WorldWideScience

Sample records for current per-unit fair

  1. Sensitive beam current measurement for FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwickert, Marcus; Kurian, Febin; Reeg, Hansjoerg [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Seidel, Paul; Neubert, Ralf [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena (Germany); Geithner, Rene; Vodel, Wolfgang [Helmholtz-Institut Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Presently FAIR, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research, entered the final planning phase at GSI. The new accelerator facility requires precise devices for beam current measurements due to the large dynamics in beam intensities for the various synchrotrons, transport lines and storage rings. We report on the actual developments of beam diagnostic devices for the measurement of beam intensities ranging from 5 x 10{sup 11} uranium ions down to the detection of less than 10{sup 4} antiprotons. This contribution gives an overview of the planned instruments with a focus on non-intercepting beam current transformers, and summarizes the on-going development of a cryogenic current comparator.

  2. Asynchronous Capacity per Unit Cost

    CERN Document Server

    Chandar, Venkat; Tse, David

    2010-01-01

    The capacity per unit cost, or equivalently minimum cost to transmit one bit, is a well-studied quantity. It has been studied under the assumption of full synchrony between the transmitter and the receiver. In many applications, such as sensor networks, transmissions are very bursty, with small amounts of bits arriving infrequently at random times. In such scenarios, the cost of acquiring synchronization is significant and one is interested in the fundamental limits on communication without assuming a priori synchronization. In this paper, we show that the minimum cost to transmit B bits of information asynchronously is (B + \\bar{H})k_sync, where k_sync is the synchronous minimum cost per bit and \\bar{H} is a measure of timing uncertainty equal to the entropy for most reasonable arrival time distributions.

  3. faire ?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    africaine', elle s'intéressait à une histoire qui devait d'abord leur restituer un ..... définition de faire de l'histoire » des courants historiographiques actuels”. ..... nent — la production africaine du monde au plan géographique et humain n et.

  4. Fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes' is organising a book exhibition. The major topics covered will be science and technology. The fair will take place in the foyer of the main building (building 60), and will be open from 10am - 4pm on 5th July 2005.

  5. The role of the computer in science fair projects: Current status and potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    The need for more students to enter the field of science is acute in the nation, and science fair projects provide a motivational mechanism to entice students into pursuing scientific careers. Computers play a major role in science today. Because computers are a major source of entertainment for our children, one would expect them to play a significant role in many science fair projects. This study investigated current and potential uses of computers in science fair projects and incorporated an informal case study of scientists, teachers, and students involved in science fair projects from a highly scientific community. Interviews, a survey, and observations were conducted. Results indicated that most projects either do not use or inadequately use computers and that a significant potential for more effective use of computers for science fair projects exists.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions per unit of value a corporate guide to voluntary climate action

    OpenAIRE

    Randers, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    How much must I reduce my greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions if I want to do my fair share to contribute towards the global effort to keep global warming below a 2 °C rise in average temperature over preindustrial times? This paper suggests an answer for nations and corporations that want to move ahead of legislation on a voluntary basis. If all nations reduce their “GHG emissions per unit of GDP” by 5% per year, global GHG emissions will be 50% lower in 2050 than in 2010 as long as the globa...

  7. Spectral characteristics of the coastal currents off Thal, Bombay during a fair day

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A; Swamy, G.N.

    A typical one-day record of currents measured every 20 min. with a direct reading current meter at an anchored station of mean water depth about 8 m off Thal (Bombay Coast, India) during a fair day was subjected to spectral analysis to identify...

  8. How Fair Is Actuarial Fairness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    in exchange for the payment of premi- ums. In the insurance industry, the concept of actuarial fairness serves to establish what could be adequate, fair premiums. Accordingly, premiums paid by policyholders should match as closely as possible their risk exposure (i.e. their expected losses). Such premiums...... are the product of the probabilities of losses and the expected losses. This article presents a discussion of the fairness of actuarial fairness through three steps: (1) defining the concept based on its formulation within the insurance industry; (2) determining in which sense it may be about fairness; and (3......) raising some objections to the actual fairness of actu- arial fairness. The necessity of a normative evaluation of actuarial fairness is justified by the influence of the concept on the current reforms of public insurance systems and the fact that it highlights the question of the repartition of the gains...

  9. Influence of short-term solar disturbances on the fair weather conduction current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhalel Gal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fair weather atmospheric electrical current (Jz couples the ionosphere to the lower atmosphere and thus provides a route by which changes in solar activity can modify processes in the lower troposphere. This paper examines the temporal variations and spectral characteristics of continuous measurements of Jz conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30°35′ N, 34°45′ E, during two large CMEs, and during periods of increased solar wind density. Evidence is presented for the effects of geomagnetic storms and sub-storms on low latitude Jz during two coronal mass ejections (CMEs, on 24–25th October 2011 and 7–8th March 2012, when the variability in Jz increased by an order of magnitude compared to normal fair weather conditions. The dynamic spectrum of the increased Jz fluctuations exhibit peaks in the Pc5 frequency range. Similar low frequency characteristics occur during periods of enhanced solar wind proton density. During the October 2011 event, the periods of increased fluctuations in Jz lasted for 7 h and coincided with fluctuations of the inter-planetary magnetic field (IMF detected by the ACE satellite. We suggest downward mapping of ionospheric electric fields as a possible mechanism for the increased fluctuations.

  10. Electric Currents and Fields in Middle and Low Atmosphere in Fair-Weather Regions due to Distant Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velinov, Peter; Velinov, Peter; Tonev, Peter

    The electric currents created by the thunderstorms and the electrified shower clouds over the Earth flow into the global atmospheric electric circuit and are responsible for the formation in fair-weather regions of ionosphere-ground current of about 2 pA per square meter, as well as for the related fair-weather electric field of the order of 100 V/m at sea level. The link of the diurnal variations of the fair-weather electric field with the global thunderstorm activity has been widely studied with connection to the Wilson's hypothesis. To confirm this hypothesis directly, also the fair-weather electric field response to a strong single lightning discharge has being examined. Here we study theoretically the variations of the electric currents and fields in fair-weather regions at different altitudes of the lower and middle atmosphere, which are provoked by distant lightning discharges. The electric field variations can play an important role at higher altitudes (in the upper troposphere and above), where they are much larger and possibly influence the physical and chemical processes. For our goals we realize a globalscale model of the electric fields and currents generated by a lightning discharge, which is based on the Maxwell's equations. The fair-weather electric characteristics are studied by our model depending on the lightning parameters, location and distance. We also examine how variations of the conductivity in the strato/mesosphere due to changes of solar and geomagnetic activity affect the characteristics studied. Another question discussed is whether and how the mesospheric electric response to a remote lightning discharge is influenced by the conductivity anisotropy above 70 km and by the geomagnetic field geometry. The variations of the fairweather electric fields due to a distant lightning at tropospheric heights are also studied with respect to their presumable role in the cloud physics.

  11. Dose per unit area - a study of elicitation of nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise Arup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    with a patch test and a repeated open application test (ROAT). Nickel was applied on small and large areas. The varying parameters were area, total dose and dose per unit area. RESULTS: In the patch test, at a low concentration [15 microg nickel (microg Ni)/cm(2)], there were significantly higher scores...... concentrations, even though the same dose per unit area is applied.......BACKGROUND: Experimental sensitization depends upon the amount of allergen per unit skin area and is largely independent of the area size. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at testing if this also applies for elicitation of nickel allergy. PATIENTS/METHODS: 20 nickel allergic individuals were tested...

  12. Judging Fairs Fairly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W.; Silverman, Fredrick L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems associated with winners and losers at science fairs. Presents two alternatives to the traditional prize system: "The Scouting Concept" and "The County Fair Concept." Stresses the values and learnings that are associated with successful fairs. (CW)

  13. Is fair value currently in compliance with the principle of true and real reflection in the Czech accounting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Information value of data provided by the accounting is in significant extent dependent on the method of valuation used in accounting of individual economic operations especially on the method of valuation of individual items in the financial statements. Financial expression of the individual value of assets and liabilities of the company (including the balance sheet of the company, as well as the amount of equity, depend just on specific method of valuation of assets and liabilities that each entity used in the accounting system. This fact has also a crucial influence on the overall level of financial analysis since mostly aggregated data in the appropriate valuation gained from various parts of the financial statements are the input data for financial analysis.Certain items of assets and liabilities are valued at fair value at the balance sheet day in the Czech accounting in compliance with the global developments. The concept of fair value in Czech accounting is regulated by Czech Accounting Act in § 27 paragraph 4 and 5. The Czech regulation of the concept of the fair value is based on its detailed definition of the IAS / IFRS, including cases of practical use.The aim of this paper is to answer the question whether currently the fair value in the Czech accounting reflects the reality, based on definition of its content in accordance with applicable legal regulation. Partial aim is to identify specific cases of its application in the accounting of various types of business entities in the Czech Republic in existing practice. The paper also identifies methodological procedure of recording changes resulting from the valuation or revaluation of various types of assets at fair value, including their impacts on the financial statements. An integral part of the paper is the perspective of IAS / IFRS on fair value in accounting, so the definition of the fair value and also there is historical development of valuation of assets according to IAS

  14. Test Fairness: A Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Xiaoming Xi's paper titled "How do we go about investigating test fairness?" In the paper, Xi offers "a means to fully integrate fairness investigations and practice". Given the current importance accorded to fairness in the language testing community, Xi makes a case for viewing fairness as an aspect…

  15. A diagram for defined solar radiation absorbed per unit area of flat plate solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Altuntop, N. [Erciyes University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Turkey); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada Reno University, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, NV (United States); Cengel, Y.A. [Nevada University, Dept. Mechanical Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

    2000-07-01

    In Erciyes University, the Solar House (28.75 m{sup 2}) is heated from the floor by using flat plate liquid solar collectors. Required solar radiation for heating and heat losses are calculated. In this work, the required calculations for Erciyes Solar House were generalized and required calculation were done to evaluate absorbed solar radiation per unit surface of the flat plate liquid collector. At the end, three generalized diagrams for nine different months are obtained using obtained numerical values. The goal of preparing diagrams is to determine absorbed solar radiation per unit surface area of flat plate liquid collector at any instant at any latitude, In this work, the diagram is explained by means of sample calculations for November. This diagram was prepared to find out absorbed solar radiation per unit area of black surface collector by means obtained equations. With this diagram, all instant solar radiation can be evaluated in 19 steps. (authors)

  16. Derivation of Plastic Work Rate Done per Unit Volume for Mean Yield Criterion and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dewen ZHAO; Yingjie XIE; Xiaowen WANG; Xianghua LIU

    2005-01-01

    In Haigh Westergaard stress space linear combination of twin shear stress and Tresca yield functions is called the mean yield (MY) criterion. The mathematical relationship of the criterion and its plastic work rate done per unit volume were derived. A generalized worked example of slab forging was analyzed by the criterion and its corresponding plastic work rate done per unit volume. Then, the precision of the solution was compared with those by Mises and Twin shear stress yield criterions, respectively. It turned out that the calculated results by MY criterion were in good agreement with those by Mises criterion.

  17. Galaxy S-Stars Exhibit Orbital Angular Momentum Quantization per Unit Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The innermost stars of our Galaxy, called S-stars, are in Keplerian orbits. Quantum celestial mechanics (QCM predicts orbital angular momentum quantization per unit mass for each of them. I determine the quantization integers for the 27 well-measured S-stars and the total angular momentum of this nearly isolated QCM system within the Galactic bulge.

  18. Numerical study of the scaling of the maximum kinetic energy per unit length for imploding Z-pinch liner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Zheng-Zhong; Qiu Ai-Ci

    2004-01-01

    Numerical computation based on a zero-dimensional thin-plasma-shell model has been carried out to study the scaling of the maximum kinetic energy per unit length, the current amplitude and the compression ratio for the imploding Z-pinch liner driven by peaked current pulses. A dimensionless scaling constant of 0.9 with an error less than 10% is extracted at the optimal choice of the current and liner parameters. Deviation of the chosen experimental parameter from the optimal exerts a minor influence on the kinetic energy for wider-shaped and slower-decaying pulses, but the influence becomes significant for narrower-shaped and faster-decaying pulses. The computation is in reasonable agreement with experimental data from the Z, Saturn, Blackjack 5 and Qiangguang-I liners.

  19. Catch per unit effort, maximum sustainable yield and exploitation of demersal fish of Omani artisanal fishery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MedhatAbd El Barr

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate exploitation status of the stocks of demersal fishes in Omani artisanal fisheries. Methods: Time-series data between 2005 and 2014 on catches and effort represented by the number of fishing boats were used to estimate catch per unit effort and maximum sustainable yields applying Schaefer surplus production model. Regression analyses were made online using GraphPad software. Results: The study revealed that increasing the number of boats on the fishery caused a decrease of catch per unit effort of some species. Maximum sustainable yields and exploitation status were estimated for these species applying. Conclusions: Some demersal fish species were found to be caught in quantities exceeding maximum sustainable yields during some fishing seasons indicating overexploitation of their stocks.

  20. Deduction of plastic work rate per unit volume for unified yield criterion and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO De-wen; LI Jing; LIU Xiang-hua; WANG Guo-dong

    2009-01-01

    A unified linear expression of plastic work rate per unit volume is deduced from the unified linear yield criterion and the associated flow rule. The expression is suitable for various linear yield loci in the error triangle between Tresca's and twin shear stress yield loci on the π-plane. It exhibits generalization in which the different value of criterion parameter b corresponds to a specific linear formula of plastic work rate per unit volume. Finally, with the unified linear expression of plastic work rate and upper-bound parallel velocity field the strip forging without bulge is successfully analyzed and an analytical result is also obtained. The comparison with traditional solutions shows that when b=1/(1+(√3)) the result is the same as the upper bound result by Mises' yield criterion, and it also is identical to that by slab method with m=1, σ0=0.

  1. Resizing Triathlons for Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainer, Howard; De Veaux, Richard D.

    As currently configured, triathlons are dominated by cyclists and runners. The concept of fairness, as applied to triathlons, suggests that a cyclist, runner, and swimmer, all equally proficient, can each traverse the associated segment of the triathlon in approximately equal times. This definition of fairness is used to derive fair triathlon…

  2. 36 CFR 223.64 - Appraisal on a lump-sum value or rate per unit of measure basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or rate per unit of measure basis. 223.64 Section 223.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST... Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.64 Appraisal on a lump-sum value or rate per unit of measure basis. Timber may be appraised and sold at a lump-sum value or at a rate per unit of measure which rate may be...

  3. New approximate solutions per unit of time for periodically checked systems with different lifetime distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodrigues Dias

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems with different lifetime distributions, associated with increasing, decreasing, constant, and bathtub-shaped hazard rates, are examined in this paper. It is assumed that a failure is only detected if systems are inspected. New approximate solutions for the inspection period and for the expected duration of hidden faults are presented, on the basis of the assumption that only periodic and perfect inspections are carried out. By minimizing total expected cost per unit of time, on the basis of numerical results and a range of comparisons, the conclusion is drawn that these new approximate solutions are extremely useful and simple to put into practice.

  4. Vertical farming increases lettuce yield per unit area compared to conventional horizontal hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touliatos, Dionysios; Dodd, Ian C; McAinsh, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Vertical farming systems (VFS) have been proposed as an engineering solution to increase productivity per unit area of cultivated land by extending crop production into the vertical dimension. To test whether this approach presents a viable alternative to horizontal crop production systems, a VFS (where plants were grown in upright cylindrical columns) was compared against a conventional horizontal hydroponic system (HHS) using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. "Little Gem") as a model crop. Both systems had similar root zone volume and planting density. Half-strength Hoagland's solution was applied to plants grown in perlite in an indoor controlled environment room, with metal halide lamps providing artificial lighting. Light distribution (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) and yield (shoot fresh weight) within each system were assessed. Although PPFD and shoot fresh weight decreased significantly in the VFS from top to base, the VFS produced more crop per unit of growing floor area when compared with the HHS. Our results clearly demonstrate that VFS presents an attractive alternative to horizontal hydroponic growth systems and suggest that further increases in yield could be achieved by incorporating artificial lighting in the VFS.

  5. Exam fairness

    CERN Document Server

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    It is widely agreed that exams must be fair; yet what this exactly means is not made clear. One may mean fairness of treatment, but this merely propagates the fairness or unfairness of pre-existing rules. Fairness of opportunity on the other hand necessarily leads to identical grades for everyone, which clearly makes it inapplicable. Neither view is helpful to make decisions on competing claims: fairness of treatment ignores the problem and fairness of opportunity holds all claims to be equally valid. To escape this deadlock one needs an external criterion to replace fairness viewed as student-student comparison. Keywords: assessment; bias; engineering education; examinations; grading; justice; tests

  6. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  7. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  8. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaal, A. de; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed fair . This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  9. How Fair is Fair Trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, R.K.J.; Vaal, A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair.’ This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  10. Thermoregulation in boys and men exercising at the same heat production per unit body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leites, Gabriela T; Cunha, Giovani S; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Meyer, Flavia; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    Child-adult thermoregulatory comparisons may be biased by differences in metabolic heat production ([Formula: see text]). We compared thermoregulatory responses of boys and men exercising at two intensities prescribed to elicit either a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit body mass (BM) or a fixed absolute [Formula: see text]. Ten boys (10-12 years) and 10 men (19-25 years) performed 4 × 20-min cycling at a fixed [Formula: see text] per BM (W kg(-1)) at 35 °C and 35 % relative humidity (MENREL). Men also cycled (MENABS) at the same absolute [Formula: see text] (in W) as the boys. [Formula: see text] was lower in boys compared with MENREL, but similar to MENABS (mean ± SD, 233.6 ± 38.4, 396.5 ± 72.3, 233.6 ± 34.1 W, respectively, P < 0.001). Conversely, [Formula: see text] per unit BM was similar between boys and MENREL, and lower in MENABS (5.7 ± 1.0, 5.6 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.3 W kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.001). The change in rectal temperature was similar between boys and MENREL (0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.92) but was lower in MENABS (0.3 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.004). Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to MENABS (500 ± 173 vs. 710 ± 150 mL; P = 0.041), despite the same evaporative heat balance requirement (E req) (199.1 ± 34.2 vs. 201.0 ± 32.7 W, P = 0.87). Boys and men demonstrated similar thermoregulatory responses to 80 min of exercise in the heat performed at a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit BM. Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to men, despite similarities in absolute [Formula: see text] and E req.

  11. CORRELATION BETWEEN THE DAMPING FACTOR PER UNIT MASS AND THE FREE LENGTH FOR COMPOSITE SANDWICH BARS. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Oliviu BURADA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have build some composite sandwich bars in this way: the core is made with polypropylene honeycomb (its thickness is 10, 15 and 20 mm reinforced with 1 layer of carbon fiber (on the sample upper and lower sides. For these samples we have determined, by experimental means, the damping factor per unit mass and per unit length. Then, by using the regression analysis, we have established correlations between the damping factor per unit mass and the bars free length. In order to obtain these correlations, we have considered the next free lengths of the bars: 200, 230, 260, 290, 320, 350.

  12. Fair skoleledelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter; Vestergaard, Bo

    2014-01-01

    relationelle strategiske ledelsesprocesser (RSL-processer) mellem ledelse og medarbejdere i organisationers strategiarbejde. I artiklens anden del oversættes den teoretiske del til et praksisorienteret ottefaset strategisk procesdesign: FAIR SKOLELEDELSE. FAIR SKOLELEDELSE er et strategisk tanke- og...

  13. Fair Trade

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the behavior of fair trade organizations in an oligopolistic setting in which the vertically integrated fair trade firm produces a commodity which is a weak substitute for another commodity. Profit-maximizing oligopolists are vertically disintegrated and produce for both markets and the fair trade firm can charge a premium to consumers due to a "warm glow effect" that depends on the wage paid to fair trade producers. We show that trade integration will unambiguously incr...

  14. Variation Character of Grain Yield per Unit Area in Main Grain-producing Area of Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yeqing; ZHANG Pingyu; ZHANG Huimin

    2007-01-01

    Based on the surveys and the statistic data during 1980-2003, the variation character of grain yield per unit area in Northeast China and its main factors have been discussed by the methods of statistics and grey correlation analysis. The results show that: 1) the grain yield per unit area has been taking on an increasing trend in the recent 20 years. It increased from 2519.80kg/ha in 1980 to 4216.11 kg/ha in 2003, with an increasing rate of 67.32%; 2) the variation of grain yield per unit area is considerably prominent and its range is also very great, with the maximal increase rate of 42.59% and maximal decrease rate of 21.13%, respectively, which are far above the whole Chinese average level; 3) the variation of main crops' yield per unit area is remarkable, which takes on the character that the yield of corn is much higher than that of soybean and rice; and 4) the grey correlation analysis shows that the most important factors impacting the variation of grain yield per unit area are the total power of agricultural machinery, the consumption of chemical fertilizer and effective irrigated area. However, the influence of natural disaster and income level should not be ignored. Effective ways to improve grain yield per unit area are to construct farmland improvement groundwork, reclaim the middle- and low-yield farmland, etc.

  15. How Fair are Fair Allocations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Kiilerich, Lone

    investigates the fairness of such allocations. Previous literature has applied numerous ways of measuring allocation fairness as well as numerous strategies for obtaining allocations. The goal of this paper is to study the fairness of allocations obtained by different allocation methods as viewed by different...... fairness measures. We hope that this will help guide future research towards a rational choice of allocation methods and measures....

  16. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  17. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost

  18. How fair is fair trade?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maseland, Robbert; Vaal, Albert de

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent fair trade programmes, are indeed ‘fair’. This is accomplished by comparing fair trade with free trade and protectionist trade regimes on their compliance of the criteria set by the fair trade movement itself. This comparison is made using comparative cost base

  19. Grasslands and Croplands Have Different Microbial Biomass Carbon Levels per Unit of Soil Organic Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence P. McGonigle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Primarily using cropped systems, previous studies have reported a positive linear relationship between microbial biomass carbon (MBC and soil organic carbon (SOC. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore this relationship separately for grasslands and croplands using available literature. Studies were limited to those using fumigation–extraction for MBC for field samples. Trials were noted separately where records were distinct in space or time. Grasslands were naturally occurring, restored, or seeded. Cropping systems were typical of the temperate zone. MBC had a positive linear response to increasing SOC that was significant in both grasslands (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.76 and croplands (p < 0.001; r2 = 0.48. However, MBC increased 2.5-fold more steeply per unit of increasing SOC for grassland soils, as compared to the corresponding response in cropland soils. Expressing MBC as a proportion of SOC across the regression overall, slopes corresponded to 2.7% for grasslands and 1.1% for croplands. The slope of the linear relationship for grasslands was significantly (p = 0.0013 steeper than for croplands. The difference between the two systems is possibly caused by a greater proportion of SOC in grasslands being active rather than passive, relative to that in croplands, with that active fraction promoting the formation of MBC.

  20. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sack, L.; Caringella, M.; Scoffoni, C.; Rawls, M.; Markesteijn, L.; Poorter, L.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users lo

  1. Fair Isle

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An analyses of the name Fair Isle. It is argued that the name is likely to be linked to more than 20 other similar names, mostly Færøy in Norway, and that the etymology is from Old Norse fara and ferd, 'travel, journey'. The motive behind the names is the importance of these islands for travel, and Fair Isle between Orkney and Shetland exceptionally so.

  2. Fair Testing

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the notion of fair testing, a formal testing theory in the style of De Nicola and Hennessy where divergences are disregarded as long as there are visible outgoing transitions. The usual testing theories, such as the standard model of failure pre-order, do not allow such fair interpretations because of the way in which they ensure their compositionality with respect to abstraction from observable actions. This feature is usually present in the form of a hiding-operator (CSP, ACP...

  3. Fairness in society

    CERN Document Server

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2011-01-01

    Models that explain the economical and political realities of nowadays societies should help all the world's citizens. Yet, the last four years showed that the current models are missing. Here we develop a dynamical society-deciders model showing that the long lasting economical stress can be solved when increasing fairness in nations. fairness is computed for each nation using indicators from economy and politics. Rather than austerity versus spending, the dynamical model suggests that solving crises in western societies is possible with regulations that reduce the stability of the deciders, while shifting wealth in the direction of the people. This shall increase the dynamics among socio-economic classes, further increasing fairness.

  4. Spatial-temporal Variation Characteristics of Grain Yield per Unit Area and its Balanced Increasing Potential in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide assistance decision for grain yield in China, which can provide basis for reasonable layout of grain production project. Based on the statistical data of 2301 counties in China, using spatial autocorrelation analysis method, spatial changes of grain yield per unit area at county level in China during 1990-2010 were discussed and then the increase potential of grain yield per hectare and total yield at regional scale were calculated. The results showed that: (1 Grain yield per unit area at county level showed the evident pattern “High in the northern while low in the southern” and “High in the eastern and western while low in the middle”; The average grain yield per hectare increased by 1040.74 kg/hm2 during 1990-2010 and the increment of grain yield per unit area descended from North to South at county level. (2 Grain yield per unit area at county level in China had a strong spatial autocorrelation. The counties with "High-High" and "Low-Low" correlation were the majority. Counties with significant "High-High" correlation in 2010 were mostly located in plain area, while counties with significant "Low-Low" correlation were mainly distributed in Hengduan Mountainous Area, Inner Mongolia steppe Area, etc. (3 Two thousand three hundred and one counties were divided into 41 first-grade regions and 115 sec-grade regions according to the coupled conditions of cultivation system regionalization and LISA cluster map. The total potential output of China was 1.77×108 tons.

  5. Kepler-47 Circumbinary Planets obey Quantization of Angular Momentum per Unit Mass predicted by Quantum Celestial Mechanics (QCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kepler-47 circumbinary system has three known planets orbiting its binary star barycenter and therefore can provide a precision test of the Quantum Celestial Mechan- ics (QCM prediction of the quantization of angular momentum per unit mass in all gravitationally bound systems. Two of the planets are in the Habitable Zone (HZ, so system stability can be a primary concern. QCM may be a major contributor to the stability of this system.

  6. Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss academic publishing house 'Presses Polytechniques Universitaires Romandes'will be presenting its most recent scientific and technical publications at a book fair in the lobby of the Main Building (60) from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. on Thursday 28 September 2006.

  7. Toward Fairness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN RAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ How can countries ensure a fair business environment in the flee trade area (FTA) between China and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)? The question triggered wide discussion among partici-pants at a forum on the China-ASEAN Free Trade Area (CAFTA) held on January 7-8 in Nanning, capital of southwest China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region.

  8. A LPUE (LANDING PER UNIT EFFORT ANALYSIS OF THE TRAWL FISHERY FOR THE COASTAL SHRIMPS Artemesia longinaris AND Pleoticus muelleri OFF SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Baptista Metri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine stiletto shrimp (Artemesia longinaris and the Argentine red shrimp (Pleoticus muelleri currently sustain an important fishery in terms of tonnage and revenues in southern Brazil. This study analyzed the factors affecting the abundance of both species through the application of Generalized Linear Models to landing-per-unit-of-effort (LPUE data of the trawl fleet operating on the main fishing grounds between 1998 and 2005. The main patterns of LPUE variability of both species were attributed do the effect of seasons and annual cycles. Larger yields were obtained in the southern shallow areas of Rio Grande do Sul State. No tendency either to an increase or a decline in stock abundance was observed, but the effort in one year was affected by the success of the captures of the previous year. In the last two years analyzed the abundance and the total captures declined.

  9. Meteorological and diurnal variation of the vertical conduction current density and fair weather E-field in the Negev desert, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Roy; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The global electric circuit (GEC) on earth is driven by electrified shower clouds and thunderstorms that act as current generators. The current flows up to the ionosphere and returns back to earth far away from the severe weather in areas known as fair weather regions. The vertical conduction current density (Jz) is of typical value of ~2 pA m-2 pointed downward and is one of the parameters that are measured, along with the vertical electrical field (Ez) and the atmospheric conductivity, to investigate the GEC. The Ez was found to be of typical value between 100-300 V/m near ground and shows a behavior that correlates with the diurnal global thunderstorm activity in what known to be the Carnegie curve (Rycroft et al., 2012). The GDACCS developed by the University of Reading, UK, for measuring the various types of currents (vertical conduction current density and the displacement current density) is using two charge-collecting plates of different geometry (Bennett and Harrison 2008). An identical system was installed at the Wise observatory in Mitzpe Ramon, Israel (30.6N, 34.76E) to measure the Jz and detect the impact of solar events (e.g CMEs, solar proton events) on the global electric circuit. Additionally, a new CS110 electric field meter instrument (Campbell Scinetific) was installed to measure the vertical changes in the Ez near the ground. We present results showing the diurnal changes of Jz in fair weather days that are used for establishing a background diurnal spectrum. We show the different impacts of local meteorological parameters (wind speed, relative humidity, temperature and pressure) on the Jz and Ez values near ground, as well as several special cases of severe weather including dust storms. References: Rycroft M.J, Nicoll K.A, Aplin K.L, Harrison R.G, Recent advances in global electric circuit coupling between the space environment and the troposphere, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Phyiscs 90-91, 198-211, 2012. Bennet A.J, Harrison

  10. Fair Pi

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we define fair computations in the pi-calculus. We follow Costa and Stirling's approach for CCS-like languages but exploit a more natural labeling method of process actions to filter out unfair process executions. The new labeling allows us to prove all the significant properties of the original one, such as unicity, persistence and disappearance of labels. It also turns out that the labeled pi-calculus is a conservative extension of the standard one. We...

  11. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    of stable iodine in the diet on the dose per unit intake factors for 99Tc without developing an improved biokinetic model for technetium. Specific experiments should be designed to quantitatively evaluate 99TcO4? metabolism, excretion, and secretion, as well as to evaluate its chemical toxicity It is recommended that the ICRP reexamine its biokinetics models for Tc based on nuclear medicine data that have accumulated over the years. In particular, the ICRP ignores the lactation pathway, the enhanced concentration of Tc in breast and breast milk, and enhanced concentration of Tc (and I) in the salivary glands as well as in the thyroid. The ICRP should also explicitly incorporate the effect of stable iodine in the diet into both its models for iodine and technetium. The effect of concentration of Tc in breast milk needs further study for dosimetric implications to nursing infants whose mothers may ingest 99TcO4? from groundwater sources. The ICRP should also investigate the possibility of enhanced concentration of both I and Tc in the non-lactating female breast. To do these re-evaluations of biokinetic models, new experiments designed specifically to evaluate these questions concerning the biokinetics of Tc and I are needed.

  12. Variation in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in spring wheat and implications for selection in segregating material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hamblin

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of leaf chlorophyll content per unit leaf area in crops may be of advantage in the search for higher yields. Possible reasons include better light distribution in the crop canopy and less photochemical damage to leaves absorbing more light energy than required for maximum photosynthesis. Reduced chlorophyll may also reduce the heat load at the top of canopy, reducing water requirements to cool leaves. Chloroplasts are nutrient rich and reducing their number may increase available nutrients for growth and development. To determine whether this hypothesis has any validity in spring wheat requires an understanding of genotypic differences in leaf chlorophyll content per unit area in diverse germplasm. This was measured with a SPAD 502 as SPAD units. The study was conducted in series of environments involving up to 28 genotypes, mainly spring wheat. In general, substantial and repeatable genotypic variation was observed. Consistent SPAD readings were recorded for different sampling positions on leaves, between different leaves on single plant, between different plants of the same genotype, and between different genotypes grown in the same or different environments. Plant nutrition affected SPAD units in nutrient poor environments. Wheat genotypes DBW 10 and Transfer were identified as having consistent and contrasting high and low average SPAD readings of 52 and 32 units, respectively, and a methodology to allow selection in segregating populations has been developed.

  13. Patch size has no effect on insect visitation rate per unit area in garden-scale flower patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Madsen, Andy; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effect of flower patch size on insect flower visitation rate have compared relatively large patches (10-1000s m2) and have generally found a negative relationship per unit area or per flower. Here, we investigate the effects of patch size on insect visitation in patches of smaller area (range c. 0.1-3.1 m2), which are of particular relevance to ornamental flower beds in parks and gardens. We studied two common garden plant species in full bloom with 6 patch sizes each: borage (Borago officinalis) and lavender (Lavandula × intermedia 'Grosso'). We quantified flower visitation by insects by making repeated counts of the insects foraging at each patch. On borage, all insects were honey bees (Apis mellifera, n = 5506 counts). On lavender, insects (n = 737 counts) were bumble bees (Bombus spp., 76.9%), flies (Diptera, 22.4%), and butterflies (Lepidoptera, 0.7%). On both plant species we found positive linear effects of patch size on insect numbers. However, there was no effect of patch size on the number of insects per unit area or per flower and, on lavender, for all insects combined or only bumble bees. The results show that it is possible to make unbiased comparisons of the attractiveness of plant species or varieties to flower-visiting insects using patches of different size within the small scale range studied and make possible projects aimed at comparing ornamental plant varieties using existing garden flower patches of variable area.

  14. Planning a Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Jim

    1976-01-01

    Presented are views, on planning science fairs and science fair projects, of a fair coordinator, a science teacher, and students. Also included are 25 questions which might result in science fair projects. (SL)

  15. Effects of environmental covariates and density on the catchability of fish populations and interpretation of catch per unit effort trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Yard, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Article for outlet: Fisheries Research. Abstract: Quantifying temporal and spatial trends in abundance or relative abundance is required to evaluate effects of harvest and changes in habitat for exploited and endangered fish populations. In many cases, the proportion of the population or stock that is captured (catchability or capture probability) is unknown but is often assumed to be constant over space and time. We used data from a large-scale mark-recapture study to evaluate the extent of spatial and temporal variation, and the effects of fish density, fish size, and environmental covariates, on the capture probability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River, AZ. Estimates of capture probability for boat electrofishing varied 5-fold across five reaches, 2.8-fold across the range of fish densities that were encountered, 2.1-fold over 19 trips, and 1.6-fold over five fish size classes. Shoreline angle and turbidity were the best covariates explaining variation in capture probability across reaches and trips. Patterns in capture probability were driven by changes in gear efficiency and spatial aggregation, but the latter was more important. Failure to account for effects of fish density on capture probability when translating a historical catch per unit effort time series into a time series of abundance, led to 2.5-fold underestimation of the maximum extent of variation in abundance over the period of record, and resulted in unreliable estimates of relative change in critical years. Catch per unit effort surveys have utility for monitoring long-term trends in relative abundance, but are too imprecise and potentially biased to evaluate population response to habitat changes or to modest changes in fishing effort.

  16. Leaf vein length per unit area is not intrinsically dependent on image magnification: avoiding measurement artifacts for accuracy and precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Caringella, Marissa; Scoffoni, Christine; Mason, Chase; Rawls, Michael; Markesteijn, Lars; Poorter, Lourens

    2014-10-01

    Leaf vein length per unit leaf area (VLA; also known as vein density) is an important determinant of water and sugar transport, photosynthetic function, and biomechanical support. A range of software methods are in use to visualize and measure vein systems in cleared leaf images; typically, users locate veins by digital tracing, but recent articles introduced software by which users can locate veins using thresholding (i.e. based on the contrasting of veins in the image). Based on the use of this method, a recent study argued against the existence of a fixed VLA value for a given leaf, proposing instead that VLA increases with the magnification of the image due to intrinsic properties of the vein system, and recommended that future measurements use a common, low image magnification for measurements. We tested these claims with new measurements using the software LEAFGUI in comparison with digital tracing using ImageJ software. We found that the apparent increase of VLA with magnification was an artifact of (1) using low-quality and low-magnification images and (2) errors in the algorithms of LEAFGUI. Given the use of images of sufficient magnification and quality, and analysis with error-free software, the VLA can be measured precisely and accurately. These findings point to important principles for improving the quantity and quality of important information gathered from leaf vein systems.

  17. Fair Preorder for Partial Fair Kripke Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐蔚文; 陆鑫达

    2003-01-01

    This paper discussed how to handle the fairness conditions in partial Kripke structures. The partial Krip-ke structures were used for partial state spaces model checking, which is a new technique to solve problems of stateexplosion. This paper extended the partial Kripke structure with fairness conditions by defining a partial fair Krip-ke structure, and a 3-valued fair CTL(Computation-Tree Logic) semantics correspondingly. It defines a fair pre-order between partial Kripke structures that preserves fairness and is akin to fair bisimulation. In addition, a perti-nent theorem is also given, which indicates the relationship between the partial state spaces and the more completeone by illustrating the characterizations of states in the partial fair structure in terms of CTL formulae.

  18. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-01-01

    Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income appr...

