 69% had normal right and left fallopian tubes respectively. Patency of right and left fallopian tube was normal in 90% and 89% cases respectively while 11% and 10% had peritubal adhesions. Laparoscopy examination is an important tool for evaluation of tubal pathology contributing to infertility and might play a major role in infertility management. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2013; 7(2: 38-40

  20. Male Infertility and Risk of Nonmalignant Chronic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Eisenberg, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The association between male infertility and increased risk of certain cancers is well studied. Less is known about the long-term risk of nonmalignant diseases in men with decreased fertility. A systemic literature review was performed on the epidemiologic evidence of male infertility...... as a precursor for increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and all-cause mortality. PubMed and Embase were searched from January 1, 1980, to September 1, 2016, to identify epidemiological studies reporting associations between male infertility and the outcomes of interest. Animal studies, case...... prospective (three on risk of mortality, one on risk of chronic diseases) and three were cross-sectional relating male infertility to the Charlson Comorbidity Index. The current epidemiological evidence is compatible with an association between male infertility and risk of chronic disease and mortality...

  1. Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus: current strategies and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K. Bhattacharya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this paper is to find evidence for primary prevention of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM from epidemiological studies and clinical trials, and the feasibility of applying these interventions in resource limited countries. T2DM, which accounts for more than nine-tenths of all diabetics, results from inadequate insulin secretion or underlying insulin resistance. The prevalence of diabetes, mainly T2DM, has increased rapidly during the last few decades worldwide. Since the genetic background is unlikely to change during this short time period, the growing epidemic of T2DM is more likely due to changes in environmental or lifestyle risk factors including obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and stress. The scope and feasibility for primary prevention of T2DM is based on elimination of these risk factors. This evidence that T2DM is preventable comes from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials of effect of lifestyle changes and drugs in development of T2DM. The positive effects are more profound and safer with lifestyle modifications (LSM compared to medications. This is shown to be effective globally, across various ethnicities and races and sustainable on long-term follow-up. However, there is a major challenge in translating this evidence into economically viable and sustained community programs, as these LSM interventions are expensive, even from western standards point of view. Future plan should focus on health education of the public, improving the national capacity to detect and manage the environmental risks including strategies to reduce stress, and development of innovative, cost effective, and scalable methodologies.

  2. New insights into the genetic basis of infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Thejaswini Venkatesh,1 Padmanaban S Suresh,2 Rie Tsutsumi3 1Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, National Centre for Biological Sciences, Bangalore, 2Centre for Biomedical Research, VIT University, Vellore, India; 3University of Tokushima, Institute of Health Bioscience, Department of Public Health and Nutrition, Tokushima, Japan Abstract: Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system characterized by inability to achieve pregnancy after 12 or more months of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. A variety of factors, including ovulation defects, spermatogenic failure, parental age, obesity, and infections have been linked with infertility, in addition to specific karyotypes and genotypes. The study of genes associated with infertility in rodent models has expanded the field of translational genetics in identifying the underlying cause of human infertility problems. Many intriguing aspects of the molecular basis of infertility in humans remain poorly understood; however, application of genetic knowledge in this field looks promising. The growing literature on the genetics of human infertility disorders deserves attention and a critical concise summary is required. This paper provides information obtained from a systematic analysis of the literature related to current research into the genetics of infertility affecting both sexes. Keywords: infertility, genetics, polycystic ovary syndrome, premature ovarian failure, spermatogenic failure, cystic fibrosis

  3. Female Infertility and Serum Auto-antibodies: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroux, Alban; Dumestre-Perard, Chantal; Dunand-Faure, Camille; Bouillet, Laurence; Hoffmann, Pascale

    2017-08-01

    On average, 10 % of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Auto-immune disease (systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-phospholipid syndrome) accounts for a part of these cases. In the last 20 years, aspecific auto-immunity, defined as positivity of auto-antibodies in blood sample without clinical or biological criteria for defined diseases, has been evoked in a subpopulation of infertile women. A systematic review was performed (PUBMED) using the MESH search terms "infertility" and "auto-immunity" or "reproductive technique" or "assisted reproduction" or "in vitro fertilization" and "auto-immunity." We retained clinical and physiopathological studies that were applicable to the clinician in assuming joint management of both infertility associated with serum auto-antibodies in women. Thyroid auto-immunity which affects thyroid function could be a cause of infertility; even in euthyroidia, the presence of anti-thyroperoxydase antibodies and/or thyroglobulin are related to infertility. The presence of anti-phospholipid (APL) and/or anti-nuclear (ANA) antibodies seems to be more frequent in the population of infertile women; serum auto-antibodies are associated with early ovarian failure, itself responsible for fertility disorders. However, there exist few publications on this topic. The methods of dosage, as well as the clinical criteria of unexplained infertility deserve to be standardized to allow a precise response to the question of the role of serum auto-antibodies in these women. The direct pathogenesis of this auto-immunity is unknown, but therapeutic immunomodulators, prescribed on a case-by-case basis, could favor pregnancy even in cases of unexplained primary or secondary infertility.

  4. [Current situation and existing problems of acupuncture for primary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Wei, Pengfei; Chen, Shaozong

    2018-03-12

    To analyze the present situation and existing problems of acupuncture for primary hypertension (PH) based on clinical research literature in recent 20 years. The clinical research literature regarding acupuncture for PH were searched from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP data network (VIP) and Wanfang database from 1997 through 2016; a total of 218 papers met the inclusive criteria. Microsoft Excel and Apriori algorithm of SPSS Clementine software were applied to analyze the data. The main acupoints of acupuncture for PH were Taichong (LR 3), Quchi (LI 11), Zusanli (ST 36) and Hegu (LI 4), but its support degree was only 12.21%. 127 papers were randomized controlled trials, accounting for 58.26%. 158 papers had clear diagnostic criteria, accounting for 72.48%. 138 papers had clear efficacy evaluation criteria, accounting for 63.30%. Only 5.05% of the papers were classified as high-quality literature by using Jadad scale. In recent 20 years, some rules existed in acupoint selection for PH, but the support degree was low so it could not accurately guide clinical treatment. Although the clinical literature quality of acupuncture for PH was gradually increasing, the proportion of high-quality literature was low, therefore modern medical research model and foreign similar research should be followed to design a more rigorous trial protocol. As a result, the quality of clinical research is increased to provide reference for future clinical treatment.

  5. Current Management of Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Christopher J.; Bovi, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous cell lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon neoplasm of the brain, leptomeninges, and rarely the spinal cord. Initially thought to be characteristically associated with congenital, iatrogenic, or acquired immunosuppression, PCNSL is now recognized with increasing frequency in immunocompetent individuals. The role of surgery is limited to establishing diagnosis, as PCNSL is often multifocal with a propensity to involve the subarachnoid space. A whole-brain radiation volume has empirically been used to adequately address the multifocal tumor frequently encountered at the time of PCNSL diagnosis. Despite high rates of response after whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT), rapid recurrence is common and long-term survival is the exception. Chemotherapy alone or in combination with WBRT has more recently become the treatment of choice. Most effective regimens contain high-dose methotrexate and or other agents that are capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier. High response rates and improved survival with the use of chemotherapy has led to treatment strategies that defer or eliminate WBRT in hopes of lessening the risk of neurotoxicity attributed to WBRT. Unfortunately, elimination of WBRT is also associated with a higher rate of relapse. Combined chemotherapy and WBRT regimens are now being explored that use lower total doses of radiation and altered fractionation schedules with the aim of maintaining high rates of tumor control while minimizing neurotoxicity. Pretreatment, multifactor prognostic indices have recently been described that may allow selection of treatment regimens that strike an appropriate balance of risk and benefit for the individual PCNSL patient.

  6. Teacher feedback during active learning: current practices in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bergh, Linda; Ros, Anje; Beijaard, Douwe

    2013-06-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful tools, which teachers can use to enhance student learning. It appears difficult for teachers to give qualitatively good feedback, especially during active learning. In this context, teachers should provide facilitative feedback that is focused on the development of meta-cognition and social learning. The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the existing knowledge about feedback and to give directions to improve teacher feedback in the context of active learning. The participants comprised 32 teachers who practiced active learning in the domain of environmental studies in the sixth, seventh, or eighth grade of 13 Dutch primary schools. A total of 1,465 teacher-student interactions were examined. Video observations were made of active learning lessons in the domain of environmental studies. A category system was developed based on the literature and empirical data. Teacher-student interactions were assessed using this system. Results. About half of the teacher-student interactions contained feedback. This feedback was usually focused on the tasks that were being performed by the students and on the ways in which these tasks were processed. Only 5% of the feedback was explicitly related to a learning goal. In their feedback, the teachers were directing (rather than facilitating) the learning processes. During active learning, feedback on meta-cognition and social learning is important. Feedback should be explicitly related to learning goals. In practice, these kinds of feedback appear to be scarce. Therefore, giving feedback during active learning seems to be an important topic for teachers' professional development. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Factors influencing the quality of life of infertile women in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayata, G M; Rizk, D E E; Hasan, M Y; Ghazal-Aswad, S; Asaad, M A N

    2003-02-01

    To measure the quality of life in a representative sample of infertile women and evaluate their sociocultural attitude to this condition. Two hundred sixty-nine infertile women attending the Assisted Reproduction clinic, Tawam Hospital were consecutively selected. They were interviewed about the effect of infertility on their quality of life using a structured, measurement-specific and pre-tested questionnaire. Parameters mostly affected were mood-related mainly in women above 30 years, with primary and female factor infertility and those in polygamous marriages. Quality of life did not affect sexual performance and was not affected by duration of infertility or cost of treatment. The results highlight the importance of bearing children and the stresses exerted on infertile women in Eastern societies. Thorough counseling and continuing support of infertile women is therefore indicated to improve their quality of life.

  8. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Women's Infertility and Treatment Seeking Behavior in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an emergent issue in India. Until recently, very few studies have understood the patterns and consequences of infertility in India. Family planning programs in India also viewed exclusively the patterns and determinants of overfertility rather than infertility. Furthermore, there is the lack of information about treatment seeking behavior of infertile couples. Therefore, this paper aimed to examine the extent of infertility and treatment seeking behavior among infertile women in India. An attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors on treatment seeking behavior. The study used the data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey carried out in India during 2007-08. Several statistical techniques such as chi-square test, proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model were used for the analysis. Approximately, 8% of currently married women suffered from infertility in India and most of them were secondary infertile (5.8%). Within India, women's infertility rate was the highest in west Bengal (13.9 percent) and the lowest in Meghalaya (2.5 percent). About 80% of infertile women sought treatment but a substantial proportion (33%) received non-allopathic and traditional treatment due to expensive modern treatment and lack of awareness. In the context of policy response, it can be said that there is a need to improve the existing services and quality of care for infertile women. Treatment for infertility should be integrated into the larger reproductive health packages.

  9. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Women’s Infertility and Treatment Seeking Behavior in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is an emergent issue in India. Until recently, very few studies have understood the patterns and consequences of infertility in India. Family planning programs in India also viewed exclusively the patterns and determinants of overfertility rather than infertility. Furthermore, there is the lack of information about treatment seeking behavior of infertile couples. Therefore, this paper aimed to examine the extent of infertility and treatment seeking behavior among infertile women in India. An attempt was also made to evaluate the effects of socio-demographic factors on treatment seeking behavior. Methods: The study used the data from the District Level Household and Facility Survey carried out in India during 2007–08. Several statistical techniques such as chi-square test, proportional hazard model and binary logistic regression model were used for the analysis. Results: Approximately, 8% of currently married women suffered from infertility in India and most of them were secondary infertile (5.8%). Within India, women’s infertility rate was the highest in west Bengal (13.9 percent) and the lowest in Meghalaya (2.5 percent). About 80% of infertile women sought treatment but a substantial proportion (33%) received non-allopathic and traditional treatment due to expensive modern treatment and lack of awareness. Conclusion: In the context of policy response, it can be said that there is a need to improve the existing services and quality of care for infertile women. Treatment for infertility should be integrated into the larger reproductive health packages. PMID:27141468

  10. Lycopene and male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  11. Ureaplasma Urealyticum in Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Deodbar

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen examination with special reference to semen analysis and culture for Ureaplasma urealyticum was carried out in 50 male infertile patients in the age group of 25 to 40 years, attending a private infertility clinic. Isolation of Ureaplasma urealyticum in 14 (28% patients and the abnormalities in count and motility of spermatozoa suggest that ureaplasmas may play a role in human male infertility.

  12. Selenium: its potential role in male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguntibeju, O.O.; Esterhuyse, J.S.; Truter, E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Currently, biomedical research is showing interest in the anti-oxidant activity of selenium. This could be due to compelling evidence that reported that oxidative damage to cells and cell membranes is one of the causative agents in the pathogenesis of many disease states including male infertility. Selenium is a trace element which may be found in soil, water and some foods and is considered to be an essential element which plays an active role in several metabolic pathways and is believed to perform several important roles in the human body. These roles include anti-oxidative activities at cellular level and participating in different enzyme systems. Selenium also serves as a vital component in the maintenance of muscle cell and red blood cell integrity, playing a role in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). It has also been reported that selenium is essential in the detoxification of toxic metals in the human system, foetal respiration and energy transfer reactions as well as in the production of sperm cells. It is thought that male infertility can be the result of a selenium deficiency as the absence of selenium in the testicular tissues induces degeneration which results in the active impairment of sperm motility as the first indication of impending infertility. This review paper investigates the role of selenium in male infertility. (author)

  13. Fertility prognosis for infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a fertility prognosis model for infertile couples. DESIGN: Prospective follow-up study. PARTICIPANTS: In the period November 30, 1977 to June 1, 1985, 321 consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital. Investigation of the female...... MEASURE: The Cox regression model was used to predict the time required to conceive based on informations provided by fertility investigations. RESULTS: Three of 16 prognostic variables (the period of infertility, the female infertility factor, and the P-test) possess significant prognostic information...

  14. Laparohysteroscopy in female infertility: A diagnostic cum therapeutic tool in Indian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Suman; Jain, Dinesh; Puri, Sandeep; Kaushal, Sandeep; Deol, Satjeet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the role of laparohysteroscopy in female infertility andto study the effect of therapeutic procedures in achieving fertility. Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Fifty consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to laparoscopy were subject to diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy. T-test. We studied 50 patients comprising of 24 (48%) cases of primary infertility and 26 (52%) patients of secondary infertility. The average age of active married life for 50 patients was between 8 and 9 years. In our study, the most commonly found pathologies were PCOD, endometroisis and tubal blockage. 11 (28.2) patients conceived after laparohysteroscopy followed by artificial reproductive techniques. This study demonstrates the benefit of laparohysteroscopy for diagnosis and as a therapeutic tool in patients with primary and secondary infertility. We were able to achieve a higher conception rate of 28.2%.

  15. Female Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prolactin blood test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Female Infertility updates ... Serum progesterone Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Infertility Male Infertility National Institutes ...

  16. Male Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Testicular biopsy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Male Infertility updates ... analysis Sperm release pathway Testicular biopsy Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Female Infertility Infertility National Institutes ...

  17. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP > 12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTP 12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS: Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  18. Association Between Infertility and Sexual Dysfunction in Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael H; Messore, Marisa; Pastuszak, Alexander W; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2016-10-01

    The relation between infertility and sexual dysfunction can be reciprocal. Causes of sexual dysfunction that affect fertility include erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease (abnormal penile curvature), low libido, ejaculatory disorders in men, and genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder (GPPPD) and low sexual desire in women. To review the association between infertility and sexual dysfunction and discuss current management strategies to address sexual disorders in couples with infertility. Peer-reviewed publications from PubMed published from 1980 through February 2016 were identified that related to sexual dysfunction and infertility in men and women. Pathophysiology and management approach of erectile dysfunction, Peyronie's disease, low libido, ejaculatory disorders in men, and GPPPD and low sexual desire in women and how each etiology contributes to sexual dysfunction and infertility in the couple. Treating the infertile couple with sexual dysfunction involves addressing underlying conditions such as psychogenic erectile dysfunction, low testosterone, Peyronie's disease in men, and GPPPD and low sexual desire in women. Psychogenic erectile dysfunction can be successfully treated with phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Low testosterone is often identified in men with infertility, but testosterone therapy is contraindicated in men attempting conception. Men with Peyronie's disease have a new treatment option to address their penile curvature-collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection directly into the penile plaque. GPPPD is a broad disorder that includes vulvodynia and vaginismus and can be treated with topical lubricants and moisturizers. We must address psychosocial factors in women with low sexual desire. Flibanserin and transdermal testosterone (off-label) are novel therapies for women with low sexual desire. Sexual dysfunction in a couple with infertility is a complex issue. Management of infertility and sexual dysfunction should involve appropriate

  19. Relationship between perceived social support and clinical variables in infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan Eren BODUR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was aimed to assess and evaluate the impact of the levels of perceived social support in infertile couples on stress related with infertility and marital adjustment. The study included 104 couples with primary or secondary infertility and 44 healthy couples with children for the control group. Control group was given the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS, Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS. Infertile group was given HADS, DAS, MSPSS and also Fertility Problem Inventory. Women in infertile couples reported greater psychological symptoms and more decreased marital adjustment than men in infertile couples; but the couples did not show any significant difference with those in control groups regarding these parameters. It was determined that, in general, while marital adjustment in infertile couples increases, depression and anxiety levels decrease. It was also observed that perceieved social support from the family has a positive effect on the marital adjustment. The perceived social support level in men in infertil couples is lower than women in the same group, and this outcome is also related with the increasing anxiety in men. These results showed that psychosocial problems in infertile couples should be evaluated with specific scales. Psychosocial support which will be given to infertile couples and motivating social support systems while providing this service would have positive effects especially on men. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000: 214-223

  20. A radiologic analysis of hysterosalpinggographic finding in infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hae Young; Lee, Kyung Ja; Yoo, Seong Yul; Kim, Hee Seup

    1985-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography has been universally accepted and approved as valuable aid in the diagnosis and treatment of infertility. Radiologic and clinical analysis had been made on 200 cases of known infertile patient in Ewha Womans University Hospital from January, 1976 to August, 1979. The results are as followings: 1. In 200 cases of infertility, 90 cases (45.5%) are primary infertility and remaining 110 cases (55.5%) are secondary infertility. 2. The peak number of age distribution is 2nd decade group in 115 cases (57.5%). 3. The peak number of duration of infertility is less than 3 years in 107 cases (53,5%). 4. Abnormal uterine finding is 25 cases (12.5%) and there 4 cases (2.0%) of congenital anomaly among them. 5. Abnormal tubal finding is 120 cases (60.0%) and there are 84 cases (42.0%) of without spillage, 36 cases (18.0%) of with spillage, 51 cases (25.5%) of hydrosalpinx, 49 cases (24.5%) of simple obstruction among them. 6. Intravasation is noted in 66 cases (33.3%) among 200 cases. 7. There are significant results between the past history and the hysterosalpiingographic findings by the statistical approach. 8. Pregnancy after hysterosalpingography is noted in 16 cases (8.0%) among 200 cases.

  1. Hysterosalpingographic (HSG pattern of infertility in women of reproductive age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinwe R Onwuchekwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a complex disorder with significant medical, psychological and economic problems. Aims: The aim of the study is to evaluate the structural abnormalities of the uterus and fallopian tubes in infertile women as elucidated by hysterosalpingography. Setting and Design: A retrospective study, conducted at the Radiology and Obstetric and Gynaecologic Departments of a tertiary health care institution. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of all consecutive patients in whom hysterosalpingographic (HSG was performed for infertility between July 2013 and June 2015 in the Department of Radiology. For the biodata, indications for the investigation and the HSG findings were obtained. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA for Windows, version 20 software. Results: A total of 299 patients were evaluated. Of these, 250 were for infertility with primary and secondary infertility constituting 18.4 and 81.6%, respectively. Seventy percent of the cases for infertility had abnormalities on the HSG. Normal uterine cavity was found in 123 (49.2% cases. Uterine filling defects were the most common uterine abnormality. Fallopian tube occlusion, loculated contrast material spillage and hydrosalpinx were more common on the right, and bilateral tubal occlusion was seen only in 11.2%. All cases of intravasation were associated with either unilateral or bilateral fallopian tube blockage or irregularity of the uterus. Conclusion: There was a high incidence of tubal disease in the women presenting with infertility. This was commonly as a result of infection and inflammatory process. This study showed that HSG is very vital in detecting birth canal pathologies; hence, the facility for this important procedure, especially fluoroscopy, should be made available in the health centres for adequate assessment of the women with infertility.

  2. Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric history and infertility: a five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abida Malik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the role of Toxoplasma gondii in women with bad obstetric (BOH history and in women with primary and secondary infertility. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital for a period of 5 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Quantitative determination of IgM antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii infection was done by IgM capture ELISA in patients with history of BOH or infertility. Results: Out of a total of 441 subjects included in the study, 417 (94.6% had a BOH and 24 (5.4% subjects had infertility. Toxoplasma was found to be more common in females with two or more abortions 52 (76.5%. Similarly in patients with infertility due to Toxoplasma, secondary infertility (66.7% was more common than primary infertility. About 40.3% patients with BOH and 20% patients with infertility had healthy live issues after treatment with spiramycin. Conclusions: Toxoplasmosis is thus, an easily treatable cause of abortions and infertility. All antenatal females and females with infertility should be screened for toxoplasmosis.

  3. Protein intake and ovulatory infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarro, Jorge E; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Rosner, Bernard A; Willett, Walter C

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether intake of protein from animal and vegetable origin is associated with ovulatory infertility. A total of 18,555 married women without a history of infertility were followed up as they attempted a pregnancy or became pregnant during an 8 year period. Dietary assessments were related to the incidence of ovulatory infertility. During follow-up, 438 women reported ovulatory infertility. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]; P for trend) of ovulatory infertility comparing the highest to the lowest quintile of animal protein intake was 1.39 (1.01 to 1.90; 0.03). The corresponding RR (95% CI; P for trend) for vegetable protein intake was 0.78 (0.54 to 1.12; 0.07). Furthermore, consuming 5% of total energy intake as vegetable protein rather than as animal protein was associated with a more than 50% lower risk of ovulatory infertility (P =.007). Replacing animal sources of protein with vegetable sources of protein may reduce ovulatory infertility risk.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfotouh, Mostafa A; Alabdrabalnabi, Abdullah A; Albacker, Rehab B; Al-Jughaiman, Umar A; Hassan, Samar N

    2013-01-01

    Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the

  5. Infertility, infertility treatment, and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether infertile couples (with a time to pregnancy of > 12 months), who conceive naturally or after treatment, give birth to children with an increased prevalence of congenital malformations. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Danish national birth cohort. Participants Three groups of liveborn children and their mothers: 50 897 singletons and 1366 twins born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy ≤ 12 months), 5764 singletons and 100 twins born of infertile couples who conceived naturally (time to pregnancy > 12 months), and 4588 singletons and 1690 twins born after infertility treatment. Main outcome measures Prevalence of congenital malformations determined from hospital discharge diagnoses. Results Compared with singletons born of fertile couples, singletons born of infertile couples who conceived naturally or after treatment had a higher prevalence of congenital malformations—hazard ratios 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.39 (1.23 to 1.57). The overall prevalence of congenital malformations increased with increasing time to pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to singletons born of infertile couples, babies born after treatment had an increased prevalence of genital organ malformations (hazard ratio 2.32, 1.24 to 4.35) compared with babies conceived naturally. No significant differences existed in the overall prevalence of congenital malformations among twins. Conclusions Hormonal treatment for infertility may be related to the occurrence of malformations of genital organs, but our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants. The association between untreated infertility and congenital malformations warrants further examination. PMID:16893903

  6. 'Mama and papa nothing': living with infertility among an urban population in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, N; van de Wijgert, J; Coene, G; Gasarabwe, A; Temmerman, M

    2011-03-01

    Not being able to procreate has severe social and economic repercussions in resource-poor countries. The purpose of this research was to explore the consequences of female and/or male factor infertility for men and women in Rwanda. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Couples presenting with female and/or male factor infertility problems at the infertility clinic of the Kigali University Teaching Hospital (n = 312), and fertile controls who recently delivered (n = 312), were surveyed about domestic violence, current and past relationships and sexual functioning. In addition, five focus group discussions were held with a subsample of survey participants, who were either patients diagnosed with female- or male-factor fertility or their partners. Domestic violence, union dissolutions and sexual dysfunction were reported more frequently in the survey by infertile than fertile couples. The psycho-social consequences suffered by infertile couples in Rwanda are severe and similar to those reported in other resource-poor countries. Although women carry the largest burden of suffering, the negative repercussions of infertility for men, especially at the level of the community, are considerable. Whether the infertility was caused by a female factor or male factor was an important determinant for the type of psycho-social consequences suffered. In Rwanda, as in other resource-poor countries, infertility causes severe suffering. There is an urgent need to recognize infertility as a serious reproductive health problem and to put infertility care on the public health agenda.

  7. Induced Abortion and the Risk of Tubal Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between induced abortion and tubal infertility in Chengdu, China.Methods A 1 :2 case-control study was designed. Infertile women with bilateral tubal occlusion in the case group compared with two control groups: infertile control group with bilateral tubal patency and pregnant control group with currently pregnancy. Data were collected using questionnaires through face-to-face interviews, covering the subjects' demographic details and histories of gynecology and obstetrics. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated as a measure of the association using stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis.Results Induced abortion was not found to be associated with tubal infertility in the analysis including either the infertile controls or the pregnant controls, but other risk factors were found, such as history of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), lower abdominal surgeries, dysmenorrhea and pregnancy.Conclusion It is contended that facing an increasing trend of infertile cases with tubal occlusion in China, it is emphasized that special attention should paid to the long term impact of reproductive tract infection, especially, asymptomatic ones, rather than induced abortion.

  8. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? Endometriosis is when tissue is found outside the ...

  9. Primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Yang Jianhua; Shu Ting; Zhang Jiande; Zhou Xiang; Wen Jianchun

    2008-01-01

    The primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store is studied. The principle of primary power supply circuit and its time diagram of switches are presented. The circuit is analyzed and some expressions are got, especially, the usable voltage scope of capacitance of energy store, and the correlation between the parameters of circuit and time delay, which is between the turn-on of the charging circuit of capacitance of energy store and the circuit of recuperation. The time delay of 256 x 256 lookup table is made with the instruction of theory and the simulation of the actual parameters of circuits. The table is used by the control program to control the repetitive operating of the actual pulsed intense current accelerator. Finally, some conclusions of the primary power supply of repetitive pulsed intense current accelerator charged by capacitance of energy store are got. (authors)

  10. Infertility Counseling and Support: When and Where to Find It

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  11. INFERTILITY IN MEN WITH PRIMARY HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Zhukov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an analysis data on the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of male sterility with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Examination of the patients requires attention of urologist, andrologist, endocrinologist, neurosurgeon, medical geneticist. Clinical case, described by us, shows the necessity of development of a unified algorithm for working with these patients and search for effective and safe treatment of patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. 

  12. Atypical tuberculosis presenting with primary infertility and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis. It remains a public health concern especially in developing country. Pulmonary infection is the main presentation. However, genitourinary TB is common especially with the increase in Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Genitourinary TB is one of the ...

  13. Knowledge, perceptions and myths regarding infertility among selected adult population in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is approximately 22% with 4% primary and 18% secondary infertility. Infertility is not only a medical but also a social problem in our society as cultural customs and perceived religious dictums may equate infertility with failure on a personal, interpersonal, or social level. It is imperative that people have adequate knowledge about infertility so couples can seek timely medical care and misconceptions can be rectified. We aim to assess the knowledge, perception and myths regarding infertility and suggest ways to improve it. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out by interviewing a sample of 447 adults who were accompanying the patients at two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. They were interviewed one-on-one with the help of a pretested questionnaire drafted by the team after a thorough literature review and in consultation with infertility specialists. Results The correct knowledge of infertility was found to be limited amongst the participants. Only 25% correctly identified when infertility is pathological and only 46% knew about the fertile period in women's cycle. People are misinformed that use of IUCD (53% and OCPs (61% may cause infertility. Beliefs in evil forces and supernatural powers as a cause of infertility are still prevalent especially amongst people with lower level of education. Seeking alternative treatment for infertility remains a popular option for 28% of the participant as a primary preference and 75% as a secondary preference. IVF remains an unfamiliar (78% and an unacceptable option (55%. Conclusions Knowledge about infertility is limited in the population and a lot of misconceptions and myths are prevalent in the society. Alternative medicine is a popular option for seeking infertility treatment. The cultural and religious perspective about assisted reproductive technologies is unclear, which has resulted in its reduced

  14. Knowledge, perceptions and myths regarding infertility among selected adult population in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sumera; Sophie, Raafay; Imam, Ayesha M; Khan, Faisal I; Ali, Syed F; Shaikh, Annum; Farid-ul-Hasnain, Syed

    2011-10-04

    The reported prevalence of infertility in Pakistan is approximately 22% with 4% primary and 18% secondary infertility. Infertility is not only a medical but also a social problem in our society as cultural customs and perceived religious dictums may equate infertility with failure on a personal, interpersonal, or social level. It is imperative that people have adequate knowledge about infertility so couples can seek timely medical care and misconceptions can be rectified. We aim to assess the knowledge, perception and myths regarding infertility and suggest ways to improve it. A cross-sectional survey was carried out by interviewing a sample of 447 adults who were accompanying the patients at two tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. They were interviewed one-on-one with the help of a pretested questionnaire drafted by the team after a thorough literature review and in consultation with infertility specialists. The correct knowledge of infertility was found to be limited amongst the participants. Only 25% correctly identified when infertility is pathological and only 46% knew about the fertile period in women's cycle. People are misinformed that use of IUCD (53%) and OCPs (61%) may cause infertility. Beliefs in evil forces and supernatural powers as a cause of infertility are still prevalent especially amongst people with lower level of education. Seeking alternative treatment for infertility remains a popular option for 28% of the participant as a primary preference and 75% as a secondary preference. IVF remains an unfamiliar (78%) and an unacceptable option (55%). Knowledge about infertility is limited in the population and a lot of misconceptions and myths are prevalent in the society. Alternative medicine is a popular option for seeking infertility treatment. The cultural and religious perspective about assisted reproductive technologies is unclear, which has resulted in its reduced acceptability.

  15. Short Report: Psychiatric Morbidity among Infertile Women Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study included 107 women with primary infertility in the study group and 99 healthy fertile women in the control group. The 12th version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and were administered to both groups to determine their levels of psychological ...

  16. Sexual dysfunction associated with infertility' A comparison of sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study of 40 couples with primary infertility, the 'need to perform' over the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle was assessed. In 50% of women there was a statistically increased incidence of sexual dysfunction during this phase; loss of libido was the commonest dysfunction. In 30% of men a decrease in sexual function ...

  17. Isolated low follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Salama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males received a significant attention and exploration. Studies investigating the isolated deficiency of FSH in males are few, and its real prevalence is still unknown. Therefore, the objectives of the current study was to report the prevalence of isolated low FSH in infertile males and highlight their demographics and standard sperm parameters. Methods: Records of 3335 infertile men were retrospectively checked. Patients with isolated low FSH were retrieved. FSH levels were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of affected sperm parameter (s. Study variables were also arranged into 2 groups in relation to smoking history. A control group was included to document the changes in sperm morphology. Results: Isolated low FSH (1.146 ± 0.219 mIU/mL was found in 29 (0.87% patients. All patients showed at least one abnormal sperm parameter. The abnormal parameters were present in different combinations within the same patient but with no significant correlations with the FSH levels. The FSH levels got lower as the number of the affected sperm parameters increased although the decline was insignificant. The most frequent abnormal parameter presented was sperm morphology (86.2%. Anomalous sperm morphology was highly and significantly demonstrated in the head; specifically in acrosome. Abnormal sperm parameters were present in both smoking and nonsmoking groups but with no significant differences in between. Conclusions: Isolated low FSH among infertile males has a low prevalence. This may be associated with abnormality in semen parameters; particularly sperm morphology. These patients are suggested to be found as a primary entity. However, an additional work-up is highly recommended to validate this hypothesis.

  18. Current features of primary tuberculosis on medical imaging based on a series of fourteen cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouzidane, L.; Adamsbaum, C.; Cohen, P.A.; Kalifa, G.; Gendrel, D.

    1995-01-01

    Active pulmonary tuberculosis, a source of contamination, is currently undergoing a recrudescence in developed countries, particularly in clinical contexts of immuno-depression. The authors report a retrospective series of 14 cases of primary tuberculosis in a paediatric population (7 girls and 7 boys) with a mean age of 3.5 years (range: 4 months - 16 years) observed over a 3-year period. After reviewing the current radiological features of patent primary tuberculosis, the authors emphasize the contribution of chest CT scan in latent forms with a normal chest x-ray and a difficult bacteriological diagnosis. Imaging remains an essential tool in early diagnosis, therapeutic management and active surveillance of this form. The authors propose a decisional flow-chart in the case of suspected primary tuberculosis in children. (authors). 20 refs., 8 figs

  19. Current practice of preconception care by primary caregivers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F. van Voorst (Sabine); S. Plasschaert (Sophie); L.C. de Jong-Potjer (L.); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); S. Denktaş (Semiha)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Over the past decade the value of preconception care (PCC) consultations has been acknowledged. Investments have been made to promote delivery and uptake of PCC consultations in the Dutch primary care setting. We assessed current activities, perceptions and prerequisites for

  20. Epidemiology of infertility: a population-based study in Babol, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Seddigheh; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Zeinalzadeh, Mahtab; Mir, Mohammad-Reza Aghajani

    2012-01-01

    The aim of researchers in the present study was to determine the prevalence of infertility and self-reported cause of infertility in Babol, Iran and then identify the factors associated with infertility. A retrospective epidemiologic study was conducted of characteristics of urban and rural women related to infertility. A total of 1,140 women aged 20-45 years were selected using cluster sampling. Of these 1,140 women, 59 (5.2%) (CI 4.2, 6.2) were voluntarily childless. Of the remaining 1,081 women, 913 (84.5%) (CI 82.5, 86.5) reported no difficulties in having children, and the remaining 168 (15.5%) (CI 13.5, 17.5) experienced difficulty conceiving at some stage in their lives. The prevalence of ever having primary infertility was 4.3% (CI 2.3, 6.3). The most frequently self-reported causes of infertility in this study were ovulation problems (39.2%). Infertile women were significantly more likely to have a higher age at marriage (p = 0.001), lower education (p = 0.006), higher body mass index (p = 0.0001), long-term health problems (p = 0.0001), a partner who smoked (p = 0.029), and past history of tubal or ectopic pregnancy (p = 0.002). These risk factors may help inform reproductive health clinics and primary healthcare centers about factors associated with infertility.

  1. Semen quality of male partners of infertile couples in Ile-Ife, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective was to evaluate seminal fluid indices of male partners of infertile couples so as to identify the current status of the contributions of male factor to infertility in our environment. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study of the seminal fluid indices of consecutively consenting male partners of ...

  2. Clinical management and therapeutic outcome of infertile couples in southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menuba IE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ifeanyi E Menuba,1 Emmanuel O Ugwu,1 Samuel N Obi,1 Lucky O Lawani,2 Chidinma I Onwuka11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla Enugu, Enugu State, Nigeria; 2School of Postgraduate Studies, Department of Community Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, Enugu State, NigeriaBackground: Infertility is highly prevalent in Nigeria and most infertile couples in southeast Nigeria are offered conventional forms of treatment, which consist mainly of ovulation induction and tubal surgery, due to limited availability and high cost of endoscopic and assisted reproductive technologies like laparoscopy and in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of infertility, outcome of infertility investigation, and the treatment outcome of infertile couples following therapeutic interventions in southeast Nigeria over a 12-month period.Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study of 218 consecutive infertile couples presenting for infertility management at the infertility clinics of two tertiary health institutions in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Infertility investigations were carried out on these couples using the available conventional diagnostic facilities. Following the results of the investigations/diagnosis, conventional treatment was offered to the couples as appropriate. Data analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level.Results: The mean age of the women was 33.5±4.62 (range: 15–49 years. Most (58.3% [n=127] were nulliparous. The prevalence of infertility was 12.1%. Infertility was primary in 28.4% (n=62 and secondary in 71.6% (n=156. Female etiologic factors were responsible in 32.1% (n=70, male factors in 26.1% (n=57, and a combination of male/female factors in 29.4% (n=64. The etiology was unknown in 12.4% (n=27. Tubal factors 23.8 % (n=52 and ovulation failures 26.1% (n=57 are common female factors implicated

  3. The Role Of Staphylococcus Haemolyticus In Men Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Ghizzawi, Ghaed’a. J.; Jomaa, Zahraa K.

    2018-05-01

    A total of 80 samples of seminal fluid from infertile men who were admitted to clinics and attended laboratories in Omara City during the period from 1 June 2016 to 1 December 2016, samples were subjected to semen analysis as recommended by WHO. The age of patients was from 20 – 59 year. Another 25 semen samples were collected from fertilized men considered as the control group. For this purpose seminal fluid were cultured on MacConkey agar, Blood agar, Chocolate agar. Within the 80 samples recorded S. haemolyticus appeared in 14 cases and the rate of infection was 18%, all strains was diagnosed by Vitek system 2 Double. The highest percent (64%) was recorded in the age group 30 – 39. Primary infertility recorded 94% while 6% was recorded for secondary infertility. Also, different species of bacterial isolates were identified in 32 cases by Vitek system 2 Double. The bacterial infection of the male genital system affected fertility.

  4. Contribution of environmental factors to the risk of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, A; Spira, A; Multigner, L

    2001-08-01

    An increasing number of reports suggest that chemical and physical agents in the environment, introduced and spread by human activity, may affect male fertility in humans. We investigated the relationships between exposure to environmental agents and seminal characteristics, and the concentrations of reproductive hormones in the serum of men seeking infertility treatment. We studied 225 male partners from consecutively recruited couples, who had their first infertility consultation between 1995 and 1998, in the Litoral Sur region of Argentina, one of the most productive farming regions in the world. A multivariate logistic regression model showed that exposure to pesticides and solvents is significantly associated with sperm threshold values well below the limit for male fertility. We also found that men exposed to pesticides had higher serum oestradiol concentrations, and that men exposed to solvents had lower LH concentrations than non-exposed men. All of these effects were greater in men with primary infertility than in men with secondary infertility. We have shown that environmental factors contribute to the severity of infertility, and that this may worsen the effects of pre-existing genetic or medical risk factors.

  5. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions. PMID:24900998

  6. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM, cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions.

  7. Association of HSPA1B rs6457452 Genetic Variant with Idiopathic Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Kohan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Male infertility is a multifactorial disease resulting from the interaction between the genetic and environmental factors. Spermatogenic Failure accounts for more than half of male infertility cases. Heat shock proteins (HSPs are the molecular chaperones that are involved in different developmental stages of spermatogenesis. The current study was planned to investigate the role of HSPA1B rs6457452 genetic variants in male infertility. Material and Methods: This case control study was conducted on 516 subjects consisted of 308 patients with idiopathic male infertility and 208 control subjects. After DNA extraction from peripheral blood, genotype determination was done by Tetra-ARMS PCR method. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the polymorphism and male infertility. Results: A significant difference was observed in genotype distributions between cases and controls. Results showed individuals with TC (OR=1.552, 95%CI: 1.032-2.334, p=0.035 and TT (OR=2.746, 95%CI: 1.153-6.545, p=0.023 genotype had an increased risk of male infertility. Also, there was a significant association between T allele (OR=1.695, 95%CI: 1.220-2.355, p<0.001 and male infertility. Conclusion: This study showed for the first time that HSPA1B rs6457452 polymorphism is associated with infertility risk in Iranian men and the T allele may act as a dominant allele for increasing the risk of male infertility.

  8. Dark currents and their effect on the primary beam in an X-band linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl L. F. Bane

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We numerically study properties of primary dark currents in an X-band accelerating structure. For the H60VG3 structure considered for the Next Linear Collider (NLC we first perform a fairly complete (with some approximations calculation of dark-current trajectories. These results are used to study properties of the dark current leaving the structure. For example, at accelerating gradient of 65  MV/m, considering two very different assumptions about dark-current emission around the irises, we find that the fraction of emitted current leaving the structure to be a consistent ∼1%. Considering that ∼1  mA outgoing dark current is seen in measurement, this implies that ∼100  mA (or 10 pC per period is emitted within the structure itself. Using the formalism of the Liénard-Wiechert potentials, we then perform a systematic calculation of the transverse kick of dark currents on a primary linac bunch. The result is ∼1   V kick per mA (or per 0.1  pC per period dark current emitted from an iris. For an entire structure we estimate the total kick on a primary bunch to be ∼15   V. For the NLC linac this translates to a ratio of (final vertical beam offset to beam size of about 0.2. However, with the assumptions that needed to be made—particularly the number of emitters and their distribution within a structure—the accuracy of this result may be limited to the order of magnitude.

  9. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  10. Cost-effective treatment for the couple with infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhis, B J; Syrop, C H

    2000-12-01

    Although the evaluation of cost-effective approaches to infertility treatment remains in its infancy, several important principles have emerged from the initial studies in this field. Currently, in treating couples with infertility without tubal disease or severe male-factor infertility, the most cost-effective approach is to start with IUI or superovulation-IUI treatments before resorting to IVF procedures. The woman's age and number of sperm present for insemination are significant factors influencing cost-effectiveness. The influence of certain diagnoses on the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments requires further study. Even when accounting for the costs associated with multiple gestations and premature deliveries, the cost of IVF decreases within the range of other cost-effective medical procedures and decreases to less than the willingness to pay for these procedures. Indeed, for patients with severe tubal disease, IVF has been found to be more cost-effective than surgical repair. The cost-effectiveness of IVF will likely improve as success rates show continued improvements over the course of time. In addition, usefulness of embryo selection and practices to reduce the likelihood of high-order multiple pregnancies, without reductions in pregnancy rates, will significantly impact cost-effectiveness. The exclusion of infertility treatments from insurance plans is unfortunate and accentuates the importance of physicians understanding the economics of infertility treatment with costs that are often passed directly to the patient. The erroneous economic policies and judgments that have led to inequities in access to infertility health care should not be tolerated.

