WorldWideScience

Sample records for current market demand

  1. Prospective Analysis of the Current Demand of the Local Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhinina Viktoriya V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in forecasting tendencies of the current demand of the local labour market on the basis of the method of statistical equations of dependencies and correlation and regression analysis for prolongation of relevant processes at the meso-level. The article considers a forecast model for co-ordination of dynamics of vacancies depending on socio-economic indicators of city development, which is formed on the basis of the method of statistical equations. This method requires identification of parameters of equations of single-factor dependencies and ratios of communication stability. On the basis of calculated values of these parameters and on the basis of economic and mathematical modelling of certain macro-economic indicators, the article builds equations of multiple regression, use of which would allow forecasting the current demand in the local labour market in the middle-term perspective. The prospect of further studies is forecasting the level of current balance of the local labour market, using the provided methods for forecasting the current supply.

  2. Market Expects Demand Increase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  3. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    . The study focuses on the development on the most important markets for Danish pork. The countries are Denmark, Japan, UK, Germany, Italy, France, USA, Russia and South Korea. The primary purpose is to identify market demands of importance to the Danish pork sector in order to maintain and strengthen its...

  4. Current Market Demand for Core Competencies of Librarianship—A Text Mining Study of American Library Association’s Advertisements from 2009 through 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Yang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As librarianship evolves, it is important to examine the changes that have taken place in professional requirements. To provide an understanding of the current market demand for core competencies of librarianship, this article conducts a semi-automatic methodology to analyze job advertisements (ads posted on the American Library Association (ALA Joblist from 2009 through 2014. There is evidence that the ability to solve unexpected complex problems and to provide superior customer service gained increasing importance for librarians during those years. The authors contend that the findings in this report question the status quo of core competencies of librarianship in the US job market.

  5. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  6. The Market Demand for Air Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, N.

    1972-01-01

    Although the presentation will touch upon the areas of market for air transportation, the theoretical foundations of the demand function, the demand models, and model selection and evaluation, the emphasis of the presentation will be on a qualitative description of the factors affecting the demand for air transportation. The presentation will rely heavily on the results of market surveys carried out by the Port of New York Authority, the University of Michigan, and Census of Transportation.

  7. A Dynamic Market Mechanism for Markets with Shiftable Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Kiani, Arman

    2014-01-01

    renewables, this mechanism accommodates both consumers with a shiftable Demand Response and an adjustable Demand Response. The overall market mechanism is evaluated in a Day Ahead Market and is shown in a numerical example to result in a reduction of the cost of electricity for the consumer, as well......In this paper, we propose a dynamic market mechanism that converges to the desired market equilibrium. Both locational marginal prices and the schedules for generation and consumption are determined through a negotiation process between the key market players. In addition to incorporating...

  8. Demand response in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler

    pricing and to classify different types of customers. The proposed models are then embedded into new fiveminute electricity markets for system balancing and local congestion management. New market tools for exploiting and maintaining a degree of control over demand are developed, and the value of DR using...... indirect control is determined in terms of social welfare. This thesis is written in the context of Danish and European power systems because the data used - and the data-driven models subsequently created - come from and were developed for the EcoGrid EU project. The demand forecasting models......This thesis addresses the design, deployment and benefits of demand response in a market environment. Demand response is consumption that can be controlled by an external stimulus in the power system. Flexible consumption is a useful tool for absorbing volatile power from renewable sources like...

  9. Use of demand response in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Sri Niwas; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    before DR implementation. This paper critically examines the present practices of the DR in the various electricity markets existing in the world including Europe. The prospect of DR in various market levels such as day-ahead (spot) market, hour-ahead market, real time/regulating market and ancillary......Demand response (DR) can provide sufficient measure, if implemented successfully, to provide economic, secure and stable supply to the customers even under the variability of the generated output from renewable energy source such as wind and solar. However, there are several issues to be analyzed...... market is analyzed. This paper also addresses the key issues and challenges in the implementation of DR in the electricity markets....

  10. Social marketing in travel demand management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing is an increasingly popular means of Travel Demand Management (TDM) for promoting non-car modes of travel that has proven to be effective, in particular if combined with structural improvements. Successful social marketing is based on a thorough understanding of targeted people......’s needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It uses a combination of means to create an attractive offering tailored to these needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It applies established marketing techniques for catching attention to the offerings. However, there are limits to what social marketing can...... accomplish. In particular, social marketing is limited to cases where only perceived and not real barriers prevent people from using alternative travel modes. A review is given of research on and practical experiences of social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating its usefulness....

  11. Social marketing in travel demand management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-01-01

    ’s needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It uses a combination of means to create an attractive offering tailored to these needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It applies established marketing techniques for catching attention to the offerings. However, there are limits to what social marketing can......Social marketing is an increasingly popular means of Travel Demand Management (TDM) for promoting non-car modes of travel that has proven to be effective, in particular if combined with structural improvements. Successful social marketing is based on a thorough understanding of targeted people...... accomplish. In particular, social marketing is limited to cases where only perceived and not real barriers prevent people from using alternative travel modes. A review is given of research on and practical experiences of social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating its usefulness....

  12. Restructuring Electricity Markets when Demand is Uncertain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Buehler, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We examine the effects of reorganizing electricity markets on capacity investments, retail prices and welfare when demand is uncertain. We study the following market configurations: (i) integrated monopoly, (ii) integrated duopoly with wholesale trade, and (iii) separated duopoly with wholesale...... are such that the separated (integrated) duopoly with wholesale trade performs best (worst) in terms of welfare.Keywords: Electricity, Investments, Generating Capacities, Vertical Integration, Monopoly and Competition.JEL-Classification: D42, D43, D44, L11, L12, L13...

  13. Clean fuel for demanding environmental markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josewicz, W.; Natschke, D.E. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acurex Environmental Corporation is bringing Clean Fuel to the environmentally demand Krakow market, through the cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. Clean fuel is a proprietary clean burning coal-based energy source intended for use in stoves and hand stoked boilers. Clean Fuel is a home heating fuel that is similar in form and function to raw coal, but is more environmentally friendly and lower in cost. The heating value of Clean Fuel is 24,45 kJ/kg. Extensive sets of confirmation runs were conducted in the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy in the Krakow laboratories. It demonstrated up to 54 percent reduction of particulate matter emission, up to 35 percent reduction of total hydrocarbon emissions. Most importantly, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (toxic and carcinogens compounds) emissions were reduced by up to 85 percent, depending on species measured. The above comparison was made against premium chunk coal that is currently available in Krakow for approximately $83 to 93/ton. Clean Fuel will be made available in Krakow at a price approximately 10 percent lower than that of the premium chunk coal.

  14. Licensing to Market with Logit Demand Functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qing-you; ZHU Li-li

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the licensing of a brand innovation to a monopoly in an uncovered market characterized by a logit demand framework. The innovator is an outsider to the market and sells the license via fixed-fee, royalty or their combinations. It is shown that the license occurs irrespective of whether the utility of the new brand is improved or not, and that the optimal licensing policy for the innovator is fixed-fee only. Ultimately, the monopoly produces both the old and the new brand products, even in the case of utility-improving brand innovation. In addition, the incentive for the innovator was examined.

  15. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  16. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000: Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Potential customer premises service (CPS), telecommunication services, potential CPS user classes, a primary research survey, comparative economics, market demand forcasts, distance distribution of traffic, segmentation of market demand, and a nationwide traffic distribution model are discussed.

  17. Research on the Current Supply-and-Demand of Fitness and Recreation Market in Hebei Province%河北省体育健身娱乐市场供求现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵文阁; 王立男

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料、问卷调查、观察、数理统计、逻辑分析等研究方法,对河北省体育健身娱乐市场的供求状况进行了调查分析,揭示了市场的现状特征及存在的问题,并据此提出了拓展河北省体育健身娱乐市场的若干对策。%This study investigates the current market in its supply and demand of the fitness and recreation supplies.The research methodology takes the forms of documentation,questionnaires,observation,mathematical statistics and logical analysis.The results reveal the present features of market and the existing problems.Moreover,it provides strategies and solutions for exploiting the fitness and recreation market in Hebei Province.

  18. DERIVED DEMAND ELASTICITIES: MARKETING MARGIN METHODS VERSUS AN INVERSE DEMAND MODEL FOR CHOICE BEEF

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Three methods of calculating the derived elasticity of demand for Choice slaughter beef are used: (a) a traditional marketing margin approach, (b) a modified marketing margin approach, and (c) an econometric, inverse demand model approach. The first method is more restrictive than the second but both tend to overestimate beef price flexibility and revenue changes. The econometric model, though an incomplete demand system, yields demand elasticities that are more consistent with marketing flex...

  19. Demand System Analysis of the South Korean Beef Market with the Free Trade Demand Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    In this study a demand system analysis for beef in South Korea is constructed. A free trade demand system was used in which the economic welfare of market participants are maximized. Recognizing implicit discrimination about non-locally sourced beef products, this study deduces market demand equations with respect to consumer preference in order to identify the marginal effect of change consumer preference has on market demand.

  20. Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gleason, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand model (dGen) is a geospatially rich, bottom-up, market-penetration model that simulates the potential adoption of distributed energy resources (DERs) for residential, commercial, and industrial entities in the continental United States through 2050. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed dGen to analyze the key factors that will affect future market demand for distributed solar, wind, storage, and other DER technologies in the United States. The new model builds off, extends, and replaces NREL's SolarDS model (Denholm et al. 2009a), which simulates the market penetration of distributed PV only. Unlike the SolarDS model, dGen can model various DER technologies under one platform--it currently can simulate the adoption of distributed solar (the dSolar module) and distributed wind (the dWind module) and link with the ReEDS capacity expansion model (Appendix C). The underlying algorithms and datasets in dGen, which improve the representation of customer decision making as well as the spatial resolution of analyses (Figure ES-1), also are improvements over SolarDS.

  1. Canada - gas supply, demand and current issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollman, K.W. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the trends in natural gas supply and demand during the decade since deregulation, and provides an assessment of the degree to which the goals of the deregulation agreement have been met. The author then turns to a discussion of current issues in the natural gas industry as seen from a regulator`s perspective. The issues discussed include: excess deliverability and price; pipeline integrity; the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act; new pipeline certification; pipeline jurisdiction; export licensing; financial regulation; and electronic information exchange. (Author)

  2. Market-based demand forecasting promotes informed strategic financial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, A J

    2001-11-01

    Market-based demand forecasting is a method of estimating future demand for a healthcare organization's services by using a broad range of data that describe the nature of demand within the organization's service area. Such data include the primary and secondary service areas, the service-area populations by various demographic groupings, discharge utilization rates, market size, and market share by service line and organizationwide. Based on observable market dynamics, strategic planners can make a variety of explicit assumptions about future trends regarding these data to develop scenarios describing potential future demand. Financial planners then can evaluate each scenario to determine its potential effect on selected financial and operational measures, such as operating margin, days cash on hand, and debt-service coverage, and develop a strategic financial plan that covers a range of contingencies.

  3. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    the nature of the demand response system and reveals that a simple markup contract between the Aggregator and the TSO is sufficiently flexible and little distorting. The simulation also provide a the less intuitive result, that the auction motivates the TSO to o er a high markup contract to the Aggregator...

  4. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    the nature of the demand response system and reveals that a simple markup contract between the Aggregator and the TSO is sufficiently flexible and little distorting. The simulation also provide a the less intuitive result, that the auction motivates the TSO to o er a high markup contract to the Aggregator...

  5. Ecosystem service markets 101: supply and demand for nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Jeff Kline; Trista Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Establishing markets for ecosystem services—the benefits that nature provides, such as clean air, water, and wildlife habitat—has gained traction in some circles as a way to finance the conservation of these public goods. Market influences on supply and demand work in tandem to encourage ecosystem protection. Jeff Kline and Trista Patterson, scientists with the...

  6. Marketing analysis of the demand for housing under construction in Chelyabinsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofimenko Elena Jur'evna

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of studying the demand for housing under construction in Chelyabinsk, studied Rosreestra data on quantity of completed contracts for the purchase of property, assess the current state of the real estate market in Chelyabinsk; consumer demand in the property market in Chelyabinsk (size, structure; socio-demographic characteristics of consumers of residential property; consumer preferences when buying a residential property.

  7. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D. [Global Business Reports (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-05-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium model, we find that price elasticity both increases the retailers revenue risk exposure and decreases the spot price. Since the latter induces the retailer to reduce forward electricity purchases, while the former has the opposite effect, the overall impact of price responsive demand on the relative magnitudes of its risk exposure and end-user price elasticity. Nevertheless, price elasticity decreases cumulative electricity consumption. By extending the analysis to allow for early settlement of demand, we find that forward stage end-user price responsiveness decreases the electricity forward price relative to the case with price-elastic demand only in real time. Moreover, we find that only if forward stage end-user demand is price elastic will the equilibrium electricity forward price be reduced.

  9. STRATEGIC ALTERNATIVES RELATED TO MARKET DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The foundation of any policy is the analysis of the relationship between supply and demand at the level of industries that still call the area of business. It is possible that a product or service is no longer required when it is available, even if the need is there, but wishes have undergone some changes and the image of the product on which a buyer wants is another. A buyer may be satisfied when the ownership of a product but be disappointed in the performance of its actual time of use. That is why we have made a distinction between objective and subjective value. Objective value , addressing the needs , provides a degree of satisfaction dependent on characteristics of age, gender, origin, vocational, family specifically. Subjective value is determined by the degree of satisfaction of desires , and is appreciated by each buyer depending on habits , cultural and social group consumption and education. There are four ways to approach that emphasizes differentiation: new products (differentiation, better products (positioning, faster products sold (focusing and cheaper products (cost leadership.

  10. Demand response in experimental electricity markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreda-Tarrazona, Iván

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We study consumers’ behavior in an experimental electricity market. Subjects make decisions concerning the quantity of electric energy they want to consume in three different pricing environments. In the baseline framework, they decide under a system of fixed prices, invariant to consumption schedule as well as to network restrictions. The other two environments correspond to dynamic pricing systems combined with incentives that aim at cutting energy consumption in a number of selected situations characterized by high network congestion. In such situations, in the first environment subjects get a bonus if they reduce their peak consumption below a certain level, while in the second one, consumers are sanctioned for consuming in peak times. From a social welfare perspective, our experimental data confirm that a dynamic system for prices is more efficient than a fixed one. Moreover, a dynamic scheme with sanctions, although less preferred by consumers, is more effective than the one with bonuses in order to reduce peak consumption. Dynamic pricing with bonuses reaches a good balance between efficiency and consumer acceptance.

    Estudiamos el comportamiento de los consumidores en un mercado de electricidad diseñado en el laboratorio. Los sujetos experimentales toman decisiones sobre la cantidad de electricidad que desean consumir en tres contextos diferentes. En el tratamiento base, los consumidores deciden bajo un sistema de precios fijos, en el que el precio es invariable tanto a la franja horaria de consumo como a las restricciones de la red. Los otros dos contextos corresponden a sistemas dinámicos de precios combinados con incentivos cuyo objetivo es la reducción del consumo en algunas situaciones seleccionadas caracterizadas por una alta congestión de la red. En estas situaciones, en el primer contexto, se bonifica la reducción del consumo en la hora punta por debajo de cierto nivel, mientras que en el segundo, los consumidores

  11. Incorporating weather uncertainty in demand forecasts for electricity market planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziser, C. J.; Dong, Z. Y.; Wong, K. P.

    2012-07-01

    A major component of electricity network planning is to ensure supply capability into the future, through generation and transmission development. Accurate forecasts of maximum demand are a crucial component of this process, with future weather conditions having a large impact on forecast accuracy. This article presents an improved methodology for the consideration of weather uncertainty in electricity demand forecasts. Case studies based on the Australian national electricity market are used to validate the proposed methodology.

  12. Research on electricity market operation mechanism and its benefit of demand side participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuai; Yan, Xu; Qin, Li-juan; Lin, Xi-qiao; Zeng, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Demand response plays an important role in maintaining the economic stability of the system, and has the characteristics of high efficiency, low cost, fast response, good environmental benefits and so on. Demand side resource is an important part of electricity market. The research of demand side resources in our country is still in the initial stage, but the opening of the electricity sales side provides a broad prospect for the development of electricity market. This paper summarizes the main types of demand side resources in our country, analyzes the economic principle of demand response from the micro perspective, puts forward some suggestions on the operation mechanism of China’s demand side resources participating in the electricity market under the condition of electricity sales side opening, analyzes the current situation of pricing in the electricity wholesale market and sets up the pricing strategy of the centralized wholesale market with the demand side power supply participating in quotation, which makes the social and economic benefits reach the maximum.

  13. Characterising Wildlife Trade Market Supply-Demand Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J; Rowcliffe, M; Cowlishaw, G; Alexander, J S; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y; Brenya, A; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2016-01-01

    The trade in wildlife products can represent an important source of income for poor people, but also threaten wildlife locally, regionally and internationally. Bushmeat provides livelihoods for hunters, traders and sellers, protein to rural and urban consumers, and has depleted the populations of many tropical forest species. Management interventions can be targeted towards the consumers or suppliers of wildlife products. There has been a general assumption in the bushmeat literature that the urban trade is driven by consumer demand with hunters simply fulfilling this demand. Using the urban bushmeat trade in the city of Kumasi, Ghana, as a case study, we use a range of datasets to explore the processes driving the urban bushmeat trade. We characterise the nature of supply and demand by explicitly considering three market attributes: resource condition, hunter behaviour, and consumer behaviour. Our results suggest that bushmeat resources around Kumasi are becoming increasingly depleted and are unable to meet demand, that hunters move in and out of the trade independently of price signals generated by the market, and that, for the Kumasi bushmeat system, consumption levels are driven not by consumer choice but by shortfalls in supply and consequent price responses. Together, these results indicate that supply-side processes dominate the urban bushmeat trade in Kumasi. This suggests that future management interventions should focus on changing hunter behaviour, although complementary interventions targeting consumer demand are also likely to be necessary in the long term. Our approach represents a structured and repeatable method to assessing market dynamics in information-poor systems. The findings serve as a caution against assuming that wildlife markets are demand driven, and highlight the value of characterising market dynamics to inform appropriate management.

  14. Characterising Wildlife Trade Market Supply-Demand Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowcliffe, M.; Cowlishaw, G.; Alexander, J. S.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Y.; Brenya, A.; Milner-Gulland, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The trade in wildlife products can represent an important source of income for poor people, but also threaten wildlife locally, regionally and internationally. Bushmeat provides livelihoods for hunters, traders and sellers, protein to rural and urban consumers, and has depleted the populations of many tropical forest species. Management interventions can be targeted towards the consumers or suppliers of wildlife products. There has been a general assumption in the bushmeat literature that the urban trade is driven by consumer demand with hunters simply fulfilling this demand. Using the urban bushmeat trade in the city of Kumasi, Ghana, as a case study, we use a range of datasets to explore the processes driving the urban bushmeat trade. We characterise the nature of supply and demand by explicitly considering three market attributes: resource condition, hunter behaviour, and consumer behaviour. Our results suggest that bushmeat resources around Kumasi are becoming increasingly depleted and are unable to meet demand, that hunters move in and out of the trade independently of price signals generated by the market, and that, for the Kumasi bushmeat system, consumption levels are driven not by consumer choice but by shortfalls in supply and consequent price responses. Together, these results indicate that supply-side processes dominate the urban bushmeat trade in Kumasi. This suggests that future management interventions should focus on changing hunter behaviour, although complementary interventions targeting consumer demand are also likely to be necessary in the long term. Our approach represents a structured and repeatable method to assessing market dynamics in information-poor systems. The findings serve as a caution against assuming that wildlife markets are demand driven, and highlight the value of characterising market dynamics to inform appropriate management. PMID:27632169

  15. Efficiency Loss in a Cournot Oligopoly with Convex Market Demand

    CERN Document Server

    Tsitsiklis, John N

    2012-01-01

    We consider a Cournot oligopoly model where multiple suppliers (oligopolists) compete by choosing quantities. We compare the social welfare achieved at a Cournot equilibrium to the maximum possible, for the case where the inverse market demand function is convex. We establish a lower bound on the efficiency of Cournot equilibria in terms of a scalar parameter derived from the inverse demand function, namely, the ratio of the slope of the inverse demand function at the Cournot equilibrium to the average slope of the inverse demand function between the Cournot equilibrium and a social optimum. Also, for the case of a single, monopolistic, profit maximizing supplier, or of multiple suppliers who collude to maximize their total profit, we establish a similar but tighter lower bound on the efficiency of the resulting output. Our results provide nontrivial quantitative bounds on the loss of social welfare for several convex inverse demand functions that appear in the economics literature.

  16. Demand for fiberboard panels in the international market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Donizette de Oliveira

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to estimate for several importing countries of fiberboard panels the income elasticities and price elasticities of total import demand and also the own-price and cross-price elasticities of demand for fiberboard panels, differentiated by country of origin. Time series data were used referring to the trade flow of the world’s largest exporters and importers of fiberboard panels. The demand model being used treats products as imperfect substitutes. It was concluded that in Germany, China and United Kingdom the total import demand for fiberboard panels was more sensitive to variations in price than in income, whereas in other importing countries the reverse happened. The own-price elasticity of demand for fiberboard panels, differentiated by country of origin, was higher than one in almost all markets, except in Germany and United Kingdom. The negative cross-price elasticities suggest that fiberboard panels imported from other exporting countries are complementary products.

  17. A PROBABILISTIC DEMAND APPLICATION IN THE AMERICAN CRACKER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutherford Cd. Johnson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the distribution of consumer buying strategies by producers may permit improved marketing strategies and improved ability to respond to volatile market conditions. In order to investigate potential ways of gaining such knowledge, this study extends the work of Kahneman, Russell, and Thaler through the application of a probabilistic demand framework using Choice Wave theory, based on the Schrödinger Wave Equation in quantum mechanics. Probabilistic variability of response to health information and its potential influence on buying strategies is also investigated, extending the work of Clement, Johnson, Hu, Pagoulatos, and Debertin. In the present study, the domestic cracker market within fourteen U.S. metropolitan areas is segmented, using the Choice Wave Probabilistic Demand approach, into two statistically independent “Consumer Types” of seven metropolitan areas each. The two Consumer Types are shown to have statistically different elasticities than each other and from the combined market as a whole. This approach may provide not only improved marketing strategies through improved awareness of consumer preferences and buying strategies, especially in the volatile agricultural sector, but also may be useful in aiding producers of store brand/private label products in finding desirable markets in which to compete against national brands. The results also suggest that supply/producer-side strategies should take into account the ways in which information, whether under the direct control of the producer or not, may influence and change consumer buying strategies.

  18. Analyses of demand response in Denmark[Electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-15

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  19. Analyses of demand response in Denmark[Electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Andersen, F.; Grenaa Jensen, S.; Larsen, Helge V.; Meibom, P.; Ravn, H.; Skytte, K.; Togeby, M.

    2006-10-15

    Due to characteristics of the power system, costs of producing electricity vary considerably over short time intervals. Yet, many consumers do not experience corresponding variations in the price they pay for consuming electricity. The topic of this report is: are consumers willing and able to respond to short-term variations in electricity prices, and if so, what is the social benefit of consumers doing so? Taking Denmark and the Nord Pool market as a case, the report focuses on what is known as short-term consumer flexibility or demand response in the electricity market. With focus on market efficiency, efficient allocation of resources and security of supply, the report describes demand response from a micro-economic perspective and provides empirical observations and case studies. The report aims at evaluating benefits from demand response. However, only elements contributing to an overall value are presented. In addition, the analyses are limited to benefits for society, and costs of obtaining demand response are not considered. (au)

  20. Demand Response in U.S. Electricity Markets: Empirical Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Kathan, David

    2009-06-01

    Empirical evidence concerning demand response (DR) resources is needed in order to establish baseline conditions, develop standardized methods to assess DR availability and performance, and to build confidence among policymakers, utilities, system operators, and stakeholders that DR resources do offer a viable, cost-effective alternative to supply-side investments. This paper summarizes the existing contribution of DR resources in U.S. electric power markets. In 2008, customers enrolled in existing wholesale and retail DR programs were capable of providing ~;;38,000 MW of potential peak load reductions in the United States. Participants in organized wholesale market DR programs, though, have historically overestimated their likely performance during declared curtailments events, but appear to be getting better as they and their agents gain experience. In places with less developed organized wholesale market DR programs, utilities are learning how to create more flexible DR resources by adapting legacy load management programs to fit into existing wholesale market constructs. Overall, the development of open and organized wholesale markets coupled with direct policy support by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has facilitated new entry by curtailment service providers, which has likely expanded the demand response industry and led to product and service innovation.

  1. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price. PMID:27391816

  2. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Zhang, Yuqing

    2016-01-01

    Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  3. Market Confidence Predicts Stock Price: Beyond Supply and Demand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qian Sun

    Full Text Available Stock price prediction is an important and challenging problem in stock market analysis. Existing prediction methods either exploit autocorrelation of stock price and its correlation with the supply and demand of stock, or explore predictive indictors exogenous to stock market. In this paper, using transaction record of stocks with identifier of traders, we introduce an index to characterize market confidence, i.e., the ratio of the number of traders who is active in two successive trading days to the number of active traders in a certain trading day. Strong Granger causality is found between the index of market confidence and stock price. We further predict stock price by incorporating the index of market confidence into a neural network based on time series of stock price. Experimental results on 50 stocks in two Chinese Stock Exchanges demonstrate that the accuracy of stock price prediction is significantly improved by the inclusion of the market confidence index. This study sheds light on using cross-day trading behavior to characterize market confidence and to predict stock price.

  4. The Cobweb Effect in Balancing Markets with Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Emil Mahler; Pinson, Pierre; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-01-01

    structure and measurements from the EcoGrid EU demonstration, where five minute electricity pricing is sent to 1900 houses. A new tool for quantifying volatility is presented, and the causes for volatility are investigated. A key outcome of this study shows that increases in social welfare due to DR appear......Integration of renewable energy sources (RES) like wind into the power system is a high priority in many countries, but it becomes increasingly difficult as renewables reach a significant share of generation. Demand response (DR) can potentially mitigate some of these difficulties, but the best way...... to control and integrate DR into the power system remains an open question. Integration into existing electricity markets is one option, but dynamic pricing with DR has been observed to be unstable, resulting in oscillations in supply and demand. This socalled Cobweb effect is presented here using the market...

  5. Particulars of Demand for Agricultural Products in the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina TIMIRAS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the latest official statistics on food and beverage purchases, overall and by product category, the article captures quantitative and qualitative changes in recent years on the Romanian market for this category of goods. It has been also highlighted the gaps observed in the different categories of households by: living environment, presence and number of children, employment status and age of household head, all from the perspective of the demand for those products.

  6. New Real-Time Market Facilitating Demand-Side Resources for System Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Nyeng, Preben; Xie, Jun;

    2011-01-01

    of such loads can deliver a well-behaved, stable and predictable balancing support. Based on a comprehensive analysis of the current balancing markets, as well as the technical properties of traditional and potential balancing resources, this paper proposes a new real-time balancing market setup facilitating....... This research is potentially useful for designing future balancing markets and utilizing demand response for system services. Copyright (C) 2011 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.......Many demand side resources have the potential to provide fast and low cost balancing services. Switching these devices on and off can be executed in seconds and have limited consequences for the customers if the duration is not long. With carefully designed market rules, tens of thousands...

  7. Supply/Demand in Radiology: A Historical Perspective and Comparison to other Labor Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafinski, Mark E; Nussbaum, David; Jha, Saurabh

    2016-02-01

    There has been attention on the job market recently and on radiology's supply/demand calculus. Supply is influenced by the number of trained radiologists, while demand is driven by demographics and technological innovation. We analyze the supply of radiologists historically and compare to other labor markets-medical and non-medical, domestic and foreign. We review National Resident Matching Program data in radiology and several other specialties from 1991 to 2015. We also review surveys, physician recruitment data, and peer-reviewed commentaries on medical specialty job markets. Trends are compared across specialties. The regulation of American medical training is compared to that in the United Kingdom and to a nonmedical labor market, unionized theatrical stage employees. Radiology residency positions have increased since 1998 despite a downturn in the job market. This expansion coincides with a decreasing percentage of positions filled by domestic graduates. A similar trend has been seen in pathology, a notoriously oversupplied specialty. Conversely, other specialties have maintained their proportion of domestic graduates by way of limited supply or implicit demand. The radiology job market is currently oversupplied, primarily a result of increasing residency positions despite indicators of decreasing demand. The percentage of residency positions filled by domestic graduates has decreased during the same period, suggesting that medical student interest is responsive to the market. Other specialties, particularly pathology, demonstrate the dangers of chronic oversupply. We advocate a reduction of radiology residency positions such that supply closely approximates demand without exceeding it. Additional measures may be taken, if necessary, to restore market equilibrium in the event of a mild undersupply. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking meters and markets: Roles and incentives to support a flexible demand side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    participants. The roll-out of smart metering to electricity consumers is an important precondition to establishing a flexible demand side and will provide essential information flows. On the basis of current incentive structures and related risks, however, the pass-through of information and value from...... wholesale market participants to the demand side is mostly infeasible, resulting in flexibility tasks being aggregated and delegated to balancing responsible wholesale traders. This analysis focuses on whether current incentives and roles are appropriate and where the design could be improved to establish...... a flexible demand side with a particular focus on the Danish case. Design-related barriers are identified that affect expected value, associated risks, and the distribution of responsibilities. This serves as a basis to define policy options in the context of Nordic electricity markets. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd...

  9. Area price and demand response in a market with 25% wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Møller Andersen, Frits; Larsen, Helge V.

    2011-01-01

    , which can improve market efficiency, and a welfare gain is obtained. An important limitation for demand response is events of several consecutive hours with extreme values. The analysis in this paper is a summary and update of some of the issues covered by the EU RESPOND project. It shows that extreme...... not only on the electricity wholesale prices, but also on the development of the market. Hourly market data are available from the website of Danish TSO from 1999. In this paper these data are analysed for the period 2004–2010. Electricity generators and customers may respond to hourly price variations...... events were few, and the current infrastructure and market organisation have been able to handle the amount of wind power installed so far. This recommends that geographical bidding area for the wholesale electricity market reflects external transmission constraints caused by wind power....

  10. A Generalized Formulation of Demand Response under Market Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh Y.; Nguyen, Duc M.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a generalized formulation of Demand Response (DR) under deregulated electricity markets. The problem is scheduling and controls the consumption of electrical loads according to the market price to minimize the energy cost over a day. Taking into account the modeling of customers' comfort (i.e., preference), the formulation can be applied to various types of loads including what was traditionally classified as critical loads (e.g., air conditioning, lights). The proposed DR scheme is based on Dynamic Programming (DP) framework and solved by DP backward algorithm in which the stochastic optimization is used to treat the uncertainty, if any occurred in the problem. The proposed formulation is examined with the DR problem of different loads, including Heat Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC), Electric Vehicles (EVs) and a newly DR on the water supply systems of commercial buildings. The result of simulation shows significant saving can be achieved in comparison with their traditional (On/Off) scheme.

  11. Current economic downturn and supply chain : The significance of demand and inventory smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, S.; Ashayeri, J.; Miranda, P.A.; Bruccoleri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and quantify the effects of demand and inventory smoothing into supply-chain performance, facing the extreme volatility and impetuous alteration of the market produced by the current economic recession. To do so, we model a traditional serial three-stage supply

  12. Current economic downturn and supply chain : The significance of demand and inventory smoothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cannella, S.; Ashayeri, J.; Miranda, P.A.; Bruccoleri, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse and quantify the effects of demand and inventory smoothing into supply-chain performance, facing the extreme volatility and impetuous alteration of the market produced by the current economic recession. To do so, we model a traditional serial three-stage supply

  13. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  14. Customer premises services market demand assessment 1980 - 2000. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, R. B.; Saporta, L.; Heidenrich, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of market demand for domestic civilian telecommunications services for the years 1980 to 2000 are provided. Overall demand, demand or satellite services, demand for satellite delivered Customer Premises Service (CPS), and demand for 30/20 GHz Customer Premises Services are covered. Emphasis is placed on the CPS market and demand is segmented by market, by service, by user class and by geographic region. Prices for competing services are discussed and the distribution of traffic with respect to distance is estimated. A nationwide traffic distribution model for CPS in terms of demand for CPS traffic and earth stations for each of the major SMSAs in the United States are provided.

  15. Enabling demand response by extending the European electricity markets with a real-time market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyeng, P.; Kok, K.; Pineda, S.; Grande, O.; Sprooten, J.; Hebb, B.; Nieuwenhout, F.

    2013-01-01

    The EcoGrid concept proposes to extend the current wholesale electricity market to allow participation of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and domestic end-consumers in system balancing. Taking advantage of the smart grid technology, the EcoGrid market publishes the real-time prices that entail a

  16. Modeling and prioritizing demand response programs in power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R. [Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-04-15

    One of the responsibilities of power market regulator is setting rules for selecting and prioritizing demand response (DR) programs. There are many different alternatives of DR programs for improving load profile characteristics and achieving customers' satisfaction. Regulator should find the optimal solution which reflects the perspectives of each DR stakeholder. Multi Attribute Decision Making (MADM) is a proper method for handling such optimization problems. In this paper, an extended responsive load economic model is developed. The model is based on price elasticity and customer benefit function. Prioritizing of DR programs can be realized by means of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method. Considerations of ISO/utility/customer regarding the weighting of attributes are encountered by entropy method. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used for selecting the most effective DR program. Numerical studies are conducted on the load curve of the Iranian power grid in 2007. (author)

  17. Demand Intensity, Market Parameters and Policy Responses towards Demand and Supply of Private Supplementary Tutoring in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Percy Lai Yin

    2010-01-01

    Based on some longitudinal studies of private tutoring in twelve cities, towns, municipalities and provinces of China, the paper endeavours to depict demand intensity, articulate market parameters and reflect on policy responses towards the demand-supply mechanism of the vast shadowy educational phenomena at primary and secondary levels. Such…

  18. USING ALMOST IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEM TO ANALYZE DEMAND FOR SHRIMP IN US FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia “Vivian” Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the demand for shrimp along with beef, pork, and chicken in the US food market, which contributes much to predicting supply strategies, consumer preferences and policy making. It focuses on the own and cross elasticity relationship between the expenditure share, price, and expenditure changes. An Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDs model and two alternative specifications (both nonlinear AIDs and LA-AIDs are used to estimate a system of expenditure share equations for ocean shrimp, penaeid shrimp, beef, pork, and chicken. Empirical results from nonlinear AIDs model is compared with those from LA-AIDs model. There are quite a few inconsistency between nonlinear and LA results. Results from nonlinear are more expected and more complied with microeconomic theory than those from LA. Also, results indicated that some insignificant slope coefficients and inappropriate signs of them did not comply with microeconomic theory. This could be caused by heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, a limitation in the data used, or shrimp is a quite different commodity.

  19. Market and policy barriers for demand response providing ancillary services in U.S. markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This study provides an examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority. The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey.

  20. National Study of the Supply of and Demand for Secondary Marketing Education Teachers in 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhland, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    Responses from 50 of 62 programs and 33 states regarding the supply of and demand for secondary marketing education teachers determined that there is not a shortage, most marketing education graduates taught at the secondary level, most marketing graduates obtained a teaching position, and the number of marketing education teachers remains…

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MILK CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING ANALYSIS OF ITS DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Habánová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The strategy of most households is to eliminate the negative effects of economic changes related mainly to the economic crisis by mobilizing available resources and reducing costs, but which cloud lead to a decrease in food consumption and changes in consumption patterns. Pensions and prices are factors that shape the demand for food and other estates. Both of these factors guarantee the economic viability of nutrition. Paper analyzes the development of the of milk consumption and level of its substitution by milk products. There was quantified the elasticity of demand and  estimated own price elasticity and income elasticity. For the past 17 years, consumption of milk, except cheese, cottage cheese, sour milk products and butter, decreased. Expressed by linear regression model in recent years (since 1995 in Slovakia occurred overall reduction in the consumption of milk and dairy products by an average of 0.988 kg per capita per year. This development was mainly conditioned by the annual descent of demand for milk, as its consumption with little variation in average decreased annually by up to 1.88 kg per capita. This development is largely due to the increase of milk prices and especially the increasing supply of a wide range of quality and flavored sour milk and cheese products. Acidified milk product consumption in recent observed years increased and is expressed by the average growth factor of 0.6748 kg per capita per year. Prognosis with a five percent risk of error of estimate could increase their consumption up to 13.936 kg per capita in 2014. Consumption of cheese and curd should the increase the current trend by an average of 0.0476 kg per person and would be able to achieve the level of consumption of 11.03 kg per capita in 2014.doi:10.5219/236

  2. Russian electricity market. Current state and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdurafikov, R.

    2009-06-15

    The Russian electricity market is currently in transition. The restructuring of the sector has been completed and former public vertically integrated monopolies have been unbundled and partly privatised. The government retained control in all the network companies, the system operator, nuclear generation, and hydro generation. The state retains control also via owner-ship in several TGCs and WGCs in the strategic regions of Moscow and Saint-Petersburg via the state owned gas monopoly Gazprom. The liberalization takes place within two price zones, Europe and Siberia, where more than 90%, 913 TWh in 2007, of Russian electricity consumption takes place. In the rest of Russia, e.g. the Far East and isolated areas like Kaliningrad, electricity is supplied at regulated rates. Only a minor part of electricity in the price zones is currently traded at free prices. The share of electricity traded at free market prices will increase according to the liberalization schedule, reaching ca 90%, all except households, by 2011. Wholesale electricity market bids are aggregated in a detailed power system model of the Russian power grid, taking into account the physical locations of the facilities. The resulting 7700+ nodal market prices, scattered across the 7 time zones of the Russian market area, capture costs of congestion and load losses in the grid. The price level of electricity seems to be rather low at a glance - about 21 euro and 15 euro per MWh in Europe and Siberia respectively. On the other hand, wholesale market buyers have to pay for capacity availability, on average around 3000 euro/MW monthly. With greater share of electricity traded at free prices there will be an increased need to hedge price risks. For this reason a financial market is planned. There are also plans for support schemes for renewable generation and to limit environmental pollution as well as ancillary services markets. Some areas do not experience a likewise opening of the competition in Russia, for

  3. An overview of the functional food market: from marketing issues and commercial players to future demand from life in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergari, Francesca; Tibuzzi, Arianna; Basile, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Companies in the food industry have high expectations for food products that meet the consumers' demand for a healthy life style. In this context Functional Food plays a specific role. These foods are not intended only to satisfy hunger and provide the necessary human nutrients, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases and increase the physical and mental well-being of their consumer. Among participants in space science and missions, recognition of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements is growing for their potential in reducing health risks and to improve health quality and eating habits during long-term flights and missions. In 2008 the entire functional foods market was worth over an estimated US $80 billion, with the US holding a majority share in the nutraceuticals market (35%) followed byJapan (25%) and with the ever-growing European market, currently estimated at US$8 billion. India and China are the two major countries known for their production of traditional functional food products and nutraceuticals, but other South-East Asian countries and Gulf nations are developing potential markets.

  4. Green marketing, renewables, and free riders: increasing customer demand for a public good

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-09-01

    Retail electricity competition will allow customers to select their own power suppliers and some customers will make purchase decisions based, in part, on their concern for the environment. Green power marketing targets these customers under the assumption that they will pay a premium for ``green`` energy products such as renewable power generation. But renewable energy is not a traditional product because it supplies public goods; for example, a customer supporting renewable energy is unable to capture the environmental benefits that their investment provides to non-participating customers. As with all public goods, there is a risk that few customers will purchase ``green`` power and that many will instead ``free ride`` on others` participation. By free riding, an individual is able to enjoy the benefits of the public good while avoiding payment. This report reviews current green power marketing activities in the electric industry, introduces the extensive academic literature on public goods, free riders, and collective action problems, and explores in detail the implications of this literature for the green marketing of renewable energy. Specifically, the authors highlight the implications of the public goods literature for green power product design and marketing communications strategies. They emphasize four mechanisms that marketers can use to increase customer demand for renewable energy. Though the public goods literature can also contribute insights into the potential rationale for renewable energy policies, they leave most of these implications for future work (see Appendix A for a possible research agenda).

  5. Price responsive load programs: U.S. experience in creating markets for peak demand reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Miriam L.; Michelman, Thomas [KEMA-XENERGY Inc., Madison, WE (United States); Rosenberg, Mitchell [KEMA-XENERGY Inc., Arnheim (Netherlands)

    2003-07-01

    Demand response programs use a variety of pricing mechanisms to induce end-use customers to reduce demand at specified periods. U.S. distribution utilities, regional market operators, and their regulators have implemented demand response programs with the objectives of improving electric system reliability, avoiding price spikes, and relieving local transmission congestion. This paper reviews the design and performance of market-linked demand response programs operated in 2001 and 2002, focusing on the relationship between program design and customer participation and the development of accurate and feasible methods to measure demand response at the facility level.

  6. 75 FR 54063 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...-000] Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets; Technical Conference AGENCY... address the use of a net benefits test for determining when to compensate demand response providers and the allocation of costs associated with demand response. DATES: The technical conference will be...

  7. Market and Policy Barriers for Demand Response Providing Ancillary Services in U.S. Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); MacDonald, Jason [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive examination of various market and policy barriers to demand response providing ancillary services in both ISO/RTO and non-ISO/RTO regions, especially at the program provider level. It is useful to classify barriers in order to create a holistic understanding and identify parties that could be responsible for their removal. This study develops a typology of barriers focusing on smaller customers that must rely on a program provider (i.e., electric investor owned utility or IOU, ARC) to create an aggregated DR resource in order to bring ancillary services to the balancing authority.ii The barriers were identified through examinations of regulatory structures, market environments, and product offerings; and discussions with industry stakeholders and regulators. In order to help illustrate the differences in barriers among various wholesale market designs and their constituent retail environments, four regions were chosen to use as case studies: Colorado, Texas, Wisconsin, and New Jersey. We highlight the experience in each area as it relates to the identified barriers.