  19. An Alternative Science Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romjue, Mary Kalen; Clementson, John J.

    1992-01-01

    Proposes the organization of noncompetitive science fairs to create a more positive learning experience for children in the elementary grades. Describes methods of organizing and judging the fair, and provides a list of suggested resources for science fair projects. (MDH)

  20. Estimation of water requirement per unit carbon fixed by Eucalyptus camaldulensis in semi-arid land of Western Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Kojima; Y. Tanaka; S. Katoh; K. Tahara; N. Takahashi; K, Yamada

    2002-01-01

    Afforestation in arid land is a promising method for carbon fixation, but the effective utili-zation of water is highly important and required. Thus, the evaluation of the amount of water perunit carbon fixed with the tree growth is required to minimize the amount of water supplied to theplants. In this research, a tree is regarded as a carbon fixation reactor with inflows of water andnutrients from roots, and CO2 as the carbon source from leaves with outflow of water vapor fromleaves and accumulation in the tree itself. In the process of photosynthesis and respiration nutri-tional elements are dissolved in water flow in trees. They do not flow out by these reactions, butare accumulated in trees. Thus, we have treated the behaviour of nutrients as a marker to evaluatethe water/carbon ratio. Assuming that nutrient concentration is constant in sap, and the differences in the ratios ofnutrient to carbon in living trees and dead (i.e. litter fall, etc.) are negiected, the ratio of the usedwater to fixed carbon is given as the ratio of nutrient to carbon in the tree body divided by the ratioof nutrient to water in sap. However, some nutrients are translocated and concentrated within thetree and some may be discarded through litter fall. Thus it is important to examine which nutrientelement is the most suitable as the tracer. In this paper, the results of the above method applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis in semi-arid land of Western Australia are shown. The value of water requirement per unit carbon fixationdetermined from potassium balance is between 421 kg-H2O/kg-C for mature trees and 285kg-H2O/k9-C for young trees, while the values from calcium balance are much larger than these.The cause of the discrepancy between these values is discussed based on the measured elementconcentrations in sap and trees and the plant physiology. Finally, the actual average value throughthe life of a tree is suggested to fall between the two values.

  1. Validity and Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's critique on Xiaoming Xi's article, "How do we go about investigating test fairness?," which lays out a broad framework for studying fairness as comparable validity across groups within the population of interest. Xi proposes to develop a fairness argument that would identify and evaluate potential fairness-based…

  2. Fair value accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Shamkuts, Volha, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to fair value accounting. Fair value accounting implies that assets and liabilities get measured and reported in firm´s financial statements at their market value. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the conceptual foundations of fair value accounting. The thesis is organized in the following way. First, origins and development of fair value accounting are discussed. Second, overview of fair value accounting is presented. The overview includes de...

  3. Java Fair Threads

    OpenAIRE

    Boussinot, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    Fair threads are cooperative threads run by a fair scheduler which gives them equal access to the processor. Fair threads can communicate using broadcast events, and are fully portable as their semantics does not depends on the executing platform. Fine control over fair threads execution is possible allowing the programming of specific user-defined scheduling strategies. This paper presents fair threads in the context of the Java language, and describes the API to use them. Link with reactive...

  4. A Fair Proposition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    Describes problems with school science fairs including poor judging and a lack of understanding by the students of their own projects. Suggests improvements to the system. One suggestion is for science fair projects to be displayed only in classrooms and not district or regional fairs. (PR)

  5. Some molecular/crystalline factors that affect the sensitivities of energetic materials: molecular surface electrostatic potentials, lattice free space and maximum heat of detonation per unit volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Peter; Murray, Jane S

    2015-02-01

    We discuss three molecular/crystalline properties that we believe to be among the factors that influence the impact/shock sensitivities of energetic materials (i.e., their vulnerabilities to unintended detonation due to impact or shock). These properties are (a) the anomalously strong positive electrostatic potentials in the central regions of their molecular surfaces, (b) the free space per molecule in their crystal lattices, and (c) their maximum heats of detonation per unit volume. Overall, sensitivity tends to become greater as these properties increase; however these are general trends, not correlations. Nitramines are exceptions in that their sensitivities show little or no variation with free space in the lattice and heat of detonation per unit volume. We outline some of the events involved in detonation initiation and show how the three properties are related to different ones of these events.

  6. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 kilograms per second per square meter (42.6 (lb/sec)/sq ft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urasek, D. C.; Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Performance was obtained for a 50-cm-diameter compressor designed for a high weight flow per unit annulus area of 208 (kg/sec)/sq m. Peak efficiency values of 0.83 and 0.79 were obtained for the rotor and stage, respectively. The stall margin for the stage was 23 percent, based on equivalent weight flow and total-pressure ratio at peak efficiency and stall.

  7. Towards a Fair Global Economic Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio

    This dissertation offers an assessment of Fair Trade’s transformative potential through an empirical examination of the case of Fair Trade wine produced in Argentina and consumed in the United Kingdom. Guided by a dialectical understanding of the research process, the analysis is done at various...... levels of generality, offering both case-specific and universal arguments about the Fair Trade system as a whole. Theoretically, the dissertation develops a regulationist framework based on a critical engagement with the French Regulation Approach and the Amsterdam Project in International Political....... The further exploration of Fair Trade’s political and ideological dimensions sheds light on the reasons behind the system’s current limitations. The analysis shows that Fair Trade offers very limited improvements compared to the conventional economy. Additionally, for the Argentinean wine industry, Fair Trade...

  8. Theory of Mind Enhances Preference for Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagishi, Haruto; Kameshima, Shinya; Schug, Joanna; Koizumi, Michiko; Yamagishi, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the role of theory of mind in fairness-related behavior in preschoolers and to introduce a tool for examining fairness-related behavior in children. A total of 68 preschoolers played the Ultimatum Game in a face-to-face setting. Acquisition of theory of mind was defined as the understanding of false…

  9. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2014: FAIR Next Generation ScientistS 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2014 was the third edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on September 22-27 2014 in Vietri sul Mare, Italy. The topics of the workshops cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in a box to stimulate discussions. The broad physics program at FAIR is reflected in the wide range of topics covered by the workshop: • Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point • Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions • Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei • New developments in atomic and plasma physics • Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NUSTAR, APPA and related experiments For each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2014 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of research that

  10. Fairness and nanotechnology concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Katherine A; Besley, John C

    2011-11-01

    Research suggests that fairness perceptions matter to people who are asked to evaluate the acceptability of risks or risk management. Two separate national random surveys (n = 305 and n = 529) addressed Americans' concerns about and acceptance of nanotechnology risk management in the context of the degree to which they view scientists and risk managers as fair. The first survey investigated general views about scientists across four proposed dimensions of fairness (distributional, procedural, interpersonal, and informational). The results show that respondents who believe that the outcomes of scientific research tend to result in unequal benefits (distributional fairness) and that the procedures meant to protect the public from scientific research are biased (procedural fairness) were more concerned about nanotechnology. Believing scientists would treat them with respect (interpersonal fairness) and ensure access to information (informational fairness) were not significant predictors of concern. The second study also looked at these four dimensions of fairness but focused on perceptions of risk managers working for government, universities, and major companies. In addition to concern, it also examined acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Study 2 results were similar to those of study 1 for concern; however, only perceived informational fairness consistently predicted acceptance of nanotechnology risk management. Overall, the study points to the value of considering fairness perceptions in the study of public perceptions of nanotechnology. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. A minimum price per unit of alcohol: A focus group study to investigate public opinion concerning UK government proposals to introduce new price controls to curb alcohol consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale Adam J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK drinkers regularly consume alcohol in excess of guideline limits. One reason for this may be the high availability of low-cost alcoholic beverages. The introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy has been proposed as a means to reduce UK alcohol consumption. However, there is little in-depth research investigating public attitudes and beliefs regarding a minimum pricing policy. The aim of the present research was to investigate people’s attitudes and beliefs toward the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy and their views on how the policy could be made acceptable to the general public. Methods Twenty-eight focus groups were conducted to gain in-depth data on attitudes, knowledge, and beliefs regarding the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Participants (total N = 218 were asked to give their opinions about the policy, its possible outcomes, and how its introduction might be made more acceptable. Transcribed focus-group discussions were analysed for emergent themes using inductive thematic content analysis. Results Analysis indicated that participants’ objections to a minimum price had three main themes: (1 scepticism of minimum pricing as an effective means to reduce harmful alcohol consumption; (2 a dislike of the policy for a number of reasons (e.g., it was perceived to ‘punish’ the moderate drinker; and (3 concern that the policy might create or exacerbate existing social problems. There was a general perception that the policy was aimed at ‘problem’ and underage drinkers. Participants expressed some qualified support for the policy but stated that it would only work as part of a wider campaign including other educational elements. Conclusions There was little evidence to suggest that people would support the introduction of a minimum price per unit of alcohol policy. Scepticism about the effectiveness of the policy is likely to represent the most

  12. Performance of transonic fan stage with weight flow per unit annulus area of 198 kilograms per second per square meter (40.6(lb/sec)/sq ft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovich, G.; Moore, R. D.; Urasek, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    The overall and blade-element performance are presented for an air compressor stage designed to study the effect of weight flow per unit annulus area on efficiency and flow range. At the design speed of 424.8 m/sec the peak efficiency of 0.81 occurred at the design weight flow and a total pressure ratio of 1.56. Design pressure ratio and weight flow were 1.57 and 29.5 kg/sec (65.0 lb/sec), respectively. Stall margin at design speed was 19 percent based on the weight flow and pressure ratio at peak efficiency and at stall.

  13. It's Not Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Is a "fair test" the only way to carry out science investigations? Many children (and primary teachers) following the National Curriculum in England and Wales would answer "yes" to this question. This is because fair test investigations have historically been promoted in national assessment, published curricula, schemes of work…

  14. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  15. It's Not Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Is a "fair test" the only way to carry out science investigations? Many children (and primary teachers) following the National Curriculum in England and Wales would answer "yes" to this question. This is because fair test investigations have historically been promoted in national assessment, published curricula, schemes of work and assessment…

  16. Australianness as fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plage, Stefanie; Willing, Indigo; Skrbis, Zlatko

    2017-01-01

    such as fairness, openness and egalitarianism effectively enhances cosmopolitan outlooks. It identifies the mechanisms through which these same virtues are mobilized to rationalize the failure to actualize cosmopolitanism in everyday practice. We argue that Australianness understood as the popular ‘fair...

  17. Fairness and Ability Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strike, Kenneth A.

    1983-01-01

    A recent controversy regarding ability grouping is that it is often perceived as a means whereby racial or class bias can be subtly transformed into mechanisms of discrimination which exhibit the appearance of fairness and objectivity. This article addresses the question of fairness in ability grouping. (CJB)

  18. Rethinking the Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, John; Hogan, Tracy

    2008-01-01

    Spring is the season when thousands of creased cardboard pests can be found lodged under the armpits of students and teachers as they observe the educational rite of spring known as the school science fair. A recent visit to a local school's gymnasium to witness one of these events reminded the authors of why they so dislike science fairs. In this…

  19. It's Not Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Is a "fair test" the only way to carry out science investigations? Many children (and primary teachers) following the National Curriculum in England and Wales would answer "yes" to this question. This is because fair test investigations have historically been promoted in national assessment, published curricula, schemes of work…

  20. Computational Fair Division

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina

    Fair division is a fundamental problem in economic theory and one of the oldest questions faced through the history of human society. The high level scenario is that of several participants having to divide a collection of resources such that everyone is satisfied with their allocation -- e.g. two...... heirs dividing a car, house, and piece of land inherited. The literature on fair division was developed in the 20th century in mathematics and economics, but computational work on fair division is still sparse. This thesis can be seen as an excursion in computational fair division divided in two parts...... study alternative and richer models, such as externalities in cake cutting, simultaneous cake cutting, and envy-free cake cutting. The second part of the thesis tackles the fair allocation of multiple goods, divisible and indivisible. In the realm of divisible goods, we investigate the well known...

  1. Sperner's lemma and fair division

    OpenAIRE

    DAKSKOBLER, LARISA

    2016-01-01

    Fair division is an active research area in Mathematics, Economics, Computer Science, etc. There are many different kinds of fair division problems. These are often named after everyday situations: fair resource allocation, fair cake-cutting, fair chore division, room assignment – rent division, and more. Although many exact and approximative methods for finding fair solutions already exist, the area of fair division still expands and tries to find better solutions for everyday problems. The...

  2. The Energy Dissipation Rate Per Unit Mass of Jet Pump Mixture%射流泵混合的单位质量能量耗散率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷浩; 陆宏圻

    2000-01-01

    The formula of jet pump energy dissipation rate per unit mass is derived in this paper related to jet pump axis dimension with energy dissipation rote. Thereby replenishes the lack of basic capability equation only referred to section dimension. By comparing and analyzing the formula of jet pump energy dissipation rate per unit mass with beater and static, it comes to the conclusion that jet pump has great capability of liquid-liquid mixing. Although the efficiency of jet pump is lower, but it can get high intensity when it used for mixing%推导出射流泵单位质量能量耗散率公式,涉及到射流泵轴向尺寸与能耗率,弥补了基本性能方程只涉及截面尺寸的不足。将射流泵的单位质量能量耗散率公式与搅拌器和静态混合器比较,进而分析得出射流泵有较强液一液混合性能的本质。虽然射流泵效率低,但将其用作混合时却强度高。

  3. Are there differences in the catalytic activity per unit enzyme of recombinantly expressed and human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 2C9? A systematic investigation into inter-system extrapolation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, H K; Barter, Z E; Yeo, K Rowland; Rostami-Hodjegan, A

    2011-09-01

    The 'relative activity factor' (RAF) compares the activity per unit of microsomal protein in recombinantly expressed cytochrome P450 enzymes (rhCYP) and human liver without separating the potential sources of variation (i.e. abundance of enzyme per mg of protein or variation of activity per unit enzyme). The dimensionless 'inter-system extrapolation factor' (ISEF) dissects differences in activity from those in CYP abundance. Detailed protocols for the determination of this scalar, which is used in population in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE), are currently lacking. The present study determined an ISEF for CYP2C9 and, for the first time, systematically evaluated the effects of probe substrate, cytochrome b5 and methods for assessing the intrinsic clearance (CL(int) ). Values of ISEF for S-warfarin, tolbutamide and diclofenac were 0.75 ± 0.18, 0.57 ± 0.07 and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively, using CL(int) values derived from the kinetic values V(max) and K(m) of metabolite formation in rhCYP2C9 + reductase + b5 BD Supersomes™. The ISEF values obtained using rhCYP2C9 + reductase BD Supersomes™ were more variable, with values of 7.16 ± 1.25, 0.89 ± 0.52 and 0.50 ± 0.05 for S-warfarin, tolbutamide and diclofenac, respectively. Although the ISEF values obtained from rhCYP2C9 + reductase + b5 for the three probe substrates were statistically different (p ISEF. Furthermore, as ISEFs have been found to be sensitive to differences in accessory proteins, rhCYP system specific ISEFs are recommended.

  4. VALUATION TECHNIQUES USED IN FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Aurora, BUNEA-BONTAS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of assets and liabilities involves significant judgements and estimates, especially when fair value measurement is required. Currently, IFRS 13 Fair Value Measurement offers a single and more comprehensive source of guidance that is applied to almost all fair value estimates. When measuring fair value of fixed assets, intangible assets, specified financial assets or liabilities, different valuation techniques may be used: the market approach, the cost approach and the income approach. This article reviews these techniques and points out that different valuation practices may provide different results depending on the item being fair valued and on the inputs used. Also it emphasizes that, in particular circumstances, there is the possibility that a certain technique may be more appropriate than other.

  5. Usable optimistic fair exchange

    OpenAIRE

    Küpçü, Alptekin; Lysyanskaya, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fairly exchanging digital content is an everyday problem. It has been shown that fair exchange cannot be achieved without a trusted third party (called the Arbiter). Yet, even with a trusted party, it is still non-trivial to come up with an efficient solution, especially one that can be used in a p2p file sharing system with a high volume of data exchanged. We provide an efficient optimistic fair exchange mechanism for bartering digital files, where receiving a payment in return for a file (b...

  6. Fairness is intuitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Tungodden, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence showing that fair behavior is intuitive to most people. We find a strong association between a short response time and fair behavior in the dictator game. This association is robust to controls that take account of the fact that response time might be affected...... by the decision-maker’s cognitive ability and swiftness. The experiment was conducted with a large and heterogeneous sample recruited from the general population in Denmark. We find a striking similarity in the association between response time and fair behavior across groups in the society, which suggests...

  7. Fairness is intuitive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Panton, Ulrik Haagen; Tungodden, Bertil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we provide new evidence showing that fair behavior is intuitive to most people. We find a strong association between a short response time and fair behavior in the dictator game. This association is robust to controls that take account of the fact that response time might be affected...... by the decision-maker’s cognitive ability and swiftness. The experiment was conducted with a large and heterogeneous sample recruited from the general population in Denmark. We find a striking similarity in the association between response time and fair behavior across groups in the society, which suggests...

  8. Physics at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-11-15

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is under construction at Darmstadt, Germany. It will deliver high intensity beams of ions and antiprotons for experiments in the fields of atomic physics, plasma physics, nuclear physics, hadron physics, nuclear matter physics, material physics and biophysics. One of the scientific pillars of FAIR is the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment which is designed for the study of high density nuclear matter as it exists in the core of neutron stars. In this article the scientific program of FAIR will be reviewed with emphasis on the CBM experiment.

  9. High school science fair and research integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinnell, Frederick; Dalley, Simon; Shepherd, Karen; Reisch, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Research misconduct has become an important matter of concern in the scientific community. The extent to which such behavior occurs early in science education has received little attention. In the current study, using the web-based data collection program REDCap, we obtained responses to an anonymous and voluntary survey about science fair from 65 high school students who recently competed in the Dallas Regional Science and Engineering Fair and from 237 STEM-track, post-high school students (undergraduates, 1st year medical students, and 1st year biomedical graduate students) doing research at UT Southwestern Medical Center. Of the post-high school students, 24% had competed in science fair during their high school education. Science fair experience was similar overall for the local cohort of Dallas regional students and the more diverse state/national cohort of post-high school students. Only one student out of 122 reported research misconduct, in his case making up the data. Unexpectedly, post-high school students who did not participate in science fair anticipated that carrying out science fair would be much more difficult than actually was the case, and 22% of the post-high school students anticipated that science fair participants would resort to research misconduct to overcome obstacles. No gender-based differences between students' science fair experiences or expectations were evident.

  10. SEARCHING FOR THE FAIR STORY BEHIND FAIR VALUE FOR FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaci Carmen Giorgiana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims at telling the whole story where fair value accounting is concerned. Harsh criticism has been brought to this concept under current circumstances that motivated out research. Without arguing for fair value as something it is not, we briefly

  11. SHANGHAI INTERNATIONAL INDUSTRIAL FAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Third Shanghai International Industrial Fair was held in New International Fair Center in Pudong Area in late November. This industrial fair titled "Information and Industrialization" aimed at highlighting China's high technology and industrial achievements in the new century. The sponsors for this session of industrial fair include China State Economic and Trade Commission, Ministry of Foreign Economic and Trade Relations, Ministry of Information Industry, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shanghai Government.CNPC and Sinopec participated in the exhibition displaying a number of the latest technologies such as PetroChina's model for state land resources and Sinopec's model for 300,000-ton ethylene project.

  12. On fairness and randomness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relation between the behavior of non-deterministic systems under fairness constraints, and the behavior of probabilistic systems. To this end, first a framework based on computable stopping strategies is developed that provides a common foundation for describing both fair...... and probabilistic behavior. On the basis of stopping strategies it is then shown that fair behavior corresponds in a precise sense to random behavior in the sense of Martin-Löf's definition of randomness. We view probabilistic systems as concrete implementations of more abstract non-deterministic systems. Under...... this perspective the question is investigated what probabilistic properties are needed in such an implementation to guarantee (with probability one) certain required fairness properties in the behavior of the probabilistic system. Generalizing earlier concepts of ε -bounded transition probabilities, we introduce...

  13. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  14. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Agriculture,Fishery,Animal Husbandry2010 China Husbandry and New Technology,New Product, New Equipment Promotion and Trade Fair Date: April 16-April 18, 2010 Frequency: Yearly Venue: Fujian Economic and Trade Exhibition

  15. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Commodity and Trade Fair Urnmqi Foreign Economic Relations and Trade Fair Date:September 1-September 5,2008 Venue:Xinjiang International Exhibition Center Sector:Exhibition of new products,new technology and new project,to negotiate on import & export trade and domestic commodity trade,etc Web:www.urmqifair.com Add:107,Xinhua South Road,Urumchi,China, 830049 Tel:86-991-2850497/2879890 Fax:86-991-2850497/2879890 E-mail:office@urumqifair.com

  16. Theme of Vanity Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝荣玲

    2008-01-01

    1.1The Theme:A Novel without a Hero There is one clear,overarching theme in Vanity Fair:A Novel without a Hero,and Thackeray telegraphs it in his title and subtitle.In the pages of Vanity Fair,all is vanity and all are vain.Some are more vain-more obsessed with self and with the ephemeral treasures of social position and money-than others,

  17. On Improving Ratio/Product Estimator by Ratio/Product-cum-Mean-per-Unit Estimator Targeting More Efficient Use of Auxiliary Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve a more efficient use of auxiliary information we propose single-parameter ratio/product-cum-mean-per-unit estimators for a finite population mean in a simple random sample without replacement when the magnitude of the correlation coefficient is not very high (less than or equal to 0.7. The first order large sample approximation to the bias and the mean square error of our proposed estimators are obtained. We use simulation to compare our estimators with the well-known sample mean, ratio, and product estimators, as well as the classical linear regression estimator for efficient use of auxiliary information. The results are conforming to our motivating aim behind our proposition.

  18. Optimal control of the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of a spin 1/2 particle: the crusher gradient and the radiation damping cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapert, M; Assémat, E; Glaser, S J; Sugny, D

    2015-01-28

    We show to which extent the signal to noise ratio per unit time of a spin 1/2 particle can be maximized. We consider a cyclic repetition of experiments made of a measurement followed by a radio-frequency magnetic field excitation of the system, in the case of unbounded amplitude. In the periodic regime, the objective of the control problem is to design the initial state of the system and the pulse sequence which leads to the best signal to noise performance. We focus on two specific issues relevant in nuclear magnetic resonance, the crusher gradient and the radiation damping cases. Optimal control techniques are used to solve this non-standard control problem. We discuss the optimality of the Ernst angle solution, which is commonly applied in spectroscopic and medical imaging applications. In the radiation damping situation, we show that in some cases, the optimal solution differs from the Ernst one.

  19. Optimal control of the signal-to-noise ratio per unit time of a spin 1/2 particle: The crusher gradient and the radiation damping cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapert, M.; Glaser, S. J. [Department of Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstrasse 4, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Assémat, E. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Ave. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Sugny, D., E-mail: dominique.sugny@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, 9 Ave. A. Savary, BP 47 870, F-21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2015-01-28

    We show to which extent the signal to noise ratio per unit time of a spin 1/2 particle can be maximized. We consider a cyclic repetition of experiments made of a measurement followed by a radio-frequency magnetic field excitation of the system, in the case of unbounded amplitude. In the periodic regime, the objective of the control problem is to design the initial state of the system and the pulse sequence which leads to the best signal to noise performance. We focus on two specific issues relevant in nuclear magnetic resonance, the crusher gradient and the radiation damping cases. Optimal control techniques are used to solve this non-standard control problem. We discuss the optimality of the Ernst angle solution, which is commonly applied in spectroscopic and medical imaging applications. In the radiation damping situation, we show that in some cases, the optimal solution differs from the Ernst one.

  20. FAIR project at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Oliver; Spiller, Peter; Stoecker, Horst

    FAIR -- the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe -- constructed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt comprises an international centre of heavy ion accelerators that will drive heavy ion and antimatter research (FBTR, 2006). FAIR will provide worldwide unique accelerator and experimental facilities allowing a large variety of fore-front research in physics and applied science. FAIR will deliver antiproton and ion beams of unprecedented intensities and qualities. The main part of the FAIR facility is a sophisticated and cost efficient accelerator system, which delivers parallel beams to different experiments of the FAIR experimental collaborations -- APPA, NuSTAR, CBM and PANDA. The accelerated primary beams will then be employed to create new, often highly exotic particles in a series of parallel experimental programs. Experiments with exotic particles will explore fundamental processes which are expected to have taken place in the early phases and still happen in the on-going evolution of the Universe. These processes produced the basic constituents of matter and overall structure we observe today...

  1. Getting a Fair Share: Attitudes and Perceptions of Biobank Stakeholders Concerning the Fairness of Sample Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, Flora; Elger, Bernice

    2015-07-01

    Biobanks are essential tools for furthering a broad range of medical research areas. However, despite the plethora of national and international laws and guidelines which apply to them, the access and sharing policies of biobanks are only sparsely addressed by regulatory bodies. The 'give and take' process of biosample sharing is largely left up to biobank stakeholders themselves to oversee; it is therefore both in stakeholders' power, and in their interest, to ensure that sample accessibility is fair. This is an important step in motivating researchers to collaborate and pool samples, and is crucial to fostering trust in the absence of universally accepted standard practices. To date, little attention has been paid to how fairness considerations affect scientific material sharing, and no empirical research has been carried out to determine the role that fairness plays in collaborative studies. In order to begin to gain understanding in this area, we interviewed 36 biobank stakeholders currently working in Switzerland, focusing on their perceptions of current and optimal fair sharing practices. Our findings reveal that fairness is an important feature of exchange situations for these stakeholders, and that they have well-formed notions about the practical elements of fair sample access, although ideas about the concept of fairness itself are vague. In order to support efforts to network biobanks, attention should be paid to this issue to reassure all involved that they are getting a fair share in their cooperative efforts. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair is a new starting point. In the face of the main development trend of international and domes tic convention and exhibition industry, the fierce competition among the domestic exhibition industry, Dalian International Garment Fair sizes up the situation and the golden opportunity that China will revitalize the Northeast old industrial base and turn Dalian into the international shipping center in Northeast Asia; it takes the new Dalian Convention and Exhibition Center as a turning point. Under the leadership of Dalian Mu-nicipal Party Committee and Dalian municipal government, and under the support and assistance of the sponsors, Dalian International Garment Fair emancipates the mind and plans the future with the viewpoint of scientific development, innovative thinking and practical operation.

  3. Fairness in Combinatorial Auctioning Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Saini, Megha

    2008-01-01

    One of the Multi-Agent Systems that is widely used by various government agencies, buyers and sellers in a market economy, in such a manner so as to attain optimized resource allocation, is the Combinatorial Auctioning System (CAS). We study another important aspect of resource allocations in CAS, namely fairness. We present two important notions of fairness in CAS, extended fairness and basic fairness. We give an algorithm that works by incorporating a metric to ensure fairness in a CAS that uses the Vickrey-Clark-Groves (VCG) mechanism, and uses an algorithm of Sandholm to achieve optimality. Mathematical formulations are given to represent measures of extended fairness and basic fairness.

  4. Fair Factory Floors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The number of labor disputes has soared and fairness remains elusive China’s Labor Contract Law, which has been in effect since January 1, 2008, has had significant positive impacts on the labor market, but there are still many difficulties facing workers and employers. In April 2009, Beijing’s Transition Institute conducted labor research in textile

  5. Fair mulighedslighed og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Når vi skal diskutere de normative spørgsmål, der rejser sig i forbindelse med ulighed i sundhed, er Norman Daniels’ teori om retfærdig sundhed central. Teoriens omdrejningspunkt er en udvidelse af Rawls’ princip om fair mulighedslighed til også at omfatte sundhed, og den er uden tvivl blandt de...

  6. A Fair Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Traditional markets are returning to big cities in China,but with a new twist:They’re organic AFTER participating in Beijing’s"Country Fair"in March,a netizen going by the name"north slope"wrote in his blog,"It’s more like a creative market.

  7. Fair mulighedslighed og sundhed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Når vi skal diskutere de normative spørgsmål, der rejser sig i forbindelse med ulighed i sundhed, er Norman Daniels’ teori om retfærdig sundhed central. Teoriens omdrejningspunkt er en udvidelse af Rawls’ princip om fair mulighedslighed til også at omfatte sundhed, og den er uden tvivl blandt de...

  8. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  9. Super Science Fair Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritz, Maxine Haren

    This guide to science fair projects is designed for students and provides clear directions on how to complete a successful science project. Real projects are used as examples and information and advice is provided by teachers, judges, and participants and their families about the process. Topics covered in this book include choosing a science fair…

  10. China Fairs & Expos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Food and Additives, Beverage, Drinks, Seasonings, Dairy Products Hong Kong International Tea Fair Date: August 12-August 15, 2011 Venue: Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Center Exhibits: Tea, processing equipment and testing services, tea ware, tea bars/organizations, tea technology, tea service and publications.

  11. The Madam Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    "NADAM" means "entertainment" or "game" in Mongolian. The Nadam Fair, a traditional Mongolian gathering, is held each year in summer or autumn and features horse racing, wrestling, shooting, singing and dancing. In the summer, I, together with my friends, traveled to Dong Ujimqin Banner of Xilin Gol League in Inner Mongolia for

  12. In vivo measurement of Pu dissolution parameters of MOX aerosols and related uncertainties in the values of the dose per unit intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramounet-Le Gall, B; Rateau, G; Abram, M C; Grillon, G; Ansoborlo, E; Bérard, P; Delforge, J; Fritsch, P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare dissolution parameter values for Pu from industrial MOX with different Pu contents. For this purpose, preliminary results obtained after inhalation exposure of rats to MOX containing 2.5% Pu are reported and compared to those obtained previously with MOX containing 5% Pu. Dissolution parameter values appear to increase when the amount of Pu decreases. Rapid fractions, f(r), of 4 x 10(-3) (s.d. = 2 x 10(-3)) and 1 x 10(-3) (s.d. = 6 x 10(-4)) and slow dissolution rates, s(s) of 2 x 10(-4) d(-1) (standard deviation, sigma = 5 x 10(-5)) and 5 x 10(-5) d(-1) (sigma = 1 x 10(-5)) were derived for MOX containing 2.5 and 5% of Pu, respectively. Simulations were performed to assess uncertainties on dose due to experimental errors. The relative standard deviations of the dose per unit intake (DPUI) due to f(r) (4-8%), are far less than those due to s(s) (about 20%), which is the main parameter altering the dose. Although quite different dissolution parameter values were derived, similar DPUIs were obtained for MOX aerosols containing 2.5 and 5% Pu which appear close to that for default Type S values.

  13. Quantifying the impact of environmental variables upon catch per unit effort of the blue shark Prionace glauca in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J D; Collins, K J; Miller, P I; Suberg, L A

    2014-09-01

    The effect of environmental variables on blue shark Prionace glauca catch per unit effort (CPUE) in a recreational fishery in the western English Channel, between June and September 1998-2011, was quantified using generalized additive models (GAMs). Sea surface temperature (SST) explained 1·4% of GAM deviance, and highest CPUE occurred at 16·7° C, reflecting the optimal thermal preferences of this species. Surface chlorophyll a concentration (CHL) significantly affected CPUE and caused 27·5% of GAM deviance. Additionally, increasing CHL led to rising CPUE, probably due to higher productivity supporting greater prey biomass. The density of shelf-sea tidal mixing fronts explained 5% of GAM deviance, but was non-significant, with increasing front density negatively affecting CPUE. Time-lagged frontal density significantly affected CPUE, however, causing 12·6% of the deviance in a second GAM and displayed a positive correlation. This outcome suggested a delay between the evolution of frontal features and the subsequent accumulation of productivity and attraction of higher trophic level predators, such as P. glauca. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Effects of Water Pollution on the Condition Factor, Mortality, Exploitation Ratio and Catch per Unit Effort of Lagocephalus laevigatus in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water pollution on the condition factor, mortality, exploitation ratio and catch per unit effort of Lagocephalus laevigatus in Koluama Area, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria was investigated from April 2012 to May 2012; following an oil blow out in the area. To show the impact of the spill on the environment, catch rates are seasonally dependent and vary between 15-120 kg/day. About 120 wooden canoes were sighted in the communities studied. The canoes are basically in two categories namely, small sized boats of less than 5 m length and medium-sized ones ranging between 5 and 7 m long. There was no temporal variation in the condition of the fish with condition index value ranging from 0.86-1.00 and condition factor value of 0.98. The K value of 0.98 estimated from this study shows that Lagocephalus laevigatus from the study area was in extremely poor condition. Total mortality (Z value was 1.5 yrG1. Natural Mortality (M value was 0.97; Fishing mortality (F value was 0.52. Value for the rate of exploitation was 0.35 with corresponding percentage value of 35%. The result shows that Lagocephalus laevigatus with an exploitation rate of 0.35 is below the optimal value for sustainable yield, for the exploitation of the fishery. These populations therefore stand the risk of under exploitation if urgent measures are not taken to develop the fishery.

  15. Zero-inflated modeling of fish catch per unit area resulting from multiple gears: Application to channel catfish and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, A.; Wildhaber, M.L.; Wikle, C.K.; Gentry, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    Fisheries studies often employ multiple gears that result in large percentages of zero values. We considered a zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) model with random effects to address these excessive zeros. By employing a Bayesian ZIP model that simultaneously incorporates data from multiple gears to analyze data from the Missouri River, we were able to compare gears and make more year, segment, and macrohabitat comparisons than did the original data analysis. For channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, our results rank (highest to lowest) the mean catch per unit area (CPUA) for gears (beach seine, benthic trawl, electrofishing, and drifting trammel net); years (1998 and 1997); macrohabitats (tributary mouth, connected secondary channel, nonconnected secondary channel, and bend); and river segment zones (channelized, inter-reservoir, and least-altered). For shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, the mean CPUA was significantly higher for benthic trawls and drifting trammel nets; 1998 and 1997; tributary mouths, bends, and connected secondary channels; and some channelized or least-altered inter-reservoir segments. One important advantage of our approach is the ability to reliably infer patterns of relative abundance by means of multiple gears without using gear efficiencies. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  16. The Impact of Involvement in a Science Fair on Seventh Grade Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Senay; Baker, Dale

    Current research shows that the number of science fairs and science fair participants is increasing. However, other than the growth of participant numbers, there is very little research investigating the benefits of these science fairs and assessing whether science fair projects are worth the time, effort, and money spent on them. The purpose of…

  17. FAIR TRADE AS A TOOL OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Moravčíková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fair Trade connects developed countries, where greater sustainability and justice is being sought, with the needs of developing countries where economic and social changes are needed most. It enables citizens who are consumers to favor the producers of poorer countries. This is a manifestation of humanity that helps producers to escape acute poverty and lead dignified lives. Fair trade is becoming a very “hot” topic, not only for businesses but also for consumers, who are trending towards buying Fair Trade products. By buying such products, customers express solidarity with the producers of Fair Trade products. This article aims to identify the importance of Fair Trade. Methods of analysis, synthesis, deduction, and comparison are used to establish the current situation of Fair Trade in Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the perception of Fair Trade held by Czech and Slovak customers. 

  18. Fairness Through Awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Dwork, Cynthia; Pitassi, Toniann; Reingold, Omer; Zemel, Rich

    2011-01-01

    "What can be learned about from the sole fact that I have been shown this on-line advertisement?" By definition, the answer to this question is non-trivial whenever advertisements are not served indiscriminately. Advertisers, hoping to have targeted precisely and appropriately, use information from multiple sources to give different on-line experiences to different people. Thus the message of "giving you the ads that interest you" does not tell the whole story of behavioral targeting, and the resulting differentiation in user experience may, or may not, work to the advantage of the user. When it results in differential pricing it arguably does not benefit some users; when it results in steering minorities away from certain neighborhoods or toward less advantageous credit card offerings, it is illegal. This raises the question of fairness in advertising, and, more generally, of fairness in classification. This rather broad topic is not restricted to the digital world, and encompasses classification in such div...

  19. On a fair verdict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei G. Ol'kov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective the study of the phenomenon of justice in general and fairness in judicial verdicts in particular. Methods 1 observation 2 deduction 3 use of the laws of formal logic 4 comparative analysis 5 formal legal 6 mathematical modeling. Results the author considers the possibility of creating the scale of good and evil. As a result of rendering of legal laws in the language of mathematics were obtained the following conclusions 1 definition of justice as equality between the objective truth of the real world X and the subjective evaluation of this truth Y Y X assessment is on the line of justice in the Cartesian coordinate system if the deeds axis is correctly scaled ndash quotso it actually is and this is our answerrdquo the fair sentence is an accurate evaluation by the court the value of punishment of the deed the legal relations subject with the exact scaling of deeds and punishments axes y x where y is the assessment x ndash deed 2 general suggestions for scaling coordinate axes of deeds abscissa and penalties ordinates ndash proposal on the need to develop scales of relations for valuation of objects ndash deeds and evaluation as it is ndash the scale of punishments 3 grounds for the idea that not every degree or measure of the consistency of the realworld objects estimation by a wide range of evaluation subjects is fair justice 4 identification of the range of existing problems in the judicial practice in making fair sentences anbspthe absence in the criminal law of the clear scales of deeds and punishments the legislator does not give a clear estimation of the deed but establishes either continuous or multiple evaluation b modern legislator cannot give absolute scale of good and evil but specifies a relative scale in implicit form dependent on time place method of organization of power in the state ideas of the society about good and evil and justice. As a result the relative scale is quotslidingquot in time and space c the

  20. Bargaining and fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binmore, Kenneth

    2014-07-22

    The idea that human morality might be the product of evolution is not popular. The reason is partly that the moral principles that actually govern our day-to-day behavior have been idealized in a way that makes a natural origin seem impossible. This paper puts the case for a more down-to-earth assessment of human morality by arguing that the evolution of our sense of fairness can be traced to the practicalities of food-sharing. When animals share food, they can be seen as enjoying the fruits of an implicit bargain to ensure each other against hunger. The implications of this observation are explored using the tools of game theory. The arguments lead to a structure for fair bargains that closely resembles the structure proposed by John Rawls, the leading moral philosopher of the last century.

