WorldWideScience

Sample records for current laboratory experiments

  1. Laboratory Experiments of Rip Current Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R.; Coco, G.; Lomonaco, P.; Dalrymple, R. A.; Alvarez, A.; Gonzalez, M.; Medina, R.

    2014-12-01

    The hypothesis of rip current generation from purely hydrodynamic processes is here investigated through laboratory experiments. The experiments have been performed at the Cantabria Coastal and Ocean Basin (CCOB) with a segmented wavemaker consisting of 64 waveboards. The basin measures 25m in the cross-shore and 32m in the alongshore direction and the water depth at the wavemaker is 1m. A concrete plane sloping (1:5) beach has been built in the opposite side of the wave machine, its toe is 15m from the waveboards. Reflective lateral walls covered the full length of the basin. The set of instruments consists of 33 wave gauges deployed along two longshore and two cross-shore transects, 7 acoustic Doppler velocimeters and 15 run-up wires. Furthermore a set of two cameras has been synchronized with the data acquisition system. Two types of experiments have been performed to specifically study the generation of rip currents under wave group forcing. First, similarly to the experiments of Fowler and Dalrymple (Proc. 22nd Int. Conf. Coast. Eng.,1990), two intersecting wave trains with opposite directions have been imposed. They give rise to the formation of a non-migrating rip current system with a wavelength that depends on wave frequency and direction. Second, single wave trains with alongshore periodic amplitude attenuation have been imposed. Although the attenuation has been set such that the incident wave field has the same envelope as in the first type of experiments, the rip current system differs due to diffraction and interference processes. The results for different wave conditions (maximum incident wave height from 0.2m to 0.4m, wave period from 1.4s to 2s) will be presented and the intensity of the rip currents will be compared to the alongshore variation in wave set-up. This research is part of the ANIMO project funded by the Spanish Government under contract BIA2012-36822.

  2. Unsteady magnetic reconnection in laboratory experiments with current sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Anna

    2009-11-01

    According to present notion, unsteady magnetic reconnection in current sheets (CS) is basic to dramatic natural phenomena: solar and stellar flares, substorms in the Earth and other planetary magnetospheres, as well as to disruptive instabilities in tokamak plasmas. We present a review of laboratory experiments studying evolution of CS formed in 3D and 2D magnetic configurations with an X line, in the CS-3D device. Usually CS exists during an extended period in a metastable stage, without essential changes of its structure and parameters. Under certain conditions this stage may be suddenly interrupted by unsteady phase of magnetic reconnection, which manifests itself in a rapid change of the magnetic field topology, current redistribution, excitation of pulsed electric fields, and other dynamic effects. The unsteady phase results in effective conversion of magnetic energy into the energy of plasma and accelerated particles, and may finally bring about the CS disruption. In the context of the solar flares, a metastable CS is associated with a pre-flare situation, while CS disruption -- with the flare itself. The physical mechanisms triggering the unsteady magnetic reconnection in the laboratory produced current sheets are discussed. Supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project # 09-02-00971).

  3. Laboratory experiments on current flow between stationary and moving electrodes in magnetoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Reiner L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed in order to investigate the basic physics of current flow between tethered electrodes in magnetoplasmas. The major findings are summarized. The experiments are performed in an effectively very large laboratory plasma in which not only the nonlinear current collection is addressed but also the propagation and spread of currents, the formation of current wings by moving electrodes, the current closure, and radiation from transmission lines. The laboratory plasma consists of a pulsed dc discharge whose Maxwellian afterglow provides a quiescent, current-free uniform background plasma. Electrodes consisting of collectors and electron emitters are inserted into the plasma and a pulsed voltage is applied between two floating electrodes via insulated transmission lines. Besides the applied current in the wire, the total current density in the plasma is obtained from space and time resolved magnetic probe measurements via Maxwell's law. Langmuir probes yield the plasma parameters.

  4. Exploring reconnection, current sheets, and dissipation in a laboratory MHD turbulence experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffner, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX) can serve as a testbed for studying MHD turbulence in a controllable laboratory setting, and in particular, explore the phenomena of reconnection, current sheets and dissipation in MHD turbulence. Plasma with turbulently fluctuating magnetic and velocity fields can be generated using a plasma gun source and launched into a flux-conserving cylindrical tunnel. No background magnetic field is applied so internal fields are allowed to evolve dynamically. Point measurements of magnetic and velocity fluctuations yield broadband power-law spectra with a steepening breakpoint indicative of the onset of a dissipation scale. The frequency range at which this steepening occurs can be correlated to the ion inertial scale of the plasma, a length which is characteristic of the size of current sheets in MHD plasmas and suggests a connection to dissipation. Observation of non-Gaussian intermittent jumps in magnetic field magnitude and angle along with measurements of ion temperature bursts suggests the presence of current sheets embedded within the turbulent plasma, and possibly even active reconnection sites. Additionally, structure function analysis coupled with appeals to fractal scaling models support the hypothesis that current sheets are associated with dissipation in this system.

  5. Laboratory experiments in innovation research: a methodological overview and a review of the current literature

    OpenAIRE

    Brüggemann, Julia; Bizer, Kilian

    2016-01-01

    Innovation research has developed a broad set of methodological approaches in recent decades. In this paper, we propose laboratory experiments as a fruitful methodological addition to the existing methods in innovation research. Therefore, we provide an overview of the existing methods, discuss the advantages and limitations of laboratory experiments, and review experimental studies dealing with different fields of innovation policy, namely intellectual property rights, financial instruments,...

  6. Propagation and deposition mechanisms of dense pyroclastic density currents: insights from analogue laboratory experiments. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, O.; Montserrat, S.; Niño, Y.; Tamburrino, A.

    2010-12-01

    Analogue laboratory experiments on air-particle flows represent a useful tool to investigate the mechanisms of propagation and deposition of dense (or the dense part of) pyroclastic density currents. In this context, we carried out experiments in the dam-break configuration and studied the emplacement processes of analogue biphasic currents generated from the quasi-instantaneous release of fluidized columns of fine (80 µm) particles. The low permeability of the granular material permitted relatively slow diffusion of the initial pore pressure within the flows until they came to halt. Analysis of the flow kinematics and comparison with flows of water in the same apparatus revealed that the air-particle currents propagated in two distinct stages. They behaved as their inertial water counterparts for most their emplacement, as both types of flows had the same morphology and propagated at constant front velocity U~√(2gh), h being the initial height of the granular column. This occurred as long as the height of the collapsing fluidized columns was higher than the that of the resultant flows, thus generating a driving pressure gradient. This fluid-inertial behavior suggested that the pore fluid pressure was high during propagation of the mixture. In order to check this hypothesis, we carried out non invasive measurements of the pore fluid pressure at the base of the air-particle flows and made correlation of the pressure signal with the flow structure from analyses of high speed videos. The flow structure consisted of a sliding head that caused underpressure relative to ambient conditions and whose magnitude correlated with the flow velocity. The flow head was followed by a body that generated overpressure and at the base of which a deposit aggraded at a nearly constant rate. Both the flow head and body were sheared pervasively as the internal velocity increased upwards. The combination of pressure advection from the source and relatively slow pressure diffusion

  7. Density- and viscosity-stratified gravity currents: Insight from laboratory experiments and implications for submarine flow deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, L. A.; Peakall, J.; Talling, P. J.

    2005-08-01

    Vertical stratification of particle concentration is a common if not ubiquitous feature of submarine particulate gravity flows. To investigate the control of stratification on current behaviour, analogue stratified flows were studied using laboratory experiments. Stratified density currents were generated by releasing two-layer glycerol solutions into a tank of water. Flows were sustained for periods of tens of seconds and their velocity and concentration measured. In a set of experiments the strength of the initial density and viscosity stratification was increased by progressively varying the lower-layer concentration, CL. Two types of current were observed indicating two regimes of behaviour. Currents with a faster-moving high-concentration basal region that outran the upper layer were produced if CL < 75%. Above this critical value of CL, currents were formed with a relatively slow, high-concentration base that lagged behind the flow front. The observed transition in behaviour is interpreted to indicate a change from inertia- to viscosity-dominated flow with increasing concentration. The reduction in lower-layer velocity at high concentrations is explained by enhanced drag at low Reynolds numbers. Results show that vertical stratification produces longitudinal stratification in the currents. Furthermore, different vertical and temporal velocity and concentration profiles characterise the observed flow types. Implications for the deposit character of particle-laden currents are discussed and illustrated using examples from ancient turbidite systems.

  8. An Organoleptic Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John M.

    1996-12-01

    Flavorings in foods and fragrances in personal care products is a topic often discussed in chemistry classes designed for the general education of non-science majors. A laboratory experiment has been designed to accompany the lecture topic. Compounds in ten different classes of organic molecules that are used in the fragrance and food industry are provided to students. Students whiff the vapors of each compound and describe the organoleptic properties using a set of terms utilized in the fragrance and food industry. A set of questions guides students to an understanding of the relationship between structure of molecules and smell. Students are permitted to create their own fragrance based on the results of the experiment. Student response has been favorable. The experiment rectifies misconceptions students have about structure and odor, and gives positive reinforcement to the lecture material.

  9. Embedding Laboratory Experience in Lectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James R.; Barroso, Luciana R.; Simpson, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrations can be very effective at enhancing student learning and represent a mechanism for embedding laboratory experiences within a classroom setting. A key component to an effective demonstration is active student engagement throughout the entire process, leading to a guided laboratory experience in a lecture setting. Students are involved…

  10. Discovery & Interaction in Astro 101 Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Frank Patrick; Maurone, Philip; DeWarf, Laurence E.

    2016-01-01

    The availability of low-cost, high-performance computing hardware and software has transformed the manner by which astronomical concepts can be re-discovered and explored in a laboratory that accompanies an astronomy course for arts students. We report on a strategy, begun in 1992, for allowing each student to understand fundamental scientific principles by interactively confronting astronomical and physical phenomena, through direct observation and by computer simulation. These experiments have evolved as :a) the quality and speed of the hardware has greatly increasedb) the corresponding hardware costs have decreasedc) the students have become computer and Internet literated) the importance of computationally and scientifically literate arts graduates in the workplace has increased.We present the current suite of laboratory experiments, and describe the nature, procedures, and goals in this two-semester laboratory for liberal arts majors at the Astro 101 university level.

  11. Customized Laboratory Experience in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Karen J.; Rink, Stephanie M.

    2010-01-01

    A new physical chemistry laboratory experience has been designed for upper-level undergraduate chemistry majors. Students customize the first 10 weeks of their laboratory experience by choosing their own set of experiments (from a manual of choices) and setting their own laboratory schedule. There are several topics presented in the accompanying…

  12. COMPILATION OF CURRENT HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.; Horne, C.P.; Hutchinson, M.S.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Addis, L.; Ward, C.E.W.; Baggett, N.; Goldschmidt-Clermong, Y.; Joos, P.; Gelfand, N.; Oyanagi, Y.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.

    1981-05-01

    This is the fourth edition of our compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about April 1981, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1977. We emphasize that only approved experiments are included.

  13. Environmental biochemistry of current environmental levels of heavy metals: preparation of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity for metallobiochemical experiments on laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, E; Goetz, L; Birattari, C; Bonardi, M

    1981-03-01

    Environmental toxicology research on dose-response relationships of heavy metals requires experiments on laboratory animals exposed to "low doses" of trace elements which should reflect "present or actual environmental levels" characteristic of polluted environments. Unfortunately no criteria exist to establish the "low doses" to which laboratory animals must be exposed, in practice the choice of the level used is made in an almost arbitrary manner. In order to define the "present environmental levels" of heavy metals which should be administered to laboratory animals an approach is suggested, based upon knowledge of the concentrations of trace elements in the diet, air and food as well as the fractions absorbed. Today daily intakes of trace elements by man are of the order of few micrograms or nanograms thus requiring the use of extremely sensitive analytical techniques to determine the very low amounts of heavy metals in tissues and cellular components. In these fields of research the use of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity appears particularly advantageous but requires considerable care during their preparation and use. The first part of this paper deals with a definition of the ranges of concentrations of trace elements which should be used for metabolic studies on laboratory animals when they are exposed via different routes such as ingestion, inhalation in injection; the second part describes the production of radiotracers with very high specific radioactivity by proton activation in the cyclotron and by neutron irradiation in the nuclear reactor. Their use to label present levels of heavy metals under conditions adapted for biochemical purposes, as well as the preparation of different metal-labelled chemical species is also reported. Particular attention is directed to quality control of the radiotracer solutions which are administered to the animals including those of radioactivity concentrations, radioisotopic purity, radiochemical purity

  14. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA)); Oyanagi, Y. (Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)); Dodder, D.C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Ryabov, Yu.G.; Slabospitsky, S.R. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Frosch, R. (Swiss Inst. for Nuclear Research, Villigen (Switzerla

    1989-09-01

    This report contains summaries of 736 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1982 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PSI/SIN, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground experiments. Also given are instructions for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  15. Current experiments in elementary particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E., Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.; Olin, A.; Lehar, F.; Moskalev, A.N.; Barkov, B.P.

    1987-03-01

    This report contains summaries of 720 recent and current experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized.

  16. The BDX experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celentano, Andrea [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Genova (Italy). et al.

    2015-06-01

    The existence of MeV-GeV dark matter (DM) is theoretically well motivated but remarkably unexplored. The Beam Dump eXperiment (BDX) at Jefferson Laboratory aims to investigate this mass range. Dark matter particles will be detected through scattering on a segmented, plastic scintillator detector placed downstream of the beam-dump at one of the high intensity JLab experimental Halls. The experiment will collect up to 1022 electrons-on-target (EOT) in a one-year period. For these conditions, BDX is sensitive to the DM-nucleon elastic scattering at the level of a thousand counts per year, and is only limited by cosmogenic backgrounds. The experiment is also sensitive to DM-electron elastic and inelastic scattering, at the level of 10 counts/year. The foreseen signal for these channels is a high-energy (> 100 MeV) electromagnetic shower, with almost no background. The experiment has been presented in form of a Letter of Intent to the laboratory, receiving positive feedback, and is currently being designed.

  17. Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.

    1986-01-01

    The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)

  18. Currents between tethered electrodes in a magnetized laboratory plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on important plasma physics issues of electrodynamic tethers were performed. These included current propagation, formation of wave wings, limits of current collection, nonlinear effects and instabilities, charging phenomena, and characteristics of transmission lines in plasmas. The experiments were conducted in a large afterglow plasma. The current system was established with a small electron-emitting hot cathode tethered to an electron-collecting anode, both movable across the magnetic field and energized by potential difference up to V approx.=100 T(sub e). The total current density in space and time was obtained from complete measurements of the perturbed magnetic field. The fast spacecraft motion was reproduced in the laboratory by moving the tethered electrodes in small increments, applying delayed current pulses, and reconstructing the net field by a linear superposition of locally emitted wavelets. With this technique, the small-amplitude dc current pattern is shown to form whistler wings at each electrode instead of the generally accepted Alfven wings. For the beam electrode, the whistler wing separates from the field-aligned beam which carries no net current. Large amplitude return currents to a stationary anode generate current-driven microinstabilities, parallel electric fields, ion depletions, current disruptions and time-varying electrode charging. At appropriately high potentials and neutral densities, excess neutrals are ionized near the anode. The anode sheath emits high-frequency electron transit-time oscillations at the sheath-plasma resonance. The beam generates Langmuir turbulence, ion sound turbulence, electron heating, space charge fields, and Hall currents. An insulated, perfectly conducting transmission line embedded in the plasma becomes lossy due to excitation of whistler waves and magnetic field diffusion effects. The implications of the laboratory observations on electrodynamic tethers in space are discussed.

  19. Influence of particle density on flow behavior and deposit architecture of concentrated pyroclastic density currents over a break in slope: Insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sedano, L. A.; Sarocchi, D.; Sulpizio, R.; Borselli, L.; Campos, G.; Moreno Chavez, G.

    2016-12-01

    Geological granular flows are highly complex, gravity-driven phenomena whose different behaviors depend on the mechanical properties, density and granulometric distributions of the constituent materials. Years of research have produced significant advances in understanding transport and deposition processes in granular flows. However, the role and effects of clast densities and density contrast in a granular flow are still not fully understood. In this paper we show the effect that pumice has on dry granular flows; specifically on flow velocity and longitudinal segregation of the deposits. Our work confirms, by experimental results, field observations on pumice/lithic segregation and longer pumice runout. We report results of velocity decay and deposit architecture for a granular flow passing over a break in slope (from 38° to 4° inclination). The 30 experimental runs were carried out in a five-meter long laboratory flume equipped with a series of sensors that include laser gates and high-speed cameras (400 fps). We used two polydisperse mixtures of dacitic lithics and rhyolitic pumice in varying amounts, with Weibull and Gaussian particle size distributions. The pumice/lithic ratio changes the flow response passing over a break in slope. This effect is particularly evident starting from 10% of pumice volume into the flow mixture, independently of its granulometric distribution. Runout relates to mass following a power law, with an exponent close 0.2. The experiments confirm that pumice segregation affects polydispersed mixtures, similarly to what has been observed in real field deposits, where density decoupling produces lithic-enriched proximal areas and pumice-enriched distal areas. The results obtained prove that the presence of low-density materials in a dense granular flow has a strong influence on its behavior.

  20. Magnetized laboratory plasma jets: Experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrafel, Peter; Bell, Kate; Greenly, John; Seyler, Charles; Kusse, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Experiments involving radial foils on a 1 M A , 100 n s current driver can be used to study the ablation of thin foils and liners, produce extreme conditions relevant to laboratory astrophysics, and aid in computational code validation. This research focuses on the initial ablation phase of a 20 μ m Al foil (8111 alloy), in a radial configuration, driven by Cornell University's COBRA pulsed power generator. In these experiments ablated surface plasma (ASP) on the top side of the foil and a strongly collimated axial plasma jet are observed developing midway through the current rise. With experimental and computational results this work gives a detailed description of the role of the ASP in the formation of the plasma jet with and without an applied axial magnetic field. This ˜1 T field is applied by a Helmholtz-coil pair driven by a slow, 150 μ s current pulse and penetrates the load hardware before arrival of the COBRA pulse. Several effects of the applied magnetic field are observed: (1) without the field extreme-ultraviolet emission from the ASP shows considerable azimuthal asymmetry while with the field the ASP develops azimuthal motion that reduces this asymmetry, (2) this azimuthal motion slows the development of the jet when the field is applied, and (3) with the magnetic field the jet becomes less collimated and has a density minimum (hollowing) on the axis. PERSEUS, an XMHD code, has qualitatively and quantitatively reproduced all these experimental observations. The differences between this XMHD and an MHD code without a Hall current and inertial effects are discussed. In addition the PERSEUS results describe effects we were not able to resolve experimentally and suggest a line of future experiments with better diagnostics.

  1. Laboratory Experience for Teaching Sensory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Ana L.; Farfan, Fernando D.; Felice, Carmelo J.

    2009-01-01

    The major challenge in laboratory teaching is the application of abstract concepts in simple and direct practical lessons. However, students rarely have the opportunity to participate in a laboratory that combines practical learning with a realistic research experience. In the Bioengineering Department, we started an experiential laboratory…

  2. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Drexlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments, which investigate the kinematics of β-decays of specific isotopes (3H, 187Re, 163Ho to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (antineutrino mass. After discussing the kinematics of β-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, we give a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for 3H, cryobolometers for 187Re. We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN experiment currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, which will use the MAC-E-Filter principle to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV (90% C.L.. To do so, many technological challenges have to be solved related to source intensity and stability, as well as precision energy analysis and low background rate close to the kinematic endpoint of tritium β-decay at 18.6 keV. We then review new approaches such as the MARE, ECHO, and Project8 experiments, which offer the promise to perform an independent measurement of the neutrino mass in the sub-eV region. Altogether, the novel methods developed in direct neutrino mass experiments will provide vital information on the absolute mass scale of neutrinos.

  3. Laboratory Experiments on Low-crested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Zanuttigh, B.; van der Meer, J. W.

    2004-01-01

    The ducument describe 3D tests at scale 1:20 performed in the Laboratory at Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.The wave obliquity was one of the main parameters, which were studied in the wave basin experiments. The experiments provide unique information about the influences...

  4. Laboratory Experiments on Low-crested Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Zanuttigh, B.; van der Meer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    in a wave channel at small scale, and scale effects regarding wave transmission and reflection were studied in a wave channel at a large scale facility. The paper describes the experiments and associated databank with respect to objectives, test program, set-ups and measurements. Results, guidelines......New unique laboratory experiments on low-crested structures (LCSs) have been performed within the DELOS project. The experiments were carried out in three European laboratories aiming at extending and completing existing available information with respect to a wide range of engineering design...

  5. Current Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Drexlin, G; Mertens, S; Weinheimer, C

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we review the status and perspectives of direct neutrino mass experiments. These experiments investigate the kinematics of $\\beta$-decays of specific isotopes ($^3$H, $^{187}$Re, $^{163}$Ho) to derive model-independent information on the averaged electron (anti-) neutrino mass, which is formed by the incoherent sum of the neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. We first review the kinematics of $\\beta$-decay and the determination of the neutrino mass, before giving a brief overview of past neutrino mass measurements (SN1987a-ToF studies, Mainz and Troitsk experiments for $^3$H, cryo-bolometers for $^{187}$Re). We then describe the Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino (KATRIN) experiment which is currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The large-scale setup will use the MAC-E-Filter principle pioneered earlier to push the sensitivity down to a value of 200 meV(90% C.L.). KATRIN faces many technological challenges that have to be resolved with regar...

  6. A laboratory activity on the eddy current brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolívar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and electromagnetic properties of the magnet on the magnetic drag force. This video-based experiment is ideal for the study of kinematic graphs and the application of Newton's laws. Video motion analysis software enables students to make precise measurements of the magnet's position at incremental times during its motion, thus allowing them to quantify electromagnetic induction phenomena. The equipment needed for this experiment and data collection software are present in most physics teaching laboratories or are inexpensive and available.

  7. Remote Experiments in Control Engineering Education Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica B Naumović

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Automatic Control Engineering Laboratory (ACEL - WebLab, an under-developed, internet-based remote laboratory for control engineering education at the Faculty of Electronic Engineering in Niš. Up to now, the remote laboratory integrates two physical systems (velocity servo system and magnetic levitation system and enables some levels of measurement and control. To perform experiments in ACEL-WebLab, the "LabVIEW Run Time Engine"and a standard web browser are needed.

  8. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  9. Laboratory experiments on arc deflection and instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.; Karasik, M.

    2000-03-21

    This article describes experiments on arc deflection instability carried out during the past few years at the Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). The approach has been that of plasma physicists interested in arcs, but they believe these results may be useful to engineers who are responsible for controlling arc behavior in large electric steel furnaces.

  10. Current Reactor Physics Benchmark Activities at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; Mackenzie L. Gorham; Joseph Christensen; James C. Turnbull; Kim Clark

    2011-11-01

    The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [1] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) [2] were established to preserve integral reactor physics and criticality experiment data for present and future research. These valuable assets provide the basis for recording, developing, and validating our integral nuclear data, and experimental and computational methods. These projects are managed through the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA). Staff and students at the Department of Energy - Idaho (DOE-ID) and INL are engaged in the development of benchmarks to support ongoing research activities. These benchmarks include reactors or assemblies that support Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) research, space nuclear Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) design validation, and currently operational facilities in Southeastern Idaho.

  11. The Current Status of the WARP Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelc, A. M.; Benetti, P.; Calligarich, E.; Calaprice, F.; Cambiaghi, M.; Carbonara, F.; Cavanna, F.; Cocco, A. G.; Dipompeo, F.; Ferrari, N.; Fiorillo, G.; Galbiati, C.; Grandi, L.; Mangano, G.; Montanari, C.; Palamara, O.; Pandola, L.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G. L.; Roncadelli, M.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Santorelli, R.; Vignoli, C.; Zhao, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The WARP detector is a new idea in Dark Matter detection using liquid noble gases, specifically argon. We believe that argon is the medium best suited to detect nuclear recoils coming from interactions with the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles). The detection technique, using two different discrimination methods, is capable of an identification power as high as one event in 108. During the second half of the year 2006 the next, 100 liter, detector will be constructed with an active veto shield to further suppress the background, while currently a 2.3 liter prototype, installed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy), has been taking data since May 2004. The small version of the detector is able to not only provide insight on the operation of a two-phase liquid argon chamber but is also able to provide physics results competitive with the current leading edge experiments.

  12. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B.

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular “niche of knowledge.” This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining “Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology” (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal. PMID:27688928

  13. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website's sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenstein, Izak B

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post's material, can improve the website's visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com) website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  14. Laboratory experiments from the toy store

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclelland, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    The following is a laboratory experiment designed to further understanding of materials science. This material could be taught to a typical student of materials science or manufacturing at the high school level or above. The objectives of this experiment are as follows: (1) to qualitatively demonstrate the concepts of elasticity, plasticity, and the strain rate and temperature dependence of the mechanical properties of engineering materials; (2) to qualitatively demonstrate the basics of extrusion including material flow, strain rate dependence of defects, lubrication effects, and the making of hollow shapes by extrusion (the two parts may be two separate experiments done at different times when the respective subjects are covered); and (3) to demonstrate the importance of qualitative observations and the amount of information which can be gathered without quantitative measurements.

  15. Relativistic Electron Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Marvel, Robert E

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an undergraduate laboratory experiment to make independent measurements of the momentum and kinetic energy of relativistic electrons from a \\beta -source. The momentum measurements are made with a magnetic spectrometer and a silicon surface-barrier detector is used to measure the kinetic energy. A plot of the kinetic energy as a function of momentum compared to the classical and relativistic predictions clearly shows the relativistic nature of the electrons. Accurate values for the rest mass of the electron and the speed of light are also extracted from the data.

  16. Rotating, hydromagnetic laboratory experiment modelling planetary cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Douglas H.