  8. TRENDS AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES ON THE GAS MARKET UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei E. Shmagin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of natural gas as an energy source increasingly grows. The rate of demand growth and the gas market development depend on a variety of key conditions discussed in the paper. The current market situation and trends are analyzed in the context of the global balance of energy.

  9. TRENDS AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES ON THE GAS MARKET UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei E. Shmagin

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of natural gas as an energy source increasingly grows. The rate of demand growth and the gas market development depend on a variety of key conditions discussed in the paper. The current market situation and trends are analyzed in the context of the global balance of energy.

  10. Using Labeled Choice Experiments to Analyze Demand Structure and Market Position among Seafood Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Thong Tien; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe; Haider, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Understanding market competition and consumer preferences are important first steps in developing a business. In a competitive market, effectiveness of the various elements of a firm’s marketing mix depends not only on the absolute value of each element but also on the relative values...... of the elements with respect to the firm’s position in the market. In this paper we analyze the demand structure and market positions for a variety of seafood products in the French retail market. We use a labeled choice experiment (LCE) to analyze twelve seafood species. The choice options are labeled...... and reveal that salmon and cod have the strongest market position while monkfish and pangasius have the weakest. In general, the demand for seafood is moderately sensitive to price (market elasticity of -1.31). Large and low income households, female consumers, people in the age range 35-44 years and self...

  11. Demand Constraints and New Demands: Regulations, Markets and Institutions Efficiency (A Case Study for Cape Verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Reynolds Pacheco de Carvalho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic efficiency is a key issue in economic research and for policy design, and certainly for food security challenges. In the food system dynamics the understanding of changes and trends is crucial to improve our capacity to deal with the objectives of sustainable development and quality of life. Food system efficiency evaluation is necessary with regard to production and consumption efficiencies as well as market and governance dilemmas. Regulations and institutional efficiency are crucial aspects that are frequently forgotten, and efforts should be made to improve the capacity to deal with those methodological needs. In many situations, in the real world, data and measurements are difficult or even impossible to get in numeric or quantitative terms. Frequently, a qualitative evaluation is the only way to proceed, but measurements and numeric references are still important, mainly when changes over time are central to the research. The actual paper follows a structural food system model (WFSE – World Food Security Equation and a general equilibrium approach (ICI model – induced changes and innovation model to show in a country case study (Cape Verde the important role of markets and institutions as compared to regulation practices directed to improve economic efficiency subject to demand behavior. Cape Verde is a very challenging country with regard to the food security status (where natural resources are very poor for agricultural production but with great success in global and macro terms in the last 10 years. The main problems nowadays are clearly at local level. The present research tries to highlight the global achievements and explore local assessment efforts on food consumption conditions. A specific region is studied, in the island of Santo Antão, one of the most important production regions. Three different production systems were compared mainly with regard to their respective influence on consumption habits, incomes and

  12. Entity’s Irregular Demand Scheduling of the Wholesale Electricity Market based on the Forecast of Hourly Price Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Russkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a hot issue to forecast electric power demand amounts and prices for the entities of wholesale electricity market (WEM, which are in capacity of a large user with production technology requirements prevailing over hourly energy planning ones. An electric power demand of such entities is on irregular schedule. The article analyses mathematical models, currently applied to forecast demand amounts and prices. It describes limits of time-series models and fundamental ones in case of hourly forecasting an irregular demand schedule of the electricity market entity. The features of electricity trading at WEM are carefully analysed. Factors that influence on irregularity of demand schedule of the metallurgical plant are shown. The article proposes method for the qualitative forecast of market price ratios as a tool to reduce a dependence on the accuracy of forecasting an irregular schedule of demand. It describes the differences between the offered method and the similar ones considered in research studies and scholarly works. The correlation between price ratios and relaxation in the requirements for the forecast accuracy of the electric power consumption is analysed. The efficiency function of forecast method is derived. The article puts an increased focus on description of the mathematical model based on the method of qualitative forecast. It shows main model parameters and restrictions the electricity market imposes on them. The model prototype is described as a programme module. Methods to assess an effectiveness of the proposed forecast model are examined. The positive test results of the model using JSC «Volzhsky Pipe Plant» data are given. A conclusion is drawn concerning the possibility to decrease dependence on the forecast accuracy of irregular schedule of entity’s demand at WEM. The effective trading tool has been found for the entities of irregular demand schedule at WEM. The tool application allows minimizing cost

  13. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-07-21

    Demand response programs are often quickly and poorly crafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisis subsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared when the next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the event-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demand responsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such, demand response can be required as a condition of service, and the offering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities as an element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore the costs and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response system capable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operator controlled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customer controlled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Any demand response program based on this system could consist of either or both of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled, providing automatic load management through customer-programmed price response, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability in California. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers to implementation of such a program in California.

  14. Supply Chain Coordination by Single-Period and Long-Term Contracts with Fuzzy Market Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junyan; ZHAO Ruiqing; TANG Wansheng

    2009-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the market demand in the supply chain, this paper characterized market demand as a fuzzy variable and proposed single-period and long-term contracts to coordinate the two members (supplier and buyer) in the supply chain. Comparison of the effectiveness of the two contracts in-dicates that a long-term contract is more effective than a single-period contract in improving the profit poten-tial of both the total supply chain and each member in the supply chain. This conclusion is useful to the de-cision-maker in supply chains with fuzzy market demand.

  15. Electronic Markets Selection in Supply Chain with Uncertain Demand and Uncertain Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more companies start online operation. Electronic market becomes a key component of some companies’ strategy. Supply chain management is another key component of the strategy as being adopted by an increasing number of companies. There are many interactions between electronic market and supply chain. One of the key questions is to select one type of electronic market from the view of supply chain. This paper develops some models to explore the issue of selection between public electronic market and private electronic market in three scenarios where electronic market is used for buying, for selling, and for both selling and buying, respectively. In a public electronic market, neither the supplier nor the retailer is the owner of the electronic market. However, in a private electronic market, there is an owner that is either the supplier or the retailer. Besides demand uncertainty, we take into account the price uncertainty in electronic market. We explore the conditions under which the agent of supply chain selects one certain type of electronic market by comparing expected profits of supply chain members in different scenarios. Some sensitivity analyses are conducted to explore the impact of the customer demand, electronic market retail price, and e-market use fee on the selection of electronic market. Finally, some interesting managerial and academic insights are obtained.

  16. The Eastern European electricity market outlook: country profiles of supply, demand, regulation and infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-02-15

    Europe's electricity markets are rapidly changing and opening up to liberalisation and new market entrants, this is particularly evident in the vibrant Eastern European markets. This report provides an in-depth analysis of 12 highly dynamic Eastern European electricity markets with comprehensive data on supply/demand balance and coverage of the implementation of the EU Electricity Directive. The country profiles also feature an overview of supply/demand, an examination of key governmental, legal and political influences on the sector and an analysis of international trading and infrastructure with forecasts to 2012. 75 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-07-21

    Demand response programs are often quickly and poorlycrafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisissubsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared whenthe next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate theevent-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demandresponsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such,demand response can be required as a condition of service, and theoffering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities asan element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore thecosts and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response systemcapable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operatorcontrolled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customercontrolled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Anydemand response program based on this system could consist of either orboth of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled,providing automatic load management through customer-programmed priceresponse, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability inCalifornia. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers toimplementation of such a program in California.

  18. Winning in retail market games: relative profit and logit demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hoogland (Jasper); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe examine retailers that maximize their relative profit, which is the (absolute) profit relative to the average profit of the other retailers. Customer behavior is modelled by a multinomial logit (MNL) demand model. Although retailers with low retail prices attract more customers than

  19. An Overview on China's Refractories-Market and New Demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jiehua; ZHOU Ningsheng

    2004-01-01

    Based on the authors' information sources and personal viewpoints, this paper provides updated information on China s refractories situation in terms of output, consumption in main refractory using sectors, exportation and importation of refractory products and raw materials,structural change, future prosperity and new demands .From authors understanding, some analyses have also been given.

  20. On the market value of information commodities. III. Demand price

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mowshowitz, A. (Abbe)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe derived‐demand price of an information commodity depends on the commodity's cost impact on a user's production process. We model an arbitrary production process as a collection of interrelated tasks which can be represented in the form of a production digraph. The nodes of the digrap

  1. EDUCATION AND YOUNG FACE OF DEMANDING JOB MARKET BRAZILIAN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Raza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses an analysis of public policies applied to education and their influence on economic development and social rise of workers in the Brazilian labor market, which requires efficient, economically productive people in constant training. It aims at examining the overall efficiency of the management model of educational public policies, as well as the teaching process and preparation of young people to the labor market. From the results of this study, we can conclude that there is a huge gap between institutions of secondary education and the labor market; we discussed questions such as how school refusal is caused by disinterest and lack of relationship between theory and practice, required for the insertion of the young in the labor market, as well as the lack of integration among schools, businesses and society. Thus, it is proved necessary to adopt more efficient policies to decrease the distance or lack of preparation of the young to develop the country's economic and bring social development.

  2. THE CONTENT OF AN ECONOMIC CATEGORY AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE MARKET DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the economic and statistical categories and levels of consumer demand. There is no uniformity in the interpretation of the content of an economic category and demand level in the literature on the economic theory and applied research of the market. We want to conduct the verification of the demand category, a consolidation of the wording of measuring the level of demand, the classification of demand. Theoretical basis of the conducted research is the methodology of the economic theory and the general theory of statistics.

  3. Estimating Demand Response Market Potential Among Large Commercialand Industrial Customers:A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Hopper, Nicole; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Neenan,Bernie; Cappers, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Demand response is increasingly recognized as an essentialingredient to well functioning electricity markets. This growingconsensus was formalized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT), whichestablished demand response as an official policy of the U.S. government,and directed states (and their electric utilities) to considerimplementing demand response, with a particular focus on "price-based"mechanisms. The resulting deliberations, along with a variety of stateand regional demand response initiatives, are raising important policyquestions: for example, How much demand response is enough? How much isavailable? From what sources? At what cost? The purpose of this scopingstudy is to examine analytical techniques and data sources to supportdemand response market assessments that can, in turn, answer the secondand third of these questions. We focus on demand response for large(>350 kW), commercial and industrial (C&I) customers, althoughmany of the concepts could equally be applied to similar programs andtariffs for small commercial and residential customers.

  4. Labor Markets and the Social Demand for Education: An Analysis of the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Stuart

    This paper analyzes the relationship between existing secondary and technical schools and employment in the modern private sector of the Ivory Coast. Enrollments in secondary and technical schools are examined, and the social demand for education, characteristics of the Ivorian labor market, and the matching of labor supply and demand are…

  5. Teaching Keynes's Principle of Effective Demand Using the Aggregate Labor Market Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziel, Paul; Lavoie, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Suggests a method to teach John Keynes's principle of effective demand using a standard aggregate labor market diagram familiar to students taking advanced undergraduate macroeconomics courses. States the analysis incorporates Michal Kalecki's version to show Keynesian unemployment as a point on the aggregate labor demand curve inside the…

  6. Community Colleges and Labor Market Conditions: How Does Enrollment Demand Change Relative to Local Unemployment Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…

  7. Labor Markets and the Social Demand for Education: An Analysis of the Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Stuart

    This paper analyzes the relationship between existing secondary and technical schools and employment in the modern private sector of the Ivory Coast. Enrollments in secondary and technical schools are examined, and the social demand for education, characteristics of the Ivorian labor market, and the matching of labor supply and demand are…

  8. The value of online information for demand response in Walrasian electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, F.N.; Liefers, B.J.; Kaisers, M.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Smart energy systems integrate renewables and demand response. Most European electricity markets coordinate the resulting time-varying flexibility in demand and supply by organising day-ahead trade with Walrasian mechanisms, using simultaneous call auctions and sealed bids. These mechanisms give bid

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF MILK CONSUMPTION AND MARKETING ANALYSIS OF ITS DEMAND

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Habánová; Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of most households is to eliminate the negative effects of economic changes related mainly to the economic crisis by mobilizing available resources and reducing costs, but which cloud lead to a decrease in food consumption and changes in consumption patterns. Pensions and prices are factors that shape the demand for food and other estates. Both of these factors guarantee the economic viability of nutrition. Paper analyzes the development of the of milk consumption and level of it...

  10. Entanglement Between Demand and Supply in Markets with Bandwagon Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mirta B.; Nadal, Jean-Pierre; Phan, Denis; Semeshenko, Viktoriya

    2013-05-01

    Whenever customers' choices (e.g. to buy or not a given good) depend on others choices (cases coined `positive externalities' or `bandwagon effect' in the economic literature), the demand may be multiply valued: for a same posted price, there is either a small number of buyers, or a large one—in which case one says that the customers coordinate. This leads to a dilemma for the seller: should he sell at a high price, targeting a small number of buyers, or at low price targeting a large number of buyers? In this paper we show that the interaction between demand and supply is even more complex than expected, leading to what we call the curse of coordination: the pricing strategy for the seller which aimed at maximizing his profit corresponds to posting a price which, not only assumes that the customers will coordinate, but also lies very near the critical price value at which such high demand no more exists. This is obtained by the detailed mathematical analysis of a particular model formally related to the Random Field Ising Model and to a model introduced in social sciences by T.C. Schelling in the 70's.

  11. Current Status and Prediction on Development of PE Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Jiao

    2003-01-01

    This article comprehensively analyzes the status of market demand/supply and import/export volumes of PE in the world and in China, and predicts the future development trends in the fields of PE production and consumption.

  12. Current Market Trends Maritime Transport Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Dan Puscaciu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transport services is a fundamental component of international logistics, given that approximately 80% of world trade is carried by sea. Also, considering the spatial distribution of resources according to the processing sites and disposal of finished goods and the fact that nearly two thirds of the globe is covered by water, has led a Norwegian ship-owner, Erling Næss, to claim that "Divinity has been very generous with ship owners."In the 3rd millennium, when this study was done, there were a number of trends representing some sequels of a prior period and also a series of phenomenon of the current period. We aim to address key market segments of shipping. In order to carry out the graphs and determine the indicators we used Matlab software.

  13. The determination of disparity between supply and demand in services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macura Perica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Respecting the principles of analytics, systematization and comprehensiveness, the paper deals with the frames of disparity between supply and demand in services market. The basic reasons for disparity are systematically divided into five groups: (1 reasons for problems in the area of information on supply and demand, (2 reasons for problems in the area of parallel functioning of the gray market, (3 reasons for problems in the area of psychological conditions and perceptions of consumers, (4 reasons for problems in the area of social and economic situation, (5 reasons in the area of institutional functioning. These groups contain reasons of the general character and reasons in individual areas and flows. The analysis of disparity has been conducted via relevant relations of demand and supply that exist in services market, as follows: (1 the relation of supply of services provided by companies towards adequate forms of demand (other companies, institutions, population, (2 the relation of institutions' supply of services toward adequate forms of demand (all companies, population and (3 the relation of unofficial supply of services toward adequate demand (population. Within basic prerequisites for the solution to disparity of demand and supply in the service sector, we have especially emphasized and analyzed personnel potential. We have analyzed elements and problems of the labor market, available personnel potential (personnel potential of the employed and the unemployed, as well as latent personnel potential.

  14. Supply and demand in physician markets: a panel data analysis of GP services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Ian; Butler, James R G

    2014-09-01

    To understand the trends in any physician services market it is necessary to understand the nature of both supply and demand, but few studies have jointly examined supply and demand in these markets. This study uses aggregate panel data on general practitioner (GP) services at the Statistical Local Area level in Australia spanning eight years to estimate supply and demand equations for GP services. The structural equations of the model are estimated separately using population-weighted fixed effects panel modelling with the two stage least squares formulation of the generalised method of moments approach (GMM (2SLS)). The estimated price elasticity of demand of [Formula: see text] is comparable with other studies. The direct impact of GP density on demand, while significant, proves almost immaterial in the context of near vertical supply curves. Supply changes are therefore due to shifts in the position of the curves, partly determined by a time trend. The model is validated by comparing post-panel model predictions with actual market outcomes over a period of three years and is found to provide surprisingly accurate projections over a period of significant policy change. The study confirms the need to jointly consider supply and demand in exploring the behaviour of physician services markets.

  15. Challenges of Location-Based Services market analysis: current market description

    OpenAIRE

    Basiri, Anahid; Moore, Terry; Hill, Chris; Bhatia, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Location-Based Services (LBS) have a huge and rapidly growing market, however LBS market reports do not fully agree about the current market size, the exact number of LBS users, market growth rate, etc. Different market study reports describe LBS market size, number of LBS subscribers and frequent users, revenues and costs and most appreciated application types with different and sometimes extremely contrasting numbers and figures and this becomes more problematic when it comes to forecasting...

  16. Simulation of demand side participation in Spanish short term electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia-Salazar, I.; Alvarez, C. [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, edificio 8E, escalera F, 2a planta, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Escriva-Escriva, G., E-mail: guieses@die.upv.e [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, edificio 8E, escalera F, 2a planta, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Alcazar-Ortega, M. [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, edificio 8E, escalera F, 2a planta, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Benefits from customer active participation can be obtained with a proper generation of bids and offers. {yields} Simulation of Spanish customers' participation is shown in daily, intra-daily and balancing markets. {yields} Market efficiency and economics profits arise in balancing markets by using customer load reductions. {yields} Real market prices and real customers' consumptions profiles are used in the simulations. -- Abstract: Demand response resources management is one of the most investigated solutions oriented to improve the efficiency in electricity markets. In this paper, the capability of customers to participate in short term markets is analyzed. An available methodology to analyze the daily and monthly energy consumptions of large customers is used to create energy offers and bids. This allows customers to participate in energy markets in order to buy, as first step, the usual electricity consumption and, additionally, to offer demand reductions in the short term electricity markets. Additionally, this paper shows the customer potential to participate in the Spanish electricity markets.

  17. Analysis and Strategies of the Unbalance of the Supply and Demand in the Higher Education Market of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jie

    2010-01-01

    The popularization of higher education largely impacts the balance of the supply and demand of the China higher education market. Starting from the basic concepts of the supply and demand of higher education, the actuality and influencing factors of the supply and demand in China higher education market are analyzed in this article, and…

  18. Optimal production policy for multi-product with inventory-level-dependent demand in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Yogender

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation has emerged as the primary means by which firms achieve optimal production policy. In this paper, we use market segmentation approach in multi-product inventory system with inventory-level-dependent demand. The objective is to make use of optimal control theory to solve the inventory-production problem and develop an optimal production policy that minimizes the total cost associated with inventory and production rate in segmented market. First, we consider a single production and inventory problem with multi-destination demand that vary from segment to segment. Further, we describe a single source production and multi destination inventory and demand problem under the assumption that firm may choose independently the inventory directed to each segment. The optimal control is applied to study and solve the proposed problem.

  19. Strategies of bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current regulatory standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Freed, Anita; Lavrich, David; Raghavachari, Ramesh; Huynh-Ba, Kim; Shah, Ketan; Alasandro, Mark

    2015-08-01

    In the past decade, many guidance documents have been issued through collaboration of global organizations and regulatory authorities. Most of these are applicable to new products, but there is a risk that currently marketed products will not meet the new compliance standards during audits and inspections while companies continue to make changes through the product life cycle for continuous improvement or market demands. This discussion presents different strategies to bringing drug product marketing applications to meet current and emerging standards. It also discusses stability and method designs to meet process validation and global development efforts.

  20. A MULTI-OBJECTIVE ROBUST OPERATION MODEL FORELECTRONIC MARKET ENABLED SUPPLY CHAIN WITH UNCERTAIN DEMANDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiawang XU; Xiaoyuan HUANG; Nina YAN

    2007-01-01

    A multi-objective robust operation model is proposed in this paper for an electronic market enabled supply chain consisting of multi-supplier and multi-customer with uncertain demands.Suppliers in this supply chain provide many kinds of products to different customers directly or through electronic market.Uncertain demands are described as a scenario set with certain probability; the supply chain operation model is constructed by using the robust optimization method based on scenario analyses.The operation model we proposed is a multi-objective programming problem satisfying several conflict objectives,such as meeting the demands of all customers,minimizing the system cost,the availabilities of suppliers' capacities not below a certain level,and robustness of decision to uncertain demands.The results of numerical examples proved that the solution of the model is most conservative; however,it can ensure the robustness of the operation of the supply chain effectively.

  1. Estimating International Tourism Demand to Spain Separately by the Major Source Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Alvarez-Díaz; Manuel González-Gómez; Mª Soledad Otero-Giraldez

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to estimate international tourism demand to Spain separately by major source markets (Germany, United Kingdom, France, Italy and The Netherlands) that represent 67% of the international tourism to Spain. In order to investigate how the tourism demand reacts to price and income changes, we apply the bounds testing approach to cointegration and construct confidence intervals using the bootstrap technique. The results show differences in tourism behavior depending ...

  2. Mating a la Spence: Deriving the Market Demand Function for Status Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    Conspicuous consumption of luxuries plays a central role in the work of Thorstein B. Veblen. More recently, interpersonal effects have emerged as an important factor in consumption theory. However, the inadequate modelling of individuals' interaction often leads to questionable results with regard to the market demand function for status goods. Following Spence, who recommended the application of his Job Market Signaling to conspicuous consumption, in Mating a la Spence potential partners are...

  3. Actual and potential development of consumer demand on the organic food market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty; Denver, Sigrid; Zanolic, R.

    2011-01-01

    Development of demand for organic foods on three European markets (Denmark, Italy and UK) was investigated by means of quantitative analysis of household panel data and qualitative analysis of consumer life stories and shopping patterns. Potential development was investigated by means of scenario...... will be distributed more widely on national markets, and whether support for research and conversion of organic production systems on the part of public authorities is enhanced....

  4. The effects of demand uncertainty on strategic gaming in the merit-order electricity pool market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frem, Bassam

    In a merit-order electricity pool market, generating companies (Gencos) game with their offered incremental cost to meet the electricity demand and earn bigger market shares and higher profits. However when the demand is treated as a random variable instead of as a known constant, these Genco gaming strategies become more complex. After a brief introduction of electricity markets and gaming, the effects of demand uncertainty on strategic gaming are studied in two parts: (1) Demand modelled as a discrete random variable (2) Demand modelled as a continuous random variable. In the first part, we proposed an algorithm, the discrete stochastic strategy (DSS) algorithm that generates a strategic set of offers from the perspective of the Gencos' profits. The DSS offers were tested and compared to the deterministic Nash equilibrium (NE) offers based on the predicted demand. This comparison, based on the expected Genco profits, showed the DSS to be a better strategy in a probabilistic sense than the deterministic NE. In the second part, we presented three gaming strategies: (1) Deterministic NE (2) No-Risk (3) Risk-Taking. The strategies were then tested and their profit performances were compared using two assessment tools: (a) Expected value and standard deviation (b) Inverse cumulative distribution. We concluded that despite yielding higher profit performance under the right conjectures, Risk-Taking strategies are very sensitive to incorrect conjectures on the competitors' gaming decisions. As such, despite its lower profit performance, the No-Risk strategy was deemed preferable.

  5. Assessing demand for physical objects among marketing agencies : market research for Alphaform RPI Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Oxana

    2012-01-01

    The market for 3D printing services is projected to grow significantly. A service provider of 3D printing and rapid prototyping services, Alphaform RPI Oy recognizes that there are numerous growth opportunities that can be exploited. A market research was initiated by the case company to look for any emerging trends to use physical objects. The study was focused on exploring marketing agencies and their vision on 3D printing and rapid prototyping services. Theoretical framework was built ...

  6. The Current State of Marketing Activity among Higher Education Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Cynthia M.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the current state of marketing, marketing research, and planning practices at four-year higher education institutions. Builds upon previous studies by Blackburn (1979) and Goldgehn (1982 and 1989). Determined whether the use and apparent understanding of marketing and its attendant activities by admissions and enrollment management…

  7. Estimating the value and interest rate risk of demand deposits in concentrated markets

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to determine the value and interest rate risk of funds deposited in demand deposit accounts under imperfect competition among banks. The value of a demand deposit is divided into two components, which are rent and liability. The former is defined as the profit bank receives from accepting demand deposits (by paying rates below the short-term market interest rate) and the latter as the nominal value of deposits minus the rent. The interest ...

  8. The European wood pellet markets: current status and prospects for 2020

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Steiner, M.; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Hiegl, W.; Hansen, M.T.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    The wood pellet market is booming in Europe. The EU 2020 policy targets for renewable energy sources and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction are among the main drivers. The aim of this analysis is to map current European national wood pellet demand and supplies, to provide a comprehensive

  9. Assessing the labor supply and demand missmatch by skills in the Uruguay labor market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Espino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the mismatch between labor supply and demand for educational qualificationsin the Uruguayan labor market during 2000-2009. It attempts to measure the phenomenonof under-qualification and overqualification by occupation type based on educational requirementfor each occupation. Following the previous literature, the empirical work concentrates onthe determinants of over-education and its impact on wages.

  10. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  11. Congruence between National Policy for Science and Humanities Enrolment Ratio and Labour Market Demand in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Goski; Alabi, Joshua; Mohammed, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The paper undertook a snapshot of the demand for various academic programmes on the labour market and compared this with national policy norms for enrolment in public universities in Ghana. The objective was to ascertain whether national higher education enrolments are responsive to the national policy target of 60:40 (Sciences : Humanities) or…

  12. An Economic Demand Response Model in Liberalized Electricity Markets with Respect to Flexibility of Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharifi, Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Fathi, S. Hamid

    2017-01-01

    . The most important solution can be demand response (DR) programs. This paper proposes an economic DR model for residential consumers in liberalized electricity markets to change their consumption pattern from times of high energy prices to other times to maximize their utility functions. This economic...

  13. A Multi-Scale Energy Demand Model suggests sharing Market Risks with Intelligent Energy Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Methenitis, G.; Kaisers, M.; La Poutré, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a multi-scale model of energy demand that is consistent with observations at a macro scale, in our use-case standard load profiles for (residential) electric loads. We employ the model to study incentives to assume the risk of volatile market prices for intelligent energy c

  14. The Contradiction between Market Demand and the Employment of University Graduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福宁

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the writer analyzes the contradiction between the market demand and the the employment of university graduates in great details.And moreover, the writer intends to inquire into the causes of this contradiction from such aspects as the school, the students themselves and the society, etc.

  15. Estimating the Market Demand and Elasticity for Enrollment at an Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Darin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an applied research framework that can be helpful in tuition and net price policy discussions. It is the classic microeconomic concept of market demand applied to enrollment management in higher education. The policy relevance includes measuring a response to price. For example, the results of this model will allow the…

  16. Estimating the Market Demand and Elasticity for Enrollment at an Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Darin

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an applied research framework that can be helpful in tuition and net price policy discussions. It is the classic microeconomic concept of market demand applied to enrollment management in higher education. The policy relevance includes measuring a response to price. For example, the results of this model will allow the…

  17. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  18. Public Relations in Contemporary India: Current Demands and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raveena

    2000-01-01

    Discusses India's new direction and the persistent and insistent demand for public relations. Explains the strategic plan of the professional body in running the gauntlet in this new milieu and the pertinaciousness and urgency of the challenges ahead for public relations. (SC)

  19. Current Status and Trend of Forest Hydrological Services Market Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Of the many services that forests provide, hydrological services are among the most valuable, and it becomes more scarce with the growing demands by human beings. As a kind of incentive measure for protecting forest, forest hydrological services markets have been developed in many countries around the world and some valuable experiences have been achieved. The paper reviews the experiments carried out in the world and their research findings on forest hydrological services market, and presents the issues to...

  20. Research on green supply chain coordination strategy for uncertain market demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Chen, Yangyang; Lu, Bo; Tong, Chenlu; Zhou, Gengui

    2015-03-01

    Based on the status that the green market began to develop (e.g. pharmaceutical industry) in Mainland China, the paper mainly discusses how members of the green supply chain (GSC) cooperate effectively in the process of the supply chain operations. For the uncertainties existing in the market demand of the green products, the GSC coordination strategy is put forward based on the Stackelberg game that the manufacturer is the leader and distributors are the followers. The relationship between the proposed coordination strategy and several factors including the distributor's amount, the distributor's risk aversion and the uncertainties of market demand are analyzed. It indicates that, when there are uncertainties existing in the market demand of the green product, the revenue of each enterprise, the overall revenue and the customer's welfare all decrease; while the increase in the number of distributors and low risk aversion of them are beneficial to the entire GSC and the customer. The conclusions have good guidance for the operational decisions of the green supply chain when the green market is in its initial formation.

  1. The Ukrainian Dental Market: Characteristics of Demand for Services in the Segment of Dental Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slipchenko Tetiana O.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the market for dental services in Ukraine in the implantology segment, studying the demand factors for these services and developing a system of measures to manage the demand for dental implantation services. It has been proven that the market for dental services according to a complex of its attributes is more in line with the type of market of monopolistic competition. One of the promising ways of developing the dental market is to transform producers of dental services into the vertically integrated holdings. As one of the specific features of the dental services market is allocated the asymmetry of information, which leads to a conflict between the medical and economic interests of dentists. The price and non-price factors of demand for dental implantation services were determined, the prime cost structure of a dental service was analyzed. The characteristic attributes of a medical service have been defined as consistently defined actions or a complex of actions by medical personnel aimed at prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation, which have a self-contained complete meaning and a certain price.

  2. Characterizing U.S. Heat Demand Market for Potential Application of Geothermal Direct Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin; Gleason, Michael; Reber, Tim; Young, Katherine R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we assess the U.S. demand for low-temperature thermal energy at the county resolution for four major end-use sectors: residential buildings, commercial buildings, manufacturing facilities, and agricultural facilities. Existing, publicly available data on the U.S. thermal demand market are characterized by coarse spatial resolution, with assessments typically at the state-level or larger. For many uses, these data are sufficient; however, our research was motivated by an interest in assessing the potential demand for direct use (DU) of low-temperature (30 degrees to 150 degrees C) geothermal heat. The availability and quality of geothermal resources for DU applications are highly spatially heterogeneous; therefore, to assess the potential market for these resources, it is necessary to understand the spatial variation in demand for low-temperature resources at a local resolution. This paper presents the datasets and methods we used to develop county-level estimates of the thermal demand for the residential, commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors. Although this analysis was motivated by an interest in geothermal energy deployment, the results are likely to have broader applications throughout the energy industry. The county-resolution thermal demand data developed in this study for four major U.S. sectors may have far-reaching implications for building technologies, industrial processes, and various distributed renewable energy thermal resources (e.g. biomass, solar).

  3. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  4. Understanding Air Transportation Market Dynamics Using a Search Algorithm for Calibrating Travel Demand and Price

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Horio, Brant M.; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a search algorithm based framework to calibrate origin-destination (O-D) market specific airline ticket demands and prices for the Air Transportation System (ATS). This framework is used for calibrating an agent based model of the air ticket buy-sell process - Airline Evolutionary Simulation (Airline EVOS) -that has fidelity of detail that accounts for airline and consumer behaviors and the interdependencies they share between themselves and the NAS. More specificially, this algorithm simultaneous calibrates demand and airfares for each O-D market, to within specified threshold of a pre-specified target value. The proposed algorithm is illustrated with market data targets provided by the Transportation System Analysis Model (TSAM) and Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B). Although we specify these models and datasources for this calibration exercise, the methods described in this paper are applicable to calibrating any low-level model of the ATS to some other demand forecast model-based data. We argue that using a calibration algorithm such as the one we present here to synchronize ATS models with specialized forecast demand models, is a powerful tool for establishing credible baseline conditions in experiments analyzing the effects of proposed policy changes to the ATS.

  5. Analysis of demand curves in the stock and financial markets of monopolistic competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Geras’kin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify patterns of monopolistic competition as applied to markets of household appliances consumer loans and insurance products in Russia. Methods econometric modeling trending regression analysis analysis of statistical significance. Results the statistical analysis of trends in the market of household appliances insurance and credit markets has been carried out the statistical significance and adequacy of the models has been assessed adequate and accurate regression models of price trends of household appliances and electronics have been developed as well as of the interest rates of consumer loans and insurance rates for loan debts. Scientific novelty the actual patterns of decreasing demand curves for household appliances consumer loans and insurance products were found for the relevant markets in the Russian Federation in 2009ndash2014. Practical significance the model can be used for solving problems of optimal planning strategies of retailers insurers and banks. nbsp

  6. Review of Real-time Electricity Markets for Integrating Distributed Energy Resources and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2015-01-01

    reviews typical RTMs respectively in the North America, Australia and Europe, focusing on their market architectures and incentive policies for integrating DER and DR in electricity markets. In this paper, RTMs are classified into three groups: Group I applies nodal prices implemented by optimal power......The high penetration of both Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and Demand Response (DR) in modern power systems requires a sequence of advanced strategies and technologies for maintaining system reliability and flexibility. Real-time electricity markets (RTM) are the nondiscriminatory transaction...... flow, which clears energy prices every 5 minutes. Group II applies zonal prices, with the time resolution of 5-min. Group III is a general balancing market, which clears zonal prices intro-hourly. The various successful RTM experiences have been summarized and discussed, which provides a technical...

  7. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-09-10

    This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the “silver bullet” for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.

  8. Local Labor Markets and Cyclic Components in Demand for College Trained Manpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James P.; Welch, Finis R.

    Weekly earnings of college and high school graduates were examined and partitioned on the basis of estimated years of work experience. Current Population Surveys (CPS) for each year from 1968 to 1975 were examined. The CPS data are useful to test for the importance of local labor markets because individuals can be assigned to markets by calendar…

  9. The elasticity of drugs demand in Colombia’s pharmaceutical market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Vásquez Velásquez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a dynamic specification of the AIDS model arisen from cointegration techniques, this research estimated the elasticity of the intra-molecular, brand and generic demand for three tracer conditions: essential hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia both in the non-profit and private Colombian market. The estimate of the intra-molecular demand elasticity allows us to conclude that both brand-name and generic drugs are inelastic to price changes, they are luxury goods according to expenditure elasticity and intra-molecular replacement seems to exist due to the elasticity of substitution.

  10. FLEXIBLE NEW FCC TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE EVER CHANGING MARKET DEMAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Being a main conversion process,FCC is evolving toward processing more heavier and dirtier feeds,and to produce varied product slates to meet the local market demands.Frequently many of the product demands made on the FCC process operator are seemingly contradictory.However,with the advance of FCC process and catalyst manufacture technology over the past few years,these contradictories can be solved profitbaly.Daqing VR FCC,maximized distillate production(MDP) technique and the maximizing gas and distillate(MGD) process are the examples.Specific data of each example will be revealed and shown on the poster.

  11. [Physiotherapeutic care marketing research: current state-of-the art].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaskin, D V

    2011-01-01

    Successful introduction of modern technologies into the national health care systems strongly depends on the current pharmaceutical market situation. The present article is focused on the peculiarities of marketing research with special reference to physiotherapeutic services and commodities. Analysis of the structure and sequence of marketing research processes is described along with the methods applied for the purpose including their support by the use of Internet resources and technologies.

  12. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration

  13. Modeling and managing urban water demand through smart meters: Benefits and challenges from current research and emerging trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Piga, D.; Rizzoli, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    Urban population growth, climate and land use change are expected to boost residential water demand in urban contexts in the next decades. In such a context, developing suitable demand-side management strategies is essential to meet future water demands, pursue water savings, and reduce the costs for water utilities. Yet, the effectiveness of water demand management strategies (WDMS) relies on our understanding of water consumers' behavior, their consumption habits, and the water use drivers. While low spatial and temporal resolution water consumption data, as traditionally gathered for billing purposes, hardly support this understanding, the advent of high-resolution, smart metering technologies allowed for quasi real-time monitoring water consumption at the single household level. This, in turn, is advancing our ability in characterizing consumers' behavior, modeling, and designing user-oriented residential water demand management strategies. Several water smart metering programs have been rolled-out in the last two decades worldwide, addressing one or more of the following water demand management phases: (i) data gathering, (ii) water end-uses characterization, (iii) user modeling, (iv) design and implementation of personalized WDMS. Moreover, the number of research studies in this domain is quickly increasing and big economic investments are currently being devoted worldwide to smart metering programs. With this work, we contribute the first comprehensive review of more than 100 experiences in the field of residential water demand modeling and management, and we propose a general framework for their classification. We revise consolidated practices, identify emerging trends and highlight the challenges and opportunities for future developments given by the use of smart meters advancing residential water demand management. Our analysis of the status quo of smart urban water demand management research and market constitutes a structured collection of information

  14. Unintended de-marketing manages visitor demand in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Kotler and Levy (1971, p.76) introduced the term ‘de-marketing’, defined as ‘that aspect of marketing that deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or permanent basis’. Subsequently, Groff (1998) interpreted the concept in the context of parks and recreation administration. Recently, Armstrong and Kern (2011) used the concept to underpin their investigation of visitor demand management within the Greater Blue Mountains Wo...

  15. Current supply and demand of veterinarians in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuaki Sugiura

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1966, approximately 1 000 veterinarians graduate each year from 16 veterinary schools in Japan. According to reports submitted by veterinarians to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in January 2007, there were over 35 818 veterinarians in Japan at the end of 2006. Of this total, 13 202 (36.8% were engaged in companion animal practice, 9 112 (25.4% were civil servants and 4 180 (11.7% were engaged in food animal practice. The total number of veterinarians has increased gradually over the past 40 years. Recently, the number of veterinarians engaged in companion animal practice has increased while the number of veterinarians engaged in food animal practice is declining. These trends reflect the change in demand for veterinarians in food and companion animal practice, resulting mainly from changes in the number of food animals and companion animals in recent years. The number of veterinarians in the public sector has decreased gradually due to the administrative reforms of recent years.

  16. AÇAÍ PULP DEMAND IN THE RETAIL MARKET OF BELÉM, STATE OF PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO CORDEIRO DE SANTANA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to estimate the parameters associated to the demand for açaí pulp in the retail market of Belém. Multiple regression analysis was applied to identify the key variables that impact on product consumption and to estimate the price and income elasticities and cross demand. The econometric estimation method applied was the least squares to correct heteroscedastic variance problems. Results have shown that the demand for açaí pulp is price and income inelastic. Fish and cassava flour were confirmed as complementary products of strong influence on the decisions of consumers. Product quality, with regard to its association to Chagas disease, also revealed a strong influence on product choice for household consumption. Finally, the socio-economic benefit of açaí pulp was R$ 762.78 million per year.

  17. Price Responsive Demand in New York Wholesale Electricity Market using OpenADR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joyce Jihyun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In New York State, the default electricity pricing for large customers is Mandatory Hourly Pricing (MHP), which is charged based on zonal day-ahead market price for energy. With MHP, retail customers can adjust their building load to an economically optimal level according to hourly electricity prices. Yet, many customers seek alternative pricing options such as fixed rates through retail access for their electricity supply. Open Automated Demand Response (OpenADR) is an XML (eXtensible Markup Language) based information exchange model that communicates price and reliability information. It allows customers to evaluate hourly prices and provide demand response in an automated fashion to minimize electricity costs. This document shows how OpenADR can support MHP and facilitate price responsive demand for large commercial customers in New York City.

  18. Demand response modeling considering Interruptible/Curtailable loads and capacity market programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), Tehran (Iran)

    2010-01-15

    Recently, a massive focus has been made on demand response (DR) programs, aimed to electricity price reduction, transmission lines congestion resolving, security enhancement and improvement of market liquidity. Basically, demand response programs are divided into two main categories namely, incentive-based programs and time-based programs. The focus of this paper is on Interruptible/Curtailable service (I/C) and capacity market programs (CAP), which are incentive-based demand response programs including penalties for customers in case of no responding to load reduction. First, by using the concept of price elasticity of demand and customer benefit function, economic model of above mentioned programs is developed. The proposed model helps the independent system operator (ISO) to identify and employ relevant DR program which both improves the characteristics of the load curve and also be welcome by customers. To evaluate the performance of the model, simulation study has been conducted using the load curve of the peak day of the Iranian power system grid in 2007. In the numerical study section, the impact of these programs on load shape and load level, and benefit of customers as well as reduction of energy consumption are shown. In addition, by using strategy success indices the results of simulation studies for different scenarios are analyzed and investigated for determination of the scenarios priority. (author)

  19. [Study on supply and demand relation based on two stages division of market of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Nuo; Zeng, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    The complex production processes and long industrial chain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) market result in difficulty in Chinese market microstructure research. Based on the defining the logical relationships among different concepts. This paper divides TCM market into two stages as Chinese materia medica resource market and traditional Chinese Patent Medicines market. Under this foundation, we investigated the supply capacity, approaching rules and motivation system of suppliers in TCM market, analyzed the demand situation in the perspective of demand side, and evaluated the purchasing power in terms of population profile, income, and insurance. Furthermore we also analyzed the price formation mechanism in two stages of TCM market. We hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on TCM market related research.

  20. Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehdonvirta, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selling virtual goods for real money is an increasingly popular revenue model for massively-multiplayer online games (MMOs, social networking sites (SNSs and other online hangouts. In this paper, we argue that the marketing of virtual goods currently falls short of what it could be. Game developers have long created compelling game designs, but having to market virtual goods to players is a relatively new situation to them. Professional marketers, on the other hand, tend to overlook the internal design of games and hangouts and focus on marketing the services as a whole. To begin bridging the gap, we propose that the design patterns and game mechanics commonly used in games and online hangouts should be viewed as a set of marketing techniques designed to sell virtual goods. Based on a review of a number of MMOs, we describe some of the most common patterns and game mechanics and show how their effects can be explained in terms of analogous techniques from marketing science. The results provide a new perspective to game design with interesting implications to developers. Moreover, they also suggest a radically new perspective to marketers of ordinary goods and services: viewing marketing as a form of game design.

  1. Permanent demand excess as business strategy: an analysis of the Brazilian higher-education market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Menon Simões Moita

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs establish tuition below the equilibrium price to generate permanent demand excess. This paper first adapts Becker’s (1991 theory to understand why the HEIs price in this way. The fact that students are both consumers and inputs on the education production process gives rise to a market equilibrium where some firms have excess demand and charge high prices, and others charge low prices and have empty seats.Second, the paper analyzes this equilibrium empirically. We estimated the demand for undergraduate courses in Business Administration in the State of São Paulo. The results show that tuition, quality of incoming students and percentage of lecturers holding doctorates degrees are the determining factors of students’ choice. Since the student quality determines the demand for a HEI, it is calculated what the value is for a HEI to get better students; that is the total revenue that each HEI gives up to guarantee excess demand. Regarding the “investment” in selectivity, 39 HEIs in São Paulo give up a combined R$ 5 million (or US$ 3.14 million in revenue per year per freshman class, which means 7.6% of the revenue coming from a freshman class.