  1. Analysis and standardization of landings per unit effort of red shrimp Aristeus antennatus from the trawl fleet of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Mamouridis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Monthly landings and effort data from the Barcelona trawl fleet (NW Mediterranean were selected to analyse and standardize the landings per unit effort (LPUE of the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus using generalized additive models. The dataset covers a span of 15 years (1994-2008 and consists of a broad spectrum of predictors: fleet-dependent (e.g. number of trips performed by vessels and their technical characteristics, such as the gross registered tonnage, temporal (inter- and intra-annual variability, environmental (North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO] index and economic (red shrimp and fuel prices variables. All predictors individually have an impact on LPUE, though some of them lose their predictive power when considered jointly. That is the case of the NAO index. Our results show that six variables from the whole set can be incorporated into a global model with a total explained deviance (ED of 43%. We found that the most important variables were effort-related predictors (trips, tonnage, and groups with a total ED of 20.58%, followed by temporal variables, with an ED of 13.12%, and finally the red shrimp price as an economic predictor with an ED of 9.30%. Taken individually, the main contributing variable was the inter-annual variability (ED=12.40%. This high ED value suggests that many factors correlated with inter-annual variability, such as environmental factors (the NAO in specific years and fuel price, could in turn affect LPUE variability. The standardized LPUE index with the effort variability removed was found to be similar to the fishery-independent abundance index derived from the MEDITS programme.

  2. THE EFFECT OF DEPTH OF HOOKS, SET AND SOAK TIME TO THE CATCH PER UNIT OF EFFORT OF TUNA IN THE EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Setyadji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellowfin (Thunnus albacares and bigeye (T. obesus tuna have been intensively exploited by longline fleets since 1980’s, however, a large proportion of zero catch per set of target species still accurred. Zero catch data contributed significantly to the low catch per unit of effort (CPUE compared to other countries at the same fishing area. Therefore, understanding the factors contributed to the CPUE of tuna is essential, in order to improve longline fishing efficiency. A total of 2.115 set-by-set data were obtained from Indonesian Scientific Observer Program. The onboard observations were carried out at commercial tuna longline operated in Eastern Indian Ocean from August 2005 to December 2014. Several analytical approaches were conducted in this paper. First, General Linear Model (GLM was applied in order to model the relationship between CPUE with all the variables involved. Second, boxplot diagram, polynomial and linear regression were applied to fit the relationship between CPUE with set time, soak time and depth (represented by hook position respectively. The result showed that, there was no significant relationship between set time and CPUE of bigeye and yellowfin tuna. Soak time was positively related with CPUE of yellowfin and affect adversely on bigeye. Depth also have significant relationship with CPUE of tuna, where catch of yellowfin decreased linearly with hook depth, whereas catch of bigeye was performed the opposite. Improvement in tuna longline fishery in eastern Indian Ocean can be achieved through implementation of the specific soak time and hook depth for each target species, i.e. yellowfin and bigeye tuna.

  3. On a fair verdict

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei G. Ol'kov

    2014-01-01

    Objective the study of the phenomenon of justice in general and fairness in judicial verdicts in particular. Methods 1 observation 2 deduction 3 use of the laws of formal logic 4 comparative analysis 5 formal legal 6 mathematical modeling. Results the author considers the possibility of creating the scale of good and evil. As a result of rendering of legal laws in the language of mathematics were obtained the following conclusions 1 definition of justice as equality between the object...

  4. Science Fair Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Sciences fair season is a time when seasoned non-science teachers typically give up all hope of cramming any more knowledge into the heads of their students. It's just too much. However, non-science types might be missing out on a pretty good deal. The science department has got these kids in a pretty tight grip as far as the process and the…

  5. Justice, fairness, and enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    2006-12-01

    This article begins by considering four traditional definitions of enhancement, then proposes a fifth, the Welfarist definition. It then considers fairness-based objections to enhancement, using the example of performance enhancement in sport. In so doing it defines sport and the values proper to it, surveys alternative theories of justice, considers the natural distribution of capabilities and disabilities, and draws a distinction between social, psychological, and biological enhancement. The article advances a new argument that justice requires enhancement.

  6. FAIR-share

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-seven engineers involved in the FAIR project in Germany recently spent three days at CERN. The purpose of their visit: tour ALICE and meet with CERN engineers. This marks the start of a close cooperation. The FAIR project engineers and their CERN counterparts.If you want to build a new particle accelerator and wish to benefit from existing expertise, who do you go to see? Well… why not go straight to CERN? That’s what this group of 27 engineers did. They are working on a new accelerator project, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), to be built at the heavy-ion research centre GSI located near Darmstadt, Germany. Representing a variety of disciplines, from manufacturing to architecture, they will be responsible for making the project a reality. The visit was organised from 14-16 October, making it possible to include a tour of the ALICE experiment prior to the re-start of the LHC. However, the main goal was ...

  7. Process Fairness and Dynamic Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T. Trautmann (Stefan); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: When process fairness deviates from outcome fairness, dynamic inconsistencies can arise as in nonexpected utility. Resolute choice (Machina) can restore dynamic consistency under nonexpected utility without using Strotz's precommitment. It can similarly justify dynamically

  8. NCLEX fairness and sensitivity review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine; Riley, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The National Council Licensing Examination is an examination that is used for the purpose of licensing registered nurses and practical/vocational nurses. To help ensure that the examination questions (items) are fair and unbiased, all items undergo a fairness and sensitivity review as part of the item development process. This article focuses on the fairness and sensitivity review.

  9. Fairness in Multicultural Assessment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, Gordon

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about fairness (equity) in large-scale assessment systems within multicultural societies. It makes the key assumptions that fairness is fundamentally a sociocultural, rather than a technical, issue and that fair assessment cannot be considered in isolation from both the curriculum and the educational opportunities of the students.…

  10. Fractions: How to Fair Share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

  11. THE (UN? FAIRNESS OF FAIR VALUE: SFAS 157, IRVING FISHER AND GECON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Lustosa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to assess the level of adherence of explicit and implicit measurement concepts present in SFAS 157 – Fair Value Measurements to traditional economic-accounting concepts. Background: The expansion of situations in which fair value measurement is required makes more difficult to ensure that the computed measure of value is actually fair. Out of the objectivity of current sales prices in an active market, all other measures of value are expectations about the future, inherently uncertain and inaccurate. Thus, the desired justice of the computed figures lies not in its accuracy, but in the using of the correct concepts for measuring accounting transactions and events. Method: To reach the objective, the characteristics of this standard are confronted with the secular concept of capital and income set by the laureate American neoclassical economist Irving Fisher, which were incorporated into Information System for Economic Management (Gecon. Results: The results indicate that SFAS 157 fair value concept and measurement structure are incorrect or incomplete, suggesting that the maintenance of the fair value expression in accounting seems inadequate. Contributions: This paper contributes to the literature on accounting measurement showing that as a measurement concept in accounting fair value seems inadequate. In abnormal situations or absence of a market, the measure found is always inexact and subjective, and therefore is not correct to call fair the quantity resulting from this arbitrary calculation.

  12. Fairness in scientific publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Philippa C.

    2017-01-01

    Major changes are afoot in the world of academic publishing, exemplified by innovations in publishing platforms, new approaches to metrics, improvements in our approach to peer review, and a focus on developing and encouraging open access to scientific literature and data. The FAIR acronym recommends that authors and publishers should aim to make their output Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable. In this opinion article, I explore the parallel view that we should take a collective stance on making the dissemination of scientific data fair in the conventional sense, by being mindful of equity and justice for patients, clinicians, academics, publishers, funders and academic institutions. The views I represent are founded on oral and written dialogue with clinicians, academics and the publishing industry. Further progress is needed to improve collaboration and dialogue between these groups, to reduce misinterpretation of metrics, to minimise inequity that arises as a consequence of geographic setting, to improve economic sustainability, and to broaden the spectrum, scope, and diversity of scientific publication.

  13. CERN Book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Central Library and IT Department Bookshop

    2004-01-01

    The CERN Library, in conjunction with the IT Department Bookshop, is organizing a book fair on the 28th and 29th October. Some 15 major publishers will be represented, including 6 who will be here in person, and more than 700 of their latest titles will be on display (for sale or order). The major topics covered will be computing, physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. Those present at this event will include Alpha Science, Cambridge University Press, Elsevier, Institute of Physics, Microsoft Press, O'Reilly, OLF Switzerland, Oxford University Press, McGraw-Hill, Springer, Pearson, Thali Switzerland, Wiley, World Scientific and Ebooks Corporation. The fair will take place on the first floor of the Main Building (bldg.60), Salle des Pas Perdus, and will be open from 10.00 to 17.00 on both days. In addition, EBooks Corporation will describe their electronic book system; insight into this is available at http://www.eblib.com/ We look forward to your support for this initiative. Sh...

  14. Fair Use Challenges in Academic and Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Research Libraries, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes research into the current application of fair use to meet the missions of U.S. academic and research libraries. Sixty-five librarians were interviewed confidentially by telephone for around one hour each. They were asked about their employment of fair use in five key areas of practice: support for teaching and learning,…

  15. On the Fair Play Spirit%论Fair Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维; 林琳

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料法,历史分析了"Fair Play"精神的起源,并结合Fair Play精神面临的时代压力,探讨现代体育生命力延续的议题,提出"人"才是体育及其"Fair Play"精神继续生存或走向毁灭的主宰者.

  16. Direct photons at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeuchle, Bjoern [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus; Grimm, Andreas [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-07-01

    Photons, as all electromagnetic probes, can give direct access to the hot and dense phase of a heavy-ion reaction. We show calculations of direct photon emission at SiS100- and SiS-300 energies with the UrQMD-hybrid model. UrQMD is a full microscopic+macroscopic transport/fluid-dynamics hybrid model with hadron- and string-driven equilibration phase, a full (3+1)-dimensional fluiddynamic hot and dense phase and a hadronic after-burner. Unequilibrated matter at high rapidity is preserved during the fluid phase. A strong emphasis is set on the impact of viscosity and Equation of State at zero and non-zero baryon density to the spectra and flow patterns of thermal and non-thermal photons in A+A-collisions at the colliding systems relevant for FAIR.

  17. Obesity, paternalism and fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniess, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Many liberal theories are committed to the promotion of population health, and the principle of non-interference in individual life plans. Public health interventions often bring out a tension between these two values. In this paper, I examine this tension by assessing the justifiability of liberty-restricting policies in the field of obesity prevention. As I want to show, a 'soft' form of paternalism, which interferes with people's choices to safeguard their true interests, goes some way in justifying such policies, but it leaves unaddressed the problem of limiting the liberty of those whose true interest is in pursuing an unhealthy lifestyle. I argue that in this latter case, the key to reconcile the promotion of population health with the respect for individual liberty is distributive justice: when we cannot help those who care about their health without doing the same for those who do not, fairness will often require us to do so.

  18. Fairness ja tak - men hvordan?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Lise

    2008-01-01

    Journalistik skal være fair - vi hører og læser det igen og igen i skåltaler og debatindlæg. Men hvad betyder det lille ord fair egentlig, når vi snakker journalistik? Er det en floskel at hævde, at journalistik skal være fair? Eller ligger der gemt i ordet nole journalistiske dyder, som vi skal...

  19. Canton Fair: Decline, but Optimistic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The Canton Fair, long regarded as an important weather vane for China's foreign trade, this year faced bitter, cold winds. Trade volume of main "export products such as machines and light industrial products all saw a decline, although the degree of decline differed in different sectors. The total trade volume in this Canton Fair dropped 16.9% below the previous one.

  20. Affect and fairness in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, F.A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    A strained relationship exists between mainstream economics and ethics. Over the last decade, behavioral economists have strongly argued for the importance of fairness in motivating behavior, based on substantial experimental evidence. Two main approaches to the modeling of fairness have been

  1. The New Faces of Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Nancy S.; Zieky, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes additional ways for people in the measurement profession to think about the fairness of assessments and about the fairness of the uses of assessments. Suggests that measurement professionals must pay more attention to reducing group differences at the design stage of test development, to providing all examinees an opportunity to…

  2. Does market competition explain fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descioli, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  3. Math Fair: Focus on Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokashi, Neelima A.

    2009-01-01

    This article depicts the rewarding experience of creating mathematical environments for kindergarten and elementary students by focusing on one of the most important and often difficult-to-grasp concepts (fractions) through play methods incorporated into a math fair. The basic concept of a math fair is threefold: (1) to create preplanned,…

  4. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book...... fairs in Frankfurt, Tokyo and London, the paper discusses central features of fairs in the light of theoretical categories like networks, institutions and cognitions that are commonly employed in economic sociology. In this context, it highlights that participants negotiate the technical....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction...

  5. Me, Myself, Fairness, and I: On the Self-Related Aspects of Fairness Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loseman, A.

    2011-01-01

    The current dissertation focuses on the psychology of justice as a self-related process. Six experiments within three justice domains are reported in which specific self-related aspects and their influence on fairness reactions are investigated. The construction of one’s self-image (i.e., the

  6. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  7. Workshop for Young Scientists with reasearch interests focused on Physics at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Bleicher, Marcus; Fritsch, Miriam; Galatyuk, Tetyana; Nicmorus, Diana; Petersen, Hannah; Ratti, Claudia; Laura Tolos

    2013-01-01

    FAIRNESS 2012 is the first edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR. The topics of the workshop cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR.

  8. 76 FR 81189 - Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... 552 RIN 1235-AA05 Application of the Fair Labor Standards Act to Domestic Service AGENCY: Wage and... Labor (the Department or DOL) proposes to revise the current Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA or the Act... insuring that all workers affecting interstate commerce are protected by the Fair Labor Standards Act...

  9. What Is Fair in the Fair Transport Concept?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte

    It starts in a simple question and purpose of what is fair in the transport chain concept, and develops to an abductive reasoning based on critical business ethics research and polyphonic narratives for an understanding of the mess that involves people, ethics in supply chains, interest organizat......It starts in a simple question and purpose of what is fair in the transport chain concept, and develops to an abductive reasoning based on critical business ethics research and polyphonic narratives for an understanding of the mess that involves people, ethics in supply chains, interest......-existence. Fairness in fair transport is suggested to be of a dynamic nature and derived from knowledgeable reasoning and found in lived ethico-political relationships....

  10. Science Fairs: The Whys and Hows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Phyllis

    1988-01-01

    There has been some evidence that students who develop projects for science fairs continue their interest in science through high school and beyond. Local and regional fairs generally are slated as a prelude to state science fairs and the International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF). Organizing a district science fair requires informed…

  11. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how trade fairs act as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. This way, trade fairs make markets possible. Based on ongoing participant observation at book....../material, social, situational, content/appreciative, and the use value of goods, values which are then equated with a commodity exchange value in the form of price. Trade fairs frame order, but they are also events where the respective field might be reconfigurated. The contingency of personal interaction...

  12. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  13. Fair use versus fair return: copyright legislation and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, I L; Curtis, M E

    1984-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the ramifications of legislative recognition of the concept of fair use in the Copyright Act of 1976. The fair use concept, while of small consequence in its normative origins, has turned out to be the foundation of the most perplexing and divisive issues in the new legislative guidelines governing copyright. Legislative recognition of the concept of fair use, coupled with enormous growth of a new technology--extending from xerography to on-line database systems--creates de facto exemptions to both the intent and content of new copyright guidelines. The issue is not one of limiting use or suppressing information, but of mechanisms for safeguarding the rights of copyright holders, be they authors or publishers, and insuring the free flow of information by providing a proper return on both intellectual creativity and capital expenditures. The authors argue that the elimination, or at least curtailment of fair use doctrine, coupled with an increase in technological approaches to reporting of secondary use of copyrighted material, will benefit all sections of the knowledge industry. Authors will receive proper royalties on use; publishers will be able to sell more books and journals at lower prices; and librarians will be liberated from extensive chores such as monitoring usage or determining fee schedules and transferences. The issue is one of fair return--an issue obscured and ultimately subverted by fair use.

  14. To what extent Fair Value is Fair, an Analysis of Reliability and Relevance of the Fair Value Accounting Paradigm.

    OpenAIRE

    Dugarte, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    To what extent Fair Value is Fair, an Analysis of Reliability and Relevance of the Fair Value Accounting Paradigm. Rafael Dugarte Escalante September, 2006 Fair value accounting is fair and important for financial reporting in providing relevant, reliable, comparable and understandable information to the users depending on what kind of information is expected from it, and the way in which fair value is actually found. This study complemen...

  15. Process fairness, outcome fairness, and dynamic consistency : Experimental evidence for risk and ambiguity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Stefan; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2016-01-01

    Literature on fairness preferences distinguishes between outcome fairness, concerning the final allocation of payoffs, and process fairness, concerning the expected allocation of payoffs. It is not obvious, however, whether process fairness can consistently be implemented. Once uncertainty is

  16. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND FAIR TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jelovac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present different theoretical views and positions on social entrepreneurship, fair trade, buying consumer behaviour and ethical consumerism. The Fair Trade, which is well recognized throughout the world, is an example of good practice of social entrepreneurship. Similarly, globalization processes, the pressure of large corporations, the rapid transmission of information, more and more developed ethical consumer behaviour is clearly contributed to both, the successful development of fair trade and social entrepreneurships. In the empirical part we reviewed and confirmed three of three sets of hypotheses through the quantitative research in Slovenia on sample of 253 respondents. Through the results of our study we also recognized the existence of opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurships in Slovenia. In the discussion and conclusion of the article listed are recommendations for further exploration of ethical consumerism, the development of social entrepreneurship and rising the profile of Fair Trade in Slovenia.

  17. 45 BEACON: 2007 SCIENCE FAIRS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles R Holliday

    2007-01-01

      CHARLES R. HOLLIDAY 2007 SCIENCE FAIRS The AMS awards Certificates of Outstanding Achievement to student exhibitors for creative scientific endeavor in the areas of atmospheric and related oceanic...

  18. Testing Orions Fairing Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Henry; Cloutier, Chris; Lemmon, Heber; Rakes, Daniel; Oldham, Joe; Schlagel, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Traditional fairing systems are designed to fully encapsulate and protect their payload from the harsh ascent environment including acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic forces and heating. The Orion fairing separation system performs this function and more by also sharing approximately half of the vehicle structural load during ascent. This load-share condition through launch and during jettison allows for a substantial increase in mass to orbit. A series of component-level development tests were completed to evaluate and characterize each component within Orion's unique fairing separation system. Two full-scale separation tests were performed to verify system-level functionality and provide verification data. This paper summarizes the fairing spring, Pyramidal Separation Mechanism and forward seal system component-level development tests, system-level separation tests, and lessons learned.

  19. The Economics of Fair Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, Karl; Fehr, Ernst; Nowak, Martin A.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the field of experimental economics and speculates about why we value fairness and cooperation over the seemingly more rational selfishness. Illustrates a typical decision making situation using the Ultimatum game. (DDR)

  20. Canton Fair:In Summary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 104th session of China Import and Export Fair was concluded,this session of the fair is being held under the severe conditions that global financial market is experiencing drastic turbulence,financial crisis is spreading to real economy,growth rate of world economy is obviously slowing down with increased uncertainties in international economic environment. Confronted with complicated external environment,in accordance with the arrangement of the leading party group of the Ministry of Commerce,the Canton Fair thoroughly implements the Scientific Outlook on Development by carrying out the significant reform of splitting the fair into three phases. It also achieves positive results and improves organizing capability by serving the transformation of development mode of foreign trade,optimizing the structure for export goods,maintaining the reputation of products made in China,forging Chinese brand,and promoting balanced development of import and export.

  1. Fair Value or Market Value?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi; Lavinia Denisia Cuc; Robert Almaşi

    2014-01-01

    .... The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  2. Interactivity vs. fairness in networked linux systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenji; Crawford, Matt; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    In general, the Linux 2.6 scheduler can ensure fairness and provide excellent interactive performance at the same time. However, our experiments and mathematical analysis have shown that the current Linux interactivity mechanism tends to incorrectly categorize non-interactive network applications as interactive, which can lead to serious fairness or starvation issues. In the extreme, a single process can unjustifiably obtain up to 95% of the CPU! The root cause is due to the facts that: (1) network packets arrive at the receiver independently and discretely, and the 'relatively fast' non-interactive network process might frequently sleep to wait for packet arrival. Though each sleep lasts for a very short period of time, the wait-for-packet sleeps occur so frequently that they lead to interactive status for the process. (2) The current Linux interactivity mechanism provides the possibility that a non-interactive network process could receive a high CPU share, and at the same time be incorrectly categorized as 'interactive.' In this paper, we propose and test a possible solution to address the interactivity vs. fairness problems. Experiment results have proved the effectiveness of the proposed solution.

  3. The 102nd Canton Fair Ends Successfully

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 102nd China Import and Export Fair (Canton Fair), one of the major import and export fairs in China offering business people an opportunity to purchase colorful commodities worldwide, concluded successfully on October 30.

  4. Fair Value or Market Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi; Lavinia Denisia Cuc; Robert Almaşi

    2014-01-01

    When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies reg...

  5. FAIR: The accelerator facility for antiproton and ion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharkov, Boris [FAIR JCR GSI, Darmstad (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation outlines the current status of the facility for antiproton and ion research (FAIR). It is expected that the actual construction of the facility will commence in 2010 as the project has raised more than one billion euro in funding. The sequence and scope of the construction of the accelerator modules in accordance with modularized start version are described. Outstanding research opportunities offered by the modularized start version for all scientific FAIR communities from early on will allow to bridge the time until FAIR's completion with a world-leading research program. The green paper outlining a realistic path to achieve this goal is discussed.

  6. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2013: FAIR NExt generation of ScientistS 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Hannah; Destefanis, Marco; Galatyuk, Tetyana; Montes, Fernando; Nicmorus, Diana; Ratti, Claudia; Tolos, Laura; Vogel, Sascha

    2014-04-01

    FAIRNESS 2013 was the second edition in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on 16-21 September 2013 in Berlin, Germany. The topics of the workshop cover a wide range of aspects in both theoretical developments and current experimental status, concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing GSI Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference is to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permanent position to present their work, to foster active informal discussions and build up of networks. Every participant in the meeting with the exception of the organizers gives an oral presentation, and all sessions are followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks, questions are anonymously collected in box to stimulate discussions. Since the physics program of FAIR is very broad, this is reflected in the wide range of topics covered at the Conference: Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions Hadron spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NuSTAR, as well as NICA and the RHIC low beam energy scan New developments in atomic and plasma physics For all of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2013 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the forefront of

  7. PREFACE: FAIRNESS 2012: FAIR NExt Generation of ScientistS 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcones, Almudena; Bleicher, Marcus; Fritsch, Miriam; Galatyuk, Tetyana; Nicmorus, Diana; Petersen, Hannah; Ratti, Claudia; Tolos, Laura

    2013-03-01

    FAIRNESS 2012 was the first in a series of workshops designed to bring together excellent international young scientists with research interests focused on physics at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) and was held on 3-8 September 2012 in Hersonissos, Greece. The workshop covered a wide range of topics, both theoretical developments and current experimental status, that concentrated around the four scientific pillars of FAIR. FAIR is a new accelerator complex with brand new experimental facilities, that is currently being built next to the existing Helmholtzzentrum for Schwerionenforschung close to Darmstadt, Germany. The spirit of the conference was to bring together young scientists, e.g. advanced PhD students and postdocs and young researchers without permament position to present their work and to foster active informal discussions and the build-up of networks. Every participant at the meeting, with the exception of the organizers, gave an oral presentation and all sessions were followed by an hour long discussion period. During the talks questions were collected anonymously in a circulating box to stimulate these discussions. Since the physics program of FAIR is very broad, this was reflected in the wide range of topics covered at the conference: Physics of hot and dense nuclear matter, QCD phase transitions and critical point Nuclear structure, astrophysics and reactions Hadron Spectroscopy, Hadrons in matter and Hypernuclei Special emphasis is put on the experiments CBM, HADES, PANDA, NuSTAR, as well as NICA and the RHIC low beam energy scan New developments in atomic and plasma physics In each of these different areas one invited speaker was selected to give a longer introductory presentation. The write-ups of the talks presented at FAIRNESS 2012 are the content of this issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series and have been refereed according to the IOP standard for peer review. This issue constitutes therefore a collection of the

  8. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2013

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Library

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2013 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Key publishers will present a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look at the books on sale. The fair will take place in the Main Building (Bldg. 500) on the ground floor near Restaurant 1 on Monday 9 and Tuesday 10 September. Participating or represented publishers include: Oxford University Press, Princeton University Press, Springer, Wiley, and World Scientific-Imperial College Press. Fair opening times:  - Monday 9 September 9:00 - 18:00  - Tuesday 10 September 9:00 - 18:00

  9. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This working paper takes as its starting point the work of the German economic sociologist, Jens Beckert, and his call for empirical investigations into how intentionally rational actors reach decisions under conditions when they do not know what is best to do. It describes how trade fairs act...... as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. Fairs frame the contacts people make and sustain as networks; the institutional rules and social norms guiding their behaviour there; and the values...... and cognitive frames that they bring to bear and negotiate with other participants. They make actors aware of a ‘mutual correspondence’ in their interpretation of the goods in which they deal and of the social situations in which engage for the sake of such trade. Trade fairs both configure fields and make...

  10. Trade Fairs, Markets and Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    This working paper takes as its starting point the work of the German economic sociologist, Jens Beckert, and his call for empirical investigations into how intentionally rational actors reach decisions under conditions when they do not know what is best to do. It describes how trade fairs act...... as a framing mechanism that enables participants to come together for the exchange of goods and services and to perceive themselves as acting in a social field. Fairs frame the contacts people make and sustain as networks; the institutional rules and social norms guiding their behaviour there; and the values...... and cognitive frames that they bring to bear and negotiate with other participants. They make actors aware of a ‘mutual correspondence’ in their interpretation of the goods in which they deal and of the social situations in which engage for the sake of such trade. Trade fairs both configure fields and make...

  11. CERN scientific book fair 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2010 CERN Book Fair, a two-day scientific event offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts.   Some twelve companies will be present and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering, computing and popular science. You are welcome to come along and meet the publishers’ representatives or simply have a look to the books on offer. The Fair will take place in the Main Building (bldg. 500) on the ground floor near the Restaurant 1 on Tuesday 7th and Wednesday 8th September. Participating or represented publishers include: Cambridge University Press, EPFL Press – PPUR, Oxford University Press, Imperial College Press, McGraw-Hill, Oxford University Press, Pearson Education, Princeton University Press, Springer, Taylor and Francis, Wiley, World Scientific. Fair opening times: Tuesday 7 September 9:00 &ndash...

  12. 47 CFR 73.1910 - Fairness Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fairness Doctrine. 73.1910 Section 73.1910... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1910 Fairness Doctrine. The Fairness Doctrine is... issues of public importance. See FCC public notice “Fairness Doctrine and the Public Interest Standards...

  13. What's New for the Canton Fair?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Canton Fair,one of the top trade fairs in China,has a long history that goes back over 50years.New concerns lie ahead,however,as the senior management of the Canton Fair and the general public look for ways to innovate and improve the fair atmosphere.

  14. The Science Fair Experience: Profile of Science Fair Winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellipanni, Lawrence J.

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if a significant relationship existed between the criterion variable of receiving or not receiving awards at the 1993 International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) and the predictor variables of resources and facilities, resource personnel, personal costs, time, and personal characteristics.…

  15. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  16. Children develop a veil of fairness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Alex; Montinari, Natalia; Piovesan, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children develop an increasing concern with fairness over the course of development. Research with adults suggests that the concern with fairness has at least 2 distinct components: a desire to be fair and a desire to signal to others that they are fair. We explore...... whether children's developing concern with behaving fairly toward others may in part reflect a developing concern with appearing fair to others. In Experiments 1 and 2, most 6- to 8-year-old children behaved fairly toward others when an experimenter was aware of their choices; fewer children opted...... to behave fairly, however, when they could be unfair to others yet appear fair to the experimenter. In Experiment 3, we explored the development of this concern with appearing fair by using a wider age range (6- to 11-year-olds) and a different method. In this experiment, children chose how to assign a good...

  17. The flexible fairness: equality, earned entitlement, and self-interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chunliang; Luo, Yi; Gu, Ruolei; Broster, Lucas S; Shen, Xueyi; Tian, Tengxiang; Luo, Yue-Jia; Krueger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored whether earned entitlement modulated the perception of fairness in three experiments. A preliminary resource earning task was added before players decided how to allocate the resource they jointly earned. Participants' decision in allocation, their responses to equal or unequal offers, whether advantageous or disadvantageous, and subjective ratings of fairness were all assessed in the current study. Behavioral results revealed that participants proposed more generous offers and showed enhanced tolerance to disadvantageous unequal offers from others when they performed worse than their presumed "partners," while the reverse was true in the better-performance condition. The subjective ratings also indicated the effect of earned entitlement, such that worse performance was associated with higher perceived feelings of fairness for disadvantageous unequal offers, while better performance was associated with higher feelings of fairness for advantageous unequal offers. Equal offers were considered "fair" only when earned entitlement was even between two parties. In sum, the perception of fairness is modulated by an integration of egalitarian motivation and entitlement. In addition to justice principles, participants were also motivated by self-interest, such that participants placed more weight on entitlement in the better-performance condition than in the worse-performance condition. These results imply that earned entitlement is evaluated in a self-serving way.

  18. Fair Exchange in Strand Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Guttman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Many cryptographic protocols are intended to coordinate state changes among principals. Exchange protocols coordinate delivery of new values to the participants, e.g. additions to the set of values they possess. An exchange protocol is fair if it ensures that delivery of new values is balanced: If one participant obtains a new possession via the protocol, then all other participants will, too. Fair exchange requires progress assumptions, unlike some other protocol properties. The strand space model is a framework for design and verification of cryptographic protocols. A strand is a local behavior of a single principal in a single session of a protocol. A bundle is a partially ordered global execution built from protocol strands and adversary activities. The strand space model needs two additions for fair exchange protocols. First, we regard the state as a multiset of facts, and we allow strands to cause changes in this state via multiset rewriting. Second, progress assumptions stipulate that some channels are resilient-and guaranteed to deliver messages-and some principals are assumed not to stop at certain critical steps. This method leads to proofs of correctness that cleanly separate protocol properties, such as authentication and confidentiality, from invariants governing state evolution. G. Wang's recent fair exchange protocol illustrates the approach.

  19. Toddlers Selectively Help Fair Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Surian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research showed that infants and toddlers are inclined to help prosocial agents and assign a positive valence to fair distributions. Also, they expect that positive and negative actions directed toward distributors will conform to reciprocity principles. This study investigates whether toddlers are selective in helping others, as a function of others’ previous distributive actions. Toddlers were presented with real-life events in which two actresses distributed resources either equally or unequally between two puppets. Then, they played together with a ball that accidentally fell to the ground and asked participants to help them to retrieve it. Participants preferred to help the actress who performed equal distributions. This finding suggests that by the second year children’s prosocial actions are modulated by their emerging sense of fairness.HighlightsToddlers (mean age = 25 months are selective in helping distributors.Toddlers prefer helping a fair rather than an unfair distributor.Toddlers’ selective helping provides evidence for an early sense of fairness.

  20. Evolutionary dynamics of group fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fernando P; Santos, Francisco C; Paiva, Ana; Pacheco, Jorge M

    2015-08-07

    The emergence and impact of fairness is commonly studied in the context of 2-person games, notably the Ultimatum Game. Often, however, humans face problems of collective action involving more than two individuals where fairness is known to play a very important role, and whose dynamics cannot be inferred from what is known from 2-person games. Here, we propose a generalization of the Ultimatum Game for an arbitrary number of players--the Multiplayer Ultimatum Game. Proposals are made to a group of responders who must individually reject or accept the proposal. If the total number of individual acceptances stands below a given threshold, the offer will be rejected; otherwise, the offer will be accepted, and equally shared by all responders. We investigate the evolution of fairness in populations of individuals by means of evolutionary game theory, providing both analytical insights and results from numerical simulations. We show how imposing stringent consensuses significantly increases the value of the proposals, leading to fairer outcomes and more tolerant players. Furthermore, we show how stochastic effects--such as imitation errors and/or errors when assessing the fitness of others--may further enhance the overall success in reaching fair collective action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ongoing Issues in Test Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilli, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the attempt to identify or prevent unfair tests, both quantitative analyses and logical evaluation are often used. For the most part, fairness evaluation is a pragmatic attempt at determining whether procedural or substantive due process has been accorded to either a group of test takers or an individual. In both the individual and comparative…

  2. Science Fair Projects: The Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Bob; Keen, Dan

    This book approaches the development of science fair projects from the point of view that science should be enjoyable, interesting, and thought-provoking. The scientific concepts introduced here will later help young students to understand more advanced scientific principles. These projects develop skills such as classification, making measured…

  3. A Kinder-Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Angelica; Vitti, Debbye

    2007-01-01

    A science fair might be the last thing you think of when planning a kindergarten science curriculum, but the authors found it to be the perfect avenue for teaching their students science-process skills. Here they share their steps in teaching science-process skills and assembling student projects in a kindergarten classroom throughout the year.…

  4. Fair Finance: gaat dat samen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Margreet

    2014-01-01

    Op 13 februari jl. organiseerden studievereniging HSE Faktor, het Instituut FEM en Oikocredit (een bedrijf dat microkredieten verstrekt aan arme mensen in ontwikkelingslanden) het Fair Finance Symposium. Margreet Boersma gaf een lezing over haar kijk op een betere (financiële) wereld, mede gericht o

  5. Atoms at the Science Fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCompte, Robert G. [AEC Division of Technical Information; Wood, Burrell L. [AEC Division of Special Projects

    1968-01-01

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission has prepared this booklet to help young science fair exhibitors, their science teachers, project counselors, and parents. The booklet suggests some of the numerous nuclear topics on which students can base meaningful science projects. It offers all exhibitors advice on how to plan, design, and construct successful exhibits.

  6. Children's Concepts of Fair Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsman, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    The Damon hierarchy of development of children's sense of positive justice is examined for its usefulness in predicting fairness in behavior and reliability in age patterning of its stated levels of reasoning. The hierarchy's value as a developmental schedule for teacher guidance may be questionable. (Author)

  7. EXAMINE THE PAST FOR GOING FURTHER: A LITERATURE REVIEW IN THE FIELD OF FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreicovici Ionela - Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study is part of the scientific approach being assumed at the beginning of the Ph.D. as the theme 'New valence of evaluation in accounting' under the guidance of prof. univ. dr. Dumitru Matis. This article aims to realize a more comprehensive study of relevant literature in accounting with fair value as the main subject. We have built our study attempting to answer the following research questions: How much fair value activity has there been since 2008? What research topics are being addressed? Who is leading fair value research? What are the limitations of current research? To achieve our proposed objectives we analyzed two databases (Science Direct and Business Source Premier during 2008-2011, analyzing in detail a total of 22 articles divided into five specific research directions: international regulations on fair value accounting, fair Value Accounting and Financial Crisis, financial reporting at fair value, the relevance of fair value and fair value versus historical cost. With this research we try to see 'what is known' in the field of fair value so far . In addition to qualitative analysis which we performed to discover the interest of researchers in this field, we conducted a quantitative analysis concerning the reported studies , being divided into research themes, research methodology and year of the article publication. Quantitative research results are those anticipated, that the most 'fair value activity ' took place in 2008 and 2009, surveys having as main research theme international regulations on fair value accounting.

  8. THE (UN?) FAIRNESS OF FAIR VALUE: SFAS 157, IRVING FISHER AND GECON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulo Roberto Barbosa Lustosa

    2017-01-01

    ... – Fair Value Measurements to traditional economic-accounting concepts. Background: The expansion of situations in which fair value measurement is required makes more difficult to ensure that the computed measure of value is actually fair...

  9. FAIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    HI,大腕儿!12月15日晚,一个由上千光点组成的巨大奥迪Logo悬挂在北京国贸中心展厅外墙,展厅内“百年奥迪”中国庆典也已成为回顾百年奥迪辉煌历史、展示品牌领先科技的舞台。

  10. CERN Scientific Book Fair 2008

    CERN Document Server

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Bookshop and CERN Library invite you to attend the 2008 CERN Book Fair 2008, a three-day scientific book festival offering you the opportunity to meet key publishers and electronic book suppliers and to browse and purchase books at significant discounts. Some ten companies will be participating and will bring with them a selection of titles in physics, technology, mathematics, engineering and popular science. There will also be a number of tie-in events intended to give you an insight into the writing and publishing process from authors within our own community. Come along and meet the authors, discuss your book ideas with the publishers’ representatives or simply browse the books on offer. The Fair will take place in Building 500 in the area near the Main Auditorium, and special presentations (as detailed below) will be held in rooms nearby or in the Library. Participating publishers and book traders include: Cambridge ...

  11. The NUSTAR program at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlert Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The NUSTAR Collaboration brings together several hundred scientists to form one of the four scientific pillars of the future FAIR facility. NUSTAR aims at the exploitation of intense radioactive beams with energies up to 1.5 GeV/u in order to explore nuclei with large neutron or proton excess. The project has evolved over the last years and now reached a state where a large fraction of the core program is financed, partly built, and even ready for operation. With the signing of the FAIR convention in 2010 and the start of construction, the sub-projects in NUSTAR gain momentum and look forward to commissioning and first beams in this decade. The present status of the project will be presented, focusing on the instrumentation to be applied in the various experimental areas behind the Super-FRS fragment separator, which is the central instrument of NUSTAR.