  11. Pattern and outcome of infertility in Enugu: the need to improve diagnostic facilities and approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, E O; Onwuka, C I; Okezie, O A

    2012-01-01

    In Nigeria, infertility is a social for the childless couple due to the high premium placed on propagating oneself. To determine the pattern of infertility among women attending the gynaecological clinic of university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu and to examine the outcome of management. A descriptive retrospective design study based on findings from the folders of infertile couples presenting at the gynaecological clinic of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital over a five year period (2004 - 2008). The data were collected from all documented and laboratory findings. The data extracted from the case records were the socio-demographic characteristics of the patients, the type of infertility whether primary or secondary, the causes, and the treatment in the years under review. The outcome of management was also evaluated. These were analyzed using SPSS 12.0.1 for window version. The mean age of the women was 34.1 +/- 4.9 range 21 - 46) years. The prevalence of infertility was 5.5% of all outpatient gynaecological consultations. The cause of infertility could not be determined in 39.4% of cases, female factors were identified as the sole causes in 28.7% of cases, male factors as sole causes in 11.5% of cases, and combined male/female factors in 20.4% of cases. Secondary infertility accounted for 76.8% of infertility and primary infertility 23.2%. The age of the women and the educational level did not significantly influence the type of infertility the women presented with (P > 0.05). Tubal factor was identified in majority of cases and pregnancy was recorded in only 17.0% of the women. Secondary infertility is more prevalent in Enugu with tubal factor accounting for majority of the cases with identifiable causes. The outcome of treatment of infertility is poor. There is need to improve infertility diagnostic and treatment facilities and approaches in Enugu, Nigeria.

  12. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brazdova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility.

  13. Sociodemographic Findings in an Infertile Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Güngör

    2008-08-01

    CONCLUSION: This study claims that the previously established risk factors which are considered to be associated with infertility might influence less or interfere with male infertility in more subtle ways.

  14. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms associated with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Madon, Prochi F; Parikh, Firuza R

    2010-01-01

    with higher order organisation of chromatin in genes associated with infertility and pericentromeric regions of chromosomes, particularly 9 and Y, could further identify causes of idiopathic infertility. Determining the association between DNA methylation, chromatin state, and noncoding RNAs...

  15. The profile of infertility in a teaching Hospital in North West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar A Panti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a global health problem and a socially destabilizing condition for couples carrying several stigmas and a cause of marital disharmony. We determined the prevalence, causes, and clinical pattern of infertility at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study conducted at the Gynecological Department of UDUTH Sokoto between 1 st January, 2011 and 31 st July, 2011. All the patients that presented with infertility within the study period were recruited into the study. Relevant demographic, clinical, and laboratory/radiological data were documented using a structured questionnaire. The patients had their case folders tagged and followed up to 31 st December 2011 (6 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 11. Results: A total of 1,264 new gynecological cases were seen during the study period, and 198 infertile patients were evaluated. The prevalence of infertility was 15.7%. Primary infertility constituted 32.8%, while secondary infertility was 67.2%. Previous history of evidence of genital infection including lower abdominal pain (78.8% and vaginal discharge (76.6% were common. Female gender-related causes of infertility accounted for 42.9%; male causes accounted for 19.7%. Both partners contributed to infertility in 16.7%, while no cause was found in 20.7% of patients. Conclusion: The study shows a dominance of secondary infertility with probable genital tract infection being a major contributor. Early presentation and prompt treatments of genital tract infections may reduce the prevalence of infertility in the study population.

  16. Thyroid dysfunction in infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elahi, S.; Tanseem, A.; Nazir, I.; Nagra, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of thyroid dysfunction in infertile women referred for thyroid evaluation. Age matched infertile (n=140 each) and fertile women (n=152 each) referred to CENUM for thyroid evaluation were investigated for incidence of hyperthyroidism (TSH 20 IU/L). Serum free T4 (FT4), free T3 (FT3) and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and TSH by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Most of the infertile women (89.3%), like control women (93.4%), were euthyroid. The difference of overall thyroid dysfunction was not statistically significant in infertile and control women (10.7% vs. 7.9%; p=0.395). The same was true for incidence of hyperthyroidism (4.3% vs. 5.3%; p=0.701) as well as hypothyroidism (6.4% vs. 2.6%; p=0.104). In infertile women, the incidence of hypothyroidism (6.4%) was slightly higher as compared to hyperthyroidism (4.3%). In euthyroid women of both groups, mean FT4, FT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (p 2.5 mIU/L compared to fertile women (31.2% vs. 15.6%; p 20 IU/L) than control women (7.2% vs. 1.4%; p<0.05). Increased incidence of high normal TSH and raised TPO-Ab titer indicate relatively more frequent occurrence of compensated thyroid function in infertile women than normal women of reproductive age. This necessitates considering them a subgroup of women in which all aspects of pituitary-thyroid axis should be thoroughly investigated than merely TSH testing. (author)

  17. Review of the role of robotic surgery in male infertility

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    Mohamed Etafy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present the current state of the art in various robot-assisted microsurgical procedures in male infertility and review the latest literature, as the technology in infertility procedures has substantially developed since the incorporation of the Vinci® robotic platform (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA. Materials and methods: The search strategy in this review was conducted in accordance with Cochrane guidelines and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA. A search strategy was conducted in MEDLINE, PubMed and the Cochrane electronic databases (from 2000 to present to identify studies that included both robotic and male infertility. Results: In all, 23 studies were found, 12 of which met our inclusion criteria. Articles were excluded if the study did not include both male infertility and robotics. Conclusions: Robotic assistance for microsurgical procedures in male infertility appears to be safe and feasible. It has several advantages including elimination of tremor, multi-view magnification, additional instrument arms, and enhanced dexterity with articulating instrument arms. It also has a short learning curve with a small skin incision. However, larger, prospective studies are needed to establish the clinical benefits over standard microsurgery. Keywords: Robotic testicular sperm extraction, Robotic varicocelectomy, Robotic vasectomy reversal, Robotic vasoepididymostomy (RAVE, Robotic vasovasostomy

  18. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-11-01

    Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. This qualitative study was conducted in 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. One main theme emerged through analysis entitled "cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis" with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women.

  19. Access to infertility care in the developing world: the family promotion gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemota, Obehi A; Klatsky, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Infertility in resource-poor settings is an overlooked global health problem. Although scarce health care resources must be deployed thoughtfully, prioritization of resources may be different for recipient and donor countries, the latter of whom focus on maternal health care, prevention, and family planning. For women and couples with involuntary childlessness, the negative psychosocial, sociocultural, and economic consequences in low-income countries are severe, possibly more so than in most Western societies. Despite the local importance of infertility, few resources are committed to help advance infertility care in regions like sub-Saharan Africa. The worldwide prevalence of infertility is remarkably similar across low-, middle-, and high-income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes infertility as a global health problem and established universal access to reproductive health care as one of the United Nation's Millennium Developmental Goals for 2015. Currently, access to infertility care is varied and is usually only attainable by the very wealthy in low-income countries. We provide an overview on the current state of access to infertility care in low-income countries such as in sub-Saharan Africa and a rationale for providing comprehensive reproductive care and possible solutions for providing cost-effective infertility services in these settings. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Is the wrong question being asked in infertility research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Hornstein, Mark D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Diop, Hafsatou; Cabral, Howard; Declercq, Eugene R

    2016-01-01

    A persistent finding is that assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with compromised birth outcomes, including higher risks for prematurity, low birthweight, and congenital malformations, even among singletons. Over the past decade, our research group, the Massachusetts Outcome Study of Assisted Reproductive Technology (MOSART), has evaluated pregnancy and birth outcomes among three groups of women, those women treated with ART, those with indicators of subfertility but without ART treatment, and fertile women. We have also explored the influence of infertility-related diagnoses on outcomes for women and infants. Over the course of our research, we have changed our perspective from an original focus on ART treatment parameters as the primary cause of excess morbidity to one centered instead on the underlying infertility-related diagnoses. This paper summarizes the research findings from our group that support this change in focus for infertility-based research from a primary emphasis on ART treatment to greater attention to the contribution of preexisting pathology underlying the infertility and suggests directions for future analyses.

  1. Cultural Constructions of Infertility in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    The Work of a Woman is to give Birth to Children: Cultural ... sexuality, cosmology and religion can be examined. .... adult and are often seen to be of minimal ... marked variability of rates and meanings with the consequences of infertility being closely aligned to ...... and lifelong attachments is heavily weighed upon,.

  2. Comparison of lifestyle in fertile and infertile couples in Kermanshah during 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Khosrorad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a major reproductive health in gynecology. According to the world health organization, there are currently 50-80 million infertile couples in the world. Objective: Considering the critical effects of lifestyle on reproductive health, this study aimed to compare the lifestyle of fertile and infertile couples in Kermanshah during 2013. Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive cross sectional study that was done on 216 fertile and infertile couples attending Infertility Center and six medical centers that were selected through the convenience sampling. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire containing demographic and fertility-related information and also lifestyle items on nutrition, physical activity, perceived social support, responsibility for health, and inappropriate health behaviors. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis, independent t, chi-square and Generalized Estimating equation were performed to analyze the data. Results: Fertile and infertile women (86.1% and 73. 1% respectively, p= 0. 03 as well as fertile and infertile men were significantly different in terms of physical activity (87% and 96.3% p<0.001, respectively and perceived social support (p<0.001. Moreover, there was a significant difference between fertile and infertile women in nutrition (p<0.001. Similar differences were observed in responsibility for health and inappropriate health behaviors between fertile and infertile men. However, all of the dimensions of lifestyle, except nutrition, were significantly different between fertile and infertile couples. Conclusion: As lifestyle plays a crucial role in reproductive health, the inappropriate lifestyle of infertile couples has to be modified through effective measures such as awareness promotion, behavioral changes, and development of a healthy environment.

  3. Current state of information technology use in a US primary care practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James E; Pearce, Kevin A; Sydney, Carey; Ireson, Carol; Love, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    To examine the current levels of information technology (IT) use in a primary care practice-based research network (PBRN) in order to inform future development of its infrastructure. Every primary care practitioner who is a member of the Kentucky Ambulatory Network (KAN),as well as the office managers of each practice. Practitioners included family practitioners, general practitioners, nurse practitioners and physician assistants. A cross-sectional study using two survey instruments: one for office managers and one for practitioners. The office manager survey included questions related to the current state of IT within the practice, plans for enhancement and general IT issues from the perspective of managing a practice. The practitioner survey was designed to measure current IT use and attitudes of primary care practitioners. Response rates for the surveys were 46% (n = 68) for the office managers and 51% (n = 116) for practitioners. All but one practice had internet access; however, 43% had only dial-up service. Only 21% of practitioners use an electronic medical record (EMR), with dollar cost being the barrier reported most frequently (58%). More than half of the office managers were either 'somewhat interested' (45%) or 'very interested' (17%) in a low-cost, standardised EMR that was, at the time, to be sponsored by the American Academy of Family Physicians. For practitioners, 71% were either 'somewhat' or 'very' interested in such a system. Responses to other IT issues are reported. While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.

  4. Coping with infertility: a transcultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Botao; Li, Min

    2014-09-01

    To review the most important and interesting articles in infertility published in the last year. This systematic review covers 60 studies published in journals or dissertations in Science Direct and PubMed in the last year, including those related to prevention and treatment as well as related psychosocial services in infertility. We also propose some suggestions about coping with infertility in China. Infertility is a multidisciplinary problem that requires medical, social, and political efforts to prevent and offer infertile patients the best diagnostic, therapeutic, and psychosocial services. Cultural factors should be taken into consideration when designing coping strategies.

  5. Effective treatment options for musculoskeletal pain in primary care: A systematic overview of current evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonathan C.; Foster, Nadine E.; Protheroe, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background & aims Musculoskeletal pain, the most common cause of disability globally, is most frequently managed in primary care. People with musculoskeletal pain in different body regions share similar characteristics, prognosis, and may respond to similar treatments. This overview aims to summarise current best evidence on currently available treatment options for the five most common musculoskeletal pain presentations (back, neck, shoulder, knee and multi-site pain) in primary care. Methods A systematic search was conducted. Initial searches identified clinical guidelines, clinical pathways and systematic reviews. Additional searches found recently published trials and those addressing gaps in the evidence base. Data on study populations, interventions, and outcomes of intervention on pain and function were extracted. Quality of systematic reviews was assessed using AMSTAR, and strength of evidence rated using a modified GRADE approach. Results Moderate to strong evidence suggests that exercise therapy and psychosocial interventions are effective for relieving pain and improving function for musculoskeletal pain. NSAIDs and opioids reduce pain in the short-term, but the effect size is modest and the potential for adverse effects need careful consideration. Corticosteroid injections were found to be beneficial for short-term pain relief among patients with knee and shoulder pain. However, current evidence remains equivocal on optimal dose, intensity and frequency, or mode of application for most treatment options. Conclusion This review presents a comprehensive summary and critical assessment of current evidence for the treatment of pain presentations in primary care. The evidence synthesis of interventions for common musculoskeletal pain presentations shows moderate-strong evidence for exercise therapy and psychosocial interventions, with short-term benefits only from pharmacological treatments. Future research into optimal dose and application of the most

  6. Unexplained infertility: association with inherited thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatini, Cinzia; Conti, Lucia; Turillazzi, Valentina; Sticchi, Elena; Romagnuolo, Ilaria; Milanini, Maria Novella; Cozzi, Cinzia; Abbate, Rosanna; Noci, Ivo

    2012-05-01

    Unexplained infertility represents one of the most common diagnoses in fertility care. Attention is being paid to the association between inherited thrombophilia and infertility causes. In this study we investigated the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia according to infertility causes. We studied Prothrombin gene G20210A mutation, Factor V Leiden, deficiencies in protein S and C and antithrombin in 930 Caucasian infertile women referred to Fertility Center of the Department of Sciences for Woman and Child's Health, University of Florence, of whom 230 with unexplained, 195 female and 283 male infertility, and in 240 women who have conceived naturally without hormonal stimulation therapy. A significant relationship between inherited thrombophilia [OR 95%CI 1.97 (1.05-3.68), p = 0.03] and unexplained infertility was observed, whereas no association between thrombophilia and female and male infertility was found. Significantly higher prevalence of prothrombin gene mutation in unexplained infertile women in comparison to that observed in fertile women was observed (5.7% vs 2.1% p = 0.04); the prevalence of the other thrombophilia determinants was higher, even if not significantly, in the unexplained infertile group. This study demonstrates the relationship between inherited thrombophilia and unexplained infertility, thus suggesting the contribution of genetic components in modulating unexplained infertility, behind anovulation, male and tubal factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and practices of infertility among Saudi couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfotouh MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ≤ 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility

  8. Laparoscopic examination of the reproductive organs in women treated for infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popiela, A.; Kasiak, J.; Heimrath, T.; Cislo, M.

    1993-01-01

    The authors discuss 84 cases of laparoscopic examination of women with primary or secondary infertility. The patients qualified for this examination had undergone at least 26 weeks of conventional treatment with no effect. In 7 cases the reproductive organ was found to be in order, with fallopian tubes fully patent. In 43 cases tubar inpatency was found (using hysterosalpingographic examination). The remaining patients suffered from other reproductive organ disorders. Therefore, the laparoscopic examination made detailed recognition of the causes of infertility possible and thus helped to establish the proper treatment. Additionally, in some cases it enabled the immediate removal of the source of infertility. (author)

  9. Is infertility a risk factor for female sexual dysfunction? A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millheiser, Leah S; Helmer, Amy E; Quintero, Rodolfo B; Westphal, Lynn M; Milki, Amin A; Lathi, Ruth B

    2010-11-01

    To determine the impact of infertility on female sexual function. A case-control study. Academic infertility and gynecology practices. One hundred nineteen women with infertility and 99 healthy female controls without infertility between the ages of 18 and 45 years were included in this study. Anonymous survey and Female Sexual Function Index. Female Sexual Function Index scores, frequency of sexual intercourse and masturbation, and sex-life satisfaction. Twenty-five percent of our control group had Female Sexual Function Index scores that put them at risk for sexual dysfunction (masturbation. The patients with infertility retrospectively reported a sex-life satisfaction score that was similar to that of the controls before their diagnosis, whereas their current sex-life satisfaction scores were significantly lower than those of the controls. Women with a diagnosis of infertility were found to be at higher risk for sexual dysfunction on the basis of their Female Sexual Function Index scores compared with women without infertility. The interaction of sexual function and infertility is complex and deserves further study. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Obesity and Male Infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Fikret Erdemir

    2013-01-01

      Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse, affects approximately 15% of couples. Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Thus, male factor infertility is present in approximately half of all infertile couples. Known etiologies of male infertility include cryptorchidism, testicular torsion or trauma, varico...

  11. Pregravid preparation of fertile aged women with infertility

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    Podolskyi Vl.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective — to develop and assess the effectiveness of the pregravid training methods for the fertile aged women with infertility. Patients and methods. The study involved 50 fertile aged women with infertility, who were divided into groups: Group I — with primary infertility and group II — with secondary infertility. Bacteriological studies were conducted with the aim of evaluation of the species and quantitative composition of the microflora of the women's vagina after the treatment course of autonomic disorders of the nervous system. According to the obtained results about a state of microbiocenosis urogenital organs at the first stage of treatment women with inflammation of genital organs had received basic treatment which was developed especially for women with such diseases and the effectiveness of which has been proven; the second stage of included application of Api-Norm preparation in the form of vaginal suppositories and for sexual partners of these women — Api-Norm in the form of rectal suppositories. Statistical analysis of the obtained results of research was carried out by the use of standard computer packages «Data Analysis» Microsoft Excel for Windows 2007. The values of the arithmetic mean are — the value (M, the average error of the mean value (m, the level of reliability of differences (p. Evaluation of the reliability of the obtained data is carried out by the conventional manner by means of t&test. Reliability was considered established if its reliability was equal to at least 95% (0.05. Results. The obtained data are pointed on the excess of diagnostic levels of conditionally pathogenic microflora in the vast majority of women. It is noted that qualitative and quantitative indicators of pathogenic microflora in women with secondary infertility are higher than diagnostic levels and more common than in women with primary infertility, which may certifies about the presence of chronic inflammatory diseases of the

  12. Evaluation of factors associated with the anxiety and depression of female infertility patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Mariko; Takamatsu, Kiyoshi; Horiguchi, Fumi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Because the primary aim of infertility treatment is to achieve pregnancy, mental health care during this treatment is often neglected. However, the inability to conceive children is stressful for couples throughout the world. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate factors related to the anxiety and depression of female infertility patients. Methods Participants included 83 Japanese women who initially visited the Reproduction Center of the Tokyo Dental College ...

  13. Primary energy use for heating in the Swedish building sector-Current trends and proposed target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, P.; Nylander, A.; Johnsson, F.

    2007-01-01

    One goal of the Swedish energy policy is to reduce the amount of electricity used for heating in the building sector. This means to reduce the primary energy used for heating which in this paper is analyzed in the context of various heating technologies and CO 2 emissions. The analysis is applied to a region in Sweden (southern Sweden) for which detailed information on the energy infrastructure (the capital stock of the buildings and heating systems together with geographical variations in heat intensity) is available from a previous work [Johansson, P., Nylander, A., Johnsson, F., 2005. Electricity dependency and CO 2 emissions from heating in the Swedish building sector-current trends in conflict with governmental policy? Energy policy] and which is large enough to be assumed representative for Sweden as a whole. The detailed mapping of the energy infrastructure allows a good estimate on the rate at which the energy system can be expected to be replaced with respect to economical lifetime of the capital stock (the year 2025 in this case). Two scenarios are investigated; a target scenario for which energy savings are employed (e.g. improving climate shell in buildings) and oil and most of the electricity used for heating purposes are phased out and a second for which the current trend in the heating market continues. In the target scenario it is shown that although only applying commercially competitive heating technologies, it is possible to achieve a 47% reduction in primary energy use for heating with a 34% decrease in heat demand together with significant reduction in CO 2 emissions. However, the scenario which continues the current trends on the heating market instead yields an increase (of about 10%) in primary energy use (reduction in conversion efficiency) of the heating system of the region over the period studied, in spite of a slight decrease in heat demand (9%, mainly due to energy efficiency measures) as well as in CO 2 emissions. In light of the

  14. Lifestyle causes of male infertility

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    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. Materials and method: A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. Results: In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. Conclusion: The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking

  15. Adaptive threshold hunting for the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on primary motor cortex inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Ronan A; Cirillo, John; Byblow, Winston D

    2018-06-01

    Primary motor cortex excitability can be modulated by anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). These neuromodulatory effects may, in part, be dependent on modulation within gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory networks. GABAergic function can be quantified non-invasively using adaptive threshold hunting paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The previous studies have used TMS with posterior-anterior (PA) induced current to assess tDCS effects on inhibition. However, TMS with anterior-posterior (AP) induced current in the brain provides a more robust measure of GABA-mediated inhibition. The aim of the present study was to assess the modulation of corticomotor excitability and inhibition after anodal and cathodal tDCS using TMS with PA- and AP-induced current. In 16 young adults (26 ± 1 years), we investigated the response to anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS in a repeated-measures double-blinded crossover design. Adaptive threshold hunting paired-pulse TMS with PA- and AP-induced current was used to examine separate interneuronal populations within M1 and their influence on corticomotor excitability and short- and long-interval inhibition (SICI and LICI) for up to 60 min after tDCS. Unexpectedly, cathodal tDCS increased corticomotor excitability assessed with AP (P = 0.047) but not PA stimulation (P = 0.74). SICI AP was reduced after anodal tDCS compared with sham (P = 0.040). Pearson's correlations indicated that SICI AP and LICI AP modulation was associated with corticomotor excitability after anodal (P = 0.027) and cathodal tDCS (P = 0.042). The after-effects of tDCS on corticomotor excitability may depend on the direction of the TMS-induced current used to make assessments, and on modulation within GABA-mediated inhibitory circuits.

  16. Prevalence of Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma in Infertile Men in Van Region and Effects to Semen Parameters

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    Kerem Taken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU and Mycoplasma hominis (MH in semen cultures of cases with primary infertility in the Van Province, and also to determine the effect of therapy on sperm parameters. Material and Method: The study included 106 individuals divided into three groups: The infertile group (41 cases, the group with lower urinary tract symptoms (33 cases, and the control group (32 cases. The patients in the infertile group had no history of varicocele, testicular torsion, hydrocele, undescended testis, and hormonal disorders. The control group included cases without infertility and lower urinary tract symptoms. The parameters of culture-positive cases in the infertile group were determined before and after therapy. The identification of Mycoplasma species was made using the Biomerieux® Mycoplasma IST 2 (RCS Lyon-France kit. The sperm count was carried out with the Makler counting chamber (Self Medical Industries, Haifa, Israel. Results: In the infertile group, UU was isolated from 17 and MH was isolated from 3 cases. In the group with lower urinary tract symptoms, UU was isolated from 15 (45.5% and MH was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases. In the control group, UU was isolated from 6 (18.8% cases, but MH was isolated from none of the cases. In the infertile group, the sperm counts in 3 culture-positive cases (15% and in 10 culture-negative cases (50% were

  17. Value of hysteroscopy in management of unexplained infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha M. Elbareg

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: As a cause of unexplained infertility, subtle uterine abnormalities are diagnosed only during hysteroscopy and they are relatively common in infertility women. Although the presence of these abnormalities is not detected by the basic investigations for infertility, their correction seems to be necessary when infertility is desired and other infertility causes are excluded.

  18. A prospective cohort study of endometriosis and subsequent risk of infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J.; Farland, L.V.; Tobias, D.K.; Gaskins, A.J.; Spiegelman, D.; Chavarro, J.E.; Rich-Edwards, J.W.; Barbieri, R.L.; Missmer, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is there a temporal relationship between endometriosis and infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Endometriosis is associated with a higher risk of subsequent infertility, but only among women age infertile women undergoing laparoscopic examination. Whether endometriosis is a cause of infertility or an incidental discovery during the infertility examination is unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This study included data collected from 58 427 married premenopausal female nurses infertility risk (defined as attempting to conceive for >12 months) among women with and without endometriosis. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified 4612 incident cases of infertility due to any cause over 362 219 person-years of follow-up. Compared with women without a history of endometriosis, women with endometriosis had an age-adjusted 2-fold increased risk of incident infertility (HR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.76–2.56) that attenuated slightly after accounting for parity. The relationship with endometriosis was only observed among women infertility was similar subsequent to endometriosis diagnosis. Among women with primary infertility, 50% became parous after the endometriosis diagnosis, and among all women with endometriosis, 83% were parous by age 40 years. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION We did not have information on participants' intentions to conceive, but by restricting the analytic population to married women we increased the likelihood that pregnancies were planned (and therefore infertility would be recognized). Women in our cohort with undiagnosed asymptomatic endometriosis will be misclassified as unexposed. However, the small proportion of these women are diluted among the >50 000 women accurately classified as endometriosis-free, minimizing the impact of exposure misclassification on the effect estimates. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS This study supports a temporal association between endometriosis and infertility risk. Our prospective analysis indicates

  19. Male infertility and its causes in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  20. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  1. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  2. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu

    2012-01-01

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  3. Varicocele management for infertility and pain: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Lundy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite being first described two thousand years ago, the varicocele remains a controversial multifaceted disease process with numerous biological consequences including infertility, hypogonadism, and chronic orchidalgia. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and likely include hypoxia, oxidative stress, hyperthermia, anatomical aberrations, and genetics as primary components. Despite a high prevalence amongst asymptomatic fertile men, varicoceles paradoxically also represent the most common correctable cause for male infertility. In this systematic review we discuss the rich historical aspects of the varicocele and the contemporary data regarding its clinical manifestations. We performed a systematic literature review with the goal of comparing outcomes and complication rates of each of the major surgical approaches as they relate to infertility and pain. We performed a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA-compliant systematic literature review for manuscripts focused on varicocele and its biological consequences. We identified 112 studies suitable for qualitative analysis and included 56 of these for quantitative analysis, with an emphasis on infertility and chronic pain outcomes. Taken together, the clinical work to date suggests that the highest fertility rates and the lowest complication rates are associated with the microsurgical subinguinal surgical approach to varicocelectomy. In all, 26–40% of patients undergoing varicocelectomy will successfully achieve short-term spontaneous pregnancy, and up to 90% of all patients undergoing varicocelectomy for pain will have improvement and/or resolution of their symptoms. Taken together, the data support an ongoing role for varicocelectomy in both of these clinical arenas. Keywords: Varicocele, Infertility, Orchidalgia, Hypogonadism, Pampiniform plexus

  4. Results of infertility investigations and follow-up among 312 infertile women and their partners in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhont, Nathalie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Vyankandondera, Joseph; Busasa, Rosette; Gasarabwe, Ammiel; Temmerman, Marleen

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the outcome of infertility investigations and an 18-month follow-up of 312 infertile women and their partners in Rwanda. Between November 2007 and May 2009, an infertility research clinic was opened. Infertile couples received basic infertility

  5. Another face of violence against women: Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Rusen; Taner, Aylin; Guneri, Sezer Er; Yilmaz, Bulent

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objective: Violence against women is a widespread problem and has serious implications on women’s health. Infertility, in many ways, is a very stressful condition that affect social and marital life of a couple; moreover, compared to fertile women, infertile women are twice as vulnerable against violence. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of violence and define the effect of infertility on violence on women receiving infertility treatment. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out 301 infertile women between November 2015 and August 2016 in a state hospital, Izmir. Data were collected as “Sociodemographic Characteristics Form” and “Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale”. Results: The mean age of women was 31.77±5.46 years; the average duration of marriage was 6.93±4.53 years. About 32.5% of women stated that they have suffered from violence throughout their lives and 4.7% of women were still suffering from violence, while 5.0% of women were subjected to violence after infertility was diagnosed. Conclusion: It is an encouraging finding that infertile women have a low exposure to violence. However, despite a low violence rate, there is an increase in violence toward women who have been diagnosed with infertility. PMID:29067064

  6. [Out-of-hours primary care in Germany: general practitioners' views on the current situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenhauser-Mannuß, J; Goetz, K; Scheuer, M; Szescenyi, J; Leutgeb, R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore views, experiences und perspectives of German GPs related to current out-of-hours service provision covering both urban and rural settings. In the context of the international project EurOOHnet (European Research Network for Out-of-Hours Primary Health Care) the German members (of EurOOHnet) developed a questionnaire about organisational structures, infrastructure requirements and the procedures of information flow between regular care and out-of-hours care in 2011. This questionnaire was adopted in every participating country. A comprehensive postal questionnaire was sent to 410 feneral practice cooperatives in Germany. Qualitative content analysis and an inductive reasoning process, supported by the use of Atlas.ti, were used to identify key themes from responses to open-ended questions in the survey. Results were grouped into 3 overarching categories and each of these were grouped into 3 sub-categories. The questionnaire response rate was 44% (181/410). The analysis identified organisational issues (e. g., financing) and infrastructure barriers (e. g., lack of motivated GPs for out-of-hours care) as key themes. Significantly, different priorities between rural and urban GPs were identified. In particular, rural GPs highlighted shortages of GPs and distance between the GP practice and patients' residence as concerning factors impacting on out-of-hours care. Based on reported views from survey respondents, urban and rural primary care service needs vary significantly and, therefore, different solutions are needed to improve out-of-hours primary care and optimise service quality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. The Effect of Marital Violence on Infertility Distress among A Sample of Turkish Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Akyüz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level.

  8. The Effect of Marital Violence on Infertility Distress among A Sample of Turkish Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz, Aygül; Şahiner, Gönül; Seven, Memnun; Bakır, Bilal

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between marital violence and distress level among women with a diagnosis of infertility. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 139 married women diagnosed as primary infertile who applied to an in vitro fertilization (IVF) center in Turkey, between September and December 2009. A descriptive information questionnaire developed by the researcher was used for data collection. In addition, an infertility distress scale (IDS) for determining the severity effect of infertility and the scale for marital violence against women (SDVW) for determining level of marital violence against the women were used. Results: The total IDS score of the study sample was 37.76 ± 10.53. There was no significant relationship between the age and education level of the women and the total IDS score. The total IDS score was higher in women who did not work and those being treated for infertility for more than three years. The total SDVW score of the study sample was 67.0 ± 8.26. The total SDVW score was higher in women who had been trying to have a child for more than six years and had received infertility treatment for longer than three years. The employment status of the women and physical, emotional, and sexual violence scores had a statistically significant relationship with the IDS scores. The emotional violence score was found to have the highest significance among the variables affecting total IDS score. Conclusion: Marital violence is a factor increasing the distress of infertile women. Healthcare staff serving infertile couples should consider the possibility of domestic violence against women as a factor affecting the psychological infertility distress level. PMID:24696770

  9. How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How common is male infertility, and what are its causes? Infertility is ... one-third of infertility cases are caused by male reproductive issues, one-third by female reproductive issues, ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deafness and male infertility Sensorineural deafness and male infertility Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  12. Characteristics of infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction and their relation to body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadia, S.; Waqar, F.; Akhtar, T.; Sultana, S.

    2009-01-01

    Ovulatory dysfunction is a group of disorders with variable clinical presentations occasionally having serious long-term adverse effects. It accounts for 30% of female fertility problems. Evidence suggests an association between an individual's weight and disorders of ovulation. The objective of our study was to describe the clinical and hormonal profile of subfertile women with ovulatory dysfunction in relation to their body mass index (BMI). Methods: This prospective, descriptive study was carried out in Mother and Child Health Centre, PIMS, Islamabad and Railway hospital, Rawalpindi from April 2001 to March 2007. One hundred and thirty eight infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction were included. The clinical data including BMI of each patient was recorded in addition to reports of investigations comprised of cervical smear, pelvic ultrasound and hormonal profile. Results: Primary infertility was found in 61% while secondary in 39% of the patients. The mean age was 29 years and mean duration of infertility was 6 years. Menstrual pattern was normal in 56.5%. BMI was normal in 30.4% while most patients were overweight and obese. Prolonged cycles, history of systemic endocrine disorders, abnormal vaginal discharge, hirsutism, polycystic ovarian morphology and hormonal abnormalities were more frequent in patients with increased BMI. During the study period, 21.7% of the women conceived. Conclusion: Infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction present more frequently with primary infertility. They usually have higher than required BMI. Oligomenorrhoea amenorrhoea, hirsutism and hormonal abnormalities are more frequent in overweight than infertile patients with ovulatory dysfunction having a normal BMI. (author)

  13. A comparison of lurkers and posters within infertility online support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sumaira H; Coulson, Neil S

    2011-10-01

    Current research shows that online support groups can offer people affected by infertility a unique and valuable source of social support. However, to date most research has focused on the experiences of people who post messages to online infertility support groups; in comparison, little is known about how "lurkers" (i.e., those individuals who read messages but do not post messages) use and benefit from online infertility support groups. The purpose of the present study was to compare the use and experience of online infertility support groups between lurkers and posters. A total of 295 participants who were recruited from several online infertility support groups completed an online questionnaire containing questions about their use and experience of online support groups and measures of loneliness, social support, marital satisfaction, and perceived infertility-related stress. Differences between lurkers and posters were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and χ or Fisher exact tests. Results revealed that compared with posters, lurkers visited the online support groups less often and scored significantly lower in overall satisfaction with the online support group. However, both lurkers and posters reported gaining a range of unique benefits from access to an online support group. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in loneliness, social support, infertility-related stress, and marital satisfaction between lurkers and posters. These findings suggest that reading messages posted to online support groups may be as beneficial as interacting with the group.

  14. Self-reported interoceptive awareness in primary care patients with past or current low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehling WE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wolf E Mehling,1,2 Jennifer Daubenmier,1,3 Cynthia J Price,5 Mike Acree,1 Elizabeth Bartmess,1 Anita L Stewart41Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, 4School of Nursing, Institute for Health and Aging, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 5School of Nursing, Department of Biobehavioral Nursing and Health Systems, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USABackground: Mind–body interactions play a major role in the prognosis of chronic pain, and mind–body therapies such as meditation, yoga, Tai Chi, and Feldenkrais presumably provide benefits for pain patients. The Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA scales, designed to measure key aspects of mind–body interaction, were developed and validated with individuals practicing mind–body therapies, but have never been used in pain patients.Methods: We administered the MAIA to primary care patients with past or current low back pain and explored differences in the performance of the MAIA scales between this and the original validation sample. We compared scale means, exploratory item cluster and confirmatory factor analyses, scale–scale correlations, and internal-consistency reliability between the two samples and explored correlations with validity measures.Results: Responses were analyzed from 435 patients, of whom 40% reported current pain. Cross-sectional comparison between the two groups showed marked differences in eight aspects of interoceptive awareness. Factor and cluster analyses generally confirmed the conceptual model with its eight dimensions in a pain population. Correlations with validity measures were in the expected direction. Internal-consistency reliability was good for six of eight MAIA scales. We provided specific suggestions for their further development.Conclusion: Self-reported aspects of interoceptive awareness differ between primary care patients with past or current

  15. OVARIAN AGING AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT

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    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to changes in the socio-economic environment the first pregnancy is being more often postponed to advanced age; an increasing number of women seek medical help for infertility in their late thirties. Degenerative processes in the ovary start as early as after 35 years of age. When the woman is over 38, the signs of hormonal changes occur (FSH, inhibin, the menstrual cycle changes, and fertility is being increasingly reduced. Infertility treatment by assisted reproduction technology (ART has proved less efficient in older than in younger women.Material and methods. In a retrospective analysis we evaluated the success rates achieved with homologous intrauterine insemination (IUI, in vitro fertilization and embryo-transfer (IVF-ET, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and compared them in regard to the women > 38 years vs. < 38 years.Results. After IUI the pregnancy rate in the women over 38 was 3.7% per patient (1.5% per cycle and 28.0% (9.9% in the women younger than 38 years. After IVF-ET the pregnancy rate in the over 38-year group was 16% per patient (14% per cycle, and 28% per patient (25% per cycle in the less than 38-year group. After ICSI, the pregnancy rate in the group over 38 years was 11% per patient (9% per cycle, and 25% per patient (22% per cycle in the less than 38-year group. In the analysed population, the spontaneous abortion rate was 26.0% in the group of women aged over 38 years, and 14.0% in the group of women aged less than 38 years.Conclusions. Before introduction of an ART procedure the woman with advanced age should be properly counselled and well informed about poor success of their infertility treatment and high spontaneous abortion rate.

  16. Lifestyle causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2018-03-01

    To examine the potential effects of lifestyle factors on male reproductive health. Evidence of a global decline in human sperm quality over recent decades has been accumulating. Environmental, occupational, and modifiable lifestyle factors may contribute to this decline. This review focuses on key lifestyle factors that are associated with male infertility such as smoking cigarettes, alcohol intake, use of illicit drugs, obesity, psychological stress, advanced paternal age, dietary practices, and coffee consumption. Other factors such as testicular heat stress, intense cycling training, lack of sleep and exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone use are briefly discussed. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify and synthesise all relevant information, mainly from within the last decade, on the major lifestyle factors associated with male infertility and semen quality. Database searches were limited to reports published in English only. A manual search of bibliographies of the reports retrieved was conducted to identify additional relevant articles. In all, 1012 articles were identified from the database search and after reviewing the titles and abstract of the reports, 104 articles met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 30 reports were excluded as the full-text could not be retrieved and the abstract did not have relevant data. The remaining 74 reports were reviewed for data on association between a particular lifestyle factor and male infertility and were included in the present review. The major lifestyle factors discussed in the present review are amongst the multiple potential risk factors that could impair male fertility. However, their negative impact may well be mostly overcome by behaviour modification and better lifestyle choices. Greater awareness and recognition of the possible impact of these lifestyle factors are important amongst couples seeking conception.

  17. Improving the Reporting of Clinical Trials of Infertility Treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which creates a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant after ≥20 weeks' gestation) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and couples

  18. Self-reported infertility among male and female veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Jodie; Cypel, Yasmin; Raza, Mubashra; Zephyrin, Laurie; Reiber, Gayle; Yano, Elizabeth M; Barth, Shannon; Schneiderman, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Infertility is associated with psychosocial distress and is a growing public health concern. Our objective was to report the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility among men and women Veterans. We used data from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs National Health Study for a New Generation of U.S. Veterans, a nationally representative survey of Veterans serving during Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). The primary dependent variables were self-reported lifetime history of infertility among Veterans and their partners, defined as trying unsuccessfully to become pregnant for at least 12 months, and seeking medical help for infertility. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether gender was associated with lifetime history of infertility or seeking medical help for infertility, after adjusting for sociodemographic and military characteristics. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex survey design and nonresponse. Among the 20,370 Veterans (16,056 men; 4,314 women) in our final analytic sample, the prevalence of lifetime history of infertility was 15.8% for women and 13.8% for men. After adjusting for age, ever married, education, race/ethnicity, component, branch of service, and deployment to OEF/OIF, compared with men, women Veterans had similar odds of lifetime history of infertility (odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94, 1.20), but increased odds of seeking medical help for infertility (OR 1.35; 95% CI 1.06, 1.72). Women Veterans are more likely than their male counterparts to seek care for infertility, and given their increasing numbers, the demand for infertility evaluation and care within Veterans' Affairs may increase.

  19. The Effect of Provision of Information Regarding Infertility Treatment Strategies on Anxiety Level of Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hamdieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility may have many emotional and psychological implications on infertilecouples. So far, different methods for reducing anxiety in infertile couples have been evaluated. Thegoal of this study is to evaluate the effect of provision of information regarding infertility treatmentto infertile couples on their anxiety levels.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a before and after clinical trial. Forty-twoindividuals were considered as cases and 40 as controls. In order to evaluate anxiety and depressionin participants, the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire was used. Theintervention group received information about infertility treatment through a two hour face-to-facemeeting and was provided with a brochure. Anxiety level was assessed at the time of admission,immediately after the session and two weeks later. Assessment was performed twice for the controlgroup; once at the time of admission and secondly, two weeks later.Results: Our results show that receiving information about infertility treatment significantlydecreases anxiety among infertile couples two weeks post-training. This decline does not have asignificant correlation with age, sex, education level of the couple, and neither with the durationnor the cause of infertility. Providing information does not have any significant effect on the rate ofdepression among couples.Conclusion: It is recommended that provision of information regarding infertility treatmentmethods should be considered as a means of decreasing anxiety among infertile couples who referto infertility treatment centers.

  20. Huntington's disease: current epidemiology and pharmacological management in UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackley, Catherine; Hoppitt, Thomas J; Calvert, Melanie; Gill, Paramjit; Eaton, Benjamin; Yao, Guiqing; Pall, Hardev

    2011-01-01

    Recent debate suggests Huntington's disease (HD) may be more prevalent than previously reported. In addition, relatively little is known about current disease management. This study aims to provide epidemiological data and describe the pharmacological management of HD in the United Kingdom. A primary care research database was accessed to identify incident and prevalent HD cases between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2008. Patients with Read codes denoting a definite diagnosis or possible diagnosis, and undiagnosed patients with a positive family history were identified. A subset of patients with a definite diagnosis and prescribed medication indicating symptom onset was also identified. Epidemiological data were estimated. Pharmacological prescriptions to HD patients from 2004 to 2008 were identified, and prescription frequencies were grouped according to the British National Formulary categories. HD incidence estimates ranged from 0.44 to 0.78 per 100,000 person-years, and HD prevalence ranged from 5.96 to 6.54 per 100,000 of the population. Forty-four percent of pharmacological prescriptions targeted the central nervous system. Nearly half of the HD patients were prescribed antidepressants, and over 40% were prescribed analgesics. Although prevalence estimates fell short of figures suggested in recent debate, it is feasible that the true prevalence may be much higher than previously reported. Pharmacological management appears to rely heavily on central nervous system drugs and nutrition support. Many of these drugs are prescribed to HD patients for reasons other than the medication's primary use. Further work is required to evaluate the impact of alternative management strategies, such as therapist intervention, counselling, and organisation support, on the patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Infertility among Yoruba Women: Perceptions on Causes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yoruba of southwest Nigeria believe that infertility can be due to spittle problems, for which orthodox medical treatment is not appropriate. Therefore, women frequently seek prevention and treatment for infertility from local herbal and spiritual specialists, and from churches. This article presents preliminary findings from ...