  2. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may affect profitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years. In this paper, we analyse the potential impact of increased Chinese coal import volatility and of potential exertion of Chinese market power on global mining investment decisions. For this purpose, we develop a multi-stage stochastic equilibrium model which is able to simulate investments under uncertainty and a monopolistic player in addition to a competitive fringe. We find that accounting for Chinese demand uncertainty yields significant costs for investors and also leads to a delay in investments. Additionally, the exertion of Chinese market power further reduces overall investment activity.

  3. Tiered co-payments, pricing, and demand in reference price markets for pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Annika; Suppliet, Moritz

    2017-09-15

    Health insurance companies curb price-insensitive behavior and the moral hazard of insureds by means of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing in drug markets. This paper evaluates the effect of price limits - below which drugs are exempt from co-payments - on prices and on demand. First, using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the new policy decreases prices by 5 percent for generics and increases prices by 4 percent for brand-name drugs in the German reference price market. Second, estimating a nested-logit demand model, we show that consumers appreciate co-payment exempt drugs and calculate lower price elasticities for brand-name drugs than for generics. This explains the different price responses of brand-name and generic drugs and shows that price-related co-payment tiers are an effective tool to steer demand to low-priced drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Proceedings of the Chinese-American symposium on energy markets and the future of energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, S. (ed.)

    1988-11-01

    The Symposium was organized by the Energy Research Institute of the State Economic Commission of China, and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University from the United States. It was held at the Johns Hopkins University Nanjing Center in late June 1988. It was attended by about 15 Chinese and an equal number of US experts on various topics related to energy demand and supply. Each presenter is one of the best observers of the energy situation in their field. A Chinese and US speaker presented papers on each topic. In all, about 30 papers were presented over a period of two and one half days. Each paper was translated into English and Chinese. The Chinese papers provide an excellent overview of the emerging energy demand and supply situation in China and the obstacles the Chinese planners face in managing the expected increase in demand for energy. These are matched by papers that discuss the energy situation in the US and worldwide, and the implications of the changes in the world energy situation on both countries. The papers in Part 1 provide historical background and discuss future directions. The papers in Part 2 focus on the historical development of energy planning and policy in each country and the methodologies and tools used for projecting energy demand and supply. The papers in Part 3 examine the pattern of energy demand, the forces driving demand, and opportunities for energy conservation in each of the major sectors in China and the US. The papers in Part 4 deal with the outlook for global and Pacific region energy markets and the development of the oil and natural gas sector in China.

  5. The importance of flexibility in supply and demand in the Natural Gas Market - the Brazilian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchoa Cavalcanti Almeida, Jose Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    In Brazil, there is a paradox: an apparent surplus and lack of natural gas at the same time, because the ballast gas for gas fired power plants tends to stay immobile for a long time, jeopardizing the development of a potential demand in the non-thermoelectric market. This is a situation in which opportunities for modulating the system may produce clear efficiency gains, with benefits for society. That modulation would occur according to the different stages of operational development of the power and natural gas systems. Due to the challenges faced, this article is presenting options in the commercial and operational models by structuring flexibility on the supply side and on the demand side of natural gas that would ensure optimization of investments in exploration and production of natural gas, as well as investments in LNG terminals, transportation and distribution gas pipelines and in the systems of end uses of natural gas. (auth)

  6. Using Exponential Modeling for DLC Demand Response Programs in Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoorangiz Shams Shamsabad Farahani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation of power system has introduced new objectives and subjects in electric power systems. Along with expansion of deregulated systems in countries, new subjects such as Demand Response Programs (DRPs have been provided to evaluate the effect of demand-side in electricity market. Participation of demandside in network improves power system utilization, operation and also has a great effect on system social welfare. DRPs are divided into two categories which are priced-based and incentive-based demand response programs.With Regard to the problem, in this study an exponential modeling of Direct Load Control programs (DLC in investigated as incentive-based DRPs. In order to more realistic modeling of demand response to DLC rates, the nonlinear behavioral characteristic of elastic loads is incorporated. Iranian power system with load profile of the peak day is considered to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed technique. Simulation results demonstrate the great impact of running DLC programs using the proposed exponential model. Simulation results are carried out on MATLAB software by numerical simulations.

  7. Modeling Demand Response in Electricity Retail Markets as a Stackelberg Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price-sequence, w......We model the retail market with dynamic pricing as a Stackelberg game where both retailers (leaders) and flexible consumers (followers) solve an economic cost-minimization problem. The electricity retailer optimizes an economic objective over a daily horizon by setting an hourly price...... with Equilibrium Constraints (MPEC) and cast as a Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be solved using off-the-shelf optimization software. In an illustrative example, we consider a retailer associated with both flexible demand and wind power production. Such an example shows the efficiency of dynamic...

  8. Research Note—Prerelease Demand Forecasting for Motion Pictures Using Functional Shape Analysis of Virtual Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Zhang Foutz; Wolfgang Jank

    2010-01-01

    Prerelease demand forecasting is one of the most crucial yet difficult tasks facing marketers in the $60 billion motion picture industry. We propose functional shape analysis (FSA) of virtual stock markets (VSMs) to address this long-standing challenge. In VSMs, prices of a movie's stock reflect the dynamic demand expectations prior to the movie's release. Using FSA, we identify a small number of distinguishing shapes, e.g., the last-moment velocity spurt, that carry information about a movie...

  9. Power System Transient Stability Improvement Using Demand Side Management in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Wang, Chunqi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price...... for demand side management generates different load profiles and may provide an opportunity to improve the transient stability of power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the idea of the power system transient stability improvement by using optimal load response to the electricity...

  10. Integrating Markets to Bridge Supply and Demand for Knowledge Intensive Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Sietse; Janssen, Marijn; van Bommel, Patrick

    The advent of the knowledge-based economy has underlined the importance of intellectual capital that is possessed by knowledge intensive organizations. Three general observations of knowledge intensive work produced by actors working in such organizations served as the basis for the initiation of this research. First, knowledge intensive tasks become increasingly complex. Second, actors that perform such tasks experience an increase in cognitive load. Third, the desired quality of task performance and the produced task results are at stake due to the aforementioned two developments. In this research we investigate how supply and demand of intangible assets such as knowledge, cognitive characteristics, and quality factors can be matched based on market mechanisms.

  11. Electric power market liberalization and demand-side management (DSM); Denryoku shijo jiyuka to DSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper explains effects of market liberalization which will lead to introducing competition in electric power business on demand-side management (DSM), by quoting examples mainly in the United States. The paper also describes the future outlook thereon. The DSM program in the United States has expanded for the period between 1989 through 1994. However, during the last few years, the movements of electric power market liberalization have come to force electric power business entities to change their management strategies and reduction in expense. This situation has resulted in reduction in the DSM budget. Future DSM programs are thought to diversify into the following types: a program such as load management which has effect of reducing expenses and investments in investment time periods of 5 to 10 years, a program effective for users such as high-efficiency motors which have effects of reducing expenses and improving efficiency in investment time periods of 3 to 5 years, a program which will be effective enough if market barriers are removed after the market conversions, but requires subsidies and purchase guarantees, and a social program intended for environmental effects and low-income users. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  12. The clinical endocrinology workforce: current status and future projections of supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigersky, Robert A; Fish, Lisa; Hogan, Paul; Stewart, Andrew; Kutler, Stephanie; Ladenson, Paul W; McDermott, Michael; Hupart, Kenneth H

    2014-09-01

    Many changes in health care delivery, health legislation, and the physician workforce that affect the supply and demand for endocrinology services have occurred since the first published workforce study of adult endocrinologists in 2003. The objective of the study was to assess the current adult endocrinology workforce data and provide the first analysis of the pediatric endocrinology workforce and to project the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025. A workforce model was developed from an analysis of proprietary and publicly available databases, consultation with a technical expert panel, and the results of an online survey of board-certified endocrinologists. The Endocrine Society commissioned The Lewin Group to estimate current supply and to project gaps between supply and demand for endocrinologists. A technical expert panel of senior endocrinologists provided context, clinical information, and direction. The following were measured: 1) the current adult and pediatric endocrinology workforce and the supply of and demand for endocrinologists through 2025 and 2) the number of additional entrants into the endocrinology work pool that would be required to close the gap between supply and demand. Currently there is a shortage of approximately 1500 adult and 100 pediatric full-time equivalent endocrinologists. The gap for adult endocrinologists will expand to 2700 without an increase in the number of fellows trained. An increase in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus further expands the demand for adult endocrinologists. The gap can be closed in 5 and 10 years by increasing the number of fellowship positions by 14.4% and 5.5% per year, respectively. The gap between supply and demand for pediatric endocrinologists will close by 2016, and thereafter an excess supply over demand will develop at the current rate of new entrants into the work force. There are insufficient adult endocrinologists to satisfy current and future demand. A number of proactive

  13. Deregulation of Electricity Market and Drivers of Demand for Electrical Energy in Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojnec Štefan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates deregulation of electricity market focusing on electricity prices and drivers of demand for electrical energy in industry in Slovenia. The patterns in evolution of real electricity price developments and the three main components of the electricity price are calculated: liberalized market share for purchased electricity price, regulated infrastructure share for use of electricity network grids and mandatory state charges in the sale of electricity (duty, excise duty and value-added tax. To calculate the real value of electricity prices, producer price index of industrial commodities for electricity prices in industry is used as deflator and implicit deflator of gross domestic product for the size of the economy. In the empirical econometric part is used regression analysis for the amount electricity consumption in the industry depending on the real gross domestic product, direct and cross-price elasticity for natural gas prices in the industry. The results confirmed volatility in real electricity price developments with their increasing tendency and the increasing share of different taxes and state charges in the electricity prices for industry. Demand for electrical energy in industry is positively associated with gross domestic product and price of natural gas as substitute for electrical energy in industry use, and negatively associated with prices of electrical energy for industry.

  14. Impacts of demand response and renewable generation in electricity power market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhechong

    This thesis presents the objective of the research which is to analyze the impacts of uncertain wind power and demand response on power systems operation and power market clearing. First, in order to effectively utilize available wind generation, it is usually given the highest priority by assigning zero or negative energy bidding prices when clearing the day-ahead electric power market. However, when congestion occurs, negative wind bidding prices would aggravate locational marginal prices (LMPs) to be negative in certain locations. A load shifting model is explored to alleviate possible congestions and enhance the utilization of wind generation, by shifting proper amount of load from peak hours to off peaks. The problem is to determine proper amount of load to be shifted, for enhancing the utilization of wind generation, alleviating transmission congestions, and making LMPs to be non-negative values. The second piece of work considered the price-based demand response (DR) program which is a mechanism for electricity consumers to dynamically manage their energy consumption in response to time-varying electricity prices. It encourages consumers to reduce their energy consumption when electricity prices are high, and thereby reduce the peak electricity demand and alleviate the pressure to power systems. However, it brings additional dynamics and new challenges on the real-time supply and demand balance. Specifically, price-sensitive DR load levels are constantly changing in response to dynamic real-time electricity prices, which will impact the economic dispatch (ED) schedule and in turn affect electricity market clearing prices. This thesis adopts two methods for examining the impacts of different DR price elasticity characteristics on the stability performance: a closed-loop iterative simulation method and a non-iterative method based on the contraction mapping theorem. This thesis also analyzes the financial stability of DR load consumers, by incorporating

  15. Maternity Leave Policies: Trade-Offs Between Labour Market Demands and Health Benefits for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Lucy; Broeks, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Over recent years many European Union countries have made changes to the design of the maternity leave provision. These policy developments reflect calls for greater gender equality in the workforce and more equal share of childcare responsibilities. However, while research shows that long period of leave can have negative effects on women's labour market attachment and career advancements, early return to work can be seen as a factor preventing exclusive breastfeeding, and therefore, potentially having negative health impacts for babies. Indeed, the World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age to provide babies with the nutrition for healthy growth and brain development, protection from life-threatening ailments, obesity and non-communicable diseases such as asthma and diabetes. Therefore, labour market demands on women may be at odds with the health benefits for children gained by longer periods of maternity leave. The aim of this article is to examine the relationship between leave provision and health benefits for children. We examine maternity and parental leave provision across European countries and its potential impact on the breastfeeding of very young babies (up to 6-months of age). We also consider economic factors of potential extension of maternity leave provision to 6 months, such as costs to businesses, effects on the female labour market attachment, and wider consequences (benefits and costs) for individuals, families, employers and the wider society.

  16. Incentive-based demand response programs designed by asset-light retail electricity providers for the day-ahead market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotouhi Ghazvini, Mohammad Ali; Faria, Pedro; Ramos, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    spikes, volatile loads and the potential for market power exertion by GENCO (generation companies). A REP can manage the market risks by employing the DR (demand response) programs and using its' generation and storage assets at the distribution network to serve the customers. The proposed model suggests...... how a REP with light physical assets, such as DG (distributed generation) units and ESS (energy storage systems), can survive in a competitive retail market. The paper discusses the effective risk management strategies for the REPs to deal with the uncertainties of the DAM (day-ahead market) and how...... to hedge the financial losses in the market. A two-stage stochastic programming problem is formulated. It aims to establish the financial incentive-based DR programs and the optimal dispatch of the DG units and ESSs. The uncertainty of the forecasted day-ahead load demand and electricity price is also...

  17. Evaluating whether direct-to-consumer marketing can increase demand for evidence-based practice among parents of adolescents with substance use disorders: rationale and protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sara J

    2015-02-10

    Fewer than one in 10 adolescents with substance use disorders (ASUDs) will receive specialty treatment, and even fewer will receive treatment designated as evidence-based practice (EBP). Traditional efforts to increase the utilization of EBP by ASUDs typically focus on practitioners-either in substance use clinics or allied health settings. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing that directly targets parents of ASUDs represents a potentially complementary paradigm that has yet to be evaluated. The current study is the first to evaluate the relevance of a well-established marketing framework (the Marketing Mix) and measurement approach (measurement of perceived service quality [PSQ]) with parents of ASUDs in need of treatment. A mixed-methods design is employed across three study phases, consistent with well-established methods used in the field of marketing science. Phase 1 consists of formative qualitative research with parents (and a supplementary sample of adolescents) in order to evaluate and potentially adapt a conceptual framework (Marketing Mix) and measure of PSQ. Phase 2 is a targeted survey of ASUD parents to elucidate their marketing preferences, using the adapted Marketing Mix framework, and to establish the psychometric properties of the PSQ measure. The survey will also gather data on parents' preferences for different targeted marketing messages. Phase 3 is a two-group randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of targeted marketing messages versus standard clinical information. Key outcomes will include parents' ratings of PSQ (using the new measure), behavioral intentions to seek out information about EBP, and actual information-seeking behavior. The current study will inform the field whether a well-established marketing framework and measurement approach can be used to increase demand for EBP among parents of ASUDs. Results of this study will have the potential to immediately inform DTC marketing efforts by professional organizations

  18. MODELING OF THE PROCESS OF FORMATION OF INDIVIDUAL MARKETING DEMAND: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS AND GENERALIZATION OF THE PRECEDING CORRESPONDING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly V. Korotkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the modeling of series-STI formation of individual market demand. The analysis, and then sum-of three well-known inmarketing models, which exhaust the currentlyknown approaches is revised. The article shows that all three models have a signifi cant difference in the number of stages and terminology. The obtained results are the basis for the developmentof the author’s model of gradual development of demand - «need - desire - requirement -demand» or abbreviated as «model NDRD» and can be considered as a contribution to the methodology of study a demand.

  19. Coordinating two-period ordering and advertising policies in a dynamic market with stochastic demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junping; Wang, Shengdong; Min, Jie

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we study the optimal two-stage advertising and ordering policies and the channel coordination issues in a supply chain composed of one manufacturer and one retailer. The manufacturer sells a short-life-cycle product through the retailer facing stochastic demand in dynamic markets characterised by price declines and product obsolescence. Following a two-period newsvendor framework, we develop two members' optimal ordering and advertising models under both the centralised and decentralised settings, and present the closed-form solutions to the developed models as well. Moreover, we design a two-period revenue-sharing contract, and develop sufficient conditions such that the channel coordination can be achieved and a win-win outcome can be guaranteed. Our analysis suggests that the centralised decision creates an incentive for the retailer to increase the advertising investments in two periods and put the purchase forward, but the decentralised decision mechanism forces the retailer to decrease the advertising investments in two periods and postpone/reduce its purchase in the first period. This phenomenon becomes more evident when demand variability is high.

  20. ASSESSMENT OF TOURISM SUPPLY, DEMAND AND MARKET TRENDS IN CRAIOVA CITY, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia BĂDIȚĂ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a phenomenon that can contribute to the economic success of a city or even to its social dynamism, so that in recent years there is an increasing trend and active promotion of the tourism industry in many cities in Europe, Romania also trying to align with the European trends. Urban tourism as a category of tourism resources and activities within a city is a complex and multifunctional form of tourism. Its development is directly influenced by the permissiveness of local, regional and national policy but lately also by the new marketing and tourism promotion strategies and actions and by the proper receptivity of these strategies. This study aims at analysing quantitatively and qualitatively the urban tourism phenomenon (tourism supply and demand in Craiova city, the county seat of Dolj and an urban growth pole of the Oltenia development region, in order to highlight the tourism market trends and to obtain a tourism diagnosis. The prognosis of the tourism activity done by using the TALC model can help the authorities, who started to focus on this sector, which was less capitalized in the city due to the functional economic profile focused initially on industry and commerce.

  1. Supply and demand determine the market value of food providers in wild vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruteau, Cécile; Voelkl, Bernhard; van Damme, Eric; Noë, Ronald

    2009-07-21

    Animals neither negotiate verbally nor conclude binding contracts, but nevertheless regularly exchange goods and services without overt coercion and manage to arrive at agreements over exchange rates. Biological market theory predicts that such exchange rates fluctuate according to the law of supply and demand. Previous studies showed that primates pay more when commodities become scarcer: subordinates groomed dominants longer before being tolerated at food sites in periods of shortage; females groomed mothers longer before obtaining permission to handle their infants when there were fewer newborns and males groomed fertile females longer before obtaining their compliance when fewer such females were present. We further substantiated these results by conducting a 2-step experiment in 2 groups of free-ranging vervet monkeys in the Loskop Dam Nature Reserve, South Africa. We first allowed a single low-ranking female to repeatedly provide food to her entire group by triggering the opening of a container and measured grooming bouts involving this female in the hour after she made the reward available. We then measured the shifts in grooming patterns after we added a second food container that could be opened by another low-ranking female, the second provider. All 4 providers received more grooming, relative to the amount of grooming they provided themselves. As biological market theory predicts, the initial gain of first providers was partially lost again after the introduction of a second provider in both groups. We conclude that grooming was fine-tuned to changes in the value of these females as social partners.

  2. Strategic and Tactical Design of Competing Decentralized Supply Chain Networks with Risk-Averse Participants for Markets with Uncertain Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Hafezalkotob

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated equilibrium model for tactical decisions in network design is developed. We consider a decentralized supply chain network operating in markets under uncertain demands when there is a rival decentralized chain. The primary assumption is that two chains provide partial substitutable products to the markets, and markets' demands are affected by tactical decisions such as price, service level, and advertising expenditure. Each chain consists of one risk-averse manufacturer and a set of risk-averse retailers. The strategic decisions are frequently taking precedence over tactical ones. Therefore, we first find equilibrium of tactical decisions for each possible scenario of supply chain network. Afterwards, we find optimal distribution network of the new supply chain by the scenario evaluation method. Numerical example, including sensitivity analysis will illustrate how the conservative behaviors of chains' members affect expected demand, profit, and utility of each distribution scenario.

  3. Pricing decision research for TPL considering different logistics service level influencing the market demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With the rapid development of economy and the support of government policy, the development of the logistics industry has become a new economic growth engine. As we all know, the reasonable price of logistics service is the most critical factor for logistics enterprises to win market share and make profit. At the same time, the service level is one of the most important factors which will influence the size of the market share. Therefore, this paper constructs a pricing model considering a situation that the logistics service level affects the market demand. This model helps the enterprises to make scientific decisions.Methodology: To achieve this objective, this paper constructs the TPL service and the pricing decision models based on the game theory.Findings: The conclusion shows that under the situation of independent decision-making, the enterprise which has strong ability of logistics service does not necessarily have a competitive advantage, while pricing equilibrium under the situation of joint decision-making, not only make both sides get more income, but also be conducive to improve the level of service.Research limitations: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy the model such as there are only two TPL enterprises to participate in, and considerations are taken under the condition of complete information environment. These assumptions can be relaxed in the future work.Originality: In this research, logistics service level is taken account into the areas of logistics service pricing, which makes the models more practical and more perfect. And this paper constructs game models based on game theory to make up the limitations of traditional pricing theories in logistics service pricing.

  4. Capacity Development Services and the Demand Market in Albanian Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezarta BROKAJ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years the role of tourism has been increasingly recognized as an important development strategy, considering its importance in creating positive economical effects in worldwide level. Sustainability has become nowadays a principle of development and obviously of tourism development.Sustainable tourism is one of the main development priorities of local, national and international authorities to ensure long term success on a global market.One of the main reasons in sustainability of tourism development in Albania is that almost planners, operators and local community could not have created a connection through different dimensions of the sustainability.The paper explores the need and demand for building Albania`s private sector capacity for tourism development. This study was run in the most important market actors which operate in the tourism sector in Albania, especially focusing in clients of capacity development services. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the most important tourism operators, that use these services.The aim was to examine their views on tourism development, in an attempt to establish overall desired directions for tourism development and to suggest effective tourism strategies and policies to reinforce positive outcomes and alleviate problems resulting from previous unplanned tourism development.According to the survey, results showed the availability of capacity building services, the links with local and international service providers, their preferred service delivery mechanisms and the barriers that exist in this market.Hence understanding barriers of capacity development services can help to all the actors for future planning to achieve sustainable tourism development.Keywords: capacity development, tourism operators, sustainable development, service quality .

  5. Why do successful restaurants not raise their prices? : Market forces of demand and the all-or-nothing demand curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Leen, Auke

    Becker (J Political Econ 99:1109-1116, 1991) addresses the problem of persistent queues at popular restaurants. He poses the question why such restaurants do not raise their prices, thus reducing the queues while expanding profits. He presents a solution based on the assumption that demand by a

  6. Improving Supply Chain in North -American Liner Board market through Demand Chain managment : Case of Metsä Board

    OpenAIRE

    Sakko, Auli

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis research is to explore the US customer demand and seek better customer and market understanding, and consequently, facilitate implementing the optimal stock levels in the market. Additionally, this thesis investigates which improvements are necessary for utilizing the common stock supply model in the US, and how the maximal availability is achieved for the US customers. The research method in this thesis is qualitative. The theoretical framework was created th...

  7. Marketing-Stimulated Word-of-Mouth: A Channel for Growing Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Martin, Becky; Britt, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Marketing-stimulated word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing has been poorly understood in health care, leading to it being underappreciated and underutilized by marketers. A study of new patients to a new runner's clinic was conducted to understand how they chose the program. The importance of marketing-stimulated WOM, both individual and organizational, is documented. Marketing-stimulated WOM is an often overlooked and rarely measured channel for increasing the impact of marketing programs.

  8. Supply and demand analysis of the current and future US neurology workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Timothy M; Storm, Michael V; Chakrabarti, Ritashree; Drogan, Oksana; Keran, Christopher M; Donofrio, Peter D; Henderson, Victor W; Kaminski, Henry J; Stevens, James C; Vidic, Thomas R

    2013-07-30

    This study estimates current and projects future neurologist supply and demand under alternative scenarios nationally and by state from 2012 through 2025. A microsimulation supply model simulates likely career choices of individual neurologists, taking into account the number of new neurologists trained each year and changing demographics of the neurology workforce. A microsimulation demand model simulates utilization of neurology services for each individual in a representative sample of the population in each state and for the United States as a whole. Demand projections reflect increased prevalence of neurologic conditions associated with population growth and aging, and expanded coverage under health care reform. The estimated active supply of 16,366 neurologists in 2012 is projected to increase to 18,060 by 2025. Long wait times for patients to see a neurologist, difficulty hiring new neurologists, and large numbers of neurologists who do not accept new Medicaid patients are consistent with a current national shortfall of neurologists. Demand for neurologists is projected to increase from ∼18,180 in 2012 (11% shortfall) to 21,440 by 2025 (19% shortfall). This includes an increased demand of 520 full-time equivalent neurologists starting in 2014 from expanded medical insurance coverage associated with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In the absence of efforts to increase the number of neurology professionals and retain the existing workforce, current national and geographic shortfalls of neurologists are likely to worsen, exacerbating long wait times and reducing access to care for Medicaid beneficiaries. Current geographic differences in adequacy of supply likely will persist into the future.

  9. Effect of policy-based bioenergy demand on southern timber markets: A case study of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Abt; Karen L. Abt; Frederick W. Cubbage; Jesse D. Henderson

    2010-01-01

    Key factors driving renewable energy demand are state and federal policies requiring the use of renewable feedstocks to produce energy (renewable portfolio standards) and liquid fuels (renewable fuel standards). However, over the next decade, the infrastructure for renewable energy supplies is unlikely to develop as fast as both policy- and market-motivated renewable...

  10. Marketing of butter in the European Community, demand functions and policy alternatives with a restriction to four member countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oskam; B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn this article optimum instrument values for two different objectives of an EC marketing policy for butter are considered. In the first part of the study the demand equations of four EC countries, le., West Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Denmark, are estimated and disc

  11. The New Guide to Student Recruitment Marketing. The Best of "Case Currents."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia Carter, Ed.; Hunt, Susan, Ed.

    The 53 best articles from "Case Currents" on student recruitment marketing are presented. The importance of a marketing plan and ways to apply basic marketing principles to recruitment programs are explained. Eight sections cover: exploring the marketing concept; conducting market research and putting the data to work; reaching out to recruit…

  12. A Survey of Environment and Demands Along with a Marketing Communications Plan for WatPutthabucha Market to Promote Agricultural Tourism through Main Media and Online Social Network Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntida Thamwipat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to examine the current environment and the demands and to make a marketing communications plan for WatPuttabucha Market to promote agricultural tourism through main media and online social network media. Moreover, it was aimed to build up working experiences for research with communities near the campus through the integration of course instruction and community service. The data were collected in the second term of academic year 2012 between January and February 2013 in WatPuttabucha Market and nearby communities. There were 2 sampling groups as in King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi students (50 persons and WatPuttabucha Market and nearby community members (50 persons. In total, there were 100 persons for the survey. This collection was based on an accidental basis. According to the data concerning the environment, WatPuttabucha Market had 9 interesting shops for agricultural tourism and 4 major tourist attractions. As for the demands, it was found that 47 students (or 94% would like WatPuttabucha Market to be open as a site for agricultural tourism mainly on Saturday and Sunday. 47 persons from WatPuttabucha Market and nearby communities (or 94% also would like it to be open mainly on Saturday and Sunday. As for the communicative plan, it was found that there were 7 kinds of main media. There were 5 kinds of online social network media for check-in special events. The majority of students (mean score of 4.89 and standard deviation of 0.86 agreed with the integration of research in their Marketing Communication course because it allowed them to get more familiar with communities near the campus and recommended continuing this similar project for the next year.

  13. Generation of predictive price and trading volume patterns in a model of dynamically evolving free market supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Wang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available I present a model of stock market price fluctuations incorporating effects of share supply as a history-dependent function of previous purchases and share demand as a function of price deviation from moving averages. Price charts generated show intervals of oscillations switching amplitude and frequency suddenly in time, forming price and trading volume patterns well-known in market technical analysis. Ultimate price trends agree with traditional predictions for specific patterns. The consideration of dynamically evolving supply and demand in this model resolves the apparent contradiction with the Efficient Market Hypothesis: perceptions of imprecise equity values by a world of investors evolve over non-negligible periods of time, with dependence on price history.

  14. Strategy-making for a proactive distribution company in the real-time market with demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to optimize the trading strategies of a proactive distribution company (PDISCO) in the real-time market by mobilizing the demand response. Each distribution-level demand is considered as an elastic one. To capture the interrelation between the PDISCO and the real......-time market, a bi-level model is presented for the PDISCO to render continuous offers and bids strategically. The upper level problem expresses the PDISCO's profit maximization, while the lower-level problem minimizes the operation cost of the transmission-level real-time market. To solve the proposed model......, a primal-dual approach is used to translate this bi-level model into a single-level mathematical program with equilibrium constraints. Results of case studies are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed model. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Creating demand for foreign brands in a 'home run' market: tobacco company tactics in South Korea following market liberalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tactics transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) used to increase market share in South Korea after market liberalisation in 1988, and the subsequent impact of TTCs' activities on the domestic industry and ultimately public health. Internal tobacco industry documents were searched iteratively and analysed by keyword related to strategies for increasing market share in Korea since liberalisation. Following market liberalisation, TTCs faced entrenched cultural and institutional barriers in Korea which hindered increased sales of cigarette imports. TTCs identified population groups more favourably inclined towards imported brands, developed new distribution channels and used promotional activities targeting these groups. The growth in market share by TTCs suggests that these activities were successful at challenging the Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation (KTGC) monopoly. In response, KTGC shifted to a proactive marketing approach and adopted strategies similar to TTCs. This, in turn, made the Korean market highly competitive. Findings show that, after market liberalisation, there was an upward trend in cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence among the targeted population groups, notably youth and young women. Governments engaging in trade negotiations that may lead to the opening of domestic tobacco markets need a fuller understanding of previous industry activities for expanding into emerging markets as well as how the domestic industry can change accordingly. To protect public health, the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control measures, guided by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed as part of such negotiations.

  16. The Current Methods of Measurement of Market Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Ing. Eva Tomaskova

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the new trends in measurement of market orientation. Market orientation is one of the most investigated methods founded on marketing conception. Market orientation comes back in 90th of 20th century by workers Kohli and Jaworski and Narver and Slater. It is described as a method to contribute better managing of company by many researchers. These research studies involved definition of market orientation, impact market orientation on business performance, methods for mea...

  17. Identifying Potential Markets for Behind-the-Meter Battery Energy Storage: A Survey of U.S. Demand Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mullendore, Seth [Clean Energy Group, Montpelier, Vermont

    2017-08-07

    This paper presents the first publicly available comprehensive survey of the magnitude of demand charges for commercial customers across the United States -- a key predictor of the financial performance of behind-the-meter battery storage systems. Notably, the analysis estimates that there are nearly 5 million commercial customers in the United States who can subscribe to retail electricity tariffs that have demand charges in excess of $15 per kilowatt (kW), over a quarter of the 18 million commercial customers in total in the United States. While the economic viability of installing battery energy storage must be determined on a case-by-case basis, high demand charges are often cited as a critical factor in battery project economics. Increasing use of demand charges in utility tariffs and anticipated future declines in storage costs will only serve to unlock additional markets and strengthen existing ones.

  18. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  19. The Mixed Preschool Market: Explaining Local Variation in Family Demand and Organized Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John H. Y.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores supply-and-demand factors by combining a 100-county sample of independent preschools with 1990 census data. Price negatively affects hours demanded. More hours are purchased in poorer counties with more black single parents and rapid population growth. Center accreditation significantly increases demand, but depresses supply. Public…

  20. Developing power markets - Development of market place for meeting the demand - Case India, in transition from regulated to competitive structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pranay; Sarkar, Prabhajit Kumar

    2010-09-15

    Power Market players of developing countries with supply deficit are exposed to a unique combination of price risk and quantity risk which is not the case with developed nations that have taken path of liberalization to open up their power markets. India has one of the largest generation capacities in the world, yet till recently the Indian Power sector was highly regulated. However, the last decade has witnessed many initiatives so as to make the sector market oriented. This paper provides opportunity for developing countries to learn from Indian experience of introducing competition in the power sector.

  1. Current Situation and Demand of Rural Endowment Security in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunmei; LIU; Lutang; LI

    2013-01-01

    With intensification of population aging and rise in elderly dependency ratio,the demand for endowment security becomes higher and higher,particularly in rural areas.Taking Shaanxi Province as an example,the authors selected people older than 65 in 18 natural villages in north Shaanxi,south Shaanxi and Guanzhong.With the aid of survey data and related official statistical data,they made an evaluation of current situation of the rural endowment security in Shaanxi Province.Results indicate that home-based endowment is the major endowment method of rural elderly,but such method is influenced by family’s economic support ability and children’s support willingness,thus facing big demand gap.On the basis of analyzing gap problem,the authors recommended that government should increase financial and policy supports,optimize management and monitoring,actively develop non-government organizations,and promote socialization of rural endowment service.

  2. Mobile applications for obesity and weight management: current market characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, C K; Lean, M E J

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-Health (mHealth) is the fastest-developing eHealth sector, with over 100 000 health applications (apps) currently available. Overweight/obesity is a problem of wide public concern that is potentially treatable/preventable through mHealth. This study describes the current weight-management app-market. Five app stores (Apple, Google, Amazon, Windows and Blackberry) in UK, US, Russia, Japan and Germany, Italy, France, China, Australia and Canada were searched for keywords: 'weight', 'calorie', 'weight-loss', 'slimming', 'diet', 'dietitian' and 'overweight' in January/February 2016 using App-Annie software. The 10 most downloaded apps in the lifetime of an app were recorded. Developers' lists and the app descriptions were searched to identify any professional input with keywords 'professional', 'dietitian' and 'nutritionist'. A total of 28 905 relevant apps were identified as follows: Apple iTunes=8559 (4634, 54% paid), Google Play=1762 (597, 33.9% paid), Amazon App=13569 (4821, 35.5% paid), Windows=2419 (819, 17% paid) and Blackberry=2596 (940, 36% paid). The 28 905 identified apps focused mainly on physical activity (34%), diet (31%), and recording/monitoring of exercise, calorie intake and body weight (23%). Only 17 apps (0.05%) were developed with identifiable professional input. Apps on weight management are widely available and very popular but currently lack professional content expertise. Encouraging app development based on evidence-based online approaches would assure content quality, allowing healthcare professionals to recommend their use.

  3. Development of a neural network mathematical model for demand forecasting in fluctuating markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ziarati, Martin; Bilgili, Erdem; Singh, Lakhvir; Akdemir, Basak; Reza ZIARATI

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that Neural Networks (NNs) when trained appropriately are the best forecasting system compared to conventional techniques. Research has shown that there is no system to accurately forecast sudden changes in demand for a given product. This paper reports on the development of a recovery method when a sudden change in demand has taken place. This error in forecasting demand leads to either excessive inventories of the product or shortages of it and can lead to substantial f...

  4. Behavioral indicators of household decision-making and demand for sanitation and potential gains from social marketing in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Marion W; Scott, Beth

    2007-06-01

    Household demand for improved sanitation in developing countries is an important social and behavioral process with implications for public health, sanitation policy and planning, and sanitation design and technology development. This paper develops a behavioral approach to assess household demand for improved sanitation in Ghana. Adoption decision stages of preference, intention, and choice to install a toilet in Ghana are defined, measured in a survey, and used to estimate sanitation demand, identify factors affecting demand at each stage, and classify households by adoption stage to identify targeted demand-stimulation strategies. Results from a representative national sample of 536 households indicate that of 74% of households without any home sanitation, 31% have some likelihood of installing a toilet within the next year, but only 6% are very likely to do so; 62% had not considered the idea. Motivating and constraining factors are compared at each adoption stage and strategies likely to increase toilet installation in Ghana discussed. The approach is useful for assessing behavioral indicators of sanitation demand in developing countries and suggesting where marketing approaches can and cannot work to accelerate adoption of household sanitation improvements.

  5. Current Status and Progress of Market for Forest Environmental Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong; CHEN Jie

    2006-01-01

    With the analyses of the reasons for the emergence of domestic and overseas markets for forest environmental service and its significance, this paper summarizes the progress in the research on the market and reviews the operations of the markets for 4 kinds of forest environmental services that are watershed protection services, biodiversity protection services, carbon sequestration services and landscape services. At the end, the paper discusses the major problems arising in the creation of markets for environmental services and the developing tendency.

  6. Social Welfare implications of demand response programs in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Neenan, Bernard F.

    2003-08-01

    The price volatility exhibited by wholesale electricity markets has stymied the movement to restructure the industry, and may derail it altogether. Market designers argue that prices are superior to regulation for directing long-term investments to the proper location and function, and that price volatility is a natural manifestation of a robustly competitive market. However, episodes of prices that soar to previously unimaginable heights try customers' patience and cause policy makers to reconsider if the prize is worth the consequences.

  7. Agent-based simulation of retail electricity markets: Bilateral contracting with demand response

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Fernando; Algarvio, Hugo; Ilco, Cristina; Sousa, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The novelty of the evolving electric power industry implies that researchers lack insight into numerous open problems. There is a growing need for advanced modeling approaches that simulate the behavior of electricity markets over time. Accordingly, this article looks at using software agents to help manage the complexity of electricity markets, particularly retail markets, towards ensuring long-term capacity sustainability. The article focuses on bilateral trading and describes some importan...

  8. OBJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH TO IDENTIFYING THE RELEVANCE OF IT-EDUCATION TO THE LABOR MARKET DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masuma H. Mamedova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resources development and IT-staff training. The authors put a special emphasis on bringing the IT-staff training system in line with the labor market demands both in quantitative and qualitative terms. Based on the object-oriented approach, the authors explore the reasons behind the existing imbalance between the markets of IT-education services and IT-specialists in Azerbaijan, the challenges facing the IT education and specificity of the IT-specialists market being described.For overcoming the above gap between the IT labor market supply and demand, the authors put forward a model of professional competences, reflecting the real-life requirements for a specialist’s quality. Additionally, the paper outlines the recommended trends of IT-sector development in Azerbaijan, which include organization of innovative research and education centers for specialists’ training and retraining, legislative and institutional coordination of the IT industry and education, development of new educational standards, increase in the number of IT-profile students.

  9. Benchmarking HEI impact on students' soft skills development with labour market demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning P.; Roth, Eva

    Report on an international comprison of students' and companies attitudes regarding soft skills aiming at securing correspondence between students perception of own skills and companies demands.......Report on an international comprison of students' and companies attitudes regarding soft skills aiming at securing correspondence between students perception of own skills and companies demands....

  10. Predictive Control of Demand Side Units Participating in the Primary Frequency Reserve Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    We consider an aggregator controlling a mixed portfolio of conventional power generators and demand side units. The generators are controllable within certain power and ramp limitations while the demand side units are characterized by flexible consumptions and therefore can be treated as energy...

  11. Finding the food-fuel balance. Supply and demand dynamics in global vegetable oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanti, P.

    2012-10-15

    Demand for vegetable oils for food and biofuel use is expected to increase by an additional 23 million tonnes by 2016; however supply is expected to struggle to keep up with this demand, according to this Rabobank report. Vegetable oil stocks have reached a 38 year low this year due in large part to constraints such as land availability and adverse weather.

  12. Benchmarking HEI impact on students' soft skills development with labour market demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning P.; Roth, Eva

    Report on an international comprison of students' and companies attitudes regarding soft skills aiming at securing correspondence between students perception of own skills and companies demands.......Report on an international comprison of students' and companies attitudes regarding soft skills aiming at securing correspondence between students perception of own skills and companies demands....

  13. New Real-Time Market Facilitating Demand-Side Resources for System Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Nyeng, Preben; Xie, Jun

    2011-01-01

    the participation of demand-side resources. In light of the future environment of increasing intermittent renewable power and distributed energy/storage resources, stochastic time-series and Monte-Carlo simulation are used to analyze the relationship between balancing requirement and generation/demand uncertainties...

  14. Describing current and potential markets for alternative-fuel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-26

    Motor vehicles are a major source of greenhouse gases, and the rising numbers of motor vehicles and miles driven could lead to more harmful emissions that may ultimately affect the world`s climate. One approach to curtailing such emissions is to use, instead of gasoline, alternative fuels: LPG, compressed natural gas, or alcohol fuels. In addition to the greenhouse gases, pollutants can be harmful to human health: ozone, CO. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 authorized EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards to control this. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) was the first new law to emphasize strengthened energy security and decreased reliance on foreign oil since the oil shortages of the 1970`s. EPACT emphasized increasing the number of alternative-fuel vehicles (AFV`s) by mandating their incremental increase of use by Federal, state, and alternative fuel provider fleets over the new few years. Its goals are far from being met; alternative fuels` share remains trivial, about 0.3%, despite gains. This report describes current and potential markets for AFV`s; it begins by assessing the total vehicle stock, and then it focuses on current use of AFV`s in alternative fuel provider fleets and the potential for use of AFV`s in US households.

  15. 基于消费不足的中国效率市场结构分析%Analysis of structure of efficient market of China based on demand deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永忠; 熊祖辕

    2003-01-01

    This article thinks efficient market has abundant content, and not merely confine to the efficiency market of the stock. According to level of study, efficient market can divides into micro efficient market, regional efficiency market and macro efficient market. Micro efficient is market of Pareto efficiency, and foundation of efficiency market system. But micro market has space failures and economy, society failures. As to micro market faihures, regional efficiency market is shown as the integration of urban and rural areas market, and macro efficiency market is show as national big market of realization of Analyses of efficient markets is meaningful to China''s deficiency of demand.