  12. HOW APPRAISERS DEVELOP FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV ŠKODA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management is responsible for its own financial decisions. If we take into account, that fair value concept was shown in financial crisis as something that does not work anymore in this way; there is a big need to develop it for the future. Non-professional readers of financial statements believe, however, that company financials are the work of the public accounting firm that had signed the audit certificate. The main reason for bringing this point up is that when companies disclose Fair Value (FV information in their financial statements, they are taking responsibility for the values disclosed. Management may often be encouraged to utilize the services of an outside professional, but at the end of the day, the outside appraiser is a hired gun. Although the appraiser has to take responsibility for his own work, hiring the appraiser does not absolve management of its ultimate responsibility. The obverse of this is also true. Management does not have to hire the appraiser to develop any fair value disclosures made in the financial statements. Developing FV information is not recommended as a do-it yourself undertaking, there is nothing in Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP or Securities Exchange Commission (SEC regulations, however, that requires an outside appraiser.

  13. Sports Fair Play and Critical Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓峰

    2014-01-01

    Here, this paper suggests that CIFP tamp the ideal of fair play, re-establish the fair play value system, and conduct effective reform of organization and cause correspondingly instead of becoming agent of European centralism and American hegemonism.

  14. Constructing invariant fairness measures for surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The paper proposes a rational method to derive fairness measures for surfaces. It works in cases where isophotes, reflection lines, planar intersection curves, or other curves are used to judge the fairness of the surface. The surface fairness measure is derived by demanding that all the given...... curves should be fair with respect to an appropriate curve fairness measure. The method is applied to the field of ship hull design where the curves are plane intersections. The method is extended to the case where one considers, not the fairness of one curve, but the fairness of a one parameter family...... of curves. Six basic third order invariants by which the fairing measures can be expressed are defined. Furthermore, the geometry of a plane intersection curve is studied, and the variation of the total, the normal, and the geodesic curvature and the geodesic torsion is determined....

  15. Job Fair for Foreigners,Beijing,2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Job Fair for Foreigners, to be held in Beijing on April 21, is in its planning stage. Last year’s job fair was held in the Swissotel Beijing and plans are underway to reserve the hotel again for this year’s fair.Chinajob.com, as the host of the previous four job fairs, will continue to sponsor the fifth event especially for foreign teachers

  16. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  19. 17th Dalian International Garment Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Yifeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Basic Information of 17th Dalian International Garment Fair The 17th Dalian International Garment Fair will be held from September 10 to 13, 2005at Xinghai Convention and Exhibition Center (old hall) and newly-built World Expo Square(new hall) simultaneously. The fair area is about 50,000 m2, 2.5 times than the last one.

  20. Fairness and Using Reflective Journals in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkeburn, Henriikka; Kettula, Kirsi

    2012-01-01

    This study looks at the fairness of assessing learning journals both as the fairness in creating a valid and robust marking process as well as how different student groups may have unfair disadvantages in performing well in reflective assessment tasks. The fairness of a marking process is discussed through reflecting on the practical process and…

  1. Test Fairness and Toulmin's Argument Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnan, Antony John

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to Xiaoming Xi's article titled "How do we go about investigating test fairness?" In this response, the author focuses on test fairness and Toulmin's model of argument structure, Xi's proposal, and the challenges the proposal brings. Xi proposes an approach to investigating test fairness to guide…

  2. A Science Fair Companion. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Wendy Sherman

    This digest comments on various aspects of school science fairs. General expectations for science fair projects and participants are discussed, and tips for choosing a topic and completing a project are given. Organizational strategies for teachers charged with conducting science fairs are presented. Guidelines for parents in helping children with…

  3. Sex Fair Grading in Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Helga

    1984-01-01

    Sex fair performance evaluation has been a primary concern in physical education. A discussion of physiological differences between males and females shows how problems in developing fair evaluation plans arise. Suggestions for developing a sex fair grading plan and an example program adaptable to other settings are offered. (DF)

  4. Shanghai Performing Arts Fair Gaining Global Popularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TianZui; ZuZhongren

    2003-01-01

    China Shanghai International Arts Festival Performing Arts Fair is gaining popularity. In two months after the dates of the fair were announced, all the 120 booths were booked out, and for the first time in the event's four-year history, participants had to scramble to get in. When the trade fair opened, about 40 organizations were shut out.

  5. 15th Beijing International Book Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 15th Beijing Intemational Book Fair(BIBF)is to be held in Tianjin on September 1-4.It is the first time that the fair is held outside of Beijing. The change of venue is because the book fair coincides with the closing of the Beijing Olympic Games and the open-

  6. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However, posi

  7. Playing Fair: An Essential Element in Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeler, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Playing fair has a value with which people are all familiar. From the sandboxes of childhood and the competitive sports of youth to the business transactions of adulthood, people have been told how important it is to play fair. Playing fair in contracting is not only essential, it's the legal and ethical thing to do. In this article, the author…

  8. faire faire 》 et 《 se faire faire 》-- Analyse sur les emplois de la construction 《 faire+incnitif 》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志勇

    2011-01-01

    Le verbe faire relève parfois des r6gles de syntaxe grammaticale, le faire causatif. Quand le verbe faire est suivi d'un innitif, sa construction est spèciale parce que les règles qui gouvernent l'emploi et la place des pronoms et des noms complèments d'o

  9. Do fair value adjustments influence dividend policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goncharov, I.; van Triest, S.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of positive fair value adjustments on dividend policy. If fair value adjustments are transitory in nature and managers are able to assess their implications for future earnings, fair value adjustments in net income is expected to have no distribution consequences. However,

  10. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen eQu; Yuru eWang; Yunyun eHuang

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game, participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/un...

  11. The FAIR-INNOVATION dissemination project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, R

    2001-08-01

    The goal of the FAIR-INNOVATION dissemination project (FLAIR-FLOW 3) (1997-2000) was to disseminate R&D results from the EU FAIR programme to small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMEs), health professionals (HPs) and consumer groups (CGs) in 19 European countries. The dissemination routes were: (i) one-page technical documents on research results; (ii) their reproduction on the internet; (iii) their reproduction in journals Europe-wide; (iv) workshops on results from EU-supported food research programmes; and (v) lectures and poster presentations by FLAIR-FLOW network personnel. Of the 135 one-pagers produced, 62% were targeted at SMEs, 18% at HPs and 5% at CGs. The remaining 15% were on food safety and were common to the three target groups. There were 1047 publications arising from one-pages in trade journals, and over 8000 requests (paper route) were received for follow-up information. These were in addition to 240 k downloads from the FLAIR-FLOW 3 web site (www.flair-flow.com). Initiatives for HPs included specially collated versions of the one-pagers for major conferences, 20 focused workshops, and interaction with the European Federation of Associations of Dieticians. Currently, dissemination is continuing through FLAIR-FLOW 4 (2001-2003) in 24 countries. FLAIR-FLOW 4 is co-ordinated by M. Jean François Quillien from INRA-CRIAA (FR) at criaa@rennes.inra.fr.

  12. Students' Perceptions of Fairness Following an Academic Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiksenbaum, Lisa M.; Wickens, Christine M.; Greenglass, Esther R.; Wiesenthal, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Rising rates of unionization in university settings suggest that campus labour disputes are likely to become an increasingly relevant issue. The research question in the current analysis asked which factors contributed to students' perception of fair treatment following a university labour disruption. A longitudinal survey of students' experiences…

  13. Do you know the fair market value of quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jen

    2009-10-01

    To develop a physician compensation package that includes fair-market-value incentive payments for their efforts to improve healthcare quality, a hospital first needs to: Evaluate current market data on quality incentive payments. Be familiar with the existing regulatory guidelines related to paying for quality. Understand the requirements for complying with the regulations.

  14. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan...

  15. Book Review: Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This is a review of Henk Langendijk, Dirk Swagerman and Willem Verhoog (Eds) "Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective," Chichester: John Wiley, 2003, ISBN 0 470 85028 0.......This is a review of Henk Langendijk, Dirk Swagerman and Willem Verhoog (Eds) "Is Fair Value Fair? Financial Reporting from an International Perspective," Chichester: John Wiley, 2003, ISBN 0 470 85028 0....

  16. 75 FR 18245 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Monday, April 26, 2010, at 1:30 p.m...

  17. 78 FR 30384 - Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region X Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region X Regulatory Fairness Board AGENCY: U.S... Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The (SBA) Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing this notice to announce the location, date and time of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness hearing...

  18. 75 FR 17793 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region III Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region III Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region III Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Tuesday, May 18, 2010, at 10 a.m...

  19. 78 FR 36011 - Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing AGENCY: U.S... Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The (SBA) Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing this notice to announce the location, date and time of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness hearing...

  20. 76 FR 26333 - National Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region III Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region III Regulatory Fairness Board... III) Small Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The SBA, Office of the National Ombudsman is... Fairness Hearing. This hearing is open to the public. DATES: The hearing will be held on Tuesday, May 24...

  1. Generalized fairing algorithm of parametric cubic splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuan-jun; CAO Yuan

    2006-01-01

    Kjellander has reported an algorithm for fairing uniform parametric cubic splines. Poliakoff extended Kjellander's algorithm to non-uniform case. However, they merely changed the bad point's position, and neglected the smoothing of tangent at bad point. In this paper, we present a fairing algorithm that both changed point's position and its corresponding tangent vector. The new algorithm possesses the minimum property of energy. We also proved Poliakoff's fairing algorithm is a deduction of our fairing algorithm. Several fairing examples are given in this paper.

  2. Hyperons at CBM-FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Rudolf

    2016-08-01

    The CBM experiment is one of the four scientific pillars of the Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany. Its discovery potential - complementary to heavy-ion experiments at colliders - is based on high-luminosity ion beams. This enables access to extremely rare probes such as charmed particles, vector mesons or multi-strange hyperons with high statistics. However, 3rd generations readout systems and detectors are required to handle the large interaction rates (up to 10 MHz for Au+Au) with sufficient precision and bandwidth. In this contribution we will outline the unique CBM physics program focusing onto hyperons.

  3. A New TCP Congestion Control Supporting RTT-Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Kazumine; Nemoto, Yohei; Su, Zhou; Katto, Jiro

    This paper focuses on RTT-fairness of multiple TCP flows over the Internet, and proposes a new TCP congestion control named “HRF (Hybrid RTT-Fair)-TCP”. Today, it is a serious problem that the flows having smaller RTT utilize more bandwidth than others when multiple flows having different RTT values compete in the same network. This means that a user with longer RTT may not be able to obtain sufficient bandwidth by the current methods. This RTT fairness issue has been discussed in many TCP papers. An example is CR (Constant Rate) algorithm, which achieves RTT-fairness by multiplying the square of RTT value in its window increment phase against TCP-Reno. However, the method halves its windows size same as TCP-Reno when a packet loss is detected. This makes worse its efficiency in certain network cases. On the other hand, recent proposed TCP versions essentially require throughput efficiency and TCP-friendliness with TCP-Reno. Therefore, we try to keep these advantages in our TCP design in addition to RTT-fairness. In this paper, we make intuitive analytical models in which we separate resource utilization processes into two cases: utilization of bottleneck link capacity and that of buffer space at the bottleneck link router. These models take into account three characteristic algorithms (Reno, Constant Rate, Constant Increase) in window increment phase where a sender receives an acknowledgement successfully. Their validity is proved by both simulations and implementations. From these analyses, we propose HRF-TCP which switches two modes according to observed RTT values and achieves RTT fairness. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed method. Finally, HRF-TCP outperforms conventional methods in RTT-fairness, efficiency and friendliness with TCP-Reno.

  4. A Bumper Crop of Fair Trade Coffee Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Talbot

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The history of the world coffee market is a story of cycles of boom and bust. The most recent bust, one of the most severe in history, began in 1998 and started to ease in 2005. This period of severe crisis across the coffee producing countries in the developing world stimulated a growing interest in fair trade coffee as a means of helping the small farmers who were being devastated by historically low prices. As public interest and consumption grew, social scientists, as is their wont, set out to study the phenomenon. The result is the current bumper crop of books analyzing fair trade coffee.

  5. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, R.; Altstadt, S.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Heil, M.; Koloczek, A.; Langer, C.; Plag, R.; Pohl, M.; Sonnabend, K.; Weigand, M.; Adachi, T.; Aksouh, F.; Al-Khalili, J.; AlGarawi, M.; AlGhamdi, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alkhomashi, N.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Andreev, V.; Andrei, B.; Atar, L.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Bacri, C.; Bagchi, S.; Barbieri, C.; Beceiro, S.; Beck, C.; Beinrucker, C.; Belier, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Bendel, M.; Benlliure, J.; Benzoni, G.; Berjillos, R.; Bertini, D.; Bertulani, C.; Bishop, S.; Blasi, N.; Bloch, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Bonaccorso, A.; Boretzky, K.; Botvina, A.; Boudard, A.; Boutachkov, P.; Boztosun, I.; Bracco, A.; Brambilla, S.; Briz Monago, J.; Caamano, M.; Caesar, C.; Camera, F.; Casarejos, E.; Catford, W.; Cederkall, J.; Cederwall, B.; Chartier, M.; Chatillon, A.; Cherciu, M.; Chulkov, L.; Coleman-Smith, P.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Crespi, F.; Crespo, R.; Cresswell, J.; Csatlós, M.; Déchery, F.; Davids, B.; Davinson, T.; Derya, V.; Detistov, P.; Diaz Fernandez, P.; DiJulio, D.; Dmitry, S.; Doré, D.; Dueñas, J.; Dupont, E.; Egelhof, P.; Egorova, I.; Elekes, Z.; Enders, J.; Endres, J.; Ershov, S.; Ershova, O.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Fetisov, A.; Fiori, E.; Fomichev, A.; Fonseca, M.; Fraile, L.; Freer, M.; Friese, J.; Borge, M. G.; Galaviz Redondo, D.; Gannon, S.; Garg, U.; Gasparic, I.; Gasques, L.; Gastineau, B.; Geissel, H.; Gernhäuser, R.; Ghosh, T.; Gilbert, M.; Glorius, J.; Golubev, P.; Gorshkov, A.; Gourishetty, A.; Grigorenko, L.; Gulyas, J.; Haiduc, M.; Hammache, F.; Harakeh, M.; Hass, M.; Heine, M.; Hennig, A.; Henriques, A.; Herzberg, R.; Holl, M.; Ignatov, A.; Ignatyuk, A.; Ilieva, S.; Ivanov, M.; Iwasa, N.; Jakobsson, B.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Joshi, P.; Junghans, A.; Jurado, B.; Körner, G.; Kalantar, N.; Kanungo, R.; Kelic-Heil, A.; Kezzar, K.; Khan, E.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kiselev, O.; Kogimtzis, M.; Körper, D.; Kräckmann, S.; Kröll, T.; Krücken, R.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kratz, J.; Kresan, D.; Krings, T.; Krumbholz, A.; Krupko, S.; Kulessa, R.; Kumar, S.; Kurz, N.; Kuzmin, E.; Labiche, M.; Langanke, K.; Lazarus, I.; Le Bleis, T.; Lederer, C.; Lemasson, A.; Lemmon, R.; Liberati, V.; Litvinov, Y.; Löher, B.; Lopez Herraiz, J.; Münzenberg, G.; Machado, J.; Maev, E.; Mahata, K.; Mancusi, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martinez Perez, M.; Marusov, V.; Mengoni, D.; Million, B.; Morcelle, V.; Moreno, O.; Movsesyan, A.; Nacher, E.; Najafi, M.; Nakamura, T.; Naqvi, F.; Nikolski, E.; Nilsson, T.; Nociforo, C.; Nolan, P.; Novatsky, B.; Nyman, G.; Ornelas, A.; Palit, R.; Pandit, S.; Panin, V.; Paradela, C.; Parkar, V.; Paschalis, S.; Pawłowski, P.; Perea, A.; Pereira, J.; Petrache, C.; Petri, M.; Pickstone, S.; Pietralla, N.; Pietri, S.; Pivovarov, Y.; Potlog, P.; Prokofiev, A.; Rastrepina, G.; Rauscher, T.; Ribeiro, G.; Ricciardi, M.; Richter, A.; Rigollet, C.; Riisager, K.; Rios, A.; Ritter, C.; Rodriguez Frutos, T.; Rodriguez Vignote, J.; Röder, M.; Romig, C.; Rossi, D.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Rout, P.; Roy, S.; Söderström, P.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sakuta, S.; Salsac, M.; Sampson, J.; Sanchez, J.; Rio Saez, del; Sanchez Rosado, J.; Sanjari, S.; Sarriguren, P.; Sauerwein, A.; Savran, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Scheit, H.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, C.; Schnorrenberger, L.; Schrock, P.; Schwengner, R.; Seddon, D.; Sherrill, B.; Shrivastava, A.; Sidorchuk, S.; Silva, J.; Simon, H.; Simpson, E.; Singh, P.; Slobodan, D.; Sohler, D.; Spieker, M.; Stach, D.; Stan, E.; Stanoiu, M.; Stepantsov, S.; Stevenson, P.; Strieder, F.; Stuhl, L.; Suda, T.; Sümmerer, K.; Streicher, B.; Taieb, J.; Takechi, M.; Tanihata, I.; Taylor, J.; Tengblad, O.; Ter-Akopian, G.; Terashima, S.; Teubig, P.; Thies, R.; Thoennessen, M.; Thomas, T.; Thornhill, J.; Thungstrom, G.; Timar, J.; Togano, Y.; Tomohiro, U.; Tornyi, T.; Tostevin, J.; Townsley, C.; Trautmann, W.; Trivedi, T.; Typel, S.; Uberseder, E.; Udias, J.; Uesaka, T.; Uvarov, L.; Vajta, Z.; Velho, P.; Vikhrov, V.; Volknandt, M.; Volkov, V.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; von Schmid, M.; Wagner, A.; Wamers, F.; Weick, H.; Wells, D.; Westerberg, L.; Wieland, O.; Wiescher, M.; Wimmer, C.; Wimmer, K.; Winfield, J. S.; Winkel, M.; Woods, P.; Wyss, R.; Yakorev, D.; Yavor, M.; Zamora Cardona, J.; Zartova, I.; Zerguerras, T.; Zgura, M.; Zhdanov, A.; Zhukov, M.; Zieblinski, M.; Zilges, A.; Zuber, K.

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process, β-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

  6. Cryogenic magnet test facility for fair

    CERN Document Server

    Schroeder, C; Marzouki, F; Stafiniac, A; Floch, E; Schnizer, P; Moritz, G; Xiang, Y; Kauschke, M; Meier, J; Hess, G ,

    2009-01-01

    For testing fast-pulsed superconducting model and pre-series magnets for FAIR (Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research), a cryogenic magnet test facility was built up at GSI. The facility is able to cool either cold masses in a universal cryostat or complete magnets in their own cryo-module. It is possible to operate bath cooled, 2 phase cooled, and supercritical cooled magnets with a maximum current up to 11 kA and a ramp rate up to 14 kA/s. Measurements of magnet heat loss, with calorimetric and a V-I methods, are available, as are quench and magnetic field measurements. Design and functionality of the test facility will be described. Results of measurements with a supercritical cooled magnet and with a 2 phase cooled SIS100 model magnet will be shown.

  7. Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive ions at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Reifarth, R; Göbel, K; Heftrich, T; Heil, M; Koloczek, A; Langer, C; Plag, R; Pohl, M; Sonnabend, K; Weigand, M; Adachi, T; Aksouh, F; Al-Khalili, J; AlGarawi, M; AlGhamdi, S; Alkhazov, G; Alkhomashi, N; Alvarez-Pol, H; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R; Andreev, V; Andrei, B; Atar, L; Aumann, T; Avdeichikov, V; Bacri, C; Bagchi, S; Barbieri, C; Beceiro, S; Beck, C; Beinrucker, C; Belier, G; Bemmerer, D; Bendel, M; Benlliure, J; Benzoni, G; Berjillos, R; Bertini, D; Bertulani, C; Bishop, S; Blasi, N; Bloch, T; Blumenfeld, Y; Bonaccorso, A; Boretzky, K; Botvina, A; Boudard, A; Boutachkov, P; Boztosun, I; Bracco, A; Brambilla, S; Monago, J Briz; Caamano, M; Caesar, C; Camera, F; Casarejos, E; Catford, W; Cederkall, J; Cederwall, B; Chartier, M; Chatillon, A; Cherciu, M; Chulkov, L; Coleman-Smith, P; Cortina-Gil, D; Crespi, F; Crespo, R; Cresswell, J; Csatlós, M; Déchery, F; Davids, B; Davinson, T; Derya, V; Detistov, P; Fernandez, P Diaz; DiJulio, D; Dmitry, S; Doré, D; nas, J Due\\; Dupont, E; Egelhof, P; Egorova, I; Elekes, Z; Enders, J; Endres, J; Ershov, S; Ershova, O; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Fetisov, A; Fiori, E; Fomichev, A; Fonseca, M; Fraile, L; Freer, M; Friese, J; Borge, M G; Redondo, D Galaviz; Gannon, S; Garg, U; Gasparic, I; Gasques, L; Gastineau, B; Geissel, H; Gernhäuser, R; Ghosh, T; Gilbert, M; Glorius, J; Golubev, P; Gorshkov, A; Gourishetty, A; Grigorenko, L; Gulyas, J; Haiduc, M; Hammache, F; Harakeh, M; Hass, M; Heine, M; Hennig, A; Henriques, A; Herzberg, R; Holl, M; Ignatov, A; Ignatyuk, A; Ilieva, S; Ivanov, M; Iwasa, N; Jakobsson, B; Johansson, H; Jonson, B; Joshi, P; Junghans, A; Jurado, B; Körner, G; Kalantar, N; Kanungo, R; Kelic-Heil, A; Kezzar, K; Khan, E; Khanzadeev, A; Kiselev, O; Kogimtzis, M; Körper, D; Kräckmann, S; Kröll, T; Krücken, R; Krasznahorkay, A; Kratz, J; Kresan, D; Krings, T; Krumbholz, A; Krupko, S; Kulessa, R; Kumar, S; Kurz, N; Kuzmin, E; Labiche, M; Langanke, K; Lazarus, I; Bleis, T Le; Lederer, C; Lemasson, A; Lemmon, R; Liberati, V; Litvinov, Y; Löher, B; Herraiz, J Lopez; Münzenberg, G; Machado, J; Maev, E; Mahata, K; Mancusi, D; Marganiec, J; Perez, M Martinez; Marusov, V; Mengoni, D; Million, B; Morcelle, V; Moreno, O; Movsesyan, A; Nacher, E; Najafi, M; Nakamura, T; Naqvi, F; Nikolski, E; Nilsson, T; Nociforo, C; Nolan, P; Novatsky, B; Nyman, G; Ornelas, A; Palit, R; Pandit, S; Panin, V; Paradela, C; Parkar, V; Paschalis, S; Paw\\lowski, P; Perea, A; Pereira, J; Petrache, C; Petri, M; Pickstone, S; Pietralla, N; Pietri, S; Pivovarov, Y; Potlog, P; Prokofiev, A; Rastrepina, G; Rauscher, T; Ribeiro, G; Ricciardi, M; Richter, A; Rigollet, C; Riisager, K; Rios, A; Ritter, C; Frutos, T Rodríguez; Vignote, J Rodriguez; Röder, M; Romig, C; Rossi, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Rout, P; Roy, S; Söderström, P; Sarkar, M Saha; Sakuta, S; Salsac, M; Sampson, J; Saez, J Sanchez del Rio; Rosado, J Sanchez; Sanjari, S; Sarriguren, P; Sauerwein, A; Savran, D; Scheidenberger, C; Scheit, H; Schmidt, S; Schmitt, C; Schnorrenberger, L; Schrock, P; Schwengner, R; Seddon, D; Sherrill, B; Shrivastava, A; Sidorchuk, S; Silva, J; Simon, H; Simpson, E; Singh, P; Slobodan, D; Sohler, D; Spieker, M; Stach, D; Stan, E; Stanoiu, M; Stepantsov, S; Stevenson, P; Strieder, F; Stuhl, L; Suda, T; Sümmerer, K; Streicher, B; Taieb, J; Takechi, M; Tanihata, I; Taylor, J; Tengblad, O; Ter-Akopian, G; Terashima, S; Teubig, P; Thies, R; Thoennessen, M; Thomas, T; Thornhill, J; Thungstrom, G; Timar, J; Togano, Y; Tomohiro, U; Tornyi, T; Tostevin, J; Townsley, C; Trautmann, W; Trivedi, T; Typel, S; Uberseder, E; Udias, J; Uesaka, T; Uvarov, L; Vajta, Z; Velho, P; Vikhrov, V; Volknandt, M; Volkov, V; von Neumann-Cosel, P; von Schmid, M; Wagner, A; Wamers, F; Weick, H; Wells, D; Westerberg, L; Wieland, O; Wiescher, M; Wimmer, C; Wimmer, K; Winfield, J S; Winkel, M; Woods, P; Wyss, R; Yakorev, D; Yavor, M; Cardona, J Zamora; Zartova, I; Zerguerras, T; Zgura, I; Zhdanov, A; Zhukov, M; Zieblinski, M; Zilges, A; Zuber, K

    2016-01-01

    The nucleosynthesis of elements beyond iron is dominated by neutron captures in the s and r processes. However, 32 stable, proton-rich isotopes cannot be formed during those processes, because they are shielded from the s-process flow and r-process beta-decay chains. These nuclei are attributed to the p and rp process. For all those processes, current research in nuclear astrophysics addresses the need for more precise reaction data involving radioactive isotopes. Depending on the particular reaction, direct or inverse kinematics, forward or time-reversed direction are investigated to determine or at least to constrain the desired reaction cross sections. The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will offer unique, unprecedented opportunities to investigate many of the important reactions. The high yield of radioactive isotopes, even far away from the valley of stability, allows the investigation of isotopes involved in processes as exotic as the r or rp processes.

  8. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  9. Fair pricing, and pricing paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Swart

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The St Petersburg Paradox revolves round the determination of a fair price for playing the St Petersburg Game. According to the original formulation, the price for the game is infinite, and, therefore, paradoxical. Although the St Petersburg Paradox can be seen as concerning merely a game, Paul Samuelson (1977 calls it a “fascinating chapter in the history of ideas”, a chapter that gave rise to a considerable number of papers over more than 200 years involving fields such as probability theory and economics. In a paper in this journal, Vivian (2013 undertook a numerical investigation of the St Petersburg Game. In this paper, the central issue of the paradox is identified as that of fair (risk-neutral pricing, which is fundamental in economics and finance and involves important concepts such as no arbitrage, discounting, and risk-neutral measures. The model for the St Petersburg Game as set out in this paper is new and analytical and resolves the so-called pricing paradox by applying a discounting procedure. In this framework, it is shown that there is in fact no infinite price paradox, and simple formulas for obtaining a finite price for the game are also provided.

  10. "I pick you": the impact of fairness and race on infants' selection of social partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Monica P; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants' social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections.

  11. The Society-Deciders Model and Fairness in Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flomenbom, Ophir

    2015-05-01

    Modeling the dynamics in nations from economical and sociological perspectives is a central theme in economics and sociology. Accurate models can predict and therefore help all the world's citizens. Yet, recent years have show that the current models are missing. Here, we develop a dynamical society-deciders model that can explain the stability in a nation, based on concepts from dynamics, ecology and socio-econo-physics; a nation has two groups that interconnect, the deciders and the society. We show that a nation is either stable or it collapses. This depends on just two coefficients that we relate with sociological and economical indicators. We define a new socio-economic indicator, fairness. Fairness can measure the stability in a nation and how probable a change favoring the society is. We compute fairness among all the world's nations. Interestingly, in comparison with other indicators, fairness shows that the USA loses its rank among Western democracies, India is the best among the 15 most populated nations, and Egypt, Libya and Tunisia have significantly improved their rankings as a result of recent revolutions, further increasing the probability of additional positive changes. Within the model, long lasting crises are solved rather than with increasing governmental spending or cuts with regulations that reduce the stability of the deciders, namely, increasing fairness, while, for example, shifting wealth in the direction of the people, and therefore increasing further opportunities.

  12. The critical aspect on using fair value for financial instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Holban (Oncioiu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The variety of the book-keeping practices, of the financial auditor, of the fiscal norms and rules, can have a negative impact, not only onthe companies’ ability in furnishing the needed and true financial information to the creditors and investors, but also on the capacity to analyze thefuture investment opportunities regarding the financial instruments, which are vital for the economic increment. Under the Accounting Standard forFinancial Instruments, fair value measurement is required in certain circumstances similar to IFRS or US GAAP. There are also specialists whocriticize the limited use of fair values in IFRS. However, those criticizing fair value accounting do not seem to provide any credible alternatives. Dowe go back to historical cost accounting, wherein the financial assets are stated at outdated values and hence are not relevant or reliable? In thecurrent crisis, a question that is raised is: Should financial instruments be marked down to their current throw away prices? This paper describes howthe fair value is used under the Standard and purposes to decide whether fair value measurement is required or not based on the type of investment.

  13. Achieving Fair Throughput among TCP Flows in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ting-Chao; Hsu, Chih-Wei

    Previous research shows that the IEEE 802.11 DCF channel contention mechanism is not capable of providing throughput fairness among nodes in different locations of the wireless mesh network. The node nearest the gateway will always strive for the chance to transmit data, causing fewer transmission opportunities for the nodes farther from the gateway, resulting in starvation. Prior studies modify the DCF mechanism to address the fairness problem. This paper focuses on the fairness study when TCP flows are carried over wireless mesh networks. By not modifying lower layer protocols, the current work identifies TCP parameters that impact throughput fairness and proposes adjusting those parameters to reduce frame collisions and improve throughput fairness. With the aid of mathematical formulation and ns2 simulations, this study finds that frame transmission from each node can be effectively controlled by properly controlling the delayed ACK timer and using a suitable advertised window. The proposed method reduces frame collisions and greatly improves TCP throughput fairness.

  14. Open access is almost here: navigating through copyright, fair use, and the TEACH Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Margaret G

    2010-02-01

    Dealing with the complexities of copyright, fair use, the TEACH Act, and the concept of open access can confuse even the most experienced educator. Online education has added to the dilemma. This article discusses the latest information on copyright issues, current guidelines for interpreting fair use and incorporating the TEACH Act, and recent developments in open access publishing.

  15. 78 FR 38070 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing... Marketing (AFHM) Plan. OMB Approval Number: 2529-0013. Type of Request: Extension of a currently approved collection. Form Number: HUD-935.2A Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan (Multifamily),...

  16. Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing; Potencial reprodutivo de Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera,Chrysopidae) em funcao do numero de individuos por unidade de criacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Luis Gustavo Amorim [Centro Universitario de Varzea Grande (UNIVAG), Varzea Grande, MT (Brazil). GPA de Ciencias Agrarias e Biologicas], e-mail: gugamorim@yahoo.com.br; Freitas, Sergio de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Fitossanidade], e-mail: serfre@fcav.unesp.br

    2008-09-15

    Reproductive capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen) (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) in function of the number of individuals per unit of rearing. This work was carried out to investigate the reproductive potential of Chrysoperla externa subjected to different densities per rearing unit. Adults of the F{sub 4} offspring were kept at 25 {+-} 1 deg C, RH 70 {+-} 10% and 12 h photo phase. It was used the following densities per rearing unit (10 cm of diameter by 23 cm of height, and volume of 1650 cm{sup 3}): 1 male: 3 female, 2 males: 6 females, 3 males: 9 females and 4 males: 12 females. It was evaluated the pre-oviposition period, the daily and total oviposition per female and per rearing unit, the percentage of viable and infertile eggs percentage and the exploitation index per female and per rearing unit. The density 4 males: 12 females presented better exploitation when compared to the other densities thus equalizing the low values obtained for the mean and total egg laying per female. (author)

  17. Measuring a fair and ambitious climate agreement using cumulative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie M.; Solomon, Susan; Friedlingstein, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Policy makers have called for a ‘fair and ambitious’ global climate agreement. Scientific constraints, such as the allowable carbon emissions to avoid exceeding a 2 °C global warming limit with 66% probability, can help define ambitious approaches to climate targets. However, fairly sharing the mitigation challenge to meet a global target involves human values rather than just scientific facts. We develop a framework based on cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide to compare the consistency of countries’ current emission pledges to the ambition of keeping global temperatures below 2 °C, and, further, compare two alternative methods of sharing the remaining emission allowance. We focus on the recent pledges and other official statements of the EU, USA, and China. The EU and US pledges are close to a 2 °C level of ambition only if the remaining emission allowance is distributed based on current emission shares, which is unlikely to be viewed as ‘fair and ambitious’ by others who presently emit less. China’s stated emissions target also differs from measures of global fairness, owing to emissions that continue to grow into the 2020s. We find that, combined, the EU, US, and Chinese pledges leave little room for other countries to emit CO2 if a 2 °C limit is the objective, essentially requiring all other countries to move towards per capita emissions 7 to 14 times lower than the EU, USA, or China by 2030. We argue that a fair and ambitious agreement for a 2 °C limit that would be globally inclusive and effective in the long term will require stronger mitigation than the goals currently proposed. Given such necessary and unprecedented mitigation and the current lack of availability of some key technologies, we suggest a new diplomatic effort directed at ensuring that the necessary technologies become available in the near future.

  18. Nuclear isoscaling and fair sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jorge

    2008-10-01

    The isoscaling phenomenon was first observed in nuclear multifragmentation experiments and has become a hot topic as it could provide a probe of the nuclear equation of state to understand nuclear matter at extreme condition of isospin such as in neutron stars. The present work studies isoscaling using 1) classical molecular dynamics simulations, 2) percolation and 3) probabilistic arguments, and determines that isoscaling is a general phenomenon that can exist independent of the nuclear reaction, and it is expected to occur in disassemblying systems with no more than fair sampling. In collaboration with Alan Davila, University of Texas at Austin; Claudio Dorso, Universidad de Buenos Aires; Carlos Hernandez, Universidad de Colima; Christian Escudero, University of Texas at El Paso; and Jorge Muñoz, CalTech.

  19. The PANDA experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destefanis, M.

    2013-12-15

    The PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment is one of the major projects in preparation at the upcoming FAIR facility in Darmstadt, Germany. It will study interactions between antiprotons and protons or nuclei in the momentum range from 1.5 GeV/c to 15 GeV/c. The PANDA scientific program will address a wide range of topics, all aiming at improving our understanding of the strong interaction and hadron structure. The PANDA detector is a general-purpose spectrometer that will collect high quality and high statistics data in the fields of meson spectroscopy, baryon-antibaryon production, baryon spectroscopy, hypernuclear physics, hadron properties in the nuclear medium, and nucleon structure. This paper reviews some of the main physics topics of the experiment, together with a presentation of the detector.

  20. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a general method which from an invariant curve fairness measure constructs an invariant surface fairness measure. Besides the curve fairness measure one only needs a class of curves on the surface for which one wants to apply the curve measure. The surface measure at a point...... variation.The method is extended to the case where one considers, not the fairness of one curve, but the fairness of a one parameter family of curves. Such a family is generated by the flow of a vector field, orthogonal to the curves. The first, respectively the second order derivative along the curve...... of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  1. The ontogeny of fairness in seven societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P R; McAuliffe, K; Corbit, J; Callaghan, T C; Barry, O; Bowie, A; Kleutsch, L; Kramer, K L; Ross, E; Vongsachang, H; Wrangham, R; Warneken, F

    2015-12-10

    A sense of fairness plays a critical role in supporting human cooperation. Adult norms of fair resource sharing vary widely across societies, suggesting that culture shapes the acquisition of fairness behaviour during childhood. Here we examine how fairness behaviour develops in children from seven diverse societies, testing children from 4 to 15 years of age (n = 866 pairs) in a standardized resource decision task. We measured two key aspects of fairness decisions: disadvantageous inequity aversion (peer receives more than self) and advantageous inequity aversion (self receives more than a peer). We show that disadvantageous inequity aversion emerged across all populations by middle childhood. By contrast, advantageous inequity aversion was more variable, emerging in three populations and only later in development. We discuss these findings in relation to questions about the universality and cultural specificity of human fairness.

  2. Constructing Invariant Fairness Measures for Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens; Ungstrup, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a general method which from an invariant curve fairness measure constructs an invariant surface fairness measure. Besides the curve fairness measure one only needs a class of curves on the surface for which one wants to apply the curve measure. The surface measure at a point...... variation.The method is extended to the case where one considers, not the fairness of one curve, but the fairness of a one parameter family of curves. Such a family is generated by the flow of a vector field, orthogonal to the curves. The first, respectively the second order derivative along the curve...... of the size of this vector field is used as the fairness measure on the family.Six basic 3rd order invariants satisfying two quadratic equations are defined. They form a complete set in the sense that any invariant 3rd order function can be written as a function of the six basic invariants together...

  3. Not All Fun at the Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2011-01-01

    As growing uncertainties hang over China's trade front,a closer look at the latest Canton Fair,a barometer of China's foreign trade,can provide an insight on how exporters are faring.Officially known as the China Import and Export Fair,the biannual Canton Fair is held every spring and autumn in Guangzhou,capital of south Chian's Guangdong Province,and each fair has three phases.The 110th Canton Fair,held from October 15 to November 4,attracted more than 24,000 enterprises from home and abroad.Its first two phases witnessed export deals worth around $33.18billion,up 3.2 percent over the spring fair.