  2. Is Infertility Associated with Childhood Autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Judith K.; Qian, Yinge; Croughan, Mary S.; Wu, Yvonne W.; Schembri, Michael; Camarano, Loretta; Croen, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns persist about a possible link between infertility and risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Interpretation of existing studies is limited by racial/ethnic homogeneity of study populations and other factors. Using a case-control design, we evaluated infertility history and treatment documented in medical records of members of Kaiser…

  3. Infertility, psychological distress, and coping strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent ...

  4. [48,XXYY men with azoospermia: how to manage infertility?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, C; Sonigo, C; Benmiloud-Tandjaoui, N; Boujenah, J; Benzacken, B; Poncelet, C; Hugues, J-N

    2014-01-01

    48,XXYY syndrome is a rare form of sex chromosomal aneuploidy. Usually considered as a variant of Klinefelter syndrome because of shared features (azoospermia, tall stature, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism), it is a separate entity because diagnostic is currently made in prepubertal boy with neuro-psychological disorders. We here report the case of a 48,XXYY patient consulting for adult infertility and the indication to perform testicular sperm extraction is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetics of mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demain, L A M; Conway, G S; Newman, W G

    2017-02-01

    Increasingly, mitochondria are being recognized as having an important role in fertility. Indeed in assisted reproductive technologies mitochondrial function is a key indicator of sperm and oocyte quality. Here, we review the literature regarding mitochondrial genetics and infertility. In many multisystem disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction death occurs prior to sexual maturity, or the clinical features are so severe that infertility may be underreported. Interestingly, many of the genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and infertility have roles in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial translation. Studies on populations with genetically uncharacterized infertility have highlighted an association with mitochondrial DNA deletions, whether this is causative or indicative of poor functioning mitochondria requires further examination. Studies on the impact of mitochondrial DNA variants present conflicting data but highlight POLG as a particularly interesting candidate gene for both male and female infertility. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. General aspects of fertility and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damario, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fertility rates have been declining in most Western nations over the past several decades, although it is not entirely clear if an increased rate of infertility substantially contributes to this. As compared to other species, the reproductive efficiency of humans is relatively low. Factors related to fertility include age, exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, frequency of intercourse, coital timing, as well as diet and lifestyle habits. Infertility is considered a disease due to its major disruption of major organ systems and life functions. An infertility evaluation is recommended after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected intercourse and may be considered after 6 months for those female patients over the age of 35 or with other known abnormalities. A proper infertility evaluation is a comprehensive examination of possibly identifiable infertility factors of both female and male partners, lending itself to the most appropriate and potentially effective treatment.

  7. Early Marriage: a Policy for Infertility Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Female fertility begins to decline many years prior to the onset of menopause despite continued regular ovulatory cycles. Age related infertility is due to oocyte abnormalities and decreased ovarian reserve. Treatment of infertility when the cause is limited to decreased ovarian reserve is empirical at present except for oocyte donation. This mini review of the literature covers all available English biomedical journals that have been published from 1995 to 2008. The search based on combination of the words age, fertility, infertility, and oocyte abnormalities. The important findings from this search strategy are summarized and presented in the sub headings including female age and fertility, miscarriage and in vitro fertilization. Regarding infertility prevention, this mini review suggested that early marriage is a primordial, effective, inexpensive and easy way to prevent infertility.

  8. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex improves word-retrieval in older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus eMeinzer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Language facilitation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in healthy individuals has generated hope that tDCS may also allow improving language impairment after stroke (aphasia. However, current stimulation protocols have yielded variable results and may require identification of residual language cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, which complicates incorporation into clinical practice. Based on previous behavioral studies that demonstrated improved language processing by motor system pre-activation, the present study assessed whether tDCS administered to the primary motor cortex (M1 can enhance language functions.This proof-of-concept study employed a sham-tDCS controlled, cross-over, within-subject design and assessed the impact of unilateral excitatory (anodal and bihemispheric (dual tDCS in eighteen healthy older adults during semantic word-retrieval and motor speech tasks. Simultaneous fMRI scrutinized the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS effects.Both active tDCS conditions significantly improved word-retrieval compared to sham-tDCS. The direct comparison of activity elicited by word-retrieval vs. motor-speech trials revealed bilateral frontal activity increases during both anodal- and dual-tDCS compared to sham-tDCS. This effect was driven by more pronounced deactivation of frontal regions during the motor-speech task, while activity during word-retrieval trials was unaffected by the stimulation. No effects were found in M1 and secondary motor regions.Our results show that tDCS administered to M1 can improve word-retrieval in healthy individuals, thereby providing a rationale to explore whether M1-tDCS may offer a novel approach to improve language functions in aphasia. fMRI revealed neural facilitation specifically during motor speech trials, which may have reduced switching costs between the overlapping neural systems for lexical retrieval and speech processing, thereby resulting in improved

  9. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the primary motor cortex improves word-retrieval in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Marcus; Lindenberg, Robert; Sieg, Mira M; Nachtigall, Laura; Ulm, Lena; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Language facilitation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in healthy individuals has generated hope that tDCS may also allow improving language impairment after stroke (aphasia). However, current stimulation protocols have yielded variable results and may require identification of residual language cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which complicates incorporation into clinical practice. Based on previous behavioral studies that demonstrated improved language processing by motor system pre-activation, the present study assessed whether tDCS administered to the primary motor cortex (M1) can enhance language functions. This proof-of-concept study employed a sham-tDCS controlled, cross-over, within-subject design and assessed the impact of unilateral excitatory (anodal) and bihemispheric (dual) tDCS in 18 healthy older adults during semantic word-retrieval and motor speech tasks. Simultaneous fMRI scrutinized the neural mechanisms underlying tDCS effects. Both active tDCS conditions significantly improved word-retrieval compared to sham-tDCS. The direct comparison of activity elicited by word-retrieval vs. motor-speech trials revealed bilateral frontal activity increases during both anodal- and dual-tDCS compared to sham-tDCS. This effect was driven by more pronounced deactivation of frontal regions during the motor-speech task, while activity during word-retrieval trials was unaffected by the stimulation. No effects were found in M1 and secondary motor regions. Our results show that tDCS administered to M1 can improve word-retrieval in healthy individuals, thereby providing a rationale to explore whether M1-tDCS may offer a novel approach to improve language functions in aphasia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed neural facilitation specifically during motor speech trials, which may have reduced switching costs between the overlapping neural systems for lexical retrieval and speech processing, thereby resulting in

  10. Characteristics and Outcomes of Female Infertility Treatment Programs Using Traditional Medicine in Korea: A Multisite Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Han; Jang, Soobin; Lee, Ju Ah; Go, Ho-Yeon; Jung, Jeeyoun; Park, Sunju; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2018-03-22

    Infertility has long been recognized as a treatable disease, and complementary and alternative medicine treatments, such as acupuncture and moxibustion, have been used in Korea and China. This study describes female infertility treatment programs that used traditional Korean medicine (TKM) and were conducted by local governments in Korea and evaluates its effectiveness and safety. The authors officially requested related information from the report of the infertility treatment programs and related sources from 2006 to 2016 from the Health & Welfare Ministry of Korea and the Association of Korean Medicine (AKOM). Additional information was obtained from six Korean databases. Data including basic information about the programs, participant information, interventions, and outcomes were abstracted. A total of 9 reports, including multiple years of data from 6 programs (total 13 programs), were identified. In these 13 programs, a total of 1023 female subjects participated, and 205 of the 887 subjects who completed the program reported a successful pregnancy, indicating a 23.1% pregnancy rate. The programs lasted 3-9 months, and interventional elements, such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, fumigation, and massage, were identified. Significant adverse effects were not reported. This study suggests that infertility treatment programs with TKM interventions exhibited a positive effect on pregnancy in females with infertility. Thus, the infertility treatment programs with TKM interventions are expected to be useful and might serve as the primary treatment before assisted reproduction techniques.

  11. A radiologic analysis and comparative evaluation of hysterosalpingographic and laparoscopic findings in infertile patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hang Young; Kim, Soo Won; Chung, Hye Kyung; Yu, Yun Jeong

    1984-01-01

    Hystreosalpingogram of 375 patients with infertility were reviewed with reference to radiological feature of each pathology and a comparative study of hysterosalpingography and laparoscopy in 36 patients was presented. This results were as follows;1. In 375 cases of infertility, 191 cases (50.9%) were primary infertility and 181 cases (49.1%) were secondary infertility. 2. The peak age distribution was 26 to 30 year old group in 211 cases (56.3%), and the peak duration of infertility was less than 3 years in 256 cases (68.3%). 3. Abnormal uterine findings were 115 cases (30.7%) and there were 73 cases of filling defects, 13 cases of irregularity, 12 cases of uterine flexion, 11 cases of congenital anomaly, and 9 cases of hypoplasia among them. 4. Abnormal tubal findings were 196 cases (52.3%) and there were 103 cases of simple obstruction, 69 cases of hydrosalpinx, and 50 cases of peritubal adhesion among them. 5. Intravasation of contrast media was noted in 42 cases (11.2%). 6. In 36 cases of laparoscopy, 23 cases (63.7%) was agreed to hysterosalpingography. 7. Although laparoscopy was better than hysterosalpingography in external anatomy of salpinx and relationship to ovary, hysterosalpingography should be important for fundamental study of infertile women because of lower failure rate, lower risk of complications, therapeutic effect, and lower cost.

  12. The Social Consequences of Infertility among Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syedeh Batool Hasanpoor-Azghdy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment. Materials and Methods: A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method. Results: Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation. Conclusion: This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences.

  13. The pattern of hysterosalpingographic findings in women being investigated for infertility in Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, C O; Okafor, C I; Okpala, O C; Umeh, E

    2010-09-01

    Tubal occlusion is the commonest cause of female infertility in the developing societies. Hysterosalpingography remains a vital method of assessing tubal patency especially in resource limited settings such as ours. To review the pattern of hysterosalpingographic findings among women being investigated for infertility in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria over a period of five years (2001-2005). The data obtained from the request forms and radiologists' reports were analyzed using SPSS version 11. The level of statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Of the 320 studied, 230 were found suitable for analysis. Their ages ranged from 20 to 44 years (mean 32.8 +/- 5.8 years). The indications were primary infertility in 103 (44.8%), secondary infertility in 88(38.3%), while in 39 (16.9%) patients the type of infertility was not specified. The reports revealed that 67 (29.1%) had normal HSG Cervical abnormalities were found in 34 (14.8%), uterine cavity abnormalities in 108 (47.0%). Tubal pathologies were seen in 100 (43.5%) with bilateral tubal occlusion in 43 (18.7%) and bilateral hydrosalpinges in 6 (2.6%) patients. Tubal pathology remains a major contributor to female infertility in this part of the world.

  14. The management of uterine fibroids in women with otherwise unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Havelock, Jon; Hemmings, Robert

    2015-03-01

    To provide recommendations regarding the best management of fibroids in couples who present with infertility. Usual and novel treatment options for fibroids will be reviewed with emphasis on their applicability in women who wish to conceive. Management of fibroids in women wishing to conceive first involves documentation of the presence of the fibroid and determination of likelihood of the fibroid impacting on the ability to conceive. Treatment of fibroids in this instance is primarily surgical, but must be weighed against the evidence of surgical management improving clinical outcomes, and risks specific to surgical management and approach. The outcomes of primary concern are the improvement in pregnancy rates and outcomes with management of fibroids in women with infertility. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library in November 2013 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., leiomyoma, infertility, uterine artery embolization, fertilization in vitro) and key words (e.g., fibroid, myomectomy). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies published in English and French. There were no date restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to November 2013. Grey (unpublished literature) was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). These recommendations are expected to allow adequate management of women with fibroids and infertility, maximizing their chances of pregnancy by minimizing risks introduced by unnecessary myomectomies. Reducing complications and

  15. Hydrotubation in the management of female infertility: outcome in low resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesiyun, A G; Cole, B; Ogwuche, P

    2009-01-01

    To determine the outcome of therapeutic hydrotubation (tubal flushing) in patients with tubal infertility and unexplained infertility. Prospective non-randomised observational study. Alba hospital, a five bed multidisciplinary private hospital in Kaduna city, Nigeria. Infertile women with tubal and unexplained infertility. Two hundred and fifty seven patients that had therapeutic hydrotubation over 7.5 years were analysed. The age range was 21 to 44 years with mean of 34.5 years. Secondary infertility was found in 209 (81.3%) patients and primary infertility in 166 (64.6%) patients. Of the 257 patients, 134 (52.1%) had had induced abortion. Indications for hydrotubation were bilateral perifimbrial adhesion (incomplete tubal occlusion) 47.9%, bilateral fimbrial end occlusion 24.9%, bilateral cornual blockage 16% and unexplained infertility in 11.3% of cases. One hundred and nine conceptions were recorded in this study and the overall conception rate was 42.4%. Likewise, percentage ratio of conception in these 154 patients with evidence of post-hydrotubation tubal patency was 70.8%. Pregnancy outcome of the 109 conceptions are term pregnancy 84.4%, preterm pregnancy 9.2%, miscarriage 4.6% and ectopic pregnancy in 1.8% of the conceptions. Recorded complications were pelvic pain in 177 (68.9%) patients and vaginal bleeding in 63 (24.5%) patients. With good case selection, therapeutic hydrotubation may be beneficial in resource poor countries, especially in patients with incomplete tubal occlusion (bilateral perifimbrial adhesions) and as part of treatment for unexplained infertility.

  16. Access to and use of infertility services in the United States: framing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adashi, Eli Y; Dean, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    An overview of access to and use of general infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) services in the United States (U.S.) shows a declining trend for the ever-use of infertility services. Moreover, the use of ART services lags relative to other member nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Access to and use of general infertility and ART services is primarily undermined by a severely constrained underwriting universe dominated by self-insured employers and by a finite number of state infertility insurance mandates. The contribution of traditional public and private payers to the underwriting of ART is limited. As compared with OECD member nations wherein the access to and underwriting of general infertility and ART services is universal, the current status quo in the U.S. can only be characterized as dismal. Further, the current state of affairs is socially unjust in that the right to build a family in the face of infertility appears to have become a function of economic prowess. Given the dominance of the self-insured employers as underwriters of general infertility and ART services, advocacy directed at this interest group is likely to prove most productive. Improving the state of underwriting of general infertility and ART services in the U.S. must be embraced as a central moral imperative and as an unwavering strategic goal of the professional societies entrusted with the reproductive health of women and men. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Infertility – prevention and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Emily C; Marder, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Summary Women with autoimmune diseases are more at risk for infertility and subfertility, menstrual irregularities and decreased parity due to multiple possible etiologies, including underlying inflammatory disease, gonadotoxic medications, and psychosocial issues related to living with chronic disease. An awareness of these issues, and the validation and support of patients going through fertility related issues, is important for providing comprehensive care to this patient population. In particular, an understanding of the expanding options for fertility preservation strategies during gonadotoxic medications is essential, including gonadotropin releasing hormone analogues (GnRH-a) co-therapy and oocyte cryopreservation. Referral to a reproductive endocrinology clinic is indicated in this patient population, in part to help manage symptoms of hypoestrogenism that may result from GnRH-a therapy. PMID:28390569

  18. Test result communication in primary care: a survey of current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchfield, Ian; Bentham, Louise; Lilford, Richard; McManus, Richard J; Hill, Ann; Greenfield, Sheila

    2015-11-01

    The number of blood tests ordered in primary care continues to increase and the timely and appropriate communication of results remains essential. However, the testing and result communication process includes a number of participants in a variety of settings and is both complicated to manage and vulnerable to human error. In the UK, guidelines for the process are absent and research in this area is surprisingly scarce; so before we can begin to address potential areas of weakness there is a need to more precisely understand the strengths and weaknesses of current systems used by general practices and testing facilities. We conducted a telephone survey of practices across England to determine the methods of managing the testing and result communication process. In order to gain insight into the perspectives from staff at a large hospital laboratory we conducted paired interviews with senior managers, which we used to inform a service blueprint demonstrating the interaction between practices and laboratories and identifying potential sources of delay and failure. Staff at 80% of practices reported that the default method for communicating normal results required patients to telephone the practice and 40% of practices required that patients also call for abnormal results. Over 80% had no fail-safe system for ensuring that results had been returned to the practice from laboratories; practices would otherwise only be aware that results were missing or delayed when patients requested results. Persistent sources of missing results were identified by laboratory staff and included sample handling, misidentification of samples and the inefficient system for collating and resending misdirected results. The success of the current system relies on patients both to retrieve results and in so doing alert staff to missing and delayed results. Practices appear slow to adopt available technological solutions despite their potential for reducing the impact of recurring errors in the

  19. Industrial hazardous waste management in Turkey: Current state of the field and primary challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihoglu, Gueray

    2010-01-01

    A holistic evaluation of a country's hazardous waste management (HWM) practices is useful in identifying the necessary actions to focus on. Based on an analysis of industrial hazardous waste (HW) generation in Turkey, this paper attempts to critically evaluate and report current Turkish HWM practices and discuss the primary challenges to be addressed. The generation of industrial HW for Turkey reported in 2004 was 1.195 million tons, which accounted for 7% of the total industrial solid waste (ISW) generated by the manufacturing industry, and for nearly 4.9% of the total solid waste generated in the country. The HW generated by the top five manufacturing product categories - basic metals, chemicals and chemical products, food and beverages, coke and refined petroleum, motor vehicles and trailers - accounted for 89.0% of total industrial HW. 21% of the HW generated in 2004 was recycled or reused, and 6% was sold or donated, whereas 73% was sent to ultimate disposal. 67% of the HW sent to ultimate disposal was disposed of at municipal landfills. The total capacity of the existing regional HW facilities is 212,500 tons/year, which accounts for about 24% of the HW to be disposed. Turkey has identified the HW problem in the country and enacted legislation, designated a lead agency, and promulgated rules and regulations. Several new initiatives are planned for improving HW management nationally; however, some HWM problems will be persistent due to previous and existing industrial development plans. These development policies led to the concentration of industry in regions marked by precious agricultural fields and high population density. This occurred because the government previously exhibited a default prioritization towards industrial development, leading to insufficient implementation of regulations on HW generators. Some of the problems may also be rooted in other countries that allow illegal transboundary HW movements despite international regulations.

  20. Current Issues in the Presentation of Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Bart L.; Peacock, Munro; Bandeira, Francisco; Boutroy, Stephanie; Cusano, Natalie E.; Dempster, David; Lewiecki, E. Michael; Liu, Jian-Min; Minisola, Salvatore; Rejnmark, Lars; Silva, Barbara C.; Walker, Marcella D.; Bilezikian, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This report summarizes data on traditional and nontraditional manifestations of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) that have been published since the last International Workshop on PHPT. Participants: This subgroup was constituted by the Steering Committee to address key questions related to the presentation of PHPT. Consensus was established at a closed meeting of the Expert Panel that followed. Evidence: Data from the 5-year period between 2008 and 2013 were presented and discussed to determine whether they support changes in recommendations for surgery or nonsurgical follow-up. Consensus Process: Questions were developed by the International Task Force on PHPT. A comprehensive literature search for relevant studies was undertaken. After extensive review and discussion, the subgroup came to agreement on what changes in the recommendations for surgery or nonsurgical follow-up of asymptomatic PHPT should be made to the Expert Panel. Conclusions: 1) There are limited new data available on the natural history of asymptomatic PHPT. Although recognition of normocalcemic PHPT (normal serum calcium with elevated PTH concentrations; no secondary cause for hyperparathyroidism) is increasing, data on the clinical presentation and natural history of this phenotype are limited. 2) Although there are geographic differences in the predominant phenotypes of PHPT (symptomatic, asymptomatic, normocalcemic), they do not justify geography-specific management guidelines. 3) Recent data using newer, higher resolution imaging and analytic methods have revealed that in asymptomatic PHPT, both trabecular bone and cortical bone are affected. 4) Clinically silent nephrolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis can be detected by renal imaging and should be listed as a new criterion for surgery. 5) Current data do not support a cardiovascular evaluation or surgery for the purpose of improving cardiovascular markers, anatomical or functional abnormalities. 6) Some patients with mild PHPT

  1. Leptin levels in infertile males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, S.; Bibi, R.; Ahmed, S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the leptin levels in the serum of normal, sub fertile and infertile men. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Sciences Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad and Dr. Salma and Kafeel Medical Centre, Islamabad, from April to December 2009. Methodology: Serum leptin levels hormonal concentrations (LH, FSH and testosterone) were determined by EIA in 154 males including 24 (15.58%) fertile, 19 (12.34%) polyzoospermic (PZs), 26 (16.88%) teratozoospermic (TZs), 27 (17.53%) astheno-teratozoospermic (ATZs), 18 (11.69%) oligozoospermic (OZs), 18 (11.69%) oligo-astheno-teratozoospermic (OATZs), 11 (7.14%) obstructive azoospermic (OBST-AZOOs) and 11 (7.14%) non-obstructive azoospermic (NON-OBST-AZOOs). BMI was also determined, divided into groups of greater than 24. Hormonal concentrations were compared by ANOVA and correlation was performed by using Graph pad prism version 5. Results: Significantly high levels of leptin concentrations were found in fertile (p 24 compared to fertile and infertile male patients with BMI 24. Leptin showed a significant positive correlation with LH (p < 0.01) and FSH (p < 0.002) and a significant negative correlation with testosterone (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Abnormal leptin level was significantly associated with fertility problems in males. Providing a link between leptin and reproduction factors contributing in control of testosterone and gonadotropins secretion in many aspects depending on fertility status in male subjects. BMI appears to have significant association with serum leptin levels. (author)

  2. Is male infertility a forerunner to cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney R. Burns

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The frequency of testicular cancer and male infertility has been increasing in the past several decades. This article examines the relationship between male infertility and testicular cancer, concentrating particularly on causal links. RESULTS: Both of these disorders are associated with testicular dysgenesis syndrome and have also been traced to mutations in genes involving DNA repair and tumor suppression, as well as environmental exposure. CONCLUSION: The identification and examination of these common points of origin supports the integration of testicular cancer screenings into the routine evaluation of infertile men.

  3. Frequency of endometrial tuberculosis in female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf, A.; Zaman, G.; Sultana, N.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of endometrial tuberculosis in infertility patients. Design: an observational analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Military Hospital Rawalpindi and Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi from August 1998 to April 1999. Subjects and Methods: Endometrial biopsies were taken from 50 cases of infertility and subjected to culture on BACTEC 460 TB instrument. Results: Tuberculous endometritis was found in 10 % (n=5) of cases. Conclusion: It was concluded that endometrial tuberculosis is not an infrequent cause of infertility in our setup. (author)

  4. Environment as a Risk Factor for Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Multigner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility affects 15% of couples in Western countries. Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of attempts without contraception, but it is not synonymous with sterility. Between 30 and 50% of infertile couples are infertile due to male reasons, mainly due to sperm production disorders. Although some risk factors, most of which are infectious, have been identified, there is still much uncertainty about the origins of male infertility.

  5. Prevalence of Infertility Problems among Iranian Infertile Patients Referred to Royan Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Shokri, Fatemeh; Vesali, Samira; Karimi, Elaheh; Omani Samani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the infertility problems in Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infertility problems and related factors in Iranian infertile patients. In this cross sectional study, 405 infertile patients referred to Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran, between 2014 and 2015, were selected by simple random sampling. Participants completed the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) including 46 questions in five domains (social concern, sexual concern, relationship concern, rejection of parenthood, and need for parenthood). Mean difference between male and female was verified using independent-samples Student's t test. A generalized linear model (GLM) was also used for testing the effect of variables on the fertility problems. Data was analyzed using Stata software version 13. The mean age (SD) of participants was 31.28 (5.42). Our results showed that 160 infertile men (95.23%) were classified as very high prevalence of infertility problems. Among infertile women, 83 patients (35.02%) were as very high prevalence of infertility problems, and 154 patients (64.98%) were as high prevalence. Age (Pmale with lower education level, history of abortion and history of previous treatments failure experienced more infertility problems.

  6. The psychological impact of infertility and fertility treatment on the male partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Maeve; Dineen, Tim; Sarma, Kiran; Nolan, Aonghus

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports the findings of two studies that examined factors predicting infertility distress in male partners within couples with an infertility diagnosis and where the couple was receiving fertility treatment. A cross-sectional design was implemented using a questionnaire battery (The questionnaire battery comprised an inventory of four different standardised questionnaires compiled together into one booklet) compiled from earlier theory-building qualitative research conducted by the authors. Infertility related distress was examined in relation to a number of psychosocial variables including relationship dynamics, self-esteem, current mental health and attitudes towards idealised masculinity. The questionnaire battery was completed by 167 men undergoing or consulting for fertility treatment. Participants were recruited through Irish fertility clinics (Study 1, n = 111) and through an online survey (Study 2, n = 55). Regression analyses identified four variables that predicted variance in infertility distress in both studies: 'Attitude towards idealised masculinity', 'Mental health', 'Relationship satisfaction' and 'Self-esteem'. This finding was found to be robust having controlled for age, time since diagnosis, number of attempts at treatment and diagnostic category (male factor, female factor or mixed factor infertility). ConclusiON: Recommendations for fertility clinics and mental health professionals should be made in relation to managing infertility distress and supporting couples during fertility treatment.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  8. Laparoscopic finding of female infertility-a study of 186 cases at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasir, N.; Fatima, A.; Parveen, S.; Tariq, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the various causes of female infertility, diagnosed at laparoscopy. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan from April 2008 to December 2010. Patients and Methods: A series of 186 patients, having either primary or secondary infertility admitted through gynae outpatient department undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy and meeting inclusion criteria were studied. The data was collected prospectively and analysed in the form of frequency and percentages by using SPSS version 10. Results: Amongst the cohort of 186 patients, 148 (79.6%) had primary and 38 (20.4%) had secondary infertility. Their ages ranged from 20 to 43 years. Mean age of study participants was 30.14 +- 4.04 years. Mean duration of infertility was 9.5 years. No laparoscopic abnormality was found in 51 (27.9%), while there were abnormal findings in 135 (72.6%) patients. Conclusion: Commonest etiological factor was tubal blockade in both types of infertility. Other factors were endometriosis, pelvic adhesions and fibroids. Laparoscopy is minimally invasive yet a reliable procedure for visualization of internal architecture of the female pelvis. (author)

  9. The diagnostic value of radionuclide hysterosalphingography on oviduct function in infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhixiang; Li Guangyu; Li Zhigang; Dong Jian; Ren Chun'e; Li Yanmin; Jiang Aifang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the criteria of normal and abnormal oviduct function and the difference of oviduct function between the primary and secondary infertile patients. Methods: Twenty-nine cases of normal controls and 126 infertile women were imaged by improved radionuclide hysterosalpingography (RNHS). Results: In the normal control group with small dose fractional injection of 99 Tc m -macroaggregated albumin (MAA) into cervical canal, the appearance time of radioactivity in ovarian tube by dynamic imaging was (4.0±2.7) s. When there was much more liquid retained in uterus, the ovarian appearance time delayed to (18.0±1.2) s. Combined the injection under pressure and second dynamic imaging in all 252 ovarian tubes of 126 cases, the damaged fallopian tubes could be divided into six patterns. Among all of the infertile women whose fallopian tubes showed mechanical patency by the X-ray hysterosalpingography (HSG), their positivity of damaged fallopian tube fuction reached 70.5% by RNHS. Besides, the mild and severe functional abnormality of fallopian tube in patients of primary and secondary infertility were 20.3% and 11.9% versus 14.9% and 17.9% respectively. Conclusion: Modified RNHS has important diagnostic value for judgment of the damage magnitude and patency of fallopian tube in infertile women. (authors)

  10. Current problems of teaching spelling in the first cycle of Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Valcárcel González

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents from the theoretical point of view the spelling problem as one of the main difficulties that there is in Primary Education and in which teachers intensively work searching for solutions.

  11. Hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility: Clinical case scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Dabbous

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the evaluation, treatment and impact of hyperprolactinaemia on male infertility and testicular function, as hyperprolactinaemia is commonly detected during the evaluation of infertile men. Methods: A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines to identify all studies exploring hyperprolactinaemia in male infertility. Results: Elevated levels of serum prolactin have a detrimental effect on male reproduction through inhibition of the pulsatile release of gonadotrophins from the anterior pituitary gland, and a direct effect on spermatogenesis. Treatment of confirmed hyperprolactinaemia with dopamine agonists leads to significant improvements in both semen parameters and hormone levels. Conclusion: Hyperprolactinaemia, both directly and indirectly, has a negative effect on sperm production, and its detection and management in men seeking fertility is mandatory. Keywords: Prolactin, Male infertility, Dopamine agonists, Testosterone, Pituitary adenoma

  12. Infertility, Psychological Distress, and Coping Strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Research for Health, Inc., Cuyahoga Falls, OH, USA1; School of Nursing & Health Sciences, Malone University,. Canton ... Health care professionals should provide holistic care for infertile women to meet their physical, spiritual, ..... find a cure.

  13. [The multiple interactions between infertility and sexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoun, S

    1993-03-01

    After investigating into literature and clinical experience, we shall line out in this study 4 types of interactions between sexuality and infertility: sexual causes to feminine (vaginism, with and without heavy dyspareunia) or masculine (impotency, ante-portas ejaculation, anejaculation, dysejaculation), infertility; influence of tests and of treatments for infertility on sexual life; influence of infertility on sexuality focusing on the various ambiguous feelings (of culpability, inferiority, aggressivity, passivity); and last, the psychological and sexual interactions with medical assisted procreation, reinforcing the sexual separation of man and woman if the body is considered a machine. Psychosomatic guidance of the couple during these steps (with reassurance as the being helped conception) will allow maintaining on removing sexual attraction.

  14. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    with regard to testicular cancer, levels of testosterone and semen quality, but also from histopathological observations. Many infertile men have histological signs of testicular dysgenesis, including Sertoli-cell-only tubules, immature undifferentiated Sertoli cells, microliths and Leydig cell nodules...

  15. Secondary Infertility: Why Does It Happen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016. http://accessmedicine.com. Accessed Nov. 29, 2016. Hacker NF, et al. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies. In: Hacker & Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 6th ed. ...

  16. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  17. Impaired Leydig cell function in infertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A-M; Jørgensen, N; Frydelund-Larsen, L

    2004-01-01

    , and calculated free T index (cFT) were compared between the two groups.A shift toward lower serum T levels, cFT, and T/LH ratio and higher serum LH, E(2), and E(2)/T levels was observed in the group of infertile men. On average, the infertile men had 18, 26, and 34% lower serum T, cFT, and T/LH levels...

  18. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatt, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy. PMID:26847216

  19. An epidemiologic survey on the causes of infertility in patients referred to infertility center in Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan

    OpenAIRE

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Parsa, Parisa; Darvish, Nooshin; Mokhtari, Sahar; Yavangi, Mahnaz; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Infertility is considered as a major health care problem of different communities. The high prevalence of this issue doubled its importance. A significant proportion of infertility have been related to environmental conditions and also acquired risk factors. Different environmental conditions emphasized the need to study the different causes of infertility in each area. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency causes of infertility in infertile couples. ...

  20. Psychological interactions with infertility among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikel, J; Gidron, Y; Sheiner, E

    2004-12-01

    Despite the fact that various studies have demonstrated the importance of the mind-body connection and fertility, the psychosocial aspects of infertility have not been adequately addressed. Fertility treatments, ranging from medical monitoring, to hormonal remedies and in vitro fertilization (IVF), are both a physical and emotional burden on women and their partners. Psychological factors such as depression, state-anxiety, and stress-induced changes in heart rate and cortisol are predictive of a decreased probability of achieving a viable pregnancy. A couple that is trying to conceive will undoubtedly experience feelings of frustration and disappointment if a pregnancy is not easily achieved. However, if the difficulties progress and the man and or woman are labelled as having fertility problems, then this may result in a severe insult to self-esteem, body image, and self-assessed masculinity or femininity. Three types of relationships have been hypothesized between psychological factors and infertility. These include: (1) psychological factors are risk factors of subsequent infertility; (2) the experience of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility causes subsequent psychological distress; (3) a reciprocal relationship exists between psychological factors and infertility. The evidence for these three relationships is reviewed and an alternative approach to the treatment of infertility including stress evaluation that precedes or is concurrent to fertility treatment is suggested.

  1. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azad; Sattarzadeh, Nilofar; Gholizadeh, Leila; Sheikhalipour, Zahra; Allahbakhshian, Atefeh; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2011-09-01

    Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women's viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9%) was positive. 36 (15.1%) women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4%) did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2%) said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1%) believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  2. Gestational surrogacy: Viewpoint of Iranian infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rahmani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy is a popular form of assisted reproductive technology of which only gestational form is approved by most of the religious scholars in Iran. Little evidence exists about the Iranian infertile women′s viewpoint regarding gestational surrogacy. Aim: To assess the viewpoint of Iranian infertile women toward gestational surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 238 infertile women who were selected using the eligible sampling method. Data were collected by using a researcher developed questionnaire that included 25 items based on a five-point Likert scale. 0 Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was conducted by SPSS statistical software using descriptive statistics. 0 Results: Viewpoint of 214 women (89.9% was positive. 36 (15.1% women considered gestational surrogacy against their religious beliefs; 170 women (71.4% did not assume the commissioning couple as owners of the baby; 160 women (67.2% said that children who were born through surrogacy would better not know about it; and 174 women (73.1% believed that children born through surrogacy will face mental problems. Conclusion: Iranian infertile women have positive viewpoint regarding the surrogacy. However, to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile women, further efforts are needed.

  3. The prevalence of couple infertility in the United States from a male perspective: evidence from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, J F; Thoma, M E; Sørensen, D N; McLain, A C; King, R B; Sundaram, R; Keiding, N; Buck Louis, G M

    2013-09-01

    Infertility is a couple-based fecundity impairment, although population level research is largely based upon information reported by female partners. Of the few studies focusing on male partners, most focus on the utilization of infertility services rather than efforts to estimate the prevalence and determinants of infertility as reported by male partners. Data from a nationally representative sample of men aged 15-44 years who participated in the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) were used to estimate the prevalence of infertility and determinants of longer time-to-pregnancy (TTP) using the novel current duration (CD) approach. Using backward recurrence time parametric survival methods, we estimated infertility prevalence (TTP > 12 months) and time ratios (TR) associated with TTP as derived from males' reported CD of their pregnancy attempt. The estimated prevalence of infertility was 12.0% (95% CI: 7.0, 23.2). Longer TTP was associated with older male age (35-45 vs. 17-24 years) (TR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.03, 6.03), biological childlessness (TR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.19) and lack of health insurance (TR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.94) after controlling for the differences in couples' age and other socioeconomic factors. The prevalence of infertility based on male reporting is consistent with estimates of infertility in the US found in prospective cohort studies and CD studies based on female reporting. Our findings suggest that male partners can reliably inform about couple infertility. Interventions and services aimed at reducing couple infertility should include attention to male factors associated with longer TTP identified in this study. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, A M; Mutsaerts, M A Q; Burggraaff, J M; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Perquin, D A M; Koks, C A M; van Golde, R; Kaaijk, E M; Schierbeek, J M; Klijn, N F; van Kasteren, Y M; Land, J A; Mol, B W J; Hoek, A; Groen, H

    2017-07-01

    What is the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment in obese infertile women? Lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment as compared to prompt infertility treatment in obese infertile women is not a cost-effective strategy in terms of healthy live birth rate within 24 months after randomization, but is more likely to be cost-effective using a longer follow-up period and live birth rate as endpoint. In infertile couples, obesity decreases conception chances. We previously showed that lifestyle intervention prior to infertility treatment in obese infertile women did not increase the healthy singleton vaginal live birth rate at term, but increased natural conceptions, especially in anovulatory women. Cost-effectiveness analyses could provide relevant additional information to guide decisions regarding offering a lifestyle intervention to obese infertile women. The cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment compared to prompt infertility treatment was evaluated based on data of a previous RCT, the LIFEstyle study. The primary outcome for effectiveness was the vaginal birth of a healthy singleton at term within 24 months after randomization (the healthy live birth rate). The economic evaluation was performed from a hospital perspective and included direct medical costs of the lifestyle intervention, infertility treatments, medication and pregnancy in the intervention and control group. In addition, we performed exploratory cost-effectiveness analyses of scenarios with additional effectiveness outcomes (overall live birth within 24 months and overall live birth conceived within 24 months) and of subgroups, i.e. of ovulatory and anovulatory women, women birth rates were 27 and 35% in the intervention group and the control group, respectively (effect difference of -8.1%, P birth rate. Mean costs per healthy live birth event were €15 932 in the intervention group and €15 912 in the

  5. Infertility, Psychological Distress, and Coping Strategies among Women in Mali, West Africa: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Rosanna F; Ross, Ratchneewan; GilillandJr, John L

    2018-03-01

    Relatively little is known about infertility and its consequences in Mali, West Africa where the context and culture are different from those of previously studied settings. This study therefore aimed to specifically examine infertility induced psychological distress and coping strategies among women in Mali. A convergent mixed-methods design-correlational cross-sectional and qualitative descriptive-guided the study. Fifty-eight infertile Malian women participated: 52 completed the Psychological Evaluation Test specific for infertility and a question on general health status, and 26 were interviewed in-depth. Over 20% scored above the cut-off point for psychological distress, and 48% described their general health as poor. There was no significant difference between women with primary vs. secondary infertility. The study found that infertile women lived with marital tensions, criticism from relatives, and stigmatization from the community. They experienced sadness, loneliness, and social deprivation. Coping strategies included traditional and biomedical treatments, religious faith and practices, and self-isolation. Health care professionals should provide holistic care for infertile women to meet their physical, spiritual, psychological, and social needs.

  6. Bacterial vaginosis and infertility: cause or association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Rasheed M; Allam, Abdelmonem M; Magdy, Amin M; Mohamed, Abeer Sh

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in infertile women and evaluate the effect of treatment of BV on the pregnancy rate in patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and unexplained infertility. Cohort study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in collaboration with the Microbiology Department of Sohag University Hospital, Egypt. All eligible women with female factor infertility (n=874) were enrolled and all asymptomatic fertile women (n=382) attending the family planning clinic of the study hospital were recruited as a control group. The study was in two phases: the first included screening all participants for BV after Gram-staining of the vaginal discharge. The second phase was concerned with evaluating the effect of treatment of BV on the cumulative pregnancy rate (CPP) in patients with PCOD (group I; n=278) and unexplained infertility (group II; n=170). Each group was divided into three sub-groups: groups Ia (n=129) and IIa (n=73) were BV positive and treated for BV; groups Ib (n=61) and IIb (n=49) were BV positive and did not receive treatment for BV, and groups Ic (n=88) and IIc (n=48) were BV negative. The prevalence of BV was compared using the Chi-square. The long rank test of Kaplan-Meier life table analysis was used to compare the CPR. A multivariate regression model was designed to define the most significant variable which affected the pregnancy rate in patients with PCOD. The prevalence of BV was significantly higher in infertile than fertile women (45.5% vs 15.4%). The highest prevalence was found in patients with PCOD (60.1%) and unexplained infertility (37.4%). The CPR in both patients with PCOD and unexplained infertility were significantly higher in the patients who were treated for BV. Regression model showed that BV was one of the significant factors interfering with pregnancy. BV is strongly implicated in female infertility and is probably an underestimated cause of unexplained infertility

  7. Use by gynecologists of a modified sensate focus technique to treat vaginismus causing infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Umesh N; Jindal, Sheetal

    2010-11-01

    Of 5,341 infertile couples seen over an 8-year period, 76 (1.4%) had primary vaginismus, of whom 63 were treated with the use of a simplified sensate focus technique. There was complete symptomatic resolution of vaginismus in 60 women, and pregnancy was achieved in 33. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Hacer; Hocaoglu, Cicek; Guvendag-Guven, Emine Seda

    2016-04-25

    Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ (2)=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ (2)=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have significantly more severe depressive

  9. The effect of acupuncture on psychosocial outcomes for women experiencing infertility: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Carmady, Bridget; de Lacey, Sheryl

    2011-10-01

    The study objectives were to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture for reducing infertility-related stress. The study design was a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared with a wait-list control. The study was conducted at The University of Western Sydney. Thirty-two (32) women aged 20-45 years, with a diagnosis of infertility, or a history of unsuccessfully trying to conceive for 12 months or more, were the subjects of the study. Women received six sessions of acupuncture over 8 weeks. The primary outcomes were infertility self-efficacy, anxiety, and infertility-related stress. The women's experience of infertility and acupuncture is also reported. At the end of the 8-week intervention, women in the acupuncture group reported significant changes on two domains on the Fertility Problem Inventory with less social concern (mean difference [MD] -3.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] -7.58 to 0.84, p=0.05), and less relationship concern (MD -3.66, 95% CI -6.80 to -0.052, p=0.02). There were also trends toward a reduction of infertility stress on other domains, and a trend toward improved self-efficacy (MD 11.9, 95% CI -2.20 to 26.0, p=0.09) and less anxiety (MD -2.54, 95% CI -5.95 to 0.86, p=0.08) in the acupuncture group compared with the wait-list control. Women described the experience and impact of acupuncture as positive relating to a sense of relaxation and time out, the engagement with the practitioner, and an intervention that had very few negative side-effects. Changes were also perceived after treatment with women describing a physical and psychologic sense of relaxation and calmness, and a changed perspective in relation to coping. Acupuncture may be a useful intervention to assist with the reduction of infertility-related stress. Further research is justified.