    2009-10-01

    This dissertation describes a series of laboratory experiments motivated by planetary cores and the dynamo effect, the mechanism by which the flow of an electrically conductive fluid can give rise to a spontaneous magnetic field. Our experimental apparatus, meant to be a laboratory model of Earth's core, contains liquid sodium between an inner, solid sphere and an outer, spherical shell. The fluid is driven by the differential rotation of these two boundaries, each of which is connected to a motor. Applying an axial, DC magnetic field, we use a collection of Hall probes to measure the magnetic induction that results from interactions between the applied field and the flowing, conductive fluid. We have observed and identified inertial modes, which are bulk oscillations of the fluid restored by the Coriolis force. Over-reflection at a shear layer is one mechanism capable of exciting such modes, and we have developed predictions of both onset boundaries and mode selection from over-reflection theory which are consistent with our observations. Also, motivated by previous experimental devices that used ferromagnetic boundaries to achieve dynamo action, we have studied the effects of a soft iron (ferromagnetic) inner sphere on our apparatus, again finding inertial waves. We also find that all behaviors are more broadband and generally more nonlinear in the presence of a ferromagnetic boundary. Our results with a soft iron inner sphere have implications for other hydromagnetic experiments with ferromagnetic boundaries, and are appropriate for comparison to numerical simulations as well. From our observations we conclude that inertial modes almost certainly occur in planetary cores and will occur in future rotating experiments. In fact, the predominance of inertial modes in our experiments and in other recent work leads to a new paradigm for rotating turbulence, starkly different from turbulence theories based on assumptions of isotropy and homogeneity, starting instead

  17. A Virtual Rock Physics Laboratory Through Visualized and Interactive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, T.; Di Bonito, C.; Clark, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    As new scientific challenges demand more comprehensive and multidisciplinary investigations, laboratory experiments are not expected to become simpler and/or faster. Experimental investigation is an indispensable element of scientific inquiry and must play a central role in the way current and future generations of scientist make decisions. To turn the complexity of laboratory work (and that of rocks!) into dexterity, engagement, and expanded learning opportunities, we are building an interactive, virtual laboratory reproducing in form and function the Stanford Rock Physics Laboratory, at Stanford University. The objective is to combine lectures on laboratory techniques and an online repository of visualized experiments consisting of interactive, 3-D renderings of equipment used to measure properties central to the study of rock physics (e.g., how to saturate rocks, how to measure porosity, permeability, and elastic wave velocity). We use a game creation system together with 3-D computer graphics, and a narrative voice to guide the user through the different phases of the experimental protocol. The main advantage gained in employing computer graphics over video footage is that students can virtually open the instrument, single out its components, and assemble it. Most importantly, it helps describe the processes occurring within the rock. These latter cannot be tracked while simply recording the physical experiment, but computer animation can efficiently illustrate what happens inside rock samples (e.g., describing acoustic waves, and/or fluid flow through a porous rock under pressure within an opaque core-holder - Figure 1). The repository of visualized experiments will complement lectures on laboratory techniques and constitute an on-line course offered through the EdX platform at Stanford. This will provide a virtual laboratory for anyone, anywhere to facilitate teaching/learning of introductory laboratory classes in Geophysics and expand the number of courses

  18. Development of sensorial experiments and their implementation into undergraduate laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromfield Lee, Deborah Christina

    "Visualization" of chemical phenomena often has been limited in the teaching laboratories to the sense of sight. We have developed chemistry experiments that rely on senses other than eyesight to investigate chemical concepts, make quantitative determinations, and familiarize students with chemical techniques traditionally designed using only eyesight. Multi-sensory learning can benefit all students by actively engaging them in learning through stimulation or an alternative way of experiencing a concept or ideas. Perception of events or concepts usually depends on the information from the different sensory systems combined. The use of multi-sensory learning can take advantage of all the senses to reinforce learning as each sense builds toward a more complete experience of scientific data. Research has shown that multi-sensory representations of scientific phenomena is a valuable tool for enhancing understanding of chemistry as well as displacing misconceptions through experience. Multi-sensory experiences have also been shown to enrich memory performance. There are few experiments published which utilize multiple senses in the teaching laboratory. The sensorial experiments chosen were conceptually similar to experiments currently performed in undergraduate laboratories; however students collect different types of data using multi-sensory observations. The experiments themselves were developed by using chemicals that would provide different sensory changes or capitalizing on sensory observations that were typically overlooked or ignored and obtain similar and precise results as in traditional experiments. Minimizing hazards and using safe practices are especially essential in these experiments as students utilize senses traditionally not allowed to be used in the laboratories. These sensorial experiments utilize typical equipment found in the teaching laboratories as well as inexpensive chemicals in order to aid implementation. All experiments are rigorously tested

  19. Turbulent flows and intermittency in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmet, F.; Antonia, R. A.; Danaila, L.

    2001-10-01

    In turbulent flows, the transfer of energy from large to small scales is strongly intermittent, in contradiction with Kolmogorov's (Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR 30 (1941) 299; hereafter K41) assumptions. The statistical properties associated with these energy transfer fluctuations at a given scale r have been widely studied theoretically, experimentally and numerically over the last 30 years or so. Such fluctuations are also encountered in various Planetary and Space Science domains. The present paper presents a review of laboratory experiments which clearly display the fractal nature of the (spatial or temporal) energy distribution at scale r, the departures from the K41 predictions being generally quantified through high-order moments of velocity increments.

  20. Photocatalysis - a physical chemistry laboratory experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, B.L.; Gravelle, S.J. [Saint Vincent College, Latrobe, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A Physical Chemistry Laboratory experiment was created that examines photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds. Photocatalytic decomposition is a technique in which a solution containing a semiconducting material is irradiated with UV light, and the compounds in the solution are decomposed. This technique is commonly used for the destruction of environmentally detrimental compounds. In this experiment, the students study the photocatalytic, reduction of 1,4-benzoquinone, and the photocatalytic oxidation of 2-chlorophenol. The students examine the effect of different catalysts, the rate of the reaction, and the formation of intermediates and products. Each catalyst has a different effect on the rate of decomposition, depending on the oxidation and reduction potential of the compound and the band gap of the catalyst. The UV/Vis spectrometer will he used to study the affect of different catalysts on the initial rate of decomposition of 1,4-benzoquinone and 2-chlorophenol. The products and intermediates of each reaction are examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

  1. FEBEX II Project THG Laboratory Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missana, T.

    2004-07-01

    The main roles of the bentonite in a radioactive waste repository is to act as a geochemical barrier against the radionuclides migration. The effectiveness of this geochemical barrier depends on the surface properties of the solid phases and on the physico-chemical environment generated by the interaction of the solid phases with the groundwater. Within the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barriers Experiment) project, a program of laboratory tests was designed to study and to understand the processes taking place in the clay barrier. Since the first stages of the project, these laboratory tests enabled to isolate different processes, making easier their interpretation, and provided fundamental parameters to be used in the Thermo Hydro Mechanical (THM) and Thermo Hydro Geochemical (THG) models. Additionally, experimental data enabled to check the predictive capability of these models. In the second phase of the project, laboratory tests focused on all those relevant aspects not sufficiently covered during FEBEX I. Particularly, the following main objectives were proposed for the THG investigations during FEBEX II : Attainment of a reliable description of the pore water chemistry at different geochemical conditions. Identification of the different types of water present in the bentonite and to determine the amount of available water for the solute transport.Evaluation of the potential effects of the extraction pressure in the chemical composition of the water obtained by squeezing methods.Study of the effects of the exchange complex in the rheological properties of the clay.Identification and modelling of the surface processes occurring in smectite, determination of the solubility constants of smectite and the formation constants of the surface complexes.Understanding of the mechanisms involved in the sorption of different radionuclides in the bentonite. Investigation of the diffusion mechanisms of conservative neutral and anionic species to have a deeper insight on the

  2. Design of Laboratory Experiments to Study Photoionization Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William James; Davis, Josh; Drake, R. Paul

    2017-06-01

    Here we present the theoretical foundation for a laboratory experiment to study photoionization fronts. Photoionization fronts play important roles in the formation and evolution of structure in the Universe. A properly designed experiment will have to control the recombination rate, electron impact ionization rate, and the initial thermal spectrum. We show that such an experiment can be designed, but requires the use of the largest high-energy-density laser facilities, such as Omega, Z, and NIF. We also show that prior experiments do not actually generate photoionization fronts, rather a heat front is produced by heat conductions. We show some initial simulation results of the current experimental design and characterize the ionization front.

  3. Compilation of current high-energy-physics experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Kelly, R.L.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    This is the third edition of a compilation of current high energy physics experiments. It is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and ten participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), the Institute for Nuclear Study, Tokyo (INS), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. The compilation includes summaries of all high energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that (1) were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about January 1980, and (2) had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1976.

  4. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Armstrong, F.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); von Przewoski, B. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, IN (United States)] [and others

    1994-08-01

    This report contains summaries of 568 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1988 are excluded. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, INS (Tokyo), ITEP (Moscow), IUCF (Bloomington), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  5. Current experiments in particle physics, 1996

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory. Berkeley; Lehár, F; Klioukhine, V I; Ryabov, Yu; Bilak, S V; Illarionova, N S; Khachaturov, B A; Strokovsky, E A; Hoffman, C M; Kettle, P R; Olin, A; Armstrong, F E

    1996-01-01

    Contains more than 1,800 experiments in elementary particle physics from the Experience database. Search and browse by author; title; experiment number or prefix; institution; date approved, started or completed; accelerator or detector; polarization, reaction, final state or particle; or by papers produced. Maintained at SLAC for the Particle Data Group. Supplies the information for Current Experiments in Particle Physics (LBL-91). Print version updated every second year.

  6. Current experiments in elementary particle physics, 1989

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory. Berkeley; Armstrong, F E; Trippe, T G; Yost, G P; Oyanagi, Y; Dodder, D C; Ryabov, Yu G; Slabospitsky, S R; Frosch, R; Olin, A; Lehar, F; Klumov, I A; Ivanov, I I

    1989-01-01

    Contains more than 1,800 experiments in elementary particle physics from the Experience database. Search and browse by author; title; experiment number or prefix; institution; date approved, started or completed; accelerator or detector; polarization, reaction, final state or particle; or by papers produced. Maintained at SLAC for the Particle Data Group. Supplies the information for Current Experiments in Particle Physics (LBL-91). Print version updated every second year.

  7. [Experience with laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareková, L; Zálabská, E; Hanovcová, I

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is currently a significant cause of nosocomial diarrhea. For several years, the number of infectious cases in the community has also been increasing. Since the beginning of 2010, quite a large increase in the number of Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) has been noted in Pardubice Regional Hospital (PRH). The objectives of this study were to describe and evaluate the methods used in the laboratory diagnosis of CDIs in PRH, and to describe the laboratory diagnostic algorithm used here. Samples of stools were taken from symptomatic patients hospitalized or examined in the outpatient departments of PRH from 1 July 2010 to 31 December 2012. For the detection of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin A/B, the dual test based upon the principle enzyme immunoassays C. Diff Quik Chek Complete, Techlabo (D-EIA) was used. The system GeneXpert PCR Cepheid (PCR) was used for confirmation of laboratory findings. Since the beginning of 2011, all the GDH-positive samples were cultured. A total of 2,040 samples were examined. The D-EIA test was used for examination of 2,014 samples. Of those, 1,373 (68.2 %) samples were GDH- and toxin A/B-negative. In 359 (17.8 %) samples, both GDH and toxin A/B were detected. The D-EIA sensitivity and specificity for detecting toxigenic strains in stool samples were 21.8% and 97.2%, respectively. The PPV and NPV rates calculated for the populations with prevalence rates of disorders of 5%, 10%, 20% and 50 % were 0.29, 0.46, 0.66, 0.88 and 0.96, 0.92, 0.83, 0.55, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of GDH for the detection of Clostridium difficile in stools were 100.0% and 96.2%, respectively. PCR examination was carried out in 140 samples. Of those, 82 samples were PCR-positive. The gene for the production of toxin B was detected in 47%, the finding suspected for ribotype 027 (gene for toxin B, binary toxin and deletion of tcdC) in 48%. In 5% of the samples, the gene for toxin B and the gene for the binary

  8. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  9. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, E. V.

    1973-01-01

    The experiment program definition and preliminary laboratory concept studies on the zero G cloud physics laboratory are reported. This program involves the definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineations of a set of candidate experiments that must utilize the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity.

  10. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory…

  11. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory…

  12. Current Experiments in Particle Physics (September 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H.; Lehar, F.; Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Bilak, S.V.; Illarionova, N.S.; Khachaturov, B.A.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Kettle, P.-R.; Olin, A.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries. This report contains full summaries of 180 approved current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. The focus of the report is on selected experiments which directly contribute to our better understanding of elementary particles and their properties such as masses, widths or lifetimes, and branching fractions.

  13. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  14. Density Estimations in Laboratory Debris Flow Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz de Oliveira, Gustavo; Kulisch, Helmut; Malcherek, Andreas; Fischer, Jan-Thomas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.

    2016-04-01

    Bulk density and its variation is an important physical quantity to estimate the solid-liquid fractions in two-phase debris flows. Here we present mass and flow depth measurements for experiments performed in a large-scale laboratory set up. Once the mixture is released and it moves down the inclined channel, measurements allow us to determine the bulk density evolution throughout the debris flow. Flow depths are determined by ultrasonic pulse reflection, and the mass is measured with a total normal force sensor. The data were obtained at 50 Hz. The initial two phase material was composed of 350 kg debris with water content of 40%. A very fine pebble with mean particle diameter of 3 mm, particle density of 2760 kg/m³ and bulk density of 1400 kg/m³ in dry condition was chosen as the solid material. Measurements reveal that the debris bulk density remains high from the head to the middle of the debris body whereas it drops substantially at the tail. This indicates lower water content at the tail, compared to the head and the middle portion of the debris body. This means that the solid and fluid fractions are varying strongly in a non-linear manner along the flow path, and from the head to the tail of the debris mass. Importantly, this spatial-temporal density variation plays a crucial role in determining the impact forces associated with the dynamics of the flow. Our setup allows for investigating different two phase material compositions, including large fluid fractions, with high resolutions. The considered experimental set up may enable us to transfer the observed phenomena to natural large-scale events. Furthermore, the measurement data allows evaluating results of numerical two-phase mass flow simulations. These experiments are parts of the project avaflow.org that intends to develop a GIS-based open source computational tool to describe wide spectrum of rapid geophysical mass flows, including avalanches and real two-phase debris flows down complex natural

  15. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  16. Design of laboratory experiments to study radiation-driven implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiter, P. A.; Trantham, M.; Malamud, G.; Klein, S. R.; Davis, J.; VanDervort, R.; Shvarts, D.; Drake, R. P.; Stone, J. M.; Fraenkel, M.; Frank, Y.; Raicher, E.

    2017-03-01

    The interstellar medium is heterogeneous with dense clouds amid an ambient medium. Radiation from young OB stars asymmetrically irradiate the dense clouds. Bertoldi (1989) developed analytic formulae to describe possible outcomes of these clouds when irradiated by hot, young stars. One of the critical parameters that determines the cloud's fate is the number of photon mean free paths in the cloud. For the extreme cases where the cloud size is either much greater than or much less than one mean free path, the radiation transport should be well understood. However, as one transitions between these limits, the radiation transport is much more complex and is a challenge to solve with many of the current radiation transport models implemented in codes. We present the design of laboratory experiments that use a thermal source of x-rays to asymmetrically irradiate a low-density plastic foam sphere. The experiment will vary the density and hence the number of mean free paths of the sphere to study the radiation transport in different regimes. We have developed dimensionless parameters to relate the laboratory experiment to the astrophysical system and we show that we can perform the experiment in the same transport regime.

  17. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Dodder, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Klyukhin, V.I.; Ryabov, Yu.G. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Serpukhov (Russian Federation); Illarionova, N.S. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lehar, F. [CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Oyanagi, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Sciences; Olin, A. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Frosch, R. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland)

    1992-06-01

    This report contains summaries of 584 current and recent experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments that finished taking data before 1986 are excluded. Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, SSCL, and TRIUMF, and also several underground and underwater experiments. Instructions are given for remote searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  18. Current Experiments in Particle Physics. 1996 Edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, Hrvoje

    2003-06-27

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  19. Compilation of current high energy physics experiments - Sept. 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addis, L.; Odian, A.; Row, G. M.; Ward, C. E. W.; Wanderer, P.; Armenteros, R.; Joos, P.; Groves, T. H.; Oyanagi, Y.; Arnison, G. T. J.; Antipov, Yu; Barinov, N.

    1978-09-01

    This compilation of current high-energy physics experiments is a collaborative effort of the Berkeley Particle Data Group, the SLAC library, and the nine participating laboratories: Argonne (ANL), Brookhaven (BNL), CERN, DESY, Fermilab (FNAL), KEK, Rutherford (RHEL), Serpukhov (SERP), and SLAC. Nominally, the compilation includes summaries of all high-energy physics experiments at the above laboratories that were approved (and not subsequently withdrawn) before about June 1978, and had not completed taking of data by 1 January 1975. The experimental summaries are supplemented with three indexes to the compilation, several vocabulary lists giving names or abbreviations used, and a short summary of the beams at each of the laboratories (except Rutherford). The summaries themselves are included on microfiche. (RWR)

  20. The current status of forensic science laboratory accreditation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkoc, Ekrem; Neuteboom, Wim

    2007-04-11

    Forensic science is gaining some solid ground in the area of effective crime prevention, especially in the areas where more sophisticated use of available technology is prevalent. All it takes is high-level cooperation among nations that can help them deal with criminality that adopts a cross-border nature more and more. It is apparent that cooperation will not be enough on its own and this development will require a network of qualified forensic laboratories spread over Europe. It is argued in this paper that forensic science laboratories play an important role in the fight against crime. Another, complimentary argument is that forensic science laboratories need to be better involved in the fight against crime. For this to be achieved, a good level of cooperation should be established and maintained. It is also noted that harmonization is required for such cooperation and seeking accreditation according to an internationally acceptable standard, such as ISO/IEC 17025, will eventually bring harmonization as an end result. Because, ISO/IEC 17025 as an international standard, has been a tool that helps forensic science laboratories in the current trend towards accreditation that can be observed not only in Europe, but also in the rest of the world of forensic science. In the introduction part, ISO/IEC 17025 states that "the acceptance of testing and calibration results between countries should be facilitated if laboratories comply with this international standard and if they obtain accreditation from bodies which have entered into mutual recognition agreements with equivalent bodies in other countries using this international standard." Furthermore, it is emphasized that the use of this international standard will assist in the harmonization of standards and procedures. The background of forensic science cooperation in Europe will be explained by using an existing European forensic science network, i.e. ENFSI, in order to understand the current status of forensic

  1. Laboratory Experiments for Network Security Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustoloni, Jose Carlos

    2006-01-01

    We describe a sequence of five experiments on network security that cast students successively in the roles of computer user, programmer, and system administrator. Unlike experiments described in several previous papers, these experiments avoid placing students in the role of attacker. Each experiment starts with an in-class demonstration of an…

  2. A Laboratory Activity on the Eddy Current Brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Bolivar, J. A.; Abella-Palacios, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a simple and low-cost experimental setup that can be used to study the eddy current brake, which considers the motion of a sliding magnet on an inclined conducting plane in terms of basic physical principles. We present a set of quantitative experiments performed to study the influence of the geometrical and…

  3. Aespoe hard rock laboratory. Current research projects 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    In 1986 SKB decided to construct the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in order to provide an opportunity for research, development and demonstration in a realistic and undisturbed underground rock environment down to the depth planned for the future deep repository. The focus of current and future work is on development and testing of site characterization methods, verification of models describing the function of the natural and engineered barriers and development, testing, and demonstration of repository technology. The program has been organised so that all important steps in the development of a repository are covered, in other words the Aespoe HRL constitutes a `dress rehearsal` for the Swedish deep geological repository for spent fuel and other long-lived waste. Geoscientific investigations on Aespoe and nearby islands began in 1986. Aespoe was selected as the site for the laboratory in 1988. Construction of the facility, which reaches a depth of 460 m below the surface, began in 1990 and was completed in 1995. A major milestone had been reached in 1996 with the completion of the pre-investigation and construction phases of the Aespoe HRL. The comprehensive research conducted has permitted valuable development and verification of site characterization methods applied from the ground surface, boreholes, and underground excavations. The results of this research are summarised in the book `Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - 10 years of Research` published by SKB in 1996. The Operating Phase of the Aespoe HRL began in 1995 and is expected to continue for 15-20 years, that is until the first stage of the development of the Swedish deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel is expected to be completed. A number of research projects were initiated at the start of the Operating Phase. Most of these projects have made substantial progress since then and important results have been obtained. The purpose of this brochure is to provide a brief presentation of the

  4. Microcontroller-based Feedback Control Laboratory Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available this paper is a result of the implementation of the recommendations on enhancing hands-on experience of control engineering education using single chip, small scale computers such as microcontrollers. A set of microcontroller-based feedback control experiments was developed for the Electrical Engineering curriculum at the University of North Florida. These experiments provided hands-on techniques that students can utilize in the development of complete solutions for a number of servo control problems. Significant effort was devoted to software development of feedback controllers and the associated signal conditioning circuits interfacing between the microcontroller and the physical plant. These experiments have stimulated the interest of our students in control engineering.

  5. Improving Target Characterization for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, D. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Doss, F. W.; Krauland, C. M.; Distefano, C. A.

    2010-11-01

    We have fabricated and characterized targets for laboratory astrophysics since 2003, and have made improvements focusing on characterizing particular target features and their variances. Examples of measurements include machined features, material thickness and uniformity, location and thickness of glue, and mating conditions between adjacent materials. Measurements involve new technology and characterization methods, such as pre-shot radiography. More accurate characterization also leads to improvements in fabrication techniques, and helps integrate new technology into our build process. Quantifying variances more precisely also helps us better evaluate each fabrication method for both accuracy and consistency. We present these characterization methods and their impact on fabrication. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548, and by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29034.

  6. Otto Rank: beginnings, endings, and current experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novey, R

    1983-01-01

    I have traced the theories of Otto Rank as they appeared in his major technical writings. Against this background, I have discussed references to Rank in past and contemporary psychoanalytic literature. This paper describes three important contributions of Rank--his birth trauma theory, leading to his theory of the birth of the self; his emphasis on present experience (forerunner of the current "here-and-now" theory); and his writings about the creative potential of the termination process.

  7. Experimenting from a distance—remotely controlled laboratory (RCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Sebastian; Vetter, Martin; Eckert, Bodo; Jodl, Hans-Jörg

    2007-05-01

    The use of computers and multimedia, as well as the World Wide Web and new communication technologies, allows new forms of teaching and learning such as distance learning, blended learning, use of virtual libraries and many more. The herewith discussed remotely controlled laboratory (RCL) project shall offer an additional contribution. The basic idea is for a user to connect via the Internet with a computer from place A to a real experiment carried out in place B. An overview of our technical and didactical developments as well as an outlook on future plans is presented. Currently, about ten RCLs have been implemented. The essential characteristics of an RCL are the intuitive use and interactivity (operating the technical parameters), the possibility of different points of view of the ongoing experiment thanks to web cams and the quickest possible transfer of the data measured by the user. A reasonable use of sensibly chosen real experiments as remote labs allows a new form of homework and exercises, as well as project work and the execution of experiments, which usually would be a teacher's prerogative only.

  8. Laboratory plate tectonics: a new experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, R F

    1976-03-26

    A "continent" made of a layer of hexagonally packed black polyethylene spheres floating in clear silicon oil breaks into subcontinents when illuminated by an ordinary incandescent light bulb. This experiment may be a useful model of plate tectonics driven by horizontal temperature gradients. Measurements of the spreading rate are made to establish the feasibility of this model.

  9. Laboratory diagnosis of mucormycosis: current status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Michaela; Caramalho, Rita; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Fungal infections caused by members of the Mucorales order are rapidly progressing and fatal. The importance of mucormycosis has grown in recent years as the number of patients with predisposing factors has increased dramatically. Clinical symptoms are elusive and conventional techniques are often insensitive and unspecific; in particular, cultures are often negative even though direct microscopy is positive. For early diagnosis of the causative agent of disease and subsequently guiding therapy to improving patients' outcome, molecular assays are promising add-ons. This article provides an overview on current laboratory methods for diagnosing mucormycosis with a special focus on new molecular-based tools. We aim to highlight the pros and cons of various techniques at hand. Given the increase in number and the severity of these infections, molecular approaches for improved diagnosis are highly warranted.

  10. Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment as a Remotely Controlled Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Bodo; Grober, Sebastian; Vetter, Martin; Jodl, Hans-Jorg

    2012-01-01

    The Millikan oil-drop experiment, to determine the elementary electrical charge e and the quantization of charge Q = n [middle dot] e, is an essential experiment in physics teaching but it is hardly performed in class for several reasons. Therefore, we offer this experiment as a remotely controlled laboratory (RCL). We describe the interactivity…

  11. High Performance Liquid Chromatography Experiments to Undergraduate Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissinger, Peter T.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the principles of liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LCEC), an analytical technique that incorporates the advantages of both liquids chromatography and electrochemistry. Also suggests laboratory experiments using this technique. (MLH)

  12. Laser Speckle Photography: Some Simple Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, B.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes simple speckle photography experiments which are easy to set up and require only low cost standard laboratory equipment. Included are procedures for taking single, double, and multiple exposures. (JN)

  13. Democratic design experiments: between parliament and laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Brandt, Eva; Ehn, Pelle;

    2015-01-01

    been performed and accomplished in participatory practices. In this article we discuss how participatory design may be reinvigorated as a design research programme for democratic design experiments in the light of the de-centring of human-centredness and the foregrounding of collaborative......For more than four decades participatory design has provided exemplars and concepts for understanding the democratic potential of design participation. Despite important impacts on design methodology participatory design has however been stuck in a marginal position as it has wrestled with what has...

  14. Assessing herbicide leaching from field measurements and laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Sánchez, Mª Victoria; Calderón, M.J.; Fernández Luque, José Enrique; Hermosín, M.C.; Moreno Lucas, Félix; Cornejo, J.

    2001-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments with undisturbed soil columns were performed for assessing the mobility and persistence of chloridazon and lenacil in a clayey soil in the marshes of Lebrija, southwest Spain. In the laboratory we tried to evaluate the herbicides fate when applied with doses greater than normal, as it happens by overlap when spraying the herbicides. Thus, the herbicides doses in the field experiments were similar to those applied by the growers in the area, while the doses app...

  15. Project-Based Laboratory Experiences in Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Sharma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe project-based laboratories in Mechanical Engineering designed to provide semester-long team experiences which mimic the real life industrial processes of design, development, testing and optimization. The labs are focused on courses at the sophomore level and thus require special attention to constraints of student backgrounds and experience. This paper describes laboratory projects in Dynamics and Fluid Mechanics.

  16. Can the downward current region of the aurora be simulated in the laboratory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunell, H.; Andersson, L.; De Keyser, J.; Mann, I.

    2016-05-01

    A laboratory plasma device is proposed to simulate the downward current region of the aurora. In this device, a discharge in neon is used as a plasma source to represent the hot plasma of the magnetosphere, and a sodium Q-machine source represents the ionospheric plasma. An electrostatic Vlasov model is used to simulate both the downward current region itself and the proposed laboratory analogue. All important phenomena that appear in the simulation of space are found in the laboratory simulation too: a double layer carries most of the potential difference; double layers are in constant motion in the direction of decreasing magnetic field; electron phase space holes appear on the high potential side of double layers and these holes carry a part of the potential difference during double layer disruptions. The ability to simulate auroral physics in the laboratory is better for the downward than the upward current region, because of the lower levels of ion acoustic-like waves in the laboratory model of the former region. Better laboratory-space agreement is found when the discharge and Q-machine ions are of similar masses. If the masses differ significantly, as they do when using helium together with sodium ions, waves on the ion time scale dominate the plasma on the low potential side of the double layer, and there is a tendency toward multiple double layers appearing simultaneously at different locations. The experiment is suitable for the study of heating processes that occur in the downward current region and to address the behaviour of the current-voltage relationship for low voltages.

  17. Grain Nucleation Experiments and other Laboratory Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anja C.

    2011-01-01

    Stars are conspicuous components of galaxies, and the sites of the creation of most chemical elements. Due to their brightness and their production of heavy elements, stars on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) play an important role for understanding stellar and galactic evolution. This conferenc...... Loss, Chemistry & Geometry Common Inhabitants: Population Studies & Synthesis Models Out There: Magellanic Clouds, Local Group & Beyond Perspectives Near and Far: ALMA, Herschel, JWST, ELTs, ...... aims to build a bridge between AGB research and its application to the modelling of stellar populations and the chemical evolution of galaxies. Current developments and challenges on both sides will be discussed to reach an understanding of possibilities, limitations, and needs in both areas, and hence...

  18. Establishing laboratory standards for biological flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ronald B.; Moriarity, Debra M.