  16. Current marketing practices in the nursing home sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Judith G; Banaszak-Holl, Jane; Hearld, Larry R

    2006-01-01

    Marketing is widely recognized as an essential business function across all industries, including healthcare. While many long-term care facilities adopted basic healthcare marketing practices and hired marketing staff by the early 1990s, a paucity of research on nursing home marketing exists in the literature. This study examines the extent to which nursing homes have developed more formulated marketing and related communication and promotional strategies as market competition has increased in this sector during the past two decades. In addition, we explored managers' perceptions of their control over marketing decision making, the impact of competition on the use of marketing practices, and areas for enhanced competitive positioning. Administrators from 230 nursing homes in 18 Southeastern Michigan counties were surveyed regarding (1) the adoption level of approximately 40 literature-based, best-practice marketing strategies; (2) the types of staff involved with the marketing function; and (3) their perception of their level of control over marketing functions and of local competition. Results from 101 (44 percent) survey participants revealed that although respondents viewed their markets as highly competitive, their marketing practices remained focused on traditional and relatively constrained practices. In relation to the importance of customer relationship management, the majority of the administrators reported intensive efforts being focused on residents and their families, referrers, and staff, with minimal efforts being extended to insurers and other types of payers. A significant positive relation was found between the intensity of marketing initiatives and the size of the facility (number of beds), whereas significant negative correlations were revealed in relation to occupancy and the perceived level of control over the function.

  17. Estimating deficit probabilities with price-responsive demand in contract-based electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetovic, Alexander [Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad de los Andes, Santiago (Chile); Munoz, Cristian M. [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Universidad de Chile, Mariano Sanchez Fontecilla 310, piso 3 Las Condes, Santiago (Chile)

    2009-02-15

    Studies that estimate deficit probabilities in hydrothermal systems have generally ignored the response of demand to changing prices, in the belief that such response is largely irrelevant. We show that ignoring the response of demand to prices can lead to substantial over or under estimation of the probability of an energy deficit. To make our point we present an estimation of deficit probabilities in Chile's Central Interconnected System between 2006 and 2010. This period is characterized by tight supply, fast consumption growth and rising electricity prices. When the response of demand to rising prices is acknowledged, forecasted deficit probabilities and marginal costs are shown to be substantially lower. (author)

  18. Demand of Chinese Market For Rare Earth Ore By 2020 Is Expected to Reach 228,000 Tonnes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    At the Argus International Rare Earth Annual Meeting 2015 held in Shanghai,Mr.Chen Zhanheng,Deputy Secretary-general of the Association of China Rare Earth Industry,said that currently the rare earth market is at its lowest point since 2011,the market space for further drop is limited,and the situation is expected to stabilize in the near future.Main

  19. the structure of labour market and demand for hired labour for oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Keywords: structure of labour, hired labour, oil palm production, demand elasticities. INTRODUCTION .... theory of the firm, where the farmer seeks to maximize output subject ... signs of the parameters and significance of the student t-statistics ...

  20. Review of the current wind energy technologies and global market

    OpenAIRE

    Komarov, Dragan; Stupar, Slobodan; Posteljnik, Zorana

    2011-01-01

    The modern wind energy technologies and recent global wind energy market trends are reviewed in the paper. Basic principles of conversion of wind energy to electricity are described with brief overview of the state-of-the-art technologies for subassemblies such as wind turbine blades and drive trains. Global wind energy market was reviewed in order to attain notion of wind power market developments in the future. The most developed countries in terms of wind energy utilization such as Denmark...

  1. Pricing decision research for TPL considering different logistics service level influencing the market demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Li; Xuehui He; Kai Nie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: With the rapid development of economy and the support of government policy, the development of the logistics industry has become a new economic growth engine. As we all know, the reasonable price of logistics service is the most critical factor for logistics enterprises to win market share and make profit. At the same time, the service level is one of the most important factors which will influence the size of the market share. Therefore, this paper constructs a pricing model conside...

  2. Changing Conditions of Supply and Demand in the Tungsten Concentrate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> In January 2004,when Jiangxi Tungsten Indus-try Group,one of the major tungsten producersin China,made a quote of RMB 25,500 yuanper ton,the actual domestic market quotes hadalready risen above RMB 28,000 yuan per ton.In February,when the major tungsten produc-ers negotiated a quote of RMB 28,500 yuan perton,the actual domestic market quotes had

  3. CURRENT STATUS OF AMAZONIAN ORNAMENTAL FISH FROM PERU WITH HIGHER DEMAND OF EXPORTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz, N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Current status of Amazonian ornamental fish from Peru with higher demand of exportation was analyzed. The ornamental freshwater fishes from Peru with higher demand are Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 (Osteoglossidae, followed by ray Potamotrygon motoro (Müller & Henle, 1841 (Potamotrygonidae. Main ornamental and continental fish family that exports is Loriicaridae (Siluriformes. The vast continental and ornamental fish from Peru with higher demand are climate tropical and clear waters with pH de 6.5 a 7.5. Four species (Potamotrygon falkneri Castex & Maciel, 1963, Acanthicus adonis Isbrücker & Nijssen, 1988, Peckoltia vittata (Steindachner, 1881 and Corydoras julii Steindachner, 1906 that exists are not reported on check-list of continental fishes from Peru performed by Ortega & Vari (1986 and, Chang & Ortega (1995. C. julii, is the unique fish not found in the ornamental fish list from Peru performed by “Instituto de Investigación de la Amazonia Peruana” (IIAP and “Comisión para la Promoción de Exportaciones” (PROMPEX. O. bicirrhosum, P. motoro, Corydoras arcuatus Elwin 1938 and C. julii are fish with more data obtained. Fish with less data obtained was Brachyplatystoma tigrinum (Britski, 1981. Main problematic observed on ornamental continental Peruvian fish since an ecological point of view, are pollution of fish environment, mainly by heavy metals, alteration on great scale from habitat, where lives and surroundings, and also, introduction alien species. The main problem that suffer commercialization of ornamental fish as in other species, is regulation and foment by part of authority respect to bio-business initiatives bio-business; generating confusion between user and lack of motivation legalities of these bionegocio.

  4. FINANCIAL MARKET OF AZERBAIJAN: CURRENT CONDITION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Guliyev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the economic model of Azerbaijan. Main components of the financial market are being analyzed: state budget, state oil fund, banking system, foreign debt and etc. This article assesses the impact of the global financial crisis on the national economy. Moreover, future development perspectives of the financial market and the economy are being examined as well.

  5. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  6. The Marketing Ethics Course: Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, O. C.; Keig, Dawn L.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the critical issues facing modern businesses can be considered marketing ethics issues. It follows that as the field of business ethics has evolved, marketing has played a key role in the development of business ethics education. Despite a general trend of increasingly larger amounts of ethical content included in business curricula, prior…

  7. The Marketing Ethics Course: Current State and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, O. C.; Keig, Dawn L.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the critical issues facing modern businesses can be considered marketing ethics issues. It follows that as the field of business ethics has evolved, marketing has played a key role in the development of business ethics education. Despite a general trend of increasingly larger amounts of ethical content included in business curricula, prior…

  8. Electric Vehicles in Colorado: Anticipating Consumer Demand for Direct Current Fast Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-01

    To support the State of Colorado in planning for growth in direct current fast charging (DCFC) for electric vehicles, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has partnered with the Regional Air Quality Council (RAQC) and the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) to analyze a number of DCFC investment scenarios. NREL analyzed existing electric vehicle registration data from IHS Markit (IHS) to highlight early trends in the electric vehicle market, which were compared with sales forecasts predicting large growth in the Colorado electric vehicle market. Electric vehicle forecasts were then used to develop future DCFC scenarios to be evaluated in a simulation environment to estimate consumer benefits of the hypothetical DCFC networks in terms of increased driving range and electric vehicle miles traveled (eVMT). Simulated utilization of the hypothetical DCFC networks was analyzed for geographic trends, particularly for correlations with vehicle electric range. Finally, a subset of simulations is presented for consumers with potentially inconsistent access to charging at their home location and presumably greater reliance on public DCFC infrastructure.

  9. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position mor

  10. Labour Markets Trends, Financial Globalization and the current crisis in Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.E. van der Hoeven (Rolph)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe current wave of globalization has profound labour market effects, accentuated, in many cases, by the current financial and economic crisis. This paper reviews general labour market trends and country examples, arguing that the current globalization process makes labour’s position

  11. Real convergence, financial markets, and the current account – Emerging Europe versus emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Sabine; Winkler, Adalbert

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relevance of financial market characteristics for explaining the catching-up process in Europe and Asia. Global financial integration has been associated with divergent patterns of real convergence and the current account in emerging markets. While countries in emerging Asia have been running sizeable current account surpluses, countries in emerging Europe have been facing large current account deficits. In this paper we test for the relevance of financial market chara...

  12. Demand management: another marketing tool or a way to quality care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, M J; Harris, J M

    1998-05-01

    Demand management tools are population-based strategies used to control costs and improve utilization of services by assisting health consumers in maintaining their health and seeking appropriate health care. These tools are increasingly used by health care delivery systems and, in the US, by fiscal intermediaries, such as insurance companies. If these tools are not properly applied, there is a clear possibility that their use may lead a reduction of health care services with no improvement in clinical, humanistic, or economic outcomes. Demand management effectiveness has not been rigorously examined by the medical industry or academia. Before adopting or purchasing demand management technologies, health care systems should examine them carefully to determine how the tools were developed and who they were intended to serve. Once implemented, careful tracking of population outcomes is as necessary with these technologies as with any other technologies that can affect health care.

  13. A deterministic model for deteriorating items with displayed inventory level dependent demand rate incorporating marketing decisions with transportation cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an inventory model, which considers the impact of marketing strategies such as pricing and advertising as well as the displayed inventory level on the demand rate of the system. In addition, the demand rate during the stock-out period differs from that during the stock-in period by a function varied on the waiting time up to the beginning of the next cycle. Shortage are allowed and partially backlogged. Here, the deterioration rate is assumed to follow the Weibull distribution. Considering all these factors with others, different scenarios of the system are investigated. To obtain the solutions of these cases and to illustrate the model, an example is considered. Finally, to study the effects of changes of different parameters of the system, sensitivity analyses have been carried out with respect to the different parameters of the system.

  14. Economics from a Physicist's point of view Stochastic Dynamics of Supply and Demand in a Single Market. Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Granik, V

    2002-01-01

    Proceeding from the concept of rational expectations, a new dynamic model of supply and demand in a single market with one supplier, one buyer, and one kind of commodity is developed. Unlike the cob-web dynamic theories with adaptive expectations that are made up of deterministic difference equations, the new model is cast in the form of stochastic differential equations. The stochasticity is due to random disturbances ("input") to endogenous variables. The disturbances are assumed to be stationary to the second order with zero means and given covariance functions. Two particular versions of the model with different endogenous variables are considered. The first version involves supply, demand, and price. In the second version the stock of commodity is added. Covariance functions and variances of the endogenous variables ("output") are obtained in terms of the spectral theory of stochastic stationary processes. The impact of both deterministic parameters of the model and the random input on the stochastic out...

  15. 彩票市场需求调控探析%Analysis of the Lottery Market Demand Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈煊

    2016-01-01

    彩票公益目标的实现不能以购票人的过度付出为代价。彩票发行必须遵循适度原则。彩票销售机构和监管机构应加强市场需求调控,控制市场规模,优化销量结构,保护购票人利益,促进彩票行业可持续健康发展。%The commonweal goals of lottery tickets cannot be achieved at the expense of the punter's excessive betting. Therefore,the issuing of lottery tickets should observe the optimum principle. With an aim at the sustainable and healthy development of the lottery industry,ticket sales and regulatory agencies should strengthen the market demand regulation, control the market scale, optimize the sales structure and protect the punter's profits..

  16. The Study on the Value of Information Sharing with Correlated Market Demand and Cost of Information Sharing in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Feng Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a two-echelon supply chain system with 1 manufacture and N retailers, the two-stage stochastic dynamic program of whether manufacture to share information with n (0≤n ≤ N retailers is constructed when the market demand is correlated with AR (1 module and information sharing is costly. The value of information shared with n retailers is analyzed analytically. One numerical case is simulated to illustrate the magnitude of the value of information shared with n retailers in the supply chain at last.

  17. Help Wanted:Career Fairs Attempt to Meet Market Economy Demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    WITHIN the past 15 years, Chinese economic reform has brought with it a market-oriented economy that has broken up the traditional management mode of the centralized allocation of labor under the planned economy system. Talent, the primary factor to promote the success of an enterprise, is badly needed. All kinds of services that recruit talented personnel have sprung up. In Beijing alone, several hundred agencies have been established, where talent exchange fairs often are held. Women who are confronted with a crowded job market face many challenges

  18. The market for elective surgery: joint estimation of supply and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen; Rice, Nigel; Jacobs, Rowena; Smith, Peter

    2007-03-01

    This paper develops models of the demand for and supply of elective (non-emergency) surgery using a panel of quarterly data for 200 English hospitals over the period 1995-2002. Unusually, distinct measures of supply (outpatients seen and inpatient admissions) and demand (outpatient referrals and decisions to admit) are available for each observation. These offer the opportunity to estimate separate empirical models of supply and demand using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression methods. However, the strong correlation between the residuals of these models suggests some merit in the deployment of seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) methods. Although both static and dynamic SUR estimations leave the results largely qualitatively unchanged, SUR estimation can have a considerable quantitative effect relative to the OLS results. For example, SUR estimation generates a lower elasticity of inpatient demand with respect to waiting time than that obtained via OLS. The results offer an important justification for more careful econometric modelling of hospital behaviour than has traditionally been employed in the health economics literature.

  19. Progress in the development of steels satisfying special demands of the markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulla, W.; Lauprecht, W.E.; Diesburg, D.E.

    1981-11-16

    Large-diameter pipes, effect of seawater on steel, reduction of weight (automobile construction) and more stringent demands are discussed in the following chapters: Steels for oil- and gas-field pipes; large-diameter pipes; dual-phase steel; case-hardened steels for gear parts; creep-resistant components; high-alloy stainless steels for the chemical industry, environment and sea water.

  20. MARKET SUPPLY RESPONSE AND DEMAND FOR LOCAL RICE IN NIGERIA: IMPLICATIONS FOR SELF-SUFFICIENCY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M RAHJI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the supply response and demand for local rice in Nigeria between 1960 and 2004. A system of equations using secondary data was estimated by OLS and 2SLS techniques. Area planted with local rice is mainly affected by expected price of output, agriculture wage rate and by the partial adjustment coefficient. The short-run response elasticity is 0.077. The implied long-run response elasticity is 1.578. The partial adjustment measure is 0.049. This, points to the difficulty of supply response to changing economic conditions. The price elasticity of demand obtained is 0.841. The demand for local rice is thus price inelastic. Rice income elasticity is 0.3378. It is also inelastic. The ban on rice importation in Nigeria could be said to be a step in the right direction. This policy should be continued and policed. However, price, output and non-price incentives that can exert significant influence on rice supply response and demand are required if the self-sufficiency goal is to be achieved.

  1. 76 FR 16657 - Demand Response Compensation in Organized Wholesale Energy Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... periods of balancing needs,\\53\\ and that, moreover, contracts with demand response providers limit the... 2005, Public Law 109-58, Sec. 1252(f), 119 Stat. 594, 965 (2005) (``It is the policy of the United... option is well-established in finance theory as the value of the resource (LMP) minus the ``strike...

  2. Current Status of Agricultural Extension Services for Market Oriented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    An International Multi-disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Vol. 10(3) ... capacity of producer groups to facilitate input and output marketing systems has also ... documented, though not widespread, as the capacity at the local level to bring these.

  3. THE CAPITAL MARKET IN THE CURRENT ECONOMIC CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available For nearly a century now, economists have studied the advantages and disadvantages of financial systems based on either banks or financial markets in their attempt to forward economic growth and a better capital resources allocation. Nevertheless, the effects of the financial crisis that began in 2007 over the capital market are not only numerous, but also affect financial institutions, the stock exchange volume and list, the behaviour of market investors and not least such generate the need for capital market regulations to be amended. Even so, due to measures that have been taken, in Romania the stock exchange works on profit, while the effects of the financial crisis over such still fail to occur.

  4. CURRENT COORDINATES OF THE INSURANCE MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Corneliu Cristian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the insurance activity is well known to the Romanian market ever since the 14th century, when insurance was all about mutual help, this activity evolved rapidly in the period before the First World War and in the period between the World Wars, and it manifested itself as the entrance on the market of insurance companies representatives from countries as Austria, Italy, Great Britain. facultative insurance.

  5. Current State of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Market (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.

    2013-09-01

    This presentation highlights the status of the voluntary green power market in 2012. The voluntary green power market totaled more than 48 million MWh in 2012, with about 1.9 million customers participating. The supply continues to be dominated by wind, though solar is increasing its share of utility green pricing programs. Prices for voluntary renewable energy certificates (RECs) increased to above $1/MWh.

  6. Responsiveness of Higher Education to Changing Job Market Demand in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bipasha; Islam, Kazi Maruful

    2017-01-01

    Bangladesh economy has been transforming towards a market-based economy from a state-dominated centrally planned economy since the early 1980s, the pace of transformation has been slow though. The aim of this article is to see how the higher education system responds to the changes in the structure of the economy. The article argues that the…

  7. Power System Transient Stability Improvement Using Demand Side Management in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Wang, Chunqi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price ...

  8. Generating demand for pharmacist-provided medication therapy management: identifying patient-preferred marketing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gladys M; Snyder, Margie E; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Smith, Randall B; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2009-01-01

    To identify effective strategies for marketing pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services to patients in a self-insured employer setting. Qualitative study. University of Pittsburgh during March through May 2008. 26 university employees taking at least one chronic medication. Three focus group sessions were conducted using a semistructured topic guide to facilitate the discussion. Employees' perceived medication-related needs, perceived benefits of pharmacist-provided MTM, potential barriers for employee participation in MTM, and effective strategies for marketing MTM. Participants reported concerns with timing of doses, medication costs, access, and ensuring adherence. Participants generally felt positively toward pharmacists; however, the level of reported patient contact with pharmacists varied among participants. Some participants questioned pharmacists' education and qualifications for this enhanced role in patient care. Perceived benefits of MTM noted by participants included the opportunity to obtain personalized information about their medications and the potential for improved communication among their health providers. Barriers to patient participation were out-of-pocket costs and lack of time for MTM visits. Participants suggested use of alternative words to describe MTM and marketing approaches that involve personal contact. Pharmacists should emphasize parts of MTM that patients feel are most beneficial (i.e., provision of a personal medication record) and use patient-friendly language to describe MTM when marketing their practice. Patients will need greater exposure to the concept of MTM and the pharmacists' role in order to correctly describe and assign value to this type of pharmacist patient care practice.

  9. The Educational Needs of and the Future Labor Market Demand for Human Resource Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prock, Dan; Henson, Bob

    1977-01-01

    Reports and discusses results of a national survey of professionals from all fields of human resource management (HRM) and college recruiters on the content of HRM education, competency requirements of certain specialists, and the labor market for personnel administration and industrial relations (PAIR/HRM) professionals in the next three years.…

  10. Reducing domestic heating demand: Managing the impact of behavior-changing feedback devices via marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Thorben; Chappin, Émile J L

    2017-07-15

    Feedback devices can be used to inform households about their energy-consumption behavior. This may persuade them to practice energy conservation. The use of feedback devices can also-via word of mouth-spread among households and thereby support the spread of the incentivized behavior, e.g. energy-efficient heating behavior. This study investigates how to manage the impact of these environmental innovations via marketing. Marketing activities can support the diffusion of devices. This study aims to identify the most effective strategies of marketing feedback devices. We did this by adapting an agent-based model to simulate the roll-out of a novel feedback technology and heating behavior within households in a virtual city. The most promising marketing strategies were simulated and their impacts were analyzed. We found it particularly effective to lend out feedback devices to consumers, followed by leveraging the social influence of well-connected individuals, and giving away the first few feedback devices for free. Making households aware of the possibility of purchasing feedback devices was found to be least effective. However, making households aware proved to be most cost-efficient. This study shows that actively managing the roll-out of feedback devices can increase their impacts on energy-conservation both effectively and cost-efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media--current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, James

    2012-01-01

    To provide a snapshot content analysis of social media marketing among leading alcohol brands in the UK, and to outline the implications for both regulatory policies and further research. Using screengrab technology, the complete Facebook walls and Twitter timelines for 12 leading UK alcohol brands in November 2011 were captured and archived. A total of 701 brand-authored posts were identified and categorized using a thematic coding frame. Key strategic trends were identified and analysed in the light of contextual research into recent developments in marketing practice within the alcohol industry. A number of dominating trends were identified. These included the use of real-world tie-ins, interactive games, competitions and time-specific suggestions to drink. These methods reflect a strategy of branded conversation-stimulus which is favoured by social media marketing agencies. A number of distinct marketing methods are deployed by alcohol brands when using social media. These may undermine policies which seek to change social norms around drinking, especially the normalization of daily consumption. Social media marketing also raises questions regarding the efficacy of reactive regulatory frameworks. Further research into both the nature and impact of alcohol marketing on social media is needed.

  12. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  13. Calculating load factors for the transatlantic airline market using supply and demand data: a note on the identification of gaps in the available airline statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriendt, L.; Burghouwt, G.; Derudder, B.; de Wit, J.; Witlox, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a critical view of the verification of load factors for the direct transatlantic airline market by combining supply and demand-data. The supply-related data originate from the Official Airline Guide, a well-known data source that contains information on scheduled flights. The demand

  14. Exploring Zen Marketing: A Strategic Experiment in Leveraging End User Intellectual Capital to Stimulate Primary Market Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Raymond

    2003-10-01

    Recently the Telecom Industry experienced an economic boom & bust cycle that hampered new service development & deployment. Consequently, there are significant problems in capturing key requirements for new network-based services and in educating CIO-IT leaders so they can promote investment proposals with their enterprise business leadership. This paper outlines a multi-functional initiative that Lucent Technologies established to engage and exchange with key Enterprises & their Telecom Suppliers views of future network technologies. This experiment is unique because it is facilitated by the corporate CIO-IT leadership & is focused on the latest 3G wireless technologies. CIO-IT provides externally facing resources that collaborate directly with Enterprises, and Service Providers while facilitating internal interactions with Bell Labs, Business Units and Sales teams. This program embodies a Zen Marketing approach since it seeks to create flashes of enlightenment with IT & business leaders by exercising all the knowledge, culture & behaviors available to an IT end user. The paper summarizes several organizational challenges & benefits uncovered by a program that is focused on transforming Mobility Provider relationships with their customers and expanding the overall awareness of the latest 3G wireless technologies.

  15. Water flows, energy demand, and market analysis of the informal water sector in Kisumu, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Laura C; Kelner-Levine, Evan; Eckelman, Matthew J; McCarty, Kathleen M; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-03-01

    In rapidly growing urban areas of developing countries, infrastructure has not been able to cope with population growth. Informal water businesses fulfill unmet water supply needs, yet little is understood about this sector. This paper presents data gathered from quantitative interviews with informal water business operators (n=260) in Kisumu, Kenya, collected during the dry season. Sales volume, location, resource use, and cost were analyzed by using material flow accounting and spatial analysis tools. Estimates show that over 76% of the city's water is consumed by less than 10% of the population who have water piped into their dwellings. The remainder of the population relies on a combination of water sources, including water purchased directly from kiosks (1.5 million m(3) per day) and delivered by hand-drawn water-carts (0.75 million m(3) per day). Energy audits were performed to compare energy use among various water sources in the city. Water delivery by truck is the highest per cubic meter energy demand (35 MJ/m(3)), while the city's tap water has the highest energy use overall (21,000 MJ/day). We group kiosks by neighborhood and compare sales volume and cost with neighborhood-level population data. Contrary to popular belief, we do not find evidence of price gouging; the lowest prices are charged in the highest-demand low-income area. We also see that the informal sector is sensitive to demand, as the number of private boreholes that serve as community water collection points are much larger where demand is greatest.

  16. Skills for the Labor Market in Indonesia : Trends in Demand, Gaps, and Supply

    OpenAIRE

    di Gropello, Emanuela; Kruse, Aurelien; Tandon, Prateek

    2011-01-01

    Creating jobs and increasing productivity are key concerns for policy makers across the globe. For East Asian countries seeking to reduce poverty, expanding employment and productivity is at the top of the agenda. This book is a comprehensive look at the demand and supply of skills in Indonesia how skills have changed, how they will continue to evolve, and how the education and training se...

  17. Should the Government Subsidize Supply or Demand in the Market for Scientists and Engineers?

    OpenAIRE

    ROMER, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper suggests that innovation policy in the United States has erred by subsidizing the private sector demand for scientists and engineers without asking whether the educational system provides that supply response necessary for these subsidies to work. It suggests that the existing institutional arrangements in higher education limit this supply response. To illustrate the path not taken, the paper considers specific programs that could increase the numbers of scientists and engineers a...

  18. Hierarchical Training Mode for Market Demand Oriented Outstanding Seed Industry Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuechun; WANG; Hongni; WANG; Shishun; TAO

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzed the trend of seed industry development in-depth and studied changes in quantity and quality of demands for seed industry talents. To adapt to " breeding,propagating and selling" integration and internationalized trend of seed industry,it stated that hierarchical training mode is an ideal mode for training outstanding seed industry talents. Finally,it elaborated specific objectives and requirements of the hierarchical training mode,i. e. undergraduate- master- doctor.

  19. How to Align the University Curricula with the Market Demands by Developing Employability Skills in the Civil Engineering Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Anastasiu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to discover which employability skills may be developed by students from technical universities in order to meet market demands. Since graduates from technical universities face unemployment or over qualification for vacant jobs, we presumed that there is a misalignment between employers’ expectations concerning graduates’ skills and what they really get from school. Therefore, we conceived a questionnaire to see the demands of the business environment regarding graduates’ technical and professional skills. After analyzing the data, we proposed an interdisciplinary module system, where the mentors coming from the companies involved in the study teach voluntary or optional courses and applications in the domains where they have expertise. We used the employability skills model to find that mix of competencies that may help graduates find jobs in their field of knowledge. This innovative method serves universities, students and companies as well: the prestige of a university is quantified by the experts delivered into the labor market; companies will have well prepared employees in their specific area, with less costs; students will find jobs which will match their expectations, giving them motivation to perform. The limitation of the present research is that the study refers only to the Civil Engineering specialization of the Technical University Cluj-Napoca Romania.

  20. An Agent-Based Labor Market Simulation with Endogenous Skill-Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemkow, S.

    This paper considers an agent-based labor market simulation to examine the influence of skills on wages and unemployment rates. Therefore less and highly skilled workers as well as less and highly productive vacancies are implemented. The skill distribution is exogenous whereas the distribution of the less and highly productive vacancies is endogenous. The different opportunities of the skill groups on the labor market are established by skill requirements. This means that a highly productive vacancy can only be filled by a highly skilled unemployed. Different skill distributions, which can also be interpreted as skill-biased technological change, are simulated by incrementing the skill level of highly skilled persons exogenously. This simulation also provides a microeconomic foundation of the matching function often used in theoretical approaches.

  1. Bioenergy market competition for biomass: A system dynamics review of current policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Robert Jeffers

    2013-07-01

    There is growing interest in the United States and abroad to increase the use of biomass as an energy source due to environmental and energy security benefits. In the United States, the biofuel and biopower industries are regulated by different policies and different agencies and have different drivers, which impact the maximum price the industries are willing to pay for biomass. This article describes a dynamic computer simulation model that analyzes future behavior of bioenergy feedstock markets based on varying policy and technical options. The model simulates the long-term dynamics of these markets by treating advanced biomass feedstocks as a commodity and projecting the total demand of each industry, as well as the market price over time. The model is used for an analysis of the United States bioenergy feedstock market that projects supply, demand, and market price given three independent buyers: domestic biopower, domestic biofuels, and foreign exports. With base-case assumptions, the biofuels industry is able to dominate the market and meet the federal Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) targets for advanced biofuels. Further analyses suggest that United States bioenergy studies should include estimates of export demand for biomass in their projections, and that GHG-limiting policy would partially shield both industries from export dominance.

  2. The Impact of Social Media on Consumer Demand: The Case of Carbonated Soft Drink Market

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yizao; Rigoberto A. Lopez

    2013-01-01

    This article estimates the impact of social media exposure on consumer valuation of product characteristics. We apply the Berry, Levinsohn and Pakes (1995) model of market equilibrium to sales data for 18 carbonated soft drink brands sold in 12 cities over 17 months (June 2011 to October 2012) and social media conversations on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Empirical results show that social media exposure is a significant driver of consumer behavior through altering evaluation of product cha...

  3. Capacity Development Services and the Demand Market in Albanian Tourism Sector

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 20 years the role of tourism has been increasingly recognized as an important development strategy, considering its importance in creating positive economical effects in worldwide level. Sustainability has become nowadays a principle of development and obviously of tourism development.Sustainable tourism is one of the main development priorities of local, national and international authorities to ensure long term success on a global market.One of the main reasons in sustainabili...

  4. A status analysis of current digital marketing: a case study of Kauneusstudio FAB

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trong

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is a small company's current digital marketing status. This study was con-ducted in order for the owners of the beauty and hair salon Kauneusstudio FAB to improve their understanding of their customers’ behavior online and the significance of each digital channel they are using in the present marketing strategy. The goal of this study is to provide information for the company to recognize the strengths and the development points of the current digital marketing stra...

  5. Marketing Tourism Services in Romania. The Opportunities and Challenges of the Current Context

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Romanian tourism activity does not measure up to the tourism potential of the country and the efficient marketing of tourism services is often mentioned as a means to improve and develop tourism. In our opinion the current international context generates both opportunities and challenges for tourism services marketing. This paper aims at identifying and at presenting the key aspects that tourism services marketing faces in Romania, considering the main characteristics shaping the current ...

  6. 谈高等职业教育如何适应市场需求%How to adapt to market demand of higher occupation education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永杰; 白静

    2013-01-01

    In view of the disjointed occupation education and market demand of our country, through the analysis of the labor market, from the cultivation of students in higher vocational colleges to discuss the appropriate way on how to adapt to market demand of the higher occupation education.%针对我国职业教育与市场需求脱节的现象,通过对劳动力市场分析,从高职院校对学生的培养方面谈出高等职业教育如何适应市场需求的相应途径。

  7. Neuroeconomic Conditioning of the Influence of a Market Demand of Consumers on an Innovative Character of Polish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gardocka-Jałowiec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is an identification of key sources of an innovative character and their conditioning in contemporary Polish economy. In the discussion, it is stated that consumers – the smallest, but the most numerous economic unit – through their expectations of the way / form of meeting their own needs, create a direction and dynamics of innovative business and confirm or undermine the legitimacy of accepted directions of actions of the supply side and greatly determine their economic force. In addition, the discussion concerning market decisions (their sources of consumers and businessmen is based on the results of neuroanatomical brain research. Analyses, that were carried out, allow for stating that: 1 consumers in a market play take on the following roles: creators of an innovative activity based on the reported potential demand; evaluating results of actions taken by innovative businessmen through effective demand; 2 in Poland, there has been a gradual redefinition of key factors of innovative character; 3 businessmen (over 90% consider coming closer to consumers, meeting their needs through the use of the Internet, interactive and social media as the most important initiatives; 4 an action of businessmen within the scope of improving operative efficiency, aiming at accelerating reactions to market consumers expectations increase; 5 brain activity accounts for nearly ¾ decisions made – each choice constitutes a completely real process engaging a particular neuron number (including von Economo neurons, which influences particular behaviour; 6 a network of neural connections in the brain changes as one gains knowledge and experience – in effect, brain structures become more flexible.

  8. Financial markets and the current account: emerging Europe versus emerging Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Sabine; Winkler, Adalbert

    2009-01-01

    Financial globalisation has been associated with divergent current account patterns in emerging market economies. While countries in emerging Asia have been running sizeable current account surpluses, countries in emerging Europe have been facing large current account deficits. In this paper we test for the relevance of financial market characteristics in explaining divergent current account patterns in emerging Europe and emerging Asia based on the assumption that both regions constitute two...

  9. Monitoring the size and protagonists of the drug market: combining supply and demand data sources and estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Carla

    2013-06-01

    The size of the illicit drug market is an important indicator to assess the impact on society of an important part of the illegal economy and to evaluate drug policy and law enforcement interventions. The extent of illicit drug use and of the drug market can essentially only be estimated by indirect methods based on indirect measures and on data from various sources, as administrative data sets and surveys. The combined use of several methodologies and data sets allows to reduce biases and inaccuracies of estimates obtained on the basis of each of them separately. This approach has been applied to Italian data. The estimation methods applied are capture-recapture methods with latent heterogeneity and multiplier methods. Several data sets have been used, both administrative and survey data sets. First, the retail dealer prevalence has been estimated on the basis of administrative data, then the user prevalence by multiplier methods. Using information about behaviour of dealers and consumers from survey data, the average amount of a substance used or sold and the average unit cost have been estimated and allow estimating the size of the drug market. The estimates have been obtained using a supply-side approach and a demand-side approach and have been compared. These results are in turn used for estimating the interception rate for the different substances in term of the value of the substance seized with respect to the total value of the substance to be sold at retail prices.

  10. Application of conjoint analysis in studying demand for mp3 players on the B-H market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Kurtović

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper illustrates practical aspects of conjoint analysis in studying evaluation and preference criteria when buying hardware MP3 players among the youth, as the most significant segment of such product buyers. Methodology: The methodology consisted of several surveys of young consumers in the Sarajevo region. In the first step, we used unstructured focus group interviews combined with a series of multiple-choice and open-ended questions for identifying product attributes and attribute levels that are relevant to consumers’ preferences. After the main attributes and the levels of attributes had been selected, they were combined to form different hypothetical product profiles. Obtained data were analyzed with the help of the conjoint analysis software. Findings: The results show that MP3 player manufacturers and sellers should focus their marketing strategies on the brand when targeting young people, as the most significant market segment for such products. The findings of the demand and price sensitivity analysis imply that the buyers of this product category are generally price-sensitive and therefore willing to switch brands. Limitations: While the study covered the most important attributes regarding MP3 players, it might be desirable to include design as an additional attribute as well as more brands. Also, a sample size could be increased to allow market segmentation based on the obtained part-worths.

  11. Demand Analysis of Logistics Information Matching Platform: A Survey from Highway Freight Market in Zhejiang Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daqiang; Shen, Xiahong; Tong, Bing; Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Feng, Tao

    With the increasing competition in logistics industry and promotion of lower logistics costs requirements, the construction of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation plays an important role, and the accuracy of platform design is the key to successful operation or not. Based on survey results of logistics service providers, customers and regulation authorities to access to information and in-depth information demand analysis of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation in Zhejiang province, a survey analysis for framework of logistics information matching platform for highway transportation is provided.

  12. Analysis of the Domestic Market Situation and Demands of Yoga Clothes%我国瑜伽服市场现状及需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雪梅; 王建萍

    2011-01-01

    Combined with the current market situation of domestic Yoga clothes,it researched comfort evaluations and demands of Yoga practitioners by questionnaire investigation.The statistical analysis showed that when choosing Yoga clothes,the majority of practitioners placed most importance to fabric and structure,and hoped to improve the comfort of Yoga clothes by structural optimization.%通过调查问卷结合瑜珈服市场现状调研了瑜伽修习者对裤装的需求和舒适性评价。统计分析得出,多数修习者在选择瑜伽服时最看重面料和结构,希望通过结构优化来提升瑜伽服的舒适性。

  13. Impacts of increased bioenergy demand on global food markets: an AgMIP economic model intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann; von Lampe, Martin; Kyle, G. Page; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Popp, Alexander; Schmitz, Christoph; Tabeau, Andrzej; Valin, Hugo; Willenbockel, Dirk; Wise, Marshall A.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Assessment studies have shown that meeting ambitious greenhouse gas mitigation targets will require substantial amounts of bioenergy as part of the future energy mix. In the course of the Agricultural Model Comparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), five global agro-economic models were used to analyze a future scenario with global demand for ligno-cellulosic bioenergy rising to about 100 ExaJoule in 2050. From this exercise a tentative conclusion can be drawn that ambitious climate change mitigation need not drive up global food prices much, if the extra land required for bioenergy production is accessible or if the feedstock, e.g. from forests, does not directly compete for agricultural land. Agricultural price effects across models by the year 2050 from high bioenergy demand in an RCP2.6-type scenario appear to be much smaller (+5% average across models) than from direct climate impacts on crop yields in an RCP8.5-type scenario (+25% average across models). However, potential future scarcities of water and nutrients, policy-induced restrictions on agricultural land expansion, as well as potential welfare losses have not been specifically looked at in this exercise.

  14. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  15. Bioprinting of artificial blood vessels: current approaches towards a demanding goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Eva; Tovar, Günter E M; Borchers, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Free-form fabrication techniques, often referred to as '3D printing', are currently tested with regard to the processing of biological and biocompatible materials in general and for fabrication of vessel-like structures in particular. Such computer-controlled methods assemble 3D objects by layer-wise deposition or layer-wise cross-linking of materials. They use, for example, nozzle-based deposition of hydrogels and cells, drop-on-demand inkjet-printing of cell suspensions with subsequent cross-linking, layer-by-layer cross-linking of synthetic or biological polymers by selective irradiation with light and even laser-induced deposition of single cells. The need of vessel-like structures has become increasingly crucial for the supply of encapsulated cells for 3D tissue engineering, or even with regard to future application such as vascular grafts. The anticipated potential of providing tubes with tailored branching geometries made of biocompatible or biological materials pushes future visions of patient-specific vascularized tissue substitutions, tissue-engineered blood vessels and bio-based vascular grafts. We review here the early attempts of bringing together innovative free-form manufacturing processes with bio-based and biodegradable materials. The presented studies provide many important proofs of concepts such as the possibility to integrate viable cells into computer-controlled processes and the feasibility of supplying cells in a hydrogel matrix by generation of a network of perfused channels. Several impressive results in the generation of complex shapes and high-aspect-ratio tubular structures demonstrate the potential of additive assembly methods. Yet, it also becomes obvious that there remain major challenges to simultaneously match all material requirements in terms of biological functions (cell function supporting properties), physicochemical functions (mechanical properties of the printed material) and process-related (viscosity, cross

  16. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  17. Current Status & Development Trend of VSAT Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Nutu

    2006-01-01

    @@ 1. General Status of VSAT Market Development in China 1)Development History Development in China The history of the application of satellite communication in China is not too long and it was dated from the early seventies of the 20th century. In 1973, approved by Chinese government,Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications purchased satellite earth equipment from foreign country and constructed 3 stations in Shanghai and Beijing.

  18. Market transformation lessons learned from an automated demand response test in the Summer and Fall of 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shockman, Christine; Piette, Mary Ann; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    A recent pilot test to enable an Automatic Demand Response system in California has revealed several lessons that are important to consider for a wider application of a regional or statewide Demand Response Program. The six facilities involved in the site testing were from diverse areas of our economy. The test subjects included a major retail food marketer and one of their retail grocery stores, financial services buildings for a major bank, a postal services facility, a federal government office building, a state university site, and ancillary buildings to a pharmaceutical research company. Although these organizations are all serving diverse purposes and customers, they share some underlying common characteristics that make their simultaneous study worthwhile from a market transformation perspective. These are large organizations. Energy efficiency is neither their core business nor are the decision makers who will enable this technology powerful players in their organizations. The management of buildings is perceived to be a small issue for top management and unless something goes wrong, little attention is paid to the building manager's problems. All of these organizations contract out a major part of their technical building operating systems. Control systems and energy management systems are proprietary. Their systems do not easily interact with one another. Management is, with the exception of one site, not electronically or computer literate enough to understand the full dimensions of the technology they have purchased. Despite the research team's development of a simple, straightforward method of informing them about the features of the demand response program, they had significant difficulty enabling their systems to meet the needs of the research. The research team had to step in and work directly with their vendors and contractors at all but one location. All of the participants have volunteered to participate in the study for altruistic

  19. Industry Upgrading-Aiming at the Targeted Market Demand of New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    According to the projections from relevant sources, in the next 50 years, the world fiber consumption will continue to grow at the rate of 2% annually, and the fiber growth will rely largely on the increased production of chemical fiber and other new fibers. And also from international sources, about a quarter of the existing yarn-spinning capacity is excessive, and 13% of the weaving capacity is also overloaded on a global basis. Therefore, it can be affirmed that in the early days of the new century, the market of China’s textile machinery rests largely with the renovation and technical upgrading programs in the existing capacities in our textile industry, apart from a few capacity-in-creasing proiects

  20. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-01-01

    The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers). Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper a...

  1. E-COMMERCE NATIONAL MARKET - STUDY FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MANIFESTED DEMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce market in Romania recorded the lowest level of development compared to other EU countries, in terms of the intensity of online purchase habit of the population of Romania. Thus, in 2014, only 16.7% of those who used the computer in the range of 16-74 years and 10% of the total population of the same age had made online purchases, compared with 63.3% and 50% respectively - the same indicators at EU level. Still, in Romania there was a rapid increase in the share of those who make online purchases, so in 8 years (2007-2014 this indicator increased by 3 times. Regarding the categories of the population by various characteristics, greater orientation towards online purchases is recorded among individuals with high formal education, youth (under 35, with above-average incomes. In terms of product categories purchased online, the most favorite categories are: clothes, sports goods. This analysis is based mostly on official statistics provided by Eurostat.

  2. Analysis of Products Demand on E.U. Markets Based on Commerce Activity of Large Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ghita

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Retail in large store-chains extended in well-developed countries. 465 millions inhabitants express their supply on their markets; between 2000 and 2005 sales values were increasing; the increase-sources were the promotional prices, as well as the European buyers' availability to respond to the supply's diversity. After the political events that happened after 1989, in Romania appeared large hypermarket-chains and supermarket-chains, most of them being transnational companies that developed their own business in our country. Due to these commercial-units, the retail-value in Romania grew in a spectacular way, with more than 85% during 2000-2005 period, although from the retail-value per inhabitant point of view, we are far behind other European countries' level. The number of retail-commercial units, as well as the sales-purchasing value in these units characterizes the commercial sector situation in a country. For a comparative analysis at territorial level, for different European Union's countries, we will realize a multicriterial hierarchy, based on the two statistical indicators previously mentioned, and on other two general macroeconomic indicators: Gross Domestic Product (GDP per inhabitant and unemployment-rate. The main European Union's countries hierarchy based on the four criteria was realized by two statistical methods: the ranks' method and the relative-distance method from the maximum performance unit.