  10. Ketotifen, a mast cell blocker improves sperm motility in asthenospermic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Saharkhiz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of ketotifen on sperm motility of asthenospermic infertile men. Setting and Design: It is a prospective study designed in vivo. Materials and Methods: In this interventional experimental study, a total of 40 infertile couples with asthenospermic infertility factor undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART cycles were enrolled. The couples were randomly assigned to one of two groups at the starting of the cycle. In control group (n = 20, the men did not receive Ketotifen, while in experiment group (n = 20, the men received oraly ketotifen (1 mg Bid for 2 months. Semen analysis, under optimal circumferences, was obtained prior to initiation of treatment. The second semen analysis was done 2-3 weeks after stopped ketotifen treatment and sperm motility was defined. Clinical pregnancy was identified as the presence of a fetal sac by vaginal ultrasound examination. Statistical Analysis Used: All data are expressed as the mean ± standard error of mean (SEM. t test was used for comparing the data of the control and treated groups. Results: The mean sperm motility increased significantly (from 16.7% to 21.4% after ketotifen treatment (P < 0.001. This sperm motility improvement was more pronounced in the primary infertility cases (P < 0.003. The rate of pregnancy was 12.5% in infertile couples that their men receiving 1 mg/twice a day ketotifen. In 52% of infertile men′s semen, the percentage of sperm motility was increased from 5% to 35% and this sperm motility improvement was also observed in 33% of necrospermia (0% motility cases. Conclusion: These results suggest that ketotifen may represent as a novel therapeutic approach to improve sperm motility in the infertile men with cause of asthenospermia or necrospermia.

  11. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in relation to history of infertility and use of assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alur, Snigdha; Wang, Hongyue; Hoeger, Kathy; Swan, Shanna H; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Redmon, Bruce J; Nguyen, Ruby; Barrett, Emily S

    2015-11-01

    To examine urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations in pregnant women with planned pregnancies in relation to history of infertility and use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). Phthalate metabolite concentrations were measured in first-trimester urine samples collected from women participating in a prospective pregnancy cohort study. Prenatal clinics. A total of 750 women, of whom 86 had a history of infertility. Forty-one women used ART to conceive. None. Primary outcomes were concentrations of four metabolites of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and their molar sum (∑DEHP). Multivariable analyses compared phthalate metabolite levels in [1] women reporting a history of infertility vs. those who did not (comparison group); and [2] those who used ART to conceive the index pregnancy vs. women with a history of infertility who did not use ART. Among women with a history of infertility, ∑DEHP was significantly lower in women who conceived after ART compared with those who did not (geometric mean ratio: 0.83; 95% confidence interval 0.71-0.98). Similar significant associations were observed for all of the individual DEHP metabolites. There were no differences in DEHP metabolite concentrations between women with a history of infertility and the comparison group. Women who used ART to conceive had lower first-trimester phthalate metabolite concentrations than women with a history of infertility who did not use ART. Further research is needed to explore whether those pursuing fertility treatments take precautions to avoid exposure to environmental toxins, to improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. First Contact: the intersection of demographics, knowledge, and appraisal of treatment at the initial infertility visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHILDRESS, Krista J.; LAWSON, Angela K.; GHANT, Marissa S.; MENDOZA, Gricelda; CARDOZO, Eden R.; CONFINO, Edmond; MARSH, Erica E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of the initial infertility visit on treatment-related knowledge, patient anxiety, and appraisals of treatment. Study Design Prospective survey. Setting Academic medical center. Patients 234 English-speaking women, ages 18-50, attending their first infertility visit Intervention(s) Participants completed a survey assessing health literacy, knowledge, anxiety, and appraisals of the treatment process before and after their infertility visit. Main Outcome Measure(s) 1) Knowledge of infertility and treatment and, 2) Anxiety and appraisal scores. Results Most participants were white and earned >$100,000/year and had at least a college education. Baseline knowledge of reproductive anatomy, ART, and fertility factors was modest, but improved after the initial visit. Factors associated with higher knowledge included higher education and income, White or Asian ethnicity, and English as their primary language. Patient appraisals of treatment represented by the positive (Challenge) and negative (Threat and Loss) subscale scores on the Appraisal of Life Events (ALE) scale, changed from the pre-visit survey to the post-visit survey. Negative appraisals of treatment and anxiety scores decreased and positive appraisals of treatment increased after the initial visit. Lower knowledge was associated with higher positive appraisal scores lower health literacy was associated with higher anxiety and appraisal scores (positive and negative) post-visit. Black women had higher Challenge scores compared to White and Asian women. Hispanic women had higher anxiety scores than non-Hispanic women. Conclusions Infertility patients have modest baseline knowledge of fertility and infertility treatment. The initial infertility visit can improve this knowledge and decrease both negative appraisals of treatment and anxiety levels. Differences in knowledge and appraisal were seen across ethnic groups and other demographic variables. Physicians should individualize

  13. Current state of information technology use in a US primary care practice-based research network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Andrews

    2004-02-01

    Conclusion While interest in enabling information technologies was high in KAN, adoption was variable, with use of several key technologies reported as low.The results suggest that research in this network that would be dependent on or enhanced by IT might be impeded and, generally, greater attention should be given to enhancing the IT infrastructure in primary care.

  14. The impact of infertility on sexuality: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Maycock3

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most studies address medical treatment of infertility and psychosocial outcomes caused by infertility-related stress, but few studies examine the infertility’s impact on sexuality.Aim: A literature review was conducted to answer the questions: 1 How is sexual self concept impacted in infertile individuals and their partners? 2 Does infertility have a negative impact on sexual relationships? 3 Is sexual function affected by infertility? In answering these questions, we may develop a better understanding of sexuality in the context of infertility, and thus better inform infertility management. Ultimately the aim is to improve the quality of life for infertile couples.Method: A literature search was conducted for publications from 1990 to 2011 via the electronic databases PubMed, PsycInfo and Scopus, which focused on sexuality in infertile subjects or couples.Results: In this review, all studies were descriptive quantitative studies which mapped the different aspects of sexuality in the context of infertility. The results suggested that infertility and its treatment approaches for fertilisationcould lead to changes in sexual self-esteem, sexual relationship and sexual function.Conclusion: The literature substantiated that many infertile subjects experienced trouble in various aspects of sexuality. However, further research should examine the reciprocal relations between sexual self concept, sexual relationship and sexual function in the context of infertility. How these changes affect the partners of infertile subjects should also be addressed.

  15. Preparing nursing students for enhanced roles in primary care: The current state of prelicensure and RN-to-BSN education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnar, Danuta M; Whelan, Ellen Marie

    With the current emphasis on including registered nurses (RNs) on the primary care teams, it is essential that nursing programs prepare students for employment in these settings. This study explored the current state of prelicensure and RN-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) online education regarding the implementation of primary care content in the curricula. A sample of 1,409 schools and/or colleges from across the United States was invited to participate in an online survey. About 529 surveys were returned for an overall response rate of 37.5%. Summative content analysis was used to analyze survey data. Although most respondents have implemented some primary care content, some found it challenging and others have demurred from incorporating primary care content altogether. Nursing leaders and faculty in academia must collaborate with clinical partners to design and expand didactic and clinical learning experiences that emphasize primary care content in the prelicensure and RN-to-BSN education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of Infertility on Infertile Men and Women in Ibadan, Oyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    African Journal of Reproductive Health Vol 13 No 3 September 2009. 85. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE. The Impact of Infertility on ... reproductive health strategy does not seek to reduce the prevalence or impact of infertility but instead ..... will turn into a snake and go inside the cupboard and eat the soup, it nearly broke.

  17. Sexual function in infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Michael P; Legro, Richard S; Coutifaris, Christos; Alvero, Ruben; Robinson, Randal D; Casson, Peter A; Christman, Gregory M; Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R; Baker, Valerie; Usadi, Rebecca; Seungdamrong, Aimee; Bates, G Wright; Rosen, R Mitchell; Schlaff, William; Haisenleder, Daniel; Krawetz, Stephen A; Barnhart, Kurt; Trussell, J C; Santoro, Nanette; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-01

    While female sexual dysfunction is a frequent occurrence, characteristics in infertile women are not well delineated. Furthermore, the impact of infertility etiology on the characteristics in women with differing androgen levels observed in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility has not been assessed. The objective of the study was to determine the characteristics of sexual dysfunction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility. A secondary data analysis was performed on 2 of Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Cooperative Reproductive Medicine Networks clinical trials: Pregnancy in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Study II and Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations From Ovarian Stimulation. Both protocols assessed female sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Inventory and the Female Sexual Distress Scale. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome had higher weight and body mass index than women with unexplained infertility (each P polycystic ovary syndrome. The mean Female Sexual Function Inventory total score increased slightly as the free androgen index increased, mainly as a result of the desire subscore. This association was more pronounced in the women with unexplained infertility. Reproductive-age women with infertility associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and unexplained infertility, despite phenotypic and biochemical differences in androgenic manifestations, do not manifest clinically significant differences in sexual function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Herlyn–Werner–Wunderlich syndrome presenting with infertility: Role of MRI in diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Zohra; Goyal, Ankur; Das, Chandan J; Deka, Dipika; Sharma, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (HWWS), characterized by uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis, is an uncommon combined Mullerian and mesonephric duct anomaly, and its presentation in adulthood is even rarer. We report here a 22-year-old female presenting with primary infertility where magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the diagnosis of HWWS with endometriosis. In a patient of infertility with endometriosis and unilateral renal agenesis, diagnosis of HWWS should be suspected and MRI is the investigation of choice for such anomalies

  19. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National BirthCohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP>12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTPwith TTP>12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  20. Clinical pathways for primary care: current use, interest and perceived usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Richard C; Toy, Jennifer M; Drechsler, Adam

    2018-02-26

    Translating clinical evidence to daily practice remains a challenge and may improve with clinical pathways. We assessed interest in and usability of clinical pathways by primary care professionals. An online survey was created. Interest in pathways for patient care and learning was assessed at start and finish. Participants completed baseline questions then pathway-associated question sets related to management of 2 chronic diseases. Perceived pathway usability was assessed using the system usability scale. Accuracy and confidence of answers was compared for baseline and pathway-assisted questions. Of 115 participants, 17.4% had used clinical pathways, the lowest of decision support tool types surveyed. Accuracy and confidence in answers significantly improved for all pathways. Interest in using pathways daily or weekly was above 75% for the respondents. There is low utilization of, but high interest in, clinical pathways by primary care clinicians. Pathways improve accuracy and confidence in answering written clinical questions.

  1. ROMANIAN PUPILS AT THE SPANISH PRIMARY SCHOOLS: CONTINUITIES AND DISCONTINUITIES BETWEEN FORMER AND CURRENT EDUCATIONAL EXPERIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Ion

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years, East-Europeans, predominantly Romanians, have become the second largest cultural minority in Catalonia (Spain. Spanish educational institutions now have students from more than twenty different cultures. This paper focuses on the educational background and the factors which characterize the educational experience of Romanian students prior to attending schools in Spain, and how this affects their experiences into Catalonian primary schools. Twenty seven interviews were undertaken, of Catalonian and Romanian teachers, of experts and parents from the host primary schools where the proportion of Romanian students was highest. Two focus-group sessions were carried out with school teachers from Romania. The analysis shows that there is some consistency between educational practices and values in Romania and the practices and values of the host schools. The ability of children to assimilate into the host school is directly influenced by their previous experience in the schools in their country of origin.

  2. Male infertility, azoozpermia and cryptozoospermia incidence among three infertility clinics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, İlknur; Kutlu, Pelin; Delikara, Nuri; Atvar, Özhan; Öztürk, Metin İ.

    2018-01-01

    Objective Semen parameters are directly correlated with the infertility of the male. Incidence rates of male factor infertility, azoospermia and cryptozoospermia differ according to many factors such as geographic region, age, occupation and body weight. The aim of the present study is to determine the incidence of male factor infertility, azoospermia and cryptozoospermia among patients who have been admitted to three separate infertility clinics in Turkey for infertility investigation and analyze the outcomes of these patients. Material and methods A total of 9733 men, who have been admitted to 3 infertility clinics in Turkey due to infertility between March 2011 and October 2016, were included in the study. Male infertility, azoozpermia and cryptozoospermia incidence were calculated according to WHO criteria. Results Male factor infertility was determined in 3114 (32%) of the patients including cases with azoospermia and cryptozoospermia. Azoospermia cases were observed in 570 (5.85%) and cryptozoospermia in 850 (8.73%) men. Azoospermic, and cryptozoospermic patients constitute 18.3%, and 27.2% of the male infertility cases. Sperm retrieval rates in diagnostic or oocyte pick-up plus testicular sperm extraction groups were found to be comparable (16.39%, and 41.3%, respectively). Conclusion The data obtained may help to estimate the number of in vitro fertilization cycles and testicular sperm extraction cases, to determine social security policies, and reproductive potential, and in the light of these data to establish social insurance policies. These data will help patients to decide on treatment alternatives, and guide the urologists about the issue. PMID:29511578

  3. [Current evidence on the motivational interview in the approach to health care problems in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bóveda Fontán, Julia; Pérula de Torres, Luis Ángel; Campiñez Navarro, Manuel; Bosch Fontcuberta, Josep M; Barragán Brun, Nieves; Prados Castillejo, Jose Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The motivational interview has been widely used as a clinical method to promote behavioural changes in patients, helping them to resolve their ambivalence to obtain their own motivations. In the present article, a review is made of the main meta-analyses and systematic and narrative reviews on the efficacy of the motivational interview in the primary health care environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Current practice and developmental efforts for leak detection in U.S. reactor primary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.

    1986-01-01

    Current leak detection practices in 74 operating nuclear reactors have been reviewed. Existing leak detection systems are adequate to ensure a leak-before-break scenario in most situations, but no currently available, single method combines optimal leakage detection sensitivity, leak-locating ability, and leakage measurement accuracy. Simply tightening current leakage limits may produce an unacceptably large number of unnecessary shutdowns. The use of commercially available acoustic monitoring systems or moisture-sensitive tape may improve leak detection capability at specific sites. However, neither of these methods currently provides source discrimination (e.g., to distinguish between leaks from pipe cracks and valves) or leak-rate information (a small leak may saturate the system). A field-implementable acoustic leak detection system is being developed to address these limitations. 5 refs.

  5. Current practice and developmental efforts for leak detection in US reactor primary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Claytor, T.N.

    1985-07-01

    Current leak detection practices in 74 operating nuclear reactors have been reviewed. Existing leak detection systems are adequate to ensure a leak-before-break scenario in most situations, but no currently available, single method combines optimal leakage detection sensitivity, leak-locating ability, and leakage measurement accuracy. Simply tightening current leakage limits may produce an unacceptably large number of unnecessary shutdowns. The use of commercially available acoustic monitoring systems or moisture-sensitive tape may improve leak detection capability at specific sites. However, neither of these methods currently provides source discrimination (e.g., to distinguish between leaks from pipe cracks and valves) or leak-rate information (a small leak may saturate the system). A field-implementable acoustic leak detection system is being developed to address these limitations. 5 refs., 3 figs

  6. Lifestyle modification intervention among infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Diane

    2014-06-01

    To implement an evidence-based lifestyle modification intervention, guided by motivational interviewing, among a sample of infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome to increase chances of conception while improving overall health. A prospective quantitative design was utilized (n = 12). Infertile overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome at an infertility practice completed questionnaires to assess diet and exercise practices at study onset and completion. Body mass index and weight measurements were obtained on participants at study onset and completion of intervention. Menstrual history was assessed by interview. There was a mean weight loss (p = .005) of 7(±5) pounds although a 5% weight reduction did not occur. Mean daily calorie (p = .005), fat (p = .006), and carbohydrate intake (p = .014) were significantly reduced. Frequency in brisk walking exercise significantly increased (p = .024). Frequency in home or gym exercise increased (p = .050). Menstrual cyclicity improved by 50% among prior amenorrheic subjects. An evidence-based lifestyle modification guideline could prove to be a cost effective intervention for infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who desire pregnancy. This intervention could be integrated into the primary care and reproductive medicine visits as sole therapy or in conjunction with infertility treatment. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  7. causes of infertility in females: evaluated by diagnonstic laparoscopy at a tertiary care centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siraj, A.; Naseer, S.; Khan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of various causes of infertility through diagnostic laparoscopy. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in gynaecology/obstetrics department unit I of Military Hospital Rawalpindi from May 2011 - May 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients were recruited in the study through outpatient clinic, 32 out of 50 had primary infertility and 18 had secondary infertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed under general anesthesia and findings were recorded. Result: The mean age of patients was 26.4 years. Out of 50 patients 20 (40%) had polycystic ovaries, 15 (30%) had tubal blockage, 7 (14%) had endometriosis and 2 (4%) had fibroids while 6(12%) were found to have normal pelvis and no pathology was detected. Conclusion: polycystic ovaries was found major cause of infertility in this study group, followed by tubal factor infertility either secondary to pelvic inflammatory disease or otherwise, both these causes are treatable to variable extent and fertility can be resumed if managed properly. (author)

  8. A programmable controller for constant primary peak current in capacitor charging fet switcher for nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalka, A.

    1983-01-01

    New switching power supplies were designed for the 10 mm laser amplifiers in the Nova master oscillator room. The flashlamp supply must be repeatable. Therefore, the authors designed a constant current, linearly charging power supply. Since it is a capacitor, the load varies through-out the charge cycle. At first the load is great, and DI/DT of load current is at a maximum. As the capacitor charges the initial conditions for each cycle change, the power supply in effect sees a smaller capacitance, and DI/DT decreases. We need a way of gradually increasing the on-time of the current pulses so that the transistors in the power bridge are turned off when they reach their maximum peak current. The normal current sense response of the control chip is not fast enough to be useful for the application. The deadtime, or the time that all the bridge transistors are turned off, is fixed so that as the pulse width varies so does the period. We end up with a constant peak current, switching power supply whose frequency varies from 50 khz to 20 khz. Finally, an overcurrent latch protects the transistors from bridge or transformer faults. the circuit is described and results are shown

  9. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozoemena OF

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OFN Ozoemena1, JO Ezugworie2, AU Mbah3, EA Esom4, BO Ayogu5, FE Ejezie61Department of Anatomy and Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, 4Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus; 5Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla; 6Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%–70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility.Methods: Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed.Results: Of 216 men, 173 (80.1% were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30–55 years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33–61 years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80% primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%, and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%. Among the 111 (64.2% cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55% cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism

  10. Role of diagnostic hystero-laparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility: A retrospective study of 300 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the role of diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy in the evaluation of infertility in tertiary care centres. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at two tertiary care centres (the infertility clinics of Sriram Chandra Bhanj Medical College and Prachi hospital at Cuttack, Odisha throughout the year in 2008. Women aged 20-40 years with normal hormone profile without male factor infertility were included. Results: Out of 300 cases, 206 (69% patients had primary infertility. While laparoscopy detected abnormalities in 34% of the cases, significant hysteroscopy findings were noted in 18% of cases. Together, diagnostic hysterolaparoscopy detected abnormalities in 26% of the infertile patients in both groups. While the most common laparoscopic abnormality was endometriosis (14% and adnexal adhesion (12% in primary and secondary infertile patients, respectively, hysteroscopy found intrauterine septum as the most common abnormality in both groups. Conclusions: Hysterolaparoscopy is an effective diagnostic tool for evaluation of certain significant and correctable tubo-peritoneal and intrauterine pathologies like peritoneal endometriosis, adnexal adhesions, and subseptate uterus, which are usually missed by other imaging modalities.

  11. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. SETTING AND DESIGN: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). CONCLUSION: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples. PMID:24829531

  12. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensiyeh Mohebbi Kian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. AIM: The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. Setting and Design: This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. Statistical Analysis: P <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: While 33.3% of men and 43.3% of women surveyed insisted on not using surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed. Conclusion: Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.

  13. Attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, Ensiyeh Mohebbi; Riazi, Hedieh; Bashirian, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Surrogacy arrangements are multifaceted in nature, involving multiple controversial aspects and engaging ethical, moral, psychological and social issues. Successful treatment in reproductive medicine is strongly based on the mutual agreement of both partners, especially in Iran where men often make the final decision for health-related problems of this nature. The aim of the following study is to assess the attitudes of Iranian infertile couples toward surrogacy. This descriptive study was conducted at the infertility clinic of Hamadan university of medical sciences, Iran. The study sample consisted of 150 infertile couples selected using a systematic randomized method. Data collection was based on responses to a questionnaire consisting of 22 questions. P surrogacy, the overall attitudes toward surrogacy were positive (53.3% of women and 54.6% of men surveyed). Although, there was not a significant difference between the overall positive attitudes of infertile women and men toward surrogacy, the general attitude toward using this method is not strongly positive. Therefore, further efforts are required to increase the acceptability of surrogacy among infertile couples.

  14. Relationship between blood groups and male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Naeem, M.; Samad, A.; Nasir, A.; Aman, Z.; Ahmed, S.; Manan, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Blood is man's complete and unchangeable identity. The ABO and Rh groups are recognised as major and clinically significant blood groups. Blood group antigens are not only important in relation to blood transfusion and organ transplantation, but also have been utilised in genetic research, anthropology and tracing ancestral relation of humans. The objective the present study is to examine the blood group antigens in infertile men for assessing the relationship to male infertility and to know the frequency of various blood groups among infertile males in our population. Method: A total of 1,521 patients along with 460 proven fathers as controls were recruited for the present study from both rural and urban areas of Pakistan and referred to Department of Reproductive Physiology/Health, Public Health Divisions, NIH, Islamabad, during 2002 to 2006. Blood grouping (ABO) and Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test. Results: Overall distribution of blood groups in the studied population of 1,521 subjects was 35.50%, 28.27%, 26.89% and 9.34% for blood groups O, B, A and AB respectively. The ratio of control to patient was 1:3.3. Conclusions: The present preliminary study revealed that in our population the prevalence of male infertility in blood group O is invariably higher than in all other ABO blood groups, showing a strong relationship between blood group O and male infertility. (author)

  15. Transrectal Ultrasonographic Findings of Obstructive Male Infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Il; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Park, Heung Il; Park, Kwang Seong

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the transrectal ultrasound in infertile men with suspected obstructive lesions of sperm transport system. We performed transrectal US in 26 infertile patients in whom obstructive lesions of sperm transport system were suspected in physical examination and laboratory data. 7.0 MHz transrectal transducer was used and the content of analysis of sonographic findings was the presence of vas deferens, seminal vesicle and ejaculatory duct. Also, we measured the width of seminal vesicle and diameter of ejaculatory duct. Transrectal US revealed an accurate diagnosis in 12 infertile men who had obstructive lesions and associated abnormalities in distal sperm transport system, two of congenital bilateral absence of the vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles, two of congenital unilateral absence of the vas deferens and seminal vesicle, three of dilatation of seminal vesicles, and five of dilatation of ejaculatory ducts and proximal ducts. The other 14 patients who had normal findings on transrectal US were revealed to have testicular failure (10 patients) and obstruction of proximal sperm transport system (4 patients) which were beyond the field-of-view of transrectal US. Transrectal US is the useful diagnostic method for the evaluation of infertile men with suspected obstructive lesions of sperm transport system. It can possibly decrease the need for the invasive vasography and may be helpful in the guidance of appropriate management of male infertility

  16. The impact of infertility on family size in the USA: data from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, James F; Shindel, Alan W; Sharlip, Ira D; Eisenberg, Michael L

    2010-09-01

    Investigators have postulated that family size may be influenced by biologic fertility potential in addition to sociodemographic factors. The aim of the current study is to determine if a diagnosis of infertility is associated with family size in the USA. We analyzed data from the male and female samples of the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth using multivariable logistic regression models to determine the relationship between infertility and family size while adjusting for sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics. In the survey, 4409 women and 1739 men met the inclusion criteria, of whom 10.2% and 9.7%, respectively, were classified as infertile, on the basis of having sought reproductive assistance. Infertile females had a 34% reduced odds of having an additional child compared with women who did not seek reproductive assistance. For each additional 6 months it took a woman to conceive her first child, the odds of having a larger family fell by 9% and the odds of having a second child were reduced by 11%. A diagnosis of male infertility reduced the odds of having a larger family more than a diagnosis of female infertility. A diagnosis of infertility, especially male factor, is associated with reduced odds of having a larger family, implicating a biologic role in the determination of family size in the USA.

  17. Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Nishida, Yukihiro; Sugawara, Masayuki

    2014-08-11

    The wide-gamut system colorimetry has been standardized for ultra-high definition television (UHDTV). The chromaticities of the primaries are designed to lie on the spectral locus to cover major standard system colorimetries and real object colors. Although monochromatic light sources are required for a display to perfectly fulfill the system colorimetry, highly saturated emission colors using recent quantum dot technology may effectively achieve the wide gamut. This paper presents simulation results on the chromaticities of highly saturated non-monochromatic light sources and gamut coverage of real object colors to be considered in designing wide-gamut displays with color filters for the UHDTV.

  18. Lessons from elective in vitro fertilization (IVF in, principally, non-infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleicher Norbert

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We here report the first investigation of exclusively elective in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles in women with no apparent history of infertility. Since IVF outcome in women with infertility are always influenced by underlying causes of infertility, a study on non-infertile women may offer new insights. Methods We investigated 88 females without history of infertility in 109 consecutive elective IVF cycles, almost exclusively performed for purposes of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS; i.e., elective gender selection. The following questions were addressed: (i impact of PGS on IVF pregnancy chances; (ii impact of transfer of 1 vs. ≥2 embryos on IVF pregnancy chances; (iii correlation of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels to embryo ploidy (iv effect of gonadotropin dosage used in stimulation on available embryos for transfer; and (v in form of a 1:1 case control study, compared 33 elective PGS cycles with matched control cycles without PGS, performed in couples with either prior tubal ligations and/or severe male factor infertility as indication of IVF. Results The overall clinical pregnancy rate for the group was 36.7%; pregnancy was associated with number of euploid (P = 0.009 and number of embryos transferred (P = 0.001. Odds of pregnancy were 3.4-times higher if ≥4 euploid embryos were produced in comparison to Conclusions This study suggests that outcomes of elective IVF cycles may significantly deviate from infertility-associated cycles. Affirming proof of concept for PGS, utilizing day-3 embryo biopsy and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH, both widely held responsible for earlier failures to establish such proof, suggests that the principal cause of prior failures were likely not insufficient laboratory techniques but poor patient selection for PGS. Such a conclusion questions the current reintroduction of PGS with improved techniques and technologies in absence of prior determination of suited

  19. Relationship between Quality of Life, Relationship Beliefs and Attribution Style in Infertile Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navid, Behnaz; Mohammadi, Maryam; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Amini, Payam; Shirin, Zahra; Omani-Saman, Reza

    2018-07-01

    Many infertile couples experience psychological distress and suffer from impaired quality of life. Generally, when couples are dealing with uncontrolled events such as infertility, it is important to manage it well and to use the suitable coping style; so this can represent an example of attribution style. The purpose of this study is to investigate the quality of life, relationship beliefs and attribution style in infertile couples. This cross-sectional study consisted of 50 infertile couples, who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian. Participants provided demographic and general characteristics and completed the quality of life (SF-12), relationship belief inventory (RBI) and attribution style (ASQ) forms. Data was analyzed by the paired t test, Pearson correlation tests and multiple linear regression analysis, using SPSS version 22 statistical software. Overall, 50 infertile couples participated in our study. The males had a significantly higher score for quality of life compared to the females (P=0.019). In RBI subscales except "Disagreement is Destructive" all others significantly higher in wives than husbands. All subscales of RBI had a negative correlation with the quality of life. The quality of life had a significant correlation with positive internal (r=0.213, P=0.033). The adjusted regression model showed that the quality of life for males was higher than in females (β=-3.098, P=0.024). The current data indicate that in infertile couples, the husbands have a higher quality of life in comparison to their wives. Also, all subscales of relationship beliefs have a negative correlation with the quality of life, but in attribution style, just internal attribution style for positive events is associated with the quality of life. In general, there is a correlation between relationship beliefs and the quality of life in infertile couples. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  20. Prediction of Infertility Treatment Outcomes Using Classification Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milewska Anna Justyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is currently a common problem with causes that are often unexplained, which complicates treatment. In many cases, the use of ART methods provides the only possibility of getting pregnant. Analysis of this type of data is very complex. More and more often, data mining methods or artificial intelligence techniques are appropriate for solving such problems. In this study, classification trees were used for analysis. This resulted in obtaining a group of patients characterized most likely to get pregnant while using in vitro fertilization.

  1. Evolution, current structure, and role of a primary care clinical pharmacy service in an integrated managed care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Rachel M F; Campbell, Stephanie M; Kroner, Beverly A; Proksel, Jenel R; Billups, Sarah J; Witt, Daniel M; Helling, Dennis K

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the declining number of primary care physicians is exacerbated by a growing elderly population in need of chronic disease management. Primary care clinical pharmacy specialists, with their unique knowledge and skill set, are well suited to address this gap. At Kaiser Permanente of Colorado (KPCO), primary care clinical pharmacy specialists have a long history of integration with medical practices and are located in close proximity to physicians, nurses, and other members of the health care team. Since 1992, Primary Care Clinical Pharmacy Services (PCCPS) has expanded from 4 to 30 full-time equivalents (FTEs) to provide services in all KPCO medical office buildings. With this growth in size, PCCPS has evolved to play a vital role in working with primary care medical teams to ensure that drug therapy is effective, safe, and affordable. In addition, PCCPS specialists provide ambulatory teaching sites for pharmacy students and pharmacy residents. There is approximately 1 specialist FTE for every 13,000 adult KPCO members and every 9 clinical FTEs of internal medicine and family medicine physicians. All clinical pharmacy specialists in the pharmacy department are required to have a PharmD degree, to complete postgraduate year 2 residencies, and, as a condition of employment, to become board certified in an applicable specialty. The evolution, current structure, and role of PCCPS at KPCO, including factors facilitating successful integration within the medical team, are highlighted. Patient and nonpatient care responsibilities are described.

  2. [Current status of malaria control knowledge awareness of primary and sec- ondary school students in Xuzhou City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-sheng; Li, Li; Zhang, Kan-kan

    2015-12-01

    To understand the current status of malaria control knowledge awareness of primary and secondary school students and its influencing factors in Yunlong District, Xuzhou City, so as to provide the evidence for improving the malaria prevention work. A total of 800 students from 4 urban and rural primary and secondary schools were randomly selected and investigated with questionnaires. The total awareness rate of malaria control knowledge was 61.27%, and the awareness rates of symptoms of malaria and malaria prevention were only 38.99% and 57.59% respectively. The main approach of obtaining the malaria control knowledge was media (51.52%). The univariate analysis showed that sex, area and different education levels affected the awareness rates of malaria control knowledge (P knowledge of country students was lower than that of urban students (P knowledge of the secondary school students was higher than that of the primary school students (P knowledge of primary and secondary school students in Yunlong District is lower than that required by the national standard. Therefore, the health education of malaria control should be strengthened, especially in countryside school students and primary school students.

  3. Counterintuitive effects of global warming-induced wind patterns on primary production in the Northern Humboldt Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollón, Rodrigo; R Calil, Paulo H

    2018-04-14

    It has been hypothesized that global warming will strengthen upwelling-favorable winds in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) as a consequence of the increase of the land-sea thermal gradient along the Peruvian coast. The effect of strengthened winds in this region is assessed with the use of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model forced with projected and climatological winds. Strengthened winds induce an increase in primary production of 2% per latitudinal degree from 9.5°S to 5°S. In some important coastal upwelling sites primary production is reduced. This is due to a complex balance between nutrient availability, nutrient use efficiency, as well as eddy- and wind-driven factors. Mesoscale activity induces a net offshore transport of inorganic nutrients, thus reducing primary production in the coastal upwelling region. Wind mixing, in general disadvantageous for primary producers, leads to shorter residence times in the southern and central coastal zones. Overall, instead of a proportional enhancement in primary production due to increased winds, the NHCS becomes only 5% more productive (+5 mol C m -2 year -1 ), 10% less limited by nutrients and 15% less efficient due to eddy-driven effects. It is found that regions with a initial strong nutrient limitation are more efficient in terms of nutrient assimilation which makes them more resilient in face of the acceleration of the upwelling circulation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Current status of Enterobius vermicularis infection in primary schoolchildren in Miaoli County and Taichung County, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Chieh; Lee, Yuan-Fang; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Lee, Nie-Sue; Chen, Po-Yen; Huang, Fang-Liang; Liou, Nuo-Wei

    2009-10-01

    No epidemiological survey of the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis infection in Miaoli County and Taichung County has been conducted. This epidemiological survey was performed to describe the profile of E. vermicularis infection in schoolchildren in Miaoli County and Taichung County. The first part of this study was conducted between November 2005 and February 2006 in Miaoli County. 44,071 primary schoolchildren from 18 districts were examined by 2 consecutive-day adhesive cellophane perianal swabs to estimate the infection rate. The second part was performed between October 2006 and January 2007 in Taichung County. 24,382 primary schoolchildren from 14 districts were examined. In Miaoli County, the infection rate was 2.39% (1054/44,071). The infection rate was highest in the Taian (6.69%; 20/299), Shytarn (4.49%; 11/245), and Dahu townships (3.6%; 40/1111). In Taichung County, the infection rate was 2.95% (720/24,382). The infection rate was highest in the Da-an (5.46%; 26/476) and Heping townships (4.48%; 9/201). The infection rate for a family with > or =3 children was significantly higher than that for a family with pinworm infection among the groups surveyed.

  5. Infertility, infertility treatment and psychomotor development: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Olsen, Jørn

    2009-03-01

    Babies born of infertile couples, regardless of treatment, have a higher risk of preterm birth and low birthweight, conditions associated with delayed development. We examined developmental milestones in singletons as a function of parental infertility [time to pregnancy (TTP) > 12 months] and infertility treatment. From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 37 897 singletons born of fertile couples (TTP 12 months), and 3309 born after infertility treatment. When the children were about 18 months old, mothers reported 12 developmental milestones by responding to structured questions. We defined a failure to achieve the assessed milestone or the minimal numbers of milestones in a summary (motor, or cognitive/language skills) as delay. Naturally conceived children born of infertile couples had a pattern of psychomotor development similar to that of children born of fertile couples, but increasing TTP correlated with a modest delay. When the analysis was restricted to infertile couples (treated and untreated), children born after treatment showed a slight delay in cognitive/language development (odds ratio 1.24, [95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.53]) for not meeting at least three out of six cognitive/language milestones); children born after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) had the highest estimated relative risk of delay for most milestones, especially motor milestones. These results suggest that a long TTP may be associated with a modest developmental delay. Infertility treatment, especially ICSI, may be associated with a slight delay for some of these early milestones.

  6. Legal aspects of auxillary reproductive technologies in infertility treatment

    OpenAIRE

    V.Yu. Albitskiy; N.D. Odinayeva; V.O. Mansimova

    2011-01-01

    The article presents several aspects of legal regulation of auxillary reproductive technologies in treatment of infertility in Russia and other countries.Key words: auxillary reproductive technologies, method of extracorporeal fertilization, newborn, premature newborn, multiple pregnancy, embryo, infertility, law.

  7. Gender Issues in the Management of Infertility in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Issues in the Management of Infertility in Developing Countries. Editorial. Infertility ... heritage has become morbidly adherent in the mind of even the highly ... the respondents preferred male to female children, and this was attributed to ...

  8. What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Information Find a Study Resources and Publications Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a ... infertility? Related A-Z Topics Infertility and Fertility Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) NICHD News Spotlights ...

  9. Cyclical Changes in Prolactin Levels among Infertile Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    investigation of infertility while the elevation of prolactin in the 3 study groups might be responsible for the infertility observed. ... dopamine and enhanced by some other hormones. In ... also appears to have a role in the immune response,.

  10. Individualised gonadotrophin ovulation induction in women with normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Mette Petri; Loft, Anne; Pinborg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate an individualised gonadotrophin starting dose regimen for women with anovulatory infertility. Study design We included 71 normogonadotrophic anovulatory infertile women in a prospective, observational study. All underwent one ovulation induction cycle...

  11. Hysterosalpingographic abnormalities in women with infertility in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Structural tubal abnormalities are responsible for infertility in significant proportion of infertile couples. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) being a simple, less invasive, relatively inexpensive, and reproducible rapid diagnostic test provides valuable information about the uterine cavity and tubal architecture.

  12. [Internet as a source of information about infertility among infertile patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talarczyk, Joanna; Hauke, Jan; Poniewaz, Marta; Serdyńska-Szuster, Monika; Pawelczyk, Leszek; Jedrzejczak, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    Around one million couples in Poland suffer from infertility People in reproductive age are most active Internet users. The aim of the study was to assess Internet habits of infertile patients. We checked to what extent infertile patients seek information about infertility on-line and what is their approach to the information found. 85 female patients treated for infertility for at least one year were surveyed. The anonymous questionnaire was designed by the authors of the publication. It consisted of questions related to medical history of the patients and sources of information about infertility they used. It also checked Internet activity of the patients and contained Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Chi-square test and Spearman's correlation test were used to evaluate the results. The majority of patients used Internet to find information about infertility (93%); 46% of the respondent declared Internet forums to be their main source of information about it. Patients used on-line sources of information more often than stricte medical sources. Internet influenced their relation with the physician. 64% of patients verified on-line information and treatment proposed by their doctor before using them. One third of the surveyed women claimed their knowledge about infertility comes more from the Internet than the specialist who treated them. There was a positive correlation between patients who checked diagnostic or therapeutic methods proposed by their physician with depression in BDI. Considering the great impact of Internet forums and web pages on patient approach to diagnostics and treatment of infertility there seems to be a need to create a professional Polish website and forum to provide the patients with reliable information about the disease.

  13. Current /sup 14/C methods for measuring primary production: gross underestimates in oceanic waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieskes, W W.C.; Kraay, G W; Baars, M A [Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, Netherlands

    1979-10-01

    The amount of organic matter produced through autotrophic processes in the euphotic zone of the tropical open ocean and available for respiration of autotrophs and heterotrophs was at least 5 to 15 times higher than values derived from the common /sup 14/C method suggested. The new estimates are based on measurements of /sup 14/C incorporation in organic matter of ocean samples incubated in bottles of up to 4 litres. Oceanic phytoplankton appeared to have a high growth rate, with generation times of hours, not days. High heterotrophic activity, finding its expression in high dark fixation rates of /sup 14/C, took place in conjunction with this high primary production of organic matter.

  14. Infertility, impotence, and emasculation - psychosocial contexts for abandoning reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Wibowo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From a Darwinian perspective we live to reproduce, but in various situations genetic males elect not to reproduce by choosing medical treatments leading to infertility, impotence, and, in the extreme, emasculation. For many men, infertility can be psychologically distressing. However, for certain genetic males, being infertile may improve their quality of life. Examples include (1 men who seek vasectomy, (2 individuals with Gender Dysphoria (e.g., transwomen, and modern day voluntary eunuchs, (3 most gay men, and (4 men treated for testicular and prostate cancer. Men who desire vasectomy typically have a Darwinian fitness W >1 at the time of their vasectomies; i.e., after they have their desired number of offspring or consider themselves past an age for parenting newborns. In contrast, prostate and testicular cancer patients, along with individuals with extreme Gender Dysphoria, do not necessarily seek to be sterile, but accept it as an unavoidable consequence of the treatment for their condition undertaken for survival (in case of cancer patients or to achieve a better quality of life (for those with Gender Dysphoria. Most gay men do not father children, but they may play an avuncular role, providing for their siblings′ offspring′s welfare, thus improving their inclusive fitness through kin selection. In a strictly Darwinian model, the primary motivation for all individuals is to reproduce, but there are many situations for men to remove themselves from the breeding populations because they have achieved a fitness W ≥1, or have stronger medical or psychological needs that preclude remaining fertile.

  15. Infertility: Ongoing Global challenge of new millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantibhai Naranbhai Sonaliya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility tends to be the global challenge even in the second decade of the new millennium. Especially in developing countries like India, it is still one the most lethal social evil responsible for a big proportion of cases of psychological disturbances including suicide. Again, recently, few conditions other than communicable or Non-communicable diseases are given place among the categories of significant public health problems like Road Traffic Accidents, Burns, Poisoning, drowning and few more. But, for developing countries like India, the list is incomplete without inclusion of Infertility (there may be several others also. In public health, tuberculosis, leprosy and some other diseases are considered social diseases which produce social stigma for the patients and/or his family members.1 In same manner, Infertility is an important cause of social stigmatization since centuries for a couple suffering from, especially for woman involved. During a transitory phase of industrialization and socio-economic development, the situation is changed a minute smidgen at urban areas of India but at rural parts, sub-urban or even at urban slums (mainly among pockets of recent migrants the situation is as same as a few hundred years ago. A female of no religion, caste, social status or higher level of education are barred from some stringent mores related to infertility. Infertile females are still not allowed to take part in so many religious or social ceremonies; on the contrary, they have to face more harassment including domestic violence than their counterparts, who have given birth to the child. Due to social, psychological, economic disturbances, they are forced to take multiple sorts of treatments including religious quacks. So many infertile women are exploited physically and economically also in such weird ways of treatment to gain a pregnancy.