    1989-01-01

    The general objective of this research was to assess the effects of exposure to simulated microgravity on ultrastructural aspects of the contractile system in chicken skeletal muscle cells. This general objective had two specific experimental components: (1) the progression of changes in cell morphology, fusion, and patterns of contractile filament organization in muscle cell cultures grown in hollow fibers in the Clinostat were evaluated, with appropriate controls; (2) to initiate experiments in which muscle cells were grown on the surface of microcarrier beads. The ultimate objective of this second portion of the work is to determine if these beads can be rotated in a bioreactor and thereby obtain a more accurate approximation of the effects of simulated microgravity on differentiated muscle cells.

  19. A Model for Designing Adaptive Laboratory Evolution Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaCroix, Ryan A.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Feist, Adam M.

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of mutations is a cornerstone of the evolutionary theory of adaptation, capitalizing on the rare chance that a mutation confers a fitness benefit. Natural selection is increasingly being leveraged in laboratory settings for industrial and basic science applications. Despite...... increasing deployment, there are no standardized procedures available for designing and performing adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments. Thus, there is a need to optimize the experimental design, specifically for determining when to consider an experiment complete and for balancing outcomes...... adaptive laboratory evolution can achieve....

  20. Laboratory Experiments in Teaching Public Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špačková Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with classroom experiments in economics, which have been derived from laboratory experiments. These experiments cover a broad range of topics, from strictly economic ones (like market games or auctions to those with overlaps to other domains such as public policy. The paper discusses different methodologies of research and classroom experiments, introduces the benefits of the latter and presents a concrete teaching experiment used in public economics courses at the Faculty of Economics and Administration of Masaryk University. Another link between economic experiments and public policy is outlined here as well, namely the importance of experimental results for public policy makers.

  1. Impact Crater Experiments for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycomb, J. R.

    2009-01-01

    Activity-based collisional analysis is developed for introductory physics and astronomy laboratory experiments. Crushable floral foam is used to investigate the physics of projectiles undergoing completely inelastic collisions with a low-density solid forming impact craters. Simple drop experiments enable determination of the average acceleration,…

  2. Glycosidation of Methanol with Ribose: An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Erin; Cook, Katie; Pritchard, Meredith R.; Stripe, Wayne; Bruch, Martha; Bendinskas, Kestutis

    2010-01-01

    This exercise provides students hands-on experience with the topics of glycosidation, hemiacetal and acetal formation, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ([superscript 1]H NMR) spectroscopy, and kinetic and thermodynamic product formation. In this laboratory experiment, the methyl acetal of ribose is synthesized, and the kinetic and thermodynamic…

  3. CSI flight experiment projects of the Naval Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shalom

    1993-02-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is involved in an active program of CSI flight experiments. The first CSI flight experiment of the Naval Research Laboratory, the Low Power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) dynamics experiment, has successfully measured vibrations of an orbiting satellite with a ground-based laser radar. The observations, made on January 7, 8 and 10, 1991, represent the first ever measurements of this type. In the tests, a narrowband heterodyne CO2 laser radar, operating at a wavelength of 10.6 microns, detected vibration induced differential-Doppler signatures of the LACE satellite. Power spectral densities of forced oscillations and modal frequencies and damping rates of free-damped vibrations were obtained and compared with finite element structural models of the LACE system. Another manifested flight experiment is the Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX) designed to demonstrate active and passive damping with piezo-electric (PZT) sensors and actuators. This experiment was developed under the management of the Air Force Phillips Laboratory with integration of the experiment at NRL. It is to ride as a secondary, or 'piggyback,' experiment on a future Navy satellite.

  4. A Model for Designing Adaptive Laboratory Evolution Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaCroix, Ryan A; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2017-04-15

    The occurrence of mutations is a cornerstone of the evolutionary theory of adaptation, capitalizing on the rare chance that a mutation confers a fitness benefit. Natural selection is increasingly being leveraged in laboratory settings for industrial and basic science applications. Despite increasing deployment, there are no standardized procedures available for designing and performing adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) experiments. Thus, there is a need to optimize the experimental design, specifically for determining when to consider an experiment complete and for balancing outcomes with available resources (i.e., laboratory supplies, personnel, and time). To design and to better understand ALE experiments, a simulator, ALEsim, was developed, validated, and applied to the optimization of ALE experiments. The effects of various passage sizes were experimentally determined and subsequently evaluated with ALEsim, to explain differences in experimental outcomes. Furthermore, a beneficial mutation rate of 10(-6.9) to 10(-8.4) mutations per cell division was derived. A retrospective analysis of ALE experiments revealed that passage sizes typically employed in serial passage batch culture ALE experiments led to inefficient production and fixation of beneficial mutations. ALEsim and the results described here will aid in the design of ALE experiments to fit the exact needs of a project while taking into account the resources required and will lower the barriers to entry for this experimental technique.IMPORTANCE ALE is a widely used scientific technique to increase scientific understanding, as well as to create industrially relevant organisms. The manner in which ALE experiments are conducted is highly manual and uniform, with little optimization for efficiency. Such inefficiencies result in suboptimal experiments that can take multiple months to complete. With the availability of automation and computer simulations, we can now perform these experiments in an optimized

  5. On integrating large eddy simulation and laboratory turbulent flow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstein, Fernando F

    2009-07-28

    Critical issues involved in large eddy simulation (LES) experiments relate to the treatment of unresolved subgrid scale flow features and required initial and boundary condition supergrid scale modelling. The inherently intrusive nature of both LES and laboratory experiments is noted in this context. Flow characterization issues becomes very challenging ones in validation and computational laboratory studies, where potential sources of discrepancies between predictions and measurements need to be clearly evaluated and controlled. A special focus of the discussion is devoted to turbulent initial condition issues.

  6. A Contribution to Real-Time Experiments in Remote Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Janík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on realization of hard real-time control of experiments in on-line laboratories. The presented solution utilizes already developed on-line laboratory portal that is based on open-source Scilab environment. The customized solution is based on Linux RTAI platform with RTAI-XML server, Comedi and jRTAILab with support of ScicosLab environment. It generates real-time executable code that is used to operate student experiments performed on Humusoft CE152 Magnetic Levitation plant.

  7. INTEGRATION POLICY TOWARDS IMMIGRANTS: CURRENT EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Bureiko

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world the intensity of the immigration movements is constantly increasing. Countries which experience great immigrant flows are facing numerous problems which should be solved. The article studies the current immigration flows in EU countries, the United States of America and Canada and presents three main models of integration policy towards immigrants – political assimilation, functional integration and multicultural model. Separate models are distinguished for the Muslims’ integration. The author examines the peculiarities of every model and examines the conclusions provided by the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX concerning the situation of the immigrants’ integration in 31 countries in 2011. Among all the policy indicators the first that are defined are as follows: political participation, education, labour market mobility and anti-discrimination. The situation with immigrants’ integration in Ukraine is also studied as it is gaining a great attention of the authorities and the public. The measures and practical steps done regarding this situation in Ukraine in recent years are analyzed using the information offered by the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

  8. Experiments with Coler magnetic current apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, T.

    Experiments with a replica of the famous Coler "Magnetstromapparat" (magnetic current apparatus) were conducted. The replica was built at the same institute at the Technical University of Berlin where the original was tested by Prof. Kloss in 1925. The details of the setup will be presented in this paper. The investigation of the Coler device was done with modern methods. The output was measured with a digital multi meter (DMM) and a digital storage oscilloscope (DSO). The results of the measurements will be presented. Did Coler convert vacuum fluctuations via magnetic, electric and acoustic resonance into electricity? There is a strong connection between magnetism and quantum field radiation energy. The magnetic moment of the electron is in part an energy exchange with the radiation field. The energy output of the Coler apparatus is measured. Furthermore the dynamics of the ferromagnetic magnets that Coler reported as the working principle of his device was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and the spectroscopy mode of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The magnetic and acoustic resonance was investigated with magnetic force microscopy (MFM). The connection between ZPE and magnetism will be discussed as well as the perspective of using magnetic systems as a means to convert vacuum fluctuations into usable electricity.

  9. Dental laboratory technology education in China: current situation and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liwei; Yue, Li; Zhou, Min; Yu, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Modern dentistry and dental education in China were first introduced from abroad by Dr. Lindsay in 1907. However, advancements in the field of dental laboratory technology did not occur to the same degree in specialties such as prosthodontics and orthodontics. Since the 1990s, orders from abroad demanding dental appliances surged as the image of China as the "world's factory" strengthened. The assembly line model, in which technicians work like simple procedure workers, was rapidly applied to denture production, while the traditional education system and apprenticeship systems demonstrated little progress in these years. The lack of advancement in dental laboratory technology education caused insufficient development in China's dental technology industry. In order to alter the situation, a four-year dental laboratory technology undergraduate educational program was established in 2005 by West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University (WCSS, SCU). This program was based on SCU's undergraduate education and WCSS's junior college education systems. The program introduced scientific methods in relevant subjects into laboratory technicians' training and made many improvements in the availability of trained faculty, textbooks, laboratory facilities, and curriculum.

  10. Raising environmental awareness through applied biochemistry laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment is described that guides students to learn about the applicability of peroxidase enzymes to degrade organic dyes (as model pollutants) in simulated waste water. In addition to showing how enzymes can potentially be used for waste water remediation, various factors than can affect enzyme-based reactions such as pH, temperature, concentration of substrates/enzymes, and denaturants can also be tested. This "applied biotechnology" experiment was successfully implemented in an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory course to enhance students' learning of environmental issues as well important biochemistry concepts. Student survey confirmed that this laboratory experiment was successful in achieving the objectives of raising environmental awareness in students and illustrating the usefulness of chemistry in solving real-life problems. This experiment can be easily adopted in an introductory biochemistry laboratory course and taught as an inquiry-guided exercise.

  11. An Enzyme Kinetics Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Robert J.; Olsen, Julie A.; Giles, Greta A.

    2010-01-01

    An experiment using [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of "N"-acetyl-DL-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The L-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and [superscript 1]H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up…

  12. Women's Experiences in the Engineering Laboratory in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal…

  13. Lidocaine Metabolism and Toxicity: A Laboratory Experiment for Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusek, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    A laboratory exercise for dental students is presented using a toxic dose of lidocaine in place of an anesthetic dose of pentobarbital. The use of lidocaine demonstrates its toxic and lethal actions and increases the relevance of the experience for dental students. (Author/MLW)

  14. Snow isotope diffusion rates measured in a laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wel, L. G.; Gkinis, V.; Pohjola, V. A.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2011-01-01

    The diffusion of stable water isotopes in snow was measured in two controlled laboratory experiments. Two batches of snow of different isotopic composition were stacked alternately with varying layer thicknesses. The stack was stored in a freezer room at constant temperature for several months, and

  15. Differentiating Biochemistry Course Laboratories Based on Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2011-01-01

    Content and emphases in undergraduate biochemistry courses can be readily tailored to accommodate the standards of the department in which they are housed, as well as the backgrounds of the students in the courses. A more challenging issue is how to construct laboratory experiences for a class with both chemistry majors, who usually have little or…

  16. A Unit Cell Laboratory Experiment: Marbles, Magnets, and Stacking Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David C.

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate first-semester general chemistry laboratory experiment introducing face-centered, body-centered, and simple cubic unit cells is presented. Emphasis is placed on the stacking arrangement of solid spheres used to produce a particular unit cell. Marbles and spherical magnets are employed to prepare each stacking arrangement. Packing…

  17. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. [magnetospheric experiments from space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Current work aimed at identifying the active magnetospheric experiments that can be performed from the Space Shuttle, and designing a laboratory to carry out these experiments is described. The laboratory, known as the PPEPL (Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory) consists of 35-ft pallet of instruments connected to a 25-ft pressurized control module. The systems deployed from the pallet are two 50-m booms, two subsatellites, a high-power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform. Missions are planned to last seven days, during which two scientists will carry out experiments from within the pressurized module. The type of experiments to be performed are outlined.

  18. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. [magnetospheric experiments from space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Current work aimed at identifying the active magnetospheric experiments that can be performed from the Space Shuttle, and designing a laboratory to carry out these experiments is described. The laboratory, known as the PPEPL (Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory) consists of 35-ft pallet of instruments connected to a 25-ft pressurized control module. The systems deployed from the pallet are two 50-m booms, two subsatellites, a high-power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform. Missions are planned to last seven days, during which two scientists will carry out experiments from within the pressurized module. The type of experiments to be performed are outlined.

  19. Numerical support of laboratory experiments: Attenuation and velocity estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Erik; Madonna, Claudio; Frehner, Marcel; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2014-02-01

    We show that numerical support of laboratory experiments can significantly increase the understanding and simplify the interpretation of the obtained laboratory results. First we perform simulations of the Seismic Wave Attenuation Module to measure seismic attenuation of reservoir rocks. Our findings confirm the accuracy of this system. However, precision can be further improved by optimizing the sensor positions. Second, we model wave propagation for an ultrasonic pulse transmission experiment used to determine pressure- and temperature-dependent seismic velocities in the rock. Multiple waves are identified in our computer experiment, including bar waves. The metal jacket that houses the sample assembly needs to be taken into account for a proper estimation of the ultrasonic velocities. This influence is frequency-dependent.

  20. Laboratory plasma physics experiments using merging supersonic plasma jets

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S C; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.; Dunn, J. P.; Brockington, S.; Case, A; Gilmore, M.; Lynn, A. G.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven rail guns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: $n_e\\approx n_i \\sim 10^{16}$ cm$^{-3}$, $T_e \\approx T_i \\approx 1.4$ eV, $V_{\\rm jet}\\approx 30$-100 km/s, mean charge $\\bar{Z}\\approx 1$...

  1. Wiki Laboratory Notebooks: Supporting Student Learning in Collaborative Inquiry-Based Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Gwendolyn Angela; Grøndahl, Lisbeth; Boman, Simon; Andrews, Trish

    2016-06-01

    Recent examples of high-impact teaching practices in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory that include course-based undergraduate research experiences and inquiry-based experiments require new approaches to assessing individual student learning outcomes. Instructors require tools and strategies that can provide them with insight into individual student contributions to collaborative group/teamwork throughout the processes of experimental design, data analysis, display and communication of their outcomes in relation to their research question(s). Traditional assessments in the form of laboratory notebooks or experimental reports provide limited insight into the processes of collaborative inquiry-based activities. A wiki environment offers a collaborative domain that can potentially support collaborative laboratory processes and scientific record keeping. In this study, the effectiveness of the wiki in supporting laboratory learning and assessment has been evaluated through analysis of the content and histories for three consenting, participating groups of students. The conversational framework has been applied to map the relationships between the instructor, tutor, students and laboratory activities. Analytics that have been applied to the wiki platform include: character counts, page views, edits, timelines and the extent and nature of the contribution by each student to the wiki. Student perceptions of both the role and the impact of the wiki on their experiences and processes have also been collected. Evidence has emerged from this study that the wiki environment has enhanced co-construction of understanding of both the experimental process and subsequent communication of outcomes and data. A number of features are identified to support success in the use of the wiki platform for laboratory notebooks.

  2. Emulating JWST Exoplanet Transit Observations in a Testbed laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touli, D.; Beichman, C. A.; Vasisht, G.; Smith, R.; Krist, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The transit technique is used for the detection and characterization of exoplanets. The combination of transit and radial velocity (RV) measurements gives information about a planet's radius and mass, respectively, leading to an estimate of the planet's density (Borucki et al. 2011) and therefore to its composition and evolutionary history. Transit spectroscopy can provide information on atmospheric composition and structure (Fortney et al. 2013). Spectroscopic observations of individual planets have revealed atomic and molecular species such as H2O, CO2 and CH4 in atmospheres of planets orbiting bright stars, e.g. Deming et al. (2013). The transit observations require extremely precise photometry. For instance, Jupiter transit results to a 1% brightness decrease of a solar type star while the Earth causes only a 0.0084% decrease (84 ppm). Spectroscopic measurements require still greater precision ppm. The Precision Projector Laboratory (PPL) is a collaboration between the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) to characterize and validate detectors through emulation of science images. At PPL we have developed a testbed to project simulated spectra and other images onto a HgCdTe array in order to assess precision photometry for transits, weak lensing etc. for Explorer concepts like JWST, WFIRST, EUCLID. In our controlled laboratory experiment, the goal is to demonstrate ability to extract weak transit spectra as expected for NIRCam, NIRIS and NIRSpec. Two lamps of variable intensity, along with spectral line and photometric simulation masks emulate the signals from a star-only, from a planet-only and finally, from a combination of a planet + star. Three masks have been used to simulate spectra in monochromatic light. These masks, which are fabricated at JPL, have a length of 1000 pixels and widths of 2 pixels, 10 pixels and 1 pixel to correspond respectively to the noted above JWST instruments. From many-hour long observing

  3. Development, Evaluation and Use of a Student Experience Survey in Undergraduate Science Laboratories: The Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory Student Laboratory Learning Experience Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Simon C.; Bucat, Robert B.; Buntine, Mark A.; Burke da Silva, Karen; Crisp, Geoffrey T.; George, Adrian V.; Jamie, Ian M.; Kable, Scott H.; Lim, Kieran F.; Pyke, Simon M.; Read, Justin R.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Yeung, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    Student experience surveys have become increasingly popular to probe various aspects of processes and outcomes in higher education, such as measuring student perceptions of the learning environment and identifying aspects that could be improved. This paper reports on a particular survey for evaluating individual experiments that has been developed over some 15 years as part of a large national Australian study pertaining to the area of undergraduate laboratories-Advancing Science by Enhancing Learning in the Laboratory. This paper reports on the development of the survey instrument and the evaluation of the survey using student responses to experiments from different institutions in Australia, New Zealand and the USA. A total of 3153 student responses have been analysed using factor analysis. Three factors, motivation, assessment and resources, have been identified as contributing to improved student attitudes to laboratory activities. A central focus of the survey is to provide feedback to practitioners to iteratively improve experiments. Implications for practitioners and researchers are also discussed.

  4. The Effect of Guided-Inquiry Laboratory Experiments on Science Education Students' Chemistry Laboratory Attitudes, Anxiety and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Evrim

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to search the effect of guided inquiry laboratory experiments on students' attitudes towards chemistry laboratory, chemistry laboratory anxiety and their academic achievement in the laboratory. The study has been carried out with 37 third-year, undergraduate science education students, as a part of their Science Education Laboratory…

  5. A "Greenhouse Gas" Experiment for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Elaine; Paul, Melissa; Como, Charles; Barat, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This experiment and analysis offer an effective experience in greenhouse gas reduction. Ammoniated water is flowed counter-current to a simulated flue gas of air and CO2 in a packed column. The gaseous CO2 concentrations are measured with an on-line, non- dispersive, infrared analyzer. Column operating parameters include total gas flux, dissolved…

  6. Gamification of the Laboratory Experience to Encourage Student Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Drace

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Microbiology (ASM Task Force on Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Microbiology Students published recommendations for introductory microbiology courses that suggest teaching specific skill sets in the laboratory beyond just fundamental knowledge and concepts of microbiology (6; however, students can sometimes view a skills-based laboratory experience as a task list of unrelated assignments to complete for a grade. Therefore, providing explicit connections throughout the lecture and laboratory exercises is critical for a truly integrated learning experience. Several pedagogical techniques can provide a coherent framework throughout a course. For example, case-based studies can connect lecture with laboratory skills and increase student engagement by applying newly developed knowledge and skills to tackle real-world simulations (2, 3. One reason that case-based studies succeed is that they can provide intrinsic motivations and an alternate purpose for students to engage with the material. A more recent trend in pedagogy involves using game design elements to increase student engagement and motivation. Gamification is the application of game design (accruing points or badges, reaching significant levels of accomplishment, or other reward elements in a non-game context to motivate or influence participation (1, 5. A natural extension of both of these methods is to gamify a case-based approach where a fictional scenario is presented for students to role-play as scientists using their developed skills to solve a complex problem. The typical microbiology laboratory, as described by the ASM Task Force, can easily incorporate game design elements without extensive modification of the exercises themselves. Instead, gamification involves structuring the lab in a way that gives the course a coherent and unified purpose. This ultimately allows the student to see how the principles and concepts of lecture and laboratory connect

  7. A pilot experience in physics laboratory for a professional school

    CERN Document Server

    Montalbano, Vera; Di Renzone, Simone; Frati, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The reform of the upper secondary school in Italy has recently introduced physics in the curricula of professional schools, in realities where it was previously absent. Many teachers, often with a temporary position, are obliged to teaching physics in schools where the absence of the laboratory is added to the lack of interest of students who feel this matter as very far from their personal interests and from the preparation for the work which could expect from a professional school. We report a leaning path for introducing students to the measurement of simple physical quantities, which continued with the study of some properties of matter (volume, mass, density) and ending with some elements of thermodynamics. Educational materials designed in order to involve students in an active learning, actions performed for improving the quality of laboratory experience and difficulties encountered are presented. Finally, we compare the active engagement of these students with a similar experience performed in a very ...

  8. Beryllium Drive Disc Characterization for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmar, J. R.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.

    2009-11-01

    Laboratory Astrophysics scales large-scale phenomena, such as core-collapse supernovae shocks, down to the sub-millimeter scale for investigation in a laboratory setting. In some experiments, targets are constructed with a 20μm thick beryllium disc attached to a polyimide tube. A shockwave is created by irradiating the Be disc with ˜ 4kJ of energy from the Omega Laser. The Be material is rolled into a 20μm sheet and then machined to a 2.5mm diameter. Characterizing the roughness and knowing if there are any major features on the initial surface could affect interpretations of data taken during experiments. Structure in the Beryllium discs could become an important parameter in future high-fidelity computer simulations. Surfaces were characterized with a Scanning Electron Microscope and an Atomic Force Microscope.

  9. Current knowledge on the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients. Due to extensive antibiotic usage, the number of CDIs has increased. Diagnosis of CDI is often difficult and has a substantial impact on the management of patients with the disease, mainly with regards to antibiotic management. The diagnosis of CDI is primarily based on the clinical signs and symptoms and is only confirmed by laboratory testing. Despite the high burden of CDI and the increasing interest in the disease, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed. The reasons for misdiagnosis are the lack of clinical suspicion or the use of inappropriate tests. The proper diagnosis of CDI reduces transmission, prevents inadequate or unnecessary treatments, and assures best antibiotic treatment. We review the options for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI within the settings of the most accepted guidelines for CDI diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of CDI. PMID:28321156

  10. Laboratory experiments on drought and runoff in blanket peat

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, J; Burt, T. P.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming might change the hydrology of upland blanket peats in Britain. We have therefore studied in laboratory experiments the impact of drought on peat from the North Pennines of the UK. Runoff was dominated by surface and near-surface flow; flow decreased rapidly with depth and differed from one type of cover to another. Infiltration depended on the intensity of rain, and runoff responded rapidly to rain, with around 50% of rainwater emerging as overland flow. Drought changed the str...

  11. The Underground Laboratory in South Korea : facilities and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeongduk

    2017-01-01

    We have developed underground physics programs for last 15 years in South Korea. The scientific and technical motivation for this initiative was the lack of local facility of a large accelerator in Korea. Thanks to the large underground electric power generator in Yangyang area, we could construct a deep underground laboratory (Yangyang Laboratory, Y2L) and has performed some pioneering experiments for dark matter search and double beta decay experiments. Since year of 2013, a new research center in the Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Center for Underground Physics (CUP), is approved by the government and Y2L laboratory is managed by CUP. Due to the limited space in Y2L, we are proposing to construct a new deep underground laboratory where we can host larger scale experiments of next generation. The site is in an active iron mine, and will be made in 1100 meter underground with a space of about 2000 m2 by the end of 2019. I will describe the status and future plan for this underground laboratory. CUP has two main experimental programs. (1) Identification of dark matter : The annual modulation signal of DAMA/LIBRA experiment has been contradictory to many other experiments such as XENON100, LUX, and Super CDMS. Yale University and CUP (COSINE-100) experimentalists agreed to do an experiment together at the Y2L and recently commissioned a 100kg scale low background NaI(Tl) crystal experiment. In future, we will develop NaI(Tl) crystals with lower internal backgrounds and try to run identical detectors at both north and south hemisphere. Low mass WIMP search is also planned with a development of low temperature sensors coupled with highly scintillating crystals. (2) Neutrinoless double beta decay search : The mass of the lightest neutrino and the Majorana nature of the neutrinos are not determined yet. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiment can answer both of the questions directly, and ultra-low backgrounds and excellent energy resolution are critical to

  12. Women's experiences in the engineering laboratory in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Masako

    2014-07-01

    This qualitative study aims to examine Japanese women undergraduate engineering students' experiences of interacting with departmental peers of the same year in the laboratory setting by using interview data of 32 final-year students at two modestly selective national universities in Japan. Expectation state theory that explains unequal relationship between men and women is used as a framework. Findings suggest that women generally had a discouraging experience while working with their male peers. Specifically, women participated less and lost confidence by comparing with the men who appeared to be confident and competent.

  13. Genetic Analyses in Health Laboratories: Current Status and Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotti, Alessia; Breveglieri, Giulia; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

    Genetic analyses performed in health laboratories involve adult patients, newborns, embryos/fetuses, pre-implanted pre-embryos, pre-fertilized oocytes and should meet the major medical needs of hospitals and pharmaceutical companies. Recent data support the concept that, in addition to diagnosis and prognosis, genetic analyses might lead to development of personalized therapy. Novel frontiers in genetic testing involve the development of single cell analyses and non-invasive assays, including those able to predict outcome of cancer pathologies by looking at circulating tumor cells, DNA, mRNA and microRNAs. In this respect, PCR-free diagnostics appears to be one of the most interesting and appealing approaches.

  14. An in silico DNA cloning experiment for the biochemistry laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced high school biology classes. Students begin by examining a plasmid map with the goal of identifying which restriction enzymes may be used to clone a piece of foreign DNA containing a gene of interest into the vector. From the National Center for Biotechnology Initiative website, students are instructed to retrieve a protein sequence and use Expasy's Reverse Translate program to reverse translate the protein to cDNA. Students then use Integrated DNA Technologies' OligoAnalyzer to predict the complementary DNA strand and obtain DNA recognition sequences for the desired restriction enzymes from New England Biolabs' website. Students add the appropriate DNA restriction sequences to the double-stranded foreign DNA for cloning into the plasmid and infecting Escherichia coli cells. Students are introduced to computational biology tools, molecular biology terminology and the process of DNA cloning in this valuable single session, in silico experiment. This project develops students' understanding of the cloning process as a whole and contrasts with other laboratory and internship experiences in which the students may be involved in only a piece of the cloning process/techniques. Students interested in pursuing postgraduate study and research or employment in an academic biochemistry or molecular biology laboratory or industry will benefit most from this experience.