  3. APPROACH METHOD OF CURRENT COMPETITIVE MARKET - AGILE INDUSTRIAL CORPORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHERGHEL Sabina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The term “agility” - agile enterprise - was introduced by a group of American researchers led by R.Dove as a result of some studies in a program sponsored by the US government, a program that primarily aimed at exploring the possibilities of making up production systems which could compete with the efficient production system "lean", introduced in most Japanese companies. Researchers involved in this program have formed Agility Forum, which aims to develop the concepts introduced. In 2001 appears the first paper, by R. Dove, entitled “Response Ability - Understanding the Agile Enterprise”, John Wiley and Sons Editors, in which was synthesized the phase of research field. Agility can be defined as “the ability with which an organization manages to develop successfully in a business environment whose changes are unpredictable.” Being agile means to control change, to notice market opportunities and by being continuously innovating, to succed on the market. The purpose of this paper is to support the idea that agility is a feature derived from the design and also to show that by applying the principles of RRS, which characterize agile systems, it is confirmed the fact that any industrial production system which wishes to be agile it should be designed.

  4. Promotion of direct marketing and supply on demand of electric power from renewable energy sources. Final report; Foerderung der Direktvermarktung und der bedarfsgerechten Einspeisung von Strom aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-23

    The study investigates the promotion of direct marketing and supply on demand of electric power from renewable energy sources in Germany. the study shows that renewable energy sources are a good option for facing the challenges of the future. However, the potential is often left unused because of a lack of incentives in the current pricing system. To solve this problem, the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety authorized two studies that are to enable or improve the utilization of the integration potentials of the renewable energy sources. Two model proposals based on these studies are presented here. The model proposing a bonus for combined-cycle power plants is to ensure supply on demand of electric power from renewables with the aid of integrated power storage systems. However, it is found that this model will not generate significant effects for power supply on demand. The second model proposes financial incentives; it will work well for renewable power supply systems that can be controlled, e.g. bioenergy, run-of-river power plants with power storage, and biogas plants. On the other hand, supply-dependent technologies like wind power, photovoltaic power, run-of-river power plants without power storage, and geothermal power plants with very low variable cost, the goal is not fully reached. In contrast to the first model, the market incentives model will enhance the integration of renewable energy sources in the competitive market by largely eliminating market risks. (orig./RHM)

  5. Meeting rural demand: a case for combining community-based distribution and social marketing of injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can tailor interventions to match family

  6. Meeting rural demand: a case for combining community-based distribution and social marketing of injectable contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndola Prata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. METHODS: This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17 and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29, determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how

  7. Meeting Rural Demand: A Case for Combining Community-Based Distribution and Social Marketing of Injectable Contraceptives in Tigray, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Ndola; Weidert, Karen; Fraser, Ashley; Gessessew, Amanuel

    2013-01-01

    Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, policy changes have begun to pave the way for community distribution of injectable contraceptives but sustaining such efforts remains challenging. Combining social marketing with community-based distribution provides an opportunity to recover some program costs and compensate workers with proceeds from contraceptive sales. This paper proposes a model for increasing access to injectable contraceptives in rural settings by using community-based distributers as social marketing agents and incorporating financing systems to improve sustainability. Methods This intervention was implemented in three districts of the Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia and program data has been collected from November 2011 through October 2012. A total of 137 Community Based Reproductive Health Agents (CBRHAs) were trained to provide injectable contraceptives and were provided with a loan of 25 injectable contraceptives from a drug revolving fund, created with project funds. The price of a single dose credited to a CBRHA was 3 birr ($0.17) and they provide injections to women for 5 birr ($0.29), determined with willingness-to-pay data. Social marketing was used to create awareness and generate demand. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to examine important feasibility aspects of the intervention. Results Forty-four percent of CBRHAs were providing family planning methods at the time of the training and 96% believed providing injectable contraceptives would improve their services. By October 2012, 137 CBRHAs had successfully completed training and provided 2541 injections. Of total injections, 47% were provided to new users of injectable contraceptives. Approximately 31% of injections were given for free to the poorest women, including adolescents. Conclusions Insights gained from the first year of implementation of the model provide a framework for further expansion in Tigray, Ethiopia. Our experience highlights how program planners can

  8. Contemporary art and its commercial markets: a report on current conditions and future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind, M.; Velthuis, O.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary Art and Its Commercial Markets: A Report on Current Conditions and Future Scenarios maps and analyzes the complex and contested entanglements of contemporary art and its commercial markets. Contemporary art as an asset category and celebrity accessory, the rise of the art fair, and the

  9. Contemporary art and its commercial markets: a report on current conditions and future scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lind, M.; Velthuis, O.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary Art and Its Commercial Markets: A Report on Current Conditions and Future Scenarios maps and analyzes the complex and contested entanglements of contemporary art and its commercial markets. Contemporary art as an asset category and celebrity accessory, the rise of the art fair, and the

  10. [Rising attention to the market to ratio meet demand of improving efficiency of pharmaceutical circulation--based on complicated variety and specification of drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhaoxing; Sun, Lihua

    2010-05-01

    Analyzing the complicated variety and specification of drugs and the objective demand of pharmaceutical circulation, to seek out the key factors in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical circulation, for putting forward suggestions to promote the development of pharmaceutical circulation in China. The conclusion is drawed from industrial organization theory and successful experience of foreign countries, high market attention met with the demand of complicated variety and specification of drugs in pharmaceutical circulation.

  11. The importance of flexibility in supply and demand in the natural gas market - The Brazilian case; A importancia da flexibilidade na oferta e na demanda de gas natural - o caso do mercado brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jose Ricardo Uchoa Cavalcanti

    2008-05-15

    The objective of this dissertation is to identify and discuss the main tools in implementing flexibility in supply and demand in the natural gas market, as well as highlight those which are the most appropriate for the Brazilian market. Flexibility, in this context, means the ability to guarantee a balance of supply versus demand without deficits, considering, mainly, the seasonal variations (winter-summer). From there, the study analyzes these flexibility tools in detail. Next, it discusses which of these flexibility tools are currently being used in more mature foreign markets and which tools could be feasibly applied to the Brazilian market. This dissertation also addresses how the natural gas thermoelectric market in Brazil shows a wide range of seasonality due to this segment's nature of complementing the Brazilian hydroelectric complex. This occurs because the capacity to generate hydroelectricity depends on rainfall for supplying reservoirs. Because of this interdependence, it examines how each the natural gas industry and the power industry operate, and their convergence. The flexibility tools which are already implemented here in Brazil are then presented. Finally, additional relevant new concepts and information are discussed to support the conclusions and final comments about the flexibility tools evolution and new applications. (author)

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE E-GOVERNMENT MARKET IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SUPPLY VERSUS DEMAND SIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E-government represents one of the most palpable results of the dynamic development of the information and communication technology. Defined mostly as an intensive use of information technologies to provide public services, e-government has been approached in the literature rather from a technological perspective, with a significant importance given to the supply and a lower attention paid to the demand side. The increasing interest in taking into consideration the demand side in the development of the e-government initiatives and projects has created the foundation for a shift in the way the conceptual framework for e-government planning and implementation is defined, from the technology infrastructure and costs to the customer-centric character of all the efforts done. The European Union put e-government on its agenda aiming to improve access to the public information and services, increase transparency of public administration, exploit effectively the information technology within public administration, and establishing e-procurement. The development of the e-government services in the Member States, as it is expressed by the data regarding the supply and demand side, has been conducted in a more or less different manner that led, at the Unions level, to a relatively high availability but a rather low usage of the specific services. The paper explores the relationship between the e-government supply and demand based on the secondary data referring to the public services available to the citizens (as these are defined by the Eurostat methodology and the usage of these services by the individuals, integrating them through an analytical matrix inspired by the BCG model. Probably the most important conclusion of this analysis states that development of the e-government services has not been accompanied by measures meant to stimulate their usage in the most of the European Union Member States. The analytical matrix allowed also the identification

  13. Market potential of superconductor current limiters; Marktpotential von supraleitenden Strombegrenzern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakner, M.; Braun, D. [ABB Schweiz AG, Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P. [Schnyder Ingenieure AG, Huenenberg (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy describes the two concepts - 'resistive' and 'inductive' - used for Superconducting Fault Current Limiters (SCFCL) that utilise the transition from zero to finite resistance to limit short-circuit currents. The main advantages of SCFCL are compared to other current-limiting technologies: They can limit any type of prospective fault current, operate fail-safe, be self-triggered and self-restoring. Their main disadvantage - the cooling effort necessary - is also discussed. The application possibilities of SCFCL were investigated by simulating the impact on utility and industrial grids. Applications of SCFCL such as the coupling of medium-voltage grids and their use in series with a circuit-breaker on the secondary side of a substation transformer are discussed. It is also shown that, by using fault current limiters, considerable cost savings can be made, especially in connection with new installations or the extension of existing plants.

  14. The Current Situation and Prospect of Chinese Aluminum Use Carbon Supply and Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>China has basically eliminated the practice of aluminum production with self-baking cell. The demand for carbon anode for aluminum has been growing in recent years corresponding to the output of aluminum,which has promoted the rapid growth of carbon anode industry.

  15. Adaptation of Buffalo Production Systems Towards the Market Demand for Certified Quality Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgoudis

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present the possibilities of the economic exploitation of the buffalo population in Greece through the production of certified quality products. The buffalo population in Greece has decreased dramatically during the last decades, due to the rapidly changing socio-economic conditions, mainly the mechanisation of the agricultural sector. The current study has been undertaken in the region of Kerkini Lake, where the majority of buffalo population of Greece is concentrated. The main characteristics of the production system; feeding based on the natural vegetation, the unique way of product processing and the gastronomy are investigated by filling up questionnaires. The next step includes the detailed description of the production system and the definition of the critical points where the intervention will take place. The proper application of the production protocols will be undertaken by the official organisation for certification. The farmers association will be responsible for the management of the transition of the production system. As the driving force of the new development of buffalo breeding is the production of quality products, further investigation on the special characteristics of milk and meat buffalo products, is required.

  16. Calculating load factors for the transatlantic airline market using supply and demand data: a note on the identification of gaps in the available airline statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriendt, L.; Burghouwt, G.; Derudder, B.; de Wit, J.; Witlox, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper takes a critical view of the verification of load factors for the direct transatlantic airline market by combining supply and demand-data. The supply-related data originate from the Official Airline Guide, a well-known data source that contains information on scheduled flights. The

  17. Analysis on the Features and Demand Management of Water Right Market%关于水权市场特征及需求管理的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单以红

    2011-01-01

    One of the ways to realize the harmonious water use competition through economic means is to establish the mechanism of water right, water right trade and water right market. Based on fully understanding the features of water right market, the selection of demand management strategies of water right market during the short term is discussed, it is deemed that the macroeconomic management of the water right market consists of supply management and demand management, and the only choice is the latter for the time being, which is enforced by adjusting water right demand and demanded water right quantity.%运用经济手段实现竞争用水的和谐,其方法之一是建立水权、水权交易和水权市场机制.在充分分析水权市场特征的基础上,探究了水权市场短期内需求管理策略选择,并最终认为水权市场的宏观管理措施分为供给管理和需求管理,短期内只能选择需求管理的方法,即调控水权需求和需求量的变动来使市场实现供需均衡.

  18. Prioritizing Demand Response: How Federal Legislation and Technological Innovation Changed the Electricity Supply Market and the Need to Revitalize FERC Order 745

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. McAllister

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional barriers to entry in the electricity supply marketplace are crumbling due to recent federal legislation and new technology. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC's Order 745 prioritizes the use of demand response via a uniform pricing mechanism. Through it, demand response is able to provide the same benefit as traditional electricity generation - at a reduced cost - and improve service, reliability, and market development. Consequently, the increased use of demand response reduces prices for regional grid operators, as well as commercial, institutional, and residential consumers. This Note discusses the legal, economic, and policy reasons for upholding Order 745 in the face of transformative change in the electricity supply market and evaluates the history of smart grid legislation leading up to the issuance of Order 745 in 2011. Next, it analyzes how energy intelligence hardware and software allow new entrants into the wholesale electricity supply market in hopes of capitalizing on inefficiencies in regional power distribution and the revolutionary opportunities for residential consumers through new technologies. Most importantly, this Note argues for a reversal of the D.C. Circuit’s decision to vacate Order 745 in the case EPSA v. FERC, decided in May 2014. Such a reversal is necessary because Order 745 falls within FERC’s authority under the Federal Power Act and the loss of a uniform pricing mechanism for demand response resources sold at capacity auctions will harm electricity markets.

  19. Current Challenges for Healthcare Services and the Opportunities Created by the Marketing Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcărea, T; Purcărea, LV; Raţiu, M

    2008-01-01

    Life is changing dramatically, market position as part of life is becoming more and more important, and marketing, considered a key cultural architect of nowadays that involves voluntary relation exchanges between the communicating partners, is placing the patient in the center of most adequate action towards the medical future which represents his life quality. We think that the moment has come to resort to marketing as a new method to identify innovation opportunities in healthcare services' delivery, considering that the high quality of healthcare services, answering to demands of healthcare systems' consumers, represents a well recognized priority for the European citizens. Consequently, the model of ‘healthcare business’ has to rely on the value for patient by creating competition concerning the results at medical condition level. PMID:20108474

  20. Current challenges for healthcare services and the opportunities created by the marketing abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Florian; Purcărea, Theodor; Purcărea, Victor Lorin; Raţiu, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Life is changing dramatically, market position as part of life is becoming more and more important, and marketing, considered a key cultural architect of nowadays that involves voluntary relation exchanges between the communicating partners, is placing the patient in the center of most adequate action towards the medical future which represents his life quality. We think that the moment has come to resort to marketing as a new method to identify innovation opportunities in healthcare services' delivery, considering that the high quality of healthcare services, answering to demands of healthcare systems' consumers, represents a well recognized priority for the European citizens. Consequently, the model of "healthcare business" has to rely on the value for patient by creating competition concerning the results at medical condition level.

  1. Study on the Forecast Method of Market Demand for Civil Aircraft%民用飞机市场需求预测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶

    2013-01-01

    民用飞机市场预测包含需求(航空运量)预测和供应(飞机机队)预测两个部分,其中需求预测为自上而下的预测,是对航空市场宏观运量进行分析和预测,这部分预测在预测模型中起着非常重要的作用。针对民用飞机市场需求预测方法和流程进行了详细的论述,该方法是大型客机市场预测和市场研究工作的基础。%The civil aircraft market forecast includes two parts:demand( aviation traffic) forecast and supply( air-craft fleet) forecast. The demand forecast is top-down forecast, which is the analysis and forecast of aviation market macroscopic traffic, and this part of forecast is very important role in the forecast model. The forecast method and process of market demand for civil aviation are discussed in detail in this paper. The method is the basic of market forecast and market research for commercial airliner.

  2. 75 FR 60713 - Farmers' Market Promotion Program: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Farmers' Market Promotion Program: Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... Promotion Program (FMPP) was created through an amendment of the Farmer-to-Consumer Direct Marketing Act...

  3. Marketing of library and information services in global era: A current approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Karn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the marketing of library and information services in the global era. It discusses about the marketing concept of today's library and information centers covering various topics such as management of libraries and commitment to customer's satisfaction. It also defines the marketing and its current approach to library and information services at the global level. It also describes customer/user's topic such as customers' priorities, customers' expectations, individuality responsiveness, relationships, quality of services, professional skills and competencies and value added services. The 5 Ps of marketing mix, i.e. product, pricing, place, promotion and person (staff have been discussed. The marketing should aim at effective library and information services. The "service trinity", i.e. users (customers, the staff (service provider and information resources and system should be taken care of from the view of these services. In the modern age, the library and information services (LIS are customer (user oriented. Therefore, users' priorities, expectations and needs should be taken into account. The services should be value added according to the current requirement of the users. It is concluded that the modern libraries are information markets and the library users are consumers of information. The ultimate objective of the marketing of library and information services should be the dissemination of the right information to the right customer (user at the right time.

  4. Current status of alcohol marketing policy--an urgent challenge for global governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casswell, Sally

    2012-03-01

    To review research literature and available information on the extent and impacts of marketing, current policy response and the interests engaged in the policy debate in order to inform recommendations for policy change on alcohol marketing. Relevant literature, including systematic reviews and publicly available information (websites and participant observation) is reviewed and synthesized. Alcohol marketing has expanded markedly in the past 50 years and, while there remains uncertainty about the impact across the population, there is now clear evidence of its impact on the consumption of young people. Few countries have effective policy in place restricting alcohol marketing, and there is a lack of an international response to alcohol marketing which crosses national boundaries. The protection of alcohol marketing has been a major focus for vested interest groups and this has affected governmental response at national and international levels. There has been a lack of non-governmental organization engagement. The policy response to tobacco marketing provides a clear contrast to that of alcohol marketing policy and provides a model for alcohol marketing policy. The global exposure of young people to alcohol marketing requires an urgent policy response. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provides an appropriate model for global governance to control alcohol marketing. There are extant examples of national level legislation achieving comprehensive bans with France's Loi Evin providing a feasible model. Resources from philanthropic organizations to allow non-governmental organization engagement are urgently required, as is engagement by the governmental sector independent of commercial influence. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. The current situation of deaf people in the labour market in the Czech Rebublic

    OpenAIRE

    Vyšínová, Kateřina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the current situation of deaf people in the labour market in the Czech Republic. It emphasizes on differentiation of individual hearing impairment which is very important to explore the issue. The work examines the offer of education for deaf and deals with obstacles in the transition from school to working life, which is closely related to future labour market outcomes. It also focuses on organizations that help deaf people to overcome these barriers. It defines employ...

  6. Current state and near-term prospects for development of the transport logistics market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Karpenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article has studied the current state of the transport services market in Ukraine, characterized features of the favorable geopolitical position of the country, identified segments of the market of transport and logistics services in Ukraine, made an analysis of the dynamics of freight transportation by land transport, determined its capacity in money terms and calculated the component share of this type of activity in the country’s GDP.

  7. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Explores the role of marketing in the modern firm and the key tasks of marketing management. Defines the term "marketing" and discusses it as an economic concept. Discusses three key marketing principals. (RKM)

  8. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  9. Land mobile satellite communication system. Volume 2: Traffic analysis and market demand for the land mobile communications system in the European scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnebianca, C.; Pavesi, B.; Tuozzi, A.; Capone, R.

    1986-06-01

    The socioeconomic desirability in terms of market demand, technical economic feasibility, and price-performance for a Land Mobile Communication system ground based and/or satellite aided, able to satisfy the request of the traffic demand, foreseable in the 1995-2005 time frame, for the Western European countries was assessed. The criterion of economic value of the mobile system is considered as the driving element. The presence of gaps in the terrestrial system and reasonable traffic extrapolations suggest a very attractive role for a land mobile satellite communications mission.

  10. Comparison of the marketing of demand response capacity and of power plant capacity in the minutes reserve market; Vergleich der Vermarktung von Demand-Response- und Kraftwerksleistung auf dem Minutenreservemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marz, Waldemar; Tzscheutschler, Peter [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik; Henle, Markus [Stadtwerke Muenchen (Germany). Energiewirtschaft

    2013-03-15

    The greatest challenge in integrating renewable energies into the German and European power supply system lies in levelling out the imbalances between the fluctuating supply of energy from the wind and sun on the one side and the steady demand of the consumers on the other. Aside from the expansion of supra-regional transmission systems and storage power plants one instrument that has raised great hopes is the possibility of adapting demand to supply. These methods are known by the names of demand response (DR) or demand side management (DSM) and are at the core of the ''smart grid'' concept.

  11. Pharmaceutical Market Access: current state of affairs and key challenges – results of the Market Access Launch Excellence Inventory (MALEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A. Koch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To take inventory of the current state of affairs of Market Access Launch Excellence in the life sciences industry. To identify key gaps and challenges for Market Access (MA and discuss how they can be addressed. To generate a baseline for benchmarking MA launch excellence. Methodology: An online survey was conducted with pharmaceutical executives primarily working in MA, marketing, or general management. The survey aimed to evaluate MA excellence prerequisites across the product life cycle (rated by importance and level of implementation and to describe MA activity models in the respective companies. Composite scores were calculated from respondents’ ratings and answers. Results: Implementation levels of MA excellence prerequisites generally lagged behind their perceived importance. Item importance and the respective level of implementation correlated well, which can be interpreted as proof of the validity of the questionnaire. The following areas were shown to be particularly underimplemented: 1 early integration of MA and health economic considerations in research and development decision making, 2 developing true partnerships with payers, including the development of services ‘beyond the pill’, and 3 consideration of human resource and talent management. The concept of importance-adjusted implementation levels as a hybrid parameter was introduced and shown to be a viable tool for benchmarking purposes. More than 70% of respondents indicated that their companies will invest broadly in MA in terms of capital and headcount within the next 3 years. Conclusions: MA (launch excellence needs to be further developed in order to close implementation gaps across the entire product life cycle. As MA is a comparatively young pharmaceutical discipline in a complex and dynamic environment, this effort will require strategic focus and dedication. The Market Access Launch Excellence Inventory benchmarking tool may help guide decision

  12. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape and the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  13. Shared Solar. Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brockway, Anna M. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Ulrich, Elaine [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-07

    This report provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program’s structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  14. A Study on the Current Status and Prospects of Development of the Tourism Services Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroshnyk Mariia V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the world trends in the developmet of services market, and it has been determined that the service sector is about 70% of the world’s gross domestic product (GDP. It has been noted that the tourism sector is one of the largest in the world economy, and its market in terms of investment efficiency is among the highly profitable markets along with the gas and oil producing, industrial, and automotive markets. The tourism market in Ukraine is only about 2% of the country’s GDP, but has great potential for innovation development and tourism perspectives. Such a situation requires constant monitoring and analyzing, which makes the selected study relevant. The purpose of the article was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the current status of the market for tourism services in Ukraine and to determine the main tendencies in its further development. It has been found that the tourism industry sector in Ukraine is formed by three components: outbound (international, internal, and inbound (foreign tourism, the quantitative increase of which will increase the efficiency of the country’s tourism potential and reinforce its positive image abroad.

  15. Post market surveillance in the german medical device sector - current state and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippel, Claus; Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine

    2017-08-01

    Medical devices play a central role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases but also bring the potential for adverse events, hazards or malfunction with serious consequences for patients and users. Medical device manufacturers are therefore required by law to monitor the performance of medical devices that have been approved by the competent authorities (post market surveillance). Conducting a nationwide online-survey in the German medical device sector in Q2/2014 in order to explore the current status of the use of post market instruments we obtained a total of 118 complete data sets, for a return rate of 36%. The survey included manufacturers of different sizes, producing medical devices of all risk classes. The post market instruments most frequently reported covered the fields of production monitoring and quality management as well as literature observation, regulatory vigilance systems, customer knowledge management and market observation while Post Market Clinical Follow-up and health services research were being used less for product monitoring. We found significant differences between the different risk classes of medical devices produced and the intensity of use of post market instruments. Differences between company size and the intensity of instruments used were hardly detected. Results may well contribute to the development of device monitoring which is a crucial element of the policy and regulatory system to identify device-related safety issues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. STUDENT SATISFACTION, RESULTANT OF MARKETING ORIENTATION OF UNIVERSITY UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina DINESCU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present a relevant aspect of marketing approach of the activities carried by universities, respectively knowing, understanding and satisfying students’ needs, the main consumer category of the university product, in the conditions of current market of high education institutions. The universities are put in the position to find solutions to the problems caused by the stakeholders’ characteristics and by the existing competition on the educational market. The approach of marketing orientation in the university implies adapting the educational and scientific research step to create for the institution a brand image as a warranty of its sustainability on a competitive market by considering the needs and expectations of students. The conclusion is that there is a wide specialized literature that shows models that allow an adequate quantification of the students’ satisfaction as a resultant of concerning the insurance of high education quality by using univeristy marketing tools. Starting from the specialized literature, in the work was handled the quantification of the students’ satisfaction that have completed Bachelor and Master cycle in order to improve the activity of the university

  17. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on utility demand-side management and conservation and renewable energy programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallo, J.D.; Germer, M.F.; Tompkins, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all of its long-term firm power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. Western has also proposed that all customers develop integrated resource plans that include cost-effective demand-side management programs. As part of the preparation of Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) developed estimates of the reductions in energy demand resulting from Western`s conservation and renewable energy activities in its Salt Lake City Area Office. ANL has also estimated the energy-demand reductions from cost-effective, demand-side management programs that could be included in the integrated resource plans of the customers served by Western`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The results of this study have been used to adjust the expected hourly demand for Western`s major systems in the Salt Lake City Area. The expected hourly demand served as the basis for capacity expansion plans develops with ANL`s Production and Capacity Expansion (PACE) model.

  18. Medication therapy management services in North Carolina community pharmacies: current practice patterns and projected demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Richard A; Roth, Mary T; Brouwer, Emily S; Herndon, Susan; Christensen, Dale B

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the types of cognitive services offered and the number of patients being served in community pharmacies, determine the number of pharmacies that plan to offer medication therapy management (MTM) services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit, and assess whether current and expected practices will meet the potential needs of enrollees. Cross-sectional study. North Carolina in January 2005. 1,593 community pharmacy managers. Survey using a Web-based tool. Provision of cognitive services and number of patients for whom services are provided. A total of 262 (16%) pharmacy managers provided usable responses. Approximately 42% of respondents (n = 110) indicated that they provide some type of cognitive service. Comprehensive MTM services, or services consistent with the professionwide consensus definition, were provided by 31% of respondents (n = 81). Independent pharmacies were more likely to offer some type of service compared with chain pharmacies (58% versus 31%, respectively; P Pharmacy managers with a doctor of pharmacy degree were less likely than pharmacy managers with a bachelor's degree to offer services in their pharmacies (P = .02), and pharmacies with pharmacists on staff who had received certificate training were more likely to offer cognitive services (P = .03). Of all respondents, 28% (n = 73) indicated that they planned to offer MTM services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit. Comparing these results with those of a 1999 survey of North Carolina pharmacists that used some of the same items, the percentage of community pharmacies that provide cognitive services has increased in the intervening years but remains low. Among the services being offered in 2005, most were focused on patient education and training, coordinating and integrating care, and medication regimen reviews. Implementation of MTM services under the Medicare Part D prescription drug benefit should hasten the development and offering of these

  19. [Introducing marketing strategies and techniques into the field of voluntary blood donation, to meet the rise in blood demand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesavento, S; Bégué, L

    2011-04-01

    Social marketing uses marketing principles and techniques to induce a target audience to voluntary accept, reject, change or abandon a behaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups, or society as a whole. Thus, individual or societal gain is the primary goal of social marketing. This kind of marketing is frequently used in the United States or in Canada in several fields such as healthcare, social work, or the environment. In 2008, we introduced these strategies and techniques in the field of blood donation in France. This article describes what has been achieved in the last three years and outlines the main steps in the social marketing planning process: analyzing the social marketing environment, defining target audiences and objectives, building and implementing strategies and action plans, evaluating and monitoring. On the way to self-sufficiency, while respecting donors, social marketing is additional to the work done by the blood collection staffs, communication teams, and volunteers. Social marketing is a complementary tool to the work done by the blood collection staff, communication teams and blood donation organizations and can help to meet the challenge of self-sufficiency while still allowing for the privacy and rights of donors.

  20. Estimation of the demand for public services communications. [market research and economic analysis for a communications satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Market analyses and economic studies are presented to support NASA planning for a communications satellite system to provide public services in health, education, mobile communications, data transfer, and teleconferencing.

  1. 78 FR 75560 - Green Current Solutions, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Current Solutions, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of Green Current Solutions, LLC's application for market-based...

  2. Current Situation of Information Demand of Farmers in Taihang Mountain Area: A Case Study of Pingshan County in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lipeng; GUO; Haiyan; CAI

    2014-01-01

    Since the reform and opening-up,economy of mountain areas in China has realized considerable development.However,due to such factors as terrain,traffic,and individual differences,compared with plain and coastal areas,mountain areas still lag far behind.In recent years,informationization construction of China develops rapidly,but it nearly stagnates in mountain rural areas.Information has become an essential factor restricting economic development of rural areas.Based on the survey of current information demand of farmers carried out in Pingshan County in Hebei Province in 2010,this study came up with relevant recommendations,in order to speed up development of rural economic in mountain areas,narrow the regional gap,improve living condition of farmers in mountain areas,and increase income level of farmers in mountain areas.

  3. 商洛市房地产市场需求预测研究%Research on Demand Forecasting Model of Shangluo Real Estate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑛娟

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis of the five influence factors from 2006 to 2013, including Shangluo real estate average prices, population, disposable income of urban residents, per capita living space, GNP, demand forecasting model of Shangluo real estate market is built using multiple linear regression method. Then the values of Arguments are calculated by least square method. Ultimately the demands for real estate from 2014 to 2016 are predicted, obtain a trend that Shangluo City real estate market demand will steadily grow in the next three years.%通过对2006—2013年商洛市的平均房价、人口、城镇居民可支配收入、人均住房面积、国民生产总值五个影响因素进行分析,运用多元线性回归方法进行分析,构建商洛房地产市场需求预测模型,并运用最小二乘法得出2014—2016年的各自变量的值,预测了商洛市未来3年的房地产市场需求,整体呈现稳定增长的趋势。

  4. Sectoral Vulnerabilities to Changing Water Resources: Current and Future Tradeoffs between Supply and Demand in the Conterminous U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, J.; Averyt, K.; Caldwell, P.; Sun, G.; Huber-lee, A. T.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    Assessing the sustainability of human activities depends, in part, on the availability of water supplies to meet the demands of those activities. Thermoelectric cooling, agriculture, and municipal uses all compete for water supplies, but each sector differs in its characteristic ratio of water consumption versus withdrawals. This creates different implications for contributing to water supply stress and, conversely, vulnerabilities within each sector to changing water supplies. In this study, we use two measures of water stress, relating to water withdrawals and to water consumption, and calculate the role of each of these three sectors in contributing to the two different measures. We estimate water stress with an enhanced version of the Water Supply Stress Index (WaSSI), calculating the ratio of water demand to water supply at the 8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) scale (Sun et al. 2008, 2011; Caldwell et al. 2011). Current water supplies are based on an integrated water balance and flow routing model of the conterminous United States, which accounts for surface water supply, groundwater supply, and major return flows. Future supplies are based on simulated regional changes in streamflow in 2050 from an ensemble of 12 climate models (Milly et al. 2005). We estimate water demands separately for agriculture, municipal uses, and thermoelectric cooling, with the first two based on Kenny et al. (2005) and the last on the approach of Averyt et al. (2011). We find substantial regional variation not only in the overall WaSSI for withdrawals and consumption but also in contribution of the three water use sectors to that total. Results suggest that the relative vulnerabilities of different sectors of human activity to water supply stress vary spatially and that policies for alleviating that stress must consider the specific, regional context of the tradeoffs between competing water demands. Ref's: Averyt, K., Fisher, J., Huber-Lee, A., Lewis, A., Macknick, J., Madden, N

  5. Market Demand Characteristics and Marketing Strategies of Pressure-Sensitive Label Material%我国压敏标签材料市场需求特征与竞争策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 董晓星

    2015-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive label market has been brought development opportunity and its market demand has high-speed growth because of technical innovation and changes in consumers’ packaging concept. However, the manufacturers of pressure sensitive materials are numerous and have intense competition, they need to understand the market demand and make marketing strategy so as to enhance the firm competitiveness. Pressure-sensitive label material belongs to intermediate industrial product, it not only has the characteristics of industrial products, but also has individualized demand characteristics such as product segmentation,high stability of product quality, timely delivery and strong customer service capabilities etc. Enterprise should draw up value competition marketing strategy to win the competition. The value competition reflected in the pressure-sensitive label market is not only price competition, but also the multi-angle and comprehensive marketting strategy, including brand, product, service, speed and efficiency.%标签行业技术革新和消费者包装观念的改变,给压敏标签市场带来了发展契机,其市场需求持续高速增长,但压敏标签材料生产厂家众多,竞争激烈,企业需要了解市场需求特征,制定针对性营销策略,提升企业竞争力。压敏标签材料属于中间工业品,既具有工业品的特征,又有产品高度细分、产品质量稳定性高、交付及时性强、客户服务能力强等个性化需求特征。企业要赢得竞争,采用价值竞争的营销策略是明智选择,能为客户的购买决策提供理由。价值竞争体现在压敏标签市场上不仅是价格竞争,还包括品牌、产品、服务、速度和效率等方面的营销策略运用。

  6. The Best of Both Worlds: Supply and Demand China's Role as a Source of Refractory Minerals for Global Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike O' Driscoll

    2003-01-01

    China has long been recognised as an important source of refractory raw materials for refractory markets worldwide.Bauxite,magnesia,fused alumina, and refractory clays in particular, have maintained China's strong position as the world's leading supplier of these minerals .However , important changes have taken place ir the structure of Chinese and global supply of these minerals. Moreover, the world refractory market and the minerals trading sector have also undergone a radical transformation that has influenced mineral supply , and shifted end product manufacture to China . This paper highlights these changes and sees how they have impacted on China as a world source of refractory minerals.

  7. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari;

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on causality in demand. A methodology where causality is imposed and tested within an empirical co-integrated demand model, not prespecified, is suggested. The methodology allows different causality of different products within the same demand system. The methodology is applied...... to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...... implication is that more explicit focus on causality in demand analyses provides improved information. The results suggest that frozen trout forms part of a large European whitefish market, where prices of fresh trout are formed on a relatively separate market. Redfish is a substitute on both markets...

  8. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baumann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  9. Microbial Production of Short Chain Fatty Acids from Lignocellulosic Biomass: Current Processes and Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Ivan; Westermann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of organic acids from conversion of biomass derivatives has received increased attention among scientists and engineers and in business because of the attractive properties such as renewability, sustainability, degradability, and versatility. The aim of the present review is to summarize recent research and development of short chain fatty acids production by anaerobic fermentation of nonfood biomass and to evaluate the status and outlook for a sustainable industrial production of such biochemicals. Volatile fatty acids (VFAs) such as acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid have many industrial applications and are currently of global economic interest. The focus is mainly on the utilization of pretreated lignocellulosic plant biomass as substrate (the carbohydrate route) and development of the bacteria and processes that lead to a high and economically feasible production of VFA. The current and developing market for VFA is analyzed focusing on production, prices, and forecasts along with a presentation of the biotechnology companies operating in the market for sustainable biochemicals. Finally, perspectives on taking sustainable product of biochemicals from promise to market introduction are reviewed.

  10. Power supply-demand balance in a Smart Grid : An information sharing model for a market mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Gunn K. H.; van Foreest, Nicky D.; Scherpen, Jacquelien M. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, global energy balance of a Smart Grid system can be achieved by its agents deciding on their own power demand and production (locally) and the exchange of these decisions. In this paper, we develop a network model that describes how the information of power imbalance of individual age

  11. Job Satisfaction among Mexican Alumni: A Case of Incongruence between Hunch-based Policies and Labor Market Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; de Vries, Wietse; Anderson, Shaquana

    2007-01-01

    During decades, the Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP) like many other Mexican universities has tried to contribute to the national development by offering different educational programs presumed to be better attuned to the needs of the labor market. In this paper we explore the association of three different waves of major offering…

  12. FISH AND SHELLFISH PRODUCTS DISTRIBUTED BY "ETHNIC" MINI-MARKET: CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT TO CURRENT LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Giorgi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to conduct an assessment on the quality and methods for marketing of fish products sold by ethnic minimarket. Has been inspected 20 supermarkets and buyed 60 fish and shellfish samples. The neatness of the rooms were evaluated during the shopping in the markets. Products purchased in the supermarket (about three samples for each shop were brought in Ichthypathology laboratory of State Veterinary Institute of Piedmont, Liguria and Aosta Valley, in Turin. Were conducted in the laboratory the readings of the labels. The conditions of hygiene were poor, especially in supermarket freezers. Only 16 samples were labelled in accordance with current legislation. According to the results obtained, the products 'ethnic' distributed in the supermarkets visited, may be considered a potential risk to human health.

  13. 需求响应机制对电力市场及用户的影响分析%Affection analysis of demand response mechanism on power market and users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延民; 陈军; 肖明卫

    2016-01-01

    In order to deeply study the impact on power mar⁃ket and customers when implementing demand response mechanism, with the support of Shanghai pilot project,we begin with surveying through the interview of user participation and questionnaire investi⁃gation. The current level of knowledge on demand response and what the participator focusing on are obtained based on the feedback, which is necessary for power demand response policy making and market guiding.%为深入了解需求响应机制对电力市场及用户所产生的影响,上海市开展了需求响应试点工作。对参与用户今后实施何种需求响应及市场驱动模式,通过发放问卷的形式进行了深入的调研,获得了现阶段用户对需求响应的认识水平及关注要点,为制定电力需求响应相关政策提供必要的市场信息反馈。

  14. A Supply and Demand Management Perspective on the Accelerated Global Introductions of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine in a Constrained Supply Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ian; Ottosen, Ann; Rubin, Jennifer; Blanc, Diana Chang; Zipursky, Simona; Wootton, Emily

    2017-07-01

    A total of 105 countries have introduced IPV as of September 2016 of which 85 have procured the vaccine through UNICEF. The Global Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 called for the rapid introduction of at least one dose of IPV into routine immunization schedules in 126 all OPV-using countries by the end of 2015. At the time of initiating the procurement process, demand was estimated based on global modeling rather than individual country indications. In its capacity as procurement agency for the Global Polio Eradication Initiative and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, UNICEF set out to secure access to IPV supply for around 100 countries. Based on offers received, sufficient supply was awarded to two manufacturers to meet projected routine requirements. However, due to technical issues scaling up vaccine production and an unforecasted demand for IPV use in campaigns to interrupt wild polio virus and to control type 2 vaccine derived polio virus outbreaks, IPV supplies are severely constrained. Activities to stretch supplies and to suppress demand have been ongoing since 2014, including delaying IPV introduction in countries where risks of type 2 reintroduction are lower, implementing the multi-dose vial policy, and encouraging the use of fractional dose delivered intradermally. Despite these efforts, there is still insufficient IPV supply to meet demand. The impact of the supply situation on IPV introduction timelines in countries are the focus of this article, and based on lessons learned with the IPV introductions, it is recommended for future health programs with accelerated scale up of programs, to take a cautious approach on supply commitments, putting in place clear allocation criteria in case of shortages or delays and establishing a communication strategy vis a vis beneficiaries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  15. Is direct marketing a risk factor? Inaccurate forecasting of power generation from renewables raises the demand for balancing power; Risikofaktor Direktvermarktung? Durch ungenaue Prognosen bei der Einspeisung von gruenem Strom steigt der Bedarf an Regelleistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korn, Stefan

    2012-05-15

    Since the amendment of the EEG in January 2012, enormous amounts of electric power from renewable energy sources are marketed directly, i.e. outside the control of power supply grid owners and operators that formerly sold the electric power in the stock exchange. Inaccurate prognoses made by the direct marketers as well as their marketing strategies have increased the demand for balancing power and made critical situations in the power grid even more difficult.

  16. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  17. Bringing biofuels on the market. Options to increase EU biofuels volumes beyond the current blending limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Van Grinsven, A.; Croezen, H. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Van Mensch, P.; Patuleia, A. [TNO, Delft, (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This handbook on biofuels provides a comprehensive overview of different types of biofuels, and the technical options that exist to market the biofuels volumes expected to be consumed in the EU Member States in 2020. The study concludes that by fully utilizing the current blending limits of biodiesel (FAME) in diesel (B7) and bioethanol in petrol (E10) up to 7.9% share of biofuels in the EU transport sector can be technically reached by 2020. Increasing use of advanced biofuels, particularly blending of fungible fuels into diesel (eg. HVO and BTL) and the use of higher ethanol blends in compatible vehicles (e.g. E20), can play an important role. Also, the increased use of biomethane (in particular bio-CNG) and higher blends of biodiesel (FAME) can contribute. However, it is essential for both governments and industry to decide within 1 or 2 years on the way ahead and take necessary actions covering both, the fuels and the vehicles, to ensure their effective and timely implementation. Even though a range of technical options exist, many of these require considerable time and effort to implement and reach their potential. Large scale implementation of the options beyond current blending limits requires new, targeted policy measures, in many cases complemented by new fuel and vehicle standards, adaptation of engines and fuel distribution, etc. Marketing policies for these vehicles, fuels and blends are also likely to become much more important than in the current situation. Each Member State may develop its own strategy tailored to its market and policy objectives, but the EU should play a crucial facilitating role in these developments.

  18. 78 FR 32226 - Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension and Revision of the Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Poultry Market News Reports; Request for Extension... Livestock, Poultry, Meat, Grain, and Their Related Products Used as Market News Information AGENCY... collection. AMS recently merged its Livestock and Grain Market News Division with the Poultry Market...

  19. Market Demand and Application About Mill Ball and Rod%耐磨球段的市场需求及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佩芬; 吴海平

    2012-01-01

    The market demand and application status of wear resisting ball and rod, which is widely applied in industrial production of material grinding, for example metallurgical mines, building and cement, thermal power generation, coal processing and magnetic materials, was analyzed, and the market demand and the development trend in the next few years in China were predicted. The results show that the specification of wear resisting ball and rod products is complete in China, their properties have already been caught up with the foreign similar products. The market demand of wear resisting ball and rod products in 2012 is 172.82 million ton and that in 2015 will be up to 208.74 million ton, compared with that in 2010, it is increased by 44.34%. From the point of optimizing resource allocation and establishing the benign market, enterprise merger and integration is a developing trend of wear resisting ball and rod in the future.%对广泛用于冶金矿山、建材水泥、火力发电、煤炭加工、磁性材料等物料研磨生产过程中的耐磨球段的市场需求及应用现状进行了分析,并对未来几年的市场需求进行了预测.结果表明:中国耐磨球段产品规格齐全,产品性能已经赶上国外同类产品.2012年中国耐磨球段产品预计需求量为172.82万t,至2015年将达到208.74万t,较2010年增长44.34%.从优化资源配置,建立良性市场角度分析,产业兼并整合是耐磨球段行业未来发展方向.