  16. Clinical effectiveness of primary and secondary headache treatment by transcranial direct current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry ePinchuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effectiveness of headache treatment by transcranial direct current stimulation with various locations of stimulating electrodes on the scalp was analyzed retrospectively. The results of the treatment were analyzed in 90 patients aged from 19 to 54 years (48 patients had migraine without aura, 32 – frequent episodic tension-type headaches, 10 – chronic tension-type headaches and in 44 adolescents aged 11 – 16 years with chronic posttraumatic headaches after a mild head injury. Clinical effectiveness of tDCS with 70 – 150 µA current for 30 – 45 minutes via 6.25 cm2 stimulating electrodes is comparable to that of modern pharmacological drugs, with no negative side effects. The obtained result has been maintained on average from 5 to 9 months. It has been demonstrated that effectiveness depends on localization of stimulating electrodes used for different types of headaches.

  17. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published before January 1, 2016, using the MeSH terms for a variety of STDs and infertility. The search was restricted to human studies...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...

  18. Diagnostic methods of tubal factor in infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzon, T.; Mielnik, J.; Gosciniak, W.

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic methods of tubal factor in infertility have been presented. In details have been discussed PJ, PK HSG and pelviscopy. These examinations themselves constitute the basic ones in infertility. We turned our attention into technical details and possible mistakes which may occur at the time of performing them, these misinterpretations may lead to absolutely wrong conclusion and diagnosis. Authors have wide experience in performing the discussed examinations and this allows them to share their opinion. Over the years several thousand of PK and HSG examinations have been carried out and also 1000 laparoscopies. (author)

  19. Overtreatment in couples with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, F A M; Hermens, R P G M; Braat, D D M; Hoek, A; Mol, B W J; Goddijn, M; Nelen, W L D M

    2015-01-01

    What is the percentage of overtreatment, i.e. fertility treatment started too early, in couples with unexplained infertility who were eligible for tailored expectant management? Overtreatment occurred in 36% of couples with unexplained infertility who were eligible for an expectant management of at least 6 months. Prognostic models in reproductive medicine can help to identify infertile couples that would benefit from fertility treatment. In couples with unexplained infertility with a good chance of natural conception within 1 year, based on the Hunault prediction model, an expectant management of 6-12 months, as recommended in international fertility guidelines, prevents unnecessary treatment. A retrospective cohort study in 25 participating clinics, with follow-up of all couples who were seen for infertility in 2011-2012. In all, 9818 couples were seen for infertility in the participating clinics. Couples were eligible to participate if they were diagnosed with unexplained infertility and had a good prognosis of natural conception (>30%) within 1 year based on the Hunault prediction model. Data to assess overtreatment were collected from medical records. Multilevel regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of overtreatment with patient and clinic characteristics. Five hundred and forty-four couples eligible for expectant management were included in this study. Among these, overtreatment, i.e. starting medically assisted reproduction within 6 months, occurred in 36%. The underlying quality indicators showed that in 34% no prognosis was calculated and that in 42% expectant management was not recommended. Finally, 16% of the couples for whom a correct recommendation of expectant management for at least 6 months was made, started treatment within 6 months anyway. Overtreatment was associated with childlessness, higher female age and a longer duration of infertility. No associations between overtreatment and clinic characteristics were found. The

  20. Desire for a child and eating disorders in women seeking infertility treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Bruneau

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of EDs in women seeking treatment for infertility, and to better characterize their clinical profile.Sixty participants completed self-report measures that assessed EDs, desire for a child, body preoccupations, quality of life, anxiety and depression.Ten patients (17% met criteria for a past or current ED. We showed a significant association between greater body dissatisfaction and a more ambivalent desire for a child. Furthermore, an ED was associated with (i a lower quality of life, and (ii more anxiety disorders.Screening for a history of ED in infertile women is recommended to plan for adapted care regarding infertility but also regarding ED and psychiatric comorbidities. Therefore, the assessment has to take into account the desire for a child and the body satisfaction, that are essential parts of the ED process on the one hand and infertility process on the other. This could help with the infertility treatment and the prevention of negative maternal and fetal outcomes.

  1. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Treat Infertility Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Eifert, Georg H.

    2011-01-01

    Women and men diagnosed with infertility experience a variety of infertility-related stressors, including changes to their family and social networks, strain on their sexual relationship, and difficulties and unexpected challenges in their relationship. Infertility stress is linked with depression and psychological distress, and can lead to…

  2. A Comparative study of Depression among fertile and infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    levels of both fertile and infertile group. The prevalence of depression in infertile women ranges. 19 from 8% to 54%. Depression is thought to be a major public health problem associated with infertility, particularly in developing countries,. Nigeria inclusive, where having a child is very important for sociocultural, economic, ...

  3. Pattern of mental illness among women attending an infertility clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female infertility is highly co-morbid with mental illness. In Nigeria, very few studies have been conducted to determine the pattern of mental illness among women with infertility. We aimed to determine the pattern of mental illness in a sample of women with female infertility as well as its associated correlates.

  4. Prevalence of Infertility in Women in a Southwestern Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence and common causes of infertility in women aged between 15 and 55 years was assessed in four hospital centers in Osun State, located in the SouthWestern part of Nigeria. A survey of a consecutive sample of 200 cases of infertility were carried out in four hospital centers with a total of 50 cases of infertility ...

  5. Aetiological Factors in Female Infertility: The ABSUTH Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence of infertility in a traditional Ibo society using Abia State University Teaching Hospital Aba as a case study and to identify the common causes of female infertility in Aba, a retrospective study of patient investigated and treated for infertility from 1st January to 31st December 1996 was done. A total ...

  6. The prevalence and clinical pattern of infertility in Bauchi, northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Infertility is a common condition and is now viewed as a global reproductive health issue. The causes of infertility vary widely, both among and within countries. Objectives: To describe the magnitude, pattern, aetiology, outcome of infertility and its associated factors in Bauchi, northern Nigeria. Methods: This was a ...

  7. Infertility | Jose-Miller | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility is defined as failure to achieve pregnancy during one year of frequent, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation generally begins after 12 months, but it can be initiated earlier if infertility is suspected based on history or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Major causes of infertility include male factors, ovarian ...

  8. Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though infertility is not lethal, it has been described as a radical life changing problem that carries with it significant psychological trauma. Male factor infertility is responsible for about 40–50% of all infertility cases. Despite its high prevalence in Nigeria, not much effort has been made at tackling the problem. The impact ...

  9. The pattern and challenges of infertility management in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infertility remains a threat to successful reproduction by couples desirous of pregnancy. Objective: To determine the pattern of infertility cases amongst infertile couples seeking care in Lagos University Teaching Hospital as well as challenges in their management. Methods: A review of the management of ...

  10. Clinical Correlates of Unexplained Infertility in Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: In the absence of any obvious aetiological factor, a couple is said to have unexplained infertility. It is desirable to identify factors associated with unexplained infertility in this environment and to ascertain if there is a causal relationship between infertility and uterine leiomyomata. Objective: The study is aimed at ...

  11. The pattern and challenges of infertility management in Lagos, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Infertility remains a threat to successful reproduction by couples desirous of pregnancy. Objective: To determine the pattern of infertility cases amongst infertile couples seeking care in Lagos University Teaching. Hospital as well as challenges in their management. Methods: A review of the ...

  12. Should laparoscopy and dye test be a first line evaluation for infertile women in southeast Nigeria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Mbamara, S U

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopy and dye test is an important investigation in the evaluation of infertile women which has been underutilised in our practice. This review is aimed at determining whether the findings of this procedure are substantial enough to make it a first line evaluation for infertile women. A review of the laparoscopic findings in infertile women who presented for evaluation and treatment at a private fertility centre was carried out. A total of 253 day-case laparoscopy and dye test procedures were reviewed, 115 (45.0%) were done for primary infertility, 137 (54.5%) for secondary infertility and 1 (0.4%) for primary amenorrhoea and infertility. The mean period of infertility was 4.5 years with a range of 2-10 years and the women were aged between 19 and 52 years. Analysis of the result showed that 100 (39.5%) women had normal patent tubes while 153 (60.4%) had tubal pathologies like bilateral tubal occlusion in 97 (38.3%) and unilateral tubal occlusion in 56 (22.1%) women. Pelvic adhesion of varying degrees of severity was present in 108 (42.7%) women. Bilateral tubal occlusion was more common in nulliparous women and those aged between 30-39 years. One or both ovaries were normal (functional) in 189 (74.7%) women. Altogether, only 43 (17.0%) women were "normal" (had patent tubes, functional ovary and no pelvic adhesion). Additional pelvic pathology was present in 142 (56.1%) women. The commonest was uterine fibroid (leiomyomata) of various sizes in 100 (39.5%) of the women, followed by ovarian cyst in 56 (22.2%) and endometriosis in 11 (4.4%) women. Other pathologies observed include uterine abnormalities and unruptured ectopic pregnancy. Only 16 (37.2%) of the 43 "normal" women had no additional pelvic pathology. The high prevalence o tuboperitoneal factor and additional pelvic pathology in these infertile women reveal the importance of laparoscopic evaluation. We recommend the use of laparoscopy and dye test as a first line investigation in our environment to

  13. Improving the reporting of clinical trials of infertility treatments (IMPRINT): modifying the CONSORT statement†‡.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legro, Richard S; Wu, Xiaoke; Barnhart, Kurt T; Farquhar, Cynthia; Fauser, Bart C J M; Mol, Ben

    2014-10-10

    Clinical trials testing infertility treatments often do not report on the major outcomes of interest to patients and clinicians and the public (such as live birth) nor on the harms, including maternal risks during pregnancy and fetal anomalies. This is complicated by the multiple participants in infertility trials which may include a woman (mother), a man (father), and result in a third individual if successful, their offspring (child), who is also the desired outcome of treatment. The primary outcome of interest and many adverse events occur after cessation of infertility treatment and during pregnancy and the puerperium, which create a unique burden of follow-up for clinical trial investigators and participants. In 2013, because of the inconsistencies in trial reporting and the unique aspects of infertility trials not adequately addressed by existing Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statements, we convened a consensus conference in Harbin, China, with the aim of planning modifications to the CONSORT checklist to improve the quality of reporting of clinical trials testing infertility treatment. The consensus group recommended that the preferred primary outcome of all infertility trials is live birth (defined as any delivery of a live infant ≥20 weeks gestations) or cumulative live birth, defined as the live birth per women over a defined time period (or number of treatment cycles). In addition, harms to all participants should be systematically collected and reported, including during the intervention, any resulting pregnancy, and during the neonatal period. Routine information should be collected and reported on both male and female participants in the trial. We propose to track the change in quality that these guidelines may produce in published trials testing infertility treatments. Our ultimate goal is to increase the transparency of benefits and risks of infertility treatments to provide better medical care to affected individuals and

  14. Overview of the current National Primary Drinking Water Regulations and regulation development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotruvo, J.A.; Regelski, M.

    1989-01-01

    The promulgation of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) follows specific steps. First, the Advance Notice of Proposed Rule Making (ANPRM) is published. Second, the EPA, as mandated by the SDWA Amendments, proposes maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), (enforceable standards) and maximum contaminant level goals (MCLGs) simultaneously. The Office of Drinking Water developed a six-phase schedule that has attempted to parallel the SDWA-specified deadlines: Phase I - Voltile organic chemicals - July 8, 1987; Phase II - Synthetic organic chemicals and inorganic chemicals - June 1989, microbials and surface water treatment - June 1989, and Lead/copper - December 1988; Phase III - Radionuclides - December 1988; Phase IV - Disinfectants and disinfection by-products - June 1989; Phase V - Other inorganic chemicals, synthetic organic chemicals, and pesticides - June 1989; and Phase VI - 25 additional chemicals - January 199. In selecting contaminants for regulation, the most relevant criteria are (1) potential health risk; (2) ability to detect a contaminant in the drinking water; and (3) occurrence or potential occurrence in drinking water. The EPA uses a three category approach for setting maximum contaminant level goals for carcinogens: Category I, strong evidence of carcinogenicity-zero; Category II, equivocal evidence - reference dose (RfD) approach or 0.00001 to 0.000001 cancer risk range; and Category III, inadequate or no evidence from animal studies - RfD approach. 10 refs., 5 tabs

  15. Current and future emissions of primary pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Hao, Hongke; Wang, Dexiang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution inventory of primary atmospheric pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi in 2012 was built based on a detailed database compiled at unit level involving unit capacity, boiler size and type, commission time, corresponding control technologies, and average coal quality of 72 power plants. The pollutants included SO 2 , NO x , fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 ), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). Emission factors for SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 and PM 10 were adopted from standardized official promulgation, supplemented by those from local studies. The estimated annual emissions of SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , EC, OC, CO and NMVOC were 152.4, 314.8, 16.6, 26.4, 0.07, 0.27, 64.9 and 2.5kt, respectively. Small units (emission rates compared to medium (≥100MW and emissions were decontamination efficiency, sulfur content and ash content of coal. Weinan and Xianyang were the two cities with the highest emissions, and Guanzhong Plain had the largest emission density. Despite the projected growth of coal consumption, emissions would decrease in 2030 due to improvement in emission control technologies and combustion efficiencies. SO 2 and NO x emissions would experience significant reduction by ~81% and ~84%, respectively. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , EC and OC would be decreased by ~43% and CO and NMVOC would be reduced by ~16%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology of infertility in China: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z; Zheng, D; Wu, H; Li, R; Xu, S; Kang, Y; Cao, Y; Chen, X; Zhu, Y; Xu, S; Chen, Z-J; Mol, B W; Qiao, J

    2018-03-01

    To assess the current prevalence of and risk factors for infertility among couples of reproductive age in China. Population-based cross-sectional study. We approached 25 270 couples in eight provinces/municipalities, of whom 18 571 (response rate 74%) were interviewed. Couples living together and married for more than 1 year, of whom the female spouse was 20-49 years old. Women were approached via telephone and face-to-face conversation to complete the standardised and structured questionnaire by trained interviewers. Prevalence of and risk factors for infertility. Among women 'at risk' of pregnancy, the prevalence of infertility was 15.5% (2680/17 275). Among 10 742 women attempting to become pregnant, the prevalence of infertility was 25.0% (2680/10 742), which increased with age in the second population. Among women who failed to achieve pregnancy in the last 12 months, 3470 finished our questionnaire about fertility care, and 55.2% (1915/3470) of them had sought medical help. Sociodemographic risk factors for infertility included lower educational level [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.4, 95% CI 2.0-5.5] and employment (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.9-2.9). Clinical risk factors were irregular menstrual cycle (aOR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.5), light menstrual blood volume (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), history of cervicitis (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) and endometriosis (aOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1-9.3), previous stillbirth (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.3) and miscarriage (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 2.1-3.5). In addition, history of operation was a significant risk factor of infertility. Among couples of reproductive age in China, the prevalence of infertility was 25%, and almost half of the couples experiencing infertility had not sought medical help. In China, 25% of couples actively attempting to become pregnant suffered infertility. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Anxiety and depression among infertile women: a cross-sectional survey from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Enikő; Szigeti, Judit F; Ujma, Péter P; Sexty, Réka; Balog, Piroska

    2017-07-24

    Infertility is often associated with a chronic state of stress which may manifest itself in anxiety-related and depressive symptoms. The aim of our study is to assess the psychological state of women with and without fertility problems, and to investigate the background factors of anxiety-related and depressive symptoms in women struggling with infertility. Our study was conducted with the participation of 225 (134 primary infertile and 91 fertile) women, recruited in a clinical setting and online. We used the following questionnaires: Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T), Shortened Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI). We also interviewed our subjects on the presence of other sources of stress (the quality of the relationship with their mother, financial and illness-related stress), and we described sociodemographic and fertility-specific characteristics. We tested our hypotheses using independent-samples t-tests (M ± SD) and multiple linear regression modelling (ß). Infertile women were younger (33.30 ± 4.85 vs. 35.74 ± 5.73, p = .001), but had significantly worse psychological well-being (BDI = 14.94 ± 12.90 vs. 8.95 ± 10.49, p Depressive symptoms and anxiety in infertile women were associated with age, social concern, sexual concern and maternal relationship stress. Trait anxiety was also associated with financial stress. Our model was able to account for 58% of the variance of depressive symptoms and 62% of the variance of trait anxiety. Depressive and anxiety-related symptoms of infertile women are more prominent than those of fertile females. The measurement of these indicators and the mitigation of underlying distress by adequate psychosocial interventions should be encouraged.

  18. Male infertility in Kuwait: Etiologic and Therapeutic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadan, Laila R.; Ahmed, Adel A.; Kapila, Kusum A.; Hassan, Nahida A.; Kodaj, Jan A.; Pathan, Shahed K.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to evaluate the pathological patterns associated with male infertility in Kuwait and to characterize treatment outcome after varicocele repair using percutaneous varicocele embolization. We carried out a prospective study of 64 infertile men in Kuwait between 2001 and 2005. All patients included had proven non-obstructive azoospermia or oligospermia (sperm count <20 million /ml). All patients underwent ultrasonographic evaluation of the scrotum. Fine needle aspiration of the testes was performed on all azoospermic patients. A total of 24(38%) patients were azoospermic and 40(62%) were oligospermic. Sertoli-cell-only pattern was the most common cytopathology associated with primary testicular failure. Among the oligospermic patients, 50% had small to moderate varicocele. Spermatic vein embolization resulted in a significant rise in the mean sperm count from 10.6+-3.8 million/ml to 30.2+-6.8 million/mn (p<0.05) in 5 treated oligospermic patients, followed by spontaneous pregnancy in 2 couples. No effect was seen azoospermic patients. From an etiological point of view, we believe that the high incidence of Sertoli cell-only-syndrome among nationals and residents of a country that underwent a major environmental insult strengths the chances of an environmental role in the development of this syndrome. From a management point of view, in cultures wherein vitro fertilization is either still not widely acceptable or is unaffordable, oligospermia with clinical or subclinical varicocele deserves a trial of low risk, outpatient procedure, spermatic, vein embolization that could improve fertility. (author)

  19. Correlation of H. pylori infection and infertility; a survey in Yazd infertility clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalili M B

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a worldwide problem. Many different factors may cause infertility. Among them, bacterial infection of the reproductive system is one of the main factors. Recently, some limited investigation has revealed that H. pylori is capable of causing genital inflammation that may lead to infertility. Although known to be a causative agent of gastritis and duodenal ulcers, this species may be transferred orally to the vagina and asymptomatic infection leads to inflammation of the system and finally manifestation of infertility. In addition, infertility may be due to antibodies synthesized against H. pylori cross-reacting with the genital tissue. Methods: In the present study, 180 women consisting of 90 cases referred to IVF center of Yazd and 90 matched controls were enrolled. Serum was taken from all women for detection of IgG and IgM using the ELISA technique. Results: A total of 117 (65% serum samples were positive for Helicobacter, of which 63.3% were from fertile and 66.7% from infertile women. The serum positive population was found to be predominantly in the age range of 25-35, although some 35-42 year olds were also serum positive. When the prevalence of Helicobacter infection status was compared with marriage duration in both groups, it was found that antibody titer in subjects from marriages with durations of greater than five years was significantly higher than those of five-year marriages. In addition, higher antibody titers were found in infertile women with fallopian tube (FT factor and lower titers in those with polycystic factors. Conclusion: Although the results were not significant, they nevertheless indicate that the Helicobacter antibody titers in infertile women were higher than those of fertile women (P =0.6. Therefore, further studies are necessary to determine the role that Helicobacter infection plays with regard to infertility among women. Since the antibody titer in infertile cases with FT factor was

  20. General psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self-esteem in couples undergoing infertility treatment: a comparative study between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kissi, Yousri; Romdhane, Asma Ben; Hidar, Samir; Bannour, Souhail; Ayoubi Idrissi, Khadija; Khairi, Hedi; Ben Hadj Ali, Bechir

    2013-04-01

    To compare measures of psychological distress between men and women undergoing ART in the Unit of Reproductive Medicine "UMR" in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at "Farhat Hached" Hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. We conducted a gender comparative study of psychological profile in infertile couples. Recruitment was done during period from January to May 2009. 100 infertile couples with primary infertility were recruited. Scores of general psychopathology, depression, anxiety and self-esteem were evaluated. We administrated questionnaires on psychological factors among infertile couples before starting a new infertility treatment cycle. Psychological factors included the symptom check-list (SCL-90-R), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD-S) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE). Infertile women had higher scores than their spouses in the three global scores of the SCL-90-R and in several items such as somatisation, obsessive symptoms, interpersonal sensitivity and phobias. Scores of HADS were higher among women for both depression and anxiety. Scores of self-esteem were lower among women. Women endorsed higher psychological distress than men across multiple symptoms domains: general psychopathology, anxiety, depression and self esteem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hepatitis B virus infection status and infertility causes in couples seeking fertility treatment-Indicator of impaired immune response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Terence T; Mak, Jennifer S M; Li, Tin-Chiu

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between hepatitis B (HBV) infection in infertile couples seeking in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment and infertility causes is unknown. A total of 831 infertile couples attending our unit seeking IVF during January to December 2015 were recruited. HBV infection was found in 6.3% and 7.3% of female and male partners, respectively, and infection in one or both partners was associated with less primary infertility (44.2% vs 55.1%, P=.038). Infected female partners had increased tubal (69.2% vs 43.2%, Pinfertility, while infected male partners were associated with increased tubal (62.3% vs 43.4%, P=.004) causes and reduced endometriosis (62.3% vs 73.9%, P=.050). Our results suggest HBV infection in either partner was associated with tubal infertility. HBV infection in either partner probably increases the risk of pelvic infection in female partner through impaired immune response to sexually transmitted infections, with consequent tubal damage and infertility. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The comparison between Intrauterine Insemination and Fallopian Tube Sperm Perfusion Using FAST® System in Patients with Unexplained Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Peivandi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled ovarian stimulation (COH with intrauterine insemination (IUI is commonly offered to infertile couples with patent fallopian tubes because it is simple, non-invasive and cost-effective technique. Another non-invasive method is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP. This study was performed to compare the relative efficacy between FSP using fallopian sperm transfer (FAST system and standard IUI in patients with unexplained infertility. Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted at the IVF Unit, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of ninety patients with unexplained infertility underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG. Patients were then randomly assigned into either group I (n=45 to undergo standard IUI or group II (n=45 to undergo FSP using FAST system. Results: The patients’ basic characteristics, including age, primary infertility and duration of infertility, were not significantly different between two study groups. In the group I, there were 9 pregnancies (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 20%, whereas in the group II, 8 pregnancies occurred (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 17.8%, p>0.05. Conclusion: FSP using FAST system offers no advantage over the standard IUI in order to increase pregnancy rate in patients with unexplained infertility.

  3. Use of complementary and alternative medicines by a sample of Turkish women for infertility enhancement: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolusari Ali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility patients are a vulnerable group that often seeks a non-medical solution for their failure to conceive. World-wide, women use CAM for productive health, but only a limited number of studies report on CAM use to enhance fertility. Little is known about traditional and religious forms of therapies that are used in relation to conventional medicine in Turkey. We investigated the prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM used by infertile Turkish women for fertility enhancement. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information and types of CAM used for fertility enhancement were completed by hundred infertility patients admitted to a primary care family planning centre in Van, Turkey between January and July 2009. Results The vast majority of infertile women had used CAM at least once for infertility. CAM use included religious interventions, herbal products and recommendations of traditional "hodja's" (faith healers. Of these women, 87.8% were abused in the last 12 months, 36.6% felt not being supported by her partner and 80.5% had never spoken with a physician about CAM. Conclusions Infertile Turkish women use complementary medicine frequently for fertility enhancement and are in need of information about CAM. Religious and traditional therapies are used as an adjunct to, rather than a substitute for, conventional medical therapy. Physicians need to approach fertility patients with sensitivity and should be able to council their patients about CAM accordingly.

  4. Nursing and midwifery students' experiences with the course of infertility and assisted reproductive techniques: A focus group study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbir, Gozde Gokçe; Ozan, Yeter Durgun

    2018-01-01

    Nurses and midwifes without sufficient knowledge of infertilitare not likely to provide counseling and support for people suffering from infertility. This study aimed to evaluate nursing and midwifery students' experiences with the Course on Infertility and Assisted Reproductive Techniques. Our study had a qualitative descriptive design. Total number of the participants was 75. The analysis revealed five primary themes and twenty-one sub-themes. The themes were (1) action, (2) learner centered method, (3) interaction, (4) nursing competencies, and (5) evaluation. The active learning techniques enabled the students to retrieve the knowledge that they obtained for a long time, contributed to social and cultural development and improved skills required for selfevaluation, communication and leadership, enhanced critical thinking, skills increased motivation and satisfaction and helped with knowledge integration. Infertility is a biopsychosocial condition, and it may be difficult for students to understand what infertile individuals experience. The study revealed that active learning techniques enabled the students to acquire not only theoretical knowledge but also an emotional and psychosocial viewpoint and attitude regarding infertility. The content of an infertility course should be created in accordance with changes in the needs of a given society and educational techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A unique view on male infertility around the globe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Mulgund, Aditi; Hamada, Alaa; Chyatte, Michelle Renee

    2015-04-26

    Infertility affects an estimated 15% of couples globally, amounting to 48.5 million couples. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases and contribute to 50% of cases overall. However, this number does not accurately represent all regions of the world. Indeed, on a global level, there is a lack of accurate statistics on rates of male infertility. Our report examines major regions of the world and reports rates of male infertility based on data on female infertility. Our search consisted of systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and population-based studies by searching the terms "epidemiology, male infertility, and prevalence." We identified 16 articles for detailed study. We typically used the assumption that 50% of all cases of infertility are due to female factors alone, 20-30% are due to male factors alone, and the remaining 20-30% are due to a combination of male and female factors. Therefore, in regions of the world where male factor or rates of male infertility were not reported, we used this assumption to calculate general rates of male factor infertility. Our calculated data showed that the distribution of infertility due to male factor ranged from 20% to 70% and that the percentage of infertile men ranged from 2·5% to 12%. Infertility rates were highest in Africa and Central/Eastern Europe. Additionally, according to a variety of sources, rates of male infertility in North America, Australia, and Central and Eastern Europe varied from 4 5-6%, 9%, and 8-12%, respectively. This study demonstrates a novel and unique way to calculate the distribution of male infertility around the world. According to our results, at least 30 million men worldwide are infertile with the highest rates in Africa and Eastern Europe. Results indicate further research is needed regarding etiology and treatment, reduce stigma & cultural barriers, and establish a more precise calculation.

  6. Comparison of Sexual Problems in Fertile and Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zare

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infertility is known to have a negative effect on couple's life and in most cases it has a profound impact on sexual relations. Sexual problems may be the cause of infertility or may arise as a result of infertility. The aim of this study was to compare the sexual problems in fertile and infertile couples. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 110 infertile and 110 fertile couples referring to Montaserieh infertility center and five health centers in Mashhad which were selected as class clustering method and easy method. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaires and Golombok-Rust Inventory. The collected information was analyzed by SPSS software and descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: No significant difference was found between fertile 26 (17, 37 and infertile 26(18, 37 women in terms of total score of sexual problems and other aspects of sexual problems (except infrequency. The women in the fertile group had higher infrequency than infertile women. Total score of sexual problems in fertile men was 18.5 (13, 27 and in infertile men 25 (19, 31 and the difference was statistically significant. Infertile men reported more problems in no relation, impotency and premature ejaculation compared to fertile men. Men in both fertile and infertile group reported more sexual problems than women. Conclusion: In view of the more frequent sexual problems in infertile men than infertile women, it seems that it is necessary to pay more attention to sexual aspects of infertility in men and design the training programs for sexual and marital skills in infertility centers.

  7. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  8. Coital frequency and infertility: which male factors predict less frequent coitus among infertile couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Nathan; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Spencer, Leia; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-08-01

    To determine the coital frequency among infertile couples and which factors are associated with less frequent coitus. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-level male infertility clinic. A total of 1,298 infertile men. Administration of computer-based survey, semen analysis, and serum hormone evaluation. Monthly coital frequency. A total of 1,298 patients presented to clinic for infertility consultation and completed the computer-based survey. The median male age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-39 years) and the median duration of infertility was 2 years (IQR 1-4 years) before consultation. Median monthly coital frequency was seven (IQR 5-10; range 0-40); 24% of couples were having intercourse ≤ 4 times per month. Overall, 0.6%, 2.7%, 4.8%, 5.8%, and 10.8% of the men reported having intercourse 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times per month, respectively. When simultaneously taking into account the influence of age, libido, erectile function, and semen volume on coital frequency, older patients had 1.05 times higher odds (per year of age) of less frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.08). In addition, patients with better erectile function had 1.12 times higher odds (per point on Sexual Health Inventory for Men scale) of more frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.18). Similar to the general population, most infertile couples report having coitus more than four times per month. Older male age and erectile dysfunction are independent risk factors for less frequent coitus among infertile men, which could have an impact on fertility. Coital frequency should be considered in infertility assessments. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Masculinity, infertility, stigma and media reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannon, Kenneth; Glover, Lesley; Abel, Paul

    2004-09-01

    There is growing concern about the health of men in the developed West. Compared with women they have higher rates of morbidity and mortality and are less likely to seek out and employ medical services. Several authors have drawn on social constructionist models, such as the concept of hegemonic masculinity, to account for these gender differences in risk and behaviour. One might anticipate that certain conditions, such as male infertility, would be perceived as posing a particular threat to conventional views of masculinity. There is some support for this, although there is little research into the social construction of male infertility. In this study Discourse Analysis was employed to analyse newspaper accounts of a reported decline in sperm counts in order to study the way in which infertility and masculinity were represented and constructed in the media. The results indicate a construction of fertility as being in crisis and of male infertility as conflated with impotence. Men were positioned as vulnerable and threatened by forces outside their control. The accounts drew on a range of stereotypically masculine reference points, such as warfare and mechanical analogies. These results are consistent with concepts of hegemonic masculinity and suggest that men are offered a highly restricted set of options in terms of perceiving and representing their bodies and their health. Copyright 2004 Elseiver Ltd.

  10. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Y chromosome infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NBK1339/ Citation on PubMed Tyler-Smith C. An evolutionary perspective on Y-chromosomal variation and male infertility. ... genome editing and CRISPR-Cas9? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages Alopecia areata ...

  12. Bariatric Surgery, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, and Infertility

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    James Butterworth

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the commonest cause of female infertility. Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are key pathophysiological mechanisms behind PCOS. Women suffering from this syndrome and infertility often seek bariatric surgery hoping that they would be able to conceive postoperatively. Objective. At present, there is no consensus on the role of bariatric surgery in the management of PCOS-associated infertility within the medical community, making it difficult to give specific advice to these women, so a review of the literature was necessary. Results. A detailed review of the literature was performed. Only 6 manuscripts were relevant and contained quantitative data. They demonstrated that bariatric surgery results in postoperative conception rates varying from 33% to 100%. Surgery is also associated with amelioration of menstrual irregularities, hormonal abnormalities, and hirsutism that are associated with PCOS. These studies were retrospective and only had a small number of participants with infertility. Conclusions. Bariatric surgery has been shown to conclusively improve life expectancy, quality of life, and comorbidities like type 2 diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea. However, further research is required to identify whether weight loss surgery results in significant improvement in fertility of women with PCOS and to investigate which operation has the best results.

  13. Spelling rehabilitation using transcranial direct current (tDCS in primary progressive aphasia (PPA.

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    Constantine Frangakis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spelling impairments are one of the first deficits that occur early in PPA and can usually predict the variant of PPA in which the patient may progress (Sepelyak et al., 2011. PPA is a neurodegenerative disease that affects people relatively early in life (between 55-65 years and therefore it is important to find ways to alleviate the symptoms or impede the degree of degeneration. We present and discuss new data indicating that a neuromodulatory treatment, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS combined with a spelling intervention, shows promise for maintaining or even improving language abilities in PPA. The aim of this research is to determine whether tDCS plus language therapy is more effective than language therapy alone in treating written language deficits in PPA. Methods: Eight PPA participants underwent anodal tDCS or sham plus spelling intervention in a randomized order using a within-subject cross-over design. They were evaluated before, after, and at 2 weeks and 2 months post-intervention. Spelling intervention varied for each participant according to the main spelling deficit: 3 patients had phoneme-to-grapheme conversion (PGC intervention, 2 had lexical intervention and 3 had advanced PGC intervention (combined with written fluency and PGC practice. Four more patients have already finished the first period of stimulations (ether sham or tDCS and all their other sessions and evaluations will be completed in the next couple months. Analyses-Results: We analyzed the existing set of full data using both within-subject analyses (McNemar tests and across-subjects analyses while taking into account carry-over effects. We evaluated therapy effects by the Generalized Estimating Equation approach (Liang & Zeger, 1986. All participants showed improvement in spelling after spelling intervention in trained items (with either sham or tDCS. There was, however, a significant improvement for untrained items only in the t

  14. Infertility service use in the United States: data from the National Survey of Family Growth, 1982-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Anjani; Copen, Casey E; Stephen, Elizabeth Hervey

    2014-01-22

    This report presents nationally representative estimates and trends for infertility service use among women aged 15-44 and 25-44 in the United States in 1982-2010. While greater detail on types of infertility service is shown for women, basic data on types of infertility service use, as reported by men aged 25-44, are also presented. Data for this report come primarily from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), consisting of 22,682 interviews with men and women aged 15-44, conducted from June 2006 through June 2010. The response rate for females in the 2006-2010 NSFG was 78%, and for males was 75%. Selected trends are shown based on prior NSFG cycles. Twelve percent of women aged 15-44 in 2006-2010 (7.3 million women), or their husbands or partners, had ever used infertility services. Among women aged 25-44, 17% (6.9 million) had ever used any infertility service, a significant decrease from 20% in 1995. Thirty-eight percent of nulliparous women with current fertility problems in 2006-2010 had ever used infertility services, significantly less than 56% of such women in 1982. In all survey years, ever-use of medical help to get pregnant was highest among older and nulliparous women, non-Hispanic white women, women with current fertility problems, and women with higher levels of education and household income. The most commonly used infertility services among women aged 25-44 in 2006-2010 were advice, testing, medical help to prevent miscarriage, and ovulation drugs. Ever-use of infertility services was reported by 9.4% of men aged 25-44 in 2006-2010, similar to levels seen in 2002. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  15. Infertility as a transformational process: a framework for psychotherapeutic support of infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L O

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to investigate the phenomenon of infertility as experienced by infertile women. A purposive sample of 25 infertile women participated in the study. Data were extracted from taped interviews and the researcher's observational field notes. Data analysis was conducted according to the techniques described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Participant responses to interviews were categorized by examining the interview transcripts and identifying significant statements and meanings. Themes which emerged from the statements were then ascertained and cross-case comparisons were made in order to confirm or to reconsider these themes. Five key themes emerged from the data: failure to fulfill a prescribed societal norm, assault on personal identity, mourning, transformation, and restitution. The women experienced infertility as a transformational process in which they mourned their loss of reproductive function and parenting roles and struggled to make restitution for the perceived stigma and powerlessness associated with nonfulfillment of a prescribed societal norm, the exclusion from cherished societal rituals, and the deprivation of ties of descent. Findings from this study have provided a framework for increased awareness of the phenomenon of infertility and for the essential components of supportive counseling or psychotherapy, regardless of the outcome of the infertility experience.

  16. Adult air pollution exposure and risk of infertility in the Nurses' Health Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingaiah, S; Hart, J E; Laden, F; Farland, L V; Hewlett, M M; Chavarro, J; Aschengrau, A; Missmer, S A

    2016-03-01

    Is there an association between air pollution exposures and incident infertility? Increased exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of infertility. Exposures to air pollution have been associated with lower conception and fertility rates. However, the impact of pollution on infertility incidence is unknown. Prospective cohort study using data collected from 116 430 female nurses from September 1989 to December 2003 as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. Infertility was defined by report of attempted conception for ≥12 months without success. Participants were able to report if evaluation was sought and if so, offer multiple clinical indications for infertility. After exclusion, 36 294 members were included in the analysis. Proximity to major roadways and ambient exposures to particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10), between 2.5 and 10 microns (PM2.5-10), and less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) were determined for residential addresses for the 36 294 members between the years of 1993 and 2003. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates. Over 213 416 person-years, there were 2508 incident reports of infertility. Results for overall infertility were inconsistent across exposure types. We observed a small increased risk for those living closer to compared to farther from a major road, multivariable adjusted HR = 1.11 (CI: 1.02-1.20). This was consistent for those reporting primary or secondary infertility. For women living closer to compared to farther from a major road, for primary infertility HR = 1.05 (CI: 0.94-1.17), while for secondary infertility HR = 1.21 (CI: 1.07-1.36). In addition, the HR for every 10 µg/m(3) increase in cumulative PM2.5-10 among women with primary infertility was 1.10 (CI: 0.96-1.27), and similarly was 1.10 (CI: 0.94-1.28) for those with secondary infertility. Within the 2 year window of

  17. Child obesity prevention in primary health care: investigating practice nurse roles, attitudes and current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alison; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Harris, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Overweight and obesity affects approximately 20% of Australian pre-schoolers. The general practice nurse (PN) workforce has increased in recent years; however, little is known of PN capacity and potential to provide routine advice for the prevention of child obesity. This mixed methods pilot study aims to explore the current practices, attitudes, confidence and training needs of Australian PNs surrounding child obesity prevention in the general practice setting. PNs from three Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales were invited to complete a questionnaire investigating PN roles, attitudes and practices in preventive care with a focus on child obesity. A total of 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate 22%). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of PNs (n = 10). Questionnaire respondent demographics were similar to that of national PN data. PNs described preventive work as enjoyable despite some perceived barriers including lack of confidence. Number of years working in general practice did not appear to strongly influence nurses' perceived barriers. Seventy per cent of PNs were interested in being more involved in conducting child health checks in practice, and 85% expressed an interest in taking part in child obesity prevention training. Findings from this pilot study suggest that PNs are interested in prevention of child obesity despite barriers to practice and low confidence levels. More research is needed to determine the effect of training on PN confidence and behaviours in providing routine healthy life-style messages for the prevention of child obesity. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Association of Positive History of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Female Infertility

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    Babak Eshrati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of infertility has direct influence on the plan and outcome of its management.In this paper we showed the effect of history of tuberculosis (TB on female infertility among infertilecouples admitted to Royan infertility management center.Material and Methods: This case control study was performed on cases that were diagnosed withfemale infertility (308 women. Controls were women whose husbands were infertile due to some malefactor (314 women. Those who had both female and male infertility were excluded from the study. Theobserved variables were BMI>25 kg/m2, positive history of smoking, tuberculosis, sexually transmitteddisease and pelvic inflammatory diseases.Results: The age adjusted odds ratio of history of tuberculosis for female infertility was 6.21(95 CI:1.31-29.56.The attributable risk in exposed group was about 1%.Conclusion: According to our study, positive history of tuberculosis may be responsible for femaleinfertility.

  19. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

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    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  20. Effects of gender roles, child wish motives, subjective well-being, and marital adjustment on infertility-related stress: a preliminary study with a Hungarian sample of involuntary childless men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserepes, Réka Eszter; Kollár, János; Sápy, Tamás; Wischmann, Tewes; Bugán, Antal

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the infertility-related stress in a Hungarian infertile population and examine the effects of gender roles, child wish motives, subjective well-being, and marital relationship on the experience of infertility according to our self-constructed conceptual framework. Validated self-report questionnaires measuring the factors of the conceptual framework were taken in the study carried out in a sample of 53 people attending the fertility unit of a Hungarian clinic. Infertility-related global stress, infertility-related social concerns, and general health problems have more intensive effect on women than on men (all p Women from the infertile group scored higher their femininity (p women (p traditional gender role concepts (β = -0.248, p role to predict stress caused by infertility. The current study emphasizes the importance of interrelations of gender role attitudes, gender role identification, general health, and satisfaction in couple relationship with infertility-related stress. In further investigations, both social and personal aspects and their effect on experiencing infertility need to be measured in infertile people, particularly in different cultural settings.

  1. Phthalate metabolites related to infertile biomarkers and infertility in Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangpo; Wang, Heng; Tian, Meiping; Zhang, Jie; Panuwet, Parinya; D'Souza, Priya Esilda; Barr, Dana Boyd; Huang, Qingyu; Xia, Yankai; Shen, Heqing

    2017-12-01

    Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have demonstrated androgen and anti-androgen effects on male reproduction from phthalate exposures, human studies still remain inconsistent. Therefore, a case-control study (n = 289) was conducted to evaluate the associations between phthalate exposures, male infertility risks, and changes in metabolomic biomarkers. Regional participants consisted of fertile (n = 150) and infertile (n = 139) males were recruited from Nanjing Medical University' affiliated hospitals. Seven urinary phthalate metabolites were measured using HPLC-MS/MS. Associations between levels of phthalate metabolites, infertility risks, and infertility-related biomarkers were statistically evaluated. MEHHP, one of the most abundant DEHP oxidative metabolites was significantly lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.039). When using the 1st quartile range as a reference, although statistically insignificant for odds ratios (ORs) of the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quartiles (OR (95% CI) = 1.50 (0.34-6.48), 0.70 (0.14-3.52) and 0.42 (0.09-2.00), respectively), the MEHHP dose-dependent trend of infertility risk expressed as OR decreased significantly (p = 0.034). More interestingly, most of the phthalate metabolites, including MEHHP, were either positively associated with fertile prevention metabolic biomarkers or negatively associated with fertile hazard ones. Phthalate metabolism, along with their activated infertility-related biomarkers, may contribute to a decreased risk of male infertility at the subjects' ongoing exposure levels. Our results may be illustrated by the low-dose related androgen effect of phthalates and can improve our understanding of the controversial epidemiological results on this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The link between infertility and poverty: evidence from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Papreen

    2012-03-01

    The link between high fertility and poverty is well established. However, this paper shows how infertility may also generate poverty among childless families in Bangladesh. An ethnographic study was conducted, involving various qualitative research methods that revealed economic consequences to be one of the crucial sequelae of childlessness in Bangladesh. This paper details how the poverty/fertility relationship is dependent on social and institutional characteristics, including patriarchal values, education, urban-rural location and health services. Empirical data show that childlessness generates poverty in various ways, including the deprivation of children's earnings, decline in women's mobility, demoralisation of men to earn an income, marriage devaluation by the husband, disbursements for treatment and denial of microcredit (very small loans to those in poverty, which support them to become self-employed to generate income). The current study shows that the infertility/poverty relationship is mostly contingent upon class and gender. It is therefore the rural poor childless women who are most badly affected economically in Bangladesh rather than the urban middle class childless women. In other words, this study reveal that along with gender, class plays a dominant role in terms of the economic consequences of childlessness in Bangladesh. It sheds light on a different and unusual aspect of poverty and aims to contribute to the gender discussion of livelihood and poverty.