  15. Current experiments in elementary-particle physics - March 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.

    1983-03-01

    Microfiche are included which contain summaries of 479 experiments in elementary particle physics. Experiments are included at the following laboratories: Brookhaven (BNL); CERN; CESR; DESY; Fermilab (FNAL); Institute for Nuclear Studies (INS); KEK; LAMPF; Serpukhov (SERP); SIN; SLAC; and TRIUMF. Also, summaries of proton decay experiments are included. A list of experiments and titles is included; and a beam-target-momentum index and a spokesperson index are given. Properties of beams at the facilities are tabulated. (WHK)

  16. Laboratory experiment on bioremediation of crude oil by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, M.; Wang, L. [Ocean Univ. of China, Qingdao, Shandong (China); Cao, L.; Sun, P. [State Ocean Administration, Qingdao, Shandong (China). North China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center

    2009-07-01

    Bioremediation has been touted as a promising method to remove oil from seawater. Studies have shown that 4 bacteria N1, N2, N3 and N4, isolated from seawater and oil-polluted coastal sediments in Qingdao Port, have a strong ability to degrade crude oil. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted based on the microbial remediation functions of the bacterium flora. This paper reported on a study in which shake flask experiments were used to investigate the degradation conditions of the 4 strains. The flask tests were followed by small model basin tests where 4 strains were applied to the simulated marine environment. In the model basin test, the biodegradation rate reached 86.22 per cent. In the simulation experiment, the crude oil was analyzed by gas chromatography before and after biodegradation. The study showed that shake flask experiments provided better biodegradation conditions for the bacteria, resulting in high degradation rates. The 3 stages of laboratory-scale studies produced very similar biodegradation trends, although the degradation rate decreased slightly. It was concluded that the predominant flora chosen for this study may be feasible in treating contaminated sea water. 19 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  17. Experience of maintaining laboratory educational website′s sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izak B Dimenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory methodology websites are specialized niche websites. The visibility of a niche website transforms it into an authority site on a particular "niche of knowledge." This article presents some ways in which a laboratory methodology website can maintain its sustainability. The optimal composition of the website includes a basic content, a blog, and an ancillary part. This article discusses experimenting with the search engine optimization query results page. Strategic placement of keywords and even phrases, as well as fragmentation of the post′s material, can improve the website′s visibility to search engines. Hyperlinks open a chain reaction of additional links and draw attention to the previous posts. Publications in printed periodicals are a substantial part of a niche website presence on the Internet. Although this article explores a laboratory website on the basis of our hands-on expertise maintaining "Grossing Technology in Surgical Pathology" (www.grossing-technology.com website with a high volume of traffic for more than a decade, the recommendations presented here for developing an authority website can be applied to other professional specialized websites. The authority websites visibility and sustainability are preconditions for aggregating them in a specialized educational laboratory portal.

  18. Experimental methods: Extra-laboratory experiments extending the reach of experimental economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charness, G.; Gneezy, U.; Kuhn, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new organizing scheme for classifying types of experiments. In addition to the standard categories of laboratory and field experiments, we suggest a new category: "extra-laboratory experiments." These are experiments that have the same spirit as laboratory experiments, but are conducted

  19. Experimental methods: Extra-laboratory experiments extending the reach of experimental economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charness, G.; Gneezy, U.; Kuhn, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new organizing scheme for classifying types of experiments. In addition to the standard categories of laboratory and field experiments, we suggest a new category: "extra-laboratory experiments." These are experiments that have the same spirit as laboratory experiments, but are conducted

  20. Cryogenic Fracturing: Laboratory Visualization Experiments and Numerical Simulations Using Peridynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Short, R.; Edmiston, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Typical hydraulic fracturing operations involve the use of a large quantity of water, which can be problematic for several reasons including possible formation (permeability) damage, disposal of waste water, and the use of precious local water resource. An alternate reservoir permeability enhancing technology not requiring water is cryogenic fracturing. This method induces controlled fracturing of rock formations by thermal shock and has potentially important applications in the geothermal and hydrocarbon industries. In this process, cryogenic fluid—such as liquid nitrogen—is injected into the subsurface, causing fracturing due to thermal gradients. These fractures may improve the formation permeability relative to that achievable by hydraulic fracturing alone. We conducted combined laboratory visualization and numerical simulations studies of thermal-shock-induced fracture initiation and propagation resulting from liquid nitrogen injection in rock and analog materials. The experiment used transparent soda-lime glass cubes to facilitate real-time visualization of fracture growth and the fracture network geometry. In this contribution, we report the effect of overall temperature difference between cryogenic fluid and solid material on the produced fracture network, by pre-heating the glass cubes to several temperatures and injecting liquid nitrogen. Temperatures are monitored at several points by thermocouple and the fracture evolution is captured visually by camera. The experiment was modeled using a customized, thermoelastic, fracture-capable numerical simulation code based on peridynamics. The performance of the numerical code was validated by the results of the laboratory experiments, and then the code was used to study the different factors affecting a cryogenic fracturing operation, including the evolution of residual stresses and constitutive relationships for material failure. In complex rock such as shale, understanding the process of cryogenic

  1. Georgia Teachers in Academic Laboratories: Research Experiences in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Georgia Intern-Fellowships for Teachers (GIFT) is a collaborative effort designed to enhance mathematics and science experiences of Georgia teachers and their students through summer research internships for teachers. By offering business, industry, public science institute and research summer fellowships to teachers, GIFT provides educators with first-hand exposure to the skills and knowledge necessary for the preparation of our future workforce. Since 1991, GIFT has placed middle and high school mathematics, science and technology teachers in over 1000 positions throughout the state. In these fellowships, teachers are involved in cutting edge scientific and engineering research, data analysis, curriculum development and real-world inquiry and problem solving, and create Action Plans to assist them in translating the experience into changed classroom practice. Since 2004, an increasing number of high school students have worked with their teachers in research laboratories. The GIFT program places an average of 75 teachers per summer into internship positions. In the summer of 2005, 83 teachers worked in corporate and research environments throughout the state of Georgia and six of these positions involved authentic research in geoscience related departments at the Georgia Institute of Technology, including aerospace engineering and the earth and atmospheric sciences laboratories. This presentation will review the history and the structure of the program including the support system for teachers and mentors as well as the emphasis on inquiry based learning strategies. The focus of the presentation will be a comparison of two placement models of the teachers placed in geoscience research laboratories: middle school earth science teachers placed in a 6 week research experience and high school teachers placed in 7 week internships with teams of 3 high school students. The presentation will include interviews with faculty to determine the value of these experiences

  2. The Heavy Photon Search experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celentano, Andrea [INFN-GENOVA

    2014-11-01

    The Heavy Photon Search experiment (HPS) at Jefferson Laboratory will search for a new U(1) massive gauge boson, or "heavy-photon", mediator of a new fundamental interaction, called "dark-force", that couples to ordinary photons through kinetic mixing. HPS has sensitivity in the mass range 20 MeV – 1 GeV and coupling epsilon2 between 10-5 and 10-10. The HPS experiment will look for the e+e- decay of the heavy photon, by resonance search and detached vertexing, in an electron beam fixed target experiment. HPS will use a compact forward spectrometer, which employs silicon microstrip detectors for vertexing and tracking, and a PbWO4 electromagnetic calorimeter for energy measurement and fast triggering.

  3. Simulations of Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using the CRASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Matthew; Kuranz, Carolyn; Fein, Jeff; Wan, Willow; Young, Rachel; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations can assist in the design and analysis of laboratory astrophysics experiments. The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) at the University of Michigan developed a code that has been used to design and analyze high-energy-density experiments on OMEGA, NIF, and other large laser facilities. This Eulerian code uses block-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with implicit multigroup radiation transport, electron heat conduction and laser ray tracing. This poster will demonstrate some of the experiments the CRASH code has helped design or analyze including: Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, magnetized flows, jets, and laser-produced plasmas. This work is funded by the following grants: DEFC52-08NA28616, DE-NA0001840, and DE-NA0002032.

  4. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Debaprasad; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    In this report we have studied the implication of a parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating interaction in varying alpha theory. Due to this interaction, the state of photon polarization can change when it passes through a strong background magnetic field. We have calculated the optical rotation and ellipticity of the plane of polarization of an electromagnetic wave and tested our results against different laboratory experiments. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter {beta} and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. By analyzing the laboratory experimental data, we found the most stringent constraints on our model parameters to be 1 {le} {omega} {le} 10{sup 13} GeV{sup 2} and -0.5 {le} {beta} {le} 0.5. We also found that with the existing experimental input parameters it is very difficult to detect the ellipticity in the near future.

  5. A Low Cost Implementation of an Existing Hands-on Laboratory Experiment in Electronic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Onime

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In engineering the pedagogical content of most formative programmes includes a significant amount of practical laboratory hands-on activity designed to deliver knowledge acquisition from actual experience alongside traditional face-to-face classroom based lectures and tutorials; this hands-on aspect is not always adequately addressed by current e-learning platforms. An innovative approach to e-learning in engineering, named computer aided engineering education (CAEE is about the use of computer aids for the enhanced, interactive delivery of educational materials in different fields of engineering through two separate but related components; one for classroom and another for practical hands-on laboratory work. The component for hands-on laboratory practical work focuses on the use of mixed reality (video-based augmented reality tools on mobile devices/platforms. This paper presents the computer aided engineering education (CAEE implementation of a laboratory experiment in micro-electronics that highlights some features such as the ability to closely implement an existing laboratory based hands-on experiment with lower associated costs and the ability to conduct the experiment off-line while maintaining existing pedagogical contents and standards.

  6. Elucidating GPR Response to Biological Activity: Field and Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoflias, G. P.; Schillig, P. C.; McGlashan, M. A.; Roberts, J. A.; Devlin, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies of the geophysical signatures of biological processes in earth environments have resulted in the emergent field of “biogeophysics”. The ability to monitor remotely and to quantify active biological processes in the subsurface can have transformative implications to a wide range of investigations, including the bioremediation of contaminated sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that ground-penetrating radar (GPR) can be used to detect the products of microbial activity in the subsurface, such as changes in bulk electrical conductivity, mineral dissolution and precipitation, and the formation of biogenic gas. We present field and laboratory experiments that offer insights to the response of GPR signals to microbial activity. In the field, time-lapse borehole radar tomography was used to monitor biodegradation of a hydrocarbon plume over a period of two years. A dense grid of fourteen borehole pairs monitoring the bioactive region showed radar wave velocity changes of +/-4% and signal attenuation changes of +/-25%. These GPR observations correlated spatially and temporally to independent measurements of groundwater velocity and geochemical variations that occurred in response to microbial activity. The greatest relative changes in radar wave velocity of propagation and attenuation were observed in the region of enhanced bacterial stimulation where biomass growth was the greatest. Radar wave velocity and attenuation decreased during periods of enhanced biostimulation. Two laboratory experiments were conducted to further assess radar response to biomass growth. The first experiment monitored GPR wave transmission through a water-saturated quartz-sand reactor during the course of enhanced biostimulation. Radar wave velocity initially decreased as a result of bacterial activity and subsequently increased rapidly as biogenic gas formed in the pore space. Radar signal attenuation increased during the course of the experiment as a result of an

  7. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapping, R.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Wright, M.D

    2001-10-01

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  8. Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele; Cioffi; Antonella; De; Rosa; Rosalba; Serao; Ilaria; Picone; Maria; Teresa; Vietri

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis(UC)and Crohn’s disease(CD)are the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD)in man.Despite some common features,these forms can be distinguished by different genetic predisposition,risk factors and clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics.The aetiology of both CD and UC remains unknown,but several evidences suggest that CD and perhaps UC are due to an excessive immuneresponse directed against normal constituents of the intestinal bacterial flora.Tests sometimes invasive are routine for the diagnosis and care of patients with IBD.Diagnosis of UC is based on clinical symptoms combined with radiological and endoscopic investigations.The employment of non-invasive biomarkers is needed.These biomarkers have the potential to avoid invasive diagnostic tests that may result in discomfort and potential complications.The ability to determine the type,severity,prognosis and response to therapy of UC,using biomarkers has long been a goal of clinical researchers.We describe the biomarkers assessed in UC,with special reference to acute-phase proteins and serologic markers and thereafter,we describe the new biological markers and the biological markers could be developed in the future:(1)serum markers of acute phase response:The laboratory tests most used to measure the acute-phase proteins in clinical practice are the serum concentration of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.Other biomarkers of inflammation in UC include platelet count,leukocyte count,and serum albumin and serum orosomucoid concentrations;(2)serologic markers/antibodies:In the last decades serological and immunologic biomarkers have been studied extensively in immunology and have been used in clinical practice to detect specific pathologies.In UC,the presence of these antibodies can aid as surrogate markers for the aberrant host immune response;and(3)future biomarkers:The development of biomarkers in UC will be very important in the future.The progress

  9. The Online Laboratory: Conducting Experiments in a Real Labor Market

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, John J; Zeckhauser, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Online labor markets have great potential as platforms for conducting experiments, as they provide immediate access to a large and diverse subject pool and allow researchers to conduct randomized controlled trials. We argue that online experiments can be just as valid---both internally and externally---as laboratory and field experiments, while requiring far less money and time to design and to conduct. In this paper, we first describe the benefits of conducting experiments in online labor markets; we then use one such market to replicate three classic experiments and confirm their results. We confirm that subjects (1) reverse decisions in response to how a decision-problem is framed, (2) have pro-social preferences (value payoffs to others positively), and (3) respond to priming by altering their choices. We also conduct a labor supply field experiment in which we confirm that workers have upward sloping labor supply curves. In addition to reporting these results, we discuss the unique threats to validity in...

  10. Microrelief-Controlled Overland Flow Generation: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefeng Chu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface microrelief affects overland flow generation and the related hydrologic processes. However, such influences vary depending on other factors such as rainfall characteristics, soil properties, and initial soil moisture conditions. Thus, in-depth research is needed to better understand and evaluate the combined effects of these factors on overland flow dynamics. The objective of this experimental study was to examine how surface microrelief, in conjunction with the factors of rainfall, soil, and initial moisture conditions, impacts overland flow generation and runoff processes in both laboratory and field settings. A series of overland flow experiments were conducted for rough and smooth surfaces that represented distinct microtopographic characteristics and the experimental data were analyzed and compared. Across different soil types and initial moisture conditions, both laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that a rough soil surface experienced a delayed initiation of runoff and featured a stepwise threshold flow pattern due to the microrelief-controlled puddle filling-spilling-merging dynamics. It was found from the field experiments that a smooth plot surface was more responsive to rainfall variations especially during an initial rainfall event. However, enhanced capability of overland flow generation and faster puddle connectivity of a rough field plot occurred during the subsequent rain events.

  11. Laboratory observations of saline and turbidity currents flowing in U-shaped flume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnaro, M.; Bolla Pittaluga, M.

    2013-12-01

    Saline and turbidity currents belong to the large family of gravity currents. Due to the difficulties to predict and observe these kinds of phenomena, especially turbidity currents, we developed an experimental apparatus able to reproduce these currents in our Marchi Environmental Laboratory (Genova, Italy). The experiments were performed in a large U-shaped flume, 30 m long, characterized by a constant curvature bend (radius of 2.5 m) joining two straight reaches approximately 12 m long. The flume has a rectangular cross section 0.6 m wide and 0.5 m deep. Inside the flume we made a uniform concrete bottom slope (0.005), which proceeds from the inlet section along the first straight track and finishes 3 m after the bend exit. For each experiment we have been able to measure density distribution and velocity profiles along the vertical in different cross section. Density measurements were obtained using two ranks of siphons that sample the currents at different heights. Velocity was acquired with the DOP2000 ultrasound velocimeter; we measured longitudinal component in the straight reach of the flume, and both longitudinal and transversal velocity in the curved reach. We performed 30 experiments by changing the inlet conditions: primary defining the nature of the currents, saline or sediment laden, then varying two of the main parameters governing the currents: the density of the mixture and the flow discharge. The former covered a range between 1003 and 1023 kg/m^3 and the flow discharge ranged between 0.5 to 4.0 l/s. Both of these parameters influence the densimetric Froude Number, and allowed us to reproduce both subcritical and supercritical flow. In each experiment water entrainment from above was negligible hence the current was able to attain a quasi-uniform configuration in the first straight reach, whereby the longitudinal velocity and the thickness of the current were approximately constant. By varying the inlet conditions, it was possible to observe the

  12. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory experience, linking with educational technologies (Pyatt & Sims, 2007; 2011; Trundle & Bell, 2010). A causal-comparative quantitative study was conducted with 150 learners enrolled at a two-year community college, to determine the effects of simulation laboratory experiments on Higher-Order Learning, Critical Thinking Skills, and Cognitive Load. The treatment population used simulated experiments, while the non-treatment sections performed traditional expository experiments. A comparison was made using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory survey, using a Repeated Measures ANOVA test for treatment or non-treatment. A main effect of simulated laboratory experiments was found for both Higher-Order Learning, [F (1, 148) = 30.32,p = 0.00, eta2 = 0.12] and Critical Thinking Skills, [F (1, 148) = 14.64,p = 0.00, eta 2 = 0.17] such that simulations showed greater increases than traditional experiments. Post-lab treatment group self-reports indicated increased marginal means (+4.86) in Higher-Order Learning and Critical Thinking Skills, compared to the non-treatment group (+4.71). Simulations also improved the scientific skills and mastery of basic scientific subject matter. It is recommended that additional research recognize that learners' Critical Thinking Skills change due to different instructional methodologies that occur throughout a semester.

  13. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: Current concepts and local experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aging population in our country, symptomatic osteoporotic compression fractures are increasingly common. Osteolytic compression fractures from spinal metastasis are also becoming more frequently seen because of the longer life expectancy from improvements in chemotherapy. Percutaneous vertebroplasty with PMMA has been shown to be an efficient procedure to treat pain due to these fractures. It is a minimally invasive procedure performed under local anesthesia and sedation. Injection of PMMA provides immediate stability when it hardens, and permits the patient to ambulate without pain. Appropriate patient selection is the key to clinical success. However, this procedure must be treated with respect, and has to be performed by physicians with the necessary training. Otherwise, increased pain, paralysis, and even death may occur from this seemingly innocuous procedure. In this article, I will deal with the background issues of osteoporotic and osteolytic vertebral compression fractures, patient selection, surgical technique, complications, and review of current literature on vertebroplasty. Key areas of development in this field include the use of kyphoplasty, defining the role of prophylactic augmentation, and improvements in biomaterials.

  14. Laboratory Investigations of Current Sheets at the Electron Skin Depth Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory Investigations of Current Sheets at the Electron Skin Depth Scale. Theoretical investigations, in situ spacecraft and rocket missions, and laboratory studies form an essential triad for understanding the variety of current sheet phenomena found in space plasmas. In the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA, the formation dynamics, equilibrium state, and wave-mediated disruptions of current sheets can be studied with great spatial and temporal resolution using a variety of probes as well as non-invasive laser induced fluorescence and other optical diagnostics. The LAPD is aptly suited for studying current sheets flowing in a magnetized background plasma which is capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The cylindrical device is 20m long and one meter in diameter with a solenoidal magnetic field as high as 3000 Gauss. For the parameters in this experiment, the plasma column is ten shear Alfvén wavelengths along the field and 100 electron inertial lengths (δe) (or 200 ρi) in the perpendicular direction. An electron current sheet is created in the plasma by placing a thin copper plate in the plasma column at one end of the device and pulsing this plate positive with respect to the chamber wall. The current sheet extends for the length of the device and has an initial cross-field size of roughly 45 δe by 0.5δe. A parallel flow of ions is observed with similar dimensions and moves in the same direction as the electrons in the current sheet with a velocity of 0.2 times the ion sound speed. A much weaker sheared perpendicular flow is also measured. Cross-sections of the ion flow are measured at several axial locations over a distance of six meters. Second, as the ion flow increases in magnitude, a much broader (8ρi) density depletion (n=0.25nO) develops around the flow. The gradient scale length of the depletion shortens until the spontaneous growth of drift waves occurs. This disrupts the electron current and ion flow, and leads to cross-field transport of

  15. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  16. Using data assimilation in laboratory experiments of geophysical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Galmiche, M; Thivolle-Cazat, E; Verron, J; Galmiche, Martin; Sommeria, Joel; Thivolle-Cazat, Emmanuelle; Verron, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Data assimilation is used in numerical simulations of laboratory experiments in a stratified, rotating fluid. The experiments are performed on the large Coriolis turntable (Grenoble, France), which achieves a high degree of similarity with the ocean, and the simulations are performed with a two-layer shallow water model. Since the flow is measured with a high level of precision and resolution, a detailed analysis of a forecasting system is feasible. Such a task is much more difficult to undertake at the oceanic scale because of the paucity of observations and problems of accuracy and data sampling. This opens the way to an experimental test bed for operational oceanography. To illustrate this, some results on the baroclinic instability of a two-layer vortex are presented.

  17. Maintaining turbidity and current flow in laboratory aquarium studies, a case study using Sabellaria spinulosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrew J.; S. Last, Kim; Attard, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Many aquatic organisms rely on the suspension of particulate matter for food or for building materials, yet these conditions are difficult to replicate in laboratory mesocosms. Consequently, husbandry and experimental conditions may often be sub-optimal. The Vortex Resuspension Tank (Vo......RT) is a simple and reliable system for the resuspension of food or sediments using an enclosed airlift. The particle rain from the lift is mixed in the tank by two water inputs that provide directional current flow across the study organism(s). The vortex mixing creates a turbulent lateral water flow that allows...... whereas under intermediate and high sediment rates there was consistent cumulative growth throughout a 15 d experiment. This highlights the importance of suspended sediment for S. spinulosa and also the suitability of the VoRT system for maintaining organisms with suspended matter requirements....

  18. Resonant solar neutrino oscillation versus laboratory neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chong-Sa

    1987-02-01

    The interplay between resonant solar neutrino oscillations and neutrino oscillations in laboratory experiments is investigated in a 3 generation model. Due to the assumed hierarchy of neutrino masses, together with our choice of a convenient parameterization of the 3 generation mixing matrix, we can derive a simple analytic formula which reduces the solar neutrino problem to an effective 2 generation problem. The reduction makes it apparent that the allowed range of mixing and mass parameters crucially depend on whether the survival probability of solar neutrinos S satisfies S greater than or equal to 1/3 or not. The formulae for probabilities of laboratory neutrino oscillations are also greatly simplified. We argue that a combination of the observed solar neutrino depletion and data obtained from reactor experiments seems to rule out some range of neutrino masses. If a sizable nu/sub ..mu../ ..-->.. nu/sub e/ oscillation is observed at accelerators, as suggested at this Workshop, it severely restricts the range of 2 mixing angles.

  19. High current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Prost

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The High Current Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the U.S. program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2  μC/m over long pulse durations (4  μs in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo, and electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K^{+} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius for which the transverse phase space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (≈80% is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  20. The high current transport experiment for heavy ion inertial fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Baca, D.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Leitner, M.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Morse, E.

    2004-05-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density {approx} 0.2 {micro}C/m) over long pulse durations (4 {micro}s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K{sup +} ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor ({approx}80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss, even though the initial beam distribution is not ideal (but the emittance is low) nor in thermal equilibrium. We achieved good envelope control, and rematching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  1. Kinetics of Papain: An Introductory Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornely, Kathleen; Crespo, Eric; Earley, Michael; Kloter, Rachel; Levesque, Aime; Pickering, Mary

    1999-05-01

    Enzyme kinetics experiments are popular in the undergraduate laboratory. These experiments have pedagogic value because they reinforce the concepts of Michaelis-Menten kinetics covered in the lecture portion of the course and give students the experience of calculating kinetic constants from data they themselves have generated. In this experiment, we investigate the kinetics of the thiol protease papain. The source of the papain is commercially available papaya latex. A specific substrate, Na-benzoyl-arginine-p-nitroanilide (BAPNA), is used, which takes advantage of the fact that papain interacts with a phenylalanine residue two amino acids away from the peptide bond cleaved. Upon hydrolysis by papain, a bright yellow product is released, p-nitroaniline. This allows the reaction to be monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of formation of the p-nitroaniline product as a function of the increase in absorbance of the solution at the lmax of p-nitroaniline (400 nm) over time at various substrate concentrations. These data are used to plot a Lineweaver-Burk plot from which the vmax and KM are obtained. If time permits, students carry out additional investigations in which e of p-nitroaniline is measured, the enzyme solution protein concentration is measured, the enzyme purity is evaluated by SDS-PAGE, and a pH-rate profile is constructed from experimental data.

  2. Subduction to Continental Delamination: Insights From Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogus, O. H.; Corbi, F.; Faccenna, C.; Pysklywec, R. N.

    2009-05-01

    The evolution of the lithosphere through subduction-collision and delamination and its surface/crustal response (topography/deformation) is investigated in this work. We present a series of lithosphere scale two dimensional (2-D) and three dimensional (3-D) laboratory experiments to better understand such processes. In these experiments, an idealized viscously deforming crust-mantle lithosphere-mantle system is configured with silicone putty (representing lithospheric mantle and upper crust) and glucose syrup (representing the upper mantle and lower crust). The initial focus was to investigate the physical development of delamination versus continental subduction without plate convergence. Experiments show that the delamination or continental subduction is strongly dependent on the density of the crust (both crust and mantle lithosphere subducts when crust has a higher density, instead of delamination), while in the investigated range, the viscosity of the weak layer does not have much influence on the process. In all the experiments, the topography is asymmetric with subsidence above the delaminating hinge due to the dynamic vertical pulling driven by the delaminating slab, and uplift above the delaminated region due to the buoyancy of asthenosphere. Our investigation on the oceanic subduction with a convergence rate of ~ 3cm/year plate velocity suggests that subduction -collision - delamination is well defined and at the end, the delaminating crust from the lithosphere is overthrusted on top of the overriding plate. Our results provide integrated insights on the Alpine-Himalayan type orogenies, in particular the neotectonic evolution of Eastern Anatolian plateau.

  3. ASTROPHYSICAL JETS AS HYPERSONIC BUCKSHOT: LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS AND SIMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Frank

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbig-Haro (HH jets are commonly thought of as homogeneous beams of plasma traveling at hypersonic velocities. Structure within jet beams is often attributed to periodic or "pulsed" variations of conditions at the jet source. In this contribution we offer an alternative to "pulsed" models of protostellar jets. Using direct numerical simulations and laboratory experiments we explore the possibility that jets are chains of sub-radial clumps propagating through a moving inter-clump medium. Our simulations explore an idealization of this scenario by injecting small (r ¿jet spheres embedded in an otherwise smooth inter-clump jet flow. The spheres are initialized with velocities differing from the jet velocity by ¿ 15%. We find the consequences of shifting from homogeneous to heterogeneous flows are significant as clumps interact with each other and with the inter-clump medium in a variety of ways. We also present new experiments that, for the first time, directly address issues of magnetized astrophysical jets. Our experiments explore the propagation and stability of super-magnetosonic, radiatively cooled, and magnetically dominated bubbles with internal, narrow jets. The results are scalable to astrophysical environments via the similarity of dimensionl ss numbers controlling the dynamics in both settings. These experiments show the jets are subject to kink mode instabilities which quickly fragment the jet into narrow chains of hypersonic knots, providing support for the "clumpy jet" paradigm.

  4. Non-stop lab week: A real laboratory experience for life sciences postgraduate courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Maria João; Silva, Joana Vieira; Korrodi-Gregório, Luís; Fardilha, Margarida

    2016-05-01

    At the Portuguese universities, practical classes of life sciences are usually professor-centered 2-hour classes. This approach results in students underprepared for a real work environment in a research/clinical laboratory. To provide students with a real-life laboratory environment, the Non-Stop Lab Week (NSLW) was created in the Molecular Biomedicine master program at the University of Aveiro, Portugal. The unique feature of the NSLW is its intensity: during a 1-week period, students perform a subcloning and a protein expression project in an environment that mimics a real laboratory. Students work autonomously, and the progression of work depends on achieving the daily goals. Throughout the three curricular years, most students considered the intensity of the NSLW a very good experience and fundamental for their future. Moreover, after some experience in a real laboratory, students state that both the techniques and the environment created in the NSLW were similar to what they experience in their current work situation. The NSLW fulfills a gap in postgraduate students' learning, particularly in practical skills and scientific thinking. Furthermore, the NSLW experience provides skills to the students that are crucial to their future research area. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:297-303, 2016.