  4. Fair Scheduling in Networks Through Packet Election

    CERN Document Server

    Jagabathula, Srikanth

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing a fair scheduling algorithm for discrete-time constrained queuing networks. Each queue has dedicated exogenous packet arrivals. There are constraints on which queues can be served simultaneously. This model effectively describes important special instances like network switches, interference in wireless networks, bandwidth sharing for congestion control and traffic scheduling in road roundabouts. Fair scheduling is required because it provides isolation to different traffic flows; isolation makes the system more robust and enables providing quality of service. Existing work on fairness for constrained networks concentrates on flow based fairness. As a main result, we describe a notion of packet based fairness by establishing an analogy with the ranked election problem: packets are voters, schedules are candidates and each packet ranks the schedules based on its priorities. We then obtain a scheduling algorithm that achieves the described notion of fairness by drawing upon ...

  5. Sugar and Alcoholic Fair Closed in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 80th China National Sugar and Alcoholic Commodities Fair was held in Chengdu (capital of Sichuan province) from March 24 to 28.Sponsored by China National Sugar and Alcohol Group Corp.,this is the 20th time for Chengdu to host such a big event.Since the fair was initially held in 1955,Sugar and Alcoholic Fair has become increasingly well-known in both China and abroad while sticking to the principle of serving enterprises.

  6. Health fairs bring wellness concepts to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serina, M; Giove, S

    1991-01-01

    Incorporated into the nursing curriculum, the health fair is a stimulating, unique, nontraditional educational project that examines effective health education tools, leadership skills, and interaction with the community. Students test theories and collaborate with other school disciplines while planning, implementing, and evaluating health education and health fair promotion. Health fairs help students to identify positive lifestyles and create opportunities to test the skills needed to improve the population's wellness level.

  7. ON THE AUDIT OF FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENTS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jatinder P Singh; Prince Doliya

    2015-01-01

      In this article, the hypotheses on whether the auditor's functional domain, approach, methodology and responsibilities are undergoing a metamorphosis with the adoption of Fair Value Accounting (FVA...

  8. A GENERALIZED VERSION OF PLAY FAIR CIPHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Choudhary

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have generalized and modified the play fair cipher. We have introduced confusion and diffusion. The cryptanalysis carried out in this analysis has shown that the proposed play fair cipher is a strong one. The role of cryptography in today’s world is increasing day by day. Information is flowing from are place to another on the network. One most common cryptography technique is substitution cipher. Play fair is most common substitution cipher. In this paper, we present a generalized version of play fair ciphers. Encryption/decryption is a very popular task. We also explain the fundamentals of sequential cryptography.

  9. Fair at the Temple of Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    WITH all of its fun and games, the Spring Festival fair at the Temple of Earth in Beijing is a good place to spend the holidays. Ever since 1985, when the temple first resumed the practice of holding the fair during the Spring Festival, the annual event has attracted more and more people every year. In fact, the temple fair has gradually developed into a holiday exhibition of traditional local culture as well as an influential mass cultural activity. The opening ceremony is a major part of the temple fair. All who attend are impressed by its magnificence and liveliness. The arch tower at the entrance

  10. Fair division theory and climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, C. [Technical University Darmstadt (Germany). Department of Law and Economics

    2008-09-30

    This paper analyzes the fair division of common property resources when monetary compensations are feasible. A prominent example is the fair division of the atmosphere's limited absorptive capacity for greenhouse gases. I propose a solution that is Pareto efficient and satisfies the axiomatic fair division criteria of individual rationality, stand-alone upper bound, and a version of envy-freeness. The latter criterion is adapted to problems where monetary compensations can be used to facilitate the fair division of the common resource. Applied to climate change, the solution implies that developing countries should participate in emission reduction efforts, but should be fully compensated for their incremental abatement costs.

  11. Canton Fair: Warm in the Cold Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ting

    2009-01-01

    @@ Number of Buyers A modest rise was seen in the number of overseas buyers attending the fair. According to the statistics, in this session, the number of overseas buyers from 212 countries and regions was 188170, 22734 more than that of the spring session representing an increase of 13.7%, and 13608 more than that of last Autumn Fair in 2008, representing an increase of 7.8%. Buyers from EU and USA resumed their attendance to the Fair significantly and new buyers attending the Fair have increased.

  12. Summer Fair in the Ice City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 19th International China Harbin Fair for Trade and Economic Cooperation reaped a lot in terms of China-foreign trade contracts Harbin, the provincial capital of northeast China’s Heilongjiang Province, has long been well known to the world for its cold cli- mate, and especially for its annual ice festival in December. But each summer from June 15 to 19, the city has another mission: to hold an international trade fair-the International China Harbin Fair for Trade and Economic Cooperation (Harbin Trade Fair).

  13. FAIR PLAY I N TURKISH SOCIAL LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikail TEL

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We can say that we start hearing term of fair play since last 30 years in our country. While it is a sportive term it also represents respectfulness toward all mutual rights, symbol of being just and honest also we can determine it as basic moral values wh ich needs to be practise. Expression and teaching of Fair play fact starts with family and it needs to be thought as a life discipline which should appear in society. Term of Fair play isn‟t only an organizing term for sportive interrelations it also ne eds to be taken as a cultural fact. It is a way of life. Term of Fair play is a way of thinking and acting so it is is above all of sport branches. It is behaviors and emotions which are accepted as conditions of being a perfect human being by Turkish society. Purpose of this study is to investigate perspective of Turkish society toward Fair play and find lived / real fair play events to set as sample. Term of Fair play, cultural values among Turkish society and real Fair play events had been studied carefully within the theorical scope. This research is a theorical study. Screening the resources used as method for this study. Tried to investigate works, articles and researches had been done about this field and interpret the facts which can be acc epted as sample for Fair play.

  14. Elementary school teachers and successful science fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Helen Mounce

    The purpose of this research was to examine the knowledge, skills and attitudes of elementary school teachers who have led their students to successful experiences in science fairs. Six research questions guided the study: (1) What knowledge, skills and attitudes do the five selected elementary school teachers draw upon to enable their students to have a successful science fair experience? (2) How do the five selected elementary school teachers enable their students to have a successful science fair experience? (3) Why are the five selected elementary school teachers capable of enabling their students to have a successful science fair experience? (4) How do the knowledge, skills and attitudes of the five selected elementary school teachers compare to the knowledge, skills and attitudes that the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) recommend for science teachers? (5) What are the commonalities in the knowledge, skills and attitudes among the five selected elementary school teachers who enable their students to have a successful science fair experience? (6) What are the differences in the knowledge, skills and attitudes among the five selected elementary school teachers who enable their students to have a successful science fair experience? A qualitative multiple-case research design was used to focus on five elementary school teachers who have a history of leading their students to successful experiences in science fairs. Data sources included classroom observations, formal and informal interviews, focus groups, science fair visitations and perusal of documents related to the teachers' science fair preparation of their students. In addition, questionnaires were given to the teachers and their students assessing their views about science and science fairs. A cross-case analysis revealed that the teachers had become knowledgeable about science fairs and science by non-traditional means including attending staff development workshops

  15. Fairness through Transparency: The Influence of Price Transparency on Consumer Perceptions of Price Fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenberger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes that price transparency is a significant factor affecting customer judgments of the fairness of sellers’ prices. Cognitive judgments of fairness require a certain amount of information processing; therefore, the level of transparency and the amount of price information affect fairness judgments. The more clear information consumers possess concerning seller prices, the more positive the judgment will be. Customer price fairness judgment is an effective measurement for the ...

  16. Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radke, S.; Brazil, I.A.; Scheper, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with psycho

  17. Unfair offers, unfair offenders? Fairness considerations in incarcerated individuals with and without psychopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radke, S.; Brazil, I.A.; Scheper, I.; Bulten, B.H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Offenders with psychopathy have often committed crimes violating social norms, which may suggest a biased moral reasoning in psychopathy. Yet, as findings on utilitarian decisions remain conflicting, the current study investigated different aspects of fairness considerations in offenders with psycho

  18. Toward understanding why fairness matters : The influence of mortality salience on reactions to procedural fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den; Miedema, J.

    2000-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of why fairness matters to people. On the basis of fairness heuristic theory, the authors argue that people especially need fairness when they are uncertain about things that are important to them. Following terror management theory, the authors focus on a basic

  19. Fair Optimization and Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wlodzimierz Ogryczak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization models related to designing and operating complex systems are mainly focused on some efficiency metrics such as response time, queue length, throughput, and cost. However, in systems which serve many entities there is also a need for respecting fairness: each system entity ought to be provided with an adequate share of the system’s services. Still, due to system operations-dependant constraints, fair treatment of the entities does not directly imply that each of them is assigned equal amount of the services. That leads to concepts of fair optimization expressed by the equitable models that represent inequality averse optimization rather than strict inequality minimization; a particular widely applied example of that concept is the so-called lexicographic maximin optimization (max-min fairness. The fair optimization methodology delivers a variety of techniques to generate fair and efficient solutions. This paper reviews fair optimization models and methods applied to systems that are based on some kind of network of connections and dependencies, especially, fair optimization methods for the location problems and for the resource allocation problems in communication networks.

  20. Science Fair Project Index 1981-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cynthia, Ed.; Crowe, Deborah, Ed.

    This second supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1981 through 1984. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  1. Science Fair Project Index 1973-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akron - Summit County Public Library, OH.

    This supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1973 through 1980. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  2. Mainstreaming fair trade: the role of retailers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.; Rossing, G.; Hendriksen, A.; Voerman, K.

    2014-01-01

    In just two decades, fair trade has evolved from a niche market supplying products for a small group of dedicated consumers to a well-established market in several European countries, including the Netherlands. This transition has led to important changes in the dynamics in the fair-trade supply cha

  3. A formal model of fair exchange protocols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QING Sihan; LI Gaicheng

    2005-01-01

    Based on the study of existing fair exchange protocols, this paper sets up an accurate formal model by stepwise refinement. In the process of refinement an unreliable channel is employed to simulate an attack behavior. The model provides a novel formal definition of exchanged items, and presents the formal goals for fairness, accountability,etc., reflecting the inherent requirements for fair exchange protocols across-the-board. In order to check, prove, and design fair exchange protocols effectively and efficiently, the model puts forward a novel property of abuse-freeness which applies to all fair exchange protocols, gives a formal definition for trust strand of the third party, and presents general criteria of designing a secure and effective fair exchange protocol. Taking a typical fair exchange protocol as an example, this paper presents the analysis steps of fair exchange protocols appealing to our model. An unknown attack is uncovered. The analysis reveals the process of a complete attack, discovering deeper reasons for causing an attack.Finally, we modify the flawed protocol and the revised protocol ensures the desirable properties.

  4. 7 CFR 735.111 - Fair treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fair treatment. 735.111 Section 735.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... treatment. (a) Contingent upon the capacity of a warehouse, a warehouse operator will deal in a fair...

  5. Fair value accounting and managerial discretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrne, A.; Clacher, I.; Hillier, D.; Hodgson, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the extent to which managers exercise discretion under fair value accounting and the value relevance of these disclosures. Utilising a sample of firms that apply the UK fair value pension accounting standard, (FRS-17), we examine the main determinants of the assumptions managers use to ar

  6. The Entrepreneur Fair: Fifth Grade Student Businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    In twenty years of teaching, the author has never been involved in a project that sparked as much enthusiasm from students, parents, the administration, and other teachers as the Entrepreneur Fair. In an effort to challenge students to become entrepreneurs, the author developed a one-day market called the Entrepreneur Fair at Stonewall Elementary…

  7. The Quest for Fairness in Language Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    The search for fairness in language testing is distinct from other areas of educational measurement as the object of measurement, that is, language, is part of the identity of the test takers. So, a host of issues enter the scene when one starts to reflect on how to assess people's language abilities. As the quest for fairness in language testing…

  8. Science Fair Project Index 1981-1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cynthia, Ed.; Crowe, Deborah, Ed.

    This second supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1981 through 1984. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  9. Science Fair Scene: Turning Ideas into Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines the steps necessary to conduct a science fair project and examines two specific examples of how a basic idea for a science fair topic can be followed to its completion. Provides examples of day-to-day operational science in a basic botany project and a lunar geography project. (JJK)

  10. Science Fair Project Index 1973-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akron - Summit County Public Library, OH.

    This supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1973 through 1980. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  11. NEW IDEAS FOR SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FARMER, ROBERT A.; SAWYER, ROGER WILLIAMS

    THIS GUIDE FOR THE SCIENCE FAIR PARTICIPANTS BEGINS WITH A CHAPTER ON THE NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND THE SCIENCE FAIR, AND CONTINUES THROUGH THE FIVE CHAPTERS OF PART ONE, PLANNING AND EXECUTING YOUR PROJECT, TO EXPLAIN THE DETAILS INVOLVED IN SELECTING, DEVELOPING, AND EXHIBITING A PROJECT. PART II OF THE VOLUME CONSIDERS THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENCE…

  12. The 11th Beijing International Book Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Adhering to the principle of "ush ering world books into China,introducing Chinese books to the world", the size of Beijing International Book Fair has seen constant expansion, international position undergoing continuous upgrading and its influence becoming increasingly profound since the first Fair was held in 1986.

  13. The 11th Beijing International Book Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      Adhering to the principle of "ush ering world books into China,introducing Chinese books to the world", the size of Beijing International Book Fair has seen constant expansion, international position undergoing continuous upgrading and its influence becoming increasingly profound since the first Fair was held in 1986.……

  14. Fair value accounting and managerial discretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrne, A.; Clacher, I.; Hillier, D.; Hodgson, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the extent to which managers exercise discretion under fair value accounting and the value relevance of these disclosures. Utilising a sample of firms that apply the UK fair value pension accounting standard, (FRS-17), we examine the main determinants of the assumptions managers use to ar

  15. A Standards-Based Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

  16. Fair Shares, Matey, or Walk the Plank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. Holt; Myers, Marrielle; Edgington, Cyndi; Confrey, Jere

    2012-01-01

    Whether sharing a collection of toys among friends or a pie for dessert, children as young as kindergarten age are keen on making sure that everyone gets their "fair share." In the classroom, fair-sharing activities call for creating equal-size groups from a collection of objects or creating equal-size parts of a whole and are generally used by…

  17. What Do We Mean by FAIR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Liz

    2011-01-01

    "Fair" is a word people are hearing a lot at the moment if they listen to political discussion. There is much debate about how it means different things to politicians of different hues and can be used to justify seemly contradictory courses of action. In science, "fair" is also a word that is used by children and teachers in different ways.…

  18. How To Host a Library Technology Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the Northwestern State University library organized a successful technology fair that focused on the library and campus technology. Discusses reasons for organizing the fair, including the introduction of new workstations; academic department participation; vendor participation; marketing strategies and communication; and student…

  19. Experiencing Fairness at School: An International Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses survey responses from around 13,000 grade 9 pupils in French-speaking Belgium, the Czech Republic, England, France and Italy to examine their experiences of fairness in schools. Can differences between countries, types of schools or interactions with teachers, influence what pupils regard as fair, either at school or more widely?…

  20. NEW IDEAS FOR SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FARMER, ROBERT A.; SAWYER, ROGER WILLIAMS

    THIS GUIDE FOR THE SCIENCE FAIR PARTICIPANTS BEGINS WITH A CHAPTER ON THE NATURE OF SCIENCE, AND THE SCIENCE FAIR, AND CONTINUES THROUGH THE FIVE CHAPTERS OF PART ONE, PLANNING AND EXECUTING YOUR PROJECT, TO EXPLAIN THE DETAILS INVOLVED IN SELECTING, DEVELOPING, AND EXHIBITING A PROJECT. PART II OF THE VOLUME CONSIDERS THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENCE…

  1. Fair value accounting and managerial discretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrne, A.; Clacher, I.; Hillier, D.; Hodgson, A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the extent to which managers exercise discretion under fair value accounting and the value relevance of these disclosures. Utilising a sample of firms that apply the UK fair value pension accounting standard, (FRS-17), we examine the main determinants of the assumptions managers use to

  2. FAIR VALUE ACCOUNTING AND EARNINGS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Hsu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many have argued that measuring financial instruments at fair value might not reflect firms’ financial condition. Prior study finds that managers manipulate the “disclosure” of fair value measurement (Song et al. 2010. In this study, we attempt to provide evidence regarding manager’s incentive to manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurements by examining whether the disclosure of less relevant fair value measurement is related to the odds of earnings management. We find that firms with more Level 3 assets and liabilities (i.e., less value relevant fair value measurement are more likely to recognize positive unrealized gains to meet or beat analyst forecast target. In addition, we find that only firms with weak corporate governance disclose more Level 3 fair value liabilities and recognize unrealized gains into reported earnings to meet or beat analyst forecast target. This evidence suggests that managers manipulate the disclosure of fair value measurement in order to manage reported earnings via the adoption of fair value option.

  3. FAIR VALUE IMPLICATIONS ON ROMANIAN CAPITAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian-Dan COSTEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fair value generated intense debate during the last years, as the financial turmoil influenced many economies and capital markets, including the Romanian ones, too. Some researchers and professionals consider fair value in charge with the financial crisis and they ask for historical cost accounting basis for financial reporting. Fair value has its supporters, too. They consider that fair value reflects the effects of changes in market conditions when they take place, and accounting information is more reliable in this framework. Following recent regulations, Romanian entities activating on capital market as investors in capital market instruments, or whose shares are traded on a regulated market, must prepare their individual financial statements in accordance with the International Financial Reporting Standards. The study provides some conclusions that could enlarge the utility of fair value related to entities that activate on Romanian capital market.

  4. Measuring and Controlling Fairness of Triangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui

    2016-09-30

    The fairness of meshes that represent geometric shapes is a topic that has been studied extensively and thoroughly. However, the focus in such considerations often is not on the mesh itself, but rather on the smooth surface approximated by it, and fairness essentially expresses a mesh’s suitability for purposes such as visualization or simulation. This paper focusses on meshes in the architectural context, where vertices, edges, and faces of meshes are often highly visible, and any notion of fairness must take new aspects into account. We use concepts from discrete differential geometry (star-shaped Gauss images) to express fairness, and we also demonstrate how fairness can be incorporated into interactive geometric design of triangulated freeform skins.

  5. When fairness matters less than we expect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Gus; Gilbert, Daniel T; Wilson, Timothy D

    2016-10-04

    Do those who allocate resources know how much fairness will matter to those who receive them? Across seven studies, allocators used either a fair or unfair procedure to determine which of two receivers would receive the most money. Allocators consistently overestimated the impact that the fairness of the allocation procedure would have on the happiness of receivers (studies 1-3). This happened because the differential fairness of allocation procedures is more salient before an allocation is made than it is afterward (studies 4 and 5). Contrary to allocators' predictions, the average receiver was happier when allocated more money by an unfair procedure than when allocated less money by a fair procedure (studies 6 and 7). These studies suggest that when allocators are unable to overcome their own preallocation perspectives and adopt the receivers' postallocation perspectives, they may allocate resources in ways that do not maximize the net happiness of receivers.

  6. Fairness versus efficiency of vaccine allocation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ming; Marathe, Achla

    2015-03-01

    To develop a framework to objectively measure the degree of fairness of any allocation rule aimed at distributing a limited stockpile of vaccines to contain the spread of influenza. The trade-off between the efficiency and fairness of allocation strategies was demonstrated through an illustrative simulation study of an influenza epidemic in Southwestern Virginia. A Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model was used to represent the disease progression within the host. Our findings showed that among all the criteria considered here, the household size (largest first) combined with age (youngest first)-based strategy leads to the best outcome. At 80% fairness, highest efficiency can be achieved but in order to be 100% fair, disease prevalence will have to rise by approximately 1.5%. This research provides a framework to objectively determine the degree of fairness of vaccine allocation strategies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Price of Fairness on Networked Auctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Kaleta

    2014-01-01

    as follows: no agent can be treated worse than any other in similar circumstances. Ensuring the fairness conditions makes only part of the social welfare available in the auction to be distributed on pure market rules. The rest of welfare must be distributed without market rules and constitutes the so-called price of fairness. We prove that there exists the minimum of price of fairness and that it is achieved when uniform unconstrained market price is used as the base price. The price of fairness takes into account costs of forced offers and compensations for lost profits. The final payments can be different than locational marginal pricing. That means that the widely applied locational marginal pricing mechanism does not in general minimize the price of fairness.

  8. GENERAL ASPECTS ON THE ACCOUNTING ESTIMATION- FAIR VALUE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiu Serban; Dalia Simion; Sabin Armaselu

    2013-01-01

    In the current context of the global economy, marked by profound changes, obtain as accurate a picture through financial reports is of undeniable importance and significance of the value is very complex. The result of the evaluation, the purpose of financial reporting, is, most often to express a numerical value for the item assessed. The fair value resulted because of the need satisfaction, expressed by users of financial statements, in that it had found a valuation model elements supporting...

  9. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair value» is narrower and more accurate than the previous, it clarifies the subject matter, subjects of transactions, as well as the date of its execution. The scheme of estimation at fair value as well as model of fair value determination according to IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» has been presented. Methods of measurement at fair value and the fair value hierarchy have been researched. Some disadvantages of provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» on the basis of its analysis have been highlighted, uncertainty is essential among them in which fair value should be applied.

  10. The financial value of services provided by a rural community health fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulin, Mary Katherine; Olive, Kenneth E; Florence, Joseph A; Sliger, Carolyn

    2006-11-01

    There has been little discussion in the literature regarding the financial value of the services provided to the participants in health fairs. This article examines the financial value of preventive services provided through a community health fair in an economically depressed area of southwest Virginia. Current Procedural Terminology codes were assigned to the services provided in order to estimate costs participants might incur for such services. An average 50-year-old man would have paid up to $320 to obtain commonly recommended preventive services available free at the fair. An average 50-year-old woman would have paid up to $495. Overall, over $58,000 in services were provided through the health fair. This community health fair provided preventive services that many participants otherwise might have found to be cost-prohibitive.

  11. How Do We Go about Investigating Test Fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming

    2010-01-01

    Previous test fairness frameworks have greatly expanded the scope of fairness, but do not provide a means to fully integrate fairness investigations and set priorities. This article proposes an approach to guide practitioners on fairness research and practices. This approach treats fairness as an aspect of validity and conceptualizes it as…

  12. Young Children's Development of Fairness Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi

    2016-01-01

    Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position.

  13. Teaching Fair Use with Astronomy Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism among students is most common because of a misunderstanding of copyright and fair use. Images and text are frequently used without proper credit to the original author, and works are frequently acknowledged improperly. For example, space imagery is often used in posters, presentations, on the web, on Facebook, and even in the classrooms, but often are not properly cited. A lesson plan on fair use is presented, outlining what constitutes fair use and how to properly acknowledge the work done by artists and authors everywhere, with examples drawn from the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD).

  14. Fine Art Fair Held in September

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2011-01-01

    "Ihe Art Beijing 2011· Fine Art Fair was held at the National Agricultural Exhibition Center in Beijing from September 15 to 18, 2011. Bringing together over 40 galleries and art institutions, this year's Fine Art Beijing offers a strong lineup. It presented an extraordinary exhibition of both classical and modem art from West and East. Compared with previous fairs, the exhibits at the Fine Art Beijing 2011 are richer in form and more diversified in style. Attending the fair,

  15. MULTI-ITEM FAIR EXCHANGE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Dong; Chen Kefei

    2002-01-01

    As more business is conduced over the Internet, the fair exchange problem assumes increasing importance. However, the problem of multi-party fair exchange has not been studied as widely as the more fundamental problem of 2-party fair exchange. Recently, Franklin and Tsudik proposed two protocols for n-party multi-item exchange on FC'98, SUCEX-1 and SUCES-2. This paper first gives an attack on the proposed protocol SUCEX-1, then presents two protocols for multi-item exchange, one is an improved protocol of SUCEX-1, another is the extension of protocol SUCEX-2.

  16. MULTI—ITEM FAIR EXCHANGE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengDong; ChenKefei

    2002-01-01

    As more ubsiness is conduced over the Internet,the fair exchange problem assumes increasing importance,However,the problem of multi-party fair exchange has not been studied as widely as the more fundamental problem of 2-party fair exchange,Recently,Franklin and Tsudik proposed two protocols for n-parth multi-item exchange on FC'98,SUCEX-1 and SUCES-2,This paper first gives an attack on the proposed protocol SUCEX-1,then presents two protocols for multi-item exchange,one is an improoved protocol of SUCEX-1,another is the extension of protocol SUCEX-2.

  17. FAIR VALUE MEASUREMENT UNDER IFRS 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COZMA IGHIAN DIANA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The IFRS 13, „Fair Value Measurement”, was first published in May 2011 and it applies to annual reporting periods that begin on or after January 1st 2013; this standard comes as a result of shared efforts on the part of the IASB and the FASB to develop a convergent framework regarding fair value measurement. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the main provisions of the IFRS 13 regarding fair value measurement, with a special emphasis on key concepts found throughout the standard, which refer to the principal market, the most advantageous market, the highest and best use, valuation techniques, and value hierarchy.

  18. Improved quantification of brain perfusion using FAIR with active suppression of superior tagging (FAIR ASST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiufeng; Sarkar, Subhendra N; Purdy, David E; Haley, Robert W; Briggs, Richard W

    2011-11-01

    To address two problems for perfusion studies in the middle or inferior brain regions: (1) to reduce venous artifacts due to the intrinsic superior labeling of FAIR; (2) to alleviate the discrepancy of the existence of both superior and inferior boluses, but with only the inferior bolus having a temporally defined bolus width with Q2TIPs or QUIPSS. Superior tagging suppression methods for FAIR with different combinations of pre- and postinversion superior saturation pulses were evaluated and compared with FAIR with Q2TIPS for producing perfusion maps of superior, middle, and inferior brain regions. One preinversion plus two postinversion superior saturation radio frequency pulses effectively suppressed the superior tagging of FAIR and sufficiently eliminated venous artifacts without negative effects, avoiding the overestimations of cerebral blood flow that can occur in FAIR. FAIR ASST improves FAIR with Q2TIPS and provides more reliable and accurate blood flow estimations for perfusion studies of middle and lower brain regions. FAIR ASST confers the advantages of asymmetric PASL techniques, such as PICORE, in which only the inferiorly labeled blood is used for perfusion quantification, to the symmetric PASL technique FAIR, while preserving the robustness of FAIR against MT effects. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Application of Land Value of Per Unit Floor in Assessment of Payment of Land-Transferring Fees Since Plot Ratio Changing%楼面地价在容积率改变补缴土地出让价款评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学延

    2012-01-01

    Changing plot ratio of transferred land is a common problem.The Ministey of Land and Resources asks to use land value of per unit floor to determine the payment of land-transferring fees,but there is no concrete ways.Combining the relationship between the land value of per unit floor and the plot ratio in Dezhou base value of land syetem,how to assess land value of per unit floor and how to use land value of per unit floor to determine the payment of land-transferring fees have been studied.%出让土地改变容积率是一个普遍的问题,国土资源部要求用楼面地价核定应当补缴的土地出让价款,但没有具体的实施方案。该文结合德州市基准地价体系研究了楼面地价与容积率的关系,对如何评估楼面地价及如何用楼面地价核定应当补缴的土地出让价款进行了探讨。

  20. Online Stochastic Ad Allocation: Efficiency and Fairness

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Jon; Korula, Nitish; Mirrokni, Vahab S; Stein, Cliff

    2010-01-01

    We study the efficiency and fairness of online stochastic display ad allocation algorithms from a theoretical and practical standpoint. In particular, we study the problem of maximizing efficiency in the presence of stochastic information. In this setting, each advertiser has a maximum demand for impressions of display ads that will arrive online. In our model, inspired by the concept of free disposal in economics, we assume that impressions that are given to an advertiser above her demand are given to her for free. Our main theoretical result is to present a training-based algorithm that achieves a (1-\\epsilon)-approximation guarantee in the random order stochastic model. In the corresponding online matching problem, we learn a dual variable for each advertiser, based on data obtained from a sample of impressions. We also discuss different fairness measures in online ad allocation, based on comparison to an ideal offline fair solution, and develop algorithms to compute "fair" allocations. We then discuss sev...

  1. Fair and Reasonable Rate Calculation Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This dataset provides guidelines for calculating the fair and reasonable rates for U.S. flag vessels carrying preference cargoes subject to regulations contained at...

  2. The evolution of fairness through spite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forber, Patrick; Smead, Rory

    2014-04-07

    The presence of apparently irrational fair play in the ultimatum game remains a focal point for studies in the evolution of social behaviour. We investigate the role of negative assortment in the evolution of fair play in the ultimatum game. Spite-social behaviour that inflicts harm with no direct benefit to the actor-can evolve when it is disproportionally directed at individuals playing different strategies. The introduction of negative assortment alters the dynamics in a way that increases the chance fairness evolves, but at a cost: spite also evolves. Fairness is usually linked to cooperation and prosocial behaviour, but this study shows that it may have evolutionary links to harmful antisocial behaviour.

  3. The perceived fairness of performance evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.G.H. Hartmann (Frank)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhen it comes to procedural justice, Management Accounting and Human Resources functions have to get closer to create systems of performance evaluation that are perceived as fair – and that also take uncertainty into consideration.

  4. Fair Electronic Payment Scheme Based on DSA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-bin; HONG Fan; ZHU Xian

    2005-01-01

    We present a multi-signature scheme based on DSA and describes a fair electronic payment scheme based on improved DSA signatures. The scheme makes both sides in equal positions during the course of electronic transaction. A Trusted Third Party (TTP) is involved in the scheme to guarantee the fairness of the scheme for both sides. However, only during the course of registration and dispute resolution will TTP be needed. TTP is not needed during the normal payment stage.

  5. It's so hard to be fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Joel

    2006-03-01

    When employees believe they are being treated fairly-when they feel heard, when they understand how and why important decisions are made, and when they believe they are respected-their companies will benefit. Research shows that practicing process fairness reduces legal costs from wrongful-termination suits, lowers employee turnover, helps generate support for new strategic initiatives, and fosters a culture that promotes innovation. What's more, it costs little financially to implement Yet few companies practice it consistently. Joel Brockner examines this paradox, exploring psychological and other reasons that cause managers to resist embracing process fairness. The fact that it's relatively inexpensive to implement, for instance, may be why some numbers-oriented executives undervalue it. Many managers believe that they practice process fairness, but 360-degree feedback tells another story. Some corporate policies actually undermine it--such as when the legal department won't let managers fully explain decisions for fear that disclosure could expose the firm to lawsuits. And, frequently, managers simply follow the all-too-human tendency to avoid uncomfortable situations. But the good news is that organizations can take concrete steps to promote greater process fairness. Many studies have shown that training programs make a big difference, and the author describes the most effective format. In addition, warning your managers that they may experience negative emotions when practicing fair process will help prepare them to cope with those feelings. Finally, role modeling fair process on the executive level will help spread the practice throughout the organization. The fact is, process fairness is the responsibility of all executives, at all levels and in all functions; it cannot be delegated to HR. The sooner managers realize that and work to make it a company norm, the better off the organization will be.

  6. CW-HSTCP: Fair TCP in high-speed networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Xue-zeng; SU Fan-jun; L(U) Yong; PING Ling-di

    2006-01-01

    The congestion control mechanisms of the current standard TCP constrain the congestion windows that can be achieved by TCP in high-speed networks, which leads to low link utilization. HSTCP is one solution to solve this problem by modifying the congestion control mechanism to have the characteristics of TCP friendliness in high loss rate environment and high scalability in low loss rate environment. However, experiments revealed that HSTCP has severe RTT unfairness. After analyzing the RTT unfairness in HSTCP with a model, we proposed CW-HSTCP, which added a fair factor to decrease the difference of congestion window caused by different RTT. Fair factor of long RTT flows can cause a sharp window increment that is easy to cause a bursty traffic, so a method called block-pacing was adopted. Simulation results showed that our new proposal could alleviate the RTT unfairness while keeping advantages of HSTCP.

  7. HISTORICAL COST VERSUS FAIR VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Ighian Diana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The current process of accounting globalization is based mainly on the concept of just value. This concept has been the source of vivid debates with regards to its meaning in contemporary accountancy, both in theory and in practice. The increased importan

  8. Perceived controllability and fairness in performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Schiehll

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of environmental uncertainty, decentralization of decisions rights, and the use of subjective performance measures on managers’ perceptions of outcome controllability and performance evaluation fairness. Based on a survey of 339 middle- and upper- level managers, our results suggest that environmental uncertainty adversely affects perceptions of outcome controllability and that this effect is not moderated by the decentralization of decision rights. Our results also show a positive association between perceived controllability and performance evaluation fairness. Although we found no direct effect of the use of subjective performance measures on perceived performance evaluation fairness, it appears to moderate the positive effect of perceived controllability on fairness. We also show that the positive effect of the use of subjective measures may depend on contextual and job-related factors. The overall results underscore the need to consider the organizational context (environmental uncertainty and decentralization of decision rights to investigate how performance measures affect perceived controllability and fairness. Because perceived controllability and fairness affect individual attitudes and behaviors within an organization, our results have important implications for the design and use of performance evaluation systems.

  9. Aerodynamic Design of a Locomotive Fairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Chad; Maynes, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Rising fuel cost has motivated increased fuel efficiency of freight trains. At cruising speed, the largest contributing factor to the fuel consumption is the aerodynamic drag. As a result of air stagnation at the front of the train and substantial flow separation behind, the leading locomotive and trailing railcar experience greater drag than intermediate cars. This work introduces the design of streamlined nose fairings to be attached to freight locomotives as a means of reducing the leading locomotive drag. The aerodynamic performance of each fairing design is modeled using a commercial CFD software package. The K-epsilon turbulence model is used, and fluid properties are equivalent to atmospheric air at standard conditions. A selection of isolated screening studies are performed, and a multidimensional regression is used to predict optimal-performing fairing designs. Between screening studies, careful examination of the flow field is performed to inspire subsequent fairing designs. Results are presented for 250 different nose fairings. The best performing fairing geometry predicts a nominal drag reduction of 17% on the lead locomotive in a train set. This drag reduction is expected to result in nearly 1% fuel savings for the entire train.

  10. International Marketing & Relations of MATKA Travel Fair in Helsinki

    OpenAIRE

    Kharel, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis was done in order to know about the international marketing and atmosphere of MATKA Nordic Travel Fair in Helsinki. The topic of this thesis International Marketing & Relations of MATKA Travel Fair in Helsinki itself is an interesting topic. It shows how international atmosphere and marketing is done in MATKA Nordic Travel Fair and international atmosphere in MATKA Nordic Travel Fair. The MATKA Nordic Travel Fair in Helsinki is only one of the biggest travel fair in Fin...

  11. 我国工业产能利用率测算方法研究——基于单位资本存量工业增加值指标%The Study on the Estimation Method-of Industrial Capacity Utilization--Based on Industrial C-DP per unit Industrial Capital Stock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁捷敏

    2012-01-01

    Based on the relation between industrial GDP per unit industrial capital stock and industrial capacity per unit industrial capital stock, under the condition that industrial capacity per unit industrial capital stock is a linear function about the year, a reasonable principle is proposed in this paper which fits industrial capacity per unit industrial capital stock by industr:ial GDP per unit industrial capital stock, and then the estimation method of industrial capacity utilization is established. The method to estimate China's industrial capacity utilization data from 1978 to 2005 is also applied in this paper. The results show that the estimation data of industrial capacity utilization can reflect the reality of our country.%依据单位资本存量工业增加值(=工业增加值/工业资本存量)和单位资本存量工业产能(=工业产能/工业资本存量)之间的关系,在单位资本存量工业产能是年度的线性函数的假设下,提出利用单位资本存量工业增加值来拟合单位资本存量工业产能的合理原理和方法,并据此构建工业产能利用率的测算方法。应用该方法测算我国1978--2005年的工业产能利用率,测算结果能反映我国的现实情况。

  12. Fair Value in the light of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement»

    OpenAIRE

    V.V. Svitselska

    2015-01-01

    The main provisions of IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been researched as well as its critical analysis has been conducted. Comparison of the previous and the new definition of the concept «fair value» has been done on the basis of what the shortcomings of the previous definition have been highlighted, the characteristic features and advantages of new definition from IFRS 13 «Fair Value Measurement» have been outlined. It has been proved that new interpretation of the concept of «fair v...

  13. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

    OpenAIRE

    Chen QU; Wang, Yuru; Huang, Yunyun

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game (UG), participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fa...