  3. The pattern of abnormalities on sperm analysis: A study of 1186 infertile male in Yasmin IVF clinic Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, S. N.; Lestari, S. W.; Pratama, G.; Harzief, A. K.; Sumapraja, K.; Hestiantoro, A.; Wiweko, B.

    2017-08-01

    A declined in semen quality resulted an increase of male infertility has been reported. The pattern of abnormalities differs from one country to another. Conflicting results from different studies may be influenced by many factor. The aims are to evaluate the pattern of semen analysis of male partners of infertile couples and identify the current status of the contribution of male factor towards the infertility in our environment. The study is a descriptive analysis of the semen analysis of male partners in infertile couples, who were present at Yasmin IVF Clinic, infertility clinic of a Tertiary Care University Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2015. A total of 1186 consenting male partners of infertile couple were recruited into the study. According to 2010 WHO normal reference values for semen parameters, 795 (67%) of patients were normozoospermia which had normal semen parameters and 391 (33%) patients had abnormal semen parameters. Oligozospermia was evident in 155 (39.5%) patients, being the most common disorder observed. It is followed by azoospermia (24.4%), oligoasthenozospermia (17.8%), asthenozospermia (5.9%), oligoasthenotera-tozospermia (5,7%), teratozospermia (2.6%), asthenoteratozospermia (2.8%), cryptozoospermia (0.8%), necrozospermia (0.3%), and oligoteratozospermia (0.3%). Abnormal semen quality remains a significant contribution to the overall infertility with oligozospermia being the most common semen quality abnormality. This condition is an indication for the need to focus on the prevention and management of male infertility. In addition, further studies are needed to address possible etiologies and treatment in order to improve fertility rates.

  4. 'It's like taking a bit of masculinity away from you': towards a theoretical understanding of men's experiences of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Alan; Lomas, Tim; Ghobara, Tarek; Hartshorne, Geraldine

    2017-07-01

    In the UK, nearly half of all cases of infertility involve a 'male-factor'. Yet, little empirical work has explored how men as men negotiate this terrain. Three interrelated concepts; 'hegemonic masculinity', 'embodied masculinity' and the linkages between 'masculinities' and male help-seeking, provide the theoretical framework that guided a qualitative study conducted with 22 men experiencing infertility. The paper explores men's propensity to delay their help-seeking in relation to infertility despite their desire for children. It also demonstrates how, in the context of infertility, the male body can be defined as both a failed entity in itself (unable to father a child) and a subordinated social entity (unable to measure up to hegemonic ideals) that characterises men's masculine identities. The paper also illustrates how men appear willing to accept responsibility for their infertility and adopt aspects of hitherto subordinate masculine practice. This does not, however, constitute the total unravelling of well understood and accepted expressions of masculinity. Finally, the paper demonstrates how infertility is perceived as having the potential to fracture current and even future relationships. Moreover, regardless of how well men measured up to other hegemonic ideals, ultimately they can do little to counteract the threat of other (fertile) men. © 2017 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  5. Validation of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines/recommendations in white European men presenting for couple's infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Ippolito, Silvia; Scano, Roberta; Moschini, Marco; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Papaleo, Enrico; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    To retrospectively validate the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines/recommendations concerning endocrine evaluation in a cohort of white European men presenting for couple's infertility. Retrospective study. Academic reproductive medicine outpatient clinic. Cohort of 1,056 consecutive infertile men (noninterracial infertile couples). Testicular volume was assessed with a Prader orchidometer. Serum hormones were measured (8-10 a.m.) in all cases. Hypogonadism was defined as total T Society definition. Semen analysis values were assessed based on the 2010 World Health Organisation reference criteria. ASRM indications for endocrine assessment in infertile men (sperm concentration Society classification criteria. Conversely, 37 (23.7%) out of 156 patients with biochemical hypogonadism would have been overlooked. The overall predictive accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of the ASRM guidelines was 58%, 76%, and 39%, respectively. Our nomogram was not reliable enough to predict hypogonadism, despite demonstrating a significantly higher predictive accuracy (68%) than the ASRM guidelines. The current findings show that the ASRM guidelines/recommendations for male infertility workup may not be suitable for application in white European infertile men. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Genetic screening for infertility: When should it be done?

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    Elda Kara

    2010-07-01

    Primary amenorrhea should be investigated by karyotype analysis and selected mutation screening according to the patient's clinical features. Karyotype analyses and FMR1 gene screening is recommended in cases of POF. At present the infertility of patients with POF cannot be restored if the diagnosis is made after complete follicular depletion, but in some cases, early diagnosis by genetic investigation may instead lead to the advice of early conception or oocyte harvesting and preservation. In addition, the accumulation and annotation of array comparative genomic hybridization data might, in the near future, lead to the identification of pathogenetic copy number variations and genes involved in POF. Karyotype analysis of both partners is recommended in all couples with recurrent pregnancy loss. No routine genetic test can be recommended so far in patients with PCOS.

  7. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  8. Parenthood and separation in couples 6 years after their first infertility consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Magali; Sanchez, Emeline Teillet; Gatimel, Nicolas; Fajau, Carole; Lesourd, Florence; Bujan, Louis; Mieusset, Roger; Parinaud, Jean; Leandri, Roger

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the percentage of couples achieving parenthood and the rate of separation 6 years after their first consultation for infertility. Epidemiological study in the reproductive medicine department of a French university hospital. All first consulting couples (FCC) who had their first infertility consultation in the department in 2007 were contacted by phone and asked to respond to a questionnaire concerning their infertility treatments, parenthood and marital status 6 years after their first consultation. Of the 685 FCC, 94 could not be contacted, 34 refused to respond and 557 (86%) answered the questionnaire. Of 557 FCC who have responded, 361 (65%) have achieved parenthood: 166 (46%) after treatment, 98 (27%) after spontaneous conception, 38 (11%) after both spontaneous and treatment-induced conception and 59 (16%) through adoption. Parenthood was not influenced either by the causes or duration of infertility. Separation occurred in 53 (9.5%) of FCC, mainly in those without any children (28% vs 4% in FCC with at least one child; P<.0001). Six years after their primary consultation, 25% of couples remained childless and 28% of them were separated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenosine A₂A receptors inhibit delayed rectifier potassium currents and cell differentiation in primary purified oligodendrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Elisabetta; Cellai, Lucrezia; Maraula, Giovanna; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pedata, Felicita

    2013-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a population of cycling cells which persist in the adult central nervous system (CNS) where, under opportune stimuli, they differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are Gs-coupled P1 purinergic receptors which are widely distributed throughout the CNS. It has been demonstrated that OPCs express A(2A) receptors, but their functional role in these cells remains elusive. Oligodendrocytes express distinct voltage-gated ion channels depending on their maturation. Here, by electrophysiological recordings coupled with immunocytochemical labeling, we studied the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptors on membrane currents and differentiation of purified primary OPCs isolated from the rat cortex. We found that the selective A(2A) agonist, CGS21680, inhibits sustained, delayed rectifier, K(+) currents (I(K)) without modifying transient (I(A)) conductances. The effect was observed in all cells tested, independently from time in culture. CGS21680 inhibition of I(K) current was concentration-dependent (10-200 nM) and blocked in the presence of the selective A(2A) antagonist SCH58261 (100 nM). It is known that I(K) currents play an important role during OPC development since their block decreases cell proliferation and differentiation. In light of these data, our further aim was to investigate whether A(2A) receptors modulate these processes. CGS21680, applied at 100 nM in the culture medium of oligodendrocyte cultures, inhibits OPC differentiation (an effect prevented by SCH58261) without affecting cell proliferation. Data demonstrate that cultured OPCs express functional A(2A) receptors whose activation negatively modulate I(K) currents. We propose that, by this mechanism, A(2A) adenosine receptors inhibit OPC differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aspects of psychosocial development in infertile versus fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Binaafar, Sima; Ardakani, Zohreh Behjati; Kamali, Kourosh; Kosari, Haleh; Ghorbani, Behzad

    2013-04-01

    Infertility is one of the most difficult life experiences that a couple might encounter. Infertility as a bio-psycho-social phenomenon, could influence all aspects of life. While paying special attention to the psychological aspects of infertility in couples; many studies have investigated the non-clinical aspects of infertility, however, they rarely have evaluated the psychosocial development of infertile versus fertile men. We aimed to study the effects of infertility on psychosocial development in men. In fact, we designed the study based on "Erikson's theory of psychosocial development". We focused on the relationship between psychosocial development and some self-conceived indices. For this purpose, we divided the participants volunteers into two groups of cases (80 infertile men) and controls (40 fertile men) and asked them to complete a 112 (questions questionnaire based on "self description"). The statistical analysis was performed by SPSS (version 13) using independent t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and analysis of covariance. A p-value stages (p stages. Infertility as a phenomenon had its own effects on the psychosocial development of infertile men. However, good coping skills are powerful tools to manage these myriad of feelings surrounding infertile men.

  11. PRESCRIBING OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS IN PUBLIC PRIMARY CARE CLINICS – IS IT IN ACCORDANCE WITH CURRENT EVIDENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAJARI J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large population surveys in Malaysia have consistently shown minimal improvement of blood pressure control rates over the last 10 years. Poor adherence to antihypertensive medication has been recognized as a major reason for poor control of hypertension. This study aimed to describe the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents in 2 public primary care clinics and assess its appropriateness in relation to current evidence and guidelines. Methods: A cross-sectional survey to describe the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents was carried out in 2 publicprimary care clinics in Selangor from May to June 2009. Hypertensive patients on pharmacological treatment for ≥1 year who attended the clinics within the study period of 7 weeks were selected. Appropriate use of antihypertensive agents was defined based on current evidence and the recommendations by the Malaysian Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG on the Management of Hypertension, 2008. Data were obtained from patients’ medical records and were analysed using the SPSS software version 16.0. Results: A total of 400 hypertensive patients on treatment were included. Mean age was 59.5 years (SD ±10.9, range 28 to91 years, of which 52.8% were females and 47.2% were males. With regards to pharmacotherapy, 45.7% were on monotherapy,43.3% were on 2 agents and 11.0% were on ≥3 agents. Target blood pressure of <140/90mmHg was achieved in 51.4% of patients on monotherapy, and 33.2% of patients on combination of ≥2 agents. The commonest monotherapy agents being prescribed were β-blockers (atenolol or propranolol, followed by the short-acting calcium channel blocker (nifedipine. The commonest combination of 2-drug therapy prescribed was β-blockers and short-acting calcium channel blocker. Conclusion: This study shows that the prescribing pattern of antihypertensive agents in the 2 primary care clinics was not in accordance with current evidence and guidelines.

  12. Transcranial direct current stimulation over the primary motor vs prefrontal cortex in refractory chronic migraine: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Suellen Marinho; de Brito Aranha, Renata Emanuela Lyra; de Oliveira, Eliane Araújo; de Mendonça, Camila Teresa Ponce Leon; Martins, Wanessa Kallyne Nascimento; Alves, Nelson Torro; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino

    2017-07-15

    Although transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) represents a therapeutic option for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine, the target area for application of the electrical current to the cortex has not yet been well established. Here we sought to determine whether a treatment protocol involving 12 sessions of 2mA, 20min anodal stimulation of the left primary motor (M1) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could offer clinical benefits in the management of pain from migraine. Thirteen participants were assessed before and after treatment, using the Headache Impact Test-6, Visual Analogue Scale and Medical Outcomes Study 36 - Item Short - Form Health Survey. After treatment, group DLPFC exhibited a better performance compared with groups M1 and sham. On intragroup comparison, groups DLPFC and M1 exhibited a greater reduction in headache impact and pain intensity and a higher quality of life after treatment. No significant change was found in group sham. The participants in group M1 exhibited more adverse effects, especially headache, heartburn, and sleepiness, than did those in the other two groups. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a safe and efficacious technique for treating chronic migraine. However, it should be kept in mind that the site of cortical stimulation might modulate the patient's response to treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The social epidemiology of coping with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L; Christensen, Ulla; Holstein, B E

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To analyse the cross-sectional association between coping responses with infertility and occupational social class. Infertility is evenly distributed across social classes in Denmark, and there is free access to high-quality assisted reproduction technology. METHODS: Data were based...... was developed in four categories: active-avoidance coping; active-confronting coping; passive-avoidance coping; meaning-based coping. These subscales were later confirmed by factor analysis. Occupational social class was measured in a standardized way. RESULTS: Contrary to expectations, the logistic regression...... analyses showed that women from lower social classes V + VI and men from social classes III + IV used significantly more active-confronting coping. Women from lower social classes V + VI used significantly more meaning-based coping. Both men and women from social classes III - VI used significantly more...

  14. Bioengineering Strategies to Treat Female Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Che-Ying; Baker, Hannah; Fries, Melissa H; Yoo, James J; Kim, Peter C W; Fisher, John P

    2017-06-01

    Bioengineering strategies have demonstrated enormous potential to treat female infertility as a result of chemotherapy, uterine injuries, fallopian tube occlusion, massive intrauterine adhesions, congenital uterine malformations, and hysterectomy. These strategies can be classified into two broad categories as follows: (i) Transplantation of fresh or cryopreserved organs into the host and (ii) tissue engineering approaches that utilize a combination of cells, growth factors, and biomaterials that leverages the body's inherent ability to regenerate/repair reproductive organs. While whole organ transplant has demonstrated success, the source of the organ and the immunogenic effects of allografts remain challenging. Even though tissue engineering strategies can avoid these issues, their feasibilities of creating whole organ constructs are yet to be demonstrated. In this article we summarize the recent advancements in the applications of bioengineering to treat female infertility.

  15. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF POLYCYSTIC OVARIES IN INFERTILE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič Pucelj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polycystic ovaries (PCO are manifested either independently or as a syndrome (PCOS. They are one of the commonest endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. Despite a variable clinical picture one of the leading symptoms is infertility for anovulation. Surgical treatment of the disease witnessed a revival after the introduction of minimally invasive operative laparoscopy. Various techniques of ovarian tissue destruction have been applied, the most common being laparoscopic electrocoagulation of the ovaries (LECO. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the pregnancy rates and pregnancy outcomes following LECO.Patients and methods. From 1993 and 2000 inclusive LECO was performed at the Reproductive Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ljubljana in 222 infertile patients with PCO(S, in whom previous medical ovulation induction failed or in whom overreaction of the ovaries to gonadotropin treatment occurred. To the questionnaire, mailed to the patients, 185 (83.3% responded. The evaluation of the outcome of LECO treatment involved 157 patients, since the patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF-ET treatment for other causes of infertility prior to LECO, were exclude from the analysis. LECO was performed under general endotracheal anesthesia using a 3-puncture technique. On each ovary 5– 15 (mean 10 punctures were made with a monopolar electric needle, energy of 300 W, and duration of 4 seconds. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test and odds ratios.Results. After LECO 99 (63.3% of the 157 patients conceived, 56 (54.6% spontaneously and 43 (45.4% after additional postoperative ovarian stimulation. Pregnancy was registered in 58 (59.0% patients with primary, and in 41 (41% patients with secondary infertility, in 20 (57% patients with PCO, 79 (65% with PCOS, in 71 (64.1% patients with a normal partner’s spermiogram, and in 28 (46.1% patients with the partner’s oligoasthenoteratospermia of

  16. Infertility and Weight Reduction: Influence and Outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaskheli, M. N.; Baloch, S.; Baloch, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of weight reduction in obese infertile women on conception rate spontaneously as well as with ovulation induction and pregnancy outcome. Study Design: Observational experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Different private clinics at Mirpurkhas, Thana Bola Khan and Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan, from March 2008 to February 2011. Methodology: Infertile women who were obese with the body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/ m2 and failed to conceive within 2-5 years after taking treatment of infertility for many cycles were inducted. These women underwent life style change program related to exercise and diet for 6 months and in the next 6 months they were observed for spontaneous conception. Those women who failed to conceive were prescribed ovulation induction (clomifene citrate) for the next 6 months and were observed for conception. After conception, they visited regularly during antenatal period till delivery. The data was collected and analyzed on SPSS version 17. Results: The mean decrease in the body index observed was 9.6 +- 1.23 kg/m2, spontaneous conception rate was (n = 35, 41.17%) and miscarriage rate was (n = 9, 16.66%). Conclusion: Weight reduction leads to high spontaneous conception rate as well as with ovulation induction therapy and improves the pregnancy outcome. (author)

  17. Resolved Parental Infertility and Children's Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branigan, Amelia R; Helgertz, Jonas

    2017-06-01

    Although difficulty conceiving a child has long been a major medical and social preoccupation, it has not been considered as a predictor of long-term outcomes in children ultimately conceived. This is consistent with a broader gap in knowledge regarding the consequences of parental health for educational performance in offspring. Here we address that omission, asking how resolved parental infertility relates to children's academic achievement. In a sample of all Swedish births between 1988 and 1995, we find that involuntary childlessness prior to either a first or a second birth is associated with lower academic achievement (both test scores and GPA) in children at age 16, even if the period of infertility was prior to a sibling's birth rather than the child's own. Our results support a conceptualization of infertility as a cumulative physical and social experience with effects extending well beyond the point at which a child is born, and emphasize the need to better understand how specific parental health conditions constrain children's educational outcomes.

  18. Assertion based verification methodology for HDL designs of primary sodium pump speed and eddy current flow measurement systems of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.K.; Menon, Saritha P.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing complexity and size of digital designs, functional verification has become a huge challenge. The validation and testing process accounts for a significant percentage of the overall development effort and cost for electronic systems. Many studies have shown that up to 70% of the design development time and resources are spent on functional verification. Functional errors manifest themselves very early in the design flow, and unless they are detected upfront, they can result in severe consequences - both financially and from a safety viewpoint. This paper covers the various types of verification methodologies and focuses on Assertion Based Verification Methodology for HDL designs, taking as case studies, the Primary Sodium Pump Speed and Eddy Current Flow Measurement Systems of PFBR. (author)

  19. Psychological and emotional concomitants of infertility diagnosis in women with diminished ovarian reserve or anatomical cause of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoloro-SantaBarbara, Jennifer M; Lobel, Marci; Bocca, Silvina; Stelling, James R; Pastore, Lisa M

    2017-07-01

    To examine the magnitude and predictors of emotional reactions to an infertility diagnosis in two groups of women: those with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR), and those clinically diagnosed with an anatomical cause of infertility (ACI). Cross-sectional study. Academic and private fertility clinics. Women diagnosed with DOR (n = 51) and women diagnosed with ACI (n = 51). Not applicable. Fertility Problem Inventory (infertility distress), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Health Orientation Scale (emotional reactions to receiving a diagnosis). Women with DOR had statistically significantly higher infertility distress scores than women with ACI and higher scores on subscales assessing distress from social concerns, sexual concerns, and a need for parenthood. In both groups, higher self-esteem was associated with lower infertility distress. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that for women with DOR and those with ACI lower infertility distress but not self-esteem predicted a more positive emotional reaction toward receiving a fertility diagnosis. Women diagnosed with DOR have greater infertility distress but similar self-esteem and emotional reactions to their diagnosis compared with women who have an anatomical cause of infertility. These results suggest that for both groups distress surrounding infertility itself may influence the way women respond to learning the cause of their infertility. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sero-Prevalence of anti-sperm anti-bodies in infertile males in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Infertility is a serious health challenge which causes distress to the couples especially; in Africa. The cause of infertility is multifactorial. Immunological infertility is said to be one of the major causes of unexplained infertility in men. Anti-sperm anti-bodies can be used as an immunological marker of infertility.

  1. Experiencing male infertility: A review of the qualitative research literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, E; Gough, B

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in partic...

  2. Male factor in infertility: study from a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Kalavathi D. Biradar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is a condition with important psychological, economic, demographic and medical implications. Male infertility refers to a male's inability to result pregnancy in a fertile female. Methods: The present hospital based study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, East Point Hospital, Bangalore. Duration of the study was for 6 months from October 2015 to March 2016. A total of 250 infertile couples couple coming for evaluation to the outpatient d...

  3. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Nadali Musanejad; Gholamali Jursarayee; Ayyub Barzegarnejad; Sepideh Peivandi; Narges Moslemizadeh; Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam; Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable bir...

  4. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brackett, N.L.; Lynne, C.M.; El Dib, Hussein Ibrahim El Desouki Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses...... of intrauterine insemination increases as the total motile sperm count inseminated increases. In vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection are options in cases of extremely low total motile sperm count. Reproductive outcomes for SCI male factor infertility are similar to outcomes for general male...... factor infertility...

  5. Do alterations in follicular fluid proteases contribute to human infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are known to play critical roles in follicular rupture, ovulation, and fertility in mice. Similar studies in humans are limited; however, both are known to increase during the periovulatory period. No studies have examined either protease in the follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility or infertility related to advanced maternal age (AMA). We sought to determine if alterations in cathepsin L and/or ADAMTS-1 existed in these infertile populations. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility were prospectively recruited for the study; patients with tubal or male factor infertility were recruited as controls. Follicular fluid was collected to determine gene expression (via quantitative polymerase chain reaction), enzyme concentrations (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), and enzymatic activities (via fluorogenic enzyme cleavage assay or Western blot analysis) of cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1. The analysis included a total of 42 patients (14 per group). We found no statistically significant difference in gene expression, enzyme concentration, or enzymatic activity of cathepsin L or ADAMTS-1 in unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility as compared to controls. We also found no statistically significant difference in expression or concentration with advancing age. Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are not altered in women with unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility undergoing IVF, and they do not decline with advancing age. It is possible that differences exist in natural cycles, contributing to infertility; however, our findings do not support a role for protease alterations as a common cause of infertility.

  6. Methodology for Designing Models Predicting Success of Infertility Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Zarinara; Mohammad Mahdi Akhondi; Hojjat Zeraati; Koorsh Kamali; Kazem Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prediction models for infertility treatment success have presented since 25 years ago. There are scientific principles for designing and applying the prediction models that is also used to predict the success rate of infertility treatment. The purpose of this study is to provide basic principles for designing the model to predic infertility treatment success. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the principles for developing predictive models are explained and...

  7. Adenomyosis uteri in infertile women: experience in a tropical community teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesiyun, A.G.; Kolawole, A.; Samaila, M.O.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the demographic pattern and clinical presentation of 23 infertile women with intraoperative diagnosis of adenomyosis followed by histopathologic confirmation. A review of 23 consecutive infertile women that underwent surgery due to preoperative misdiagnosis for uterine fibroids over a period of 5 years. The patients mean age was 37.3 years with age range of 26 to 47 years. Only five patients (21.7%) had delivered before. Eighteen patients (78.3%) had had abortion(s) in the past. Secondary infertility accounted for 78.3% and 21.7% had primary infertility. Past gynaecological procedures included dilatation and curettage or manual vacuum aspiration in 17 (73.9%) patients, previous adhesiolysis for uterine synaechiae in 3 (13.1%) patients and past history of myomectomy in 5 (21.7%) patients. Preoperative hysterosalpingogram showed only 2 patients (8.7%) with bilateral tubal patency and 17 patients (73.9%) had bilateral tubal blockage. Unilateral patency of the fallopian tube was observed in 4 (17.4%) patients. Amongst patients with bilateral tubal blockage, cornual blockages were mostly encountered in 15 (88.2%) of the 17 patients. The modes of clinical presentation were abdominopelvic mass 100%, dymenorrhoea 82.6%, menorrhagia 60.9%, dyspareunia 47.8% and metrorrhagia in 34.8% of cases. Intraoperatively adenomyosis encountered were diffuse adenomyosis in 13 (56.5%) patients, multiple focal adenomyosis in 7 (30.4%) patients and unifocal adenomyosis in 3 (13.1%) patients. Co-existing uterine fibroid were found in 17 (73.9%) of the 23 patients. Two patients (8.7%) had coexisting endometriosis. At surgery, significant pelvic adhesion was encountered in 7 (30.4%) patients. In infertile women, adenomyosis is significantly associated with proximal tubal occlusion and tends to co-exist with insignificant uterine fibroids. (author)

  8. Definition of the microelemental contents in endometrium and hair of patients with various forms of infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazieva, Sh.S.; Danilova, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Research of human's endometrium condition (a mucous membrane of a cavity of a uterus) is undoubtedly of interest for the solution of some problems of clinical medicine, in particular, infertility reasons. In spite of the fact that endometrium is one of the most accessible tissues to research, and the object of the numerous versatile researches, there are still many questions on its physiology and pathology, in particular, those connected with its preparation for implantation, processes of cellular interactions during implantation and placentation. Today the exclusive role of microcells (MC) in pathology development in human, since infantile age to old age is known. As a result of laborious researches it was possible to establish that MC are regulators of chemical processes of a metabolism, growth and reproduction, immunologic and hormonal activity, and life expectancy. In reproductology, the influence of the some people essential (vital) and toxic MC demands the further detailed studying. The purpose of the present research is studying microelement structure of endometrium and hair of women with various infertility forms, with the subsequent development of a technique aimed at correction of discovered microelementosis. We examined 20 patients with infertility. All patients apart from the traditional complex, general laboratory and endoscopic researches, passed the neutron-activation analysis of microelemental structure of endometrium and hair. The age of patients varied from 21 to 39 years. Duration of infertility (primary and secondary) has made up 3-11 years. The somatic status was complicated with diseases of digestion, endocrynologic, urinary, respiratory and cardiovascular systems, whereas the anemia was observed at 70 % of patients. Endoscopical examinations (laparo-, histero-, falloposcopy) have revealed presence of adhesive process of various degree of expressiveness in an abdominal cavity and a small basin cavity, peritubal adhesive process

  9. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive Discordant Couples: A Case Study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeora, Ouj; Chukwuneke, Fn

    2013-01-01

    The traditional African society places an invaluable premium on procreation and, in some communities, a woman's place in her matrimony is only confirmed on positive reproductive outcome. Infertility is rife in Nigeria, and HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) infection is a global pandemic, which has led to a drop in life expectancy across the world. In Nigeria, a number of cultural norms relating to gender roles and power dynamics constitute a serious barrier to issues of sexuality and infertility. Couples are concerned about their infertility diagnostic test being disclosed to each other, especially before marriage. This concern is understandable, especially in an environment that lacks the modern concepts and attitude toward sexual matters. This is complicated by the advent of HIV/AIDS infection and the societal mind-set that look at seropostive individuals as transgressors. At present, sexual and reproductive health rights are currently not in place because ethical issues are not given prominence by many physicians in Nigeria. A case of an infertile and seropostive discordant couple, which raised a lot of medical and ethical concerns, is presented here to awaken the consciousness of Nigerian physicians and stimulate discussions on the ethical matters such as this in clinical practice.

  10. A unique view on male infertility around the globe

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Ashok; Mulgund, Aditi; Hamada, Alaa; Chyatte, Michelle Renee

    2015-01-01

    Background Infertility affects an estimated 15% of couples globally, amounting to 48.5 million couples. Males are found to be solely responsible for 20-30% of infertility cases and contribute to 50% of cases overall. However, this number does not accurately represent all regions of the world. Indeed, on a global level, there is a lack of accurate statistics on rates of male infertility. Our report examines major regions of the world and reports rates of male infertility based on data on femal...

  11. Changes in serum sexual hormone levels in women with infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Mingjiang; Zhu Benxing; Xu Yujie

    2001-01-01

    In order to understand the clinical effects of serum sexual hormone level changes on infertility, 84 women with infertility were divided into four groups. With the use of RIA, levels of FSH, LH, PRL, E 2 , t and P in serum of 84 women with infertility were measured in their follicular phase. It was showed that the serum levels of FSH, LH, PRL, E 2 , T and P in four infertility groups were all higher than the given normal standards respectively. Except E 2 (P 2 and P coincided with the percentages of the patients with the higher ratio of FSH to LH

  12. Assessing infertility-related stress: the factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory in Italian couples undergoing infertility treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donarelli, Zaira; Gullo, Salvatore; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Marino, Angelo; Scaglione, Piero; Volpes, Aldo; Allegra, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    The factor structure of the Fertility Problem Inventory (FPI) and its invariance across gender were examined in Italian couples undergoing infertility treatment. About 1000 subjects (both partners of 500 couples) completed two questionnaires prior to commencing infertility treatment at a private Clinic in Palermo, Italy. Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the original factor structure of the FPI was partially confirmed. Two correlated factors (Infertility Life Domains and Importance of Parenthood) were obtained via a post hoc Exploratory Factor Analysis. Finally, the invariance of this factor structure across gender was confirmed. The study supported the relevance of two interrelated factors specific to infertility stress which could help clinicians to focus on the core infertility-related stress domains of infertile couples.

  13. An evaluation of the effect of infertility on marital, sexual satisfaction indices and health-related quality of life in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Valsangkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The effect of infertility on marital and sexual functioning, health-related quality of life (QoL and the acceptability of the treatment modalities is a poorly researched area in India. Aims and Objectives : To measure and compare the impact of infertility on marital adjustment, sexual functioning, QoL and the acceptability of various treatment modalities in infertility. Design and Setting : Hospital-based cross-sectional controlled study. Materials and Methods : Data regarding infertility, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment acceptability was obtained via a semi-structured questionnaire. validated, standardized scales were used to measure marital adjustment (abbreviated dyadic adjustment scale, sexual functioning (abbreviated sexual functioning questionnaire in cases and controls, and quality of life (FertiQol in cases. Data from 106 women attending tertiary infertility centers who met the definition of primary infertility and 212 controls attending the medical outpatient department in the same centers was obtained. Results : Body mass index and socioeconomic status were significant (P < 0.006 and < 0.0001 respectively for infertility. Fertility-enhancing regimens and adoption had the highest acceptability with a wide dispersion of range for adoption and least acceptance for sperm, egg, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect size of infertility on marital adjustment (Nagelkerke R 2 0.725, Cohen′s D 0.86 and sexual functioning (Nagelkerke R 2 0.73, Cohen′s D 0.815. QoL showed a decrease in mean scores on the FertiQol scale similar to normative data. Conclusions : Effective counseling, reassurance and measures to reduce the impact of the condition on marital and sexual life, overall QoL are needed to impart a holistic treatment in infertility.

  14. An evaluation of the effect of infertility on marital, sexual satisfaction indices and health-related quality of life in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsangkar, Sameer; Bodhare, Trupti; Bele, Samir; Sai, Surendranath

    2011-05-01

    The effect of infertility on marital and sexual functioning, health-related quality of life (QoL) and the acceptability of the treatment modalities is a poorly researched area in India. To measure and compare the impact of infertility on marital adjustment, sexual functioning, QoL and the acceptability of various treatment modalities in infertility. Hospital-based cross-sectional controlled study. Data regarding infertility, socio-demographic characteristics and treatment acceptability was obtained via a semi-structured questionnaire. validated, standardized scales were used to measure marital adjustment (abbreviated dyadic adjustment scale), sexual functioning (abbreviated sexual functioning questionnaire) in cases and controls, and quality of life (FertiQol) in cases. Data from 106 women attending tertiary infertility centers who met the definition of primary infertility and 212 controls attending the medical outpatient department in the same centers was obtained. Body mass index and socioeconomic status were significant (P < 0.006 and < 0.0001 respectively) for infertility. Fertility-enhancing regimens and adoption had the highest acceptability with a wide dispersion of range for adoption and least acceptance for sperm, egg, embryo donation and surrogate motherhood. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant effect size of infertility on marital adjustment (Nagelkerke R(2) 0.725, Cohen's D 0.86) and sexual functioning (Nagelkerke R(2) 0.73, Cohen's D 0.815). QoL showed a decrease in mean scores on the FertiQol scale similar to normative data. Effective counseling, reassurance and measures to reduce the impact of the condition on marital and sexual life, overall QoL are needed to impart a holistic treatment in infertility.

  15. Infertility and surrogacy first mentioned on a 4000-year-old Assyrian clay tablet of marriage contract in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turp, Ahmet Berkiz; Guler, Ismail; Bozkurt, Nuray; Uysal, Aysel; Yilmaz, Bulent; Demir, Mustafa; Karabacak, Onur

    2018-01-01

    Mankind has been expressing the breeding topic for thousands of years. Reproduction is the primary instinct of human beings and it is a social, cultural, medical issue. Demographic infertility is one of them, which is defined infertility as the inability to become pregnant with a live birth, within five years of regular sexual contact based upon a consistent union status in marriage maintaining a desire for a child with the lack of contraceptive use and non-lactating. A first mentions about infertility and surrogacy is discovered on a 4000-year-old clay tablet of marriage contract belonging to the Assyrian period exhibited at Istanbul Archeology Museum in Turkey. In conclusion, there are many different ways to solve infertility problems like surrogacy as mentioned even 4000 years ago in this Assyrian clay tablet of marriage contract as the first time in the literature. Medical treatments in relation to human infertility will continue to be the focus of social and cultural debates. Hence, more legislation and regulation will come in many countries to control the unauthorized exploitation of the patient.

  16. Incidence of infertility and risk factors of impaired fecundity among newly married couples in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinqin; Ren, Aiguo; Zhang, Le; Liu, Jufen; Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Yan; Li, Rong; Ma, Le

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to obtain the incidence of infertility, to examine the causes of infertility and to explore risk factors for impaired fecundity in a rural region of northern China using a prospective follow-up design. A total of 2151 newly married couples planning to become pregnant within the next 12 months were enrolled between 2009 and 2012 from two counties of Shanxi Province in northern China. Couples were followed up for at least 1 year or until a clinical pregnancy occurred. Information about clinical pregnancy was obtained. The 12-month and 24-month infertility rates were 13.6% (95% CI 11.9 to 15.3) and 8.5% (95% CI 6.7 to 10.3), respectively. About 63% of women became pregnant within 6 months of follow up, and 86% did so within 12 months of follow up. The main causes of female infertility were ovulation disorders, fallopian tube problems and polycystic ovary syndrome. The primary cause of male infertility was sperm quality problems. Couples who used coal as cooking fuel, women with a higher body mass index, women with long-term health problems, and men who had married at later ages were more likely to have delayed pregnancies. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Infertile Men With Varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Varicocele is one of the most common reasons for male infertility and could impair spermatogenesis through mechanisms that are not well known. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major reason for male infertility caused by varicocele. Objectives In the current study, we aimed to assess the TAC (total antioxidant capacity and MDA (malondialdehyde as stress oxidative markers in infertile men with varicocele and fertile men, and moreover, their correlation with sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was performed on 43 infertile men with varicocele and 46 men with proven fertility. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods were used for seminal plasma TAC and MDA assay, respectively. Results Lower TAC levels (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L, P = 0.0004 and higher MDA levels (2.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P < 0.0001 were observed in infertile men with varicocele compared to fertile men. There was no correlation between TAC and MDA in fertile men (r = 0.02, P = 0.9, however, a negative correlation was found between TAC and MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = −0.44, P = 0.003. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between sperm count and sperm motility with TAC levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.4, P = 0.02 and r = 0.6, P < 0.0001, respectively. There was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (r = 0.5, P = 0.001, but other parameters did not correlate with TAC in this group. A negative correlation was shown between semen volume, sperm count, total sperm, sperm motility, and sperm morphology with MDA levels in varicocele infertile men (r = 0.3, P = 0.045; r = −0.4, P = 0.009; r = −0.5, P = 0.002; r = −0.5, P = 0.001 and r = −0.4, P = 0.008, respectively. There was no correlation between these parameters and MDA in fertile men. Conclusions Our findings indicated that oxidative stress could

  18. Dual-hemisphere transcranial direct current stimulation over primary motor cortex enhances consolidation of a ballistic thumb movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Soichiro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanabe, Shigeo; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-02-19

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive technique that modulates motor performance and learning. Previous studies have shown that tDCS over the primary motor cortex (M1) can facilitate consolidation of various motor skills. However, the effect of tDCS on consolidation of newly learned ballistic movements remains unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that tDCS over M1 enhances consolidation of ballistic thumb movements in healthy adults. Twenty-eight healthy subjects participated in an experiment with a single-blind, sham-controlled, between-group design. Fourteen subjects practiced a ballistic movement with their left thumb during dual-hemisphere tDCS. Subjects received 1mA anodal tDCS over the contralateral M1 and 1mA cathodal tDCS over the ipsilateral M1 for 25min during the training session. The remaining 14 subjects underwent identical training sessions, except that dual-hemisphere tDCS was applied for only the first 15s (sham group). All subjects performed the task again at 1h and 24h later. Primary measurements examined improvement in peak acceleration of the ballistic thumb movement at 1h and 24h after stimulation. Improved peak acceleration was significantly greater in the tDCS group (144.2±15.1%) than in the sham group (98.7±9.1%) (Pballistic thumb movement in healthy adults. Dual-hemisphere tDCS over M1 may be useful to improve elemental motor behaviors, such as ballistic movements, in patients with subcortical strokes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Structured exercise training programme versus hypocaloric hyperproteic diet in obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients with anovulatory infertility: a 24-week pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, S; Giallauria, F; Falbo, A; Russo, T; Oppedisano, R; Tolino, A; Colao, A; Vigorito, C; Zullo, F; Orio, F

    2008-03-01

    Lifestyle modifications are successfully employed to treat obese and overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aims of the current pilot study were (i) to compare the efficacy on reproductive functions of a structured exercise training (SET) programme with a diet programme in obese PCOS patients and (ii) to study their clinical, hormonal and metabolic effects to elucidate potentially different mechanisms of action. Forty obese PCOS patients with anovulatory infertility underwent a SET programme (SET group, n = 20) and a hypocaloric hyperproteic diet (diet group, n = 20). Clinical, hormonal and metabolic data were assessed at baseline, and at 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Primary endpoint was cumulative pregnancy rate. The two groups had similar demographic, anthropometric and biochemical parameters. After intervention, a significant improvement in menstrual cycles and fertility was noted in both groups, with no differences between groups. The frequency of menses and the ovulation rate were significantly (P diet group but the increased cumulative pregnancy rate was not significant. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, insulin resistance indexes and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin, androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate changed significantly (P diet interventions improve fertility in obese PCOS patients with anovulatory infertility. We hypothesize that in both interventions an improvement in insulin sensitivity is the pivotal factor involved in the restoration of ovarian function but potentially acting through different mechanisms.

  20. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ENDOMETRIOSIS IN INFERTILE PATIENTS

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    Andrej Vogler

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Endometriosis is nowadays probably the most frequent cause of infertility or subfertility and is revealed in approximately 30–40% of infertile women. The association between fertility and minimal or mild endometriosis remains unclear and controversial. Moderate and severe forms of the disease distort anatomical relations in the minor pelvis, resulting in infertility. The goals of endometriosis treatment are relief of pain symptoms, prevention of the disease progression and fertility improvement. Treatment of stages I and II endometriosis (according to the R-AFS classification may be expectative, medical or surgical. In severely forms of the disease (stage III and IV the method of choice is surgical treatment. Combined medical and surgical treatment is justified only in cases, in which the complete endometriotic tissue removal is not possible or recurrence of pain symptoms occur. Nowadays, laparoscopic surgical treatment is the golden standard being the diagnostic and therapeutic tool during the same procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fertility rate after surgical treatment of different stages of endometriosis.Patients and methods. In prospectively designed study 100 infertile women were included. The only known cause of infertility was endometriosis. In group A there were 51 patients with stage I and II endometriosis, whereas in group B there were 49 patients with stage III and IV of the disease. Endometriosis was diagnosed and treated laparoscopically. Endometriotic implants were removed either with bipolar coagulation or CO2 laser vaporisation, whereas adhesions were sharp or blunt dissected, and endometriomas stripped out of ovaries. Pregnancy rates were calculated for both groups of patients, and statistically compared between the groups.Results. Mean age of patients was 29.25 (SD ± 4.08 years and did not significantly differ between the groups of patients (29.5 years in group A and 29 years in group B. In

  1. Association between the JC polyomavirus infection and male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manola Comar

    Full Text Available In recent years the incidence of male infertility has increased. Many risk factors have been taken into consideration, including viral infections. Investigations into viral agents and male infertility have mainly been focused on human papillomaviruses, while no reports have been published on polyomaviruses and male infertility. The aim of this study was to verify whether JC virus and BK virus are associated with male infertility. Matched semen and urine samples from 106 infertile males and 100 fertile males, as controls, were analyzed. Specific PCR analyses were carried out to detect and quantify large T (Tag coding sequences of JCV and BKV. DNA sequencing, carried out in Tag JCV-positive samples, was addressed to viral protein 1 (VP1 coding sequences. The prevalence of JCV Tag sequences in semen and urine samples from infertile males was 34% (72/212, whereas the BKV prevalence was 0.94% (2/212. Specifically, JCV Tag sequences were detected in 24.5% (26/106 of semen and 43.4% (46/106 of urine samples from infertile men. In semen and urine samples from controls the prevalence was 11% and 28%, respectively. A statistically significant difference (p<0.05 in JCV prevalence was disclosed in semen and urine samples of cases vs. controls. A higher JC viral DNA load was detected in samples from infertile males than in controls. In samples from infertile males the JC virus type 2 strain, subtype 2b, was more prevalent than ubiquitous type 1. JCV type 2 strain infection has been found to be associated with male infertility. These data suggest that the JC virus should be taken into consideration as an infectious agent which is responsible for male infertility.