  20. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  1. Welfare Implications of Selected Supply and Demand Shocks on Producers and Marketers of U.S. Meats

    OpenAIRE

    Henneberry, Shida Rastegari; Mutondo, Joao E.; Brorsen, B. Wade

    2007-01-01

    An equilibrium displacement model is developed and used to estimate the welfare impacts of government and industry-funded promotion programs, country of origin labeling (COOL), and the disease-driven, international bans on U.S. beef. The model goes beyond past studies by including the U.S. domestic market and both U.S. meat imports and exports, with meats differentiated by source of origin. The results indicate that while the benefits from beef and pork promotions are higher, the negative imp...

  2. Housing demand or money supply? A new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model on China's housing market fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xing-Chun; He, Ling-Yun

    2015-08-01

    There is a bitter controversy over what drives the housing price in China in the existing literature. In this paper, we investigate the underlying driving force behind housing price fluctuations in China, especially focusing on the role of housing demand shock with that of money supply shock in explaining housing price movements, by a new Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model. Empirical results suggest that it is housing demand, instead of money supply, that mainly drives China's housing price movements. Relevant policy implication is further discussed, namely, whether to consider the housing price fluctuations in the conduct of monetary policy. By means of the policy simulations, we find that a real house price-augmented money supply rule is a better monetary policy for China's economy stabilization. 1. Investment refers to fixed capital investment. 2. Housing price refers to national average housing price. Quarterly data on housing price during the period of our work are not directly available. However, monthly data of the value of sales on housing and sale volume on housing can be directly obtained from National Bureau of Statistics of China. We add up the monthly data and calculate one quarter's housing price by dividing the value of housing sales by its sale volume in one quarter. 3. M2 means the broad money supply in China.

  3. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... the high rate of exit seen in the first years of exporting. Finally, when faced with multiple countries in which to export, some firms will choose to sequentially export in order to slowly learn more about its chances for success in untested markets....

  4. The Disclosure of University Research for Societal Demand: A Non-Market Perspective on the "Third Mission"

    CERN Document Server

    Venditti, Michelina; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-01-01

    Many nations, universities, and regional governments commit resources to promote the dissemination of scientific and technical knowledge. The emphasis has been on knowledge-based innovation and the economic function of the university in terms of technology transfer, intellectual property, university-industry-government relations, etc. Faculties other than engineering or applied sciences may not be able to recognize opportunities in this "linear model" of technology transfer. In our opinion, more options for relating demand and supply in terms of innovations can then be explored. In this study, we elaborate on an idea originally developed in the context of the Dutch science shops in the late 1980s: the two Amsterdam universities were questionnaired about keywords and expertise at the level of individual researchers. Using the internet, this experiment was redesigned for questionnairing the academic staff of the Gabriele d'Annunzio University (UdA) in Italy (728 tenured staff). The recall was highest among the ...

  5. Creating lift versus building the base : Current trends in marketing dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; van Doorn, J.; Hanssens, D.M.; van Heerde, H.J.; Verhoef, P.C.; Wieringa, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Markets are dynamic by nature; and marketing-efforts can be directed to stimulate, reduce, or to utilize these dynamics. The field of marketing dynamics aims at modeling the effects of marketing actions and policies on short-term performance ("lift") and on long-term performance ("base"). One of the

  6. 基于客户需求的物流企业市场定位问题的研究%Study on Marketing Positioning of Logistics Enterprises Based on Customer Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵立辉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,from the perspective of the customers' demand for logistics,we studied the market segmentation,target market selection and marketing strategy,then from the angles of the customer demand in other industries,demand of regional customers,demand of the individual terminal users as well as the logistics demand of the hierarchical markets,studied the marketing positioning of the logistics enterprises,pointing out the problems existing in each case and presenting the corresponding suggestions and theoretical visions.%从物流客户需求的角度出发研究了物流企业市场定位中的市场细分、目标市场选择和相关营销策略问题,分别从国民经济其他产业的行业客户需求、区域客户需求、单个最终物流用户需求以及层次性的市场物流需求等几个角度研究了物流企业的市场定位问题,并在每个角度的研究中指出了存在的问题,给出了相关建议和理论构想.

  7. [The health food product Noni--does marketing harmonize with the current status of research?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Rolf

    2008-03-13

    Norwegian cancer patients frequently use Noni. The objective of this study was to find out whether the way noni is marketed in Norway and the health claims made about the product harmonize with current scientific knowledge of its benefits/adverse effects. An overview of medical research on noni was obtained from three databases. Web sites for private persons and for companies that sell noni in Norway were examined. Books, pamphlets etc. from a company specializing in selling information material about noni, were also examined. 48 scientific articles were included in the study, but none of these were clinical studies of humans. Several pharmacological effects of noni have been shown in vitro and in animal models (e.g., increased survival for animals with cancer). Information material describes noni as a health-promoting product that patients with most diseases will benefit from. Noni is to a great extent sold by multi-level marketing, but is also commonly sold by health food stores. There is no scientific basis for claiming that patients will benefit from using noni for any diseases. The way this product is sold has several worrying aspects.

  8. Research on the Current Telecommuting Trends in United States and European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Georgiana PICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and due to the accelerated progress made in information and communication technology, more and more companies offer their employees the option of telecommuting. For the past twenty years, telecommuting has been on an asceding trend, an incresing number of people embracing the ability to work from home, using a computer and internet connection to communicate for their jobs. The goal of the paper is to explain the overall notion of telecommuting and to analyze the current trends in the United States and European Union markets. Another objective is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting and the important role played by this concept within the striving purpose of corporations to achieve their strategic targets. The study is based upon specialized literature reviews regarding the emergence of telecommuting and the role it plays in organizations. A comparative analysis was conducted by the authors on two regional markets, United States and the European Union, in order to assess the trend in telecommuting and the factors that influence it. The outcome of the research shows that although the benefits of telecommuting are numerous, it does not come without challenges, both being applicable for both the employer, as well as for the employee. The research results of this study can be used by organizations when considering to offer their employees flexible work opportunities which can positively influence the long term business performance.

  9. Sizing the cannabis market: a demand-side and user-specific approach in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laar, Margriet; Frijns, Tom; Trautmann, Franz; Lombi, Linda

    2013-06-01

    Demand-based estimates of total cannabis consumption rarely consider differences among different user types and variation across countries. To describe cannabis consumption patterns and estimate annual consumption for different user types across EU Member States, a web survey in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom (England & Wales) collected data on cannabis use patterns from 3,922 persons who had consumed cannabis at least once in the past year. They were classified into four groups based on their number of use days in the past 12 months: infrequent users or chippers (users (11-50 days), regular users (51-250 days) and intensive users (>250 days). User type specific data on typical amounts consumed were matched with data on numbers of users per user type estimated from existing population surveys, taking differences in mode of consumption, age and gender into account. Estimates were supplemented with data from populations of problem users to compensate for under coverage. Results showed remarkably consistent differences among user groups across countries. Both the average number of units consumed per typical use day and the average amount of cannabis consumed per unit increased across user types of increasing frequency of use. In all countries except Portugal, intensive users formed the smallest group of cannabis users but were responsible for the largest part of total annual cannabis consumption. Annual cannabis consumption varied across countries but confidence intervals were wide. Results are compared with previous estimates and discussed in the context of improving estimation methods.

  10. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  11. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the resp

  12. Navigating the current job market--grab hold of your future now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Holiday A; McDermott, Ann Y

    2013-11-01

    Although the U.S. federal government, the National Science Foundation, and other influential groups have called for American universities to educate and train more scientists, a recent article in the Washington Post and broadcasting on National Public Radio affirmed a harsh reality: there are too few jobs for today's young scientists. Essentially, landing a job in science doesn't just happen, you must prepare! The intent of this education track session, targeted to students, postdoctorates, junior faculty, and other early- to midcareer professionals was to provide insights on trends in the current job market and offer strategies and resources to be competitive. The session featured speakers representing different work environments, such as academia, industry, health care institutions, public relations, and entrepreneurial positions.

  13. Current and Future Costs for Parabolic Trough and Power Tower Systems in the US Market: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.; Mehos, M.; Ho, C. K.; Kolb, G. J.

    2010-10-01

    NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is employed to estimate the current and future costs for parabolic trough and molten salt power towers in the US market. Future troughs are assumed to achieve higher field temperatures via the successful deployment of low melting-point, molten-salt heat transfer fluids by 2015-2020. Similarly, it is assumed that molten salt power towers are successfully deployed at 100MW scale over the same time period, increasing to 200MW by 2025. The levelized cost of electricity for both technologies is predicted to drop below 11 cents/kWh (assuming a 10% investment tax credit and other financial inputs outlined in the paper), making the technologies competitive in the marketplace as benchmarked by the California MPR. Both technologies can be deployed with large amounts of thermal energy storage, yielding capacity factors as high as 65% while maintaining an optimum LCOE.

  14. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Walsh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has caused most of the western world to fall into recession because of the credit crunch and the collapse of much of the under-regulated and over-confident banking industry. However, in most of Asia, especially developing Asia, the crisis has affected manufacturing and, hence, employment rather than the finance sectors, especially because the latter had already been restructured following the 1997 Asian Crisis. This paper considers the impact of the crisis on the range of labour markets across the region and assesses the ongoing relevance of the development model that is posited on low labour cost manufacturing aimed at assisting export industries. Impacts considered include migration flows of labour, the possibility of augmenting added value to existing production and the need to upgrade skills and competencies.

  15. Consumption concept survey and the market demand analysis of women's wedding dresses in China%国内女性婚礼服消费观念调查及市场需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程星洁

    2012-01-01

    研究我国女性消费者对目前婚礼服市场的需求因子.通过对礼服消费观念、市场概况以及当今女性婚礼服消费观念的问卷调查分析,得出我国婚礼服市场消费者需求的统计教据.结合地城差异和职业差异对婚礼服的款式、美观性和价格等进行了比较,并分析了婚礼服品牌影响力,发现消费者对婚礼服市场消费理念有明显提高,但对婚礼服的认知及品牌了解度了解较少,满意度不高.指出目前婚礼服市场的欠缺之处以及潜在的机会,为我国国内婚礼服款式设计、品牌规划及市场需求提供指导.%The consumption ideas of women's wedding dresses and analysis were done by using of questionnaire survey and market demand was analyzed. As for current women of our country, consumption I-dea of wedding dresses, market situation and the present situation, the union regional differences and professional differences on wedding dresses design are indicated, It should be pointed out that consumption idea of women's wedding dresses is improved obviously, brand knowledge on wedding dresses and brand of attention are still lesser, customer satisfaction is not high as well, esthetics and price of the comparative analysis, and brand influence analysis of wedding dresses on Chinese wedding dresses market development trend was predicted. Research results can be used to design,plan brand, provide guidance of market demand for our domestic wedding dresses.

  16. English professional talent market demand study based on SWOT analysis%基于SWOT分析的英语专业人才市场需求研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive analysis of English professionals in market demand based on SWOT analysis, the English talent market provides opportunities and threats for English graduates, as well as analysis of English Majors in their own advantages and disadvantages, trying to find English successful employment of graduates of professional pathways and provides ideas for English institutions to improve English Majors strategy .%  本研究利用SWOT分析法对英语专业人才市场的需求进行了全面分析,即通过对英语专业人才市场为英语专业毕业生所提供的机遇和威胁,以及英语专业学生本身所存在的自身优势和劣势进行分析,力图寻找英语专业毕业生顺利就业的途径,并为各英语院校改进英语专业人才培养策略提供思路。

  17. MARKET TOURS, PEDDLER RECEIPTS AND THE SHOPKEEPER GRAPE VINE: AN IMPORT WHOLESALER’S ATTEMPTS TO GAUGE RURAL, AFRICAN CONSUMER DEMAND IN EARLY COLONIAL NORTHWESTERN TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laird Jones

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how early colonial, town-based wholesalers discerned rural African consumer tastes and measured demand for imported goods by focusing on the experience of the O’Swald Mwanza branch from 1906 through 1916. Like many metropolitan firms, O’Swald had extensive experience in the earlier caravan trade. Thus, several decades later, its representatives arrived in Mwanza expecting that import sales would still conform to the tastes of elite caravan era consumers. With the extension of steam transport into the interior and the onset of an early colonial “Cash Crop Revolution,” however, many more rural cultivators and herdspeople than ever before had the means to acquire imports, and these new consumers proved far more fickle with regard to brand, style and novelty than firms like O’Swald had anticipated. They no longer accepted some caravan era favorites, and desired others in increasing variety. Thus, in order to stay on top of what the firm only slowly came to understand as an emerging mass market, the O’Swald men spied on their competition, engaged in brand name advertising, interrogated shopkeepers and peddlers, and increasingly market-tested new products.

  18. An Analysis of Current Labor Market Developments and Structures in European Union – in Correlation with Labor Market Flexicurity Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ştefania CHENIC (CREŢU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Althougt at first sight the crisis appears as a disturbance of the regular course of economic, social and organizational, this is a necessary step that turns old structures and relations to some superior functional. Under these conditions, hawever, it is absolutely necessary that the situation be properly evaluated by an analysis of developments and labour market structures and be taken right decision for the purposes of proper management of existing and potential recovery so far underused resources: people, values and strategies. The impact of the economic crisis on labour markets displays significant variation from one country to another. Employment rates and unemployment rates will be compared between European countries and for different groups of workers. Some countries have succeeded in keeping employment levels up and unemployment levels down through recourse to employmentpreservation and employment-creation measures combined with an expansion of active labour market policies. Moreover, certain labour market groups or categories have been particularly hard hit by the crisis. These include men, temporary workers, youth and migrant workers. In the EU Member States, crossing the crisis period was marked by changes in the sense orientation flexibleworking time and conservation work, a strategy that ensures rapid and reversible adaptation to the needs ofproduction entities present.

  19. MARKETING CHARACTERISTICS OF INSURANCE MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sabirova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the insurance market of Ukraine in the post-crisis period, by comparison with the pre-crisis was investigated in the paper. The insurance market in the pre-crisis period grew rapidly, but was unable to withstand the economic crisis and suffered a crushing blow. The economic crisis of 2008-2009 led to a decrease of the demand for financial services in general and insurance services in particular. The lack of development of the insurance market created high barriers for responding and adapting to changes that occurred during the crisis.

  20. An in vitro investigation of two currently marketed dentin tubule occlusion dentifrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Charles R; Willson, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relative level of dentin tubule occlusion afforded by two dentifrices specifically developed to occlude dentin tubules, following finger-applied dab-on application and by repeated brushing, in a longitudinal acid-challenge-based dentin disk model. The impact of a dietary acid alone (grapefruit juice) on the level of dentin tubule occlusion conferred by each product following dab-on application was also explored in a separate short-term stand-alone exploratory dentin disk-based in vitro study. For the longitudinal study, 120 bovine dentin discs, polished and etched in citric acid for two minutes to provide a smooth dentin surface with patent tubules, were divided into three treatment groups and subjected to a finger application of the dentifrice only, or a combination of finger application and brushing. Prior to and between treatments, the dentin samples were stored in saliva (for > 60 minutes). The test products were an 8% w/w strontium acetate dentifrice (currently marketed as Sensodyne Rapid Relief), an arginine-based dentifrice (marketed as Colgate Sensitive Pro-Relief), and deionized water. For the exploratory acid resistance study, 24 dentin samples were divided into two treatment groups. Treatment consisted of a single dab-on application with the test dentifrices to the hydrated surface of dentin, followed by exposure to either a 30-second or 10-minute grapefruit juice acid challenge. For both models, at the end of each treatment period, the samples were removed for scanning electron microscopy analysis and graded on a categorical visual scale. All data were analyzed statistically by unpaired t-test comparison. In the longitudinal (four-day) model, the strontium acetate-based dentifrice occluded dentin tubules significantly better than the currently marketed arginine-based dentifrice post-dab-on treatment and grapefruit juice challenge (p < 0.0001). At all other time points, the strontium acetate dentifrice

  1. Optimal Fare, Vacancy Rate, and Subsidies under Log-Linear Demand with the Consideration of Externalities for a Cruising Taxi Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsiao Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Externality is an important issue for formulating the regulation policy of a taxi market. However, this issue is rarely taken into account in the current policy-making process, and it has not been adequately explored in prior research. This study extends the model proposed by Chang and Chu in 2009 with the aim of exploring the effect of externality on the optimization of the regulation policy of a cruising taxi market. A closed-form solution for optimizing the fare, vacancy rate, and subsidy of the market is derived. The results show that when the externality of taxi trips is taken into consideration, the optimal vacancy rate should be lower and the subsidy should be higher than they are under current conditions where externality is not considered. The results of the sensitivity analysis on the occupied and vacant distance indicate that the relation of the vacant distance to the marginal external cost is more sensitive than the occupied distance. The result of the sensitivity analysis on the subsidy shows the existence of a negative relationship between the marginal external cost and the optimal subsidy.

  2. Analyzing The Relationship Among The GDP - Current Account Deficit and Short Term Capital Flows: The Case of Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ekrem AKBAŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was analyzed if there was causal relationship among the current deficit, short term capital flows and economic growth in emerging markets. Before causality test was done, CDLM tests were done in order to the fact that to be able to determine if there was cross section dependence in countries form the panel. At the end of CDLM tests cross section dependence in emerging markets form the panel was determined. Then, panel causality test developed was done. According to the result of panel causality test bidirectional causality between current account deficit and GDP, unidirectional causality from short term capital flows to current deficit and GDP were determined.

  3. Nursing supply and demand: reviewing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, J; O'May, F

    This paper reviews research on the supply of, and demand for nurse. It examines the utility of various data indicators of nursing shortages and highlights potential shortcomings in their application. The paper also assesses the links between nurses' pay and nurses' labour market behaviour, reviewing the comparatively few papers that have taken a UK perspective on this issue. The current mismatch between nurses' supply and demand in the UK is also examined, with the clear indication that there is potential for an increase in mismatch as demand increases, while future supply appears problematic.

  4. Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Small engines slow car sales Auto production and sales remained stable in China last year, but growth was a bit slower because of lukewarm demand for vehicles of low engine displacement. China produced 8.88 million motor vehicles and sold 8.79 million, up 22.02 percent and 21.84 percent respectively over the previous year.

  5. Demand specifying variables and current ventilation rate requirements with respect to the future use of voc sensing for dcv control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub

    Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) is a well established principle to provide a certain indoor environmental quality, defined both in the terms of air quality and thermal comfort. This is accomplished by adjusting the supplied airflow rate according to a certain demand indicator, which conventio......Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) is a well established principle to provide a certain indoor environmental quality, defined both in the terms of air quality and thermal comfort. This is accomplished by adjusting the supplied airflow rate according to a certain demand indicator, which...... conventionally has been the temperature or the CO2-concentration. When compared to schedule driven ventilation, application of DCV can lead to substantial energy savings. However, CO2 is the pollutant related to human occupancy and it does not provide any indication of so called building-related pollution...... be also taken into account in the ventilation control. Recent development in gas sensing technology resulted in a new generation of relatively cheap and practically applicable sensors that can offer measurements of some of the pollutants mentioned above – mainly Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC...

  6. Current Status of Cable Television in the Top-100 Broadcast Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Stuart J.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the status of cable television in the major broadcast markets suggests that the cable industry has made very little progress in penetrating the top-100 markets, that the rate of development of new cable systems in the top-100 markets has slowed in recent years, and that the primary function of cable television is to retransmit…

  7. Assessing The Current Indonesia’s Electricity Market Arrangements and The Opportunities to Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhani Setyawan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Existing subsidy arrangements and institutional settings in the Indonesian electricity sector distort investment decisions and lead to higher cost. Electricity supply is characterized by natural monopoly characteristics, requiring different management by governments than sectors with more straightforward market characteristics. Many countries have undergone significant re-structuring of their electricity sectors, away from one, state owned and vertically integrated monopoly supplier to a setting whereby competition has emerged either at the generation level and/or the retail level. Transmission and distribution networks are typically heavily regulated and transparent access arrangements are put in place as part of the restructuring efforts. The analysis showed that the current structure of Indonesia’s electricity sector firmly within Model 2 (the single buyer model and highlights that Indonesia is currently towards the less-competitive end of the spectrum of Model 2, identifying significant potential for efficiency enhancing reforms within this structure. Constitutional limitations have hampered previous efforts to restructure the sector in Indonesia but there is significant room for incremental reform to improve incentives in the sector and reduce the cost of generation in the process.

  8. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  9. Off-shore enhanced oil recovery in the north sea: matching CO_2 demand and supply given uncertain market conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compernolle, Tine; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Huisman, Kuno; Piessens, Kris; Kort, Peter

    2015-04-01

    role of the ETS system will be discussed. In an initial stage, only the CO2-price and oil price market uncertainties are considered. In a further stage, uncertainties from the supply side (technology) and EOR (geological) will be added. References BERR. 2007. Development of a CO2 transport and storage network in the North Sea: report to the North Sea Basin Task Force. Dixit A, Pindyck R (1994). Investment under Uncertainty. In, Princeton University Press. Klokk Ø, Schreiner PF, Pagès-Bernaus A, Tomasgard A (2010). Optimizing a CO2 value chain for the Norwegian Continental Shelf. Energy Policy 38(11): 6604-6614 Leach A, Mason CF, Veld Kvt (2011). Co-optimization of enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration. Resource Energy Econ 33(4): 893-912 Lukas E, Welling A (2014). Timing and eco(nomic) efficiency of climate-friendly investments in supply chains. Eur J Oper Res 233(2): 448-457 Pershad, H., Durusut, E., Crerar, A., Black, D., Mackay, E. & Oldern, P., 2012. Economic Impacts of CO2-enhanced oil recovery for Scotland, Final report for Scottish Enterprise. Element energy, London. Piessens, K., Welkenhuysen K., Laenen, B., Ferket, H., Nijs, W., Duerinck, J., Cochez, E., Mathieu, Ph., Valentiny, D., Baele, J.-M., Dupont, N. & Hendriks, Ch., 2012. Policy Support System for Carbon Capture and Storage and Collaboration between Belgium-the Netherlands "PSS-CCS", Final report. Belgian Science Policy Office, Research Programme Science for a Sustainable Development contracts SD/CP/04a,b & SD/CP/803, 335p. Welkenhuysen, K., Compernolle, T., Piessens, K., Ramírez, A., Rupert, J. & Swennen, R., 2014. Geological uncertainty and investment risk in CO2-enhanced oil recovery. 12th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies (GHGT-12), Austin, Texas, 05-09/10/2014.

  10. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    influence on the mechanisms that generate economic stability and economic development effort. For example, on the short-term, the budget deficit reduces the national saving, leads to decreased supply of market funds, which increases the interest rates. In this context, the volume of investment decreases, the consumption is reduced, affecting the volume of economic activities and employment. The psychological influences combined with the economic boost caused by budget deficits act directly on financial markets, leading to falling down the values of capital markets and the depreciation of the currencies sometimes sudden for the national currency. Even if the depreciation of the exchange rate is often a method used to equilibrate the commercial balance, an uncontrolled amplification of budgetary deficits can sometimes lead to monetary depreciation. These, over a certain level, can neutralize the benefits obtained in the external plan by strong worsening of the internal imbalances, mainly through the increased inflationary pressures in the economy. So, in current circumstances, when you want to identify and encourage those branches and sub-branches of national economy which can be developed in the global economy, one of the basic decisions regarding the interpretation of economic processes is the adoption of a dynamic and creative concept which considers both requirements to use the fiscal levers in economic development policy and the possibility of modifying the structure of budgetary revenues and expenses.

  11. O profissional da informação e as habilidades exigidas pelo mercado de trabalho emergente The professional of the information and abilities demanded for the emergent work market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Vasconcelos Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diante de um novo perfil do emprego e do mercado de trabalho - que se transforma marcadamente em face das tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC há uma demanda por profissionais munidos de novas habilidades e competências. Assim, objetiva-se, de modo geral, analisar as novas habilidades demandadas pelo mercado de trabalho atual para o profissional da informação. Para tanto, busca-se especificamente, caracterizar os fatores determinantes do contexto atual; verificar o impacto das TIC no mercado de trabalho do profissional da informação; e conhecer as transformações ocorridas no perfil deste profissional frente a estas mudanças. Para alcançar os objetivos propostos recorreu-se à pesquisa bibliográfica, bem como à análise de anúncios de empregos divulgados no website Catho On-line. A análise dos dados se deu de forma comparativa entre os anos de 2003 e 2005 e, permitiu concluir que as habilidades exigidas para o profissional da informação na atualidade dizem respeito, além dos conhecimentos técnicos, a fluência em idioma estrangeiro, ao domínio da informática, aos conhecimentos gerencias e, principalmente, às habilidades interpessoais.Facing a new profile of the job and the labor market - that changes remarkably regarding to the new technologies of information and communication (TIC, there is a demand for professionals who posses new abilities and competences. It was aimed at, then, in general, to analyze the new abilities disputed by the labor market for the professional of information, because of the new available resources. In order to do that, it was specifically searched, to characterize the decisive factors of the current context; to verify the impact of the TIC in the labor market of the professional of information; and to know the transformations happened in the profile of these professionals before these changes. To reach the proposed objectives it was realized bibliographical research, as well as to the

  12. Uranium 2009 resources, production and demand

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2010-01-01

    With several countries currently building nuclear power plants and planning the construction of more to meet long-term increases in electricity demand, uranium resources, production and demand remain topics of notable interest. In response to the projected growth in demand for uranium and declining inventories, the uranium industry – the first critical link in the fuel supply chain for nuclear reactors – is boosting production and developing plans for further increases in the near future. Strong market conditions will, however, be necessary to trigger the investments required to meet projected demand. The "Red Book", jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a recognised world reference on uranium. It is based on information compiled in 40 countries, including those that are major producers and consumers of uranium. This 23rd edition provides a comprehensive review of world uranium supply and demand as of 1 January 2009, as well as data on global ur...

  13. Innovative Marketing by Argyle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese hotel industry is increasingly integrating into the international market,and marketing awareness has developed quickly in China.Successful marketing can ensure a hotel maintains a competitive edge.The marketing strategy by Argyle Management Group (Australia) focuses on consumer demand and market demand.This innovative strategy has kept the group in an invincible position amid fierce competition.

  14. HEDGING CURRENCY RISK IN EUROPEAN STOCK MARKETS: EVIDENCE FROM THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra HOROBET; DRAGHICI Alina; CONSTANTIN Laura Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    Our paper examines the impact of currency risk on investments made by a Euro based investor in European countries in normal versus turbulent times. We use unhedged and hedged stock market returns to see whether the performance of portfolios made up of stocks from developed markets could be enhanced by including stocks from emerging markets and hedging currency risk. The contribution of currency risk is highly fluctuating, but generally positive, indicating that currency risk adds to the local...

  15. The Dilemma of the Oil Market in the Current Geopolitical Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Balaceanu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, where the effects of technology have an overwhelming impact on people's lives, meaning an increase in appetite for consumption of luxury goods, of lifestyle, it seems that conventional resources are becoming fewer and their use in industrial processes lead to environmental harm, at least from pollution. Essentially, oil prices influence governments, companies, and markets of raw materials markets of finite economic goods, markets of conventional and unconventional energy and an assumed oil crisis would lead to stronger inflections on the market, with repercussions on the overall level of prices, the oil price being generally regarded as decisive for the other prices in the economy.

  16. Entrepreneurship and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship marketing and entrepreneurship. Marketing considered as an integral part of entrepreneurship. Commit role in relationship marketing and entrepreneurship innovation. The role of marketing in the search for potential market demand of innovation as the scope of latent or unmet needs of customers. Shown the lack of marketing in today's special marketing tools for entrepreneurs.

  17. Current and projected water demand and water availability estimates under climate change scenarios in the Weyib River basin in Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serur, Abdulkerim Bedewi; Sarma, Arup Kumar

    2017-07-01

    This study intended to estimate the spatial and temporal variation of current and projected water demand and water availability under climate change scenarios in Weyib River basin, Bale mountainous area of Southeastern Ethiopia. Future downscaled climate variables from three Earth System Models under the three RCP emission scenarios were inputted into ArcSWAT hydrological model to simulate different components of water resources of a basin whereas current and projected human and livestock population of the basin is considered to estimate the total annual water demand for various purposes. Results revealed that the current total annual water demand of the basin is found to be about 289 Mm3, and this has to increase by 83.47% after 15 years, 200.67% after 45 years, and 328.78% after 75 years by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period water demand mainly due to very rapid increasing population (40.81, 130.80, and 229.12% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively) and climatic variability. The future average annual total water availability in the basin is observed to be increased by ranging from 15.04 to 21.61, 20.08 to 23.34, and 16.21 to 39.53% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s time slice, respectively, from base period available water resources (2333.39 Mm3). The current water availability per capita per year of the basin is about 3112.23 m3 and tends to decline ranging from 11.78 to 17.49, 46.02 to 47.45, and 57.18 to 64.34% by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s, respectively, from base period per capita per year water availability. This indicated that there might be possibility to fall the basin under water stress condition in the long term.

  18. 全球铂金供需形势及市场分析%Global platinum supply and demand situation and market analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雨蒙; 张艳松

    2015-01-01

    Platinum is one of the rarest elements in the crustal.Because of its good physical properties and stable chemical characteristic.Platinum is used in many fields,such as catalyst industry.Only a few countries produce platinum,Prices are affected by markets and national policies.Firstly,The paper analyzes the variation in supply and demand in the worldwide during the past ten years and summarizes the reasons for significant changes each time,According to the results,we can find that world platinum’s demand always exceeded supply .Mine production is the main factor affecting the supply,Meanwhile the macroeconomic situation in each country is a main factor influencing the demand.Secondly in the article we summarize the trends of price of the world platinum and discuss the factors affecting price.Finally,according to these historical data and the development of macroeconomic,we forecasts platinum supply and demand in the future.We conclude that the demand for platinum will further increase and the situation of in short supply will lead to a new round of rising price.%自然元素铂是地壳中最稀有的元素之一,以其良好的物理性质和稳定的化学性质而在汽车工业等领域应用。铂金产地较为集中,供需格局分离,价格受市场炒作及各国政策等因素制约。本文首先分析了近十年世界铂金的供需量的变化,并总结了每一次显著变化的原因,通过分析发现:近十年铂金一直是供不应求、影响供给量的主要因素是矿山的开采量、影响需求量的主要因素是各个国家的宏观经济状况;其次总结了世界铂金的价格变化趋势,并讨论了影响价格的因素;最后通过分析历史数据,依据宏观经济的发展状况,预测了未来铂金的供需趋势;最终得出结论,未来一段时间内铂金需求会进一步增加,仍会供不应求,与此同时需求的增长会带动新一轮价格的上涨。

  19. Recruiting Youth in the College Market: Current Practices and Future Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilburn, M. Rebecca, Ed.; Asch, Beth J., Ed.

    This publication explores the enlistment potential of college-market youth by examining the characteristics of the college-market population and the implications of these characteristics for designing effective recruiting policies. Chapter 1, "Introduction: Trends and Theoretical Considerations" (M. Rebecca Kilburn, Beth J. Asch),…

  20. Shared Solar: Current Landscape, Market Potential, and the Impact of Federal Securities Regulation; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-27

    This presentation provides a high-level overview of the current U.S. shared solar landscape, the impact that a given shared solar program's structure has on requiring federal securities oversight, as well as an estimate of market potential for U.S. shared solar deployment.

  1. [Historical development and current demands on medical training, further and advanced training in hygiene and infection prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exner, M; Kramer, A

    2012-11-01

    New risks in nosocomial infections and the dramatic increase in antibiotic-resistant pathogens in healthcare facilities have pointed to the urgent need for a good education of students and practitioners in the basics of hospital hygiene and infection prevention. On the other hand in the last 10 years a large number of institutes of hygiene in universities were closed with remarkable consequences concerning the decreased education in modern hygiene and public health. A broad historical overview over the last 200 years of teaching hygiene and public health at German universities is given which was integrated into the education of medical students. Nowadays many universities do not teach modern hygiene and public health. The demand of re-establishing new institutes of hygiene by the German Medical Council is discussed. The curriculum for the formation of hospital hygienists is presented.

  2. “十二五”期间陕西人身保险市场需求变化研究%Analysis of the Changes in Life Insurance Market Demand of Shaanxi Province During the Twelfth Five-Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨馥; 刘珺

    2012-01-01

    The development of life insurance market in Shaanxi Province will be promoted by the substainable development of Shaanxi's economy and society during the Twelfth Five-Year.The demand of life insurance is key index of the development of lif insurance market.The demand of life insurance market is measured by life insurance premiums in Shaanxi.Based on the data in 1990-2009,this paper provides positive analysis on the demand of life insurance market in Shaanxi by cointegration and logarithm function-model.Following the results,it predicts the trends of life insurance market demands in Shanxi during the Twelfth Five-Year plan,to provide theory basis for life insurance market planning.%"十二五"期间,陕西省经济的持续发展为陕西省人身保险市场的发展提供了有利契机。人身保险需求是度量人身保险市场发展状况的重要指标。文章以陕西省人身保险保费收入作为衡量人身保险市场需求的变量,参考保险密度和保险深度等指标,选取1990—2009年的相关数据,采用协整检验,利用自然对数模型对陕西省人身保险市场需求进行实证分析,并据此对"十二五"期间陕西省人身保险市场需求变化趋势进行预测,旨在为陕西省人身保险业规划提供理论依据。

  3. 我国机动车辆保险市场发展的需求拉动因素研究%Research on Demands-driven Factors for the Development of the Motor Insurance Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘璐; 张博江

    2012-01-01

    近些年来,我国机动车辆保险市场呈现出迅速扩张的势头,车险成为提升最快的险种之一。目前作为财产保险的第一大险种——机动车辆保险,在促进财产保险业发展的同时也成为整个保险业的重大影响因素之一。本文在对我国机动车辆保险市场发展现状进行阐述的基础上,分析各个因素对于机动车辆保险市场的影响。根据影响需求的因素分析并结合计量经济学回归模型,提出相关的政策与建议从而发掘机动车辆保险市场需求潜力,并根据模型得出的结论对未来几年我国机动车辆保险的保费收入做出相应的预测。%The motor vehicle insurance market in China has been expanding rapidly in recent years and has become one of the lines of business with the fastest growth rate. As the biggest insurance business of property insur- ance, motor vehicle insurance has greatly enhanced the development of the property insurance and is also one of the major drivers for the development of the whole insurance industry. This paper analyzed various factors affecting the motor vehicle insurance market following an elaboration on the current situation of motor vehicle insurance market in China. Based on the factors influencing motor vehicle insurance demands and in combination with the measurement economics model, the paper tried to come up with some advice and policy suggestions to further exploit the market potential and make a reasonable prediction for the premium income of motor vehicle insurance in China in the coming years according to the results of the analysis.

  4. Rare Earth Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ July 20~31 Rare earth market still went downward, which was mainly led by sluggish demand for didymium products. Weak demand by domestic NdFeB market was attributed to continuous price falling of didymium mischmetal.

  5. Risk Factors of Young Graduates in the Competitive E.U. Labour Market at the End of the Current Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacerova Eliska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern development trends in the labour market have been an increasingly important political and economic issue not only domestically but also on the European level. It proves the fact that in The Europe 2020 strategy, one of the main five points is the aim to increase the employment rate of the population (age: 20–64 from the current 69% to at least 75%. Various risk groups of job candidates emerge among the unemployed. The economic crisis in 2007 made the situation in the labour markets worse. The demand for labour decreased while the number of candidates increased. In recent years, fresh graduates under the age of 25 have been regarded as a high risk group sometimes nicknamed “the lost generation” or Generation Y. This generation is well accustomed to modern technologies which they use for their own benefit and they are willing and able to work from anywhere. On the contrary, those over the age of 35, who are sometimes referred to as Generation X, have different attitudes and requirements for the labour market. Despite the increasing level of education among young people, their unemployment has been worsening since the economic crisis began. The aim of this article was to ascertain how future university graduates (491 final-year students from 5 faculties at Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Czech Republic perceive individual risk factors influencing the success of today’s graduate of Generation Y in the competitive labour market. The target group, future university graduates, evaluated 13 risk areas on a five-point scale. These 13 risk areas were identified based on primary research among 1.059 employers in the Czech Republic, which is a part of a complete two-year research project IGA/FaME/2013/030. This article focuses on only two areas which closely analysed the perception of graduates as drifters, and their demands for high starting salaries. These two risk areas were mentioned by employers as the areas with the highest risk and

  6. Current Status and Trend of Internet and E-Commerce Market in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Hongjoo; KIM Jongwoo; PARK Sungjoo

    2004-01-01

    After the remarkable increase of Internet users and broadband Internet subscribers at the end of the 20th century, the size of Korean Internet and e-commerce market steadily increased but the growth rate has been either stagnant or decreased. Trends of Korean Internet and e-commerce market are summarized in this paper the trends on Internet usage are introduced. Trends of online games, blogs and wireless Internet are introduced. The trends of Korean Internet market may have implications for China and Japan.

  7. MAIN THREATS TO THE ROMANIAN LABOUR MARKET IN THE CURRENT CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMIAN Gina Cristina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper’s topic is focused on the Romanian labour market prospects, which is going to be affected by two main threats: aging and population decline. These two factors are supposed to dramatically change Romania’s economic structure. It is therefore necessary to know how they will evolve in the next decades, facts which represent the main objective of our article. These topics are debated at large scale at the European and national level, because they describe a process which implies European Union as a whole. The methodology used in order to quantify this phenomenon includes statistical methods (correlation analysis and descriptive statistics. We have used data available at national and European level in order to build a proper argumentation. The results obtained are worrying because there is a high risk to assist at an accelerated aging of the Romanian people, doubled by a very low birth rate. This might create huge problems in the economic and social system due to productivity decrease and the pressures on the pension’s funds. The paper offers scientific arguments for developing macroeconomic policies in order to prevent the negative situation in which we could be within less than 40 years. As a comparison term we brought into attention the Germany situation, country which offers economic equilibrium to the EU, but is also affected by aging. The manner in which this problem has been approached is an original one because we tried to put Romania’s situation into the context of the European Union general situation, the threat being emphasised by the fact that it is going to be a trend for the whole continent. Actually, if it is not taken adequate measures, we will be confronted with a demographic crisis, much worse than the current financial one, because the effort of the country to reverse a birth rate decreasing trend with an aged population will take decades.

  8. 南京市养老地产的供需现状及开发对策%Study on the Current Supply and Demand Situation and Development Strategy of the Real Estate Provided for the Aged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘月

    2015-01-01

    Nanjing city is one of the country's aging population with higher levels of city, the rapid pace of development, facing a severe test of the pension problem. Based on the current situation of Nanjing city housing supply and housing demand in the elderly elderly as the starting point,analysis of the current situation of the pension real estate development in Nanjing city and the development trend in the future. Through the questionnaire survey and the current situation of housing, Nanjing city elderly and elderly housing demand, there is a summary of Nanjing city at present endowment real estate development problems; try to judge the pension real estate market in Nanjing city and Nanjing city development stage, the three kinds of Pension --home care, community care and institutional care in the future the proportion of pension modechanges, which constitute the system of endowment real estate; national and internationalendowment of successful real estate development case, combined with China's pension policyinitiatives, from various measures more comprehensive perspective of Nanjing city pensionreal estate development.%以南京市老年住房的供给现状以及中老年住房需求为切入点,分析南京市养老地产开发的现状以及未来的发展趋势。通过问卷调查的形式分析南京市老年住房的现状及中老年住房需求,总结南京市目前养老地产开发过程中存在的问题。借鉴国外养老地产成功开发的案例,结合我国养老政策举措,研究南京市养老地产开发的对策。

  9. BROKERAGE ACTIVITIES ON THE RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET IN THE CURRENT CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Pomaskina

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the basic functions of a broker in the securities market, analyzesthe brokerage activities in the stock marketof the Moscow Stock Exchange in 2014.A comparative analysis of the largestbrokers highlights perspective directionsof brokering services.

  10. BROKERAGE ACTIVITIES ON THE RUSSIAN STOCK MARKET IN THE CURRENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Pomaskina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the basic functions of a broker in the securities market, analyzesthe brokerage activities in the stock marketof the Moscow Stock Exchange in 2014.A comparative analysis of the largestbrokers highlights perspective directionsof brokering services.

  11. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  12. Biogas and Hydrogen Systems Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, Anelia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This analysis provides an overview of the market for biogas-derived hydrogen and its use in transportation applications. It examines the current hydrogen production technologies from biogas, capacity and production, infrastructure, potential and demand, as well as key market areas. It also estimates the production cost of hydrogen from biogas and provides supply curves at a national level and at point source.

  13. Current Behaviours and Future Prospects of Online Film Consumption in China: A Social Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Yunhong

    2013-01-01

    Free film downloading services have gained large popularity among Chinese consumers, although there is potential film copyright losses as many of the downloading resources offer pirated films. Based on previous studies of consumer behaviour theory, social marketing and film piracy, this research was an attempt to gain an understanding of the factors that influence consumer film downloading and to discuss the role of social marketing in changing such behaviour through promoting paid online fil...

  14. Interbank Market Structure and Accurate Estimation of an Aggregate Liquidity Shock

    OpenAIRE

    Isakov, A.

    2013-01-01

    It's customary among money market analysts to blame interest rate deviations from the Bank of Russia's target band on the market structure imperfections or segmentation. We isolate one form of such market imperfection and provide an illustration of its potential impact on central bank's open market operations efficiency in the current monetary policy framework. We then hypothesize that naive (market) structure-agnostic liquidity gap aggregation will lead to market demand underestimation in so...