  14. “I pick you”: the impact of fairness and race on infants’ selection of social partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Monica P.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    By 15 months of age infants are sensitive to violations of fairness norms as assessed via their enhanced visual attention to unfair versus fair outcomes in violation-of-expectation paradigms. The current study investigated whether 15-month-old infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair versus unfair behavior, and whether infants integrate social selections on the basis of fairness with the race of the distributors and recipients involved in the exchange. Experiment 1 demonstrated that after witnessing one adult distribute toys to two recipients fairly (2:2 distribution), and another adult distribute toys to two recipients unfairly (1:3 distribution), Caucasian infants selected fair over unfair distributors when both distributors were Caucasian; however, this preference was not present when the fair actor was Asian and the unfair actor was Caucasian. In Experiment 2, when fairness, the race of the distributor, and the race of the recipients were fully crossed, Caucasian infants’ social selections varied as a function of the race of the recipient advantaged by the unfair distributor. Specifically, infants were more likely to select the fair distributor when the unfair recipient advantaged the Asian (versus the Caucasian) recipient. These findings provide evidence that infants select social partners on the basis of prior fair behavior and that infants also take into account the race of distributors and recipients when making their social selections. PMID:24575069

  15. Modeling for fairness: A Rawlsian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Sven; Zwart, Sjoerd D

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we introduce the overlapping design consensus for the construction of models in design and the related value judgments. The overlapping design consensus is inspired by Rawls' overlapping consensus. The overlapping design consensus is a well-informed, mutual agreement among all stakeholders based on fairness. Fairness is respected if all stakeholders' interests are given due and equal attention. For reaching such fair agreement, we apply Rawls' original position and reflective equilibrium to modeling. We argue that by striving for the original position, stakeholders expel invalid arguments, hierarchies, unwarranted beliefs, and bargaining effects from influencing the consensus. The reflective equilibrium requires that stakeholders' beliefs cohere with the final agreement and its justification. Therefore, the overlapping design consensus is not only an agreement to decisions, as most other stakeholder approaches, it is also an agreement to their justification and that this justification is consistent with each stakeholders' beliefs. For supporting fairness, we argue that fairness qualifies as a maxim in modeling. We furthermore distinguish values embedded in a model from values that are implied by its context of application. Finally, we conclude that for reaching an overlapping design consensus communication about properties of and values related to a model is required.

  16. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-07

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive Filtering Queueing for Improving Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scalable and efficient Active Queue Management (AQM scheme to provide fair bandwidth sharing when traffic is congested dubbed Adaptive Filtering Queueing (AFQ. First, AFQ identifies the filtering level of an arriving packet by comparing it with a flow label selected at random from the first level to an estimated level in the filtering level table. Based on the accepted traffic estimation and the previous fair filtering level, AFQ updates the fair filtering level. Next, AFQ uses a simple packet-dropping algorithm to determine whether arriving packets are accepted or discarded. To enhance AFQ’s feasibility in high-speed networks, we propose a two-layer mapping mechanism to effectively simplify the packet comparison operations. Simulation results demonstrate that AFQ achieves optimal fairness when compared with Rotating Preference Queues (RPQ, Core-Stateless Fair Queueing (CSFQ, CHOose and Keep for responsive flows, CHOose and Kill for unresponsive flows (CHOKe and First-In First-Out (FIFO schemes under a variety of traffic conditions.

  18. A Spoonful of Fairness: Training in Fairness Principles Helps Communicate Bad News

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streicher, Bernhard; Graupmann, Verena; Weisweiler, Silke

    2014-01-01

    Fairness training was examined in its effect on resulting third party perceptions of communicating a negative outcome. Twenty-nine students were videotaped communicating an unfavourable decision twice within a one-week interval: before and after having participated in fairness training, or--in the control group--remaining untrained. Results showed…

  19. Trust, confidence, procedural fairness, outcome fairness, moral conviction, and the acceptance of GM field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Connor, Melanie; Keller, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, Swiss citizens endorsed a moratorium on gene technology, resulting in the prohibition of the commercial cultivation of genetically modified crops and the growth of genetically modified animals until 2013. However, scientific research was not affected by this moratorium, and in 2008, GMO field experiments were conducted that allowed us to examine the factors that influence their acceptance by the public. In this study, trust and confidence items were analyzed using principal component analysis. The analysis revealed the following three factors: "economy/health and environment" (value similarity based trust), "trust and honesty of industry and scientists" (value similarity based trust), and "competence" (confidence). The results of a regression analysis showed that all the three factors significantly influenced the acceptance of GM field experiments. Furthermore, risk communication scholars have suggested that fairness also plays an important role in the acceptance of environmental hazards. We, therefore, included measures for outcome fairness and procedural fairness in our model. However, the impact of fairness may be moderated by moral conviction. That is, fairness may be significant for people for whom GMO is not an important issue, but not for people for whom GMO is an important issue. The regression analysis showed that, in addition to the trust and confidence factors, moral conviction, outcome fairness, and procedural fairness were significant predictors. The results suggest that the influence of procedural fairness is even stronger for persons having high moral convictions compared with persons having low moral convictions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Science Fair Scene: How to Conduct a Science-Fair Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, David R.

    1991-01-01

    Advice on how to transform a practical idea into a first-class science fair project is provided. How to do scientific research, what to include in a science fair report, how to pick a topic, when to begin, writing the report, and making the display are topics of discussion. (KR)

  1. What's fair is fair--or is it? Value differences underlying public views about social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, K A

    1987-07-01

    Individual differences in judgments of the fairness of various sociopolitical phenomena were examined in three surveys. Scales measuring two value dimensions thought to underlie the meaning of fairness were constructed, and survey respondents endorsing these different values were compared on their evaluation of the procedural and distributive fairness of political objects. Those endorsing the value of proportionality, hypothesized by equity theorists to underlie fairness judgments, judged equity-based public policies to be fairer than equality-based policies and judged that Ronald Reagan would be a fairer president than Walter Mondale. These people also emphasized the procedural aspects of government when judging government fairness. Respondents endorsing the value of egalitarianism, hypothesized by developmental theorists and some political philosophers to underlie fairness judgments, judged equality-based public policies to be fairer than equity-based policies and judged that Mondale would be a fairer president than Reagan. These people emphasized the distributive aspects of government when judging government fairness. Results support the naive moral philosopher image of the individual as judge of political objects (Tyler, 1984a). Political fairness judgments are ideological responses and are subject to the influence of the value structure of the judge (Tetlock, 1986).

  2. Impacts of Launch Vehicle Fairing Size on Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon; Collins, Tim; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Polsgrove, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars, particularly to the Martian surface, are grand endeavors that place extensive demands on ground infrastructure, launch capabilities, and mission systems. The interplay of capabilities and limitations among these areas can have significant impacts on the costs and ability to conduct Mars missions and campaigns. From a mission and campaign perspective, decisions that affect element designs, including those based on launch vehicle and ground considerations, can create effects that ripple through all phases of the mission and have significant impact on the overall campaign. These effects result in impacts to element designs and performance, launch and surface manifesting, and mission operations. In current Evolvable Mars Campaign concepts, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) is the primary launch vehicle for delivering crew and payloads to cis-lunar space. SLS is currently developing an 8.4m diameter cargo fairing, with a planned upgrade to a 10m diameter fairing in the future. Fairing diameter is a driving factor that impacts many aspects of system design, vehicle performance, and operational concepts. It creates a ripple effect that influences all aspects of a Mars mission, including: element designs, grounds operations, launch vehicle design, payload packaging on the lander, launch vehicle adapter design to meet structural launch requirements, control and thermal protection during entry and descent at Mars, landing stability, and surface operations. Analyses have been performed in each of these areas to assess and, where possible, quantify the impacts of fairing diameter selection on all aspects of a Mars mission. Several potential impacts of launch fairing diameter selection are identified in each of these areas, along with changes to system designs that result. Solutions for addressing these impacts generally result in increased systems mass and propellant needs, which can further exacerbate packaging and flight challenges. This paper

  3. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities.

  4. THE RIGHT TO A FAIR TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLORICA BRASOVEANU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the general rights of the citizen on finds the free access to justice, the rights to defense and the right to legal security. The jurisprudence based on principles of law and on international treaties, caused the appearance, along the constitutional protection provided by default by a lawyer, of the need of fair and equitable procedures to ensure a balance in the rights of the parties. Today the right to a fair trial is a fundamental right most frequently invoked in front of Romanian courts, as in complaints to the European Court of Human Rights. This study is intended as a guide of the most important solutions that have been promoted to ensure the protection of the right to a fair trial with all the guarantees that are involved, starting with the right of access to justice and ending with the right to adversarial proceedings.

  5. Progress of the FAIR Cryogenic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauschke, M.; Kollmus, H.; Martinez-Lopez, M.

    2017-02-01

    The planning revision of the cryogenic system for the Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany) resulted in the choice of a single universal plant, which should provide a wide range of cryogenic operation modes, as refrigeration capacity at 4.4K, liquefaction or intermediate temperature levels. The adaptation to the FAIR specific requirements will be done later by adding a second plant. One major demand for the plant is the short term adaptation to variations in the load requirements in the system. An exemplary integration into the overall FAIR system will be shown with the experiments in the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) cave. The CBM cave will house an already existing magnet, HADES, and a new magnet for the CBM experiment, which is still under design. The scheduling of the different operation modes related to the operation of the main consumers as SIS100 or SuperFRS is shown.

  6. A note on fairness in I/O automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J.M.T.; Vaandrager, F.W.

    1995-01-01

    Notions of weak and strong fairness are studied in the setting of the I/O automaton model of Lynch & Tuttle. The concept of a fair I/O automaton is introduced and it is shown that a fair I/O automaton paired with the set of its fair executions is a live I/O automaton provided that (1) in each reacha

  7. 48 CFR 19.807 - Estimating the fair market price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimating the fair market...) Program) 19.807 Estimating the fair market price. (a) The contracting officer shall estimate the fair market price of the work to be performed by the 8(a) contractor. (b) In estimating the fair market...

  8. 36 CFR 223.60 - Determining fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determining fair market value... Determining fair market value. The objective of Forest Service timber appraisals is to determine fair market value. Fair market value is estimated by such methods as are authorized by the Chief, Forest Service...

  9. Punishing the lemon: the ethics of actuarial fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act rejects the notion that actuarial fairness is a normative ideal. The author discusses the ethics of actuarial fairness and attempts to draw a distinction between actuarial fairness and moral fairness. The ethics of wellness programs are discussed with both actuarial fairness and moral fairness in mind. The potential tension between physicians and patients in the zealous pursuit of healthy goals is described. Finally, the logical end point of actuarial fairness with the widespread availability of genetic information is highlighted. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schönning Karin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  11. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  12. Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    : it leads to improved research quality, and it is the more fair of the two approaches in the worst case. On the other hand, contribution-based ordering results in a denser collaboration network and a greater number of publications than is achieved using alphabetical author ordering. Furthermore, authors can...... overcome some of the limitations of contribution-based ordering by performing rotations, alternating who is the first author on joint papers. This often allows authors to achieve optimal research quality and perfect fairness under any given contribution scheme; however, this is obtained at the expense...

  13. Profile of the 103rd Canton Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zang Kejia

    2008-01-01

    @@ Approved by the Ministry of Commerce of the People's Republic of China,the 103rd Canton Fair will be held simultaneously in Pazhou Complex and Liuhua Complex during 15-20 and 25-30 April 2008 in Guangzhou.China.We estimate that neady 200,000 buyers from over 200 countries and regions will gather in Guangzhou to exchange information and procure products.Over 150 of world's top 250 retailers are expected to attend the Canton Fair to make procurement.

  14. Cold electrical connection for FAIR/ SIS100

    CERN Document Server

    Kauschke, M; Quack, H

    2009-01-01

    The Facility of Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) will be an international centre for atomic-, plasma- and nuclear- physics, located next to Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt. FAIR will be composed from two synchrotrons and four storage rings. Both synchrotrons, SIS100 and SIS300, are designed with superconducting magnets. For radiation protection reasons and landscaping restrictions the synchrotrons will be placed underground, whereas the power supplies will be placed within three service buildings above ground level. To save space and refrigeration power a superconducting electrical connection will be implemented. The mechanical and thermal design of this connection will be presented in the paper.

  15. Humanbecoming and practice: fairness-unfairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegge, Margaret J

    2012-04-01

    In this column a synthetic definition of fairness-unfairness is followed by a situation study involving an exchange between two undergraduate nursing students and their professor. A series of situations unfolds in which the students encounter a refugee and her family as they enter the American healthcare system. Students share their impressions of fairness-unfairness in this family's experiences. The professor interacts with the students to demonstrate the humanbecoming way of being with persons while bearing witness to the choices made in living out their values.

  16. Trade Canton Fair Hits Century Mark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ Originally intended to break the blockade against China and develop trade relations and exchanges between China and the rest of the world, the Exhibition of Chinese Export Commodities(the precedent of Chinese Export Commodities Fair) was inaugurated in the spring of 1957. At that time most Western countries were imposing sanctions against China and the number of countries with diplomatic relations with China numbered only about 20. Thus the Fair was China's only channel of contact with the outside world, whether in trade, cultural exchanges,or even politics.

  17. Fair proces og ledelse af inkrementel innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bo

    2011-01-01

    I kapitel 18, Fair proces og ledelse af inkrementel innovation – med et strategisk procesdesign, tager Bo Vestergaard afsæt i de organisatoriske udfordringer, der opstår, når mellemledere skal implementere oppefra dikterede besparelser, som potentielt kan virke demotiverende på medarbejderne....... Kapitlet beskriver, hvordan man inden for en bredt funderet systemisk rammesætning og med begrebet fair proces som fortløbende styreprincip kan skabe og opretholde konstruktiv medarbejderinvolvering i sådanne forandrings- og innovationsforløb. Lederens forløbsstyring sammenfattes i følgende tre praksisnære...

  18. The 2009 Job Fair for Foreigners (Shanghai)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Want a Good Job? Find it from Chinajob.com! The 2009 Job Fair for Foreigners (Shanghai) Zurich Hall, Swissotel Grand Hotel, Jing’an District, Shanghai, October 31, 2009,9:00 a.m.-16:00 p.m. If you are seeking a fabulous job in China, you should attend our job fair in Shanghai. With over 60 exhibitors attending our events, this could be a great opportunity to find the perfect job for you. This is an established event

  19. The P-bar ANDA detector at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuerschig, Thomas, E-mail: t.wuerschig@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Germany); Collaboration: P-bar ANDA Collaboration

    2012-05-15

    The P-bar ANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility in Darmstadt will perform measurements with antiprotons to explore the physics in the charm quark sector. A state-of-the-art general purpose detector is planned that will allow a variety of complementary studies from high-precision spectroscopy to hypernuclei physics. This article gives a brief introduction to the experiment and the physics program. Main detector requirements are extracted subsequently. Finally, an overview of the instrumentation and the current state of development of the main detector subsystems are given.

  20. Fair Value Accounting: The Road to Be Most Travelled

    OpenAIRE

    Rock Lefebvre; Elena Simonova; Mihaela Scarlat

    2009-01-01

    Fair value convention has polarized two opposing views – the first, that fair value accounting compounds economic hardship and distortion – and the second, that fair value accounting affords an accurate rendering of the market value of underlying assets and liabilities. This paper intends to clarify some of the underlying arguments by presenting a brief overview of fair value accounting, and the main advantages and disadvantages of using fair value regime. The analysis shows that only certain...

  1. 19 CFR 147.44 - Entry for another fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry for another fair. 147.44 Section 147.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Disposition of Articles Entered for Fairs § 147.44 Entry for another fair. Articles entered for a fair which are to...

  2. Review Fair migration : Setting an ILO agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The ILO-report Fair migration is intended to offer an opportunity for tripartite global debate on the migration issue. In his review Jan Cremers admits that the analysis is correct. However, he questions how to make these ideas concrete as workers exploited in a foreign constituency live and work fa

  3. The HADES-at-FAIR project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapidus, K., E-mail: kirill.lapidus@ph.tum.de [Excellence Cluster ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' (Germany); Agakishiev, G. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Balanda, A. [Jagiellonian University, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics (Poland); Bassini, R. [Sezione di Milano, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Italy); Behnke, C. [J.W.Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany); Belyaev, A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Blanco, A. [LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (Portugal); Boehmer, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12 (Germany); Cabanelas, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Departamento de Fisica de Particulas (Spain); Carolino, N. [LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas (Portugal); Chen, J. C. [Excellence Cluster ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' (Germany); Chernenko, S. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Diaz, J. [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (Spain); Dybczak, A. [Jagiellonian University, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics (Poland); Collaboration: HADES Collaboration; and others

    2012-05-15

    After the completion of the experimental program at SIS18 the HADES setup will migrate to FAIR, where it will deliver high-quality data for heavy-ion collisions in an unexplored energy range of up to 8 A GeV. In this contribution, we briefly present the physics case, relevant detector characteristics and discuss the recently completed upgrade of HADES.

  4. Schools and the Fair Labor Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Robert P.

    1986-01-01

    Traces the history of the Fair Labor Standards Act's applicability to public employees. Beginning in April 1986, schools must pay covered employees who work more than 40 hours in a workweek time-and-a-half (in money or compensatory time off). Defines terms and lists recordkeeping requirements. (MLF)

  5. Taking Home the Big Fair Prizes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Sixth China(Shenzhen)International Cultural Industries Fair(ICIF),held on May 14-17,drew more than 10,000 foreign purchasers from 86 countries and regions,who completed deals worth11.26 billion yuan($1.65 billion),up28.41 percent from 2009,said Yin Changlong,spokesman of the ICIF.

  6. The ̅PANDA Detector at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami Andersson, W.; ̅PANDA Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    The future ̅PANDA detector at FAIR is a state-of-the-art internal target detector designed for strong interaction studies. By utilizing an antiproton beam, a rich and unique physics programme is planned. The ̅PANDA experiment, as well as feasibility studies for hyperon and charmonium physics, are discussed.

  7. The HADES-at-FAIR project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapidus, K.; Agakishiev, G.; Balanda, A.; Bassini, R.; Behnke, C.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Cabanelas, P.; Carolino, N.; Chen, J. C.; Chernenko, S.; Díaz, J.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gil, A.; Göbel, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Heidel, K.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Huck, P.; Hutsch, J.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kajetanowicz, M.; Karavicheva, T.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Kozuch, A.; Krebs, E.; Krücken, R.; Kuc, H.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lange, J. S.; Liu, M.; Liu, T.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Lykasov, G.; Maier, L.; Malakhov, A.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michalska, B.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pereira, A.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, C.; Reshetin, A.; Rosier, P.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schmah, A.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Siebenson, J.; Smolyankin, V.; Sobiella, M.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tiflov, V.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Troyan, A.; Tsertos, H.; Usenko, E.; Vasiliev, T.; Visotski, S.; Wagner, V.; Weber, M.; Wendisch, C.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.

    2012-05-01

    After the completion of the experimental program at SIS18 the HADES setup will migrate to FAIR, where it will deliver high-quality data for heavy-ion collisions in an unexplored energy range of up to 8 A GeV. In this contribution, we briefly present the physics case, relevant detector characteristics and discuss the recently completed upgrade of HADES.

  8. A Geometric Approach to Fair Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanel, Julius

    2010-01-01

    We wish to divide a cake among some collection of people (who may have very different notions of the comparative value of pieces of cake) in a way that is both "fair" and "efficient." We explore the meaning of these terms, introduce two geometric tools to aid our analysis, and present a proof (due to Dietrich Weller) that establishes the existence…

  9. Expropriation or Fair Game for All?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kur, Annette; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    property has never been exclusive in a strict sense. Copyright, in particular, is relatively rich with examples of rules allowing third parties to use protected content under certain conditions, and against payment of a fair remuneration. In economic terms, this means that property is replaced...

  10. Shenzhen International Fabrics Trade Fair Concluded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiangli

    2012-01-01

    Intertextile Pavilion at the Shenzhen International Trade Fair for Apparel Fabrics and Accessories organized by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd., CCPIT TEX, and Shenzhen Garment Industry Association was held successfully at the Shenzhen Convention & Exhibition Centre from 8 - 10 July, 2012.

  11. Towards a Fair Global Economic Regime?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staricco, Juan Ignacio

    levels of generality, offering both case-specific and universal arguments about the Fair Trade system as a whole. Theoretically, the dissertation develops a regulationist framework based on a critical engagement with the French Regulation Approach and the Amsterdam Project in International Political...

  12. THE ROLE OF FAIRNESS IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon, Peter; Goslinga, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the relation between fairness considerations and tax compliance attitudes and intentions. Data from a large panel survey among small business owners in the Netherlands have been analyzed. Besides a number of background and control variables the questionnaire co

  13. The Good, the Right & the Fair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Sandøe, Peter

    The Good, the Right, and the Fair is a comprehensive introduction to contemporary moral and political philosophy especially suited for undergraduate students in medicine and the life sciences. The book covers first questions concerning the good: What makes a life worth living? Is it only humans who...

  14. Reactions to perceived fairness : the impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory’s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state

  15. Expropriation or Fair Game for All?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kur, Annette; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    property has never been exclusive in a strict sense. Copyright, in particular, is relatively rich with examples of rules allowing third parties to use protected content under certain conditions, and against payment of a fair remuneration. In economic terms, this means that property is replaced...

  16. Teaching Fairness in Journalism: A Challenging Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objectivity has long been contentious in American journalism. Many practitioners call it essential to a news organization's credibility. Critics, however, hold objectivity is impossible and urge reporters simply to reveal their biases. For educators, teaching objectivity is challenging. Some, seeking a middle ground, instead urge fairness and…

  17. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    CERN Document Server

    Paunkovic, N; Mateus, P

    2011-01-01

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum contract signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible, and scales as N^{-1/2}, where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse-free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the commitment phase. We discuss the real-life scenario when the measurement errors and qubit state corruption due to noisy channels occur and argue that for real, good enough measurement apparatus and transmission channels, our protocol would still be fair. Our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as it requires in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plan, the following items must be considered by the borrower: (i) Direction of marketing activities... Housing Marketing Plan. (1) Borrowers with housing projects that have four or more rental units must prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part...

  19. Fishers, Fair Trade, and finding middle ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bailey, Megan; Bush, Simon; Oosterveer, Peter; Larastiti, Laksmi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of Fair Trade certification is to contribute to sustainable development by offering trading conditions that are transparent and equitable. One important condition is improved market access and strengthened producer organizations. In regions like Southeast Asia this goal can be hard to ac

  20. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Joyce, Comp.

    The sources listed in this document are selected to provide guidance to students, parents, and teachers throughout the process of planning, developing, implementing, and competing in science fair activities. While sources range in suitability from elementary to high school levels, the emphasis is on materials for grades 9-12. This guide updates LC…

  1. Four Tools for Science Fair Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherry Weaver; Messmer, Barbara; Storm, Bill; Weaver, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    These teacher-tested ideas will guide students in creating true inquiry-based projects. Two of the ideas, the Topic Selection Wizard and Science Project Timeline, are appropriate for all science fair programs, even new ones. For existing programs, the Black Box of Project Improvement and After-School Project Clinic improve project quality and…

  2. A "Conditional" Sense of Fairness in Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Haertel, Geneva; Cheng, Britte H.; Ructtinger, Liliana; DeBarger, Angela; Murray, Elizabeth; Rose, David; Gravel, Jenna; Colker, Alexis M.; Rutstein, Daisy; Vendlinski, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Standardizing aspects of assessments has long been recognized as a tactic to help make evaluations of examinees fair. It reduces variation in irrelevant aspects of testing procedures that could advantage some examinees and disadvantage others. However, recent attention to making assessment accessible to a more diverse population of students…

  3. Can Grades Be Helpful and Fair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursuck, William D.; Munk, Dennis D.

    1998-01-01

    Letter grades are still the most popular way of indicating student performance. Both included (special-needs) and general-education students perceive the use of adaptations for some but not all students as unfair. Although half of all general-education teachers use informal grading adaptations, few consider them fair. Schools should develop a…

  4. Books Can Make a Mathematics Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Alice K.

    1982-01-01

    Books published recently that are considered fun, colorful, easy-to-read, and have variety and activities for students from grades three to eight are listed. The examples and ideas are only a few that are possible. A fair is suggested for the social interaction and excitement that can be created. (MP)

  5. Fair process: managing in the knowledge economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W C; Mauborgne, R

    1997-01-01

    Unlike the traditional factors of production--land, labor, and capital--knowledge is a resource that can't be forced out of people. But creating and sharing knowledge is essential to fostering innovation, the key challenge of the knowledge-based economy. To create a climate in which employees volunteer their creativity and expertise, managers need to look beyond the traditional tools at their disposal. They need to build trust. The authors have studied the links between trust, idea sharing, and corporate performance for more than a decade. They have explored the question of why managers of local subsidiaries so often fail to share information with executives at headquarters. They have studied the dynamics of idea sharing in product development teams, joint ventures, supplier partnerships, and corporate transformations. They offer an explanation for why people resist change even when it would benefit them directly. In every case, the decisive factor was what the authors call fair process--fairness in the way a company makes and executes decisions. The elements of fair process are simple: Engage people's input in decisions that directly affect them. Explain why decisions are made the way they are. Make clear what will be expected of employees after the changes are made. Fair process may sound like a soft issue, but it is crucial to building trust and unlocking ideas. Without it, people are apt to withhold their full cooperation and their creativity. The results are costly: ideas that never see daylight and initiatives that are never seized.

  6. Rich meets Poor - An International Fairness Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Moene, Karl Ove; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil

    2008-01-01

    Why do people in rich countries not transfer more of their income to people in the world's poorest countries? To study this question and the relative importance of needs, entitlements, and nationality in people's social preferences, we conducted a real effort fairness experiment where people in two

  7. Reactions to perceived fairness : the impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, K. van den

    2001-01-01

    In correspondence with terror management theory, the findings of two experiments show that reminders of death lead to stronger effects of perceived fairness on ratings of negative affect. Furthermore, in line with the theory’s self-esteem mechanism, results of Experiment 1 suggest that state self-es

  8. Fair Use: Articulating the Liberal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of "Cambridge University Press et al. v. Patton et al.", this article provides the rationale for the academic distribution of scholarly articles without requesting copyright permission or paying the corresponding fees. The fair use of scholarly articles is examined legally, historically, and in an economic context. This article…

  9. Fair and optimistic quantum contract signing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paunkovic, N.; Mateus, P. [SQIG - Instituto de Telecomunicacoes, IST, TULisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Bouda, J. [Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Botanicka 68a, CZ-60200 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-12-15

    We present a fair and optimistic quantum-contract-signing protocol between two clients that requires no communication with the third trusted party during the exchange phase. We discuss its fairness and show that it is possible to design such a protocol for which the probability of a dishonest client to cheat becomes negligible and scales as N{sup -1/2}, where N is the number of messages exchanged between the clients. Our protocol is not based on the exchange of signed messages: Its fairness is based on the laws of quantum mechanics. Thus, it is abuse free, and the clients do not have to generate new keys for each message during the exchange phase. We discuss a real-life scenario when measurement errors and qubit-state corruption due to noisy channels and imperfect quantum memories occur and argue that for a real, good-enough measurement apparatus, transmission channels, and quantum memories, our protocol would still be fair. Apart from stable quantum memories, the other segments of our protocol could be implemented by today's technology, as they require in essence the same type of apparatus as the one needed for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) cryptographic protocol. Finally, we briefly discuss two alternative versions of the protocol, one that uses only two states [based on the Bennett 1992 (B92) protocol] and the other that uses entangled pairs, and show that it is possible to generalize our protocol to an arbitrary number of clients.

  10. Rich meets Poor - An International Fairness Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cappelen, Alexander W.; Moene, Karl Ove; Sørensen, Erik Ø.; Tungodden, Bertil

    2008-01-01

    Why do people in rich countries not transfer more of their income to people in the world's poorest countries? To study this question and the relative importance of needs, entitlements, and nationality in people's social preferences, we conducted a real effort fairness experiment where people in two

  11. Science Fair Projects. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Constance, Comp.

    This bibliography assists junior and senior high school students and teachers in planning, preparing, executing, and evaluating science fair projects. A few books with experiments suitable for elementary grade students are listed. This publication is not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography but is designed to put the reader "on target."…

  12. Distributed Fair Allocation of Indivisible Goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevaleyre, Y.; Endriss, U.; Maudet, N.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed mechanisms for allocating indivisible goods are mechanisms lacking central control, in which agents can locally agree on deals to exchange some of the goods in their possession. We study convergence properties for such distributed mechanisms when used as fair division procedures. Specifi

  13. Refereeing and Ethics: What Makes Refereeing Fair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    The main task of reviewers for scholarly periodicals is to provide a fair reading of a paper, and thereby to help determine its suitability for publication. The reviewer's job is to evaluate the article according to the journal's criteria, most of which are publicly stated. Implicit criteria also exist which stretch, expand, or otherwise change…

  14. A Geometric Approach to Fair Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanel, Julius

    2010-01-01

    We wish to divide a cake among some collection of people (who may have very different notions of the comparative value of pieces of cake) in a way that is both "fair" and "efficient." We explore the meaning of these terms, introduce two geometric tools to aid our analysis, and present a proof (due to Dietrich Weller) that establishes the existence…

  15. 78 FR 43709 - Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... proactively to overcome historic patterns of segregation, promote fair housing choice, and foster inclusive...; access to education, employment, low-poverty, transportation, and environmental health, among other... benefit of this approach is that these priorities and goals will then better inform program...

  16. What’s Fair – and Why? An Empirical Analysis of Distributive Fairness in the Climate Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Tørstad, Vegard H.

    2016-01-01

    In the climate negotiations, conceptions of fairness plays an important role. For a climate agreement to be effective and durable, it must be conceived as fair by as many of its parties as possible. Unfortunately, there is hardly a consensus in the negotiations on what a fair agreement should constitute, and diverging fairness conceptions are at the heart of the conflicts of the negotiations. This thesis is an attempt at understanding this fairness dimension. It attempts to answer two related...

  17. Views on Lepa Vida (Fair Vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pregelj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available “Lepa Vida” (Fair Vida is one of the most common motifs in Slovenian literature. The motif is from a folk song with many variants which in the course of time, and with each new author's view, assumed further layers. So far there have been 43 literary variations on the Fair Vida motif recorded since 1932, as well as many instances of arrangements for children and youth. In this paper I present the main characteristics of the motif in folk literature, in France Prešeren (“Od Lepe Vide”; “Of the Fair Vida”, and in Andrej Rozman Roza Lepa Vida v akciji (Fair Vida in Action, that is, the source/original, the canonical, and the subversive. I initially present the findings about the origins of the motif, the sociological-historical background against which it came into being, as well as comparative elements of intercultural and chronotope views and the image of the Other. In the light of comparisons with other Slovenian myths (especially King Matjaž, Martin Krpan, and Peter Klepec I present the (often rather restrictive view of literary criticism which frequently reduces the Fair Vida motif to the motif of longing, one of the most common motifs in Slovenian literature. I contrast this with more modern interpretative views that take into account both feminist theory and analysis of the discourse of power as it derives from the repeated (subversive, parodic reading of the motif which Andrej Rozman Roza presents in Lepa Vida v akciji.

  18. Whaling on Walling: A Uniform Approach to Determining Whether Interns Are "Employees" Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cody Elyse Brookhouser

    2015-01-01

      This Note argues that, of the tests currently used by circuit courts to determine who constitutes an "employee" under the Fair Labor Standards Act, the Supreme Court should clarify that the totality...

  19. Fair Scheduling for Delay-Sensitive VoIP Traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shawish; Jiang, Xiaohong; Horiguchi, Susumu

    With the wide expansion of voice services over the IP networks (VoIP), the volume of this delay sensitive traffic is steadily growing. The current packet schedulers for IP networks meet the delay constraint of VoIP traffic by simply assigning its packets the highest priority. This technique is acceptable as long as the amount of VoIP traffic is relatively very small compared to other non-voice traffic. With the notable expansion of VoIP applications, however, the current packet schedulers will significantly sacrifice the fairness deserved by the non-voice traffic. In this paper, we extend the conventional Deficit Round-Robin (DRR) scheduler by including a packet classifier, a Token Bucket and a resource reservation scheme and propose an integrated packet scheduler architecture for the growing VoIP traffic. We demonstrate through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulation that the new architecture makes it possible for us to significantly improve the fairness to non-voice traffic while still meeting the tight delay requirement of VoIP applications.

  20. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen eQu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people’s fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants’ social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game, participants’ brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/unfair offers from someone who previously excluded them, someone who previously included them, or a stranger. Results showed that feedback related negativity (FRN after onset of distribution outcome was more pronounced for unfair offers compared to fair offers. Moreover, the FRN was more negative-going in response to unfair offers from people who previously excluded them than from the includer and the stranger. Fair offers ¬¬¬elicited a larger P300 than unfair offers. In addition, P300 was more positive-going for unfair offers from the stranger than from the excluder and the includer. This study reveals a temporal process in which the effects of social exclusion on fair consideration are reflected in FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation. These data also suggest that the FRN is modulated by the subjective evaluation of outcome events in a social context.

  1. Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chen; Wang, Yuru; Huang, Yunyun

    2013-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging research has identified brain regions activated when people's fairness consideration changes under conditions of social exclusion. The current study used EEG data to examine the temporal process of changes in fairness consideration under social exclusion. In this study, a Cyberball game was administered to manipulate participants' social exclusion or inclusion. Then, in the following Ultimatum game (UG), participants' brain potentials were recorded while they received fair/unfair offers from someone who previously excluded them, someone who previously included them, or a stranger. Results showed that feedback-related negativity (FRN) after onset of distribution outcome was more pronounced for unfair offers compared to fair offers. Moreover, the FRN was more negative-going in response to unfair offers from people who previously excluded them than from the includer and the stranger. Fair offers elicited a larger P300 than unfair offers. In addition, P300 was more positive-going for unfair offers from the stranger than from the excluder and the includer. This study reveals a temporal process in which the effects of social exclusion on fair consideration are reflected in FRN in the early stage of outcome evaluation. These data also suggest that the FRN is modulated by the subjective evaluation of outcome events in a social context.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against gram-positive pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela da Silva do Nascimento

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus faecium FAIR-E 198 against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Using the critical-dilution method, the bacteriocin produced by E. faecium FAIR-E 198 inhibited all L. monocytogenes strains evaluated (1,600 to 19,200 AU mL-1. However, none of the B. cereus and S. aureus strains investigated were inhibited. The maximum activity of this bacteriocin (800 AU mL-1 was observed in MRS broth, while the activity in milk was 100 AU mL-1. In the co-cultivation test in milk, B. cereus K1-B041 was reduced to below the detection limit (1.00 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium reduced the initial L. monocytogenes Scott A population by 1 log CFU mL-1 after 3 h at 35ºC. However, the pathogen regained growth, reaching 3.68 log CFU mL-1 after 48 h. E. faecium did not influence the growth of S. aureus ATCC 27154 during the 48 h of co-cultivation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of E. faecium FAIR-E 198 is strictly related to the species and strain of the target microorganism and to the culture medium.

  3. Fair Topologies: Community Structures and Network Hubs Drive Emergence of Fairness Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Mohsen; Heydari, Babak

    2017-06-02

    Fairness has long been argued to govern human behavior in a wide range of social, economic, and organizational activities. The sense of fairness, although universal, varies across different societies. In this study, using a computational model, we test the hypothesis that the topology of social interaction can causally explain some of the cross-societal variations in fairness norms. We show that two network parameters, namely, community structure, as measured by the modularity index, and network hubiness, represented by the skewness of degree distribution, have the most significant impact on emergence of collective fair behavior. These two parameters can explain much of the variations in fairness norms across societies and can also be linked to hypotheses suggested by earlier empirical studies in social and organizational sciences. We devised a multi-layered model that combines local agent interactions with social learning, thus enables both strategic behavior as well as diffusion of successful strategies. By applying multivariate statistics on the results, we obtain the relation between network structural features and the collective fair behavior.

  4. IAS 41 Agriculture: Fair Value Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Lefter

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Issuing this standard that had to be applied for the first time for the financial statements started after 1.01.2003 meant a change of direction from two points of view: on one hand, through IAS 41 was issued for the first time an extensive standard typical for this sector and, on the other hand, for the first time were included in the income statement, independently from the sales transactions, incomes from variations of the fair value of an asset. Because of this last aspect, IAS 41 can be considered an important standard, because it represents the starting point of a consistent transition from the purchase cost principle towards a fair value accounting. IASC has dedicated to the thematic field of agriculture a specific standard, because this economic branch has a great importance for the developing countries. On the other hand, IAS 41 is also applied for the agricultural activities of the enterprises from other sectors.

  5. How to Restore Fairness After Doping Infringement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Mika

    2016-10-01

    This article addresses the question how to restore the biggest possible amount of fairness after a discovery of doping infringement. I will analyse eight actions that could be taken: (1) disqualification and re-ranking, (2) change in official result, (3) medal stripping and medal re-awarding, (4) ban, (5) rematch, (6) legal action, (7) apology and (8) forgiveness. I conclude that the best way to restore the biggest possible amount of fairness seems to be a selected combination of actions. I also propose that re-ranking and medal re-awarding should be accompanied by a ceremony in which the new winners are celebrated because they typically did not have the possibility of enjoying their success in front of the original audience. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Promoting Fair Food-to-Consumer Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Hviid Madsen, Mai; Smith, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    with authoritative definitions (adding experts’ final judgments). The research is part of the cross-disciplinary research project “Spin or fair speak – when foods talk” which aims at providing new knowledge, tools, and experimental evidence for promoting fairness in food naming and labelling practices.......The line of research presented in this paper aims at shedding new light on the role of sensory elements in legal disputes concerning potentially misleading food naming and labelling. It presents selected results of a quantitative and qualitative review of 821 real-life cases on such issues......-up experiment are presented which targeted the limits for consumers’ acceptance of name-product combinations when exposed to taste samples alone (sensory product attributes), taste samples in combination with ingredients lists and nutrition facts (adding factual information), and both, in combination...