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG3 seropositivity is a predictor of reproductive outcomes in infertile women with patent fallopian tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Anne Z.; Diamond, Michael P.; Legro, Richard S.; Schlaff, William D.; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Casson, Peter R.; Christman, Gregory M.; Alvero, Ruben; Hansen, Karl R.; Geisler, William M.; Thomas, Tracey; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Eisenberg, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) seropositivity as detected by the Ct elementary body (EB)-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ct EB ELISA) predicts pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among infertile women with documented tubal patency. Design Cohort study Setting Outpatient clinics participating in the reproductive medicine network Patients 1250 infertile women with documented tubal patency enrolled in one of two randomized controlled trials: PPCOSII and AMIGOS Intervention Sera were analyzed for anti-Ct IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies using a research Ct EB ELISA. OD405 readings ≥0.35 and ≥0.1 were considered positive for IgG1 and IgG3, respectively. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, and ectopic pregnancy. Log linear regression was used to determine the relative risk after adjusting for age, race, treatment medication, smoking status, and current alcohol use. Results 243 (19%) women were seropositive for anti-Ct IgG3. They tended to be non-White and smokers. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women were significantly less likely to conceive (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52-0.83) or to have a live birth (RR 0.59, 95% 0.43-0.80); these associations were weakened after adjusting for number of HSG-documented patent tubes (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.97) and (0.73, 95% CI: 0.50-1.04), respectively. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women who conceived had 2.7 (95% CI: 1.40-5.34) times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Conclusions Even in the presence of tubal patency, anti-Ct IgG3 seropositivity is associated with lower likelihood of pregnancy. Anti-Ct IgG3 seropositive women have up to 3 times the risk of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:26413816

  3. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: clinical and genetic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D’Auria

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD is a rare, genetically heterogeneous disease, characterized by ciliary disfunction and impaired mucociliary clearance, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, chronic rhino-sinusitis, chronic otitis media, situs viscerum inversus in almost 40-50% of cases and male infertility. The triad situs viscerum inversus, bronchiectasis and sinusitis is known as Kartagener syndrome. Up to now little is known about genetic, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of primary motile ciliary diseases in children: for this reason, diagnosis is generally delayed and almost all treatments for PCD are not based on randomized studies but extrapolated from cystic fibrosis guidelines. The aim of this review is to propose to pediatricians a summary of current clinical and diagnostic evidence to obtain better knoledwge of this condition. The earlier diagnosis and the right treatment are both crucial to improve the prognosis of PCD.

  4. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on language improvement and cortical activation in nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wu, Dongyu; Chen, Yan; Yuan, Ying; Zhang, Meikui

    2013-08-09

    We investigate the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on language improvement and cortical activation in nonfluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA). A 67-year-old woman diagnosed as nfvPPA received sham-tDCS for 5 days over the left posterior perisylvian region (PPR) in the morning and over left Broca's area in the afternoon in Phases A1 and A2, and tDCS for 5 days with an anodal electrode over the left PPR in the morning and over left Broca's area in the afternoon in Phases B1 and B2. Auditory word comprehension, picture naming, oral word reading and word repetition subtests of the Psycholinguistic Assessment in Chinese Aphasia (PACA) were administered before and after each phase. The EEG nonlinear index of approximate entropy (ApEn) was calculated before Phase A1, and after Phases B1 and B2. Our findings revealed that the patient improved greatly in the four subtests after A-tDCS and ApEn indices increased in stimulated areas and non-stimulated areas. We demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the left PPR and Broca's area can improve language performance of nfvPPA. tDCS may be used as an alternative therapeutic tool for PPA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resource Loss Moderates the Association Between Child Abuse and Current PTSD Symptoms Among Women in Primary-Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eleonora C V; Guimarães, Sara; Ferreira, Domingos; Pereira, M Graça

    2016-09-01

    This study examined if abuse during childhood, rape in adulthood, and loss of resources predict a woman's probability of reporting symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether resource loss moderates the association between reporting childhood abuse and PTSD symptoms. The sample included 767 women and was collected in publicly funded primary-care settings. Women who reported having been abused during childhood also reported more resource loss, more acute PTSD symptoms, and having suffered more adult rape than those who reported no childhood abuse. Hierarchical logistic regression yielded a two-variable additive model in which child abuse and adult rape predict the probability of reporting or not any PTSD symptoms, explaining 59.7% of the variance. Women abused as children were 1 to 2 times more likely to report PTSD symptoms, with sexual abuse during childhood contributing most strongly to this result. Similarly, women reporting adult rape were almost twice as likely to report symptoms of PTSD as those not reporting it. Resource loss was unexpectedly not among the predictors but a moderation analysis showed that such loss moderated the association between child abuse and current PTSD symptoms, with resource loss increasing the number and severity of PTSD symptoms in women who also reported childhood abuse. The findings highlight the importance of early assessment and intervention in providing mental health care to abused, neglected, and impoverished women to help them prevent and reverse resource loss and revictimization.

  6. Management of primary adrenal insufficiency: Review of current clinical practice in a developed and a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzma Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI requires lifelong hormone replacement with glucocorticoids (GCs and mineralocorticoids. Impaired quality of life and increased standardized mortality ratio in these patients emphasize the importance of tailoring therapy to individual needs. Role of education is paramount in improving patient compliance and in anticipating and preventing adrenal crises. Although discovery of synthetic GCs was a major breakthrough in treatment of patients with this life-threatening condition, management of PAI continues to be challenging. The obstacles for clinicians appear to vary widely across the globe. While optimization and individualization of therapy after diagnosis of PAI remain the main challenges for clinicians in the developed world, doctors in a developing country face problems at almost every stage from the diagnosis to the treatment and follow-up of these patients; cost of therapy, lack of resources, and funding are the main hindrances. Adherence to therapy and patient education are found to be common issues in most parts of the world. This commentary highlights the challenges from both developed and developing country's perspective in treating PAI; it also provides an update on current management scenario and future treatment options.

  7. Management of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: Review of Current Clinical Practice in a Developed and a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Uzma; Lakhani, Om J

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) requires lifelong hormone replacement with glucocorticoids (GCs) and mineralocorticoids. Impaired quality of life and increased standardized mortality ratio in these patients emphasize the importance of tailoring therapy to individual needs. Role of education is paramount in improving patient compliance and in anticipating and preventing adrenal crises. Although discovery of synthetic GCs was a major breakthrough in treatment of patients with this life-threatening condition, management of PAI continues to be challenging. The obstacles for clinicians appear to vary widely across the globe. While optimization and individualization of therapy after diagnosis of PAI remain the main challenges for clinicians in the developed world, doctors in a developing country face problems at almost every stage from the diagnosis to the treatment and follow-up of these patients; cost of therapy, lack of resources, and funding are the main hindrances. Adherence to therapy and patient education are found to be common issues in most parts of the world. This commentary highlights the challenges from both developed and developing country's perspective in treating PAI; it also provides an update on current management scenario and future treatment options.

  8. Vitamin D deficiency: infertility and neurodevelopmental diseases (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    The process of development depends on a number of signaling systems that regulates the progressive sequence of developmental events. Infertility and neurodevelopmental diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and schizophrenia, are caused by specific alterations in these signaling processes. Calcium signaling plays a prominent role throughout development beginning at fertilization and continuing through early development, implantation, and organ differentiation such as heart and brain development. Vitamin D plays a major role in regulating these signaling processes that control development. There is an increase in infertility and an onset of neurodevelopmental diseases when vitamin D is deficient. The way in which vitamin D deficiency acts to alter development is a major feature of this review. One of the primary functions of vitamin D is to maintain the phenotypic stability of both the Ca 2+ and redox signaling pathways that play such a key role throughout development.

  9. Is There a Relationship between Ovarian Epithelial Dysplasia and Infertility?

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    Gautier Chene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Since infertility is also a risk factor for ovarian neoplasia, the aim of this study was to study the relationship between infertility and ovarian dysplasia. Methods. We blindly reviewed 127 histopathological slides of adnexectomies or ovarian cystectomies according to three groups—an exposed group to ovulation induction (n = 30, an infertile group without stimulation (n = 35, and a spontaneously fertile control group (n = 62—in order to design an eleven histopathological criteria scoring system. Results. The ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in exposed group whereas dysplasia score was low in infertile and control groups (resp., 8.21 in exposed group, 3.69 for infertile patients, and 3.62 for the controls. In the subgroup with refractory infertility there was a trend towards a more severe dysplasia score (8.53 in ovulation induction group and 5.1 in infertile group. Conclusion. These results raise questions as to the responsibility of drugs used to induce ovulation and/or infertility itself in the genesis of ovarian epithelial dysplasia.

  10. The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Obesity and Male Infertility

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    Fikret Erdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse, affects approximately 15% of couples. Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Thus, male factor infertility is present in approximately half of all infertile couples. Known etiologies of male infertility include cryptorchidism, testicular torsion or trauma, varicocele, seminal tract infections, anti-sperm antibodies, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gonadal dysgenesis, and obstruction of the reproductive channels. Recently in some studies, it has been reported that increased body mass index negatively affect on male fertility or semen parameters.Overweight and obesity have become a major public health concern worldwide. The prevalence of male obesity or overweight in the united states was reported to be 71%. This ratio changes between 10% and 60% in the world. Negative effects of obesity on male fertility are postulated to occur through several mechanisms. Obese men have been shown to exhibit higher levels of circulating estradiol. Several studies reveal a direct correlation between a rise in BMI and a decline in both free and total blood testosterone levels. In addition, obesity may cause to oxidative stress. All these changes may affect to semen parameters in obese cases. However, the relationship between male obesity and fertility parameters has not been well established. The aim of this review is to evaluate the relationship between the obesity and male infertility.

  11. Endometrial sampling in infertility: the Ilorin, Nigeria, experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the diagnosis value of endometrium sampling in detecting endometrial pathology and presence or absence of ovulation in infertility patients. A retrospective study of endometrial tissues histopathological slides of infertility patients as recorded in the register of the department of Pathology, ...

  12. Legal aspects of auxillary reproductive technologies in infertility treatment

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    V.Yu. Albitskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several aspects of legal regulation of auxillary reproductive technologies in treatment of infertility in Russia and other countries.Key words: auxillary reproductive technologies, method of extracorporeal fertilization, newborn, premature newborn, multiple pregnancy, embryo, infertility, law.

  13. Positive Effect of Acupuncture and Cupping in Infertility Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Xiang; Yang, Yang; Song, Yue; Ma, Liang-Xiao

    2018-04-01

    Background: Infertility is clinically defined as the failure to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse. Organic disorders and lifestyle factors are highly associated with infertility. Generally, acupuncture and its related methods can be applied for treating infertility, according to the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Successful cases of acupuncture-treated infertility without concomitant use of any medication are rare. This article presents a case of an infertile woman having a favorable response to acupuncture treatment. Case: A 39-year-old Mexican woman presented with infertility following right-side fallopian-tube obstruction. She had no significant physical feelings of discomfort apart from work-related stress. Her syndrome was first diagnosed as Deficiency of Spleen and Kidney Qi, accompanied by obstruction of channels due to accumulation of Dampness. Acupuncture, accompanied by cupping therapy, was primarily practiced for this patient. Results: After 28 treatment sessions, she was finally able to conceive. Conclusions: Acupuncture could help treat infertility. Further large-scale, randomized clinical trials are needed to verify the efficacy of acupuncture for treating female infertility.

  14. Psychosocial characteristics of female infertility in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Women with infertility experience higher rates of psychological distress ... Femmes infertiles qui avaient déjà cherché aide d'un guérisseur traditionnel ou basée sur la foi d'infertilité ... the following reasons: first, earlier reports have.

  15. The Management of Infertility | Jimoh | Nigerian Medical Practitioner

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A clinical approach to the management of infertility in Africa is discussed. The role of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART), adoption and cloning in management of infertility in Africa is discussed. Key Words: Local Tetanus, Recurrence Piercing Injury, Foreign Objects Nigerian Medical Practitioner Vol. 46 No 1, 2004 ...

  16. Hormonal evaluation of the infertile male: has it evolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Ernest M; Chudnovsky, Aleksander; Niederberger, Craig S

    2008-05-01

    An endocrinologic evaluation of patients who have male-factor infertility has clearly evolved and leads to specific diagnoses and treatment strategies in a large population of infertile men. A well-considered endocrine evaluation is especially essential with the ever-growing popularity of assisted reproductive techniques and continued refinements with intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  17. Periodontal status in infertile women attending in vitro fertilization clinics

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    Godavarthi Lalasa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that altered hormonal levels in infertile women undergoing assisted reproductive therapy and infertile women not undergoing this treatment can lead to increased attachment loss, suggesting that these women may require constant periodontal monitoring.

  18. Incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction in infertile females

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    Rohina S. Aggarwal

    2013-09-01

    Results: In our study 170 (63.67% patients in the infertile group (n = 267 had female sexual dysfunction as compared to108 (46.35% in the fertile group (n = 233, which is statistically significant (P 0.0001. Most common dysfunction observed was arousal (70% in infertile patients. Common dysfunctions observed in fertile females were desire (40% and orgasm (40%. FSD was significantly higher in infertile females of the 31–37 years age group (P 0.002, while more common in fertile females of >42 years of age (P < 0.0001. Higher female sexual dysfunction was observed in illiterate infertile females (P 0.039. Among the pathological factors endometriosis was the statistically significant factor associated with female sexual dysfunction and infertility (P < 0.0001. No significant correlation in duration of infertility or type of infertility was observed with female sexual dysfunction. Female sexual dysfunction as the cause or the effect should be ascertained in infertility.

  19. Sub-clinical hypothyroidism in infertile Nigerian women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the impact of subclinical hypothyroidism in infertility are scarce and this seeks to determine the proportion of infertile Nigerian women with hyperprolactinaemia that had subclinical hypothyroidism. Serum prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone were determined using ELECSYS 1010 auto analyzer.

  20. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted diseases that is not of viral origin and there is accumulating evidence of a significant role played by this pathogen in causing male factor infertility. This study thus aimed to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis among infertile males and to ...

  1. Management of the infertile couple: an evidence-based protocol

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    Kamel Remah M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility is defined as inability of a couple to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected sexual intercourse. It remains a major clinical and social problem, affecting perhaps one couple in six. Evaluation usually starts after 12 months; however it may be indicated earlier. The most common causes of infertility are: male factor such as sperm abnormalities, female factor such as ovulation dysfunction and tubal pathology, combined male and female factors and unexplained infertility. Objectives The aim of this study is to provide the healthcare professionals an evidence-based management protocol for infertile couples away from medical information overload. Methods A comprehensive review where the literature was searched for "Management of infertility and/or infertile couples" at library website of University of Bristol (MetaLib by using a cross-search of different medical databases besides the relevant printed medical journals and periodicals. Guidelines and recommendations were retrieved from the best evidence reviews such as that from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (ACOG, American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM, Canadian Fertility and Andrology Society (CFAS, and Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RCOG. Results A simple guide for the clinicians to manage the infertile couples. Conclusions The study deploys a new strategy to translate the research findings and evidence-base recommendations into a simplified focused guide to be applied on routine daily practice. It is an approach to disseminate the recommended medical care for infertile couple to the practicing clinicians.

  2. Infertility among Nigerian couples as seen in Calabar | Ekwere | Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility among Nigerian couples as seen in Calabar. ... and the male fertility clinics of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital over a five-year ... Keywords: Infertility, Infection, Nigerians Port Harcourt Medical Journal Vol. 2 (1) 2007: pp. 35-40 ...

  3. The social psychology of infertile couples in Abakiliki Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility is one of the major health problems of public concern. It is more so not only for its clinical consequences, but also for its socio-psychological damages on both the individual and the family/society. The purpose of this study was to appraise the knowledge and attitude of couples towards infertility in Abakiliki Local ...

  4. Frequency of depression among fertile and infertile women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kanwal, S.; Ishfaq, Y.; Hassan, H.; Waheed, N.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the frequency of depression among fertile and infertile women reporting in CMH Abbottabad. Study Design: A case control study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad, over a period of six months from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: The inclusion criteria were all those patients who were married. All the cases were selected from the women reporting in the obstetrics and gynecology department of CMH Abbottabad for investigation and treatment of infertility. A total of 200 patients, 100 fertile and 100 infertile women were included. Patients were given questionnaire form with their consent for research. Beck depression inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression among fertile and infertile women. Other factors such as age, educational level, and duration of infertility, pressure from family members, miscarriages, and support from husband were studied. Results: Depression was significantly higher in infertile women as compared to fertile women i.e. 95% vs. 63% (p < 0.001). It was higher among women with more than 1 year of duration of marriage as compared to those with infertility of one year duration or less. Conclusion: Infertility is associated with depression. (author)

  5. Coping Strategies of Women Seeking Infertility Treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility is a health problem faced by an estimated 15% of women of childbearing age in Ghana. This study explores the coping strategies adopted by 615 women seeking infertility treatment in southern Ghana. Both closed and open-ended questions were used through a survey conducted using face-to-face interviews in ...

  6. Testicular Biopsy In The Evaluation Of Male Infertility In Maiduguri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate testicular biopsy in the management of male infertility in the university of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Method: This study reviewed retrospectively testicular biopsy in the infertile males managed at University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between january 1991 and December 2000.

  7. [Knowledge and perception of medical students about infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, Márta; Cserepes, Réka Eszter; Bugán, Antal

    2015-01-18

    The effectiveness of fertility treatments is influenced by the health care professionals' knowledge regarding infertility as well as their empathy. The aim of the study was to examine infertility-related knowledge and perceptions of emotional and mind/body consequences of infertility among medical students. A questionnaire design was used. Data were obtained from 112 medical university students (76 women, 36 men) who participated involuntary and compensation-free. Medical students' knowledge concerning infertility proved to be incomplete and ambiguous. Subjects underestimated the presence of mind/body and emotional symptoms caused by infertility in men particularly, and overestimated some emotional concerns in women, e.g. sadness. Medical students have gaps in their subject-specific knowledge, so that they need more (even practical) information regarding infertility during their studies. Students' conceptions about emotional and physical consequences of infertility are distorted by stereotypes. The risk of these biases is that it could make it difficult to perceive patients in a non-distorted way, especially infertile male patients.

  8. Living with infertility : Experiences among urban slum populations in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papreen, N; Sabin, K; Begum, L; Ahsan, SK; Baqui, AH

    This paper explores the perceived causes of infertility, treatment-seeking for infertility and the consequences of childlessness, particularly for women, among a predominantly Muslim population in urban slums of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 women and GO men

  9. Factors associated with infertility among women attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate and determine the factors associated with infertility in women attending the gynaecology clinic at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: Using an unmatched case-control study design, women attending the gynaecology clinic for infertility ...

  10. Lessons learned from infertility investigations in the public sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To determine the main factors causing infertility in an urban, tertiary hospital population. To establish if any such major causal factor could be used to rationalise and improve the service for infertile couples in the public sector. Design. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 206 women who had a tubal ...

  11. Psychological impact of infertility among women in Benin City, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility has profound negative consequences especially for women in developing countries. The study evaluated the psychological impact of infertility among women in Benin City, Nigeria. The study was conducted between October 2004 and April 2006. A total of the 312 women (mean age = 31.27 years, SEM ± 0.32) ...

  12. Hysterosalpingographic Findings in Patients with Infertility in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is still an integral part of gynecological evaluation of infertile couple and its value has not been underestimated in modern gynecological practice, especially in developing countries. The study aims to evaluate the findings at HSG in patients presenting with infertility at the Ebonyi State ...

  13. An employer's experience with infertility coverage: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Kaylen; Meletiche, Dennis; Del Rosario, Gina

    2009-12-01

    A case study of Southwest Airlines, a Fortune 500 company, demonstrates that a well-designed infertility coverage plan can control resource use. This successful model could be used by employers who wish to ensure that their employees have access to high-quality, cost-effective infertility services in a managed-care environment.

  14. Pattern of Semen Fluid Abnormalities in Male Partners of Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of male infertility is increasing in our environment. There is a need to evaluate the partern of abnormality with a view to recommending appropriate interventions. We aimed to to analyze the seminal fluid parameters of the male partners of the infertile couples managed in the hospital over a 12 month period ...

  15. Prostaglandin levels and semen quality in male partners of infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To provide data on semen prostaglandins in Nigerian men and relate this to fertility potential as provided by semen analysis results. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Infertility Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria Subjects: All male partners of infertile couples who ...

  16. Varicocele among infertile men in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElBardisi, H; Arafa, M; Rengan, A K; Durairajanayagam, D; AlSaid, S S; Khalafalla, K; AlRumaihi, K; Majzoub, A; Agarwal, A

    2017-05-01

    Objective of this retrospective study was to assess the presence and clinical grade of varicocele among Qatari and non-Qatari men evaluated for infertility. Diagnosis of varicocele was performed clinically and confirmed via colour Doppler ultrasonography. A total of 455 infertile male patients (mean age 36.3 ± 7.6 years) were divided into either Qatari (n = 91, mean age 37.3 ± 9.1 years) or non-Qatari (n = 364, mean age 36.0 ± 7.1 years) groups. Among all patients, 43.1% (n = 196) were confirmed to have varicocele, of which 40 were Qatari and 156 non-Qatari. Among all patients, 171 (37.6%) presented with left-sided varicocele and 25 (5.5%) with bilateral varicocele. Of the 196 patients with varicocele, grade I was given to 40 (20.4%), grade II to 68 (34.7%) and grade III to 88 (44.9%). Grade II and III varicocele were seen significantly more frequently than grade I among all patients and non-Qatari patients (p Qatar among both Qatari and non-Qatari men. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Ethical and legal dilemmas in infertility treatment

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    Dragojević-Dikić Svetlana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of the new millennium is the affirmation of human rights in all aspects of human existence, with the intention of turning declarative statements into reality. Development of up-to-date assisted reproductive technologies (ART and their application in infertility treatment have raised numerous ethical, legal, religious, social and other questions. In vitro fertilization, donation of gametes, embryos and pre-embryos, cryopreservation of gametes, embryos, ovarian and testicular tissues, embryo transfer, genetic reproductive techniques, cloning and other sophisticated methods used in infertility treatment require cooperation between the medical and legal professions. Ethical aspects of human reproduction and assisted fertilization are based on full respect of the life of an individual even before conception, from pre-embryo stage, via embryo stage and fetus stage to a newborn infant. Regarding investigative and clinical projects, this standpoint implies the legalization of all ART procedures, unencumbered exchange of information and consensus about their application, and adherence to the basic ethical principles of autonomy benefit, justice and common welfare. Ethical postulates provide unequivocal directions in the creation of new life and resolve all possible ethical dilemmas, protecting the rights of doctors and participant in relevant procedures alike and reasserting the crucial principle - respect of human dignity.

  18. Implications of immune dysfunction on endometriosis associated infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica E; Ahn, Soo Hyun; Monsanto, Stephany P; Khalaj, Kasra; Koti, Madhuri; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2017-01-24

    Endometriosis is a complex, inflammatory disease that affects 6-10% of reproductive-aged women. Almost half of the women with endometriosis experience infertility. Despite the excessive prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis and its associated infertility is unknown and a cure is not available. While many theories have been suggested to link endometriosis and infertility, a consensus among investigators has not emerged. In this extensive review of the literature as well as research from our laboratory, we provide potential insights into the role of immune dysfunction in endometriosis associated infertility. We discuss the implication of the peritoneal inflammatory microenvironment on various factors that contribute to infertility such as hormonal imbalance, oxidative stress and how these could further lead to poor oocyte, sperm and embryo quality, impaired receptivity of the endometrium and implantation failure.

  19. Risk of diabetes according to male factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    for the entire IVF registration period (1994-2012), separate analyses were performed for men identified from the first (1994-2005) and second (2006-2012) IVF registration period owing to heterogeneity in the reporting of male factor infertility in these two time periods, because the reason for male factor...... infertility was not available from the first register. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Male factor infertility was identified from the variable 'yes' or 'no' from the first IVF register and through a diagnosis code (e.g. oligospermia, azoospermia) from the second IVF register. The reference group...... was men with male factor infertility (='no') and those with normal semen quality or sterilized men. Of the included men, 18 499 (46.8%) had male factor infertility and 21 017 (53.2%) made up the reference group. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 651 (1.6%) diabetes cases were identified...

  20. Integration of public health and primary care: A systematic review of the current literature in primary care physician mediated childhood obesity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, Soumitra S; Chandak, Aastha; Smith, Patti; Carlton, Erik L; Duncan, Kenric; Gentry, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity, with its growing prevalence, detrimental effects on population health and economic burden, is an important public health issue in the United States and worldwide. There is need for expansion of the role of primary care physicians in obesity interventions. The primary aim of this review is to explore primary care physician (PCP) mediated interventions targeting childhood obesity and assess the roles played by physicians in the interventions. A systematic review of the literature published between January 2007 and October 2014 was conducted using a combination of keywords like "childhood obesity", "paediatric obesity", "childhood overweight", "paediatric overweight", "primary care physician", "primary care settings", "healthcare teams", and "community resources" from MEDLINE and CINAHL during November 2014. Author name(s), publication year, sample size, patient's age, study and follow-up duration, intervention components, role of PCP, members of the healthcare team, and outcomes were extracted for this review. Nine studies were included in the review. PCP-mediated interventions were composed of behavioural, education and technological interventions or a combination of these. Most interventions led to positive changes in Body Mass Index (BMI), healthier lifestyles and increased satisfaction among parents. PCPs participated in screening and diagnosing, making referrals for intervention, providing nutrition counselling, and promoting physical activity. PCPs, Dietitians and nurses were often part of the healthcare team. PCP-mediated interventions have the potential to effectively curb childhood obesity. However, there is a further need for training of PCPs, and explain new types of interventions such as the use of technology. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychological determinants of life satisfaction in women undergoing infertility treatment

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    Aleksandra Anna Dembińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infertility treatment is a long-term process, spread out over months, or even years, and carries no guarantee of success. It generates an incessant state of uncertainty which becomes a chronic state of psychological discomfort. Each stage of treatment may become a source of more trouble. Women deciding to undergo infertility treatment are exposed to many negative feelings concerning different aspects of their life. Participants and procedure The present study was an attempt to understand psychological determinants of life satisfaction in women undergoing infertility treatment. The study group included 470 women treated for infertility. Results Patients perceiving more social support in general, as well as more of the support types used in the study, i.e. emotional, instrumental, informational and institutional support, and support from family and friends, have better self-esteem, higher acceptance of their infertility, higher satisfaction with life, higher hope as an emotional state, and lower levels of anxiety and depression. Three negative emotional states, i.e. anxiety, depression and irritation, are predictors influencing (lowering life satisfaction of women struggling with infertility. The strongest of these predictors is depression, which is also a factor lowering the acceptance of one’s own infertility. The conducted analyses revealed that predictors influencing the life satisfaction of patients treated for infertility are self-esteem and acceptance of one’s own infertility (apart from the aforementioned emotional state – anxiety, depression, irritation. It was found that the higher the self-esteem and acceptance of one’s own infertility, the higher was the satisfaction with life. Conclusions Knowledge of these determinants is extremely valuable for medical personnel conducting treatments, because, according to many studies, the psychological state of women suffering from procreation problems is connected not only with

  2. Qualitative research on infertile Chinese couples' understanding of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuoran, Wang; Wanpeng, Liu; Tao, Peng; Coates, Rosemary

    2018-01-16

    Family physicians play an important role in the initial counselling and evaluation of infertility. Despite infertility regarded as a stressor and a life crisis for individuals or couples, little is known about the psychosexual aspects of infertility. On the basis that sexuality is a crucial part of quality of life, it is worthwhile to give more attention to sexuality of infertile couples during their time of experiencing infertility. This study aimed to gain insight into the dynamic features of the sexuality of infertile couples and to provide meaningful evidence for improving their quality of life. We employed a qualitative approach to conduct this study. Utilizing purposive sampling method, 56 participants (28 infertile Chinese couples) were recruited from the reproductive medicine centre of a general hospital, and in-depth interviews were conducted with each participant. Thematic content analysis was used to analyse the transcripts. Four themes emerged from the respondents' narratives; these themes relate to the infertile couples' understanding of sexuality: (i) gender identity, (ii) communication about sex, (iii) sexual life and (iv) sexual satisfaction. It was further found that Chinese culture's values of fertility, perceptions about sexuality and sex, social norms regarding gender, and expectations about marital sexual life can have significant effects on infertile Chinese couples' sexuality. These findings should be highly considered by family physicians in their practice to provide infertile couples with information related to sexual well-being, coping styles, relationship, etc. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Infertility Evaluation and Treatment among Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Lawrence M.; Craig, Benjamin M.; Plosker, Shayne M.; Reed, Damon R.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the characteristics of women seeking infertility evaluation and treatment. Design Cross-sectional survey based on in-person interviews, followed by two-step hurdle analysis. Participants 4,558 married or cohabitating women ages 25–44 Setting U.S. household population of women based on the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth Intervention None Main Outcome Measure(s) Likelihood of seeking preliminary infertility evaluation. Likelihood of seeking infertility treatment once evaluated. Treatment type provided. Results 623 women (13.7%) reported seeking infertility evaluation, of which 328 reported undergoing subsequent infertility treatment. Age at marriage, marital status, education, health insurance status, race/ethnicity, and religion were associated with the likelihood of seeking infertility evaluation. For example, the predicted probability that a non-White woman who married at 25 will seek evaluation was 12%. This probability increased to 34% for White women with a graduate degree who married at age 30. Among women who are evaluated, income, employment status, and ethnicity correlated strongly with the likelihood of seeking infertility treatment. Infertility drug therapy was the most frequent treatment used. Reproductive surgery and in vitro fertilization (IVF) were used the least. Conclusions The use of infertility services is not random and understanding the socio-demographic factors correlated with use may assist new couples with family planning. Roughly 50% of the women evaluated for infertility progressed to treatment, and only a small proportion were treated with more advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) such as IVF therapy. Future research aimed at improving access to effective healthcare treatments within the boundaries of affordability is warranted. PMID:23849845

  4. Infertility and the use of infertility treatments in Finland: prevalence and socio-demographic determinants 1992-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terävä, Anna-Niina; Gissler, Mika; Hemminki, Elina; Luoto, Riitta

    2008-01-01

    To examine changes in the use of infertility treatments by time, the causes of infertility, lifetime prevalence of subfertility, and the use of infertility treatments by socio-demographic factors. Aggregate IVF statistics (1992-2004) and two nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1997 and 2002). Total number of IVF, ICSI and FET treatments initiated more than tripled between 1992 and 2004. The proportion of tubal injury as a cause of infertility treatment decreased over time while other female factors, male factor and multiple causes became more common. Self-reported lifetime subfertility was 16.0% in 2002 among women aged 25-64 years. Subfertility differed notably by age and education: young less educated women and older more educated women more frequently reported subfertility. Use of hormone therapy to treat subfertility (1997 and 2002) and participation in infertility treatments or medical examinations (2002) was more common among urban, highly educated and affluent women. The use of infertility treatments increased and the proportions of causes of infertility have changed over time. Self-reported subfertility differed by age and education. There are socio-demographic differences in the use of infertility treatments.

  5. A Dyadic Approach to Infertility Stress, Marital Adjustment, and Depression on Quality of Life in Infertile Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hee; Shin, Hye Sook; Yun, Eun Kyoung

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the level of infertility stress, marital adjustment, depression, and quality of life in infertile couples and assess the actor and partner effects in these areas using the actor-partner interdependence model. Cross-sectional study. Participants were 121 infertile couples. After pilot study, data were collected from November 2012 to March 2013 using the following questionnaires: the Fertility Quality of Life, Fertility Problem Inventory, Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory. There was a gender difference in infertility stress, depression, and quality of life. Infertility stress had actor and partner effects on the quality of life. Marital adjustment had an actor effect on the quality of life for the wives. Depression had actor and partner effects on quality of life for the wives, but only an actor effect for the husbands. This study found that there were actor and partner effects of infertility stress, marital adjustment, and depression on the quality of life in infertile couples. These findings may help nurses be aware of such effects and can be used as a baseline data in the development of nursing interventions for infertile couples.

  6. Repetitive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Induced Excitability Changes of Primary Visual Cortex and Visual Learning Effects-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias; Beckhaus, Katharina; Dinse, Hubert R; Schwenkreis, Peter; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Studies on noninvasive motor cortex stimulation and motor learning demonstrated cortical excitability as a marker for a learning effect. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive tool to modulate cortical excitability. It is as yet unknown how tDCS-induced excitability changes and perceptual learning in visual cortex correlate. Our study aimed to examine the influence of tDCS on visual perceptual learning in healthy humans. Additionally, we measured excitability in primary visual cortex (V1). We hypothesized that anodal tDCS would improve and cathodal tDCS would have minor or no effects on visual learning. Anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS were applied over V1 in a randomized, double-blinded design over four consecutive days (n = 30). During 20 min of tDCS, subjects had to learn a visual orientation-discrimination task (ODT). Excitability parameters were measured by analyzing paired-stimulation behavior of visual-evoked potentials (ps-VEP) and by measuring phosphene thresholds (PTs) before and after the stimulation period of 4 days. Compared with sham-tDCS, anodal tDCS led to an improvement of visual discrimination learning (p learning effect. For cathodal tDCS, no significant effects on learning or on excitability could be seen. Our results showed that anodal tDCS over V1 resulted in improved visual perceptual learning and increased cortical excitability. tDCS is a promising tool to alter V1 excitability and, hence, perceptual visual learning.

  7. Current treatment options with immunoglobulin G for the individualization of care in patients with primary immunodeficiency disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, S; Orange, J S; Gardulf, A; Stein, M R; Shapiro, R; Borte, M; Berger, M

    2015-02-01

    Primary antibody deficiencies require lifelong replacement therapy with immunoglobulin (Ig)G to reduce the incidence and severity of infections. Both subcutaneous and intravenous routes of administering IgG can be effective and well tolerated. Treatment regimens can be individualized to provide optimal medical and quality-of-life outcomes in infants, children, adults and elderly people. Frequency, dose, route of administration, home or infusion-centre administration, and the use of self- or health-professional-administered infusion can be tailored to suit individual patient needs and circumstances. Patient education is needed to understand the disease and the importance of continuous therapy. Both the subcutaneous and intravenous routes have advantages and disadvantages, which should be considered in selecting each patient's treatment regimen. The subcutaneous route is attractive to many patients because of a reduced incidence of systemic adverse events, flexibility in scheduling and its comparative ease of administration, at home or in a clinic. Self-infusion regimens, however, require independence and self-reliance, good compliance on the part of the patient/parent and the confidence of the physician and the nurse. Intravenous administration in a clinic setting may be more appropriate in patients with reduced manual dexterity, reluctance to self-administer or a lack of self-reliance, and intravenous administration at home for those with good venous access who prefer less frequent treatments. Both therapy approaches have been demonstrated to provide protection from infections and improve health-related quality of life. Data supporting current options in IgG replacement are presented, and considerations in choosing between the two routes of therapy are discussed. © 2014 British Society for Immunology.

  8. Elevated levels of epithelial neutrophil activating peptide-78 (ENA-78 (CXCL5 and Interleukin-1β is correlated with varicocele-caused infertility: A novel finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Nazari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Varicocele is the most common disorder found in subfertile men. Little is known about the potential effects of ENA-78 and IL-1 β on pathogenesis of varicocele and male infertility. Therefore, current investigation was aimed to explore the role of ENA-78 and IL-1 β in varicocele. Methods: To explore association between ENA-78, IL-1 β and infertility, the seminal levels of these mediators were measured in studied groups by ELISA technique. Results: ENA-78 and IL-1β levels were significantly raised in infertile men with varicocele compared to other groups (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Possibly spermatozoa motility of these patients is reduced in response to elevated ENA-78. IL-1 β as the neutrophils products appears to be potential diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for varicocele-caused infertility.

  9. Assessment of reproductive results of infertile patients who had undergone operative hysteroscopy for intrauterine pathology

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    Röyale Seferli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the reproductive outcomes of infertile patients who had undergone operative hysteroscopy (HS with the diagnoses of uterine septum, endometrial polyp, submucous myoma, and intrauterine adhesion. Methods: This retrospective study included 334 patients who had been diagnosed with primary and secondary infertility, aged between 18–35 years and diagnosed with uterine septum (group 1, endometrial polyp (group 2, submucous myoma (group 3, and intrauterine adhesion (group 4 by hysterosalpingography or office HS and who were treated via hysteroscopic operation between January 2009 and January 2013. Pregnancy results were obtained from the patients’ files and hospital database; when this was not possible, the patients were queried by phone calls. Groups were then compared in terms of characteristics, prognoses, and pregnancy outcomes. Results: The cumulative pregnancy rate was 58.7% in infertile patients who underwent operative HS due to intrauterine pathology. The mean length of time from operation to conception was 10.8±9.6 months in all groups. Mean age, infertility duration, infertility type, and smoking status were statistically different among the groups (p<0.05. Following surgery, 95 (66.4% of 143 patients in group 1 conceived and 57 (60% of these pregnancies resulted in term birth. There were 64 (54.2% pregnancies in group 2 and 34 (53.1% resulted in term birth. Sixteen (47.1% patients conceived in group 3, and 6 (37.5% of them had term birth. Twenty-one (53.8% patients conceived in group 4. Twelve out of 21 patients (57.1% had term birth. The most common mode of delivery was cesarean section in all groups. Conclusion: Thus, operative HS increases pregnancy rates in patients with intrauterine pathology. In future, large-scale prospective studies should be carried out to reveal the effects of the hysteroscopic method and compare this approach with other methods in order to achieve better pregnancy outcomes in

  10. Kal Dristi , Stolen Babies and 'Blocked Uteruses': Poverty and Infertility Anxieties among Married Adolescent Women Living in a Slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sabina Faiz

    2007-08-01

    The paper is about the neglect of infertility and women's interests in the health policy of developing countries, and how this shapes married adolescent women's understandings and practices surrounding infertility. Ethnographic fieldwork among married adolescent girls, aged 15-19, was carried out in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh from December 2001 to January 2003, including 50 in-depth interviews and eight case studies from 153 married adolescent girls, and observations and discussions with family and community members. There are newer understandings with the re-labelling of infertility from spirit world afflictions to something that is also attributed to family planning and 'build up of fat' in the uterus and stomach. Corrective practices range from not using or discontinuing a contraceptive method, dilatation and curettage (D&C) and visiting traditional healers. The absence of state services to address infertility concerns has implications for contraceptive use, with unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions. Local beliefs continue to largely attribute the primary cause of infertility to the spirit world, but the emergence of newer infertility understandings reveal the influence of Western cultural beliefs (family planning campaigns, health practices influenced by biomedicine) and highlight the gender politics in the harsh environment of urban slums.

  11. Online negotiations of infertility: Knowledge production in (in)fertility blogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, K.

    2014-01-01

    to conceive, arguing that blogging helps women to renegotiate their experiences of femininity when motherhood is denied or difficult. To do this, I focus on blogs as a space for knowledge production, creating a new paradigm for fertility information which challenges both the doctor/patient power dynamic......Although now used for a wide range of functions such as education, marketing and political commentary, blogs were originally a space for narrating personal life stories and have much in common with autobiography and diary genres. This article examines (in)fertility blogs written by women trying...... and traditional discourses concerning fertility. I show how bloggers use their blogs to 'make sense' of their (in)fertility experiences by looking at the distinctive content, style and format of their blogs. Finally, the knowledge produced in the blogs is problematized by 'situating' them within a broader...

  12. Male infertility associated with de novo pericentric inversion of chromosome 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasar, Özgür; Zamani, Ayşe Gül; Balasar, Mehmet; Acar, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Inversion occurs after two breaks in a chromosome have happened and the segment rotates 180° before reinserting. Inversion carriers have produced abnormal gametes if there is an odd number crossing- over between the inverted and the normal homologous chromosomes causing a duplication or deletion. Reproductive risks such as infertility, abortion, stillbirth and birth of malformed child would be expected in that case. A 54-year- old male patient was consulted to our clinic for primary infertility. The routine chromosome study were applied using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and analyzed by giemsa-trypsin-giemsa (GTG) banding, and centromer banding (C-banding) stains. Y chromosome microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction. Additional test such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY). Semen analysis showed azoospermia. A large pericentric inversion of chromosome 1 46,XY, inv(1) (p22q32) was found in routine chromosome analysis. No microdeletions were seen in AZF regions. In our patient the presence of SRY region was observed by using FISH technique with SRY-specific probe. Men who have pericentric inversion of chromosome 1, appear to be at risk for infertility brought about by spermatogenic breakdown. The etiopathogenic relationship between azoospermia and pericentric inversion of chromosome 1 is discussed.

  13. Assessing the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among infertile women of Qom city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Mahdieh; Fazaeli, Hoda; Kalhor, Naser; Sheykh-Hasan, Mohsen; Tabatabaei-Qomi, Reza

    2014-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder which happens when the balance of bacterial flora in vagina is disrupted by a shift in concentration of lactobacillus and pathogenic bacteria.It has significant sequelae including increased rates of late miscarriage when diagnosed in early pregnancy, premature rupture of the membranes, endometritis, preterm labour and delivery and tubal factor infertility. So it seems to be necessary to evaluate the prevalence of BV among women with primary infertility. All specimens were collected during vagina examination by use of a speculum and swabbing. A sampling swab was introduced into vaginal canal and rotated for at least 8 seconds before withdrawal. The vaginal swabs were examined in standard microbiological analysis including of microscopy, culture and sensitivity examination. Totally identified Gram positive bacteria were significantly higher in number than the Gram negative bacteria. We found that the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis as 70.34% among infertile women of Qom city. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent vaginal pathogen (57.33%) followed by E. coli (25.33%). S. aureus showed maximum sensitivity to penicillin and gentamicin. It means that fortunately in Qom, this bacterium has not acquired resistance against penicillin yet. So, all physicians must have a high index of suspicion and use readily available screening methods to recognize and treat the patients with infectious vaginitis adequately.