  5. Laboratory Experiments and Instrument Intercomparison Studies of Carbonaceous Aerosol Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidovits, Paul [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Aerosols containing black carbon (and some specific types of organic particulate matter) directly absorb incoming light, heating the atmosphere. In addition, all aerosol particles backscatter solar light, leading to a net-cooling effect. Indirect effects involve hydrophilic aerosols, which serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) that affect cloud cover and cloud stability, impacting both atmospheric radiation balance and precipitation patterns. At night, all clouds produce local warming, but overall clouds exert a net-cooling effect on the Earth. The effect of aerosol radiative forcing on climate may be as large as that of the greenhouse gases, but predominantly opposite in sign and much more uncertain. The uncertainties in the representation of aerosol interactions in climate models makes it problematic to use model projections to guide energy policy. The objective of our program is to reduce the uncertainties in the aerosol radiative forcing in the two areas highlighted in the ASR Science and Program Plan. That is, (1) addressing the direct effect by correlating particle chemistry and morphology with particle optical properties (i.e. absorption, scattering, extinction), and (2) addressing the indirect effect by correlating particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity with particle size, chemistry, and morphology. In this connection we are systematically studying particle formation, oxidation, and the effects of particle coating. The work is specifically focused on carbonaceous particles where the uncertainties in the climate relevant properties are the highest. The ongoing work consists of laboratory experiments and related instrument inter-comparison studies both coordinated with field and modeling studies, with the aim of providing reliable data to represent aerosol processes in climate models. The work is performed in the aerosol laboratory at Boston College. At the center of our laboratory setup are two main sources for the production of aerosol particles: (a

  6. Current experiments in elementary particle physics. Revision 1-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohl, C.G.; Armstrong, F.E.; Rittenberg, A.; Trippe, T.G.; Yost, G.P.; Oyanagi, Y.; Dodder, D.C.; Grudtsin, S.N.; Ryabov, Yu.G.; Frosch, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains summaries of 551 approved experiments in elementary particle physics (experiments that finished taking data before 1 January 1980 are excluded). Included are experiments at Brookhaven, CERN, CESR, DESY, Fermilab, Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Tokyo Institute of Nuclear Studies, KEK, LAMPF, Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute, Saclay, Serpukhov, SIN, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also experiments on proton decay. Properties of the fixed-target beams at most of the laboratories are summarized. Instructions are given for searching online the computer database (maintained under the SLAC/SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  7. Discrepancies Between Laboratory Shock Experiments on Minerals and Natural Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carli, P. S.; Xie, Z.; Sharp, T. G.

    2009-12-01

    Numerous laboratory shock recovery experiments performed over the past 50 years have provided substantial data on the effects of shock waves on rocks and minerals. However, it has become increasingly clear that the pressure "calibrations" based on shock effects observed in these experiments are inconsistent with interpretations based on static high-pressure data. A fundamental question is whether shock pressures are somehow different from static high pressures. Fifty years ago, many journal reviewers doubted that phase transformations could take place on a sub-microsecond time scale. Shock wave workers responded by invoking "special" properties of shock compression. However, all available evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that phase transitions under shock pressure are no different from phase transitions under static high pressures. The discrepancies noted above result from the fact that the parameter space, especially shock pressure duration, accessible to shock recovery experiments is so small by comparison with natural events. Furthermore virtually all shock recovery experiments on rocks and minerals have used high impedance sample containers, with the result that the samples have been subjected to thermodynamic loading paths substantially from a natural event. Consider the case of a chondritic meteorite made up of minerals having a wide range of shock properties. In a natural shock event the transient (nano-second scale) shock pressure at the shock front can vary by as much as an order of magnitude from grain to grain or even within a single grain. There are corresponding local differences in shock temperature. Assuming a mineral grain size of about a mm, the pressure inhomogeneities will equilibrate in less than a microsecond, wheras the temperature inhomogenities will require seconds to equilibrate. Recent studies of high-pressure phases in meteorites have provided evidence for pressure durations in the range of seconds, long enough for high pressure

  8. Diffusion Experiments in Opalinus Clay: Laboratory, Large-Scale Diffusion Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso de los Rios, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2008-08-06

    The Opalinus Clay (OPA) formation in the Zurcher Weiland (Switzerland) is a potential host rock for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Samples collected in the Mont Terri Underground Rock Laboratory (URL), where the OPA formation is located at a depth between -200 and -300 m below the surface, were used to study the radionuclide diffusion in clay materials. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), to understand the transport properties of the OPA and to enhance the methodologies used for in situ diffusion experiments. Through-Diffusion and In-Diffusion conventional laboratory diffusion experiments were carried out with HTO, 36{sup C}l-, I-, 22{sup N}a, 75{sup S}e, 85{sup S}r, 233{sup U}, 137{sup C}s, 60{sup C}o and 152{sup E}u. Large-scale diffusion experiments were performed with HTO, 36{sup C}l, and 85{sup S}r, and new experiments with 60{sup C}o, 137{sup C}s and 152{sup E}u are ongoing. Diffusion experiments with RBS technique were done with Sr, Re, U and Eu. (Author) 38 refs.

  9. Oxorhenium Complexes for Catalytic Hydrosilylation and Hydrolytic Hydrogen Production: A Multiweek Advanced Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ison, A.; Ison, E. A.; Perry, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    An effective way of teaching undergraduates a full complement of research skills is through a multiweek advanced laboratory experiment. Here we outline a comprehensive set of experiments adapted from current primary literature focusing on organic and inorganic synthesis, catalysis, reactivity, and reaction kinetics. The catalyst,…

  10. Hypervelocity Impact Experiments in the Laboratory Relating to Lunar Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.; Parnell, J.; Bowden, S. A.; Crawford, I. A.

    2010-12-01

    The results of a set of laboratory impact experiments (speeds in the range 1-5 km s-1) are reviewed. They are discussed in the context of terrestrial impact ejecta impacting the Moon and hence lunar astrobiology through using the Moon to learn about the history of life on Earth. A review of recent results indicates that survival of quite complex organic molecules can be expected in terrestrial meteorites impacting the lunar surface, but they may have undergone selective thermal processing both during ejection from the Earth and during lunar impact. Depending on the conditions of the lunar impact (speed, angle of impact etc.) the shock pressures generated can cause significant but not complete sterilisation of any microbial load on a meteorite (e.g. at a few GPa 1-0.1% of the microbial load can survive, but at 20 GPa this falls to typically 0.01-0.001%). For more sophisticated biological products such as seeds (trapped in rocks) the lunar impact speeds generate shock pressures that disrupt the seeds (experiments show this occurs at approximately 1 GPa or semi-equivalently 1 km s-1). Overall, the delivery of terrestrial material of astrobiological interest to the Moon is supported by these experiments, although its long term survival on the Moon is a separate issue not discussed here.

  11. Scaled Laboratory Collisionless Shock Experiments in the Large Plasma Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S. E.; Schaeffer, D.; Everson, E.; Bondarenko, A.; Winske, D.; Constantin, C.; Niemann, C.

    2013-12-01

    Collisionless shocks in space plasmas have been investigated since the fifties and are typically studied via in-situ satellite observations, which are limited due to the large structure of collisionless shocks in space environments relative to the satellite observation platform. Scaled, repeatable experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA provide a test bed for studying collisionless shocks in the laboratory, where questions of ion and electron heating and acceleration can be addressed and examined in detail. The experiments are performed by ablating a graphite or plastic target using the Raptor kilojoule-class laser facility at UCLA. The laser provides an on-target energy in the range of 100-500 J that drives a super-Alfvénic (MA > 1) debris plasma across a background magnetic field (200-800 G) into the ambient, magnetized LAPD plasma. Typical plasma parameters in the LAPD consist of a H+ or He+ ambient plasma with a core column (diameter > 20 cm ) density ni ~ 1013 cm-3 and electron temperature Te ~ 10 eV embedded in a larger plasma discharge (diameter ~ 80 cm) of density ni ~ 1012 cm-3 and Te ~ 5 eV. The ambient ion temperature is Ti ~ 1 eV. Experimental results from the latest collisionless shock campaign will be presented and compared with two dimensional hybrid simulations of the experiment. Fielded diagnostics include Thomson scattering, ion spectroscopy, magnetic flux probes, Langmuir probes, and microwave reflectometry.

  12. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, A.

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs.

  13. Laboratory astrophysical collisionless shock experiments on Omega and NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Ross, J. S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Ryutov, D.; Casey, D.; Drake, R. P.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D.; Gregori, G.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Zylstra, A. B.

    2016-03-01

    We are performing scaled astrophysics experiments on Omega and on NIF. Laser driven counter-streaming interpenetrating supersonic plasma flows can be studied to understand astrophysical electromagnetic plasma phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. In our Omega experiments, the counter-streaming flow plasma state is measured using Thomson scattering diagnostics, demonstrating the plasma flows are indeed super-sonic and in the collisionless regime. We observe a surprising additional electron and ion heating from ion drag force in the double flow experiments that are attributed to the ion drag force and electrostatic instabilities. [1] A proton probe is used to image the electric and magnetic fields. We observe unexpected large, stable and reproducible electromagnetic field structures that arise in the counter-streaming flows [2]. The Biermann battery magnetic field generated near the target plane, advected along the flows, and recompressed near the midplane explains the cause of such self-organizing field structures [3]. A D3He implosion proton probe image showed very clear filamentary structures; three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations and simulated proton radiography images indicate that these filamentary structures are generated by Weibel instabilities and that the magnetization level (ratio of magnetic energy over kinetic energy in the system) is ∼0.01 [4]. These findings have very high astrophysical relevance and significant implications. We expect to observe true collisionless shock formation when we use >100 kJ laser energy on NIF.

  14. A Simple Laboratory Experiment to Measure e/k

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Fred

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of fundamental constants is common practice in instructional laboratories. A number of the equipment manufacturers have developed apparatus for such applications, e.g., the determination of e by the Millikan oil drop method or the determination of the speed of light with fiber optics. Other experiments determine not a single constant, but a combination of constants, e.g., e/m by electron beam deflection in a magnetic field or h/e by the photoelectric effect. About 30 years ago Carl E. Miller and I proposed a method of measuring e/k, the ratio of the electron charge to Boltzmann's constant, that was reasonably simple but not necessarily inexpensive because it involved the use of a sensitive electrometer. In recent years, however, inexpensive digital multimeters (DMM), many costing less than 30, have found their way into the physics laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to suggest the use of two DMMs, one operating as a voltmeter and the other as an ammeter, in a simple circuit involving a junction transistor and a variable potential source. Even the potential source can be quite simple, a 1.5-V battery and a 1-kΩ potentiometer, as shown in Fig. 1. If available, a variable dc power supply replacing the battery and potentiometer would be more convenient.

  15. DEFORMATION MONITORING OF MATERIALS UNDER STRESS IN LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Skarlatos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetry is a valid alternative solution to linear variable differential transformer (LVDT measurements in structural testing in laboratory conditions. Although the use of LVDTs boasts a high degree of accuracy, on the other hand it is limiting as it offers measurements between two points and it thus might be unable to capture localized deformations and strains over a bigger area of a structural specimen. In this aspect photogrammetry seems to offer certain advantages. Commercial solutions provide limited testing envelopes, while on the other hand, the wide range on new materials need more versatile techniques. Based on the need to develop an in-house photogrammetric toolbox to support several structural and material experiments in the department Advanced Pore Morphology (APM aluminium foam specimens developed at Fraunhofer IFAM in Germany and cured at CUT, were tested under monotonic compressive load. Data acquisition, analysis and results, along with lessons learnt from the process are presented in this work.

  16. Tritium operating experience at the tritium laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, L.; Bekris, N.; Besserer, U.; Glugla, M.; Hellriegel, W.; Penzhorn, R.D.; Rohrig, H.D.; Schubert, K.; Vollmer, T.; Wendel, J. [Karlsruhe Research Centre, Tritium Laboratory (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe began operations with gram amounts of tritium in March 1995. Since then, the experimental facilities CAPRICE and PETRA have been routinely in operation. New experimental activities include the analysis of tritium in first wall materials of fusion devices and the development of methods for the detritiation of graphite and carbon fibre composite tiles. The experience gained with Tritium Retention Systems, with the Tritium Transfer System, with portable uranium getter beds and in this context with tritium accountancy is reported. The incorporation of a new Pd packed column into the Isotope Separation System, the increase in storage capacity of the Tritium Storage System, the improvements of the analytical instrumentation and some repair activities are also described. (authors)

  17. Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepke, Mark E. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Funds were expended to offset the travel costs of three students and three postdoctoral research associates to participate in and present work at the 2015 International Workshop on the Interrelationship between Plasma Experiments in the Laboratory and in Space (IPELS2015), 23-28 August 2015, Pitlochry, Scotland, UK. Selection was priority-ranked by lab-space engagement, first, and topic relevance, second. Supplementary selection preference was applied to under-represented populations, applicants lacking available travel-resources in their home research group, applicants unusually distant from the conference venue, and the impact of the applicant’s attendance in increasing the diversity of conference participation. One support letter per student was required. The letters described the specific benefit of IPELS2015 to the student dissertation or the postdoc career development, and document the evidence for the ordering criteria.

  18. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO SIMULATE CO2 OCEAN DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Masutani

    1999-12-31

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of an investigation entitled ''Laboratory Experiments to Simulate CO{sub 2} Ocean Disposal'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's University Coal Research Program. This investigation responds to the possibility that restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions may be imposed in the future to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The primary objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data that can be applied to assess the technical feasibility and environmental impacts of oceanic containment strategies to limit release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal and other fossil fuel combustion systems into the atmosphere. A number of critical technical uncertainties of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} were addressed by performing laboratory experiments on liquid CO{sub 2} jet break-up into a dispersed droplet phase, and hydrate formation, under deep ocean conditions. Major accomplishments of this study included: (1) five jet instability regimes were identified that occur in sequence as liquid CO{sub 2} jet disintegration progresses from laminar instability to turbulent atomization; (2) linear regression to the data yielded relationships for the boundaries between the five instability regimes in dimensionless Ohnesorge Number, Oh, and jet Reynolds Number, Re, space; (3) droplet size spectra was measured over the full range of instabilities; (4) characteristic droplet diameters decrease steadily with increasing jet velocity (and increasing Weber Number), attaining an asymptotic value in instability regime 5 (full atomization); and (5) pre-breakup hydrate formation appears to affect the size distribution of the droplet phase primary by changing the effective geometry of the jet.

  19. Rainfall estimation using moving cars as rain gauges - laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiei, E.; Haberlandt, U.; Sester, M.; Fitzner, D.

    2013-11-01

    The spatial assessment of short time-step precipitation is a challenging task. Low density of observation networks, as well as the bias in radar rainfall estimation motivated the new idea of exploiting cars as moving rain gauges with windshield wipers or optical sensors as measurement devices. In a preliminary study, this idea has been tested with computer experiments (Haberlandt and Sester, 2010). The results have shown that a high number of possibly inaccurate measurement devices (moving cars) provide more reliable areal rainfall estimations than a lower number of precise measurement devices (stationary gauges). Instead of assuming a relationship between wiper frequency (W) and rainfall intensity (R) with an arbitrary error, the main objective of this study is to derive valid W-R relationships between sensor readings and rainfall intensity by laboratory experiments. Sensor readings involve the wiper speed, as well as optical sensors which can be placed on cars and are usually made for automating wiper activities. A rain simulator with the capability of producing a wide range of rainfall intensities is designed and constructed. The wiper speed and two optical sensors are used in the laboratory to measure rainfall intensities, and compare it with tipping bucket readings as reference. Furthermore, the effect of the car speed on the estimation of rainfall using a car speed simulator device is investigated. The results show that the sensor readings, which are observed from manual wiper speed adjustment according to the front visibility, can be considered as a strong indicator for rainfall intensity, while the automatic wiper adjustment show weaker performance. Also the sensor readings from optical sensors showed promising results toward measuring rainfall rate. It is observed that the car speed has a significant effect on the rainfall measurement. This effect is highly dependent on the rain type as well as the windshield angle.

  20. Transformation of fault slip modes in laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, Vasilii; Alexey, Ostapchuk; Markov, Vadim

    2017-04-01

    Slip mode of crust fault can vary because of many reasons. It's well known that fault structure, material of fault gouge, pore fluid et al. in many ways determines slip modes from creep and slow slip events to mega-earthquakes [1-3]. Therefore, the possibility of fault slip transformation due to external action is urgent question. There is popular and developing approach of fluid injection into central part of fault. The phenomenon of earthquakes induced due to pumping of water was investigated on small and large scales [4, 5]. In this work the laboratory experiments were conducted to study the evolution of the experimental fault slip when changing the properties of the interstitial fluid. The scheme of experiments is the classical slider-model set-up, in which the block under the shear force slips along the interface. In our experiments the plexiglas block 8x8x3 cm3 in size was put on the plexiglas base. The contact of the blocks was filled with a thin layer (about 3 mm thick) of a granular material. The normal load varied from 31 to 156 kPa. The shear load was applied through a spring with stiffness 60 kN/m, and the rate of spring deformation was 20 or 5 mcm/s. Two parameters were recorded during experiments: the shear force acting on the upper block (with an accuracy of 1 N) and its displacement relatively the base (with an accuracy of 0.1 μm). The gouge was composed of quartz sand (97.5%) and clay (2.5%). As a moisturizer were used different fluids with viscosity varying from 1 to 103 mPa x s. Different slip modes were simulated during slider-experiments. In our experiments slip mode is the act of instability manifested in an increase of slip velocity and a drop of shear stress acting on a movable block. The amplitude of a shear stress drop and the peak velocity of the upper block were chosen as the characteristics of the slip mode. In the laboratory experiments, slip events of one type can be achieved either as regularly recurring (regular mode) or as random

  1. Current experiments in elementary particle physics, 1976-87

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence Berkeley Nat. Laboratory. Berkeley

    Contains more than 1,800 experiments in elementary particle physics from the Experience database. Search and browse by author; title; experiment number or prefix; institution; date approved, started or completed; accelerator or detector; polarization, reaction, final state or particle; or by papers produced. Maintained at SLAC for the Particle Data Group. Supplies the information for Current Experiments in Particle Physics (LBL-91). Print version updated every second year.

  2. Cyclic deformations in the Opalinus clay: a laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Emanuel; Huggenberger, Peter; Möri, Andreas; Meier, Edi

    2015-04-01

    The influence of tunnel climate on deformation cycles of joint openings and closings is often observed immediately after excavation. At the EZ-B niche in the Mt. Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland), a cyclic deformation of the shaly Opalinus clay has been monitored for several years. The deformation cycles of the joints parallel to the clay bedding planes correlate with seasonal variations in relative humidity of the air in the niche. In winter, when the relative humidity is the lowest (down to 65%), the joints open as the clay volume decreases, whereas they tend to close in the summer when the relative humidity reaches up to 100%. Furthermore, in situ measurements have shown the trend of an increasingly smaller aperture of joints with time. A laboratory experiment was carried out to reproduce the observed cyclic deformation in a climate chamber using a core sample of Opalinus clay. The main goal of the experiment was to investigate the influence of the relative humidity on the deformation of the Opalinus clay while excluding the in situ effects (e.g. confining stress). The core sample of Opalinus clay was put into a closed ended PVC tube and the space between the sample and the tube was filled with resin. Then, the sample (size: 28 cm × 14 cm × 6.5 cm) was cut in half lengthways and the open end was cut, so that the half-core sample could move in one direction. The mounted sample was exposed to wetting and drying cycles in a climate chamber. Air temperature, air humidity and sample weight were continuously recorded. Photographs taken at regular time intervals by a webcam allowed the formation/deformation of cracks on the surface of the sample to be monitored. A crackmeter consisting of a double-plate capacitor attached to the core sample was developed to measure the dynamics of the crack opening and closing. Preliminary results show that: - Deformation movements during different climate cycles can be visualized with the webcam - The crackmeter signal gives a

  3. Design of laboratory experiments to study photoionization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R. P.; Hazak, G.; Keiter, P. A.; Davis, J. S.; Patterson, C. R.; Frank, A.; Blackman, E.; Busquet, M.

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyzes the requirements of a photoionization-front experiment that could be driven in the laboratory, using thermal sources to produce the necessary flux of ionizing photons. It reports several associated conclusions. Such experiments will need to employ the largest available facilities, capable of delivering many kJ to MJ of energy to an x-ray source. They will use this source to irradiate a volume of neutral gas, likely of N, on a scale of a few mm to a few cm, increasing with source energy. For a gas pressure of several to ten atmospheres at room temperature, and a source temperature near 100 eV, one will be able to drive a photoionization front through a system of tens to hundreds of photon mean free paths. The front should make the familiar transition from the so-called R-Type to D-Type as the radiation flux diminishes with distance. The N is likely to reach the He-like state. Preheating from the energetic photons appears unlikely to become large enough to alter the essential dynamics of the front beyond some layer near the surface. For well-chosen experimental conditions, competing energy transport mechanisms are small. Supported by the U.S. DOE by NNSA Grants DE-NA0002956 (SSAA) and DE-NA0002719 (NLUF), by LLE, and by LLNL.

  4. Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production by Direct Sunlight: A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Atif; Sahin, Musa

    2003-11-01

    The demand for hydrogen will increase within the next decades as a result of the necessity to produce clean and environmentally and economically accepted fuels from natural and renewable energy resources. In principle, hydrogen has the potential to play an important role in future energy systems because of the diversity of its applications, the variety of ways in which it can be stored, its general environmental advantages, and especially because of the possibility of producing hydrogen by splitting water using photocatalysts and solar energy. Methods and techniques of photocatalytic reactions are covered in some detail in many undergraduate chemistry programs. However, many times in instructional settings, little attention is given to how it is used for the production of hydrogen. In the present investigation a photocatalytic hydrogen production experiment suitable for use in undergraduate chemistry laboratories is described. The experiment can be used to introduce students to the concept of a renewable and sustainable hydrogen energy system of the future, as well as its production techniques, and to demonstrate the use of a CdS/ZnS photocatalyst system for photocatalytic hydrogen production from direct sunlight.

  5. Designing and interpreting laboratory experiments for hydrodynamical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes in rivers (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packman, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, I will articulate a general philosophy for the design of laboratory experiments for fluvial processes; discuss important concepts of scaling, scale limitation, and process coupling that should be considered in designing experiments and interpreting experimental results; and provide concrete examples of how this approach can be used to probe river mechanics, sedimentary biogeochemistry, benthic/hyporheic ecology, and downstream migration of reactive solutes and particles. It is challenging to design laboratory experiments to probe fluvial processes because river systems show extremely strong interactions over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Biological and ecological processes are especially difficult to study in the laboratory because they are influenced by a wide range of system conditions, and we do not currently have a strong theoretical basis to quantitatively generalize experimental observations. Further, many seemingly basic and invariant chemical and biological properties - such as sorption coefficients, reaction rate constants, respiration rates, and nutrient uptake rates - change over space and time in fluvial systems because these environments are highly dynamic over a wide range of temporal scales, show strong longitudinal connectivity, and have strong heterogeneity in the surrounding and underlying sediments. Laboratory studies can be used to systematically investigate these effects, thereby providing considerable insight into generally important controlling mechanisms, with the caveat that larger-scale drivers and process interactions must be considered when translating the results to the field. Laboratory experiments can best be targeted to discriminate alternate hypotheses regarding important governing processes, and to independently test the effects of each important variable. Once this information is obtained, it should be codified in the form of quantitative, theoretical relationships that can be subsequently evaluated in

  6. Experience with a Professionally Oriented Astronomy Laboratory for Nonscience Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, Clarence H.

    1980-01-01

    Presents the philosophy and mechanics of a professionally oriented astronomy laboratory for nonscience majors. Design of the laboratory, description of the exercises, and the results of using this approach at the University of Kansas are also described. (HM)

  7. iPads in the Science Laboratory: Experience in Designing and Implementing a Paperless Chemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesser, Tiffany L.; Schwartz, Pauline M.

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2012, 20 General Chemistry Honors students at the University of New Haven were issued the new iPad 3 to incorporate these devices both in the classroom and the laboratory. This paper will focus on the integration of the iPad into the laboratory curriculum while creating a paperless experience, an environment where no paper would…

  8. Damping of unwanted turbulence in wave–current experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markus, D.; Jakobsen, Morten Møller; Bletzinger, K.-U.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory testing of structures placed in combined wave–current flows is a valuable source of information for the fulfillment of offshore engineering related tasks and the development of ocean energy devices. In recirculating wave–current flumes, one of the problems encountered during...... such experimental studies is the occurrence of undesirable current induced velocity fluctuations. These fluctuations often result in significant disturbances of the generated wave profiles. In this paper, a physical flow filter is introduced that significantly reduces fluctuations in the current profile while...... permitting wave passage. This is achieved by passing the wave–current flow through a setup of perforated net tubes that allows for both horizontal and vertical flow motions. An in depth investigation of the properties of different filter configurations is presented, focusing on the reduction of turbulence...

  9. Laboratory experiments for estimating chemical osmotic parameters of mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, S.; Tokunaga, T.; Mogi, K.; Ito, K.; Takeda, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies have quantitatively shown that mudstone can act as semi-permeable membrane and can generate abnormally high pore pressure in sedimentary basins. Reflection coefficient is one of the important properties that affect the chemical osmotic behavior of mudstones. However, not many quantitative studies on the reflection coefficient of mudstones have been done. We have developed a laboratory apparatus to observe chemical osmotic behavior, and a numerical simulation technique to estimate the reflection coefficient and other relating properties of mudstones. A core sample of siliceous mudstone obtained from the drilled core at Horonobe, Japan, was set into the apparatus and was saturated by 0.1mol/L sodium chloride solution. Then, the up-side reservoir was replaced with 0.05mol/L sodium chloride solution, and temporal changes of both pressure and concentration of the solution in both up-side and bottom-side reservoirs were measured. Using the data obtained from the experiment, we estimated the reflection coefficient, effective diffusion coefficient, hydraulic conductivity, and specific storage of the sample by fitting the numerical simulation results with the observed ones. A preliminary numerical simulation of groundwater flow and solute migration was conducted in the area where the core sample was obtained, using the reflection coefficient and other properties obtained from this study. The result suggested that the abnormal pore pressure observed in the region can be explained by the chemical osmosis.

  10. Dust Ejection from Planetary Bodies by Temperature Gradients: Laboratory Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kelling, Thorben; Kocifaj, Miroslav; Klacka, Jozef; Reiss, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that dusty bodies in a gaseous environment eject dust particles if they are illuminated. We find that even more intense dust eruptions occur when the light source is turned off. We attribute this to a compression of gas by thermal creep in response to the changing temperature gradients in the top dust layers. The effect is studied at a light flux of 13 kW/(m*m) and 1 mbar ambient pressure. The effect is applicable to protoplanetary disks and Mars. In the inner part of protoplanetary disks, planetesimals can be eroded especially at the terminator of a rotating body. This leads to the production of dust which can then be transported towards the disk edges or the outer disk regions. The generated dust might constitute a significant fraction of the warm dust observed in extrasolar protoplanetary disks. We estimate erosion rates of about 1 kg/s for 100 m parent bodies. The dust might also contribute to subsequent planetary growth in different locations or on existing protoplanets which ...

  11. Cometary Materials Originating from Interstellar Ices: Clues from Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresneau, A.; Abou Mrad, N.; d’Hendecourt, L. LS; Duvernay, F.; Flandinet, L.; Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Vuitton, V.; Thissen, R.; Chiavassa, T.; Danger, G.