  15. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  16. Strategy for Segmentation of Third Party Logistics Market Based on Customer Demand%基于客户需求的第三方物流市场细分及营销策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎斌

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the problems relating to the position and service content of the third party logistics market of China, then accordingly analyzed the customers and demand of the market, and at the end, proposed the path for the segmentation of the market and the strategy to choose the target market.%指出我国第三方物流市场存在定位模糊、服务内容雷同的问题,针对这一问题对第三方物流市场的客户主体和需求内容进行了细致分析,以此为基础提出了第三方物流市场细分的途径和目标市场选择的策略。

  17. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  18. 需求不确定时电力最优价格上限管制分析%Optimal Price Cap Regulation under Demand Uncertainty in Electricity Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹建平; 张信; 王恩琦; 李娜; 曾鸣

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the optimal price cap under demand uncertainty in electricity market, the demand fluctuation is simulated by the geometric Brownian motion equation and a continuous time model with stochastic demand is established to analyze generators' optimal investment strategy in terms of real option theory. The results show that the optimal price cap under demand uncertainty is still investment marginal price in competitive market;the optimal cap price depends on the demand fluctuation and risk rate.%采用随机需求下的连续时间模型,基于实物期权理论,运用几何布朗运动方程模拟了需求波动,分析了发电方最优投资策略,探讨了在需求不确定条件下电力价格最优上限管制问题.结果表明,需求不确定条件下最优价格上限依然为竞争性条件下的投资边际价格,最优上限价格取决于需求波动和风险率.

  19. Probiotic formulations and applications, the current probiotics market, and changes in the marketplace: a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxelin, Maija

    2008-02-01

    Europe is a multicultural continent where the consumption of fermented milks has traditionally been high in several countries. Thus, it is no wonder that the market for fermented dairy products with probiotic bacteria has been successful. The market for food applications of probiotics is clearly larger than that for probiotics sold in capsules, sachets, and other pharmaceutical forms. Yogurt-type drinks are the fastest-growing product category, but the diversity of probiotic food applications is not limited to milk-based products. Probiotic fruit juices, berry soups, and soy- and cereal-based fermented products are also sold. Some probiotic strains that are successful in Europe are marketed globally, but there is also a variety of local probiotic strains that are key players in their limited markets. The health messages of probiotic products have focused mainly on general well-being and support of gastrointestinal microbiota. However, because of newly accepted regulation from the European Union regarding health claims, such claims will be evaluated officially, which may substantially change their content. However, more-specific product claims may also appear on the market. This article describes trends and phenomena in mainly the food sector, which covers the most-successful probiotic applications, but food supplements are also discussed.

  20. MARKETING IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY: STATE OF KNOWLEDGE AND CURRENT TRENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANNA NARANJO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las empresas del sector de la construcción son conscientes de la importancia de vincular la comercialización (o marketing a las funciones primordiales de la empresa, como respuesta ante la necesidad de adaptarse a los continuos cambios del sector, satisfacer las demandas de sus clientes, ser competitivos y mejorar su estrategia de negocio. El presente artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos del análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo del estado actual de conocimiento del marketing en el sector de la construcción. El estudio se realizó mediante una búsqueda bibliométrica y el posterior procesamiento y análisis de los artículos encontrados. A pesar de los esfuerzos realizados en la última década, es difícil generalizar cómo aplicar el marketing en las empresas del sector de la construcción debido a las particularidades del sector. Sin embargo, existe un abanico de posibles estrategias que pueden ser usadas; una vez las empresas conozcan las necesidades de los clientes serán capaces de escoger las estrategias que deben aplicar. Se proponen futuras líneas de investigación como la implementación del marketing, diferenciación del marketing de acuerdo con el tipo de cliente, y aplicación de las tecnologías y sistemas de información.

  1. Analysis on the Current Situation of Farmers' Credit Demand in Gansu Province%甘肃省农户信贷需求现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚玲

    2009-01-01

    The current situation of farmers' credit demand in rural areas of Gansu Province was studied by the method of interview and investigation. And some related policy proposals were put forward according to the economic development of rural areas in Gansu Province.%通过访谈、调查的形式对甘肃省农村地区农户信贷需求现状进行了考察,并针对甘肃农村经济发展的形势,提出了相关政策建议.

  2. Marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Dania TODOR

    2017-01-01

    The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the...

  3. Interactive New Media Network TV Stock Trading Market Demand Survey Report%互动新媒体网络电视股票交易的市场需求调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕明杰

    2012-01-01

    本文从互动新媒体网络电视股票交易的市场调查的角度出发,以报告的形式分析了市场需求的整体形势,对将来发展趋势的做出判断。%This paper researches the new media market demand overall situation in the form of trend interactive network TV stock trading market, analyses the report and makes the judgement of future development

  4. E-Commerce Professional Curriculum Reform and Thinking on Face the Job Market Demands%面对就业市场的需求电子商务专业课程体系改革与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏曼

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes e-business market demand for talent from the start,analyze existing curriculum and professional job market needs to face the competitiveness of some of the professional development and curriculum development and reform proposals.%本文从分析电子商务市场人才需求入手,分析现有的课程体系与专业面对就业市场需求的竞争力,提出一些对专业发展和课程体系建设与改革的建议。

  5. 高校体育人力资源市场化客观性分析——基于学校发展和社会需求视角%Objectivity Analysis on Marketization of the College Sports Human Resources-- from the perspectives of school development and social demands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宝家; 杜娟

    2012-01-01

    以社会学、经济学、管理学、市场学和体育产业理论为依托,兼顾目前对高校体育人力资源市场化研究的利弊,笔者从学校发展和社会需求两个方面对高校体育人力资源走向市场给予客观分析,整合整体的概况,归纳出高校体育教师走向市场所产生的问题及制约因素,在此基础上对高校体育人力资源服务的领域及市场化的运作给出相关的建设性意见.%Based on theories in sociology, economics, management, marketing science and sports industry theory and taking into account the pros and cons observed in the current College sports human resources marketization research, an objectire analysis is made of the sports human resources going to market in terms of school development and social demands. An o- verview of the holistic situation, problems and constraints arising from the process of the PE teachers' going to market are summed up, on basis of which, some constructive suggestions concerning the operation of marketization and the College sports human resources services are put forth.

  6. Enhancing quality of vocational training outcome to satisfy the labor market demands in Kuwait by using Quality Function Deployment method (QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Mohammed Ali Hamza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a system to enhance the quality of vocational training programs in Kuwait state by using the concept of Quality Function Deployment (QFD.Approach: The approach starts by investigating the private sector of the labor market. The interviewing of a sample group of the private sector companies was done to know their expectation of the performance of vocational training outcomes. Then, QFD was applied to find the technical requirements, which will help in satisfying the market’s expectations to design a new program that leads to enhancement of the quality of the outcome of the Vocational Training. The house of quality technique allows prioritizing the technical descriptors based on the technical difficulty, target value, absolute weight, and relative weight.Findings: The first priority that found from applying the QFD  is the parameter “Practice to Be Willing in Learning- Applying New Technologies” because of its highest relative weight 195 points followed by the parameter “Understanding The Need to Learn New Skills” which has a relative weight of 165 points. The second priority is the parameter “Simulation Activities” because it has a relative weight of 152 points followed by the parameter “Managing Tasks and Meeting Deadlines” which has a relative weight of 146 points. The third priority is the parameter “Using IT Skills to Complete Activities” because of it has a relative weight is 132 points followed by the parameter “Time Management Activities” which has a relative weight is 112 points.Research limitation: The research limitation is in the changing of the current curriculum program. Practical implications: The practical implication is to modify the students’ vocational training curriculum, by adapting new technologies and application sequences of activities and solution strategies within the time limit.Value: The value of this paper is to explain how a studying

  7. Food insecurity, soil degradation and agricultural markets in West Africa: why current policy approaches fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Heerink, N.; Kauffman, S.

    2001-01-01

    The agricultural sector in West Africa is not at present capable of meeting the growing demand for food for its population and of reversing unfavourable trends in soil degradation. We argue that integrated soil management is an essential condition for sustainable agricultural development in the many

  8. 成都市区健身俱乐部市场需求状况的分析与研究%Research on Market Demands of Health Clubs in Urban Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹文芳

    2015-01-01

    Adopting methods of social science and mathematical statistics,this paper investigates consumers of profit health clubs and carries out quantitative analysis of market demands of health clubs in urban Chengdu. Thus,the paper locates factors influencing the market demands of health clubs in urban Chengdu and proposes strategies for further development.%本研究以成都市区部分经营性健身俱乐部消费者为研究对象,运用社会学调查方法和描述统计分析、频数分析等数理统计法对成都市区健身俱乐部需求市场进行定量分析,找出影响成都市区健身俱乐部市场需求问题的因素并提出发展策略。

  9. Social Media and Marketing Education: A Review of Current Practices in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…

  10. Loyalty program: current content, types and methods of realization at B2C market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehaenko Ekaterina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to researching the content of the key concepts for partnership relations marketing – customer loyalty. It presents the results of scientific-theoretical substantiation of the typical structure and methods of implementation of loyalty programs in retail.

  11. College Students' Attitudes & Responses toward the Current Economy and Its Implications for Marketing Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lauren; Lamanette, Michelle; Silva, Alberto; Budden, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early months of 2009, the undeniable woes of the economy are being felt by many. With a record number of corporate closings, rising unemployment and the crises in the financial markets, this may prove to be a difficult year for many. This paper uses empirical evidence collected from Southeastern Louisiana University students to learn how…

  12. Social Media and Marketing Education: A Review of Current Practices in Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocato, E. Deanne; White, Nathan James; Bartkus, Kenneth; Brocato, Ashley Ann

    2015-01-01

    Given the presumed importance of social media to marketing, along with the apparent lack of research concerning social media curriculum development, the purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic analysis of social media curriculum through the evaluation of undergraduate course syllabi in the United States. This research is intended to…

  13. Distributed generation in European electricity markets. Current challenges and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    This Ph.D. thesis studies the role of distributed generation in European electricity markets. It focuses primarily on the interactions of economics and policy with the aim of contributing to the understanding of how distributed generation is embedded in the present regulatory and market framework, which barriers exist, and which role it may possibly play in the future. To capture the interdisciplinarity of the topic, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is applied. Subsequent to the identification of barriers, this thesis turns to the microeconomic perspective on the interplay of vertical structure, regulation and distributed generation. This is done through the application of quantitative methods in the form of partial equilibrium models focusing on the effects induced by the vertical structure of the network operator, either a combined operator or a distribution system operator, in a market with small distributed producers. In areas where the promotion of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power has induced a substantial increase in distributed generation, new challenges in system integration arise. In particular, high levels of generation from intermittent energy sources, such as wind, add to the complexity of network operation and control, which can hardly be tackled with the present 'fit and forget' approach. The conclusion is that distributed generation has great potential to enhance competitiveness, sustainability and security of supply in European electricity markets. A prerequisite is the removal of market and regulatory barriers, taking the interdependencies of vertical structure, support mechanisms and network access into account. In the future, higher penetration levels of distributed generation necessitate changes in the power system and the adoption of new technologies, where hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis constitutes one example. (LN)

  14. High-skilled talents cultivation of Dalian software industry and market demand study on the degree of fitting%大连市软件产业高技能型人才培养与市场需求拟合度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艺

    2013-01-01

    Development of Dalian software industry to the software the cultivation of talents with high skill set higher demands. Through to higher vocational talents cultivation and the market demand for fitting degree of investigation and quantitative analysis, found that the current high skilled talents in the cultivation of problems and advances some countermeasures for solving these problems.%  大连软件产业发展对软件高技能型人才培养提出了更高的要求。通过对高职人才培养与市场需求的拟合程度进行调查和定量分析,发现了当前高技能型人才培养中的问题并提出了解决问题的对策。

  15. GLOBAL WOOD PELLET INDUSTRY AND MARKETCURRENT DEVELOPMENTS AND OUTLOOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrän, Daniela; Peetz, David; Schaubach, Kay; Trømborg, Erik; Pellini, Alessandro; Lamers, Patrick; Hess, J. Richard; Schipfer, Fabian; Hektor, Bo; Olsson, Olle; Bruce, Lena; Stelte, Wolfgang; Proskurina, Svetlana; Heinimo, Jussi; Benedetti, Luca; Mai-Moulin, Thuy; Junginger, Martin; Craggs, Laura; Wild, Michael; Murray, Gordan; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio; Thiermann, Ute; Escobar, F. J.; Goldemberg, J.; Coelho, S. T.

    2017-06-01

    The wood pellet use in the heating and electricity sector has recorded a steady growth in the last years. IEA bioenergy task 40 carried out an update of the situation on the national pellet markets in the most relevant pellet producing countries and the global development as well. Various country specific data is collected and compiled for more than 30 countries, containing updated information about regulatory framework, production, consumption, price trends, quality standards and trade aspects. The analysis confirmed the positive development in terms of production and consumption of wood pellets in almost all countries. In 2015 more than 26 Mt of wood pellets have been produced and consumed worldwide. Technologies and markets become more mature. Increased international pellet trade needs to be supported by adequate frame condition not only for commerce, but also with regard to sustainability issues.

  16. The Influence on Consumption Demand of Urban Residents Income Distribution Changes and Marketing Strategy%城镇居民收入分配变化对消费需求的影响及营销策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳

    2015-01-01

    The changes in the income distribution of urban residents in China mainly perform as the gap and serious our society overall consumer demand growth.So,Chinese enterprises should actively implement the internal marketing,and continuously improve the income level of workers,improve the consumption ability,implement marketing strategy,niche market,seek to stimulate consumer demand growth,promote political marketing,strengthen the cooperation with the government,and gain more business opportunities,so as to improve the overall level of consumption of our country and to promote economic growth.%我国城镇居民收入分配的变化,主要表现为差距拉大,严重我国社会整体消费需求量的增长,因此,我国企业应积极实施企业内部营销,不断提高职工收入水平,提高其消费能力;实施利基市场营销策略,寻找、刺激消费需求增长;推进政治营销,加强与政府合作,从而获得更多商机,从而不断提高我国整体消费水平,推动经济增长。

  17. ANDREEA NICOLĂESCU, The Work-Life Balance in Current EU Labour Market Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA LEOVARIDIS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A work-life balance is one of the factors that increases an employee's individual satisfaction, leading to higher economic performance, an aspect that is found in most EU strategic documents dealing with the labour market. Focusing on gender differences, the article carries out a comparative analysis of the situation in EU Member States, on several dimensions: working time, flexible work arrangements, providing opportunities for assuming different domestic responsibilities etc.

  18. Impacts of the current economic crisis on Southeast Asian labour markets

    OpenAIRE

    John Walsh

    2010-01-01

    Southeast Asian labour markets are characterized by the diversity of the countries of which they are part and by the historical antecedents of colonialism that have largely given them their nature. Most have adopted a form of the export-oriented, import-substituting low labour cost manufacturing paradigm of economic development known as the East Asian Economic Model (EAEM). Having already passed through the Asian Financial Crisis of 1997 and its disruptive effects, workers in the region are f...

  19. Marketing of research institutes in view of current organizational and legal regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Slotorsz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to describe in a synthetic way some issues related to the marketing activity of R&D organizations in view of legal acts regulating the functioning of the state owned R&D organizations. The authors have analyzed some regulations related to research institutes and their activities, regulations specifying criteria and procedures of granting of a scientific category to a R&D unit as well as principals of financing of the science and regulations related to the operations of certifying units. Basing on this analysis the authors have elaborated a set of marketing goals of the R&D organizations, a list of their stakeholders and of specific marketing tools both accessible in view of the rules and regulations in force and effective from the point of view of parametric evaluation of the R&D organizations. Among the analyzed tools there are the following: issues related to publications, organization of conferences, seminars and popularizing events, organization of education and training courses, internal policies related to intellectual property protection, internal policies related to technology transfer, membership in international organizations and applied quality policies.

  20. ABOUT THE STATE OF THE WORLD WHEAT MARKET AT THE CURRENT STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorelyy M.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The author considers the Phillips curve in the historical aspect. In the article there is a mention that there were examples when the Phillips curve was not confirmed. Then the author goes on to describe the post-crisis economic situation. The author refers to the food problem as a global problem, which has been designated in the papers of the Club of Rome. Then the author characterizes world wheat production for the period 2003-2013. The author gives an example that shows the volatility of the wheat market (CBOT. The author explains why he uses quotations of forward contracts, and not in the spot market. The author scrutinizes the quotations of CBOT wheat futures contracts in the paper. The author substantiates the need for an econometric model in the research process of futures CBOT wheat prices. The author justifies the chosen scientific approach that defines the methods of research and research model. The author uses econometric approach in the paper. The author uses linear regression as a method of the research. The author creates the equation of linear regression using the software. The author makes a conclusion that there is a certain linear relationship between the price of the futures contract CBOT wheat and the level of unemployment in the United States during the period. The author verifies the effect of Phillips curve. Results of this paper allow the analyst to make informed pricing decisions on the organized market of wheat trade in the medium term.

  1. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand means...

  2. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds...

  3. Energy Demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehfest, E. et al.

    2014-01-01

    Key policy issues – How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low- income economies? – What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand? – How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on t

  4. Misalignment between Post-Secondary Education Demand and Labour Market Supply: Preliminary Insight from Young Adults on the Evolving School to Work Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Eisenstat, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Most research on labour market outcomes and higher education finds a positive relationship. This qualitative research sought to better understand how higher educational attainment contributes to employment outcomes from a subsample (n = 15) of a larger study (N = 36) on youth labour market attachment among minority, low socioeconomic status young…

  5. The Formation and Development of Illicit Performance and Image Enhancing Drug Markets: Exploring Supply and Demand, and Control Policies in Belgium and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, K.

    2016-01-01

    This research explores the understudied phenomenon of performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) markets by examining the structure and formation of the market for PIEDs in the Netherlands and Belgium. Furthermore, this study aims to understand and analyse the actors that operate in the PIED dealin

  6. Wind Power Project Repowering: History, Economics, and Demand (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation summarizes a related NREL technical report and seeks to capture the current status of wind power project repowering in the U.S. and globally, analyze the economic and financial decision drivers that surround repowering, and to quantify the level and timing of demand for new turbine equipment to supply the repowering market.

  7. The Supply and Demand of Accounting Faculty by Interest Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Position advertisements in "The Accounting Review" and data on numbers of doctoral accounting faculty are used to assess the accounting job market, by interest area, over the past decade. Determines that current trends in the demand side are expected to continue, with auditing and systems the "hot" areas. (Author/JOW)

  8. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  9. Does Knowledge Contribute to the Acceptance of Demand Response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Annala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More flexible demand side would benefit the electricity markets, networks and sustainable power generation in many ways. The success of demand response programs, however, relies on consumer acceptance. This paper reviews previous studies about acceptability of different kinds of residential demand response programs. Furthermore, it discusses whether consumers who are more aware of the principles and benefits of demand response have more positive attitudes towards demand response programs. The results of the literature review and two survey studies suggest that price and security of supply are currently bigger motives to change consumption behaviour than environmental issues and that the savings expected to trigger any action (and to lead to lasting change in behaviour may be relatively high. Therefore, the framing of demand response programs goals may affect the acceptance. Additionally, consumers seem to prefer simple price structures that remain constant for a long time to more dynamic options.

  10. On Demand, Development and Dependence: A Review of Current and Future Implications of Socioeconomic Changes for Integrated Water Resource Management in the Okavango Catchment of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Weinzierl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water is both a key and limited resource in the Okavango Catchment of Southern Africa. It is vital for the ecosystem and the three riparian states Angola, Botswana and Namibia who use the water of the catchment for multiple purposes including pastoralism, farming and tourism. Socioeconomic changes, primarily strong population growth and increasing development demands pose significant challenges for the Okavango Catchment and its Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM. In this paper, we first review the socioeconomic background and the current and projected water situation. Against this background, we analyze the dependence of the riparian states and the local livelihoods on the Okavango Catchment. Third, we discuss the implications of socioeconomic changes and increased water demand for the IWRM in the catchment. We review the scientific literature and relevant reports. Further we utilize (geo-spatial analysis of socioeconomic, livelihood and hydrological data, supplemented by a field visit to Namibia and Botswana. Our findings suggest that strong population growth and the stabilization of Angola are likely to increase the pressure to develop the region along the Okavango. The central challenge for IWRM is hence to enable Angola to meet its development needs without limiting livelihood and economic prospects in Botswana and Namibia.

  11. The Role of Marketing in Adult Permanent Vocational Training in the Context of the Current Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geanina COLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of permanent vocational training is important in sustaining thevocational conversion of the working class. A change of views and mentality isdesirable regarding vocational training, in the sense that people need to be moreaware of the importance of permanent learning, more motivated in order tobroaden their horizon and more willing to develop their professional skills. Thelabour market in Romania has suffered important changes due to the economictransition process, which has been materialized especially on the level ofreducing the number of active workers and of employees, thus maintaining arelatively constant rate of unemployment and affecting the labour marketingespecially by a limited number of jobs.

  12. Demand for human allograft tissue in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakey, Jonathan R T; Mirbolooki, Mohammadreza; Rogers, Christina; Mohr, Jim

    2007-01-01

    There is relatively little known about the demand for allograft tissues in Canada. The Canadian Council for Donation and Transplantation (CCDT) is a national advisory body that undertook a comprehensive "market survey" to estimate surgical demand for human allograft tissues in Canada. The report "Demand for Human Allograft Tissue in Canada" reflects survey results sent to 5 prominent User Groups. User Groups were identified as orthopaedic surgeons; neurosurgeons; corneal transplant surgeons; plastic surgeons, specifically those at Canadian Burn Units; and cardiac surgeons (adult and paediatric surgery). The demand for allograft grafts was determined and then extrapolated across the total User Group and then increases in allograft tissue use over the next 1-2 years across User Groups were predicted. The overall response rate for the survey was 21.4%. It varied from a low of 19.6% for the orthopaedic survey to a high of 40.5% for the corneal survey. The estimated current demand for allograft tissue in Canada ranges from a low of 34,442 grafts per year to a high of 62,098 grafts per year. The predicted increase in use of allograft tissue over the next 1-2 year period would suggest that annual demand could rise to somewhere in the range of 42,589-72,210 grafts. The highest rated preferences (98% and 94%) were for accredited and Canadian tissue banks, respectively. This study represents a key step in addressing the paucity of information concerning the demand for allograft tissue in Canada.

  13. O Mercado Brasileiro de Cruzeiros Marítimos: Características da Oferta e da Demanda / The Brazilian market for cruises: Characteristics of the behavior of supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Almeida Ramoa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A demanda no mercado internacional de cruzeiros marítimos encontra-se em ascensão, exceto no Brasil. Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar a realidade atual do mercado brasileiro de cruzeiros marítimos quanto às características da frota que navega em águas do país, como fator de influência no comportamento do mercado brasileiro de cruzeiros marítimos. Com o intuito de atingir ao objetivo proposto, foi realizado um estudo exploratório e descritivo que permitiu identificar os dados da demanda por cruzeiros marítimos de 2004 a 2013 e a característica da frota ofertada ao mercado. No tratamento dos dados, para comparar o comportamento da demanda brasileira com os principais países do ranking internacional, foi utilizada a técnica de extrapolação matemática exponencial. Os resultados indicam que somente o mercado brasileiro apresenta números da demanda em queda, e quanto ao produto turístico cruzeiro marítimo, as companhias com embarque no Brasil disponibilizam navios padrão internacional, não sendo, portanto, esta a razão para o comportamento em queda da demanda por cruzeiros marítimos. The Brazilian market for cruises: Characteristics of the behavior of supply and demand - Demand in the international market for sea cruises is growing, except in Brazil. The general aim of this paper is to identify the reality of the Brazilian Cruise market versus the international market and the features of the fleet which navigates on the Brazilian seas. An exploratory and descriptive study has been done to reach main aim to identify the demand numbers for sea cruises, from 2004 through 2013, and the features of the ships offered to the Brazilian market. Data collected have been treated using mathematical extrapolation technique. The findings pointed that the sea companies associated to Brazilian Association of Shipping Companies [ABREMAR], have available international high quality standard ships to the Brazilian market, which means

  14. Research on Application-oriented Personnel Training of Accounting Specialty Based on Market Demand%基于市场需求的应用型会计专业人才培养问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘峥; 范莹莹

    2012-01-01

    The level of social needs and the ability to demand are the main basis when making talents' training objectives and training plans. At present, there is a strong demand for market to applied accounting professionals. However, it has the serious gap between the update of traditional accounting education in education ideas, course offering, teaching methods and teaching means and the demand for market to accounting professionals. In order to adapt to the demand of the market, we should make a rational orientation to training goals of accounting personnel, further perfect practice teaching system, actively reform practical teaching methods and teaching methods, and strengthen the teachers' training of practice skills to improve the teachers' ability of practice.%社会需求的层次和需求的能力应是我们制定人才培养目标和培养计划的主要依据.目前市场对应用型会计专业人才需求旺盛,但是由于传统会计教育在教育理念、课程设置、教学方法和教学手段等方面的更新与迅速发展的市场对会计人才的需求存在严重脱节.为了适应市场的需求,必须合理定位会计人才培养目标,进一步完善实践教学体系,积极改革实践性教学方法和教学手段,加强教师 实践技能的培训,提高教师的实践能力.

  15. Marketing solutions for Romanian retail companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius BĂLĂŞESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current developments in the consumer goods market raises important and complex issues for all retail companies. Under increasingly strong competition, Romanian retail businesses need to solve outstanding issues regarding the integration in market mechanisms, the diagnose of problems faced in the competitive environment, the initiation and development of business or the determination of any activity’s feasibility. Furthermore, being employed in a direct relationship with market demand, retailers must permanently know and follow its requirements and demands, phenomenon requiring multiple researches, studies and analysis.

  16. Improving access to emergency contraception pills through strengthening service delivery and demand generation: a systematic review of current evidence in low and middle-income countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dawson

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception pills (ECP are among the 13 essential commodities in the framework for action established by the UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children. Despite having been on the market for nearly 20 years, a number of barriers still limit women's access to ECP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC including limited consumer knowledge and poor availability. This paper reports the results of a review to synthesise the current evidence on service delivery strategies to improve access to ECP.A narrative synthesis methodology was used to examine peer reviewed research literature (2003 to 2013 from diverse methodological traditions to provide critical insights into strategies to improve access from a service delivery perspective. The studies were appraised using established scoring systems and the findings of included papers thematically analysed and patterns mapped across all findings using concept mapping.Ten papers were included in the review. Despite limited research of adequate quality, promising strategies to improve access were identified including: advance provision of ECP; task shifting and sharing; intersectoral collaboration for sexual assault; m-health for information provision; and scale up through national family planning programs.There are a number of gaps in the research concerning service delivery and ECP in LMIC. These include a lack of knowledge concerning private/commercial sector contributions to improving access, the needs of vulnerable groups of women, approaches to enhancing intersectoral collaboration, evidence for social marketing models and investment cases for ECP.

  17. Marketing marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede branding en onderscheidende zichtbaarheid juist van belang. Met de groei van big data en het belang van onbewust gedrag, zullen vooral die marketeers in de toekomst succesvol zijn die de consument het b...

  18. China's Electric Vehicle Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alan; Yu Chuan Hwang

    2011-01-01

    @@ Currently global transportation accounts for sixty percent of global oil consumption and thirty percent of global carbon emissions.Projected market studies also show that the oil demand will increase one percent every year until 2030[4].Throughout the world, many countries have begun programs to stimulate the alternative fuel car marker.Many of these countries have set future dates mandating a reduction of pollution and CO2 emission from their city's air.

  19. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  20. Unbundling the retail gas market: Current activities and guidance for serving residential and small customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, K.W.; Lemon, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    The restructuring of retail gas services has followed a typical pattern for previously heavily regulated industries: large customers are initially given rights to purchase unbundled services from different entities, with the same rights dispersed over time to smaller customers. For about ten years now industrial customers in most states have been able to {open_quotes}play the market{close_quotes}. Since the passage of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Order 636 in 1992, interest has centered on expanding service unbundling to small retail customers, including residential customers. Importantly, the Order prohibited pipelines from providing bundled sales service. This is not surprising - in the telecommunications industry, for example, the unbundling of wholesale services was a strong stimulant for developing competition in the local exchange market. The push for small-customer service unbundling has derived from the basic but politically attractive idea that all retail customers should directly benefit from competitive forces in the natural gas industry. When one looks at the movement of prices since 1985, it is easy to see that large retail customers have enjoyed more favorable prices than other retail customers. For example, over the period 1985 to 1994 gas prices to industrial customers and electric utilities fell around 23 percent and 36 percent, respectively. In comparison, gas prices to residential customers increased by around 5 percent while gas prices to commercial customers decreased slightly by about 1 percent. This report examines various aspects of unbundling to small retail gas customers, with special emphasis on residential customers.

  1. Rural Medicare Advantage Market Dynamics and Quality: Historical Context and Current Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Leah; Barker, Abigail R; Wilber, Lyndsey; McBride, Timothy D; Mueller, Keith

    2016-07-01

    Purpose. In this policy brief, we assess variation in Medicare’s star quality ratings of Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that are available to rural beneficiaries. Evidence from the recent Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) quality demonstration suggests that market dynamics, i.e., firms entering and exiting the MA marketplace, play a role in quality improvement. Therefore, we also discuss how market dynamics may impact the smaller and less wealthy populations that are characteristic of rural places. Key Data Findings. (1) Highly rated MA plans serving rural Medicare beneficiaries are more likely to be health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and local preferred provider organizations (PPOs), as opposed to regional PPOs. HMOs and local PPOs may be better able to improve their quality scores strategically in response to the bonus payment incentive due to existing internal monitoring mechanisms. (2) On average, the rural enrollment rate is lower in plans with higher quality scores (59 percent) than the corresponding urban rate (71 percent). This differential is likely due, in part, to lack of availability of highly rated plans in rural areas: 17.8 percent of rural counties lacked access to a plan with four or more (out of five) stars, while just 3.7 percent of urban counties lacked such access. (3) MA plans with high quality scores have been operating longer, on average, and have a lower percentage of rural counties within their contract service areas than plans with lower quality scores.

  2. U.S. Consumer Demand for Organic Fluid Milk by Fat Content

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianghong; Peterson, Hikaru Hanawa; Xia, Tian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined consumer demand for organic fluid milk in the current maturing organic market using a nationwide weekly retail scanner data set. An Almost Ideal Demand System in which both organic milk and conventional milk were further decomposed into products with different fat content was estimated. The demand for organic milk was shown to be price elastic. The results also revealed substitutions between organic milk and conventional milk products differing in fat content. The substitu...

  3. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ RE Market May 10-20 Learned from Inner Mongolia Rare Earth Association,domestic rare earth market was in good situation driven by high demand. Price of neodymium rose strongly. Dysprosium oxide and terbium oxide still hovered at the higher price level. Price of europia remained stable.

  4. Market review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ RE Market June 10-20 Driven by price rising of Nd and Pr, domestic RE market was very active recently. It was thought that the price rising was led by the large demand of NdFeB magnet industry and tight supply of RE raw materials.

  5. Agricultural Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  6. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  7. Development of a “Current Energy Mix Scenario” and a “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario” for electricity demand up to 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário J. S. Brito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we develop a model to forecast world electricity production up to 2100. We analyze historical data for electricity production, population and GDP per Capita for the period 1900–2008. We show that electricity production follows general trends. First, there is an electricity intensity target of 0.20-0.25 kWh per unit of GDP (US$2012 as economies mature, except in countries traditionally relying heavily on renewable electricity (hydroelectricity, for whom this target ranges between 0.50 to 0.80 kWh per unit GDP. Also, countries that belong to the same region tend to follow the evolution of electricity production and GDP/Capita of a regional “modelcountry”. Equations that describe the behavior of these model countries are used to forecast electricity production per capita up to 2100 under a low and a high scenario for the evolution of GDP per Capita. For electricity production two main scenarios were set: “Current Energy MixScenario” and “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario”, with two additional sub scenarios considering slightly different electric intensities. Forecasts up to 2100 yield a demand forelectricity production 3.5 to 5 times higher than the current production for the “Current EnergyMix Scenario” and about 9 to 14 times for the “Electricity as Main Energy Source Scenario”. Forecasts for the “Current Energy Mix Scenario” matched well with forecasts from IEA/EIA (International Energy Agency/ Energy Information Administration while the forecasts for the“Electricity as the Main Energy Source Scenario” are much higher than current predictions.

  8. Recovery of Tourism Demand in Hong Kong from the Global Financial and Economic Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    K. Chon; Li, G; Lin, S.; Gao, Z.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to predict the recovery of the Hong Kong tourism industry from the current global financial and economic crisis. Based on the latest statistics available, this study provides updated forecasts of tourist arrivals to Hong Kong from 10 key source markets over the period 2010-2015. The forecasts include annual and quarterly forecasts of tourist arrivals and the market shares of the source markets concerned. An econometric method is used to estimate the demand elasticities as well...

  9. Domestic and International Market Demand, Spatial Technology Spillover and New Urbanization%国内外市场需求、空间技术溢出与新型城市化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文映; 韩峰; 洪联英

    2015-01-01

    Based on the action mechanism of the market demand for new urbanization, this paper makes a study on the effects of the market demand and space technology spillovers on urbanization of cities at prefecture level and above by using the method of FGLS.The results are as follows:The domestic market strengthens the effect of technology spillover in eastern are-as, while weakening the technology spillover of Interregional R&D in central and western areas; The international market strengthens the effect of technology spillover of interregional R&D in eastern areas and the effects of the technology spillover of interregional communication in western areas, while weakening the technology spillover of interregional communication in east-ern areas.Domestic market is complementary to the international market in eastern and central areas, while domestic market is substitute for international market in western areas.%在系统梳理市场需求对新型城市化的作用机制基础上,本文采用面板FGLS法探讨我国地级及以上城市的国内外市场需求和空间技术溢出对新型城市化的影响。分析结果显示,国内市场显著加强了新型城市化进程中东部地区的技术溢出效应,阻碍了中西部地区的区际研发技术溢出效应的有效发挥;国外市场对东部地区的区际研发技术溢出效应和西部地区的区际沟通技术溢出效应具有明显促进作用,抑制了东部地区的区际沟通技术溢出效应;国内外市场的作用在东中部地区表现为互补关系,而在西部地区则为替代关系。

  10. Bulgarian wedding music between folk and chalg: Politics, markets and current directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Kerol

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the performative relationship among folklore, the market, and the state through an analysis of the politics of Bulgarian wedding music. In the socialist period wedding music was condemned by the state and excluded from the category folk but was adored by thousands of fans as a counter-cultural manifestation. In the post-socialist period wedding music achieved recognition in the West but declined in popularity in Bulgarian as fusion music's, such as chalga (folk/pop, arose and as musicians faced challenges vis-à-vis capitalism. As the state withdrew and became weaker private companies with profit-making agendas arose. Although it inspired chalga, wedding music began to be seen in contrast to it, as folk music. Recently, fatigue with chalga and nationalistic ideologies are revitalizing wedding music.

  11. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alsem, K.J.

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede brand

  12. The mobile marketing in Colombia- its current situation and projection Year 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Martínez Gómez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg El mercadeo móvil ha avanzado vertiginosamente a nivel mundial, porque los canales de comunicación logran llegar efectivamente a la población objetivo. Es por esta razón, que el área de mercadeo puede conocer y aprovechar las características personales de las comunicaciones móviles usadas. El incremento de la penetración celular, la innovación y desarrollo de los sistemas operativos, de las aplicaciones, de las tecnologías de datos, de los terminales como los Smartphones y las tabletas facilitan el crecimiento del uso tecnológico y del mercadeo móvil. Ante la percepción de que Colombia se encuentra rezagada en el uso del mercadeo móvil, el presente estudio buscó identificar el estado de desarrollo del esta estrategia a nivel mundial y de algunos aspectos de este en Colombia. Se seleccionaron fuentes secundarias de información sobre el contexto y las herramientas de Mercadeo Móvil en el mundo, sobre las alternativas ofertadas en Colombia, y después de identificar las principales empresas del ecosistema de mobile marketing en Colombia les fue aplicada una encuesta semi-estructurada para conocer algunas de sus características y logros en este sector. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos en la investigación, encontramos que actualmente el Mobile Marketing en Colombia presenta barreras relacionadas con la composición del mercado de telecomunicaciones, donde un operador dominante impone tarifas y reglas de comercialización desiguales.

  13. A Business Ecosystem Driven Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    of the business domain, stakeholder listing, integration of the value chain, relationship mapping, and ego innovation ecosystem mapping.). This paper finds the global-local matters influence the market structure, which the technologies for building energy technology are developed and employed globally......Due to the huge globally emerging market of the bright green buildings, this paper aims to develop a business-ecosystem driven market analysis approach for the investigation of the bright green building market. This paper develops a five-steps business-ecosystem driven market analysis (definition......, and the market demand is comparatively localized. The market players can be both local and international stakeholders who involve and collaborate for the building projects. This paper also finds that the building extensibility should be considered into the building design due to the gap between current market...

  14. 基于供求定理的卷烟市场批发价格形成探讨%Cigarette Wholesale Market Price Formation Based on the Laws of Supply and Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆志瑞; 王亚莉

    2013-01-01

      在重点卷烟品牌在全国市场快速发展的时期,作为检验品牌运行质量的市场批发价格指标显得愈发重要。文章应用经济理论中的供求定理对卷烟市场上的供求关系变化进行分析,并构建出市场批发价格形成均衡模型,以此作为研究市场批发价格的形成和变动机制。%In the period of Key cigarette brand's rapidly development, the market wholesale prices, as a test of the brand operation quality becomes more and more important. We use the Laws of Supply and Demand to analyze the changes of supply and demand of cigarettes, and set up the market wholesale price formation equilibrium model as the wholesale market price formation and fluctuation mechanism.

  15. 动物性食品化学品投入与市场需求诱导关联性探析%Analysis on the Relative of Animal Food Chemical Investment and the Market Demand Induction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙言雅

    2011-01-01

    Security problem of animal food and its product was virtually the chemical investment question; It would bring problems to the physical and psychological health of residents and the quality of future people. Starts from the market demand and the incentive of food security problem drived by present marketing concept was analyzed, then it indicated that the company ethnic risk growed from the benefit pursuit satisfied the market demand mechanism.%动物性食品及其制品的安全问题实质是化学品投入问题,它给居民身心健康及未来人类素质带来较大的问题.从市场需求入手,分析了现行营销观念驱动下食品安全问题的诱因,揭示了企业道德风险产生于市场需求机制满足的利益追求.

  16. DISCOVERING SOCIAL MEDIA BEHAVIOR PATTERNS IN ORDER TO IMPROVE THE MARKETING STRATEGY IN THE CURRENT CHAOTIC ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi DUMITRESCU; TICHINDELEAN Mihai; Simona VINEREAN

    2012-01-01

    Marketing used to imply paying for your target audience's attention. Nowadays, with the development of inbound marketing, marketers have to attract customers with valuable and useful information that will make them eager to buy. The ever-evolving technology has lead to an intense focus on inbound marketing, in its many forms, in order to lower marketing costs and gain a position in the social web. In this context, this paper explores how companies can benefit from social media marketing by un...

  17. O Comportamento da Oferta e da Demanda no Mercado Brasileiro de Cruzeiros Marítimos com Base no Conceito do Ciclo de Vida do Produto Turístico 1/Supply and Demand Behavior in the Brazilian Cruise Market Based on the Concept of the Tourism Product Life Cycle/El Comportamiento de la Oferta y la Demanda en el Mercado Brasileño de Cruceros con Base en el Concepto del Ciclo de Vida del Producto Turístico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Eduardo de Almeida Ramôa; Luiz Carlos da Silva Flores

    2015-01-01

    .... After a rapid increase in demand, the Brazilian market has been showing negative growth rates unlike what is happening in the international market, particularly in the United States and Europe...

  18. 当前国内汽车营销策略重构探析%An Analysis of the Reconstruction of China's Current Automobile Marketing Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海侠

    2012-01-01

    China's automobile market is now showing the competition of a "post-market", which means that the past 4S sales mode and marketing strategy is lagging behind the current situation and there is an imperative need to introduce the management concept of integrated marketing communication and the new 4V marketing strategy. The new approaches require intensive service marketing, enriched marketing modes and service items and differentiated marketing methods. The new approaches also call for the full exploitation of products and services, the increased value for money and the rapid improvement of informationization and marketing talent training. Only in this way can the new market trends be met.%目前国内汽车市场正进入“后市场”竞争时代,原有的4S销售模式和营销策略已经有所滞后,急需引入整合营销传播的管理理念和4V新型营销策略,深化服务营销,扩充营销模式和服务内涵,体现差异化营销,充分挖掘产品和服务功能,增加附加值,并加速完善信息化和营销人才培养机制,以适应新市场趋势的需求。

  19. Analysis of demand for vegetable in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir; Mohamed, Zainalabidin; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Radam, Alias

    2008-01-01

    The market information is important in facilitating marketing system from production to the downstream. The purpose of this study is to estimate the Malaysian consumers’ demand for vegetables. By using Household Expenditure Survey 2004/05 data, demands for 6 vegetables are analyzed via a multi-stage budgeting system. The estimated demand elasticities show that the demands for all vegetables are found to increase when per capita income rises. Most of the vegetables are found to respond substa...

  20. Technical Workers in Great Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Labor and Social Security Ministry conducted a survey on 81 labor markets across China in the second quarter of this year, the results of which showed that the demand for technical workers, especially those of middle and senior titles, far outnumbers the supply.The survey shows that the demand/supply

  1. The Global Organic Food Market and Transformation: Deductive Definition of Empiric Indicators, The Demand Explanation, The Institutional Explanation & Comparative Country Report: Denmark versus Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Horn

    The present study is part of the project “Public Policies and Demand for Organic Food: An International Comparison of Policy Effects and Policy Determinants” (COP). It is carried out in WP II that concerns the supply-side policies and demand. In the WP it has been an initial task to formulate a t......, the responsible for the research report is the author. The report is written by Ole Horn Rasmussen that for four month has been attached to the WP as research assistant. Aalborg in December 2007-12-21, Jan Holm Ingemann, head of WP II...

  2. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA); Constantin SASU; Geanina Constanța SPĂTARU (PRAVĂȚ)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presente...