  7. Proportional Fair Coding for Wireless Mesh Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Karumbu, Premkumar; Leith, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    We consider multi--hop wireless networks carrying unicast flows for multiple users. Each flow has a specified delay deadline, and the lossy wireless links are modelled as binary symmetric channels (BSCs). Since transmission time, also called airtime, on the links is shared amongst flows, increasing the airtime for one flow comes at the cost of reducing the airtime available to other flows sharing the same link. We derive the joint allocation of flow airtimes and coding rates that achieves the proportionally fair throughput allocation. This utility optimisation problem is non--convex, and one of the technical contributions of this paper is to show that the proportional fair utility optimisation can nevertheless be decomposed into a sequence of convex optimisation problems. The solution to this sequence of convex problems is the unique solution to the original non--convex optimisation. Surprisingly, this solution can be written in an explicit form that yields considerable insight into the nature of the proporti...

  8. On traffic fairness in data center fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    Belabed, Dallal; Secci, Stefano; Pujolle, Guy; Medhi, Deep

    2014-01-01

    International audience; —A present challenge in data center networks (DCN) is to better understand the impact of novel flattened and modular DCN architectures on congestion control protocols, and vice-versa. One of the major concerns in congestion control being the fairness in the offered throughput, the impact of the additional path diversity and forwarding features, brought by the novel DCN architectures and protocols, on the throughput of individual endpoints (servers) and aggregation poin...

  9. Histoire de faire l'amour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜青钢

    2004-01-01

    A L'UNIVERSITE, je retenais par coeur le verbe aimer, mais je connaissais real l'amour quand il suivait le verbe faire. Les autres étudiants l'ignoraient encore bien plus que moi. Nous avions beau consulter le dictionnaire bilingue, l'expression n'y figurait pas. Notre ignorance persistait.C'était la fin des armées 1970, la Chine venait de s'ouvrir à l'étranger.

  10. Egypt Highlighted at International Tourism Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During the Beijing International Travel and Tourism Market 2006 (BITTM) fair, the Egypt Tourism Authority launched a tourism-promotional campaign, entitled "Egypt Shines for You." To mark the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Egypt, the Egypt Tourism Authority plans to implement a year-long promotional initiative in China to popularize Egypt's tourist destinations and culture. Dr. Nasser Abdel-Aal, Tourism Counselor at the Egyptian

  11. THE ROLE OF FAIRNESS IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Verboon, Peter; Goslinga, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the relation between fairness considerations and tax compliance attitudes and intentions. Data from a large panel survey among small business owners in the Netherlands have been analyzed. Besides a number of background and control variables the questionnaire contained measures of personal norms, procedural and distributive justice, tax compliance attitudes and intentions to comply with tax rules. Results support the hypothesis that personal norms and just...

  12. Venezuela- China Industry, Commerce, Agriculture, Tourism Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Bordering Columbia, Brazil and Guyana,Venezuela's economy developed speedily in recent years. It is a comparatively active country in South America. The main industries of the country are petroleum, mining, telecom, husbandry and tourism. The visiting enterprises include the leading enterprises of each key industry. This fair provides abundant trade and investment opportunities for China's execution of "Introduce in and Walk Out" development strategy.

  13. Fair market value: taking a proactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Richard A

    2008-04-01

    A valuation report assessing the fair market value of a contractual arrangement should include: A description of the company, entity, or circumstance being valued. Analysis of general economic conditions that are expected to affect the enterprise. Evaluation of economic conditions in the medical services industry. Explanation of the various valuation approaches that were considered. Documentation of key underlying assumptions, including revenue and expense projections, projected profit, and ROI.

  14. CURRENT VECTOR CONTROL OF PERMANENT-MAGNET SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR OF HYBRID VEHICLE ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serikov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of traction permanent-magnet synchronous motor under current vector optimum control in the possible traction-speed mode area which are relevant for hybrid vehicle engine have been investigated. As a criterion of optimality a maximum of electromagnetic moment per unit of current have been taken.

  15. A novel fairness control mode for Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wang; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Chongqing; Zhang, Liren; Shum, P.

    2005-11-01

    Resilient Packet Ring (RPR), defined by the IEEE 802.17 working group, is a new solution to metropolitan area network. RPR adopts the packet-based dual ring structure so that it can provide the protection capability similar to the SDH as well as dynamic bandwidth allocation. The design of fairness control mechanism to allocate the bandwidth is a key problem for RPR. Currently, two different modes of fairness algorithm have been proposed in the RPR standard, the aggressive mode (AM) and the conservative mode (CM). However, there are several limitations for these modes, such as the amount of the bandwidth allocated oscillates permanently under unbalanced traffic scenarios. In this paper, we propose a novel fairness control mode. The simulation experiment shows the range of traffic oscillation controlled by our mode is significantly damped compared to current RPR algorithm.

  16. Fair packet scheduling in Wireless Mesh Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Nawab, Faisal

    2014-02-01

    In this paper we study the interactions of TCP and IEEE 802.11 MAC in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs). We use a Markov chain to capture the behavior of TCP sessions, particularly the impact on network throughput due to the effect of queue utilization and packet relaying. A closed form solution is derived to numerically determine the throughput. Based on the developed model, we propose a distributed MAC protocol called Timestamp-ordered MAC (TMAC), aiming to alleviate the unfairness problem in WMNs. TMAC extends CSMA/CA by scheduling data packets based on their age. Prior to transmitting a data packet, a transmitter broadcasts a request control message appended with a timestamp to a selected list of neighbors. It can proceed with the transmission only if it receives a sufficient number of grant control messages from these neighbors. A grant message indicates that the associated data packet has the lowest timestamp of all the packets pending transmission at the local transmit queue. We demonstrate that a loose ordering of timestamps among neighboring nodes is sufficient for enforcing local fairness, subsequently leading to flow rate fairness in a multi-hop WMN. We show that TMAC can be implemented using the control frames in IEEE 802.11, and thus can be easily integrated in existing 802.11-based WMNs. Our simulation results show that TMAC achieves excellent resource allocation fairness while maintaining over 90% of maximum link capacity across a large number of topologies.

  17. CERN at the International Inventions Fair

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    CERN is the guest of honour at the 35th International Inventions Fair, which will take place from 18th to 22nd April at Palexpo, in Geneva. CERN has been chosen as the guest of honour for its ability to develop new technologies and translate them for the benefit of society. For the Fair, CERN has teamed up with ten companies that have made use of technologies and ideas from the Laboratory. The CERN stand at the exhibition will be dedicated to a presentation of the Laboratory and the LHC. Each of the technologies featured will be highlighted on the stand, along with the companies that have put them into more general use. This will allow visitors to trace the path from basic research to practical application from start to finish. One example is Medipix, a particle detection technology that has found applications in medical imaging. Visitors to the Fair will be able to see a Medipix detector in action on the CERN stand, and use it to view the particles emitted by everyday objects.

  18. Fair Oaks Dairy Farms Cellulosic Ethanol Technology Review Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Wold; Robert Divers

    2011-06-23

    At Fair Oaks Dairy, dried manure solids (''DMS'') are currently used as a low value compost. United Power was engaged to evaluate the feasibility of processing these DMS into ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. The Fair Oaks Dairy group is transitioning their traditional ''manure to methane'' mesophilic anaerobic digester platform to an integrated bio-refinery centered upon thermophilic digestion. Presently, the Digested Manure Solids (DMS) are used as a low value soil amendment (compost). United Power evaluated the feasibility of processing DMS into higher value ethanol utilizing commercially available cellulosic biofuels conversion platforms. DMS was analyzed and over 100 potential technology providers were reviewed and evaluated. DMS contains enough carbon to be suitable as a biomass feedstock for conversion into ethanol by gasification technology, or as part of a conversion process that would include combined heat and power. In the first process, 100% of the feedstock is converted into ethanol. In the second process, the feedstock is combusted to provide heat to generate electrical power supporting other processes. Of the 100 technology vendors evaluated, a short list of nine technology providers was developed. From this, two vendors were selected as finalists (one was an enzymatic platform and one was a gasification platform). Their selection was based upon the technical feasibility of their systems, engineering expertise, experience in commercial or pilot scale operations, the ability or willingness to integrate the system into the Fair Oaks Biorefinery, the know-how or experience in producing bio-ethanol, and a clear path to commercial development.

  19. Obama Announces Science Education Goal at White House Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    With student participants in the second annual White House Science Fair as a backdrop, President Barack Obama announced on 7 February programs to help prepare new math and science teachers and to meet a new goal of having 1 million more U.S. college graduates in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) over the next decade than there would be at the current graduation rate. That goal is outlined in a report entitled “Engage to excel,” by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), released the same day. Obama also announced several other initiatives, including a $22 million private-sector investment, led by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, to invest in STEM teacher training. After he toured the science fair projects, Obama said the science fair students “inspire” him. “What impresses me so much is not just how smart you are, but it's the fact that you recognize you've got a responsibility to use your talents in service of something bigger than yourselves,” he said. What these young people are doing is “going to make a bigger difference in the life of our country over the long term than just about anything,” adding, “We've got to emphasize how important this is and recognize these incredible young people who are doing that that I couldn't even imagine thinking about at fifth grade or eighth grade or in high school.”

  20. Fair trade - Õiglane kaubandus / Tuuliki Kasonen-Lins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasonen-Lins, Tuuliki

    2007-01-01

    Õiglase kaubanduse liikumise ajaloolisest arengust. Fair trade on kaubandusvõrk, kus kaubeldakse arengumaades inimväärsetes tingimustes toodetud ja sealsetelt kaupmeestelt õiglaste hindadega ostetud kaupadega. Fair Trade Euroopas

  1. 24 CFR 200.300 - Nondiscrimination and fair housing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Nondiscrimination and Fair Housing... part 5; and (b) The affirmative fair housing marketing requirements in 24 CFR part 200, subpart M...

  2. Fair trade - Õiglane kaubandus / Tuuliki Kasonen-Lins

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasonen-Lins, Tuuliki

    2007-01-01

    Õiglase kaubanduse liikumise ajaloolisest arengust. Fair trade on kaubandusvõrk, kus kaubeldakse arengumaades inimväärsetes tingimustes toodetud ja sealsetelt kaupmeestelt õiglaste hindadega ostetud kaupadega. Fair Trade Euroopas

  3. Minimax Current Density Coil Design

    CERN Document Server

    Poole, Michael; Lopez, Hector Sanchez; Ng, Michael; Crozier, Stuart; 10.1088/0022-3727/43/9/095001

    2010-01-01

    'Coil design' is an inverse problem in which arrangements of wire are designed to generate a prescribed magnetic field when energized with electric current. The design of gradient and shim coils for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are important examples of coil design. The magnetic fields that these coils generate are usually required to be both strong and accurate. Other electromagnetic properties of the coils, such as inductance, may be considered in the design process, which becomes an optimization problem. The maximum current density is additionally optimized in this work and the resultant coils are investigated for performance and practicality. Coils with minimax current density were found to exhibit maximally spread wires and may help disperse localized regions of Joule heating. They also produce the highest possible magnetic field strength per unit current for any given surface and wire size. Three different flavours of boundary element method that employ different basis functions (triangular elements...

  4. High Performance Fairness Algorithm for Resilient Packet Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangbok; Lee; Sangyeoun; Lee; Heyungsub; Lee; Hyeongho; Lee

    2003-01-01

    Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) is MAN technology with two counter-rotating rings that multiple stations share the bandwidth. The stations on ring must negotiate the allowed rate that they can transmit fairness eligible traffic based on the total amount of uncommitted bandwidth. RPR draft employs distributed bandwidth control algorithm in order to assure global fairness. In this paper, we suggest a new fairness control algorithm termed Congestion Distributed Fairness Algorithm (CDFA) that exhibits better pe...

  5. 17 CFR 201.1100 - Creation of Fair Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creation of Fair Fund. 201... PRACTICE Fair Fund and Disgorgement Plans § 201.1100 Creation of Fair Fund. In any agency process initiated... requiring the payment of disgorgement by a respondent and also assessing a civil money penalty against that...

  6. 7 CFR 3565.353 - Affirmative fair housing marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative fair housing marketing. 3565.353 Section... fair housing marketing. As a condition of the guarantee, the lender must ensure that the lender and borrower are in compliance with the approved Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. This plan must be...

  7. 19 CFR 147.13 - Transfer to fair building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfer to fair building. 147.13 Section 147.13... TREASURY (CONTINUED) TRADE FAIRS Procedure for Importation § 147.13 Transfer to fair building. (a... port director for the transfer of the articles covered thereby to the buildings in which they are to be...

  8. 24 CFR 200.625 - Affirmative fair housing marketing plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Regulations § 200.625 Affirmative fair housing marketing plan. Each applicant for participation in FHA housing... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affirmative fair housing...

  9. Novice Teachers' Conceptions of Fairness in Inclusion Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe Berry, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of "fairness" troubles some general education teachers, who may be reluctant to teach students with disabilities. Journals written by 47 general education preservice and novice teachers were data sources for examining teachers' concerns about fairness. Five areas of concern emerged: general responses, definitions of fairness, dealing…

  10. Getting into Higher Education: Young People's Views of Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minty, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Free tuition in Scotland is frequently linked to principles of equal access and fairness. But just how "fair" do young people think access to higher education is? And what concepts of fairness are their views based on? This article reports the findings of semi-structured interviews with 121 young people aged 15-18 in Scotland. The paper…

  11. The Complete Handbook of Science Fair Projects, Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochinski, Julianne Blair

    Science fairs have become an important key to gathering valuable science experience while pursuing independent projects. This book serves as a guide to every aspect of science fairs and science fair projects. It provides information on finding suitable topics, researching them properly, developing experiments, and giving meaning to data results.…

  12. Science Fairs: Promoting Positive Attitudes Towards Science from Student Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Janell D.; Cordry, Sheila; Unline, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe step by step procedures teachers can use to successfully engage their students in the development of science fair projects. The article further explains how the student should prepare their science fair project for science fair competition. It is expected that increasing student participation in science…

  13. 7 CFR 51.575 - Fairly well blanched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well blanched. 51.575 Section 51.575... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.575 Fairly well blanched. Fairly well blanched means that the midrib portions of the outer branches on the stalk are generally of a creamy...

  14. Is the Market Fair? Series on Public Issues No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Gerald

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, the position is taken that questions of fairness have little meaning when discussing economic issues like prices, wages, and profits. It is argued that one reason for the frequent use of terms like fair and fairness is ignorance…

  15. Leadership and Fairness: The State of the Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); D. de Cremer (David); B. van Knippenberg (Barbara)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractResearch in leadership effectiveness has paid less to the role of leader fairness than probably it should have. More recently, this has started to change. To capture this development, we review the empirical literature in leadership and fairness to define the field of leadership and fair

  16. The 99th Canton Fairs Ready for New Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ During the mid period of April, the Canton Fairs will greet the 99th in Guangzhou city. Quite different form the former fairs, the 99th Canton Fairs will take tangible measure to promote the quality and the brand image of the exhibition.

  17. What does Fair Trade Original contribute to its partner organisations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.M. Gómez (Georgina)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair Trade Original has been concentrating its efforts on strengthening its partner organisations to reach levels of competitiveness that will allow them to prosper in both fair trade and mainstream markets. In the first meeting with the Fair Trade Original business consultants, some exp

  18. 危废焚烧处置项目的单位GDP能耗分析--以某危险废物集中处置工程为例%Energy Consumption per Unit GDP for Hazardous Waste Incineration Disposal Projects:A Project of Hazardous Waste Concentrated Disposal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菲菲; 贺业迅; 张颖; 刘斌; 韦艺

    2014-01-01

    The process plan, the characteristics of main energy consumption equipments, and energy-saving measures in a project of hazardous waste incineration were introduced. The total energy consumption of the project was analyzed, as well as the energy consumption per unit GDP.%介绍了某危险废物焚烧处理工程的工艺方案、主要耗能设备特点以及节能措施,分析了项目的用能总量,并对项目的单位GDP能耗进行了分析。

  19. 论单位生产总值钢产量及钢产量、钢铁行业的能耗、物耗和排放%Study on steel output per unit GDP and steel production,energy consumption,materials consumption & wastes emission of steel industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆钟武; 岳强; 高成康

    2013-01-01

    Steel output per unit GDP is an important index for controlling steel output,for energy-saving, materials-decreasing and wastes-reducing of steel industry. This paper first gave the definition of steel output per unit GDP,introduced the concept and calculating formula of“in-use steel”,Then two times of transformation for the definition formula of steel output per unit GDP were undertaken to obtain the new definition formulas with an-alytic function. Steel output and energy consumption,materials consumption&wastes emission of steel industry were analyzed by using the new definition formulas of steel output per unit GDP,calculating formulas of steel output,energy consumption,materials consumption&wastes emission. Finally parameters related to steel indus-try were categorized and overall view for comprehensive promoting energy-saving,materials-decreasing and wastes-reducing of steel industry were put forward.%  单位生产总值钢产量指标对于调控钢产量,开展钢铁行业的节能、降耗和减排工作具有重要意义。首先给出了单位生产总值钢产量定义式,引入了“在役钢量”概念及其计算式;然后对单位GDP钢产量的定义式进行了两次变换,导出具有分析功能的新定义式;并以新定义式和钢产量计算式、钢铁行业能耗、物耗和排放计算式为依据,对钢产量及钢铁行业的能耗、物耗和排放进行了分析;最后,进行了与钢铁行业相关各参数的分类,并提出全面推进钢铁行业节能、降耗、减排工作的总体看法。

  20. TRUE AND FAIR VIEW – THE SUPREM TRUTH IN ACCOUNTING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria MARCULESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acting in a social and economic environment in a continuous movement and transformation, accounting is experiencing with new situations, in its attempt to answer all functions and information users that it generates, making it an important arbitration instrument in the game of those involved in business world. The main characteristic of accounting is represented by providing useful information retrodictive and predictive in an efficient and economic decision process regarding the economic entity's financial position and accounting performance. Under these circumstances, the information must not contain significant errors, is not biased, and users can be confident that it accurately represents what they proposed to represent, or what is expected, in a reasonably manner to be. Fair and true view seen as an ideal to which any professional accountant should aim, seems to be more difficult to achieve under the current conditions, in which fiscal pressure is more and more unbearable and top management is more and more willing to make compromises that sometimes are at a legal limit. In theory, it is well known that registrations and accounting reports must provide a clear image, honest, fair and full on the assets, financial position and results of the entity. In practice, contrary to ethical principles, more and more "servants" of the accounting profession are either willing, or forced to submit distorted accounting information giving the impression of calmness to a disastrous situation.

  1. Electron scattering off rare isotopes - the ELISe experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Haik [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The international accelerator facility FAIR at the GSI laboratory at Darmstadt will provide intense, high-quality secondary beams of ions and antiprotons. The basic features of the facility are described in the baseline technical report. The ELISe experiment at FAIR aims for implementing electron scattering off exotic nuclei in colliding beam kinematics. These studies will allow for the first time to use the leptonic probe to study the ground state properties and excitation modes of radioactive, short lived, bare ions, and to analyze the excitation process and target like (decay) products independently. Elastic and inelastic electron scattering are considered being bench-mark reactions in nuclear structure investigations as the well-understood interaction allows reliable and virtually model-independent extraction of (transition) charge and current densities by means of form-factor measurements. The desing of the very demanding ELISe detector systems aiming for a coincident detection of decay scattered electrons, decay particles and reaction fragments are presented. Simulation calculations for the beam-beam kinematics and the resulting high selectivity for measuring the excitation and the decays of nuclear modes from threshold up into the continuum are shown.

  2. The Fair Labor Standards Act and the Child Care Industry--What Regulations Apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the federal Fair Labor Standard Act (FLSA) affects the wages and work hours of child care employees and how FLSA interacts with analogous state laws. Examines how child care centers can determine whether FLSA regulations apply to them, existing exemptions to the current act, minimum wage and overtime, whether training time is working…

  3. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE FAIR VALUE OF REVENUES RECOGNIZED IN FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzdriorean Dan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches a frequently discussed subject in the context of the current global economic crisis, namely the fair value. The accounting concept, which implies that entities – in a different degree from one accounting system to another – should re

  4. VLSI implementation of a fairness ATM buffer system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J.V.; Dittmann, Lars; Madsen, Jens Kargaard

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a VLSI implementation of a resource allocation scheme, based on the concept of weighted fair queueing. The design can be used in asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks to ensure fairness and robustness. Weighted fair queueing is a scheduling and buffer management scheme...... that can provide a resource allocation policy and enforcement of this policy. It can be used in networks in order to provide defined allocation policies (fairness) and improve network robustness. The presented design illustrates how the theoretical weighted fair queueing model can be approximated...

  5. High Performance Fairness Algorithm for Resilient Packet Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kangbok Lee; Sangyeoun Lee; Heyungsub Lee; Hyeongho Lee

    2003-01-01

    Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) is MAN technology with two counter-rotating rings that multiple stations share the bandwidth. The stations on ring must negotiate the allowed rate that they can transmit fairness eligible traffic based on the total amount of uncommitted bandwidth. RPR draft employs distributed bandwidth control algorithm in order to assure global fairness. In this paper, we suggest a new fairness control algorithm termed Congestion Distributed Fairness Algorithm (CDFA) that exhibits better performance than RPR fairness algorithm. It attributes all stations on ring to have a regular transmission rate even though heavy congestion occurs in a station.

  6. Paternalism and fairness in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Lynn A; Wall, Steven

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we defend the ethics of clinical research against the charge of paternalism. We do so not by denying that the ethics of clinical research is paternalistic, but rather by defending the legitimacy of paternalism in this context. Our aim is not to defend any particular set of paternalistic restrictions, but rather to make a general case for the permissibility of paternalistic restrictions in this context. Specifically, we argue that there is no basic liberty-right to participate in clinical research and that considerations of distributive fairness justify some paternalistic protections of research subjects.

  7. [The role of economics in fair rationing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenzler, A

    2012-10-01

    For several years academic disciplines have discussed the potential conflict between scarcity of funding and fair health care. This review article shows the necessity of involving economic scientists in this discussion as well as their contribution to rationalisation, prioritisation and rationing of health care services. Thereby, it becomes clear that rationing and justice are not a contradiction per se. The interdisciplinary discussion in Germany needs less disciplinary egotism and more willingness to seek solutions and compromises. In this context the procedures followed in other countries can serve as examples.

  8. An Efficient Fair Electronic Cash System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Tao(郭涛); Li Zhitang; Tan Yunmeng; Wu Shizhong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, an efficient fair e-cash system is presented. Based on the improved Brands' e-cash scheme, it is expanded by adding two roles, government and judges. The user can keep unconditionally anonymous in normal transactions. Authorized by the judges, the government can remove the identity of an illegal user with the help of the bank. So such misuse as blackmailing or money laundering can be prevented. Therefore, this scheme is more efficient, more suitable for adopting pre-processing and post-processing and more practical. In the paper, the details of the scheme are described, its security is proved, and its efficiency is analyzed.

  9. Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Li-Bao; Huang Liu-Sheng; Yang Wei; Xu Rui

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the fair quantum blind signature scheme proposed by Wang and Wen [Wang T Y and Wen Q Y 2010 Chin.Phys.B 19 060307],which uses the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics and the availability of a trusted arbitrator.However,in this paper,we find that the protocol cannot satisfy the property of non-forgeability even under the condition that the trusted arbitrator is totally credible.Moreover,a simple feasible suggestion for improving the protocol is proposed.

  10. Research Quality, Fairness, and Authorship Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    The order in which authors are listed on an academic paper determines the credit that each receives on a co-authored publication, influencing hiring, tenure and promotions. Two of the prevalent author ordering schemes are alphabetical, which involves listing authors in lexicographical order...... overcome some of the limitations of contribution-based ordering by performing rotations, alternating who is the first author on joint papers. This often allows authors to achieve optimal research quality and perfect fairness under any given contribution scheme; however, this is obtained at the expense...

  11. Knitting Industry: Economic Growth and Trade Fair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Generally speaking, everything has its own plan or target for the whole year. Half year gone, we need to review what was done in the past, and reshape what is to be structured in the second half. According to the statistics, economy in knitting industry shows the growth tendency in production, investment and export in the first half year. In order to reach a better level for the second half year, driving consumption through business initiatives and trade platforms is an indispensable step. China International Knitting Trade Fair in August Shanghai will be seen as the best knitting business platform to drive the industry to grow in the desired direction.

  12. P-bar ANDA at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, G., E-mail: g.schepers@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: P-bar ANDA Collaboration

    2012-12-15

    The P-bar ANDA experiment represents the central part of the hadron physics branch of the antiproton program of the new Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt/Germany. It will investigate antiproton annihilations with an almost 4{pi} acceptance from two sequent spectrometer in the momentum range from 1.5 to 15 GeV/c. The gluon rich reaction product of antiproton-proton and antiproton-nucleus collisions on one hand and the high intensity and phase space cooled antiproton beam of the HESR on the other hand constitutes an ideal environment to study the sector of non-conventional hadronic states.

  13. The Good, the Right & the Fair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul; Sandøe, Peter

    matter morally? Is welfare all that matters? It then proceeds to a discussion of the right: How ought we to act? The major ethical theories of the western tradition are presented and their strengths and weaknesses discussed. Finally, key aspects of the philosophical discussion of the fair, including...... matters of equality, justice, and liberty, are laid out for the reader. Emphasizing a pluralism of reasonable views, and with illustrative examples drawn primarily from medicine and the life sciences, this book is meant to spur interest in, and to qualify deliberation about ethical issues, rather than...... to advance specific conclusions concerning morality and justice....

  14. FLUKA shielding calculations for the FAIR project; FLUKA-Abschirmrechnungen fuer das FAIR-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehrenbacher, Georg [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kozlova, Ekaterina; Radon, Torsten [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Abt. Beschleuniger-Strahlenschutz, Darmstadt (Germany); Sokolov, Alexey [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Abt. Strahlenschutz und Sicherheit, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    FAIR is an international accelerator project being in construction at GSI Helmholtz center for heavy ion research in Darmstadt. The Monte Carlo program FLUKA is used to study radiation protection problems. The contribution deals with general application possibilities of FLUKA and for FAIR with respect the radiation protection planning. The necessity to simulate the radiation transport through shielding of several meters thickness and to determine the equivalent doses outside the shielding with sufficient accuracy is demonstrated using two examples under consideration of the variance reduction. Results of simulation calculations for activation estimation in accelerator facilities are presented.

  15. Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F H; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2011-01-01

    Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these constituents of cooperative behavior, as well as whether they emerge independently or in an interrelated fashion. The answer to this question will shed light on the interdisciplinary debate regarding the significance of such preferences for explaining how humans become such cooperative beings. We investigated 15-month-old infants' sensitivity to fairness, and their altruistic behavior, assessed via infants' reactions to a third-party resource distribution task, and via a sharing task. Our results challenge current models of the development of fairness and altruism in two ways. First, in contrast to past work suggesting that fairness and altruism may not emerge until early to mid-childhood, 15-month-old infants are sensitive to fairness and can engage in altruistic sharing. Second, infants' degree of sensitivity to fairness as a third-party observer was related to whether they shared toys altruistically or selfishly, indicating that moral evaluations and prosocial behavior are heavily interconnected from early in development. Our results present the first evidence that the roots of a basic sense of fairness and altruism can be found in infancy, and that these other-regarding preferences develop in a parallel and interwoven fashion. These findings support arguments for an evolutionary basis--most likely in dialectical manner including both biological and cultural mechanisms--of human egalitarianism given the rapidly developing nature of other-regarding preferences and their role in the evolution of human-specific forms of cooperation. Future work of this kind will help determine to what

  16. Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco F H Schmidt

    Full Text Available Human cooperation is a key driving force behind the evolutionary success of our hominin lineage. At the proximate level, biologists and social scientists have identified other-regarding preferences--such as fairness based on egalitarian motives, and altruism--as likely candidates for fostering large-scale cooperation. A critical question concerns the ontogenetic origins of these constituents of cooperative behavior, as well as whether they emerge independently or in an interrelated fashion. The answer to this question will shed light on the interdisciplinary debate regarding the significance of such preferences for explaining how humans become such cooperative beings. We investigated 15-month-old infants' sensitivity to fairness, and their altruistic behavior, assessed via infants' reactions to a third-party resource distribution task, and via a sharing task. Our results challenge current models of the development of fairness and altruism in two ways. First, in contrast to past work suggesting that fairness and altruism may not emerge until early to mid-childhood, 15-month-old infants are sensitive to fairness and can engage in altruistic sharing. Second, infants' degree of sensitivity to fairness as a third-party observer was related to whether they shared toys altruistically or selfishly, indicating that moral evaluations and prosocial behavior are heavily interconnected from early in development. Our results present the first evidence that the roots of a basic sense of fairness and altruism can be found in infancy, and that these other-regarding preferences develop in a parallel and interwoven fashion. These findings support arguments for an evolutionary basis--most likely in dialectical manner including both biological and cultural mechanisms--of human egalitarianism given the rapidly developing nature of other-regarding preferences and their role in the evolution of human-specific forms of cooperation. Future work of this kind will help

  17. Fair fund distribution for a municipal incinerator using GIS-based fuzzy analytic hierarchy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Chang, Ying-Hsi; Chen, Ho-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Burning municipal solid waste (MSW) can generate energy and reduce the waste volume, which delivers benefits to society through resources conservation. But current practices by society are not sustainable because the associated environmental impacts of waste incineration on urbanized regions have been a long-standing concern in local communities. Public reluctance with regard to accepting the incinerators as typical utilities often results in an intensive debate concerning how much welfare is lost for those residents living in the vicinity of those incinerators. As the measure of welfare change with respect to environmental quality constraints nearby these incinerators remains critical, new arguments related to how to allocate the fair fund among affected communities became a focal point in environmental management. Given the fact that most County fair fund rules allow a great deal of flexibility for redistribution, little is known about what type of methodology may be a good fit to determine the distribution of such a fair fund under uncertainty. This paper purports to demonstrate a system-based approach that helps any fair fund distribution, which is made with respect to residents' possible claim for fair damages due to the installation of a new incinerator. Holding a case study using integrated geographic information system (GIS) and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) for finding out the most appropriate distribution strategy between two neighboring towns in Taipei County, Taiwan demonstrates the application potential. Participants in determining the use of a fair fund also follow a highly democratic procedure where all stakeholders involved eventually express a high level of satisfaction with the results facilitating the final decision making process. It ensures that plans for the distribution of such a fair fund were carefully thought out and justified with a multi-faceted nature that covers political, socio-economic, technical, environmental, public

  18. Abnormal emotion processing, but intact fairness and intentionality considerations during social decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that is highly characterized by social cognitive impairments. Most studies investigating these impairments focus on one specific social domain such as emotion recognition. However, in daily life, processing complex social situations relies on the combination of several social cognitive and affective processes simultaneously rather than one process alone. A modified version of the economically based Ultimatum Game was used to measure the interplay between fairness, intentionality, and emotion considerations during social decision-making. In this task, participants accept or reject fair and unfair monetary offers proposed intentionally or unintentionally by either angry, happy, neutral, or sad proposers. Behavioral data was collected from a group of schizophrenia patients (N = 35) and a group of healthy individuals (N = 30). Like healthy participants, schizophrenia patients differentiated between fair and unfair offers by rejecting unfair offers more compared to fair offers. However, overall patients did reject more fair offers, indicating that their construct of fairness operates within different margins. In both groups, intentional unfair offers were rejected more compared to unintentional ones, indicating a normal integration of intentionality considerations in schizophrenia. Importantly, healthy subjects also differentiated between proposers' emotion when rejecting unfair offers (more rejections from proposers depicting angry faces compared to proposers depicting, happy, neutral, or sad faces). Schizophrenia patients' decision behavior on the other hand, was not affected by the proposers' emotions. The current study thus shows that schizophrenia patients have specific problems with processing and integrating emotional information. Importantly, the finding that patients display normal fairness and intentionality considerations emphasizes preservation of central social cognitive processes in schizophrenia.

  19. Abnormal emotion processing, but intact fairness and intentionality considerations during social decision making in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier ede la Asuncion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that is highly characterized by social cognitive impairments. Most studies investigating these impairments focus on one specific social domain such as emotion recognition. However, in daily life, processing complex social situations relies on the combination of several social cognitive and affective processes simultaneously rather than one process alone. A modified version of the economically based Ultimatum Game was used to measure the interplay between fairness, intentionality, and emotion considerations during social decision-making. In this task, participants accept or reject fair and unfair monetary offers proposed intentionally or unintentionally by either angry, happy, neutral or sad proposers. Behavioral data was collected from a group of schizophrenia patients (N=35 and a group of healthy individuals (N=30. Like healthy participants, schizophrenia patients differentiated between fair and unfair offers by rejecting unfair offers more compared to fair offers. However, overall patients did reject more fair offers, indicating that their construct of fairness operates within different margins. In both groups, intentional unfair offers were rejected more compared to unintentional ones, indicating a normal integration of intentionality considerations in schizophrenia. Importantly, healthy subjects also differentiated between proposers’ emotion when rejecting unfair offers (more rejections from proposers depicting angry faces compared to proposers depicting, happy, neutral or sad faces. Schizophrenia patients’ decision behavior on the other hand, was not affected by the proposers’ emotions. The current study thus shows that schizophrenia patients have specific problems with processing and integrating emotional information. Importantly, the finding that patients display normal fairness and intentionality considerations emphasizes preservation of central social cognitive processes in schizophrenia.

  20. THE FAIR VALUE OF AUTHENTIC AND TRUE METHOD OF ASSESSING THE LIABILITIES OF THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Travinska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the nature of the category “assessment” in the scientific literature and normative documents; considered the types of assessments in the domestic and international practice; the methodology to assess the fair value of liabilities in accordance with IFRS; recommended methods for assessment of certain types of current liabilities accounting. Also the author describes the case for the use of different systems assessments of reflection of economic operations of the company. Defined the essence and necessity of application of the fair value in respect of the liabilities that would provide a true assessment of the financial condition of the enterprise and rational management accounting.

  1. A Fair-Priority MAC design in Networked Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Media Access Control (MAC protocols in Wireless Networked Control System (WNCS must minimize the radio energy costs in sensor nodes. Latency and throughput are also important design features for MAC protocols in the applications. But most of them cannot guarantee quality for real-time traffic. This paper studies the state of the art of current real-time MAC protocols, and then introduces a medium access control protocol and a improved protocol that provide multiple priority levels and hard real-time transmission. The channel is accessed by sensors according to their priorities. Sensors send frames in a round manner with same priority. The fairness between different priorities is provided. The channel access procedure is divided into two stages: broadcast period and transmission period. Simulation and experiment results indicate that our protocol provides high channel utilization and bounded delays for real-time communication and can be well applied in the many fields especially the dynamic wireless sensor networks.

  2. System design for the FAIR proton LINAC BPMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forck, Peter; Almalki, Mohammed; Clemente, Gianluigi; Groening, Lars; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Kowina, Piotr [GSI (Germany); Simon, Claire [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France). IRFU; Ackermann, Wolfgang [TU Darmstadt (Germany). TEMF

    2013-07-01

    The planned Proton LINAC at the FAIR facility will provide a beam current of 70 mA accelerated to 70 MeV by novel CH-type DTLs. Four-fold button Beam Position Monitor (BPM) will be installed at 14 locations along the LINAC. The specification for position measurement is 0.1 mm spatial resolution and for time-of-flight beam velocity determination the accuracy must be 8.5 ps corresponding to 1 degree with respect to the 325 MHz acceleration frequency. Finite element and finite integration technique calculations by CST Particle Studio for non-relativistic velocities were performed to determine the signal characteristic in time- and frequency domain. Most of these BPMs are mounted only about 40 mm upstream of the CH cavities and the BPM signal strength caused by the cavity residual rf-power was estimated. The technical layout of the BPM system is discussed.

  3. Fair Processes for Priority Setting: Putting Theory into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Maarten P.; Helderman, Jan-Kees; Boer, Bert; Baltussen, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Embedding health technology assessment (HTA) in a fair process has great potential to capture societal values relevant to public reimbursement decisions on health technologies. However, the development of such processes for priority setting has largely been theoretical. In this paper, we provide further practical lead ways on how these processes can be implemented. We first present the misconception about the relation between facts and values that is since long misleading the conduct of HTA and underlies the current assessment-appraisal split. We then argue that HTA should instead be explicitly organized as an ongoing evidence-informed deliberative process, that facilitates learning among stakeholders. This has important consequences for whose values to consider, how to deal with vested interests, how to consider all values in the decision-making process, and how to communicate decisions. This is in stark contrast to how HTA processes are implemented now. It is time to set the stage for HTA as learning. PMID:28005541

  4. Fairness and Stability Analysis of Congestion Control Schemes in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nasiriani, Neda; Krishnan, Hariharan

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative vehicle safety (CVS) systems operate based on broadcast of vehicle position and safety information to neighboring cars. The communication medium of CVS is a vehicular ad-hoc network. One of the main challenges in large scale deployment of CVS systems is the issue of scalability. To address the scalability problem, several congestion control methods have been proposed and are currently under field study. These algorithms adapt transmission rate and power based on network measures such as channel busy ratio. We examine two such algorithms and study their dynamic behavior in time and space to evaluate stability (in time) and fairness (in space) properties of these algorithms. We present stability conditions and evaluate stability and fairness of the algorithms through simulation experiments. Results show that there is a trade-off between fast convergence, temporal stability and spatial fairness. The proper ranges of parameters for achieving stability are presented for the discussed algorithms. Stabil...