    2017-03-01

    We use laboratory experiments to derive information on the chemistry occurring during the evolution of astrophysical ices from dense molecular clouds to interplanetary objects. Through a new strategy that consists of coupling very high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we investigate the molecular content of the organic residues synthesized from different initial ice compositions. We also obtain information on the evolution of the soluble part of the residues after their over-irradiation. The results give insight into the role of water ice as a trapping and diluting agent during the chemical evolution. They also give information about the importance of the amount of ammonia in such ices, particularly regarding its competition with the carbon chemistry. All of these results allow us to build a first mapping of the evolution of soluble organic matter based on its chemical and physical history. Furthermore, our results suggest that interstellar ices should lead to organic materials enriched in heteroatoms that present similarities with cometary materials but strongly differ from meteoritic organic material, especially in their C/N ratios.

  12. Dynamics of spacecraft control laboratory experiment (SCOLE) slew maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, Y. P.

    1987-01-01

    This is the first of two reports on the dynamics and control of slewing maneuvers of the NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE). In this report, the dynamics of slewing maneuvers of SCOLE are developed in terms of an arbitrary maneuver about any given axis. The set of dynamical equations incorporate rigid-body slew maneuver and three-dimensional vibrations of the complete assembly comprising the rigid shuttle, the flexible beam, and the reflector with an offset mass. The analysis also includes kinematic nonlinearities of the entire assembly during the maneuver and the dynamics of the interaction between the rigid shuttle and the flexible appendage. The final set of dynamical equations obtained for slewing maneuvers is highly nonlinear and coupled in terms of the flexible modes and the rigid-body modes. The equations are further simplified and evaluated numerically to include the first ten flexible modes and the SCOLE data to yield a model for designing control systems to perform slew maneuvers.

  13. Joint Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory CSI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neat, Gregory W.; O'Brien, John F.; Lurie, Boris J.; Garnica, Angel; Belvin, W. K.; Sulla, Jeff; Won, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a joint Control Structure Interaction (CSI) experiment in which Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) damping devices were incorporated into the Langley Research Center (LaRC) Phase 0 Testbed. The goals of the effort were twofold: (1) test the effectiveness of the JPL structural damping methods in a new structure and (2) assess the feasibility of combining JPL local control methods with the LaRC multiple input multiple output global control methods. Six dampers (2 piezoelectric active members, 4 viscous dampers), placed in three different regions of the structure, produced up to 26 dB attenuation in target modes. The combined control strategy in which the JPL damping methods contributed local control action and the LaRC control scheme provided global control action, produced and overall control scheme with increased stability margins and improved performance. This paper presents an overview of the technologies contributed from the two centers, the strategies used to combine them, and results demonstrating the success of the damping and cooperative control efforts.

  14. Frictional sliding in layered rock: laboratory-scale experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buescher, B.J.; Perry, K.E. Jr.; Epstein, J.S.

    1996-09-01

    The work is part of the rock mechanics effort for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Program. The laboratory-scale experiments are intended to provide high quality data on the mechanical behavior of jointed structures that can be used to validate complex numerical models for rock-mass behavior. Frictional sliding between simulated rock joints was studied using phase shifting moire interferometry. A model, constructed from stacks of machined and sandblasted granite plates, contained a central hole bore normal to the place so that frictional slip would be induced between the plates near the hole under compressive loading. Results show a clear evolution of slip with increasing load. Since the rock was not cycled through loading- unloading, the quantitative differences between the three data sets are probably due to a ``wearing-in`` effect. The highly variable spatial frequency of the data is probably due to the large grain size of the granite and the stochastic frictional processes. An unusual feature of the evolution of slip with increasing load is that as the load gets larger, some plates seem to return to a null position. Figs, 6 refs.

  15. The digital computer as a metaphor for the perfect laboratory experiment: Loophole-free Bell experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel; Hess, Karl

    2016-12-01

    Using Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments as an example, we demonstrate that the combination of a digital computer and algorithms, as a metaphor for a perfect laboratory experiment, provides solutions to problems of the foundations of physics. Employing discrete-event simulation, we present a counterexample to John Bell's remarkable "proof" that any theory of physics, which is both Einstein-local and "realistic" (counterfactually definite), results in a strong upper bound to the correlations that are being measured in Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments. Our counterexample, which is free of the so-called detection-, coincidence-, memory-, and contextuality loophole, violates this upper bound and fully agrees with the predictions of quantum theory for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiments.

  16. Lava-substrate heat transfer: Laboratory experiments and thermodynamic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpf, M.; Fagents, S. A.; Hamilton, C. W.; Wright, R.; Crawford, I.

    2012-12-01

    We have performed laboratory experiments and numerical modeling to investigate the heat transfer from a lava flow into various substrate materials, focusing on the effects of the differing thermophysical properties of substrate materials. Initial motivation for this project developed from the desire to understand the loss of solar wind volatiles embedded in lunar regolith deposits that were subsequently covered by a lava flow. The Moon lacks a significant atmosphere and magnetosphere, leaving the surface regolith exposed to bombardment by solar flare and solar wind particles, and by the cosmogenic products of galactic cosmic rays. Preservation of particle-rich regolith deposits may have occurred by the emplacement of an active lava flow on top of the regolith layer, provided the embedded particles survive heating by the lava. During future expeditions to the lunar surface, ancient regolith deposits could be sampled through surface drilling to extract the extra-lunar particles, revealing a history of the solar activity and galactic events not available on the Earth. This project also has important implications for terrestrial lava flows, particularly in the prediction of lava flow hazards. Lava erupted on Earth may be emplaced on various substrates, including solid lava rock, volcanic tephra, sands, soils, etc. The composition, grain size, consolidation, moisture content, etc. of these materials will vary greatly and have different effects on the cooling of the flow. Accounting for specific properties of the substrate could be an important improvement in lava flow models We have performed laboratory experiments in collaboration with the Department of Art and Art History at the University of Hawaii at Manoa in which ~5-6 kg of basalt, collected at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, is melted to ~1200 °C. The lava is poured into a device constructed of calcium silicate sheeting that has been filled with a solid or particulate substrate material and embedded with thermocouples

  17. Near surface geophysical techniques on subsoil contamination: laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo

    2016-04-01

    Hydrocarbons contamination of soil and groundwater has become a serious environmental problem, because of the increasing number of accidental spills caused by human activities. The starting point of any studies is the reconstruction of the conceptual site model. To make valid predictions about the flow pathways following by hydrocarbons compound is necessary to make a correct reconstruction of their characteristics and the environment in which they move. Near-surface geophysical methods, based on the study of electrical and electromagnetic properties, are proved to be very useful in mapping spatial distribution of the organic contaminants in the subsurface. It is well known, in fact, that electrical properties of the porous media are significantly influenced by hydrocarbons because, when contaminants enter the rock matrix, surface reaction occur between the contaminant and the soil grain surface. The main aim of this work is to investigate the capability of near-surface geophysical methods in mapping and monitoring spatial distribution of contaminants in a controlled setting. A laboratory experiment has been performed at the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA (Marsico Nuovo, PZ) where a box-sand has been contaminated by diesel. The used contaminant is a LNAPL, added to the sand through a drilled pipe. Contaminant behaviour and its migration paths have been monitored for one year by Electrical Resistivity measurements. In details, a Cross Borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography techniques were used to characterize the contamination dynamics after a controlled hydrocarbon spillage occurring in the vadose zone. The approach with cross-borehole resistivity imaging provide a great advantage compared to more conventional surface electrical resistivity tomography, due to the high resolution at high depth (obviously depending on the depth of the well instrumented for the acquisition). This method has been shown to provide good information on the distribution of

  18. Current experiments in particle physics - particle data group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galic, H. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Stanford Linear Accelerator Center; Lehar, F. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Kettle, P.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    This report contains summaries of current and recent experiments in Particle Physics. Included are experiments at BEPC (Beijing), BNL, CEBAF, CERN, CESR, DESY, FNAL, Frascati, ITEP (Moscow), JINR (Dubna), KEK, LAMPF, Novosibirsk, PNPI (St. Petersburg), PSI, Saclay, Serpukhov, SLAC, and TRIUMF, and also several proton decay and solar neutrino experiments. Excluded are experiments that finished taking data before 1991. Instructions are given for the World Wide Web (WWW) searching of the computer database (maintained under the SLAC-SPIRES system) that contains the summaries.

  19. Electrical triggering of earthquakes: results of laboratory experiments at spring-block models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, Victor A.; Okunev, Vladimir I.; Klyuchkin, Vadim N.; Liu, Jing; Ruzhin, Yuri Ya.; Shen, Xuhui

    2017-05-01

    Recently published results of field and laboratory experiments on the seismic/acoustic response to injection of direct current (DC) pulses into the Earth crust or stressed rock samples raised a question on a possibility of electrical earthquake triggering. A physical mechanism of the considered phenomenon is not clear yet in view of the very low current density (10-7-10-8 A/m2) generated by the pulsed power systems at the epicenter depth (5-10 km) of local earthquakes occurred just after the current injection. The paper describes results of laboratory "earthquake" triggering by DC pulses under conditions of a spring-block model simulated the seismogenic fault. It is experimentally shown that the electric triggering of the laboratory "earthquake" (sharp slip of a movable block of the spring-block system) is possible only within a range of subcritical state of the system, when the shear stress between the movable and fixed blocks obtains 0.98-0.99 of its critical value. The threshold of electric triggering action is about 20 A/m2 that is 7-8 orders of magnitude higher than estimated electric current density for Bishkek test site (Northern Tien Shan, Kirghizia) where the seismic response to the man-made electric action was observed. In this connection, the electric triggering phenomena may be explained by contraction of electric current in the narrow conductive areas of the faults and the corresponding increase in current density or by involving the secondary triggering mechanisms like electromagnetic stimulation of conductive fluid migration into the fault area resulted in decrease in the fault strength properties.

  20. Sampling Participants' Experience in Laboratory Experiments: Complementary challenges for more complete data collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eMcAuliffe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Speelman and McGann's (2013 examination of the uncritical way in which the mean is often used in psychological research raises questions both about the average's reliability and its validity. In the present paper, we argue that interrogating the validity of the mean involves, amongst other things, a better understanding of the person's experiences, the meaning of their actions, at the time that the behaviour of interest is carried out. Recently emerging approaches within Psychology and Cognitive Science have argued strongly that experience should play a more central role in our examination of behavioural data, but the relationship between experience and behaviour remains very poorly understood. We outline some of the history of the science on this fraught relationship, as well as arguing that contemporary methods for studying experience fall into one of two categories. Wide approaches tend to incorporate naturalistic behaviour settings, but sacrifice accuracy and reliability in behavioural measurement. Narrow approaches maintain controlled measurement of behaviour, but involve too specific a sampling of experience, which obscures crucial temporal characteristics. We therefore argue for a novel, mid-range sampling technique, that extends Hurlburt's Descriptive Experience Sampling, and adapts it for the controlled setting of the laboratory. This Controlled Descriptive Experience Sampling may be an appropriate tool to help calibrate both the mean and the meaning of an experimental situation with one another.

  1. Sampling Participants' Experience in Laboratory Experiments: Complementary Challenges for More Complete Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Alan; McGann, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Speelman and McGann's (2013) examination of the uncritical way in which the mean is often used in psychological research raises questions both about the average's reliability and its validity. In the present paper, we argue that interrogating the validity of the mean involves, amongst other things, a better understanding of the person's experiences, the meaning of their actions, at the time that the behavior of interest is carried out. Recently emerging approaches within Psychology and Cognitive Science have argued strongly that experience should play a more central role in our examination of behavioral data, but the relationship between experience and behavior remains very poorly understood. We outline some of the history of the science on this fraught relationship, as well as arguing that contemporary methods for studying experience fall into one of two categories. "Wide" approaches tend to incorporate naturalistic behavior settings, but sacrifice accuracy and reliability in behavioral measurement. "Narrow" approaches maintain controlled measurement of behavior, but involve too specific a sampling of experience, which obscures crucial temporal characteristics. We therefore argue for a novel, mid-range sampling technique, that extends Hurlburt's descriptive experience sampling, and adapts it for the controlled setting of the laboratory. This controlled descriptive experience sampling may be an appropriate tool to help calibrate both the mean and the meaning of an experimental situation with one another.

  2. Hands-on laboratory Experience in Teaching-Learning Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Walter C.; Burkholder, Timothy

    1990-01-01

    The results of actual student participation, with organized group discussions, which show that laboratory teaching remains the premiere mechanism for teaching and learning organ-system physiology are discussed. Laboratories using a pithed frog, a turtle heart, an anesthetized rabbit, and noninvasive recordings from students during exercise are…

  3. Clinical and laboratory experience of chorionic villous sampling in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-14

    Dec 14, 2013 ... clinical and laboratory procedures, including general characteristics of women, indications and outcome, complications, ... that has to provide for supportive therapies, rehabilitation ... completed until the samples are analyzed in the laboratory ... involves the use of aspiration needles set made up of gauge.

  4. An "in Silico" DNA Cloning Experiment for the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Kelly M.

    2011-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces students to concepts in recombinant DNA technology while accommodating a major semester project in protein purification, structure, and function in a biochemistry laboratory for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students. It is also suitable for forensic science courses focused in DNA biology and advanced…

  5. Fluorescence quantum yield measurements of fluorescent proteins: a laboratory experiment for a biochemistry or molecular biophysics laboratory course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Kathryn P; Dillon, Rebecca; Knowles, Michelle K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins are commonly used in cell biology to assess where proteins are within a cell as a function of time and provide insight into intracellular protein function. However, the usefulness of a fluorescent protein depends directly on the quantum yield. The quantum yield relates the efficiency at which a fluorescent molecule converts absorbed photons into emitted photons and it is necessary to know for assessing what fluorescent protein is the most appropriate for a particular application. In this work, we have designed an upper-level, biochemistry laboratory experiment where students measure the fluorescence quantum yields of fluorescent proteins relative to a standard organic dye. Four fluorescent protein variants, enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (ECFP), enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), mCitrine, and mCherry, were used, however the methods described are useful for the characterization of any fluorescent protein or could be expanded to fluorescent quantum yield measurements of organic dye molecules. The laboratory is designed as a guided inquiry project and takes two, 4 hr laboratory periods. During the first day students design the experiment by selecting the excitation wavelength, choosing the standard, and determining the concentration needed for the quantum yield experiment that takes place in the second laboratory period. Overall, this laboratory provides students with a guided inquiry learning experience and introduces concepts of fluorescence biophysics into a biochemistry laboratory curriculum.

  6. Laboratory modelling of resonant wave-current interaction in the vicinity wind farm masts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnoo, Hans; Abcha, Nizar; Garcia-Hermosa, Maria-Isabel; Ezersky, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    In the nearest future, by 2020, about 4% of electricity in Europe will be supplied by sea stations operating from renewable sources: ocean thermal energy, wave and tidal energy, wind farms. By now the wind stations located in the coastal zone, provide the most part of electricity in different European countries. Meanwhile, effects of wind farms on the environment are not sufficiently studied. We report results of laboratory simulations aimed at investigation of hydrodynamic fields arising in the vicinity of wind farm masts under the action of currents and surface waves. The main attention is paid to modeling the resonance effects when the amplitude of velocity pulsations in the vicinity of the masts under the joint action of currents and harmonic waves demonstrate significant growth. This resonance can lead to an increase in Reynolds stress on the bottom, intensification of sediment transport and sound generation. The experiments are performed in the 17 meters hydrodynamical channel of laboratory Morphodynamique Continentale et Côtière UMR CNRS 6143. Mast are modeled by vertical cylinder placed in a steady flow. Behind the cylinder turbulent Karman vortex street occurs. Results are obtained in interval of Reynolds numbers Re=103 - 104(Re=Ud/v, where U is the velocity of the flow, d is diameter of the cylinder, ν is cinematic viscosity). Harmonic surface waves of small amplitude propagating upstream are excited by computer controlled wave maker. In the absence of surface waves, turbulent Karman street with averaged frequency f is observed. It is revealed experimentally that harmonic surface waves with a frequencies closed to 2f can synchronize vortex shedding and increase the amplitude of velocity fluctuations in the wake of the cylinder. Map of regimes is found on the parameter plane amplitude of the surface wave - wave frequency. In order to distinguish the synchronization regimes, we defined phase of oscillations using the Hilbert transform technique. We

  7. 77 FR 39501 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  8. 75 FR 67749 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  9. 77 FR 5037 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  10. 76 FR 31969 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories... Testing for Federal Agencies AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, HHS... thereafter. This notice is also available on the Internet at http://www.workplace.samhsa.gov and http://www...

  11. The microphysics of ash tribocharging: New insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, M. S.; Dufek, J.

    2014-12-01

    The spectacular lightning strokes observed during eruptions testify to the enormous potentials that can be generated within plumes. Related to the charging of individual ash particles, large electric fields and volcanic lightning have been observed at Eyjafjallajokull, Redoubt, and Sakurajima, among other volcanoes. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for plume electrification, including charging from the brittle failure of rock, charging due to phase change as material is carried aloft, and triboelectric charging, also known as contact charging. While the first two mechanisms (fracto-emission and volatile charging) have been described by other authors (James et al, 2000 and McNutt et al., 2010, respectively), the physics of tribocharging--charging related to the collisions of particles--of ash are still relatively unknown. Because the electric fields and lightning present in volcanic clouds result from the multiphase dynamics of the plume itself, understanding the electrodynamics of these systems may provide a way to detect eruptions and probe the interior of plumes remotely. In the present work, we describe two sets of experiments designed to explore what controls the exchange of charge during particle collisions. We employ natural material from Colima, Mt. Saint Helens, and Tungurahua. Our experiments show that the magnitude and temporal behavior of ash charging depend on a number of factors, including particle size, shape, chemistry, and collisional energy. The first set of experiments were designed to determine the time-dependent electrostatic behavior of a parcel of ash. These experiments consist of fluidizing an ash bed and monitoring the current induced in a set of ring electrodes. As such, we are able to extract charging rates for ash samples driven by different flow rates. The second experimental setup allows us to measure how much charge is exchanged during a single particle-particle collision. Capable of measuring charges as small as 1 fC, this

  12. VISAR Unfold Analysis of Load Current in MagLIF Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Mark; McBride, Ryan; Martin, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    An accurate prediction of the load current is essential in the performance of MagLIF experiments on the Z-Machine at Sandia. At present, the most accurate diagnostic for measuring load current on the Z-machine is the well-established VISAR technique. The VISAR diagnostic measures the velocity of a thin aluminum foil placed near the load, which is subject to the magnetic pressure produced by the load current, using a laser interferometer. The load current unfold analysis is highly nonlinear due to the equation of state/conductivity models, along with the MHD equations governing the foil. Nevertheless, an accurate load current unfold from the VISAR measurement is possible using an MHD code, in conjunction with an optimization algorithm. We will review the VISAR unfold analysis, and show recent current unfolds of MagLIF experiments in comparison to load current measurements using B-dot probes. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. Experience of quality management system in a clinical laboratory in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. Audu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Issues: Quality-management systems (QMS are uncommon in clinical laboratories in Nigeria, and until recently, none of the nation’s 5 349 clinical laboratories have been able to attain the certifications necessary to begin the process of attaining international accreditation. Nigeria’s Human Virology Laboratory (HVL, however, began implementation of a QMS in 2006, and in 2008 it was determined that the laboratory conformed to the requirements of ISO 9001:2000 (now 2008, making it the first diagnostic laboratory to be certified in Nigeria. The HVL has now applied for the World Health Organization (WHO accreditation preparedness scheme. The experience of the QMS implementation process and the lessons learned therein are shared here.Description: In 2005, two personnel from the HVL spent time studying quality systems in a certified clinical laboratory in Dakar, Senegal. Following this peer-to-peer technical assistance, several training sessions were undertaken by HVL staff, a baseline assessment was conducted, and processes were established. The HVL has monitored its quality indicators and conducted internal and external audits; these analyses (from 2007 to 2009 are presented herein.Lessons learned: Although there was improvement in the pre-analytical and analytical indicators analysed and although data-entry errors decreased in the post-analytical process, the delay in returning laboratory test results increased significantly. There were several factors identified as causes for this delay and all of these have now been addressed except for an identified need for automation of some high-volume assays (currently being negotiated. Internal and external audits showed a trend of increasing non-conformities which could be the result of personnel simply becoming lax over time. Application for laboratory accreditation, however, could provide the renewed vigour needed to correct these non-conformities.Recommendation: This experience shows that

  14. Kinetic Analysis of Metal Ions: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on the adaptation of a kinetic method of analysis of metal ions for use in an undergraduate teaching laboratory. Background information, procedures used, and analysis of typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  15. Touring the Tomato: A Suite of Chemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sayantani; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Medina, Nancy; Stark, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    An eight-session interdisciplinary laboratory curriculum has been designed using a suite of analytical chemistry techniques to study biomaterials derived from an inexpensive source such as the tomato fruit. A logical

  16. Measurement and Its Reliability: An Introductory Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultney, Sherman K.

    1971-01-01

    Describes a laboratory activity about measurement and its reliability for general education students. The measurement focuses on automobile speeds and allows for estimates of errors, experimental design, and relativity in addition to kinematical concepts. (DS)

  17. Strengthening Laboratory Management Towards Accreditation: The Lesotho experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mothabeng

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare’s (MOHSW 5-year strategic plan, as well as their national laboratory policy and yearly operational plans, directly addresses issues of accreditation, indicating their commitment to fulfilling their mandate. As such, the MOHSW adopted the World Health Organization Regional Headquarters for Africa’s Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Toward Accreditation (WHO–AFRO–SLIPTA process and subsequently rolled out the Strengthening Laboratory Management Towards Accreditation (SLMTA programme across the whole country, becoming the first African country to do so. Methods: SLMTA in Lesotho was implemented in two cohorts. Twelve and nineteen laboratory supervisors and quality officers were enrolled in Cohort 1 and Cohort 2, respectively. These 31 participants represented 18 of the 19 laboratories nationwide. For the purposes of this programme, the Queen Elizabeth II (QE II Central Laboratory had its seven sections of haematology, blood bank, cytology, blood transfusion, microbiology, tuberculosis laboratory and chemistry assessed as separate sections. Performance was tracked using the WHO–AFRO-SLIPTA checklist, with assessments carried out at baseline and at the end of SLMTA. Two methods were used to implement SLMTA: the traditional ‘three workshops’ approach and twinning SLMTA with mentorship. The latter, with intensive follow-up visits, was concluded in 9 months and the former in 11 months. A standard data collection tool was used for site visits.Results: Of the 31 participants across both cohorts, 25 (81% graduated (9 from Cohort 1 and 16 from Cohort 2. At baseline, all but one laboratory attained a rating of zero stars, with the exception attaining one star. At the final assessment, 7 of the 25 laboratories examined at baseline were still at a rating of zero stars, whilst 8 attained one star, 5 attained two stars and 4 attained three stars. None scored above three stars

  18. The Cold Atom Laboratory: a facility for ultracold atom experiments aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; CAL Team

    2016-05-01

    Spread across the globe there are many different experiments in cold quantum gases, enabling the creation and study of novel states of matter, as well as some of the most accurate inertial sensors currently known. The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), being built at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will be a multi-user facility that will allow the first study of ultracold quantum gases in the microgravity conditions of the International Space Station (ISS). The microgravity environment offers a wealth of advantages for studies of cold atoms, including expansion into extremely weak traps and achieving unearthly cold temperatures. It will also enable very long interaction times with released samples, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of cold atom interferometry. We will describe the CAL mission objectives and the flight hardware architecture. We will also report our ongoing technology development for the CAL mission, including the first microwave evaporation to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) on a miniaturized atom chip system, demonstrated in JPL's CAL Ground Testbed. We will present the design, setup, and operation of two experiments that reliably generate and probe BECs and dual-species mixtures of Rb-87 and K-39 (or K-41). CAL is scheduled to launch to the ISS in 2017. The CAL mission is supported by NASA's SLPS and ISS-PO. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under Contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  19. BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ciardi, A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75005, Paris (France); Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Hansen, E.; Frank, A., E-mail: f.suzuki@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2015-12-20

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.

  20. Bow shock fragmentation driven by a thermal instability in laboratory-astrophysics experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki-Vidal, F; Ciardi, A; Pickworth, L A; Rodriguez, R; Gil, J M; Espinosa, G; Hartigan, P; Swadling, G F; Skidmore, J; Hall, G N; Bennett, M; Bland, S N; Burdiak, G; de Grouchy, P; Music, J; Suttle, L; Hansen, E; Frank, A

    2015-01-01

    The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counter-streaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling time-scale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale non-uniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with...

  1. INCLUSION OF GEOGRAPHY IN INTERNSHIP LABORATORIES: an experience in process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Juscélia de Oliveira Souza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This paper is about internship and teaching procedures used in partnership with a university, elementary school, and a high school, which use geography laboratories as a space for activities and practices for interns, students, teachers, and professors. Reflecting theory-practice-theory during the internship was fundamental and important for the interns during that stage. Planning educational activities, practical classes, dialogues between teachers from different areas all had positive responses in this experience. These actions have shown a way to narrow a specific knowledge with the pedagogical knowledge during the development of the course. RESUMO: O trabalho discute Estágio Supervisionado e os procedimentos didáticos adotados na parceria entre universidade e escola básica, onde o uso dos laboratórios de Geografia, pelos estagiários e alunos do ensino fundamental e médio, representa mais uma possibilidade para o exercício da docência, durante as atividades do estágio. A reflexão teoria-prática-teoria na vivência do estágio constituiu fundamento importante e presente nas atividades dos estagiários. Planejamento de atividades educativas, aulas práticas, diálogos entre os professores de áreas específicas e da área pedagógica, trabalho coletivo entre alunos e professores e o acesso a outros espaços formadores, por alunos e professores da escola básica, constituíram resultado positivo e a sinalização das possibilidades de efetivação do Estágio Supervisionado, a partir da lógica da flexibilidade na formação acadêmica. E, ainda, um caminho para estreitar a relação entre os conhecimentos específicos e os pedagógicos durante a formação do profissional professor.

  2. Current ramps in tokamaks: from present experiments to ITER scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imbeaux, F.; Citrin, J.; Hobirk, J.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Kochl, F.; Leonov, V. M.; Miyamoto, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Parail, V.; Pereverzev, G.; Polevoi, A.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Basiuk, V.; Budny, R.; Casper, T.; Fereira, J.; Fukuyama, A.; Garcia, J.; Gribov, Y. V.; Hayashi, N.; Honda, M.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Jackson, G.; Kavin, A. A.; Kessel, C. E.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.; Labate, C.; Litaudon, X.; Lomas, P. J.; Lonnroth, J.; Luce, T.; Lukash, V. E.; Mattei, M.; Mikkelsen, D.; Nunes, I.; Peysson, Y.; Politzer, P.; Schneider, M.; Sips, G.; Tardini, G.; Wolfe, S. M.; Zhogolev, V. E.

    2011-01-01

    In order to prepare adequate current ramp-up and ramp-down scenarios for ITER, present experiments from various tokamaks have been analysed by means of integrated modelling in view of determining relevant heat transport models for these operation phases. A set of empirical heat transport models for

  3. Development and Use of Online Prelaboratory Activities in Organic Chemistry to Improve Students' Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaytor, Jennifer L.; Al Mughalaq, Mohammad; Butler, Hailee

    2017-01-01

    Online prelaboratory videos and quizzes were prepared for all experiments in CHEM 231, Organic Chemistry I Laboratory. It was anticipated that watching the videos would help students be better prepared for the laboratory, decrease their anxiety surrounding the laboratory, and increase their understanding of the theories and concepts presented.…

  4. [Brief discussion on experiences from laboratory certification and accreditation on detection of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan-Hong; Guan, Ya-Yi; Cao, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhang, Min-Qi; Zhou, Xiao-Jun

    2013-12-01

    The laboratory certification and accreditation is the development trend of domestic and international laboratories. The National Institute for Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention passed through the site assessment in September 2012 successfully, 26 items in 8 fields declared were all adopted. This article summarizes some work experiences during carrying out the laboratory certification and accreditation.