  3. Dynamic Pricing Strategy with Demand Learning Based on Competitive Markets%竞争环境下考虑需求学习的动态定价策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李豪; 彭庆

    2015-01-01

    为了分析在顾客到达率不确定且面临市场竞争的情况下,零售商如何通过需求学习来动态地调整价格,以达到收益最大化的目的,运用博弈理论和动态规划方法建立了多周期随机动态定价优化模型,分析了需求学习下的价格竞争均衡。研究表明,在竞争和需求学习的市场环境下,零售商的价格博弈存在均衡,且多个均衡价格存在时,各零售商的收益与均衡价格成正比。应用算例分析了需求学习的效果,求出了需求学习下零售商竞争的价格均衡,并得出一些管理启示。%Analyzing why retailers have to adopt dynamic pricing through demand learning to maximize their revenue where there is demand uncertainty of the customer arrival rate and the competitive markets with multiple competing retailers , a dynamic pricing model by dynamic programming and game theory is presented .Based on competitive markets and demand learning background , the existence of Nash Equilib-rium is obvious .It is found that the profit of retailers is proportional to the equilibrium price where there are multiple equilibrium prices .Numerical experiments are conducted to analyze the effect of demand learning and calculate the price equilibrium .A managerial insight is derived from numerical experiments .

  4. Supply and Demand Analysis of Chinese E-commerce Logistics Market%我国电子商务物流市场供给与需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶峥; 张兰

    2014-01-01

    E-commerce has become one of the hot spots in our country economic development,as the basis for supporting the development of electronic commerce,e -commerce logistics also concerned gradually by the parties.From the electronic commerce logistics system facilities,development of private express industry,this paper analyzes the domestic electronic business logistics market supply situation.From the network transaction B2B market and the network retail market,the paper analyzes the electronic commerce logistics demand.Through the analysis,this paper found that the market demand for logistics e-commerce booming,but the lack of effective supply,there is great development space,e -commerce enterprises,logistics companies and other parties to investment trend.%电子商务已经成为我国经济发展热点之一,而电子商务物流作为电子商务发展支撑基础,也逐步受到各方关注。文中从电子商务物流系统设施投入、民营快递业发展等方面分析了国内电子商务物流市场供给情况;从网络交易B2 B市场和网络零售市场的角度分析了电子商务物流需求情况;分析发现电子商务物流市场需求旺盛,但是有效供给不足,存在极大发展空间,电子商务企业、物流企业等各方投入趋势明显。

  5. 78 FR 23883 - Marketing Orders for Fruit Crops; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision of a Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... selection process for industry members to serve on a marketing order's committee or board and ballots used...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Marketing Orders for Fruit Crops; Notice of Request... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  6. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Molănescu, Gabriela; Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance.     Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social...

  7. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  8. A Business Ecosystem Driven Market Analysis: The Bright Green Building Market Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Due to the huge globally emerging market of the bright green buildings, this paper aims to develop a business-ecosystem driven market analysis approach for the investigation of the bright green building market. This paper develops a five-steps business-ecosystem driven market analysis (definition...... of the business domain, stakeholder listing, integration of the value chain, relationship mapping, and ego innovation ecosystem mapping.). This paper finds the global-local matters influence the market structure, which the technologies for building energy technology are developed and employed globally......, and the market demand is comparatively localized. The market players can be both local and international stakeholders who involve and collaborate for the building projects. This paper also finds that the building extensibility should be considered into the building design due to the gap between current market...

  9. Demand forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Gregor, Belčec

    2011-01-01

    Companies operate in an increasingly challenging environment that requires them to continuously improve all areas of the business process. Demand forecasting is one area in manufacturing companies where we can hope to gain great advantages. Improvements in forecasting can result in cost savings throughout the supply chain, improve the reliability of information and the quality of the service for our customers. In the company Danfoss Trata, d. o. o. we did not have a system for demand forecast...

  10. The current California drought through EDDI's eyes: early warning and monitoring of agricultural and hydrologic drought with the new Evaporative Demand Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Wood, A. W.; Morton, C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a physically based, multi-scalar drought index—the Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)—to improve treatment of evaporative dynamics in drought monitoring. Existing popular drought indices—such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index that informs much of the US Drought Monitor (USDM)—have primarily relyied on precipitation and temperature (T) to represent hydroclimatic anomalies, leaving evaporative demand (E0) most often derived from poorly performing T-based parameterizations then used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) from LSMs. Instead, EDDI leverages the inter-relations of E0 and ET, measuring E0's physical response to surface drying anomalies due to two distinct land surface/atmosphere interactions: (i) in sustained drought, limited moisture availability forces E0 and ET into a complementary relation, whereby ET declines as E0 increases; and (ii) in "flash" droughts, E0 increases due to increasing advection or radiation. E0's rise in response to both drought types suggests EDDI's robustness as a monitor and leading indicator of drought. To drive EDDI, we use for E0 daily reference ET from the ASCE Standardized Reference ET equation forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System drivers. EDDI is derived by aggregating E0 anomalies from its long-term mean across a period of interest and normalizing them to a Z-score. Positive EDDI indicates drier than normal conditions (and so drought). We use the current historic California drought as a test-case in which to examine EDDI's performance in monitoring agricultural and hydrologic drought. We observe drought development and decompose the behavior of drought's evaporative drivers during in-drought intensification periods and wetting events. EDDI's performance as a drought leading indicator with respect to the USDM is tested in important agricultural regions. Comparing streamflow from several USGS gauges in the Sierra Nevada to EDDI, we find that EDDI tracks most major

  11. 燃油价格波动与汽车市场需求%Gasoline price volatility and auto market demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏子杉; 方兆本; 刘杰

    2012-01-01

    以离散选择模型为基础,通过引入心理学中的随机效用模型解释了整体效用中由不可观测因素带来的随机效用部分,结合包括燃油价格在内的多种市场因素及各车型自身属性,给出了一个市场份额模型,并讨论了燃油价格波动对于不同汽车款型市场份额的影响.区别于以往基于人口统计学数据的传统方法,直接模拟了总体市场选择行为,一方面使方法简化从而提高了可操作性,另一方面也避免了由于人口统计学数据中的误差对模型整体准确性的影响.%Based on the discrete choice model, this work adopted a random utility model from psychology theories to explain the random utility resulting from unobservable attributes in the overall utility. A market share model was constructed in view of various factors including gasoline prices, multiple market factors and the attributes of each model, and a discussion of the relationship between gasoline prices and market shares was performed. Different from the previous demographic data based approaches, this work simulated the choice behavior of the whole market, thereby presenting a simpler and more practical approach. Meanwhile, the possible error brought by demographic data was avoided consequently.

  12. 森林资源产权市场制约因素及对策分析——基于供求视角%Analysis on Forest Resource Property Market's Restriction Factors and Countermeasures: From the Perspective of Supply and Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔永平; 聂影

    2012-01-01

    目前森林资源产权市场仍处于起步阶段,存在着众多制约市场供求双方的因素.制约需求的因素包括森林资源产权制度不完善、森林资源风险防范机制不健全、林业融资难、林业比较利益低;制约供给的因素包括政策法规不完善、信息不完备、交易成本高、非农就业机会少、社会保障制度不健全等;通过市场中介间接影响供求的因素包括市场中介组织缺乏等.本研究给出了强化森林资源产权市场机制的对策建议.%Current forest resource property market is still at the initial stage and there are many restricting factors that affect both the supply and the demand. The factors restricting the demand are forest resource property systems being imperfect, forest resource risk prevention mechanism being incomplete, forestry financing being difficult, forestry comparative rate of profit being low and so on; the factors restricting the supply include concerning law and policies being imperfect, information being incomplete, trading cost being high, non-agricultural job chance being low, social security system being imperfect and so on; to make it worse, imperfect intermediary organization turns out to be one of the restricting factors affect both the supply and the demand. This research offers some countermeasure suggestions of strengthening forest resource property market mechanism.

  13. 失能老年人的生活状况和社区照护服务需求研究%Study on Current Life Situation and Community Care Service Demand of Disabled Elders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜向群; 刘妮娜; 魏蒙

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the datum of survey on the basic situation and service demand for the elderly in Xicheng District in Beijing from Gerontology Institute of Renmin University, and analyzes their current life situation and care service demand. The reality reveals that there has been a low degree of utilization of community service facilities for disabled elders. Besides, community service items have been in shortage and had low supply rate. Accordingly, this study recognized that the advancement of social services for disabled elders can be conducted from two aspects: the short-term goals and long-term planning. On one hand, short-term goals include following items: providing corresponding services subsidies for disabled elders, transferring the core of community servicesfrom "entertainment" to "health maintenance" and properly handling the relationship among home-based care, institution care and family support for disabled elders, etc. On the other hand, the long-term planning covers establishment of system and mechanism of social services for disabled elders, furthermore, promotion of the market development of social services for disabled elders etc.%利用中国人民大学老年学研究所2013年对北京市西城区老年人基本情况和服务需求的调查数据,就失能老年人的生活状况和照护服务需求进行分析。失能老年人对社区养老服务设施的利用率低,社区照护服务项目及有效供给不足。可以从短期目标与长期规划两个方面着手推进失能老年人的社会服务发展。短期目标包括给予失能老年人相应服务补贴,社区服务重心由“娱乐型”向“医养型”转变,妥善处理失能老年人居家养老、机构养老与家庭养老的关系等;长期目标包括建立失能老年人社会服务机制、推进失能老年人社会服务市场化发展等。

  14. Demand-side Management, Supply-side Management and Current Macro-policy Choic%需求管理、供给管理及当前宏观政策选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李义平

    2016-01-01

    纵观市场经济国家从需求管理到供给管理的发展过程,并从需求管理及供给管理理论的特点及旨在解决问题出发,可以看出,我国当前经济面临的主要问题是结构调整和创新问题。选择供给管理的宏观经济政策是必要的。然而,供给管理必须要有适合的制度安排,这个制度的安排实质上是一个制度的变革问题。它包括加大真正的企业的供给、与市场经济相适应的政府职能转变、创新的制度安排等等。%This article explores how the country who uses a market economy walks from the supply side to the demand side on the way of macroeconomic manage-ment based on the problems these two arts or sciences are designed to deal with and an analysis of their characteristics. As the primary issues facing Chi-na’s current state of economy, innovation and structural adjustment, it argues, lead to urgent requirements for reforms on supply - side management and new institutional arrangements relevant to it.

  15. Expectations, open market operations, and changes in the federal funds rate / Commentary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John B Taylor; Athanasios Orphanides

    2001-01-01

    ... (2000) to explain the demand for Fed balances. The model shows how changes in the target for the federal funds rate can sometimes affect the actual funds rate even without any current open market operations...

  16. Energy Flexibility Potential of Industrial Processes in the Regulating Power Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Aabjerg Friis, Henrik Tønder; Gravers Mostrup, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    , and electric heating in replacement of conventional technologies. To enable the use of demand response, the consumers must have economical and practical incentives without loss of convenience. This study aims to investigate the demand-response market potential of a flexible industrial process in the current...... electricity market structure. The Danish West regulating power market is selected in this study with an ideal process simulation of an industrial roller press. By analysing market data, the value of flexible electricity consumption by the roller press in the regulating power market is demonstrated by an ideal...

  17. The Analysis of Marketing Strategy for Senior Agricultural Products Based on Consumer Demand%基于消费需求的高端农产品营销策略分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽

    2014-01-01

    通过判断抽样选取高端农产品的购买者进行访谈,深入调查消费者购买高端农产品的需求状况。针对消费者在购买高端农产品时所表现出的生理和安全需求、情感和品牌需求、沟通需求、精神和体验需求,提出通过强化消费者的感性和理性认知、塑造个性品牌、拓宽销售渠道、提炼核心卖点、深入开展体验营销、实行差异化营销等策略来打造企业个性化营销方案,全方位满足消费者的各种需求。%Through selecting senior agricultural products buyers for depth interviews by judgment sampling, the purchase demand for senior agricultural products is investigated. Aimed at the four types of purchase demand for senior agricultural products, i.e., physiological and safety requirements, emotional and branding requirements, communication requirements, and spiritual and experiential requirements, an individualized marketing proposal is put forward that consumer’s requirements can be fully satisfied by intensifying consumers’ perceptual and rational cognition, building personality brands, broadening sales channels, refining the core selling point, deepening experiential marketing, and implementing a differentiated marketing strategy.

  18. Research on the Training Mode of Compound Talents in Medical Marketing Major under the Guidance of Market Demand%市场需求导向下本科医药营销专业复合型人才培养模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金美伶; 万雷; 师东菊; 迟桂华; 安祥林; 郭继民; 吴艳红

    2016-01-01

    近年来市场经济迅速发展,教育程度不断提升,复合型人才已成为企业在招聘时的首要选择,而医药营销作为医学与市场营销学的交叉学科,其特殊性使企业希望能够招聘到既有医药专业知识又有市场营销技能的复合型营销人才,以市场需求为导向来研究本科医药营销专业人才的培养模式,将行业背景和专业知识融入到人才的培养过程中,使学生在掌握市场营销理论的基础上,融合医药知识,更好的为企业服务,已成为诸多高校面临的迫切问题。%In recent years,the rapid development of market economy,education level rising,talents has become the first choice for enterprises in the recruitment,and pharmaceutical marketing as a cross subject of medicine and marketing,its particularity makes the enterprises hope to recruit both medical professional knowledge and marketing skills of compound marketing talents training mode,guided by the market demand of professional talents of pharmaceutical marketing,industry background and expertise into the training process,and make the students master the basis of marketing theory,integration of medical knowledge,better services for enterprises,has become an urgent problem faced by many universities.

  19. Cost and Demand Characteristics of Telecom Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1997-01-01

    The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics.......The Chapter presents the general characteristics of the cost and demand profiles for telecommunication services and identifies the barriers towards a free competitive market for telecommunication services related to these characteristics....

  20. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  1. Analysis on The Supply and Demand of China's Home Car Market and Its Influential Elements%浅析我国轿车市场的供求变动趋势及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑾; 耿喆

    2012-01-01

    Though China's car market is still growing in these years,strategies for problems solving and further development still need to be held attention to by those car manufacturers.According to the related economic theories,the authors exposes that market demands,consumer behavior,manufacturers' strategies,the state's policies and international environments have a lot to do with the preconditions,present state and the prospect of the civil car markets.At last,the authors also explain various competition strategies made by varied corporations of different types in details.we give the total references.%我国轿车市场仍处在成长期,各大厂商的应对策略和发展战略值得关注。本文运用经济理论分别从市场需求和消费者行为、厂商战略、国家政策和国际环境这四个方面对我国轿车市场发展现状和趋势的成因以及不同类型厂商的竞争战略加以分析和解释。

  2. Market Demand Analysis of Independent Urban Subway Travel:a Case Study of Nanjing%城市地铁自助游市场需求分析--以南京为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇; 庞一阳; 沈苏彦; 樊文翔

    2013-01-01

      Independent urban subway travel is an emerging tourism market segment. A questionnaire survey of independent travelers in Nanjing targeting on the market demand of independent travel is conducted. The analysis shows that independent subway tour lines have preferable market prospect and development potential and that whether the traffic is convenient between subway stations and tourism sceneries is the deciding factor of independent subway travel.%  地铁自助游作为一种新兴的旅游细分市场正逐渐兴起。通过对南京自助游游客进行的问卷调查,分析地铁自助游市场的需求,结果显示:地铁自助游线路的开发拥有较好的市场前景和发展潜力;地铁站点与旅游景区之间的交通是否方便是决定地铁自助游能否成行的关键因素。

  3. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  4. Equilibrium Model of Discrete Dynamic Supply Chain Network with Random Demand and Advertisement Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guitao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The advertisement can increase the consumers demand; therefore it is one of the most important marketing strategies in the operations management of enterprises. This paper aims to analyze the impact of advertising investment on a discrete dynamic supply chain network which consists of suppliers, manufactures, retailers, and demand markets associated at different tiers under random demand. The impact of advertising investment will last several planning periods besides the current period due to delay effect. Based on noncooperative game theory, variational inequality, and Lagrange dual theory, the optimal economic behaviors of the suppliers, the manufactures, the retailers, and the consumers in the demand markets are modeled. In turn, the supply chain network equilibrium model is proposed and computed by modified project contraction algorithm with fixed step. The effectiveness of the model is illustrated by numerical examples, and managerial insights are obtained through the analysis of advertising investment in multiple periods and advertising delay effect among different periods.

  5. Preliminary Examination of the Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.; Bird, L.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the demand for renewable electricity has accelerated as a consequence of state and federal policies and the growth of voluntary green power purchase markets, along with the generally improving economics of renewable energy development. This paper reports on a preliminary examination of the supply and demand balance for renewable electricity in the United States, with a focus on renewable energy projects that meet the generally accepted definition of "new" for voluntary market purposes, i.e., projects installed on or after January 1, 1997. After estimating current supply and demand, this paper presents projections of the supply and demand balance out to 2010 and describe a number of key market uncertainties.

  6. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina A. Doblin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core eddy (CCE and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2–10 times greater Shannon index in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67% by larger micro-plankton $(\\geq 20\\lrm{\\mu }\\mathrm{m}$ ≥ 20 μ m , as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a ‘greening’ effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially

  7. Nutrient uplift in a cyclonic eddy increases diversity, primary productivity and iron demand of microbial communities relative to a western boundary current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblin, Martina A; Petrou, Katherina; Sinutok, Sutinee; Seymour, Justin R; Messer, Lauren F; Brown, Mark V; Norman, Louiza; Everett, Jason D; McInnes, Allison S; Ralph, Peter J; Thompson, Peter A; Hassler, Christel S

    2016-01-01

    The intensification of western boundary currents in the global ocean will potentially influence meso-scale eddy generation, and redistribute microbes and their associated ecological and biogeochemical functions. To understand eddy-induced changes in microbial community composition as well as how they control growth, we targeted the East Australian Current (EAC) region to sample microbes in a cyclonic (cold-core) eddy (CCE) and the adjacent EAC. Phototrophic and diazotrophic microbes were more diverse (2-10 times greater Shannon index) in the CCE relative to the EAC, and the cell size distribution in the CCE was dominated (67%) by larger micro-plankton [Formula: see text], as opposed to pico- and nano-sized cells in the EAC. Nutrient addition experiments determined that nitrogen was the principal nutrient limiting growth in the EAC, while iron was a secondary limiting nutrient in the CCE. Among the diazotrophic community, heterotrophic NifH gene sequences dominated in the EAC and were attributable to members of the gamma-, beta-, and delta-proteobacteria, while the CCE contained both phototrophic and heterotrophic diazotrophs, including Trichodesmium, UCYN-A and gamma-proteobacteria. Daily sampling of incubation bottles following nutrient amendment captured a cascade of effects at the cellular, population and community level, indicating taxon-specific differences in the speed of response of microbes to nutrient supply. Nitrogen addition to the CCE community increased picoeukaryote chlorophyll a quotas within 24 h, suggesting that nutrient uplift by eddies causes a 'greening' effect as well as an increase in phytoplankton biomass. After three days in both the EAC and CCE, diatoms increased in abundance with macronutrient (N, P, Si) and iron amendment, whereas haptophytes and phototrophic dinoflagellates declined. Our results indicate that cyclonic eddies increase delivery of nitrogen to the upper ocean to potentially mitigate the negative consequences of increased

  8. Practical aspects of treatment with target specific anticoagulants: initiation, payment and current market, transitions, and venous thromboembolism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Charles E

    2015-04-01

    Target specific anticoagulants (TSOACs) have recently been introduced to the US market for multiple indications including venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention in total hip and knee replacement surgeries, VTE treatment and reduction in the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Currently, three TSOACs are available including rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran with edoxaban currently under Food and Drug Administration review for VTE treatment and stroke prevention in NVAF. The introduction of these agents has created a paradigm shift in anticoagulation by considerably simplifying treatment and anticoagulant initiation for patients by giving clinicians the opportunity to use a rapid onset, rapid offset, oral agent. The availability of these rapid onset TSOACs is allowing for outpatient treatment of low risk pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis which can greatly reduce healthcare costs by avoiding inpatient hospitalizations and treatment for the disease. Additionally with this practice, the complications of an inpatient hospitalization may also be avoided such as nosocomial infections. Single-agent approaches with TSOACs represent a paradigm shift in the treatment of VTE versus the complicated overlap of a parenteral agent with warfarin. Transitions between anticoagulants, including TSOACs, are a high-risk period for the patient, and clinicians must carefully consider patient characteristics such as renal function as well as the agents that are being transitioned. TSOAC use appears to be growing slowly with improved payment coverage throughout the US.

  9. 潜在市场需求不确定下的风险厌恶供应链决策%Risk-Aversion Supply Chain Decisions under Potential Market Demand Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡新平; 邓腾腾

    2014-01-01

    When a new product is put into market , it is necessary to consider supply chain risk aversion under the uncertainty of market demands .For such a problem , a utility function for manufacturers and re-tailers is constructed.Also, based on advertising cost, levels of service, and selling prices, an optimal short-term decision-making model is established .Then, with the model, effects of the demand risk and the risk tolerance level of members in a supply chain on the optimal short-term decisions for the supply chain is analyzed .Through numerical simulation , the optimal long-term decisions for a supply chain are also ana-lyzed .Results indicate that the optimal advertising cost is a monotonically increasing function of demand risk and a monotonically decreasing function of risk tolerance level .The best selling price and the optimal service level , as differing from an industry to another and other factors , are U-shape or inverted U-shape with the change of demand risk and risk tolerance level .The selling price and the service level need to make different adjustments in different conditions of market when the circumstance of market is changing . The adjustment of advertising cost has nothing to do with the market features .In the long run , the manu-facturers can achieve the utility maximization , while the retailer can only make the utility suboptimal .%考虑新产品投入市场时潜在市场需求不确定下的供应链风险厌恶,构造了一个考虑制造商和零售商的效用函数,建立了基于广告费用、服务水平以及销售价格的最优短期决策模型,分析了需求风险和供应链成员风险容忍水平对供应链最优短期决策的影响,采用数值仿真分析了供应链最优长期决策。研究结果表明:最优广告费用分别是需求风险和风险容忍水平的单调递增和递减函数,最优销售价格和服务水平则因行业等因素不同与需求风险和风险容忍水平呈U型或倒U型

  10. Marketing: applications in a military health care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, G A; Tucker, S L

    1997-08-01

    Military health care leaders must recognize the importance of satisfied consumers. As part of this recognition, the focus of military medicine must change from a coercive-power to a reward-power system. This change highlights the need for business practices such as marketing. Encouraging military health care administrators to learn and understand the applications of the marketing variables will enhance demand management and health care delivery for beneficiaries. This paper describes some applications of marketing variables, informs the military health care administrator about the process of marketing, and describes the utility of marketing in the current paradigm shift in military health care delivery.

  11. Demanding Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2010-01-01

    It was the kind of crisis most universities dread. In November 2006, a group of minority student leaders at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) threatened to sue the university if administrators did not heed demands that included providing more funding for multicultural student groups. This article discusses how this threat…

  12. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry shows signs of recovery as reflected by a rebounding PMI. The initial public offerings market withers due to less than favorable stock markets. Chinese shipbuilders reel from decreasing orders as external demands falter. The mobile payment industry bursts with vitality, though the security issue remains an acute concern. Foreign banks in China lag behind their local competitors in terms of profitability owing to limited ability to attract deposits.

  13. An optimization of an inventory model of decaying-lot depleted by declining market demand and extended with discretely variable holding costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Prakash Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inventory management is considered as major concerns of every organization. In inventory holding, many steps are taken by managers that result a cost involved in this row. This cost may not be constant in nature during time horizon in which perishable stock is held. To investigate on such a case, this study proposes an optimization of inventory model where items deteriorate in stock conditions. To generalize the decaying conditions based on location of warehouse and conditions of storing, the rate of deterioration follows the Weibull distribution function. The demand of fresh item is declining with time exponentially (because no item can always sustain top place in the list of consumers’ choice practically e.g. FMCG. Shortages are allowed and backlogged, partially. Conditions for global optimality and uniqueness of the solutions are derived, separately. The results of some numerical instances are analyzed under various conditions.

  14. 我国纤维素醚市场调查及需求预测%Market Research and Supply and Demand Forecast of Cellulose Ether in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜新平

    2011-01-01

    The general situation of production and consumption of cellulose ether, especially for caroboxylic methyl cellulose, methyl cellulose and derivatives are introduced. The demand and supply trend is also forecasted. Competition factors and problem in cellulose ether industry are analyzed and gives some suggestions on the domestic production.%重点介绍羟甲基纤维素和甲基纤维素及其衍生物的生产和消费情况,并对市场需求进行了预测。还对纤维素醚的行业竞争因素和存在的问题进行了分析。

  15. An inventory model of two-warehouse system with variable demand dependent on instantaneous displayed stock and marketing decisions via hybrid RCGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Bhunia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single item deterministic inventory model with two separate warehouses called owned warehouse/show-room (OW and rented warehouse (RW is developed. The proposed model of this paper also considers a realistic assumption regarding the storage capacity of the rented warehouse. Demand is a function of selling price, advertisement of an item and displayed inventory level in OW. The stocks of RW are shipped to OW under bulk release pattern where shortages are not allowed. We discuss different scenarios of the proposed model to address relative size of stock dependency parameters and the capacity of owned warehouse. For each scenario, the corresponding problem is formulated as a constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming problem with three integer and two non-integer variables and a real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA is developed to solve the resulted problem. The proposed model of the paper is also examined using some numerical examples and sensitivity analysis is performed.

  16. SITUACIÓN ACTUAL Y PLANTEAMIENTOS FUTUROS PARA LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE MARKETING EN ESPAÑA / CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROPOSALS FOR MARKETING, RESEARCH IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Gázquez Abad, J. C.; Jiménez Castillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    El marketing ha evolucionado notablemente como disciplina científica en España a lo largo de los últimos años. El presente trabajo trata de poner de manifiesto qué ha caracterizado esta evolución en las dos últimas décadas, y cuál es su estado actual. Para ello, y junto a una comparativa de los principales trabajos de revisión de la investigación en marketing en nuestro país desarrollados hasta el momento, se analiza el contenido de las ocho últimas ediciones del principal congreso sobre mark...

  17. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  18. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  19. The Role of Socio-technical Devices in Framing the Current Strategic Issues and Future States of the Service Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to inquire into the role of socio-technical devices like value metrics and accounting in organizing the service market. The authors provide a case on how such devices participates in framing the market for transportation during the introduction of large-scale bridges...... are then brought into an explanation of the overflowing and reconfiguration of the transportation market....

  20. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

    2009-02-01

    , electric power accounts for 30% to 40% of the factory cost of producing primary aluminum. In the continental United States, Alcoa Inc. currently owns and/or operates ten aluminum smelters and many associated fabricating facilities with a combined average load of over 2,600 MW. This presents Alcoa Inc. with a significant opportunity to respond in areas where economic opportunities exist to help mitigate rising energy costs by supplying demand response services into the energy system. This report is organized into seven chapters. The first chapter is the introduction and discusses the intention of this report. The second chapter contains the background. In this chapter, topics include: the motivation for Alcoa to provide demand response; ancillary service definitions; the basics behind aluminum smelting; and a discussion of suggested ancillary services that would be particularly useful for Alcoa to supply. Chapter 3 is concerned with the independent system operator, the Midwest ISO. Here the discussion examines the evolving Midwest ISO market structure including specific definitions, requirements, and necessary components to provide ancillary services. This section is followed by information concerning the Midwest ISO's classifications of demand response parties. Chapter 4 investigates the available opportunities at Alcoa's Warrick facility. Chapter 5 involves an in-depth discussion of the regulation service that Alcoa's Warrick facility can provide and the current interactions with Midwest ISO. Chapter 6 reviews future plans and expectations for Alcoa providing ancillary services into the market. Last, chapter 7, details the conclusion and recommendations of this paper.

  1. Economics Analysis Method for Commercial Aircraft Based on market demand%基于市场需求的商用飞机经济性分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任启鸿; 王如华

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft economics is is one of essential factors in aircraft competition, and it is also a critical measure-ment in aircraft development and purchasing. This paper establishes an Aircraft economics assessment model based operating cost and market demand.%商用飞机的经济性是影响航空市场竞争的关键因素之一,也是航空公司进行飞机选型和制造商开展型号研制的重要指标之一。基于商用飞机运营成本以及市场需求,建立了经济性评估模型。并进行案例分析,比较不同座级飞机在不同市场的经济适应性以及竞争力。

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s state-owned enterprises are focusing on the stalwarts of the domestic economy, including the oil, telecommunications and power industries. Although auto sales have seen a period of sluggish demand, luxury car imports have been increasing. Steel mills will drop their prices in the fourth quarter because of excessive sup- ply. China’s stock markets, once taking the global lead in share price increases, have become the worst performing markets in the world. Along with the declining stock markets, mainland-listed companies also saw their profits drop in the first half of this year.

  3. 基于多种数学模型下我国联合收割机保有量的预测%Prediction of a Variety of Mathematical Models of Combine Harvester Based on Market Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丹; 傅丽芳

    2014-01-01

    联合收割机保有量的预测是一个复杂的非线型系统,三次多项式时间序列模型、灰色预测的 GM(1,1)模型和BP 神经网络模型对发展变化具有增长性和波动性以及信息不完备的复杂经济系统具有一定的实用性。为此,利用我国联合收割机保有量的历史数据,综合使用这3种模型进行均值预测,使生产联合收割机的厂家在能够把握市场的需求量、不至于盲目生产及造成不必要的损失同时,可以为政府预测新的经济前景、制定新的生产计划提供重要参考。%Combine the market demand forecast is a complex nonlinear system , the grey prediction GM ( 1 , 1 ) model , BP neural network model and three polynomial time series model with the growth and volatility and incomplete information of complex economic system has certain practicability for development .Historical data using combine harvesters in China have weight , were predicted by the three models , so that the production of combine harvester manufacturer can grasp the market demand , not blind production , resulting in unnecessary losses andcan provide important reference to develop new production plan for the government to forecast economic prospects .

  4. 基于.NET技术与MATLAB相结合的航空运输市场需求分析系统%Demand Analysis System of Aviation Transportation Market Based on.Net Technology and MATLAB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景崇毅; 张培文

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,in view of the complexity of the diversity and analysis of airline data,we summarized several analytic methods,according to which we established the aviation transportation market demand analysis system based on the combination of the.Net technology and MATLAB,introduced the realization process of the links of market demand analysis,such as sampling,data pretreatment,description and statistics,forecasting analysis and result testing,etc.At the end,through a practical example,we demonstrated that the system could be of important applied value for analytic personnel.%针对航线数据的多样性及分析的复杂性特点,总结归纳了与之适应的几类分析方法,并据此构建了基于.Net技术与MATLAB相结合的航空运输市场需求分析系统,介绍了市场需求分析的各个环节,如样本抽取、数据预处理、描述统计、预测分析及结果检验等的实现过程.系统体系结构采用C/S架构,用户界面友好、权限设定合理、可实现设定等级的数据共享、运行效率高且稳定、功能完善、可操作性强,实践证实对于分析人员具有重要的应用价值.

  5. Comprehending smallholder maize enterprises’ profitability with the current maize marketing system in Zimbabwe: A case of Mazowe district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Basera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize enterprise profitability is essential for sustainable maize production in smallholder farming. In Zimbabwe a lot of factors including several policy measures implemented in the past are believed to be influencing current maize profitability trends. Literature to confirm some of the crucial factors is limited especially in the smallholder farming sector. In this study we analyze profitability of smallholder maize farmers in Mazowe District of Zimbabwe. We estimate maize enterprise profitability using gross margin analysis, factors driving profitability using linear regression analysis and the influence of tobacco farming adoption on maize enterprise profitability using propensity score matching. We relied on both primary and secondary data from the study area. Results did not show robust outcomes on maize enterprises profitability. Maize profitability was found to be influenced positively by age of household head and selling produce to private buyers and negatively by fertilizer, chemical, and transport costs. Tobacco farming adoption was found to have a positive influence on maize profitability. Based on the results the study recommends the government through its various programs targeting agricultural development and food security to focus on smallholder maize production and marketing with the aim of improving its profitability.

  6. Market efficiency and the long-memory of supply and demand: Is price impact variable and permanent or fixed and temporary?

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, J D; Lillo, F; Mike, S; Gerig, Austin; Lillo, Fabrizio; Mike, Szabolcs

    2006-01-01

    In this comment we discuss the problem of reconciling the linear efficiency of price returns with the long-memory of supply and demand. We present new evidence that shows that efficiency is maintained by a liquidity imbalance that co-moves with the imbalance of buyer vs. seller initiated transactions. For example, during a period where there is an excess of buyer initiated transactions, there is also more liquidity for buy orders than sell orders, so that buy orders generate smaller and less frequent price responses than sell orders. At the moment a buy order is placed the transaction sign imbalance tends to dominate, generating a price impact. However, the liquidity imbalance rapidly increases with time, so that after a small number of time steps it cancels all the inefficiency caused by the transaction sign imbalance, bounding the price impact. While the view presented by Bouchaud et al. of a fixed and temporary bare price impact is self-consistent and formally correct, we argue that viewing this in terms o...

  7. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2011? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? The International Energy Agencys (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEAs monthly Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop in the next five years. The forecasts look in detail at product demand and the supply potential from all the firmly planned individual upstream and downstream projects around the world. The results provide invaluable insights on vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. The rapid pace of change in the oil market means that forecasts can become outdated very quickly. This interim update provides the opportunity to rebase the data and forecasts in the annual Medium-Term Oil Market Report and to discuss and analyse new issues affecting the oil industry. Policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following trends in the oil market should find this report extremely useful.

  8. 电力市场化改革背景下电力需求响应机制与支撑技术%Electric Power Demand Response Mechanism and Support Technology Under Electric Power Market Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞鹏

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes theories and practices about demand response in domestic and overseas and concludes types, mechanism,evaluation systems and key support technologies of electric power demand response.In allusion to the situation of electric power response entering into business implementation stage under background of present electric power market re-form,it proposes theoretical architectures of electric power response including overall object for business implementation, response mechanism,performance evaluation method and support technology.%全面梳理国内外实施需求响应的理论与实践,系统归纳电力需求响应的类型、机制、评价体系和支撑关键技术。针对当前电力市场化改革背景下电力需求响应正进入商业化实施阶段,提出电力需求响应理论架构,包括需求响应商业化实施总体目标、响应机制、性能评价方法与支撑技术等关键要素。

  9. Supply and Demand Situation of Ethylene Glycol at Home and Abroad and Research of South China Marketing Strategy%国内外乙二醇供需状况及华南市场营销策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德全

    2014-01-01

    乙二醇是合成纤维主要原料之一,国内消费量增长很快,近10年年均消费增长率达10%以上,进口依存度达70%以上。中国石化化工销售有限公司华南分公司作为华南市场化工产品主要经营企业,面临着如何扩大乙二醇产品市场份额的责任,本文结合市场及企业实际情况,通过对国内外乙二醇供需状况及华南市场分析,用SWOT分析方法展开研究,分析华南分公司优势、劣势,面临的机会和威胁,以4P理论为基础,提出华南分公司有针对性的营销策略,实现销售业务的稳步发展。%Ethylene glycol was a major raw material of synthetic fiber, and domestic consumption was growing rapidly, nearly 10 years more than 10%average annual growth rate of consumption, import dependency of more than 70%.Sinopec chemical sales Co., Ltd.South China Branch as south China market mainly operating chemical products enterprises, faced with how to expand the glycol products market share of the responsibility.Combined with the actual situation, market and enterprises by analyzing the supply and demand and the south China market at home and abroad, using SWOT analysis method to study and analysis of south China branch of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of, based on the 4 p theory, south China branch of targeted marketing strategy was put forward, to realize the steady development of the business of selling.

  10. Teaching Reform and Exploration of Market Research Courses Guided by the Social Demand%社会需求导向下的市场调研课程教学改革与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娜

    2012-01-01

    随着市场调查在经济实践中的地位不断提高,调研岗位呈现多元化,专业调研人才需求旺盛,但社会更注重综合素质突出的技能型人才吸纳。市场调研课程通过一系列教学改革。将调研知识和实践性教学有机相融,提升学生的职业技能和综合素质。%With the improving status of market research in economic practice, research positions diversified demand profes- sional research personnel, but the society pay attention to the prominent overall quality of the skilled personnel to absorb. Market research programs through a series of teaching reforms, organic blending of research knowledge and practical teach. ing to enhance students' professional skills and overall quality.

  11. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ RE market was not active recently due to the sluggish demand for Nd metal and PrNd mischmetal. Price of mixed RE carbonate rose slightly to RMB$ 15,500-16,000/ton. Price of Dy oxide and Tb oxide kept rising.

  12. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ August 20~31 NdFeB enterprises started to replenish their inventories in June and had atmost compteted the purchase. Dealings in didymium mischmetal market were inactive affected by reduced demand. And transactions of rare earth products were few holistically.

  13. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Rare Earth Market July 10-20 Price of Pr-Nd oxide rose sharply recently driven by high demand and short supply of rare earth carbonate in the north.Tight supply of ion adsorption clay in Jiangxi and Guangdong provinces led to the price rising of rare earth products in Southern China.

  14. Market Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rare earth market was inactive affected by sluggish demand for didymium mischmetal and dysprosium metal by NdFeB industry. Most enterprises were waiting to see what was going on with the industry. However, price of didymium oxide rose again and price of heavy rare earths kept strong. Price of Dy oxide and Yt oxide Kept on rising.

  15. Changing taste preferences, market demands and traditions in Pearl Lagoon, Nicaragua: A community reliant on green turtles for income and nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garland Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Nicaragua has its own cultural logic that helps to explain the eating habits of indigenous communities that rely on sea turtle meat for nutrition and prefer its taste to that of other available meats. Nutritional costs and benefits form a fundamental part of this reliance, yet there are ecological, economic, cultural, and other factors that may be just as if not more important than the nutritional value of turtle meat. Caribbean Nicaraguans have legally harvested green turtles (Chelonia mydas for more than 400 years, and continue to rely on the species as an inexpensive and tasty source of protein and income. From 1967 to 1977, green turtles were harvested for both local and foreign consumption, including annual exports to the US and Europe from turtle packing plants in Nicaragua in excess of 10,000 turtles. Although the processing plants have been closed for over 30 years after Nicaragua became a signatory of CITES in 1977, the local demand for turtle meat in coastal communities has continued. Following themes of cultural ecology and ecological anthropology, we first discuss what is known about the traditional culture of Caribbean Nicaragua, in particular the history of its changing economy (after European contact and settlement on the coast and subsistence lifestyle of Miskito and Creole societies on the coast. Second, we provide background information on regional ethnic identity and the human ecology of the Caribbean Nicaragua sea turtle fishery. We then present a quantitative analysis of the relationship between protein preference and various demographic characteristics, and speculate whether protein preferences have been altered in the coastal culture, providing recommendations for future research. Recent studies present disparate views on whether nesting and foraging green turtle populations are increasing or decreasing in the region: in either case the level of harvest makes the topic of protein preference an important and

  16. The Marketing of Small Enterprises, Guerilla Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljka Zavisic; Mane Medic

    2006-01-01

    The work is focused on approaches and techniques used by companies for identifying and fulfilling of the consumers’ needs and expectations, while making profit with little or limited resources in various stages of firm development (start-up stage) or in small enterprises. Basic marketing principles and categories of conventional marketing shall be compared with the demands of the unconventional one, which is focused on practical and financially limited marketing (guerilla marketing). In this ...

  17. The Marketing of Small Enterprises, Guerilla Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljka Zavisic; Mane Medic

    2006-01-01

    The work is focused on approaches and techniques used by companies for identifying and fulfilling of the consumers’ needs and expectations, while making profit with little or limited resources in various stages of firm development (start-up stage) or in small enterprises. Basic marketing principles and categories of conventional marketing shall be compared with the demands of the unconventional one, which is focused on practical and financially limited marketing (guerilla marketing). In this ...

  18. Stackable Miniature Fuel Cells with On-Demand Fuel and Oxygen Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Hur, Janet

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation summarizes our progress towards miniature fuel cells that could replace and outperform small batteries to meet various power demands. With increasing need of power being critical for portable electronics, the demand for better batteries continues to grow. Lithium-ion batteries dominate the market at the moment, but the current capacities on the order of 200 Wh/kg are approaching their inherent limits. Many researchers have being pursuing alternative power sources, forming a ...

  19. The market for electric vehicles. Political and economic boundary conditions of the supply and demand sides; Der Markt fuer Elektrofahrzeuge. Politisch-wirtschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen der Angebots- und Nachfrageseite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, Stefan; Steyer, Maria-Alexandra [Stadtwerke Muenchen GmbH (Germany); Hoberg, Patrick; Leimeister, Stefanie [Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). fortiss An-Institut; Krcmar, Helmut [Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). fortiss An-Institut; Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftsinformatik

    2010-11-15

    Electromobility is an issue of discussion currently, and the discussion is getting increasingly polarizing. As the petroleum resources worldwide are decreasing, road vehicles have come into focus as one of the biggest pollution sources. It is necessary to make mobility environmentally acceptable and also sustainable. So far, however, there are many challenges and a lack of information that make it difficult to assess the fitness for future of this mobility concept. (orig.)

  20. The Current China's Macroeconomic Total Demand and Monetary Policy Regulation and Control%当前中国宏观经济总需求及货币政策调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    From the angle of the contribution to economic growth of China's three major demands,domestic demand is the potential power of China's economic growth,while external demand has made important contributions.Regulation and control of monetary policy on aggregate demand is conduct through the credit channel and the interest rate channel.However,because of the micro-subject of China's market is not sensitive to interest rate signals,the interest rate pathways is limited.The condition of monetary policy interest rates conducting effectively is that the micro-subject can make their own decision based on monetary policy freely and can obtain benefi ts or bear the loss for their choice.Therefore,to improve the effect of monetary policy,we should consolidate the market micro-foundation and establish a sound market competition mechanism.%从我国三大需求对经济增长的贡献看,内需是中国经济增长的主要动力源,外需为中国经济发展做出了重要贡献。货币政策对总需求的调控主要通过信贷渠道和利率渠道进行传导,但由于我国市场微观主体对利率信号不敏感,利率传导途径受到限制。货币政策利率传导途径有效的前提是微观主体根据货币政策做出决策后须有条件实现自己的选择,并因自己的行为获取利益或承担损失,这样才能建立起传递及时、反应敏感的传导机制,更好实现货币政策的调控目标。因此,要提高货币政策效应,应更多从夯实市场微观基础、健全市场竞争机制等方面来考虑。