  14. Infertile spermatozoa in a human carrier of robertsonian translocation 14;22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Baccio; Capitani, Serena; Collodel, Giulia; Estenoz, Mariela; Gambera, Laura; Piomboni, Paola

    2002-11-01

    To present the ultrastructural, functional, and chromosomal analyses of spermatozoa from an infertile man with normal phenotype and chromosomal translocation 14;22. Case report. Regional Reference Center for Male Infertility in Siena, Italy. A 36-year-old man with primary infertility for 3 years and his parents. Family history and lymphocytic karyotypes, physical and hormonal assays, and semen analysis. Morphological sperm evaluation was performed by light, fluorescent, and electron microscopy; chromosomal constitution was examined by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. The penetration ability of spermatozoa was checked by the hamster test. The spermatozoa of the patient showed unusual ultrastructural defects. The nuclei were large, spheroidal, and generally uncondensed; the acrosomes were frequently absent or reduced; and the axonemes were often devoid of dynein arms or central singlet tubules. These characteristics are related to immaturity. The lymphocytic karyotype revealed a robertsonian translocation 14;22 in the sterile patient and his mother. FISH sperm analysis demonstrated a high frequency of diploidy for the chromosome 18,XY. The hamster penetration test gave negative results. The unusual structural sperm immaturity is associated with the translocation 14;22. This chromosomal anomaly may therefore negatively influence the spermatogenesis; an interchromosomal effect on meiosis segregation is also suggested.

  15. Survey of reasons for discontinuation from in vitro fertilization treatment among couples attending infertility clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishma Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increase in infertility burden, more and more couples are opting for in vitro fertilization (IVF. Despite the availability of various treatment options, the major concern that needs to be addressed is the reasons why such couples, initially motivated so strongly, drop out in fairly high numbers from IVF cycles. With this point of view the study was designed. AIM: The objective of this study was to explore the reasons why couples discontinue fertility treatment. Settings and Design: This retrospective study was carried out among couples in the age group of 20-40 years who opted for IVF at Tertiary care hospital and a private infertility center. Materials and Methods: Medical records for 3 years (2009-2012 were taken out and included in the study for analysis. Socio-demographic details along with indication for IVF and reasons for drop-separate IVF therapy were recorded on case record form and were analyzed. Results: Twenty-one percent of the patients had tubal pathology, thus making it the commonest female related factor for indication of IVF. Oligoasthenospermia (13% was the commonest cause of male related infertility factor. Financial burden was the primary cause for terminating treatment in majority of the IVF cases. Conclusions: Financial burden (62.5% was the commonest reason for drop out among couples from IVF cycle.

  16. Permanent Lateral Deviation and Stenosis of the Cervix in an Infertile Jennet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartuccio, M; Marino, G; Mannarino, C; Cristarella, S

    2016-04-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the uterus and the cervix are rare in horses, often associated with infertility, despite normal ovarian activity and sexual behaviour. An abnormality of the cervix in a 5-year-old jennet with a history of infertility was described. Clinical and ultrasound examination of the genital tract showed a normal development of the uterus with regular cyclic activity in both the ovaries. Vaginoscopy revealed a normal development of the vagina and a cervix deviated on the left side of the vagina by a thick dorsoventral fold. The lateral deviation was permanent in any stage of oestrus cycle. Furthermore, the cervical os was narrow and digital penetration was not realizable. Using a 5-mm catheter, the full penetration was not possible even during oestrus; moreover, the inoculation of fluid could be revealed in uterus by ultrasound (fluid was not present before inoculation), demonstrating a minimal patency. An abnormal and permanent lateral displacement of a stenotic cervix was suspected as the primary cause of infertility in the jennet. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Counselling in infertility: individual, couple and group interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; Emery, Marysa; Wischmann, Tewes; Thorn, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Infertility is considered a biopsychosocial crisis and infertility counselling is recommended as an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach. This article will outline the theoretical background and describe common interventions used in infertility counselling for individuals, couples and in a group setting. This article summarizes the proceedings of the first campus workshop of the Special interest group of Psychology and Counselling of the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Infertility counselling offers the opportunity to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more satisfyingly and resourcefully when fertility impairments have been diagnosed. The Heidelberg Fertility Consultation Service is presented as a framework for individual and couples counselling and highlights important issues in counselling patients. For group work a number of steps to set up a group within an infertility framework are discussed. In recent years, infertility counselling has become a specialist form of counselling requiring professional expertise and qualification. Key issues and common interventions are presented to raise awareness for the specific counselling needs of individuals and couples experiencing infertility and undergoing medical treatment. Mental health professionals new to the field of reproductive technologies as well as those in other areas of mental health counselling clients with fertility disorders can benefit from the topics addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine on Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dan; Coscione, Alberto; Li, Lily; Zeng, Bai-Yun

    2017-01-01

    Male infertility normally refers a male's inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Male infertility in recent years has been attracting increasing interest from public due to the evidence in decline in semen quality. There are many factors contributing to the male infertility including abnormal spermatogenesis; reproductive tract anomalies or obstruction; inadequate sexual and ejaculatory functions; and impaired sperm motility, imbalance in hormone levels, and immune system dysfunction. Although conventional treatments such as medication, surgical operation, and advanced techniques have helped many male with infertility cause pregnancy in their female partners, effectiveness is not satisfactory and associated with adverse effects. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used to improve male infertility in China for a very long time and has now been increasingly popular in Western countries for treating infertility. In this chapter we summarized recent development in basic research and clinical studies of CHM in treating male infertility. It has showed that CHM improved sperm motility and quality, increased sperm count and rebalanced inadequate hormone levels, and adjusted immune functions leading to the increased number of fertility. Further, CHM in combination with conventional therapies improved efficacy of conventional treatments. More studies are needed to indentify the new drugs from CHM and ensure safety, efficacy, and consistency of CHM. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mesh hernia repair and male infertility: a retrospective register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallén, Magnus; Westerdahl, Johan; Nordin, Pär; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Sandblom, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the use of mesh in groin hernia repair may be associated with an increased risk for male infertility as a result of inflammatory obliteration of structures in the spermatic cord. In a recent study, we could not find an increased incidence of involuntary childlessness. The aim of this study was to evaluate this issue further. Men born between 1950 and 1989, with a hernia repair registered in the Swedish Hernia Register between 1992 and 2007 were cross-linked with all men in the same age group with the diagnosis of male infertility according to the Swedish National Patient Register. The cumulative and expected incidences of infertility were analyzed. Separate multivariate logistic analyses, adjusted for age and years elapsed since the first repair, were performed for men with unilateral and bilateral repair, respectively. Overall, 34,267 men were identified with a history of at least 1 inguinal hernia repair. A total of 233 (0.7%) of these had been given the diagnosis of male infertility after their first operation. We did not find any differences between expected and observed cumulative incidences of infertility in men operated with hernia repair. Men with bilateral hernia repair had a slightly increased risk for infertility when mesh was used on either side. However, the cumulative incidence was less than 1%. Inguinal hernia repair with mesh is not associated with an increased incidence of, or clinically important risk for, male infertility. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Knowledge of Men and Women about Infertility Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Talaiekhozani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With technological developments, creation of new industries and changing lifestyles, infertility risk factors (IRF increased. Therefore creation of suitable solutions in society is crucial for the prevention of infertility. Since prevention of infertility in a society is directly related to awareness about infertility, in the present study the awareness of people about infertility risk factors was assessed. In this study, a survey questionnaire containing 24 factors related to IRF was developed and 170 persons (62 men and 108 women from Fooladshahr, Najafabad and Mobarakeh participated and data were extracted from these questionnaires and were statistically analyzed. Our study showed that average infertility awareness for men and women is 38% and 49% respectively. Also overall awareness was 44%. Also results showed that women’s awareness about mobile radiation and fast foods is significantly higher than men. On the other hand men have significantly higher awareness about adverse effects of chlorine in swimming pool on fertility. Higher women awareness may be related to their higher sensitivity for fertility. Also, generally a higher level of awareness was observed relating to mobile, air pollution, stress, fast foods, smoking and alcohol. Women have a higher level of awareness about infertility risk factors. Higher awareness about some IRFs may be results from widespread media coverage.

  1. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Analysis of the participants' experiences led to five main concepts: "Disturbed in femininity-body image," "discouragement of sexual relations," "sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant," "confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment," and "striving to protect their marriage." Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples.

  2. Misconception: human papillomavirus vaccine and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Christine L; Hanley, Chassidy J; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to determine if parents of males express concerns about vaccine-associated infertility (VAI) with the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and to understand the impact of those concerns. Parents of sons were surveyed to determine VAI concerns. Logistic regression was used to find if parents worried about VAI had lower knowledge of HPV disease, more concern for side effects, lacked information about vaccination, or had lower intention to vaccinate. In all, 39% of parents were worried about VAI. Parents worried about VAI had similar knowledge of HPV compared with other parents. Parents worried about VAI had twice the odds of agreeing the vaccine may cause side effects and agreeing they did not have enough information compared to their counterparts. Parents worried about VAI less often intended to vaccinate sons than other parents. These findings suggest many parents worry about VAI in sons with HPV vaccine.

  3. [The infertile couple: between biology and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkiewicz-Sibony, Charlotte

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we tried to show through some clinical examples that there is not on the one side the body, and on the other the psyche. The Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), because the field it covers, namely procreation, is a magnificent observatory of interactions between body and psyche, desire and inhibition, request and mental block, hatred and love… Assisted reproduction techniques are often indicative of links between these terms, and of what symbols are at stake in the couples concerned. It is interesting to see how these sophisticated techniques not only work as a solution to infertility problems -which are plural and diverse- but as a developer of human problems that we previously thought we would escape. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Augmentation of spelling therapy with transcranial direct current stimulation in primary progressive aphasia: Preliminary results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Frangakis, Constantine; Gomez, Yessenia; Davis, Cameron; Hillis, Argye E

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects language functions and often begins in the fifth or sixth decade of life. The devastating effects on work and family life call for the investigation of treatment alternatives. In this article, we present new data indicating that neuromodulatory treatment, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a spelling intervention, shows some promise for maintaining or even improving language, at least temporarily, in PPA. The main aim of the present article is to determine whether tDCS plus spelling intervention is more effective than spelling intervention alone in treating written language in PPA. We also asked whether the effects of tDCS are sustained longer than the effects of spelling intervention alone. We present data from six PPA participants who underwent anodal tDCS or sham plus spelling intervention in a within-subject crossover design. Each stimulation condition lasted 3 weeks or a total of 15 sessions with a 2-month interval in between. Participants were evaluated on treatment tasks as well as on other language and cognitive tasks at 2-week and 2-month follow-up intervals after each stimulation condition. All participants showed improvement in spelling (with sham or tDCS). There was no difference in the treated items between the two conditions. There was, however, consistent and significant improvement for untrained items only in the tDCS plus spelling intervention condition. Furthermore, the improvement lasted longer in the tDCS plus spelling intervention condition compared to sham plus spelling intervention condition. Neuromodulation with tDCS offers promise as a means of augmenting language therapy to improve written language function at least temporarily in PPA. The consistent finding of generalisation of treatment benefits to untreated items and the superior sustainability of treatment effects with tDCS justifies further investigations. However

  5. Tubal Factor Infertility and Perinatal Risk After Assisted Reproductive Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawwass, Jennifer F.; Crawford, Sara; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Session, Donna R.; Boulet, Sheree; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess trends of tubal factor infertility and to evaluate risk of miscarriage and delivery of preterm or low birth weight (LBW) neonates among women with tubal factor infertility using assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS We assessed trends of tubal factor infertility among all fresh and frozen, donor, and nondonor ART cycles performed annually in the United States between 2000 and 2010 (N=1,418,774) using the National ART Surveillance System. The data set was then limited to fresh, nondonor in vitro fertilization cycles resulting in pregnancy to compare perinatal outcomes for cycles associated with tubal compared with male factor infertility. We performed bivariate and multivariable analyses controlling for maternal characteristics and calculated adjusted risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The percentage of ART cycles associated with tubal factor infertility diagnoses decreased from 2000 to 2010 (26.02–14.81%). Compared with male factor infertility, tubal factor portended an increased risk of miscarriage (14.0% compared with 12.7%, adjusted RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04–1.12); risk was increased for both early and late miscarriage. Singleton neonates born to women with tubal factor infertility had an increased risk of pre-term birth (15.8% compared with 11.6%, adjusted RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20–1.34) and LBW (10.9% compared with 8.5%, adjusted RR 1.28, 95% CI 1.20–1.36). Significant increases in risk persisted for early and late preterm delivery and very low and moderately LBW delivery. A significantly elevated risk was also detected for twin, but not triplet, pregnancies. CONCLUSION Tubal factor infertility, which is decreasing in prevalence in the United States, is associated with an increased risk of miscarriage, preterm birth, and LBW delivery as compared with couples with male factor infertility using ART. PMID:23812461

  6. Distributive justice and infertility treatment in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisker, Jeff

    2008-05-01

    An exploration of distributive justice in Canadian infertility treatment requires the integration of ethical, clinical, and economic principles. In 1971, American philosopher John Rawls proposed a theoretical model for fair decision-making in which "rational" and "self-interested" citizens are behind a "veil of ignorance" with respect to both their own position and the position of other decision-makers. Rawls proposed that these self-interested decision-makers, fearing that they are among the least advantaged persons who could be affected by the decision, will agree only upon rules that encode equality of opportunity and that bestow the greatest benefit on the least advantaged citizens. Regarding health policy decision-making, Rawls' model is best illustrated by Canadian philosopher Warren Bourgeois in his panel of "volunteers." These rational and self-interested volunteers receive an amnestic drug that renders them unaware of their health, social, and financial position, but they know that they are representative of diverse spheres of citizens whose well-being will be affected by their decision. After describing fair decision-making, Bourgeois considers the lack of a distributive justice imperative in Canada's Assisted Human Reproduction Act, in contrast to legislation in European nations and Australia, summarizes the economic and clinical considerations that must be provided to the decision-makers behind the "veil of ignorance" for fair decisions to occur, and considers altruism in relation to equality of access. He concludes by noting that among countries with legislation governing assisted reproduction Canada is alone in having legislation that is void of distributive justice in providing access to clinically appropriate infertility care.

  7. Management of infertility in women over 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabry, Rosalie; Merviel, Philippe; Hazout, Andre; Belloc, Stephanie; Dalleac, Alain; Copin, Henri; Benkhalifa, Moncef

    2014-05-01

    Women's fertility potential is declining with age because of multiples intrinsic and extrinsic factors such as life style, oxidative stress and/or endocrine disruptors and is affecting the ability of these women to conceive naturally. This declining fertility potential and the late age of motherhood is increasing significantly the number of patients consulting infertility specialists. Different strategies of investigation and management are proposed to patients over 40 in order to overcome their infertility and improve the live birth rate in these patients. Intra Uterine Insemination (IUI) in women over 40 is associated with a low rate of ongoing pregnancy and IUI should not therefore be offered always as the first line of treatment. When the predictive factors are positive IVF/ICSI seem to be good alternatives until 43 years of age. Customized ovarian stimulation and flexible laboratory methods such as in vitro maturation (IVM), preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), embryo vitrification and transfer after thawing in subsequent natural or artificial cycles can improve the success rate of ART in patients over 40. Meanwhile, oocyte and embryos donation remain good options for patient over 40 with a bad prognosis and can lead to successful ongoing pregnancies until 45 years of age. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation, oocyte vitrification at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage or metaphase II stage present a breakthrough for fertility preservation but the ideal age for starting fertility preservation is still debated as well as the minimum number of oocytes to be vitrified in order to optimize the chances of pregnancy when needed at an older age. This manuscript reports the results of our own experience from patients older than 40 in the light of the published data and discusses the different therapeutic alternatives which can be proposed to patients over 40 consulting ART centres. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An online infertility clinical decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Diniz de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some possibilities of computer applications in medicine, and to discuss an online infertility clinical decision support system.Methods: Retrospective data were obtained from 52 couples, and then entered into the online tool. Both its results and the initial diagnoses obtained by the treating physicians were compared with the final diagnoses established by laparoscopy and other diagnostic tests (semen analysis, hormone analysis, endometrial biopsy, ultrasound and hysteroscopy. The initial hypothesis of the research was that the online tool's output was statistically associated with the final diagnoses. In order to verify that hypothesis, a chi-square (χ2 test with Yates' correction for continuity (P<0.05 was performed to verify if the online tool's and the doctor's diagnoses were statistically associated with the final diagnoses.Results: Four etiological factors were present in more than 50% of the couples (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, and endometriosis. The statistical results confirmed the research hypothesis for eight out of the nine etiological factors (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, cervical, male, vaginal, psychosomatic, and endometriosis; P<0.05. Since there were no cases related to the immune factor in the sample, further clinical data are necessary in order to assess the online tool's performance for that factor.Conclusions: The online tool tends to present more false-positives than false-negatives, whereas the expert physician tends to present more false-negatives than false-positives. Therefore, the online tool and the doctor seem to complement each other. Finally, the obtained results suggest that the infertility online tool discussed herein might be a useful research and instructional tool.

  9. An online infertility clinical decision support system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Diniz de Souza

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some possibilities of computer applications in medicine, and to discuss an online infertility clinical decision support system. Methods: Retrospective data were obtained from 52 couples, and then entered into the online tool. Both its results and the initial diagnoses obtained by the treating physicians were compared with the final diagnoses established by laparoscopy and other diagnostic tests (semen analysis, hormone analysis, endometrial biopsy, ultrasound and hysteroscopy. The initial hypothesis of the research was that the online tool’s output was statistically associated with the final diagnoses. In order to verify that hypothesis, a chi-square (氈2 test with Yates’ correction for continuity (P<0.05 was performed to verify if the online tool’s and the doctor’s diagnoses were statistically associated with the final diagnoses. Results: Four etiological factors were present in more than 50% of the couples (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, and endometriosis. The statistical results confirmed the research hypothesis for eight out of the nine etiological factors (ovarian, tubal-peritoneal, uterine, cervical, male, vaginal, psychosomatic, and endometriosis; P<0.05. Since there were no cases related to the immune factor in the sample, further clinical data are necessary in order to assess the online tool’s performance for that factor. Conclusions: The online tool tends to present more false-positives than false negatives, whereas the expert physician tends to present more false-negatives than false-positives. Therefore, the online tool and the doctor seem to complement each other. Finally, the obtained results suggest that the infertility online tool discussed herein might be a useful research and instructional tool.

  10. Polycystic ovaries and infertility: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Rajashekar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common (15-20% endocrine disorders in women of childbearing age. Although it is a major cause of infertility, its etiology remains unknown and its treatment difficult. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, treatment and outcome of patients with PCOS. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. Materials and Methods: PCOS patients (914 of the 1057 attending the outpatient department (OPD from June 2003 to February 2008 were evaluated for this study. Of the 914 patients investigated, 814 came for treatment and these patients were studied for hormonal disturbances and their response to various modalities of treatment. Results: Of the 2270 infertility patients, 46.50% (1057 had PCOS, out of these, 86.47% (914 were investigated and 77% (814 came for treatment. Our overall pregnancy rate was 48.40% (394/814. The pregnancy rate per cycle with timed intercourse (TI was 44.77% (47/105, 17.09% (286/1673 with intrauterine insemination (IUI, 29.82% (51/171 with in vitro fertilization (IVF and 22.22% (10/45 with frozen embryo transfer (FET. The maximum number of pregnancies (85.29%, 284/333 were achieved in the first three treatment cycles. The abortion rate was 19.01% (73/384 and the incidence of ectopic pregnancy was 5.47% (21/384. Complications seen were in the form of ovarian hyperstimulation (OHSS, retention cyst on day two and multiple pregnancies in 11.71% (228/1946 of the total treatment cycles. Conclusion: Most PCOS symptoms could be adequately controlled or eliminated with proper diagnosis and treatment. Thus, ovulation induction (OI protocols and treatment modalities must be balanced for optimal results.

  11. Sexual functioning, beliefs about sexual functioning and quality of life of women with infertility problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha Agustus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted in the background of paucity of studies examining the sexual and psychosocial functioning of women with infertility. Aims: The study explored sexual functioning in women with infertility problems, their beliefs about sexuality and their quality of life. Settings and Design: A single group exploratory design with non-probability purposive sampling was used. A total of 30 participants diagnosed with primary infertility were included in the study. Materials and Methods: The data were obtained by individual administration of the following tools: Semi-structured interview schedule, Female Sexual Functioning Inventory, Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale − BREF Version and General Health Questionnaire-12. The data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. Results: About half of the participants had sexual dysfunction. Pain-related problems were most commonly reported (50%. Factors contributing to dysfunction included inadequate knowledge about sex, sexual stimulation and sexual communication. Along with inadequate self-image, negative childhood experiences, financial difficulties and marital discord in parents influenced the perception of self. Majority of the women had dysfunctional beliefs about sexuality (56%, and greater beliefs were found to be in the domain of sexual conservatism. The overall quality of life was poor, and 56% of women experienced psychological distress. There was significant positive correlation between sexual conservatism and experience of pain and overall sexual functioning. Conclusion: Women with infertility bear dysfunctional beliefs and suffer from problems in sexual functioning, have low quality of life and high psychological distress.

  12. Introduction: Training in reproductive endocrinology and infertility: meeting worldwide needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ziegler, Dominique; Meldrum, David R

    2015-07-01

    Training in reproductive endocrinology (REI) and its male variant, andrology, has been profoundly influenced by the central role captured by assisted reproductive technologies (ART). The marked differences in financial, regulatory, and societal/ethical restrictions on ART in different countries of the world also prominently influence the clinical management of infertility. Training should strive for comprehensive teaching of all medically indicated procedures, even if only to optimize cross-border care. Better international standardization of infertility practices and training would benefit worldwide infertility care and should be promoted by international societies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The impact of partner coping in couples experiencing infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, B D; Pirritano, M; Christensen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most studies examining coping with infertility use the individual as the unit of analysis. Although valuable, these studies fail to show the impact that partner coping has on individual distress. Since infertility is a shared stressor, examining the impact of partner coping...... was associated with decreased marital distress in men and increased social distress in women. CONCLUSIONS: Although understudied, partner coping patterns play a key role in a partner's ability to cope with the infertility experience. Physicians and mental health providers can help couples to understand...

  14. Relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Qasim, R.; Baig, M.; Rana, M.F.; Ali, M.; Khem, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To measure the zinc level in fertile and infertile population and to find out relationship of serum and seminal plasma zinc levels and serum testosterone in oligospermic and azoospermic infertile men. Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The Infertility Clinic, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi, from January 2002-July 2003. Patients and Methods: Fifty-eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, having normal and regular menstrual cycles without any uterine pathology or hormonal disturbance were selected from Infertile Clinic, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses, they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty-five known fertile male selected from general population (their spouse had given birth to a child within one year) and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria and serum and seminal plasma zinc was estimated by 5Br. PAPS colorimetric method. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH were measured by ELISA, using kits supplied by Diagnostic System Laboratories (DSL), U.S.A. Results: The mean value for testosterone was significantly low in oligospermic, (8.04+0.76) and azoospermic subjects (7.14+0.27) as compared to normospermic (9.90+0.14) control groups (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively), serum LH (p<0.05, p<0.001) respectively) and FSH (p<0.05) were significantly higher than normospermic control group. Serum and seminal plasma zinc levels was low in oligospermic, and azoospermic subjects when compared with normospermic control groups (p<0.05, p<0.001 respectively). This suggests its involvement in spermatogenesis and infertility in such patients. Seminal zinc level has weak correlation with testosterone in oligospermic (r=0.44, p<0.05) and with serum zinc in azoospermic

  15. Transverse Vaginal Septum With Secondary Infertility: A Rare Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hafeez; Trehan, Nikita; Singh, Shuchita; Goyal, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the technique of laparoscopic vaginal reconstruction in a rare case of mid-vaginal septum with secondary infertility. A step-by-step explanation of the technique using videos and pictures (Canadian Task Force classification IV). Transverse vaginal septum is a rare condition, with an incidence of only 1 in 30,000 women. It is usually a congenital mullerian fusion defect; few cases of acquired septum have been reported. Roughly 40% of cases occur in the mid-vagina. Transverse vaginal septum typically presents with primary amenorrhea and hematocolpos. The goal of surgery is to create a patent vagina with restoration of fertility. The laparoscopic approach has proven superiority over the open technique. Laproscopic vaginal reconstruction was performed in a 24 year female with transverse vaginal septum. Dissection was done laproscopically up to mid vagina. Incision was given on vagina excising the septum followed by reconstruction. The laparoscopic approach to vaginal reconstruction avoids the abdominal incision, with its associated pain and possible adhesion formation. It also provides a better view for dissection. In this patient, a patent vagina was created in a single operation, with no postoperative dyspareunia, and fertility was restored. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibrated prevalence of infertility in 30- to 49-year-old women according to different approaches: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, A; Lopez-Villaverde, V; Rueda, M; Moya-Garrido, M N

    2015-11-01

    How does the estimated prevalence of infertility among 30- to 49-year-old women vary when using different approaches to its measurement? The prevalence of women with difficulties in conceiving differed widely according to the measurement approach adopted. Establishing the true magnitude of infertility as a public health problem is challenging, given that it is not categorized as a disability or chronic condition and may be largely unreported. The time required to conceive is an increasingly frequent concern among couples of reproductive age. Population-based studies do not consider multiple approaches to infertility measurement in the same sample. A face-to-face cross-sectional population-based survey of 443 women aged between 30 and 49 years residing in Huelva, southern Spain, was carried out. The sample size estimation was based on an assumed prevalence of infertility of 19%, a sampling error of ±4.84 percentage points, a design effect of 1.8 and a 95% confidence level. The information was collected in 2011. Self-reported information was gathered on socio-demographic data, pregnancy history, time required to become pregnant and perception of difficulties in becoming pregnant. Eight approaches to the estimation of infertility prevalence were considered: diagnosed infertility, subjective infertility, 1-year infertility, primary infertility, secondary infertility and subfertility based on the time taken to conceive (6, 12 or 24 months). Calibration estimators (indirect estimation techniques) were used to extrapolate the infertility prevalences to the whole of Spain. The response rate was 61.05%. Among 30- to 49-year-old Spanish women, 1.26% had a clinical diagnosis of infertility, 17.58% did not achieve pregnancy in 1 year (1-year infertility), 8.22% perceived difficulties in procreation (subjective infertility), 6.12% had not succeeded in having biological children (primary infertility) and 11.33% had not been able to have another biological child (secondary

  17. Socio-Demographic Correlates of Women?s Infertility and Treatment Seeking Behavior in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sanjit; Gupta, Pallavi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility is an emergent issue in India. Until recently, very few studies have understood the patterns and consequences of infertility in India. Family planning programs in India also viewed exclusively the patterns and determinants of overfertility rather than infertility. Furthermore, there is the lack of information about treatment seeking behavior of infertile couples. Therefore, this paper aimed to examine the extent of infertility and treatment seeking behavior among infer...

  18. Immune Infertility Should Be Positively Diagnosed Using an Accurate Method by Monitoring the Level of Anti-ACTL7a Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is currently a major public health problem. Anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) markedly reduce sperm quality, which can subsequently lead to male and/or female infertility. The accurate detection of ASAs derived from specific spermatozoa is, therefore, clinically useful. We have focused on the spermatozoa-specific expression protein ACTL7a for many years and have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies in fertile sera (n = 267) and infertile sera (n = 193). Infertile sera were collected from the positive sera of tray agglutination tests (TAT), which is a routine ASA screening methodology. We found that the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies was significantly higher in the infertile sera (than in the fertile sera, P infertile sera. The ELISA was much better for male sera detection (AUC = 0.9899). If we set the standard at a strongly positive value (calculated by ROC curve), the positive predictive value of the antibody detection reached 100 percent, with a false positive rate of zero. The developed ELISA method for anti-ACTL7a antibody detection is therefore sensitive, accurate, and easy to perform, making it an excellent potential tool for future clinical use. PMID:26957350

  19. Psychosocial impact of infertility among women attending Yusuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial impact of infertility among women attending Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial ... support, along with a General Health Questionnaire and a family APGAR as ... inability to enjoy day to day activities (11.2%), lack of concentration at work ...

  20. Chalmydia trachomatis infection among asymptomatic males in an infertility clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mania - Pramanik J

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis can lead to a variety of complications including tubal infertility. Similarly asymptomatic infection in male partner can also hinder conception. The prevalence of this infection among the infertile female in the Institute′s Infertility Clinic was observed to be 34%. Hence the present study was undertaken to find out these infection among the asymptomatic male partners of these infected women. Fifteen asymptomatic males who were not treated with any antibiotics in recent past were enrolled. First voided urine, semen and blood were collected from each individual for diagnosis of this infection. Chlamydia antigen was detected in 33.3% while Chlamydia antibody was detected in seven (46.7% of these cases. Of these seven, three cases were positive for antigen. This preliminary observation suggests that amongst the infertile couple a sizable percentage (60% of asymptomatic male partners remain infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

  1. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... April 15, 2014 Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported ... may lead to the overproduction of androgens — male hormones similar to testosterone — occurring in women with polycystic ...

  2. INFERTILITY IN A COMMUNITY AND CLINIC-BASED SAMPLE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... to investigate female, male, and couple factors infertility in both a .... analysis. Untortunately, the technicians in the laboratory were not familiar with this ... associated with the dependent variable at the 0.20 level of significance.

  3. Oxidative stress induces idiopathic infertility in Egyptian males

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... the WHO classification and Kruger's strict criteria (Kruger et al.,. 1986). Sperm ... Seminal plasma malondialdehyde content, indicator for lipid peroxidation ..... structure have been reported in infertile men such as chromatin ...

  4. Infertility diagnosis in jaguar (Panthera onca: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vieira de Barros

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports one case of infertility in a male jaguar (Panthera onca aged 21 years and weighing 125 kg. Changes in sperm due to chronic stress, inadequate food handling and reproductive senescence are emphasized.

  5. Treatment of infertility in men with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brackett, N.L.; Lynne, C.M.; El Dib, Hussein Ibrahim El Desouki Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Most men with spinal cord injury (SCI) are infertile. Erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities contribute to the problem. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, intracavernous injections of alprostadil, penile prostheses...

  6. Emotional Burden Of Infertility: A Controlled Study Of Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... factors and infertility-related stress among a sample of Nigerian women. The subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a schedule detailing ... The rates of significant anxiety symptoms (39.4%) and depressive symptoms ...

  7. Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirovich Moskvin, Sergey; Ivanovich Apolikhin, Oleg

    2018-01-01

    In half of the cases, the infertility of the couple is due to the disorder of the male fertility. The leading factors that cause male infertility are urogenital infections, disorders of the immune system, testicular and prostate pathology, as well as endocrine disorders. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is a very effective physical therapy method, used in many areas of medicine, including obstetrics and gynaecology, andrology and urology; and it is recommended as an integral part of the complex treatment of infertility. The literature review showed that LLLT is beneficial in treating male infertility. Laser can significantly improve the survival, motility and speed of movement of spermatozoa. Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can eliminate infiltrative-exudative changes, improve reproductive and copulatory functions. Local illumination of red (635 nm) and infrared (904 nm) spectra should be combined with intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI) of red (635 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (365 nm) spectra. PMID:29806585

  8. Knowledge, perception and attitude of infertile women in Benin City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With increasing utilization of Assisted Reproduction Technology (ART) in ... of 178 infertile patients attending the Human Reasearch and Reproduction (HRRP) unit ... Slightly more than half of the respondents (50.2%) perceived the cost of IVF ...

  9. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  10. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels in salpingectomized compared with nonsalpingectomized women with tubal factor infertility and women with unexplained infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynnerup, Anna Garcia-Alix Haugen; Lindhard, Anette; Sørensen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the consequence of salpingectomy on ovarian reserve by measuring anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels before in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment in salpingectomized women compared with nonsalpingectomized women with tubal factor infertility, women with unexplained infertility and...

  11. Seminal SIRT1 expression in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men with varicocoele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, T; Nabil, N; Rashed, L; Makeen, K; El-Kasas, M A; Mohamaed, H A

    2018-03-01

    In a case-controlled study, we assessed the expressed seminal NAD-dependent protein deacetylase (SIRT1) expression in infertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men associated with varicocoele. Our study involved 81 men, recruited from the University hospitals, after ethical approval and informed consent. They were allocated into fertile normozoospermic men (n = 23), infertile OAT men without varicocoele (n = 23) and infertile OAT men with varicocoele (n = 35). Inclusion criteria consisted of confirmation of abnormal semen parameters and normal female partners whereas exclusion criteria were leukocytospermia, tobacco smoking, hormonal therapy, immunological disorders, dyslipidemia, hypogonadism, cardiovascular disorders, morbid obesity, and hepatic or renal failures. All participants had an interview to assess clinical history, clinical examination, semen analysis, and estimation of seminal SIRT1 expression. Seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in infertile OAT men than fertile men. Among infertile OAT men, seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in those with varicocoele than in those without. Additionally, seminal SIRT1 expression was significantly lower in varicocoele grade III cases compared with other grades. Seminal SIRT1 expression was positively correlated with sperm concentration (r = 0.327, p = 0.001), total sperm motility (r = 0.532, p = 0.001), and sperm normal forms (r = 0.469, p = 0.001). Our results suggest that seminal SIRT1 expression has a role of male infertility being significantly decreased in infertile OAT men in general and in infertile OAT men associated with varicocoele in particular. © 2018 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Psychological determinants of life satisfaction in women undergoing infertility treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Anna Dembińska

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility treatment is a long-term process, spread out over months, or even years, and carries no guarantee of success. It generates an incessant state of uncertainty which becomes a chronic state of psychological discomfort. Each stage of treatment may become a source of more trouble. Women deciding to undergo infertility treatment are exposed to many negative feelings concerning different aspects of their life. Participants and procedure The present study wa...

  13. Pituitary gonodal axis in fertile and infertile human males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Mahmoud, K.Z.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.

    1984-01-01

    Radioimmunoassays of serum PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and estradiol were performed in normal fertile subjects and infertile patients. The findings in the fertile group suggest that prolactin in human males has a role in steroidogenesis. Oligospermic and azospermic patients revealed hormonal patterns which were significantly higher than in the fertile group. Hyperprolactinemia was found in most cases of both infertile groups indicating that PRL has a significant role. (author)

  14. A qualitative study of Ottawa university students? awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART)

    OpenAIRE

    Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Khan, Zainab; Whitten, Amanda N; Remes, Olivia; Phillips, Karen P

    2013-01-01

    Background Awareness of infertility risk factors is an essential first step to safeguard future fertility. Whereas several studies have examined university students? awareness of female fertility and related risk factors, the topic of male infertility has not been well examined. The objective of this study was to assess young men and women?s awareness, knowledge and perceptions of infertility, male and female infertility risk factors and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Methods Semi-...

  15. 4977-bp mitochondrial DNA deletion in infertile patients with varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashti, N G; Salehi, Z; Madani, A H; Dalivandan, S T

    2014-04-01

    Varicocele is the abnormal inflexion and distension of veins of the pampiniform plexus within spermatic cord and is one of the amendable causes of male infertility. It can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in semen and cause oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to analyse spermatozoa mtDNA 4977-bp deletion in infertile men with varicocele. To detect 4977-bp deletion in spermatozoa mtDNA, semen samples of 60 infertile patients with clinical varicocele and 90 normal men from northern Iran were prepared. After extraction of spermatozoa total DNA, Gap polymerase chain reaction (Gap PCR) was performed. 4977-bp deletion was observed in 81.66% of patients with varicocele, while approximately 15.55% of controls had this deletion. As spermatozoa from patients with varicocele had a high frequency of occurrence of 4977-bp deletion in mtDNA [OR = 24.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 10.15-57.57, P deletion in spermatozoa and cause infertility in north Iranian men. However, to determine the relation between sperm mtDNA 4977-bp deletion and varicocele-induced infertility, larger population-based studies are needed. It is concluded that there is an association between sperm mtDNA 4977-bp deletion and varicocele-induced infertility in the population studied. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Evaluating Acquisition of Knowledge about Infertility Using a Whiteboard Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ashley A; Brown, Meghan; Zhang, Shannon; Stern, Emily; Hahn, Philip M; Reid, Robert L

    2016-07-01

    Myths about fertility are commonplace in society. Few studies have investigated educational approaches to bridge gaps in knowledge among consumers. We evaluated the effectiveness of an animated, 15-minute whiteboard video to effect change in knowledge about infertility. We recruited medical students in their first or second year of training for participation. The students completed the study before their formal lectures on infertility issues. Participants completed questionnaires assessing infertility knowledge immediately before and one week after watching the educational video. Before and after scores (maximum = 50 points) were compared using paired t tests. The study cohort included 101 medical students; 69% (70/101) were female and 31% (31/101) were male. Overall, students increased their score by 4.0/50 (95% CI 3.2 to 4.8, P Female students improved slightly more in their responses than did male students (mean improvement 4.7/50 vs. 2.5/50). A whiteboard video presentation on infertility resulted in short-term improvement in medical students' knowledge of basic reproductive biology, infertility risk factors, treatments, and common myths associated with infertility. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endometriosis and uterine malformations: infertility may increase severity of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujenah, Jeremy; Salakos, Eleonora; Pinto, Mélodie; Shore, Joanna; Sifer, Christophe; Poncelet, Christophe; Bricou, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the stage and severity of endometriosis in fertile and infertile women with congenital uterine malformations. We performed an observational study from September 2007 to December 2015 in a tertiary care university hospital and assisted reproductive technology center. A total of 52 patients with surgically proven uterine malformations were included. We compared 41 infertile patients with uterine malformations with 11 fertile patients with uterine malformation. The main outcome was the stage, score and type of endometriosis in regard to infertility and class of uterine malformation. The rate of endometriosis did not differ between the two groups (43.9 vs. 36.4%). The mean revised American Fertility Society score was higher in infertile patients with uterine malformations (19.02 vs. 6, p endometriosis (43.9 vs. 37.5%). Endometrioma and deep infiltrating endometriosis were associated with uterine malformations in infertile women, respectively 14.6 and 0%. No difference in the characteristics of endometriosis was found regarding the class of malformation. The association of uterine malformations and infertility may increase the severity of endometriosis and raise the issue of their diagnosis and management. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Parenting after infertility: issues for families and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jacqueline M; Samra, Haifa A; Zukowsky, Ksenia; Baker, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the research related to parenting after assisted reproduction and uses that research to discuss clinical implications for nurses who work to support these families and the development of their children. The worldwide diagnosis of infertility continues to rise and now hovers near 20%. The increased availability and success of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) provides a potential option for infertile families to conceive and begin a family, but as nurses know, infertility treatments are not easy to tolerate, are time-consuming, physically taxing, and expensive. In addition, a positive outcome is far from guaranteed. Even when infertile couples successfully give birth, they can continue to struggle with the psychological aspects of infertility and the ongoing care of a child who may be premature, low birth weight, or afflicted with another high-risk condition such as long-term developmental or behavioral problems. Unfortunately, the psychological needs of the couple and the family may not be addressed during ART treatment or after the birth of a child. Parenting is a challenging life task; parenting when the partners may have to work through the psychological aspects of infertility and the care of a high-risk child is even more complex and may have long-lasting effects on the partners as well as their children.

  19. Traditional practices used by infertile women in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, S; Efe, S Yaman

    2010-09-01

    Numerous traditional methods are used in the treatment of infertility around the world. To identify the traditional practices of infertile women using one clinic in Ankara, Turkey. The population comprised all women (5700) who attended one infertility outpatient clinic in 2007. The sample was calculated using sample calculation formula and 410 women were included in the study. The survey method was used for data collection. Of the responding women, 27.3% had tried a traditional practice, and 67.8% who tried traditional practices used an herbal mixture. The reason for the women's use of a traditional practice was 'hope' (66.9%), and 15.2% of them had experienced an adverse effect related with traditional practice. Maternal education level, perceived economic status, duration of marriage all significantly affected the use of traditional practices (Pwomen who had received unsuccessful medical treatment for infertility and who had experienced side effects after medical treatment had a higher rate of use of traditional practice (Pwomen who responded to the questionnaire had tried traditional methods, and some experienced adverse effects related to the practice. For couples with infertility problems, educational programmes and consultation services should be organized with respect to their traditional culture. Women should be informed about the hazards of traditional practices and avoidance of harmful practices, and continuous emotional support must be provided for infertile couples. In the future, nursing staff should play a much larger role in these supportive services.

  20. Consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhorn, Marcia C; Kobeissi, Loulou; Nassar, Zaher; Lakkis, Da'ad; Fakih, Michael H

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the influence of consanguineous marriage on male factor infertility in Lebanon, where rates of consanguineous marriage remain high (29.6% among Muslims, 16.5% among Christians). Clinic-based, case-control study, using reproductive history, risk factor interview, and laboratory-based semen analysis. Two IVF clinics in Beirut, Lebanon, during an 8-month period (January-August 2003). One hundred twenty infertile male patients and 100 fertile male controls, distinguished by semen analysis and reproductive history. None. Standard clinical semen analysis. The rates of consanguineous marriage were relatively high among the study sample. Patients (46%) were more likely than controls (37%) to report first-degree (parental) and second-degree (grandparental) consanguinity. The study demonstrated a clear pattern of family clustering of male factor infertility, with patients significantly more likely than controls to report infertility among close male relatives (odds ratio = 2.58). Men with azoospermia and severe oligospermia showed high rates of both consanguinity (50%) and family clustering (41%). Consanguineous marriage is a socially supported institution throughout the Muslim world, yet its relationship to infertility is poorly understood. This study demonstrated a significant association between consanguinity and family clustering of male factor infertility cases, suggesting a strong genetic component.