  5. Enhanced Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiments on HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Effective Lower Hybrid Current Driving (LHCD) and improved confinement exper-iments in higher plasma parameters (Ip > 200 kA, ne> 2×1013 cm-3, Te ≥ 1 keⅤ) havebeen curried out in optimized LH wave spectrum and plasma parameters in HT-7 supercon-ducting tokamak. The dependence of current driving efficiency on LH power spectrum, plasmadensity ne and toroidal magnetic field BT has been obtained under optimal conditions. A goodCD efficiency was obtained at higher plasma current and higher electron density. The improve-ment of the energy confinement time is accompanied with the increase in line averaged electrondensity, and in ion and electron temperatures. The highest current driving efficiency reachedηCD = IpneR/PRF ≈ 1.05 × 1019 Am-2/W. Wave-plasma coupling was sustained in a good stateand the reflective coefficient was less than 5%. The experiments have also demonstrated the abilityof LH wave in the start-up and ramp-up of the plasma current. The measurement of the temporaldistribution of plasma parameter shows that lower hybrid leads to a broader profile in plasmaparameter. The LH power deposition profile and the plasma current density profile were modeledwith a 2D Fokker-Planck code corresponding to the evolution process of the hard x-ray detectorarray.

  6. Designing Online Resources in Preparation for Authentic Laboratory Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Rachel; Parisky, Alex; Leong, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Professional development for science teachers can be benefited through active learning in science laboratories. However, how online training materials can be used to complement traditional laboratory training is less understood. This paper explores the design of online training modules to teach molecular biology and user perception of those modules that were part of an intensive molecular biology "boot camp" targeting high school biology teachers in the State of Hawaii. The John A. Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawaii had an opportunity to design and develop professional development that prepares science teachers with an introduction of skills, techniques, and applications for their students to conduct medical research in a laboratory setting. A group of 29 experienced teachers shared their opinions of the online materials and reported on how they used the online materials in their learning process or teaching.

  7. Current Guidelines, Common Clinical Pitfalls, and Future Directions for Laboratory Diagnosis of Lyme Disease, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew; Nelson, Christina; Molins, Claudia; Mead, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks. Patients with an erythema migrans lesion and epidemiologic risk can receive a diagnosis without laboratory testing. For all other patients, laboratory testing is necessary to confirm the diagnosis, but proper interpretation depends on symptoms and timing of illness. The recommended laboratory test in the United States is 2-tiered serologic analysis consisting of an enzyme-linked immunoassay or immunofluorescence assay, followed by reflexive immunoblotting. Sensitivity of 2-tiered testing is low (30%–40%) during early infection while the antibody response is developing (window period). For disseminated Lyme disease, sensitivity is 70%–100%. Specificity is high (>95%) during all stages of disease. Use of other diagnostic tests for Lyme disease is limited. We review the rationale behind current US testing guidelines, appropriate use and interpretation of tests, and recent developments in Lyme disease diagnostics. PMID:27314832

  8. Transport, deposition, and liftoff in laboratory density currents composed of hot particles in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding the dynamics of transport, deposition, and air entrainment in pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) is required for accurate predictions of future current behaviors and interpretations of ancient deposits, but directly observing the interiors of natural PDCs is effectively impossible. We model PDCs with scaled, hot, particle-laden density currents generated in a 6 m long, 0.6 m wide, 1.8 m tall air-filled tank. Comparison of relevant scaling between our experiments and natural PDCs indicates that we are accurately capturing much of the dynamics of dilute PDCs: * Reynolds numbers of our experiments are lower than natural currents, 10^3 compared to 10^6, but still fully turbulent; * Densimetric and Thermal Richardson numbers are of O(1) in both natural and modeled currents; * Stokes and settling numbers for particles in the experiments fall within the expected range for natural PDCs. Conditions within the tank are monitored with temperature and humidity probes. Experiments are illuminated with sheet lighting, and recorded with high-definition video cameras. In general, currents have average velocities of 10-20 cm/s, initial thicknesses of 10-20 cm (although thickness greatly increases as currents entrain and expand air), and run out or lift off distances of 3-5 m. Large Kelvin-Helmholtz type eddies usually form along the top of the current immediately behind the head; these vortices are similar in size to the total current thickness. In currents that lift off, the distal current end typically retreats with time. Preliminary results suggest that lift off distance decreases with increasing thermal Richardson number. Analysis of turbulent structures indicates that the current heads are dominated by large coherent structures with length scales, L, comparable to the current thickness. Within 5-10 L of the current fronts, sequences of similar large eddies often occur. At greater distances behind the current fronts, turbulent structures become smaller and less

  9. Progress of Jinping Underground laboratory for Nuclear Astrophysics experiment JUNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping

    2015-08-01

    Direct measurement of the cross sections for the key nuclear reactions in hydrostatic stellar evolution within Gamow window, which makes use of low background at deep underground laboratory, is crucial to solve key scientific questions in nuclear astrophysics. JUNA project aims at direct measurement of (α,γ), (α,n) reactions in hydrostatic helium burning and (p, γ), (p, α) reactions in hydrostatic hydrogen burning based on Jinping deep underground laboratory in China. The progress of experimental techniques, which include the accelerator system with high stability and high intensity, the detector system, and the shielding material with low background, will be presented.

  10. Armor breakup and reformation in a degradational laboratory experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orrú, Clara; Blom, Astrid; Uijttewaal, Wim S. J

    2016-01-01

    ... (trimodal reach) and a downstream sand reach, and the experiment was conducted under conditions without sediment supply. In the initial stage of the experiment an armor formed over the trimodal r...

  11. An Imposed Dynamo Current Drive Experiment: Demonstration of Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, Thomas; Hansen, Chris; Hossack, Aaron; Marklin, George; Morgan, Kyle; Nelson, Brian; Sutherland, Derek; Victor, Brian

    2014-10-01

    An experiment for studying and developing the efficient sustainment of a spheromak with sufficient confinement (current-drive power heats the plasma to its stability β-limit) and in the keV temperature range is discussed. A high- β spheromak sustained by imposed dynamo current drive (IDCD) is justified because: previous transient experiments showed sufficient confinement in the keV range with no external toroidal field coil; recent results on HIT-SI show sustainment with sufficient confinement at low temperature; the potential of IDCD of solving other fusion issues; a very attractive reactor concept; and the general need for efficient current drive in magnetic fusion. The design of a 0.55 m minor radius machine with the required density control, wall loading, and neutral shielding for a 2 s pulse is presented. Peak temperatures of 1 keV and toroidal currents of 1.35 MA and 16% wall-normalized plasma beta are envisioned. The experiment is large enough to address the key issues yet small enough for rapid modification and for extended MHD modeling of startup and code validation.

  12. ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS AT IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY: DESCRIPTION AND SUMMARY OF DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

    2010-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory performed air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics code (CFD). An isothermal stratified flow experiment was designed and set to understand stratified flow phenomena in the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) and to provide experimental data for validating computer codes. The isothermal experiment focused on three flow characteristics unique in the VHTR air-ingress accident: stratified flow in the horizontal pipe, stratified flow expansion at the pipe and vessel junction, and stratified flow around supporting structures. Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids and water was used as light fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between heavy and light fluids is generated even for very small density differences. The code was validated by conducting blind CFD simulations and comparing the results to the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study was also performed based on the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for modeling confidence. As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

  13. Restructuring a General Microbiology Laboratory into an Investigative Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigative laboratory sequence based upon the isolation and characterization of soil bacteria to aid microbiology teachers in providing students with activities that expose them to basic techniques of microbiology as well as demonstrates the scientific process and the experimental analysis of microorganisms. (ZWH)

  14. Raising Environmental Awareness through Applied Biochemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S.

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment…

  15. Laboratory Experiences in an Introduction to Natural Science Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sister Marquita

    1984-01-01

    Describes a two-semester course designed to meet the needs of future elementary teachers, home economists, and occupational therapists. Laboratory work includes homemade calorimeters, inclined planes, and computing. Content areas of the course include measurement, physics, chemistry, astronomy, biology, geology, and meteorology. (JN)

  16. A Virtual Laboratory on Natural Computing: A Learning Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Leandro Nunes; Muñoz, Yupanqui Julho; de Freitas, Leandro Rubim; El-Hani, Charbel Niño

    2008-01-01

    Natural computing is a terminology used to describe computational algorithms developed by taking inspiration from information processing mechanisms in nature, methods to synthesize natural phenomena in computers, and novel computational approaches based on natural materials. The virtual laboratory on natural computing (LVCoN) is a Web environment…

  17. Raising Environmental Awareness through Applied Biochemistry Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Ashraf, S.

    2013-01-01

    Our environment is under constant pressure and threat from various sources of pollution. Science students, in particular chemistry students, must not only be made aware of these issues, but also be taught that chemistry (and science) can provide solutions to such real-life issues. To this end, a newly developed biochemistry laboratory experiment…

  18. Integrating Interdisciplinary Research-Based Experiences in Biotechnology Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rupa S.; Wales, Melinda E.

    2012-01-01

    The increasingly interdisciplinary nature of today's scientific research is leading to the transformation of undergraduate education. In addressing these needs, the University of Houston's College of Technology has developed a new interdisciplinary research-based biotechnology laboratory curriculum. Using the pesticide degrading bacterium,…

  19. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  20. Chemical Remediation of Nickel(II) Waste: A Laboratory Experiment for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, K. Blake; Rood, Brian E.; Trogden, Bridget G.

    2011-01-01

    This project involved developing a method to remediate large quantities of aqueous waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment. Aqueous Ni(II) waste from a general chemistry laboratory experiment was converted into solid nickel hydroxide hydrate with a substantial decrease in waste volume. The remediation method was developed for a…

  1. Redefining Authentic Research Experiences in Introductory Biology Laboratories and Barriers to Their Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spell, Rachelle M.; Guinan, Judith A.; Miller, Kristen R.; Beck, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are…

  2. Green Fluorescent Protein-Focused Bioinformatics Laboratory Experiment Suitable for Undergraduates in Biochemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Laura

    2017-01-01

    An introductory bioinformatics laboratory experiment focused on protein analysis has been developed that is suitable for undergraduate students in introductory biochemistry courses. The laboratory experiment is designed to be potentially used as a "stand-alone" activity in which students are introduced to basic bioinformatics tools and…

  3. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Cations in Water Samples: An Experiment for the Introductory Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, Christopher J.; Chandler, Bert; Bushey, Michelle M.

    2004-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is gradually working its way into the undergraduate laboratory curriculum. Typically, experiments utilizing this newer technology have been introduced into analytical or instrumental courses. The authors of this article have introduced an experiment into the introductory laboratory that utilizes capillary electrophoresis…

  4. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment in Bioinorganic Chemistry: Ligation States of Myoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Although there are numerous inorganic model systems that are readily presented as undergraduate laboratory experiments in bioinorganic chemistry, there are few examples that explore the inorganic chemistry of actual biological molecules. We present a laboratory experiment using the oxygen-binding protein myoglobin that can be easily incorporated…

  5. A Laboratory Experiment on EM Backscatter from Farley-Buneman and Gradient Drift Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alport, M. J.; D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans

    1981-01-01

    Results are reported of a laboratory experiment on Bragg backscatter of 3-cm microwaves by turbulent waves driven by the Farley-Buneman and gradient drift instabilities. The present work is the third in a series of laboratory experiments performed to test, under controlled conditions, prevalent...... ideas on EM scattering by equatorial and high-latitude ionospheric waves and irregularities....

  6. Status and Current Sensitivity of the CELESTE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Naurois, Mathieu

    2000-01-01

    The CELESTE experiment uses the heliostats of an old solar farm in the French Pyrenees to detect gamma ray air showers by the atmospheric Cerenkov technique. CELESTE has been operating since November 1999 with an array of 40 heliostats fully instrumented with 1GHz flash ADCs. Significant advances have been made in the detector simulations and in the data analysis techniques. We report here on results from recent observations of the Crab nebula above an energy threshold of 50GeV. The results and simulations illustrate the current sensitivity of the experiment.

  7. Current profile modification experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconello, M.; Malmberg, J.-A.; Spizzo, G.; Chapman, B. E.; Gravestjin, R. M.; Franz, P.; Piovesan, P.; Martin, P.; Drake, J. R.

    2004-01-01

    Pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) experiments have been conducted in the resistive shell EXTRAP T2R reversed-field pinch experiment. During the current profile modification phase, the fluctuation level of the m = 1 internally resonant tearing modes decreases, and the velocity of these modes increases. The m = 0 modes are not affected during PPCD, although termination occurs with a burst in the m = 0 amplitude. The PPCD phase is characterized by an increase in the central electron temperature (up to 380 eV) and in the soft x-ray signal. Spectroscopic observations confirm an increase in the central electron temperature. During PPCD, the plasma poloidal beta increases to 14%, and the estimated energy confinement time doubles, reaching 380 µs. The reduction in the fluctuation level and the corresponding increase in the energy confinement time are qualitatively consistent with a reduction in parallel transport along stochastic magnetic field lines.

  8. Current status of the LHCf experiment and future plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamura T.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Large Hadron Collider forward (= LHCf experiment has successfully finished the first phase of data taking at LHC √s = 0.9 and 7 TeV proton-proton collisions in 2010. As current status, we concentrate on analyzing the obtained data. As the first result, the energy spectra of photon measured by LHCf during = 7 TeV p-p collision has been published recently. Also the study of the upgraded version of LHCf detector for future = 14TeV run scenario is developed with the GSO scintillator. Another possible plan of p-A(nuclear collision in LHC is also studied. In this paper, as the current status of the experiment, analyses, and works for foreseen detector upgrade are summarized.

  9. A novel eddy current damper: theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Khamesee, Mir Behrad [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Golnaraghi, Farid, E-mail: khamesee@mecheng1.uwaterloo.c [Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, British Columbia, V3T 0A3 (Canada)

    2009-04-07

    A novel eddy current damper is developed and its damping characteristics are studied analytically and experimentally. The proposed eddy current damper consists of a conductor as an outer tube, and an array of axially magnetized ring-shaped permanent magnets separated by iron pole pieces as a mover. The relative movement of the magnets and the conductor causes the conductor to undergo motional eddy currents. Since the eddy currents produce a repulsive force that is proportional to the velocity of the conductor, the moving magnet and the conductor behave as a viscous damper. The eddy current generation causes the vibration to dissipate through the Joule heating generated in the conductor part. An accurate, analytical model of the system is obtained by applying electromagnetic theory to estimate the damping properties of the proposed eddy current damper. A prototype eddy current damper is fabricated, and experiments are carried out to verify the accuracy of the theoretical model. The experimental test bed consists of a one-degree-of-freedom vibration isolation system and is used for the frequency and transient time response analysis of the system. The eddy current damper model has a 0.1 m s{sup -2} (4.8%) RMS error in the estimation of the mass acceleration. A damping coefficient as high as 53 Ns m{sup -1} is achievable with the fabricated prototype. This novel eddy current damper is an oil-free, inexpensive damper that is applicable in various vibration isolation systems such as precision machinery, micro-mechanical suspension systems and structure vibration isolation.

  10. Current status of the MiniBooNE experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Heather L.; /Los Alamos

    2004-11-01

    MiniBooNE is an experiment designed to refute or confirm the LSND {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub e} oscillation result. MiniBooNE will look for oscillations of {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub e} in a closed-box appearance analysis. MiniBooNE began collecting data in 2002, and is expected to continue data taking through 2005. Current MiniBooNE results are presented.

  11. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO2 TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO2 lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 μs); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  12. Granular and particle-laden flows: from laboratory experiments to field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannay, R.; Valance, A.; Mangeney, A.; Roche, O.; Richard, P.

    2017-02-01

    This review article provides an overview of dry granular flows and particle fluid mixtures, including experimental and numerical modeling at the laboratory scale, large scale hydrodynamics approaches and field observations. Over the past ten years, the theoretical and numerical approaches have made such significant progress that they are capable of providing qualitative and quantitative estimates of particle concentration and particle velocity profiles in steady and fully developed particulate flows. The next step which is currently developed is the extension of these approaches to unsteady and inhomogeneous flow configurations relevant to most of geophysical flows. We also emphasize that the up-scaling from laboratory experiments to large scale geophysical flows still poses some theoretical physical challenges. For example, the reduction of the dissipation that is responsible for the unexpected long run-out of large scale granular avalanches is not observed at the laboratory scale and its physical origin is still a matter of debate. However, we believe that the theoretical approaches have reached a mature state and that it is now reasonable to tackle complex particulate flows that incorporate more and more degrees of complexity of natural flows.

  13. Exploration of the Kinked Jet in the Crab Nebula with Scaled Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chikang

    2015-11-01

    X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory show that the South-East jet in the Crab nebula changes direction every few years. This remarkable phenomenon is also frequently observed for jets in other pulsar-wind nebulae and in other astrophysical objects. Numerical simulations suggest that it may be a consequence of current-driven, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities taking place in the jet, yet that is just a hypothesis without verification in controlled experiments. To that end, we recently conducted scaled laboratory experiments that reproduced this phenomenon. In these experiments, a supersonic plasma jet was generated in the collision of two laser-produced plasma plumes, and this jet was radiographed from the side using 15-MeV and 3-MeV protons. It was observed that if self-generated toroidal magnetic fields around the jet were strong enough, they triggered plasma instabilities that caused substantial deflections throughout the jet propagation, mimicking the kinked jet structure seen in the Crab Nebula. We have modeled these laboratory experiments with comprehensive two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations, which in conjunction with the experiments provide compelling evidence that we have an accurate model of the most important physics of magnetic fields and MHD instabilities in the observed jet in the Crab Nebula. The work described here was performed in part at the LLE National Laser User's Facility (NLUF), and was supported in part by US DOE (Grant No. DE-FG03- 03SF22691), LLNL (subcontract Grant No. B504974) and LLE (subcontract Grant No. 412160-001G).

  14. From laboratory plasma experiments to space plasma experiments with `CubeSat' nano-satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christine

    2016-09-01

    `CubeSat' nano-satellites provide low-cost access to space. SP3 laboratory's involvement in the European Union `QB50' `CubeSat' project [www.qb50.eu] which will launch into space 50 `CubeSats' from 27 Countries to study the ionosphere and the lower thermosphere will be presented. The Chi Kung laboratory plasma experiment and the Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype can be tailored to investigate expanding magnetized plasma physics relevant to space physics (solar corona, Earth's aurora, adiabatic expansion and polytropic studies). Chi Kung is also used as a plasma wind tunnel for ground-based calibration of the University College London QB50 Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer. Space qualification of the three Australian QB50 `CubeSats' (June 2016) is carried out in the WOMBAT XL space simulation chamber. The QB50 satellites have attitude control but altitude control is not a requirement. SP3 is developing end-to-end miniaturised radiofrequency plasma propulsion systems (such as the Pocket Rocket and the MiniHel thrusters with power and propellant sub-systems) for future `CubeSat' missions.

  15. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  16. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  17. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Modules for Probing Gold Nanoparticle Interfacial Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayake, Akila G.; Gunatilake, Sameera R.; Ameer, Fathima S.; Gadogbe, Manuel; Smith, Laura; Mlsna, Deb; Zhang, Dongmao

    2015-01-01

    Three gold-nanoparticle (AuNP) undergraduate experiment modules that are focused on nanoparticles interfacial phenomena have been developed. Modules 1 and 2 explore the synthesis and characterization of AuNPs of different sizes but with the same total gold mass. These experiments enable students to determine how particle size affects the AuNP…

  18. Microcomputer-Based Digital Signal Processing Laboratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Jr., Rocco; Rao, S. Sathyanarayan

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system (Apple II microcomputer interfaced to flexible, custom-designed digital hardware) which can provide: (1) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) computation on real-time data with a video display of spectrum; (2) frequency synthesis experiments using the inverse FFT; and (3) real-time digital filtering experiments. (JN)

  19. A Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for experiments that illustrate the nature of cyclic voltammetry and its application in the characterization of organic electrode processes. The experiments also demonstrate the concepts of electrochemical reversibility and diffusion-controlled mass transfer. (JN)

  20. A Cyclic Voltammetry Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Richard P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for experiments that illustrate the nature of cyclic voltammetry and its application in the characterization of organic electrode processes. The experiments also demonstrate the concepts of electrochemical reversibility and diffusion-controlled mass transfer. (JN)

  1. Beam current transformer (BCT) for experiment WA1/2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In experiment WA1/2, a 400 GeV proton beam from the SPS was directed at a target, downstream of which a hadron line selected, in several narrow momentum bands, a beam of either pi+ and K+ or pi- and K-. These neutrino-parent particles, before entering a 292 m long decay tunnel, passed through a set of 2 BCTs of a design seen here. They measured the hadron intensity (10^10 to 10^11 particles/pulse) with a precision of the order of 1%. There were 2 of them, for enhanced precision and confidence. After the discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle-experiment, WA1/2 was the first follow-up, high-precision experiment (Z.Phys.C35, 443-452, 1987 and Z.Phys.C45, 361-379, 1990). See also 7706516X.

  2. A teaching intervention for reading laboratory experiments in college-level introductory chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Maria Kristine

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that a pre-laboratory guide, conceptualized as a "scientific story grammar," has on college chemistry students' learning when they read an introductory chemistry laboratory manual and perform the experiments in the chemistry laboratory. The participants (N = 56) were students enrolled in four existing general chemistry laboratory sections taught by two instructors at a women's liberal arts college. The pre-laboratory guide consisted of eight questions about the experiment, including the purpose, chemical species, variables, chemical method, procedure, and hypothesis. The effects of the intervention were compared with those of the traditional pre-laboratory assignment for the eight chemistry experiments. Measures included quizzes, tests, chemistry achievement test, science process skills test, laboratory reports, laboratory average, and semester grade. The covariates were mathematical aptitude and prior knowledge of chemistry and science processes, on which the groups differed significantly. The study captured students' perceptions of their experience in general chemistry through a survey and interviews with eight students. The only significant differences in the treatment group's performance were in some subscores on lecture items and laboratory items on the quizzes. An apparent induction period was noted, in that significant measures occurred in mid-semester. Voluntary study with the pre-laboratory guide by control students precluded significant differences on measures given later in the semester. The groups' responses to the survey were similar. Significant instructor effects on three survey items were corroborated by the interviews. The researcher's students were more positive about their pre-laboratory tasks, enjoyed the laboratory sessions more, and were more confident about doing chemistry experiments than the laboratory instructor's groups due to differences in scaffolding by the instructors.

  3. Surveying rip current survivors: preliminary insights into the experiences of being caught in rip currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdzewski, D.; Shaw, W.; Dominey-Howes, D.; Brander, R.; Walton, T.; Gero, A.; Sherker, S.; Goff, J.; Edwick, B.

    2012-04-01

    This paper begins a process of addressing a significant gap in knowledge about people's responses to being caught in rip currents. While rip currents are the primary hazard facing recreational ocean swimmers in Australia, debate exists about the best advice to give swimmers caught in rip currents. Such surf rescue advice - on what to do and how to respond when caught in a rip - relies on empirical evidence. However, at present, knowledge about swimmers reactions and responses to rip currents is limited. This gap is a considerable barrier to providing effective advice to beach goers and to understanding how this advice is utilised (or not) when actually caught in the rip current. This paper reports the findings of a pilot study that focussed on garnering a better understanding of swimmers' experiences when caught in rip currents. A large scale questionnaire survey instrument generated data about rip current survivors' demographics, knowledge of beach safety and their reactions and responses when caught in a rip current. A mix of online and paper surveys produced a total of 671 completed surveys. Respondents were predominantly an informed group in terms of rip current knowledge, beach experience and had a high self-rated swimming ability. Preliminary insights from the survey show that most respondents recalled a "swim across the rip/parallel to the beach" message when caught in the rip and most escaped unassisted by acting on this message. However, while nearly a quarter of respondents recalled a message of "not to panic", short answer responses revealed that the onset of panic inhibited some respondents from recalling or enacting any other type of beach safety message when caught in the rip current. Results also showed that despite the research sample being younger, competent and frequent ocean swimmers, they were more likely to swim at unpatrolled beaches and outside of the red and yellow safety flags. Moreover, they were still caught in a rip current and they

  4. Surveying rip current survivors: preliminary insights into the experiences of being caught in rip currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Drozdzewski

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper begins a process of addressing a significant gap in knowledge about people's responses to being caught in rip currents. While rip currents are the primary hazard facing recreational ocean swimmers in Australia, debate exists about the best advice to give swimmers caught in rip currents. Such surf rescue advice – on what to do and how to respond when caught in a rip – relies on empirical evidence. However, at present, knowledge about swimmers reactions and responses to rip currents is limited. This gap is a considerable barrier to providing effective advice to beach goers and to understanding how this advice is utilised (or not when actually caught in the rip current.

    This paper reports the findings of a pilot study that focussed on garnering a better understanding of swimmers' experiences when caught in rip currents. A large scale questionnaire survey instrument generated data about rip current survivors' demographics, knowledge of beach safety and their reactions and responses when caught in a rip current. A mix of online and paper surveys produced a total of 671 completed surveys. Respondents were predominantly an informed group in terms of rip current knowledge, beach experience and had a high self-rated swimming ability. Preliminary insights from the survey show that most respondents recalled a "swim across the rip/parallel to the beach" message when caught in the rip and most escaped unassisted by acting on this message. However, while nearly a quarter of respondents recalled a message of "not to panic", short answer responses revealed that the onset of panic inhibited some respondents from recalling or enacting any other type of beach safety message when caught in the rip current. Results also showed that despite the research sample being younger, competent and frequent ocean swimmers, they were more likely to swim at unpatrolled beaches and outside of the red and yellow safety flags. Moreover, they were still

  5. [Security Management in Clinical Laboratory Departments and Facilities: Current Status and Issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Haku; Nakamura, Junji; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koike, Masaru; Inoue, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey regarding the current activities for protecting patients' privacy and the security of information systems (IS) related to the clinical laboratory departments of university hospitals, certified training facilities for clinical laboratories, and general hospitals in Yamaguchi Prefecture. The response rate was 47% from 215 medical institutions, including three commercial clinical laboratory centers. The results showed that there were some differences in management activities among facilities with respect to continuing education, the documentation or regulation of operational management for paper records, electronic information, remaining samples, genetic testing, and laboratory information for secondary use. They were suggested to be caused by differences in functions between university and general hospitals, differences in the scale of hospitals, or whether or not hospitals have received accreditation or ISO 15189. Regarding the IS, although the majority of facilities had sufficiently employed the access control to IS, there was some room for improvement in the management of special cases such as VIPs and patients with HIV infection. Furthermore, there were issues regarding the login method for computers shared by multiple staff, the showing of the names of personnel in charge of reports, and the risks associated with direct connections to systems and the Internet and the use of portable media such as USB memory sticks. These results indicated that further efforts are necessary for each facility to continue self-assessment and make improvements.