  5. Center Director Bridges visits Disability Awareness and Action working Group Technology Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Center Director Roy Bridges stops to talk to one of the vendors at the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group (DAAWG) Technology Fair being held Oct. 20-21 at Kennedy Space Center. With him at the far left is Sterling Walker, director of Engineering Development at KSC and chairman of DAAWG, and Nancie Strott, a multi-media specialist with Dynacs and chairperson of the Fair; at the right is Carol Cavanaugh, with KSC Public Services. The Fair is highlighting vendors demonstrating mobility, hearing, vision and silent disability assistive technology. The purpose is to create an awareness of the types of technology currently available to assist people with various disabilities in the workplace. The theme is that of this year's National Disability Employment Awareness Month, 'Opening Doors to Ability.' Some of the vendors participating are Canine Companions for Independence, Goodwill Industries, Accessible Structures, Division of Blind Services, Space Coast Center for Independent Living, KSC Fitness Center and Delaware North Parks Services.

  6. Fair Electronic Cash Based on Double Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓峰; 王常杰; 王育民

    2002-01-01

    In order to decrease crimes such as money laundering, blackmailing etc. inelectronic cash systems, fair electronic cash has been a major focus of academic research inelectronic commence. When a bank finds some dubious cash or owner, the trusted entity ortrustee can help him to revoke the anonymity of the cash. In the previous protocols, the trusteeknows all the information of the cash whether he is trusted or not, that is, he can trace the useror cash unconditionally. Furthermore, the dishonest trustee may deceive a user, which meansthat he may withdraw cash while tracing other users. Such cases are unfair to the honest users.A new fair electronic cash protocol based on untrustworthy trustees is proposed in thispaper. The key idea is that the coin structure should include the signatures of both the trusteeand the bank so that the trustee shares the information of the cash with the bank, while we donot use the secret sharing scheme. In contrast with the previous protocols, neither the trusteenor the bank can trace the money without the help of the other entity. In this way, the privacyof the user is protected furthest. Also, the trustee is off-line in the protocol, which meansthat he will not be involved in withdrawing the cash. Therefore, the protocol is efficient forimplementation.

  7. The Compressed Baryonic Matter Experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuser, Johann M.

    2013-05-02

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will explore the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter in the region of high net baryon densities. The experiment is being laid out for nuclear collision rates from 0.1 to 10 MHz to access a unique wide spectrum of probes, including rarest particles like hadrons containing charm quarks, or multi-strange hyperons. The physics programme will be performed with ion beams of energies up to 45 GeV/nucleon. Those will be delivered by the SIS-300 synchrotron at the completed FAIR accelerator complex. Parts of the research programme can already be addressed with the SIS-100 synchrotron at the start of FAIR operation in 2018. The initial energy range of up to 11 GeV/nucleon for heavy nuclei, 14 GeV/nucleon for light nuclei, and 29 GeV for protons, allows addressing the equation of state of compressed nuclear matter, the properties of hadrons in a dense medium, the production and propagation of charm near the production threshold, and exploring the third, strange dimension of the nuclide chart. In this article we summarize the CBM physics programme, the preparation of the detector, and give an outline of the recently begun construction of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research.

  8. Towards Proton Therapy and Radiography at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prall, M.; Lang, P. M.; LaTessa, C.; Mariam, F.; Merrill, F.; Shestov, L.; Simoniello, P.; Varentsov, D.; Durante, M.

    2015-04-01

    Protons having energies in the GeV range have been proposed as an alternative to Bragg-peak hadron therapy. This strategy reduces lateral scattering and overcomes uncertainties of particle range and relative biological effectiveness. GeV protons could additionally be used for targeting in image guided stereotactic radiosurgery. We experimentally demonstrated the potential of GeV protons for imaging of biological samples using E=0.8 GeV protons and the pRad setup at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In this setup, a system of magnetic lenses creates a point-to-point mapping from object to detector. This mapping compensates image blur due to lateral scattering inside the imaged (biological) object. We produced 2-dim proton radiographs of biological samples, an anthropomorphic phantom and performed simple dosimetry. High resolution tomographic reconstructions were derived from the 2-dim proton radiographs. Our experiment was performed within the framework of the PANTERA (Proton Therapy and Radiography) project. In the future, the proton microscope PRIOR (Proton Microscope for FAIR) located in the FAIR facility (Darmstadt), will focus on optimizing the technique for imaging of lesions implanted in animals and couple the irradiation with standard radiotherapy.

  9. Development of an instrument to measure student attitudes toward science fairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Claudia A.

    Science fairs are woven into the very fabric of science instruction in the United States and in other countries. Even though thousands of students participate in science fairs every year, no instrument to measure student attitudes toward partaking in this hands-on learning experience has been fully developed and available for school administrators and teachers to assess the perceived value that current students attribute to participation in science fairs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to continue the development and refinement of an instrument that measured student attitudes towards science fairs based on an unpublished instrument created by Michael (2005). The instrument developed and tested using 110 students at two different middle schools in southwest Virginia. The instrument consisted of 45 questions. After applying a principal component factor analysis, the instrument was reduced to two domains, enjoyment and value. The internal consistency of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha and showed good internal consistency of .89 between the two domains. Further analysis was conducted using a Pearson product-moment test and showed a significant positive correlation between enjoyment and value (r = .78). Demographic information was explored concerning the domains using a series of statistical tests, and results revealed no significant differences among race and science fair category. However, a significant difference was found among gender and students who won awards and those who did not. The conclusion was that further development and refinement of the instrument should be conducted.

  10. THE CONCEPTUALISATION AND OPERATIONAL MEASUREMENT OF PRICE FAIRNESS PERCEPTION IN MASS SERVICE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowanee Srikanjanarak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a measure of price fairness perception by extending price fairness conceptualisation to a multi-scale measure, thereby capturing its complexity in a mass service context. The service context is becoming increasingly competitive, particularly in the telecommunication industry, where a variety of service options is offered (e.g., mobile phone services. A review of price fairness perception literature usually focuses on the equity and social exchange theory and upon findings from exploratory research of the current market situation. In this article, the measure is conceptualised to entail a more extensive set of dimensions. These dimensions include the following: flexible price, reasonable price, acceptable price and superior price. Previous researchers have used actual price to focus on the structure and price comparison of competitors within the service industry. In contrast, this research has focused on the price comparison in terms of relative price. Additionally, we use a survey to elicit responses from 998 individual users of prepaid mobile phone services in Thailand. The results indicate a valid and reliable measure of price fairness perception, permitting us to understand how customers perceive that a price offered by service providers is fair. This understanding will help managers (and their respective organisations to design an appropriate price strategy that fits what their customer's wants and needs while fostering a long-term relationship with them.

  11. Local Cryogenics for the SIS100 at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisel, T.; Chorowski, M.; Iluk, A.; Kauschke, M.; Kollmus, H.; Malcher, K.; Polinski, J.; Streicher, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the coming years a new international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), one of the largest research projects worldwide, will be build close to Darmstadt in Germany. FAIR will provide antiproton and ion beams with unprecedented intensity and quality. One of its major accelerators will be a synchrotron called SIS100 having a circumference of about 1100 meters. The SIS100 tunnel will house a complex cryogenic system supplying up to 20 kW cooling capacity @ 4.5 K to about 300 superconducting fast ramped magnets and other physics equipment. The planned SIS100 local cryogenic system can be principally divided into three sections each fed from a separate Feed Box. Every Feed Box supplies 4.5 K helium for magnet, vacuum chamber, cryo collimator, current lead and bus-bar cooling as well as 50 K helium for the current lead and thermal shield cooling, independently to two sixth of the ring. Each sixth of the ring, so called sextant, consists of a cold arc and a straight warm section. By-pass Lines circumvent the straight warm sections of the sextants, where warm equipment (e.g. normal conducting cavities and magnets) is located. Between the warm equipment, are superconducting magnets located which also need to be supplied from the By-pass Lines with helium and cold electrical connections. The By-pass Lines are Polish in-kind contribution, coordinated by the Jagiellonian University of Krakow and will be designed, manufactured and commissioned by the Wroclaw University of Technology. In this paper the SIS100 local cryogenic system will be described with focus on the By-pass Lines and on magnet cooling including the balancing of differences between dipole and quadrupole circuits and the coping with dynamic loads.

  12. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Meck, Robert A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  13. The Fair Trade balance: New challenges after 25 years of Fair Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruben, R.

    2012-01-01

    During the last 25 years Fair Trade (FT) experienced substantial growth, but competition from private labels is increasingly challenging the policy foundations of the FT business model. While direct welfare effects of FT for farmers are rather modest, security of delivery contracts and pre-financing

  14. Fairness overrides reputation: the importance of fairness considerations in altruistic cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, Sule; Newell, Ben R

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral findings in several strategic games indicate that people punish others if they think they are being treated unequally, even at the cost of minimizing their own material payoff. We investigated the primary driving force behind such non-self-regarding behavior, so-called, altruistic cooperation. In all of our studies, a mini ultimatum game was played either one-shot (in Experiment 1a and 1b) or repeatedly (Experiment 2), and rejections of inequitable distribution were taken as a measure of altruistic cooperation. In Experiment 1a, we replicated previous findings indicating that the key mechanism contributing to the emergence of altruistic cooperation is fairness considerations. In Experiment 1b, we delved into the relative importance of two aspects of fairness considerations (i.e., outcome fairness and intentions) and showed that both aspects were effective in determining the level of altruistic cooperation, with the contribution of intentions being more important. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effect of the opportunity for reputation building and future interaction on altruistic cooperation. We found that these factors became influential only when fairness considerations were weakened, particularly, as a result of the removal of the possible intentions behind an offer.

  15. "That's Not Fair!"--Using RET to Address the Issue of Fairness in Classroom Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Forrest R., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    If school counselors give a typical Rational Emotive Therapy disputative response to the issue of fairness, students are not helped to develop a more reasonable and rational view on this issue. Describes discussion led by counselor emphasizing choice, acceptance, and the irrationality of the belief that the world is unfair. (LSR)

  16. What do you think is "fair"? Effects of ingroup norms and outcome control on fairness judgments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, G.; Aarts, H.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2002-01-01

    Two studies are reported that examine whether fairness judgments in dyadic exchange situations are influenced by descriptive ingroup norms or the interdependence structure of the exchange situation. In both studies, these factors were varied within a minimal group categorization paradigm. Results sh

  17. Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx, Robbie Evelyn

    Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.

  18. Fair Processes for Priority Setting: Putting Theory into Practice; Comment on “Expanded HTA: Enhancing Fairness and Legitimacy”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten P. Jansen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedding health technology assessment (HTA in a fair process has great potential to capture societal values relevant to public reimbursement decisions on health technologies. However, the development of such processes for priority setting has largely been theoretical. In this paper, we provide further practical lead ways on how these processes can be implemented. We first present the misconception about the relation between facts and values that is since long misleading the conduct of HTA and underlies the current assessmentappraisal split. We then argue that HTA should instead be explicitly organized as an ongoing evidenceinformed deliberative process, that facilitates learning among stakeholders. This has important consequences for whose values to consider, how to deal with vested interests, how to consider all values in the decisionmaking process, and how to communicate decisions. This is in stark contrast to how HTA processes are implemented now. It is time to set the stage for HTA as learning.

  19. Fairness in Physical Products Delivery Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mohammed Alaraj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In an e-commerce transaction, a buyer purchases a physical product, such as a laptop, from an onlineseller. In an attempt to protect himself, any seller would prefer to collect payment from the buyer beforehe sends the product. Likewise, the buyer would prefer to have the product shipped to him before hemakes a payment to the seller. Both parties have a need to take precautions to minimize their risk in casethe other party proves to be untrustworthy. This paper proposes a new e-commerce fair exchangeprotocol based on verifiable and recoverable encryption of keys. The proposed protocol is based onoffline TTP. Only seven messages are exchanged between the parties involved in the protocol. Disputesare resolved electronically in case one party evades

  20. Fair Micropayment System Based on Hash Chains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zongkai; LANG Weimin; TAN Yunmeng

    2005-01-01

    Micropayment schemes usually do not provide fairness, which means that either the customer or the merchant, or both, can cheat each other and gain a financial advantage by misusing the protocols. This paper proposes an efficient hash chain-based micropayment scheme, which is an offline, prepaid scheme that supports simpler divisibility of digital coins. In the execution of payment protocol, the customer's disbursement and the merchant's submittal are performed step by step, whoever cannot gain addition profits even if he breaks off the transaction. The hash chain can also be used for transactions with different merchants. Unlike other micropayment schemes, e.g., PayWord, no public-key operation is required,which improves the efficiency. The scheme also provides restricted anonymity.

  1. Expanded HTA: Enhancing Fairness and Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Daniels

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All societies face the need to make judgments about what interventions (both public health and personal medical to provide to their populations under reasonable resource constraints. Their decisions should be informed by good evidence and arguments from health technology assessment (HTA. But if HTA restricts itself to evaluations of safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness, it risks being viewed as insufficient to guide health decision-makers; if it addresses other issues, such as budget impact, equity, and financial protection, it may be accused of overreaching. But the risk of overreaching can be reduced by embedding HTA in a fair, deliberative process that meets the conditions required by accountability for reasonableness.

  2. Google Science Fair winner visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Google Science Fair Grand Prize winner Brittany Michelle Wenger today wrapped up a day-and-a-half's visit of the CERN site. Her winning project uses an artificial neural network to diagnose breast cancer – a non-invasive technique with significant potential for use in hospitals.   Brittany Michelle Wenger at CERN's SM18 Hall. Besides winning a $50,000 scholarship from Google and work experience opportunities with some of the contest hosts, Brittany was offered a personal tour of CERN. “This visit has just been incredible,” she says. “I got to speak with [CERN's Director for Accelerators and Technology] Steve Myers about some of the medical applications and technologies coming out of the LHC experiments and how they can be used to treat cancer. We talked about proton therapy and hadron therapy, which could really change the way patients are treated, improving success rates and making treatment not such an excruciating process. That ...

  3. The PANDA DIRC detectors at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, C.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Föhl, K.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Kröck, B.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Allison, L.; Hyde, C.

    2017-07-01

    The PANDA detector at the international accelerator Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Europe (FAIR) addresses fundamental questions of hadron physics. An excellent hadronic particle identification (PID) will be accomplished by two DIRC (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) counters in the target spectrometer. The design for the barrel region covering polar angles between 22o to 140o is based on the successful BABAR DIRC with several key improvements, such as fast photon timing and a compact imaging region. The novel Endcap Disc DIRC will cover the smaller forward angles between 5o (10o) to 22o in the vertical (horizontal) direction. Both DIRC counters will use lifetime-enhanced microchannel plate PMTs for photon detection in combination with fast readout electronics. Geant4 simulations and tests with several prototypes at various beam facilities have been used to evaluate the designs and validate the expected PID performance of both PANDA DIRC counters.

  4. Fair trial in international commercial arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saleh khedri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A fair hearing in the courts requires the principles of procedure. Because the arbitration is considered as private judgment, thus in arbitration hearing regarding to non-ceremonial proceedings, arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect the principles of civil procedure in arbitration hearing. Equal treatment with parties of arbitration and Adversarial procedure are principles that arbitrator or arbitration panel obliged to satisfy them in proceeding whit action arbitration parties. Independence and impartiality are elements of Equal treatment and proper notice and give a full opportunity to presentation case are elements of adversarial procedure in Arbitration hearing that arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect them in proceeding between action arbitration parties. Disclosure Obligation, Challenge to arbitrators competence, application for setting aside and refuse to recognition and enforcement of award are tools to satisfy compliance of principles of procedural civil in Arbitration hearing. In this paper, ways of satisfying principles of procedure and its sanctions has been considered.

  5. International Fairs in the Modern Food Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. Santucci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available International trade fairs are an important marketing tool for the expanding organic market. Although much output is marketed locally and there is a growing demand for the so-called zero miles products, Italian organic raw materials and processed foods are largely exported. For the first time, a direct survey has been conducted on 100 Italian firms attending BioFach 2000, to analyze aspects like activities performed, goals and expectations, forms of private – public partnerships. By using seven relevant variables, the firms are grouped into five categories. The same firms have been contacted after one month, to assess results, level of satisfaction and willingness to participate in a next edition.

  6. Phenomenology of quarkyonic percolation at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Torrieri, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    We will give an introduction to the concept of quarkyonic matter, presenting an overview of what is meant by this term in the literature. We will then argue that the quarkyonic phase, as defined in the original paper, is a percolation-type phase transition whose phase transition line is strongly curved in $\\rho_B-N_c$ space, where $N_c$ is the number of colors and $\\rho_B$ the baryon density. With a toy model estimate, we show that it might be possible to obtain a percolating but confined phase at $N_c=3,N_f=2$ at densities larger than one baryon per one baryon size. We conclude by discussing how this phase can be observed at FAIR.

  7. Online software trigger at PANDA/FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donghee [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility will employ a novel trigger-less readout concept. PANDA will have no first level hardware trigger and apply a high level software trigger to do fast event selection based on the physics properties of reconstructed events. A trigger-less data stream implies that an event selection requires track reconstruction and pattern recognition to be performed online, analysing data under real time condition at the event rates up to 40 MHz. A significant event rate reduction is required to reject effectively background events, while retaining the interesting events at the same time. The projected reduction factor is 10{sup -3}. Real time event selection in this environment is very challenging and rely on sophisticated algorithms in the software trigger. This presentation shows the implementation and performance tests of the online high level physics trigger algorithms. The impact of parameters such as momentum, mass resolution, and PID probability for the event filtering are presented.

  8. Fair Innings and Time-Relative Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Greg Bognar has recently offered a prioritarian justification for 'fair innings' distributive principles that would ration access to healthcare on the basis of patients' age. In this article, I agree that Bognar's principle is among the strongest arguments for age-based rationing. However, I argue that this position is incomplete because of the possibility of 'time-relative' egalitarian principles that could complement the kind of lifetime egalitarianism that Bognar adopts. After outlining Bognar's position, and explaining the attraction of time-relative egalitarianism, I suggest various ways in which these two kinds of principle could interact. Since various options have very different implications for age-based rationing, proponents of such a rationing scheme must take a position on time-relative egalitarianism to complement a lifetime prioritarian view like Bognar's.

  9. Unifying View on Min-Max Fairness, Max-Min Fairness, and Utility Optimization in Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanczak Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the control of quality of service (QoS in wireless cellular networks utilizing linear receivers. We investigate the issues of fairness and total performance, which are measured by a utility function in the form of a weighted sum of link QoS. We disprove the common conjecture on incompatibility of min-max fairness and utility optimality by characterizing network classes in which both goals can be accomplished concurrently. We characterize power and weight allocations achieving min-max fairness and utility optimality and show that they correspond to saddle points of the utility function. Next, we address the problem of the difference between min-max fairness and max-min fairness. We show that in general there is a (fairness gap between the performance achieved under min-max fairness and under max-min fairness. We characterize the network class for which both performance values coincide. Finally, we characterize the corresponding network subclass, in which both min-max fairness and max-min fairness are achievable by the same power allocation.

  10. The proportional fairness scheduling algorithm on multi-classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江勇; 吴建平

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study resource management models and algorithms that satisfy multiple performance objects simultaneously. We realize the proportional fairness principle based QoS model, which defines both delay and loss rate requirements of a class, to include fairness, which is important for the integration of multiple service classes. The resulting Proportional Fairness Scheduling model formalizes the goals of the network performance, user's QoS requirement and system fairness and exposes the fundamental tradeoffs between these goals. In particular, it is difficult to simultaneously provide these objects. We propose a novel scheduling algorithm called Proportional Fairness Scheduling (PFS) that approximates the model closely and efficiently. We have implemented the PFS scheduling in Linux. By performing simulation and measurement experiments, we evaluate the delay and loss rate proportional fairness of PFS, and determine the computation overhead.

  11. Neural segregation of objective and contextual aspects of fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nicholas D; Symmonds, Mkael; Fleming, Stephen M; Dolan, Raymond J

    2011-04-06

    Perception of fairness can influence outcomes in human exchange. However, an inherent subjectivity in attribution renders it difficult to manipulate fairness experimentally. Here using a modified ultimatum game, within a varying social context, we induced a bias in human subjects' acceptance of objectively identical offers. To explain this fairness-related behavior, we use a computational model to specify metrics for the objective and contextual aspects of fairness, testing for correlations between these model parameters and brain activity determined using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We show that objective social inequality, as defined by our model, is tracked in posterior insula cortex. Crucially, this inequality is integrated with social context in posterior and mid-insula, consistent with construction of a fairness motivation that flexibly adapted to the social environment. We suggest that the dual importance of objective and contextual aspects to fairness we highlight might explain seemingly inconsistent societal phenomena, including public attitudes to income disparities.

  12. An Opportunistic Relaying Selection Scheme Based on Relay Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting An

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic relaying scheme is a single cooperative relay selection method based on Channel State Information. However, the failure probability of the best relay selection may become unacceptable when the number of relays increases. Although most of the existing solutions can reduce the failure probability of relay selection, they ignore the fairness of the relay selection. In order to improve the fairness of the relay selection without affecting the failure probability of the best relay selection, we propose a modified practical best relay selection scheme in this paper,  and by introducing proportional fair algorithm, the relay timer will be given a smaller correlation coefficient. The proposed method makes the probability of selection be improved. In the light of defined fairness factor, the relay fairness is represented. Simulation results show that the new algorithm can improve the fairness of the relay selection on the basis of maintaining the original failure probability of relay selection.

  13. Parallel job scheduling policies to improve fairness : a case study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Sabin, Gerald (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Sadayappan, Ponnuswamy (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH)

    2008-02-01

    Balancing fairness, user performance, and system performance is a critical concern when developing and installing parallel schedulers. Sandia uses a customized scheduler to manage many of their parallel machines. A primary function of the scheduler is to ensure that the machines have good utilization and that users are treated in a 'fair' manner. A separate compute process allocator (CPA) ensures that the jobs on the machines are not too fragmented in order to maximize throughput. Until recently, there has been no established technique to measure the fairness of parallel job schedulers. This paper introduces a 'hybrid' fairness metric that is similar to recently proposed metrics. The metric uses the Sandia version of a 'fairshare' queuing priority as the basis for fairness. The hybrid fairness metric is used to evaluate a Sandia workload. Using these results, multiple scheduling strategies are introduced to improve performance while satisfying user and system performance constraints.

  14. The developmental origins of fairness: the knowledge-behavior gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Peter R; McAuliffe, Katherine; Warneken, Felix

    2014-11-01

    Recent research in developmental psychology shows that children understand several principles of fairness by 3 years of age, much earlier than previously believed. However, children's knowledge of fairness does not always align with their behavior, and immediate self-interest alone cannot explain this gap. In this forum paper, we consider two factors that influence the relation between fairness knowledge and behavior: relative advantage and how rewards are acquired.

  15. A Voice Priority Queue (VPQ Fair Scheduler for the VoIP over WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif Nisar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of VoIP over packet switching networks is one of the rapidly emerging real-time Internet Protocol. The real-time application of the Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is growing rapidly for it is more flexible than the traditional Public Switched Telephone Networks systems (PSTN. Meanwhile, the VoIP deployment on Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs, which is based on IEEE 802.11 standards, is increasing. Currently, many schedulers have been introduced such as Weighted Fair Queueing (WFQ, Strict Priority (SP General processor sharing (GPS, Deficit Round Robin (DRR, andContention-Aware Temporally fair Scheduling (CATS. Unfortunately, the current scheduling techniques have some drawbacks on real-time applications and therefore will not be able to handle the VoIP packetsin a proper way. The objective of this research is to propose a new scheduler system model for the VoIP application named Voice Priority Queue (VPQ scheduler. The scheduler system model is to ensureefficiency by producing a higher throughput and fairness for VoIP packets. In this paper, only the First Stage of the VPQ packet scheduler and its algorithm are presented. Simulation topologies for VoIP traffic were implemented and analyzed using the Network Simulator (NS-2. The results show that this method can achieve a better and more accurate VoIP quality throughput and fairness index.

  16. Power restriction and policy overview in educational fairness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Weina

    2007-01-01

    Different historical contexts endow educational fairness with different historical missions.The operation of resource allocation powers,the introduction of new elements into strata polarization,and the authoritative allocation of public policies all add to the complexity of interpreting educational fairness.The key problem,however,does not lie in the complexity itself,but in the straight bluntness and the collective unawareness incurred by it.Therefore,only by clarifying the complexity involved in educational fairness and arousing certain awareness of research can educational fairness and its public education policies undertake the double missions of both academic and practical significance.

  17. The other side of the coin: oxytocin decreases the adherence to fairness norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Sina; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2012-01-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) has been implicated in prosocial behaviors such as trust and generosity. Yet, these effects appear to strongly depend on characteristics of the situation and the people with whom we interact or make decisions. Norms and rules can facilitate and guide our actions, with fairness being a particularly salient and fundamental norm. The current study investigated the effects of intranasal OXT administration on fairness considerations in social decision-making in a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design. After having received 24 IU of OXT or placebo (PLC), participants completed a one-shot Dictator Game (DG) and played the role of the responder in a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG), in which an unfair offer of eight coins for the proposer and two coins for the responder is paired with either a fair-(5:5) or no-alternative (8:2). Rejection rates were higher when a fair alternative had been available than when there was no alternative to an unfair offer. Importantly, OXT did not de-or increase rejection rates overall, but reduced the sensitivity to contextual fairness, i.e., the context of alternatives in which an offer was made. As dictators, participants allocated less coins to the recipient when given OXT than when given PLC, indicating a decline in generosity. These results suggest that OXT decreases the adherence to fairness norms in social settings where others are likely to be perceived as not belonging to one's ingroup. While our findings do not support the prosocial conception of OXT, they corroborate recent ideas that the effects of OXT are more nuanced than assumed in the past.

  18. When do procedural fairness and outcome fairness interact to influence employees' work attitudes and behaviors? The moderating effect of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cremer, David; Brockner, Joel; Fishman, Ariel; van Dijke, Marius; van Olffen, Woody; Mayer, David M

    2010-03-01

    Prior research has shown that procedural fairness interacts with outcome fairness to influence employees' work attitudes (e.g., organizational commitment) and behaviors (e.g., job performance, organizational citizenship behavior), such that employees' tendencies to respond more positively to higher procedural fairness are stronger when outcome fairness is relatively low. In the present studies, we posited that people's uncertainty about their standing as organizational members would have a moderating influence on this interactive relationship between procedural fairness and outcome fairness, in that the interactive relationship was expected to be more pronounced when uncertainty was high. Using different operationalizations of uncertainty of standing (i.e., length of tenure as a proxy, along with self-reports and coworkers' reports), we found support for this hypothesis in 4 field studies spanning 3 different countries. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Rail Inductance Calculations for Some Simple Current Distributions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    Kowalenko ABSTRACT In this study, an expression for the inductance per unit length of the rails for a railgun -type electromagnetic launcher (EML) is...this report is unlimited. ,EYWORDS Electric guns, Electromagnetic launchers Railgun accelerators Current distribution Equations of motion ’ :.A1M... capacitor bank of an electromagnetic launcher, F d separation of the rails, m dt differential vector length element E(O) total initial energy stored by

  20. Fair Trade in Sustainable Development. The Potential for Fair Trade Market Growth in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Śmigielska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of Fair Trade, which is considered an alternative to conventional trade, and becomes increasingly popular in the Western countries. In addition, some results of empirical research, conveyed in Poland and aimed at diagnosis and assessment of Fairtrade products market, are provided. Fair trade is analysed not only in the broad theoretical context which shows its contribution to sustainable development and relation to corporate social responsibility, but also in the framework of supply chains management. The benefits from the Fairtrade label, including transaction costs reduction are indicated. The assumption is that to achieve them, consumer acceptance of the idea and willingness to buy Fairtrade products are necessary. The empirical research was focused on answering the question whether a market niche for Fairtrade goods exists in Poland and how to develop it by the means of communication tools. The market niche, although very small, has been identified and described. It is apparent that, in order to develop it, a public policy, aimed at raising the awareness of Fair Trade idea, is necessary as well as marketing activities like social marketing Internet campaigns and better and more prominently products display.

  1. Fair Biodiversity Politics With and Beyond Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bernhard Kleba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The access and benefit-sharing regime (ABS of the Convention on Biological Diversity has been criticised for focusing on entitlements and asset exchanges. In this regard, the Nagoya Protocol provides little advance. This work introduces new paths of research and reasoning debating the tensions between the Rawlsian concept of justice and the realm of ABS. A new original position to debate fair biodiversity politics would include the concepts of justice of non-Western cultures. Taking the case of indigenous and traditional peoples, the issue of cultural minority rights is raised, challenging the institutionalisation of legal pluralism and political recognition. Against Bell, and with and beyond Rawls, arguments are provided favouring an environmental constitutionalism. The least advantaged concept shifts from an economical focus towards realising citizenship and applied to the ABS regime. Concerning the destination of benefits in ABS agreements, I advocate a complement between entitlements and the systemic aims of the Convention, prioritising the latter. Finally, controversies about the equity of benefit sharing are examined. Whereas the difference principle is helpful in tackling the economical and political asymmetries in ABS negotiations, it leaves core questions open. The Nagoya Protocol has advanced in providing legal tools to realise citizenship. However, political justice demands more. Concerns to benefit the least advantaged should be included in policy, bioprospecting project design and ABS contracts.

  2. Online software trigger at PANDA/FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donghee; Kliemt, Ralf; Nerling, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Denig, Achim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Goetzen, Klaus; Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will employ a novel trigger-less read-out system. Since a conventional hardware trigger concept is not suitable for PANDA, a high level online event filter will be applied to perform fast event selection based on physics properties of the reconstructed events. A trigger-less data stream implies an event selection with track reconstruction and pattern recognition to be performed online, and thus analysing data under real time conditions at event rates of up to 40 MHz.The projected data rate reduction of about three orders of magnitude requires an effective background rejection, while retaining interesting signal events. Real time event selection in the environment of hadronic reactions is rather challenging and relies on sophisticated algorithms for the software trigger. The implementation and the performance of physics trigger algorithms presently studied with realistic Monte Carlo simulations is discussed. The impact of parameters such as momentum or mass resolution, PID probability, vertex reconstruction and a multivariate analysis using the TMVA package for event filtering is presented.

  3. "Fair" Mathematics in Assessing Delictual Damages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Steynberg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In assessing delictual damages the plaintiff is burdened with the duty to prove loss with a preponderance of probability, including uncertain future loss. In quantifying such a claim an actuary is often used to make actuarial calculations based on proven facts and realistic assumptions regarding the future. The role of the actuary is to guide the court in the calculations to be made. Relying on its wide judicial discretion the court will have the final say regarding the correctness of the assumptions on which these calculations are based. The court should give detailed reasons if any assumptions or parts of the calculations made by the actuary are rejected. It should preferably refrain from making its own calculations if an actuary is involved and should rather instruct the actuary to do recalculations if necessary. It does, however, fall within the wide discretion of the court to make a general contingency adjustment after the basic calculations have been accepted. In assessing delictual damages it is the duty of the court to ensure that both objective and subjective factors are considered in such a manner that the assessment may be regarded as an application of "fair" mathematics.

  4. The R3B experiment at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheit, Heiko [TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The experiment Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams (R{sup 3}B) at the FAIR facility will be installed at the high-energy branch of the Super-FRS. It allows for kinematically complete nuclear reaction studies with short-lived radioactive ion beams in inverse kinematics, utilizing a wide beam energy range from about 100-1000 MeV/u covering the full mass range up to uranium. Experimental programs will address fundamental questions in nuclear structure and reaction physics, as well as nuclear astrophysics. Recently, after a long research and development phase, important milestones toward the realization of the R{sup 3}B experiment have been reached with the completion of the technical design reports for two core components of the R{sup 3}B setup: the NeuLAND high-resolution neutron time-of-flight spectrometer and the CALIFA Barrel, which serves as a {gamma}-ray spectrometer, calorimeter and, together with the Si-tracker, as a target-recoil detector. In addition, the construction of the superconducting large-acceptance dipole magnet R3B-GLAD, used for the magnetic rigidity analysis of beam-rapidity charged fragments, is well underway with an expected delivery at GSI in summer 2013.

  5. CERN welcomes Intel Science Fair winners

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This June, CERN welcomed twelve gifted young scientists aged 15-18 for a week-long visit of the Laboratory. These talented students were the winners of a special award co-funded by CERN and Intel, given yearly at the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF).   The CERN award winners at the Intel ISEF 2012 Special Awards Ceremony. © Society for Science & the Public (SSP). The CERN award was set up back in 2009 as an opportunity to bring some of the best and brightest young minds to the Laboratory. The award winners are selected from among 1,500 talented students participating in ISEF – the world's largest pre-university science competition, in which students compete for more than €3 million in awards. “CERN gave an award – which was obviously this trip – to students studying physics, maths, electrical engineering and computer science,” says Benjamin Craig Bartlett, 17, from South Carolina, USA, wh...

  6. 45 CFR 400.83 - Mediation and fair hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mediation and fair hearings. 400.83 Section 400.83... Employment § 400.83 Mediation and fair hearings. (a) Mediation—(1) Public/private RCA program. The State must ensure that a mediation period prior to imposition of sanctions is provided to refugees by...

  7. Power Restriction and Policy Overview in Educational Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weina

    2007-01-01

    Different historical contexts endow educational fairness with different historical missions. The operation of resource allocation powers, the introduction of new elements into strata polarization, and the authoritative allocation of public policies all add to the complexity of interpreting educational fairness. The key problem, however, does not…

  8. Leadership and Fairness: The State of the Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.L. van Knippenberg (Daan); D. de Cremer (David); B. van Knippenberg (Barbara)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractResearch in leadership effectiveness has paid less to the role of leader fairness than probably it should have. More recently, this has started to change. To capture this development, we review the empirical literature in leadership and fairness to define the field of leadership and

  9. Development of Teachers' Attitude Scale towards Science Fair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop a new scale for measuring teachers' attitude towards science fair. Teacher Attitude Scale towards Science Fair (TASSF) is an inventory made up of 19 items and five dimensions. The study included such stages as literature review, the preparation of the item pool and the reliability and validity analysis. First of…

  10. 7 CFR 3560.626 - Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. 3560.626 Section 3560.626 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... § 3560.626 Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. On-farm labor housing must meet the requirements...

  11. Starbucks’s Fair Trade in The Edge of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saomi Rizqiyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Starbucks as a global company that reflect American values plays an important role in the trade of coffee industry. In February 2000, Starbucks partially adopted the Fair Trade and in early 2001 Starbucks fully adopt Fair Trade. This research seeks to examine the relationship between Starbucks as a symbol of globalization with Starbucks as a global corporation who adopt Fair Trade. This study also seeks to explain how any practical Starbucks Fair Trade as a whole and uncover the reasons behind Starbucks adopt Fair Trade. The research uses a case study method and using a primary and secondary reference sources in the form of books and journals. As a results, this study indicate that Starbucks has strong reasons that ultimately makes the company adopted the Fair Trade. The adoption of Fair Trade also known as CAFE Practices is apparently not spared from criticism of the observer of Fair Trade.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.5546

  12. 76 FR 79307 - Fair Credit Reporting (Regulation V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... (Regulation V); Interim Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 245 / Wednesday, December 21, 2011... Fair Credit Reporting (Regulation V) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Interim... public comment an interim final rule establishing a new Regulation V (Fair Credit Reporting)....

  13. Canton Fair:Foreign Trade Enterprises Fight Against Difficulties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Zijun; Cui Xiaoling

    2011-01-01

    @@ The 110th Chinese Export Commodities Fair, also called Canton Fair, was held in Pazhou International Exhibition Center in October this year which marks the tenth anniversary of Chinas accession to the WTO.China's foreign trade enterprises are facing a grim situation featured by declining exports and other pressure, and feel the need to develop new ideas and strategies to survive.

  14. Fair Value and the Missing Correspondence Between Accounting and Auditing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Liempd, Dennis van

    . The second turning point is from historical cost to fair values, which changes the ontological premises of accounting thought in the direction of ontological subjectivity. This has profound consequences for auditing, which so far has failed to develop new epistemic criteria to deal with fair value accounting...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 113 - Standards of Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards of Fairness B Appendix B to Part 113 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN INDEBTEDNESS PROCEDURES OF MILITARY PERSONNEL Pt. 113, App. B Appendix B to Part 113—Standards of Fairness 1...

  16. On the Fairness of the Higher Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    With the establishment of the socialist market economic system in China, the issue of social fairness has been paid more and more attentions. The fairness issue of higher education, which is responsible for training high-quality talents for the national economy construction, has become the focus of attention. We discuss and research on the…

  17. Assessing Statistical Aspects of Test Fairness with Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rex B.

    2013-01-01

    Test fairness and test bias are not synonymous concepts. Test bias refers to statistical evidence that the psychometrics or interpretation of test scores depend on group membership, such as gender or race, when such differences are not expected. A test that is grossly biased may be judged to be unfair, but test fairness concerns the broader, more…

  18. 32 CFR 552.83 - Standards of fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of fairness. 552.83 Section 552.83 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND....83 Standards of fairness. (a) No finance charge contracted for, made, or received under any contract...

  19. Fair and Equitable Assessment Practices for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelleyann; Webber, Charles F.; Lupart, Judy L.; Aitken, Nola; Scott, Donald E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on promoting fairness and equity in student assessment practices. The researchers used questionnaires and interviews and the study encompassed a total of 3312 individuals representing a range of stakeholders. The paper is presented in two parts: fairness and discrimination, and challenging policy and practice. Five key…

  20. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 513 - Standards of Fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards of Fairness B Appendix B to Part 513 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND... Fairness B-1. No finance charge contracted for, made, or received under any contract shall be in excess of...