  6. Laboratory experiments duplicate conditions in the Earth’s crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Dieterich, J.H.; Stewart, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental device that simulates conditions in the Earth's crust at depths of up to 30 kilometers has been constructed by geophysicists working at the U.S Geological Survey laboratories in Menlo Park, California. A high pressure "bomb" is being used to experimentally measure the velocity of seismic waves in different types of rock at various confining pressures and temperatures. The principal purpose of these measurements is to determine the elastic and non-elastic properties of rocks and minerals under conditions of high-pressure such as exist deep in the Earth's crust. 

  7. 4,5-Diphenyl-1-methylimidazole: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Paul T.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures used are provided for the synthesis of 4,5-diphenyl-methylimidazole. This experiment on the chemistry of heterocycles is ideally suited for beginning undergraduate organic chemistry students. (JN)

  8. Preparation and Current Situation of Proton-ICCHIBAN-2 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Kitamura, H.; Kodaira, S.; Benton, Eric; Hajek, Michael; Berger, Thomas; Jadrnickova, Iva; Ploc, Ondrej

    The ICCHIBAN (Inter Comparison for Cosmicrays with Heavy Ion Beams at NIRS) working group has organized and performed various ICCHIBAN runs for active and passive radiation detectors at HIMAC, NIRS, Japan, Loma Linda and Brookhaven, USA and CERN, Switzer-land since the start of the ICCHIBAN project in the year 2002. One of the main focus points of this project is to understand the response of the applied detector systems (either active or passive) for personal and area dosimetry in space environment to a simulated sub-set of the space radiation environment, focusing on the heavy ion response. This is of special importance for the further intercomparison of space radiation data gathered by various international in-stitutes and universities for space radiation experiments as MATROSHKA, DOSIS, DOBIES, BRADOS, MATROSHKA-R etc. The ICCHIBAN experiments have created a big database of response data, especially for all the different passive radiation detectors and detector materials (Thermoluminescence (TLD) and Optical Luminescence (OSL)) over the last 7 years, resulting in a better understanding of how and why we still have differences in the measurement results from common space experiments -as the Space ICCHIBAN 2 experiment. One of the reasons why for the differences in the TLD/OSL results is the lack of intercomparison and response data for low LET particles up to around 10 keV/m, especially protons. Due to the fact, that the main contribution to absorbed dose in low earth orbit is due to protons, the ICCHIBAN working group has started the set-up of a Proton ICCHIBAN intercomparison experiment at NIRS. The Proton ICCHIBAN run has been performed at the cyclotron at NIRS, Chiba in February 2010. 15 institutes from 12 countries sent or brought their dosimeters and exposed them to 40 and 70 MeV proton beams with the same doses and exposure conditions. In this paper, the experiment procedures and current situation of the intercomparision experiments will be shown.

  9. Impact of flow velocity on biochemical processes – a laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boisson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and predicting hydraulic and chemical properties of natural environments are current crucial challenges. It requires considering hydraulic, chemical and biological processes and evaluating how hydrodynamic properties impact on biochemical reactions. In this context, an original laboratory experiment to study the impact of flow velocity on biochemical reactions along a one-dimensional flow streamline has been developed. Based on the example of nitrate reduction, nitrate-rich water passes through plastic tubes at several flow velocities (from 6.2 to 35 mm min−1, while nitrate concentration at the tube outlet is monitored for more than 500 h. This experimental setup allows assessing the biologically controlled reaction between a mobile electron acceptor (nitrate and an electron donor (carbon coming from an immobile phase (tube that produces carbon during its degradation by microorganisms. It results in observing a dynamic of the nitrate transformation associated with biofilm development which is flow-velocity dependent. It is proposed that the main behaviors of the reaction rates are related to phases of biofilm development through a simple analytical model including assimilation. Experiment results and their interpretation demonstrate a significant impact of flow velocity on reaction performance and stability and highlight the relevance of dynamic experiments over static experiments for understanding biogeochemical processes.

  10. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations on magnetic instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Stefani, F; Kasprzyk, Ch; Paredes, A; Ruediger, G; Seilmayer, M

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields of planets, stars and galaxies are generated by self-excitation in moving electrically conducting fluids. Once produced, magnetic fields can play an active role in cosmic structure formation by destabilizing rotational flows that would be otherwise hydrodynamically stable. For a long time, both hydromagnetic dynamo action as well as magnetically triggered flow instabilities had been the subject of purely theoretical research. Meanwhile, however, the dynamo effect has been observed in large-scale liquid sodium experiments in Riga, Karlsruhe and Cadarache. In this paper, we summarize the results of some smaller liquid metal experiments devoted to various magnetic instabilities such as the helical and the azimuthal magnetorotational instability, the Tayler instability, and the different instabilities that appear in a magnetized spherical Couette flow. We conclude with an outlook on a large scale Tayler-Couette experiment using liquid sodium, and on the prospects to observe magnetically triggered ...

  11. Current and Planned Cochlear Implant Research at New York University Laboratory for Translational Auditory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirsky, Mario A.; Fitzgerald, Matthew B.; Neuman, Arlene; Sagi, Elad; Tan, Chin-Tuan; Ketten, Darlene; Martin, Brett

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory of Translational Auditory Research (LTAR/NYUSM) is part of the Department of Otolaryngology at the New York University School of Medicine and has close ties to the New York University Cochlear Implant Center. LTAR investigators have expertise in multiple related disciplines including speech and hearing science, audiology, engineering, and physiology. The lines of research in the laboratory deal mostly with speech perception by hearing impaired listeners, and particularly those who use cochlear implants (CIs) or hearing aids (HAs). Although the laboratory's research interests are diverse, there are common threads that permeate and tie all of its work. In particular, a strong interest in translational research underlies even the most basic studies carried out in the laboratory. Another important element is the development of engineering and computational tools, which range from mathematical models of speech perception to software and hardware that bypass clinical speech processors and stimulate cochlear implants directly, to novel ways of analyzing clinical outcomes data. If the appropriate tool to conduct an important experiment does not exist, we may work to develop it, either in house or in collaboration with academic or industrial partners. Another notable characteristic of the laboratory is its interdisciplinary nature where, for example, an audiologistandan engineer might work closely to develop an approach that would not have been feasible if each had worked singly on the project. Similarly, investigators with expertise in hearing aids and cochlear implants might join forces to study how human listeners integrate information provided by a CI and a HA. The following pages provide a flavor of the diversity and the commonalities of our research interests. PMID:22668763

  12. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  13. The high current, fast, 100ns, Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) developmental project at Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Kevin S.; Long, Finis W.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A. (High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia); Kim, Alexandre A. (High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, RUSSIA); Wakeland, Peter Eric (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); McKee, G. Randall; Woodworth, Joseph Ray; McDaniel, Dillon Heirman; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos; Porter, John Larry, Jr.; Struve, Kenneth William; Stygar, William A.; LeChien, Keith R.; Matzen, Maurice Keith

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, N.M., USA, in collaboration with the High Current Electronic Institute (HCEI), Tomsk, Russia, is developing a new paradigm in pulsed power technology: the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology. This technological approach can provide very compact devices that can deliver very fast high current and high voltage pulses straight out of the cavity with out any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The load may be a vacuum electron diode, a z-pinch wire array, a gas puff, a liner, an isentropic compression load (ICE) to study material behavior under very high magnetic fields, or a fusion energy (IFE) target. This is because the output pulse rise time and width can be easily tailored to the specific application needs. In this paper we briefly summarize the developmental work done in Sandia and HCEI during the last few years, and describe our new MYKONOS Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory.

  14. The PADME experiment at Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2016-01-01

    The PADME experiment will search for the invisible decay of Dark Photons produced in interactions of positron from the DA$\\Phi$NE Linac on a target. The collaboration aims at reaching a sensitivity of $\\sim10^{-3}$ on the coupling constant for values of Dark Photon masses up to $23.7\\,\\mbox{MeV}$.

  15. User Experience in Digital Games: Differences between Laboratory and Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatalo, Jari; Hakkinen, Jukka; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Nyman, Gote

    2011-01-01

    Playing entertainment computer, video, and portable games, namely, digital games, is receiving more and more attention in academic research. Games are studied in different situations with numerous methods, but little is known about if and how the playing situation affects the user experience (UX) in games. In addition, it is hard to understand and…

  16. Laboratory experiments of bucket foundations under cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This report collects information on the experimental campaign concerning bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading conducted by the authors between 2011 and 2014. The report includes a step by step manual on the test procedures and a number of information and graphs for each experiment. In ...

  17. Ion Exchange Chromatography and Spectrophotometry: An Introductory Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, N.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which students use ion exchange chromatography to separate a mixture of chloro complexes of transition metal ions and then use spectrophotometry to define qualitatively the efficiency of the ion exchange columns. Background information, materials needed, and procedures used are included. (JN)

  18. Unveiling the curtain of superposition: Recent gedanken and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E.; Elitzur, A. C.

    2017-08-01

    What is the true meaning of quantum superposition? Can a particle genuinely reside in several places simultaneously? These questions lie at the heart of this paper which presents an updated survey of some important stages in the evolution of the three-boxes paradox, as well as novel conclusions drawn from it. We begin with the original thought experiment of Aharonov and Vaidman, and proceed to its non-counterfactual version. The latter was recently realized by Okamoto and Takeuchi using a quantum router. We then outline a dynamic version of this experiment, where a particle is shown to “disappear” and “re-appear” during the time evolution of the system. This surprising prediction based on self-cancellation of weak values is directly related to our notion of Quantum Oblivion. Finally, we present the non-counterfactual version of this disappearing-reappearing experiment. Within the near future, this last version of the experiment is likely to be realized in the lab, proving the existence of exotic hitherto unknown forms of superposition. With the aid of Bell’s theorem, we prove the inherent nonlocality and nontemporality underlying such pre- and post-selected systems, rendering anomalous weak values ontologically real.

  19. Laboratory experiments of bucket foundations under cyclic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    This report collects information on the experimental campaign concerning bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading conducted by the authors between 2011 and 2014. The report includes a step by step manual on the test procedures and a number of information and graphs for each experiment. In addition, all the tests performed with the relevant features are listed.

  20. Millikan Oil-Drop Experiment in the Introductory Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Mark A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses a simplified Millikan oil-drop experiment which emphasizes the enplanation of basic concepts in mechanics and electrostatics, the use of home-made apparatus, the request for an individual's observation of his own drop, and the application of statistical analysis in data interpretation. (CC)

  1. Maximizing the DUNE early physics output with current experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Monojit; Goswami, Srubabati [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); Raut, Sushant K. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); School of Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology-AlbaNova University Center, Department of Theoretical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    The deep underground neutrino experiment (DUNE) is a proposed next generation superbeam experiment at Fermilab. Its aims include measuring the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters - the neutrino mass hierarchy, the octant of the mixing angle θ{sub 23}, and the CP-violating phase δ{sub CP}. The current and upcoming experiments T2K, NOνA, and ICAL rate at IN will also be collecting data for the same measurements. In this paper, we explore the sensitivity reach of DUNE in combination with these other experiments. We evaluate the least exposure required by DUNE to determine the above three unknown parameters with reasonable confidence.We find that for each case, the inclusion of data from T2K, NOνA, and ICAL rate at IN help to achieve the same sensitivity with a reduced exposure from DUNE thereby helping to economize the configuration. Further, we quantify the effect of the proposed near detector on systematic errors and study the consequent improvement in sensitivity. We also examine the role played by the second oscillation cycle in furthering the physics reach of DUNE. Finally, we present an optimization study of the neutrino-antineutrino running of DUNE. (orig.)

  2. The VASIMR[registered trademark] VF-200-1 ISS Experiment as a Laboratory for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover Tim W.; Squire, Jared P.; Longmier, Benjamin; Cassady, Leonard; Ilin, Andrew; Carter, Mark; Olsen, Chris S.; McCaskill, Greg; Diaz, Franklin Chang; Girimaji, Sharath; hide

    2010-01-01

    The VASIMR[R] Flight Experiment (VF-200-1) will be tested in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in about four years. It will consist of two 100 kW parallel plasma engines with opposite magnetic dipoles, resulting in a near zero-torque magnetic system. Electrical energy will come from ISS at low power level, be stored in batteries and used to fire the engine at 200 kW. The VF-200-1 project will provide a unique opportunity on the ISS National Laboratory for astrophysicists and space physicists to study the dynamic evolution of an expanding and reconnecting plasma loop. Here, we review the status of the project and discuss our current plans for computational modeling and in situ observation of a dynamic plasma loop on an experimental platform in low-Earth orbit. The VF-200-1 project is still in the early stages of development and we welcome new collaborators.

  3. The LINC-NIRVANA high layer wavefront sensor laboratory experiment: progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianyu; Conrad, Albert R.; Meschke, Daniel; Bertram, Thomas; Herbst, Thomas M.; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Bizenberger, Peter; Gaessler, Wolfgang; Schreiber, Laura; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Kuerster, Martin; De Bonis, Fulvio; Mohr, Lars; Farinato, Jacopo; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Rix, Hans-Walter; Rao, Changhui; Briegel, Florian; Kittmann, Frank; Berwein, Juergen; Trowitzsch, Jan; Brangier, Matthieu

    2012-07-01

    LINC-NIRVANA is a near infrared interferometric imager with a pair of layer-oriented multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems (ground layer and high layer) for the Large Binocular Telescope. To prepare for the commissioning of LINC-NIRVANA, we have integrated the high layer wavefront sensor and its associated deformable mirror (a Xinetics-349) in a laboratory, located at Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, in Heidelberg, Germany. Together with a telescope simulator, which includes a rotating field and phase screens that introduce the effects of the atmosphere, we tested the acquisition of multiple guide stars, calibrating the system with the push-pull method, and characterizing the wavefront sensor together with the deformable mirror. We have closed the AO loop with up to 200 Zernike modes and with multiple guide stars. The AO correction demonstrated that uniform correction can be achieved in a large field of view. We report the current status and results of the experiment.

  4. Serratia Infections: from Military Experiments to Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlen, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Serratia species, in particular Serratia marcescens, are significant human pathogens. S. marcescens has a long and interesting taxonomic, medical experimentation, military experimentation, and human clinical infection history. The organisms in this genus, particularly S. marcescens, were long thought to be nonpathogenic. Because S. marcescens was thought to be a nonpathogen and is usually red pigmented, the U.S. military conducted experiments that attempted to ascertain the spread of this organism released over large areas. In the process, members of both the public and the military were exposed to S. marcescens, and this was uncovered by the press in the 1970s, leading to U.S. congressional hearings. S. marcescens was found to be a certain human pathogen by the mid-1960s. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens have been isolated as causative agents of numerous outbreaks and opportunistic infections, and the association of these organisms with point sources such as medical devices and various solutions given to hospitalized patients is striking. Serratia species appear to be common environmental organisms, and this helps to explain the large number of nosocomial infections due to these bacteria. Since many nosocomial infections are caused by multiply antibiotic-resistant strains of S. marcescens, this increases the danger to hospitalized patients, and hospital personnel should be vigilant in preventing nosocomial outbreaks due to this organism. S. marcescens, and probably other species in the genus, carries several antibiotic resistance determinants and is also capable of acquiring resistance genes. S. marcescens and S. liquefaciens are usually identified well in the clinical laboratory, but the other species are rare enough that laboratory technologists may not recognize them. 16S rRNA gene sequencing may enable better identification of some of the less common Serratia species. PMID:21976608

  5. Laboratory: Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Rheology in Context of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernengo, Jennifer; Purdy, Caitlin; Farrell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a biomedical engineering experiment that introduces students to rheology. Healthy and sickle-cell blood analogs are prepared that are composed of chitosan particles suspended in aqueous glycerol solutions, which substitute for RBCs and plasma, respectively. Students study flow properties of the blood analogs with a viscometer…

  6. Laboratory: Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Teaching Fundamental Concepts of Rheology in Context of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernengo, Jennifer; Purdy, Caitlin; Farrell, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a biomedical engineering experiment that introduces students to rheology. Healthy and sickle-cell blood analogs are prepared that are composed of chitosan particles suspended in aqueous glycerol solutions, which substitute for RBCs and plasma, respectively. Students study flow properties of the blood analogs with a viscometer…

  7. The Heavy Photon Search experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Napoli Marzio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many beyond Standard Model theories predict a new massive gauge boson, aka “dark” or “heavy photon”, directly coupling to hidden sector particles with dark charge. The heavy photon is expected to mix with the Standard Model photon through kinetic mixing and therefore couple weakly to normal charge. The Heavy Photon Search (HPS experiment will search for the heavy photon at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab, in the mass range 20-1000 MeV/c2 and coupling to electric charge ϵ2 = α′/α in the range 10−5 to 10−10. HPS will look for the e+e− decay channel of heavy photons radiated by electron Bremsstrahlung, employing both invariant mass search and detached vertexing techniques. The experiment employs a compact forward spectrometer comprising silicon microstrip detectors for vertexing and tracking and an electromagnetic calorimeter for particle identification and triggering.

  8. Experimenting with Impacts in a Conceptual Physics or Descriptive Astronomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and…

  9. Responses to Anomalous Data Obtained from Repeatable Experiments in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jer-Yann

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible responses to anomalous data obtained from experiments that are repeatable by carrying out additional or alternative experiments in the laboratory. Based on an analysis of responses from scientists to anomalous data taken from identification experiments on the Vinland Map, it was assumed…

  10. Does Competition Enhance Performance or Cheating? A Laboratory Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Schwieren, Christiane; Weichselbaumer, Doris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally test whether competing for a desired reward does not only affect individuals’ performance, but also their tendency to cheat. Recent doping scandals in sports as well as forgery and plagiarism scandals in academia have been partially explained by „competitive pressures“, which suggests a link between competition and cheating. In our experiment subjects conduct a task where they have the possibility to make use of illegitimate tools to better their results. We fi...

  11. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  12. The Synthesis of a Cockroach Pheromone: An Experiment for the Second-Year Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Patty L.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment describes the synthesis of gentisyl quinone isovalerate, or blattellaquinone, a sex pheromone of the German cockroach that was isolated and identified in 2005. The synthesis is appropriate for the second semester of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course. It can be completed in two, three-hour laboratory periods and uses…

  13. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  14. Combustion and Energy Transfer Experiments: A Laboratory Model for Linking Core Concepts across the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Jose C.; Dubetz, Terry A.; Schmidt, Diane L.; Isern, Sharon; Beatty, Thomas; Brown, David W.; Gillman, Edward; Alberte, Randall S.; Egiebor, Nosa O.

    2007-01-01

    Core concepts can be integrated throughout lower-division science and engineering courses by using a series of related, cross-referenced laboratory experiments. Starting with butane combustion in chemistry, the authors expanded the underlying core concepts of energy transfer into laboratories designed for biology, physics, and engineering. This…

  15. Screening for Saponins Using the Blood Hemolysis Test. An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotheeswaran, Subramaniam

    1988-01-01

    Describes an experiment for undergraduate chemistry laboratories involving a chemical found in plants and some sea animals. Discusses collection and identification of material, a hemolysis test, preparation of blood-coated agar plates, and application of samples. (CW)

  16. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: I. Fundamentals and Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The fundamentals, as well as the instrumentation of the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique that is used in an undergraduate laboratory experiment are being described. The QCM response can be easily used to change the properties of any system.

  17. An educational physics laboratory experiment for directly measuring the speed of light

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Lyutskanov; Peicho Popov; Krassimira Kardjilova; Vladimir Pulov; Mariela Mihova

    2010-01-01

    With the aid of modern electronics the speed of light was directly measured by timing the delay of a light pulse from a laser in reflecting from a mirror in experiment performed in educational Physics Laboratory.

  18. The work of fault growth in laboratory sandbox experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Justin W.; Cooke, Michele L.; Souloumiac, Pauline; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Mary, Baptiste C. L.; Maillot, Bertrand

    2015-12-01

    Contractional sandbox experiments that simulate crustal accretion and direct shear tests both provide direct data on the amount of work required to create faults (Wprop) in granular materials. Measurements of force changes associated with faulting reveal the work consumed by fault growth, which can be used to predict fault growth path and timing. Within the contractional experiments, the sequence and style of early faulting is consistent for the range of sand pack thicknesses tested, from 12 to 30 mm. Contrary to expectations that Wprop is only a material property, the experimental data show that for the same material, Wprop increases with sand pack thickness. This normal stress dependence stems from the frictional nature of granular materials. With the same static and sliding friction values, incipient faults initiated deeper in the sand pack have larger shear stress drops, due to increased normal compression, σn. For CV32 sand, the relationship between Wprop and σn, calculated from the force drop data as Wprop (J/m2) = 2.0 ×10-4 (m)σn (Pa), is consistent with the relationship calculated from direct shear test data as Wprop (J/m2) = 2.4 ×10-4 (m)σn (Pa). Testing of different materials within the contractional sandbox (fine sand and glass beads) shows the sensitivity of Wprop to material properties. Both material properties and normal stress should be considered in calculations of the work consumed by fault growth in both analog experiments and crustal fault systems.

  19. A laboratory experiment on coupled non-identical pendulums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Ang; Zeng Jingyi; Yang Hujiang; Xiao Jinghua, E-mail: yanghj@bupt.edu.cn, E-mail: jhxiao@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, coupled pendulums with different lengths are studied. Through steel magnets, each pendulum is coupled with others, and a stepping motor is used to drive the whole system. To record the data automatically, we designed a data acquisition system with a CCD camera connected to a computer. The coupled system shows in-phase, locked-phase and anti-phase synchronizations when the driving frequency and the coupling strength are changed. With background knowledge from general physics and the simplicity of the equipment, this experiment is easy to implement and would be of interest to undergraduate students.

  20. Subpicosecond compression experiments at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Russell, S.J.; Kinross-Wright, J.M. [and others

    1995-09-01

    The authors report on recent experiments using a magnetic chicane compressor at 8 MeV. Electron bunches at both low (0.1 nC) and high (1 nC) charges were compressed from 20 ps to less than 1 ps (FWHM). A transverse deflecting rf cavity was used to measure the bunch length at low charge; the bunch length at high charge was inferred from an induced energy spread of the beam. The longitudinal centrifugal-space charge force is calculated using a point-to-point numerical simulation and is shown not to influence the energy-spread measurement.

  1. EM techniques for archaeological laboratory experiments: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; De Martino, Gregory; Giampaolo, Valeria; Raffaele, Luongo; Perciante, Felice; Rizzo, Enzo

    2015-04-01

    The electromagnetic techniques (EM) are based on the investigation of subsoil geophysical parameters and in the archaeological framework they involve in studying contrasts between the buried cultural structures and the surrounding materials. Unfortunately, the geophysical contrast between archaeological features and surrounding soils sometimes are difficult to define due to problems of sensitivity and resolution both related on the characteristic of the subsoil and the geophysical methods. For this reason an experimental activity has been performed in the Hydrogeosite laboratory addressed on the assessment of the capability of geophysical techniques to detect archeological remains placed in the humid/saturated subsoil. At Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA, a large scale sand-box is located, consisting on a pool shape structures of 230m3 where archaeological remains have been installed . The remains are relative to a living environment and burial of Roman times (walls, tombs, roads, harbour, etc.) covered by sediments. In order to simulate lacustrine and wetland condition and to simulate extreme events (for example underwater landslide, fast natural erosion coast, etc.) the phreatic level was varied and various acquisitions for the different scenarios were performed. In order to analyze the EM behavior of the buried small archaeological framework, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomographies were performed. With GPR, analysis in time domain and frequency domain were performed and coupled to information obtained through resistivity analysis with the support of numerical simulations used to compare the real data with those modeled. A dense grid was adopted for 400 and 900 MHz e-m acquisitions in both the directions, the maximum depth of investigation was limited and less than 3 meters. The same approach was used for ERT acquisition where different array are employed, in particular 3D configuration was used to carry out a 3D resistivity

  2. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  3. Monitoring of biogas plants - experiences in laboratory and full scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Habermann

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To control and regulate the biogas process there are online process parameters and offline process parameters, which basically don’t differ between pilot biogas plants and industrial biogas plants. Generally, temperature, pH-value, volume flow rate and sometimes redox potential are measured online. An online-measurement of the dissolved volatile fatty acids and an online-detection of dissolved hydrogen both directly in the liquid phase as well as near-infrared spectroscopy are under development. FOS/TAC-analysis is the most common offline-analysis of the biogas process and normally it is carried out by the plant operator directly at the biogas plant. For example dry matter, organic dry matter, nitrogen and fatty acids are other analyses, which are carried out but by a laboratory. Microbiological analyses of biogas plants are very expensive and time-consuming and are therefore in Germany very rare. Microbiological analyses are mainly for research purposes. For example the Fluorescence in situ Hybridiation (FISH is used for characterization of the populations. Electric-optical measurement should be established as a new method to investigate the vitality of the methane producing microorganisms. In a cooperation project, which is promoted by the German ministry for technology, between IASP and Chair of Bioprocess Engineering at TU Berlin, this method is proper investigated using a device from the firm EloSystems. The microorganisms are brought in an electrical field of different frequencies. In this field the microorganisms direct themselves differently according to their physiological state. At the end of this project an early detection of process disturbance will be possible with the help of this method. In this presentation the result of the first tests are presented.

  4. The Heavy Photon Search experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Napoli, Marzio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Catania (Italy). Lab. et al.

    2015-06-01

    Many beyond Standard Model theories predict a new massive gauge boson, a.k.a. 'dark' or 'heavy photon', directly coupling to hidden sector particles with dark charge. The heavy photon is expected to mix with the Standard Model photon through kinetic mixing and therefore couple weakly to normal charge. The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment will search for the heavy photon at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), in the mass range 20-1000 MeV/c2 and coupling to electric charge ϵ2 = α'/α in the range 10-5 to 10-10. HPS will look for the e+e- decay channel of heavy photons radiated by electron Bremsstrahlung, employing both invariant mass search and detached vertexing techniques. The experiment employs a compact forward spectrometer comprising silicon microstrip detectors for vertexing and tracking and an electromagnetic calorimeter for particle identification and triggering.

  5. From laboratory experiments to LISA Pathfinder: achieving LISA geodesic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Giardini, D.; Gibert, F.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the performance of the upcoming LISA Pathfinder geodesic explorer mission. The findings are based on the results of extensive ground testing and simulation campaigns using flight hardware, flight control and operations algorithms. The results show that, for the central experiment of measuring the stray differential acceleration between the LISA test masses, LISA Pathfinder will be able to verify the overall acceleration noise to within a factor 2 of the LISA requirement at 1 mHz and within a factor 6 at 0.1 mHz. We also discuss the key elements of the physical model of disturbances, coming from LISA Pathfinder and ground measurement that will guarantee the LISA performance.

  6. From laboratory experiments to LISA Pathfinder: achieving LISA geodesic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonucci, F; Cavalleri, A; Congedo, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Armano, M [European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Audley, H; Bogenstahl, J [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Auger, G; Binetruy, P [APC UMR7164, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Boatella, C [CNES, DCT/AQ/EC, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse, Cedex 9 (France); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Brandt, N [Astrium GmbH Claude-Dornier-Strasse, 88090 Immenstaad (Germany); Caleno, M; Cesa, M [European Space Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Chmeissani, M [IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ciani, G [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Conchillo, A [ICE-CSIC/IEEC, Facultat de Ciencies, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Cruise, M, E-mail: Stefano.Vitale@unitn.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-07

    This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the performance of the upcoming LISA Pathfinder geodesic explorer mission. The findings are based on the results of extensive ground testing and simulation campaigns using flight hardware, flight control and operations algorithms. The results show that, for the central experiment of measuring the stray differential acceleration between the LISA test masses, LISA Pathfinder will be able to verify the overall acceleration noise to within a factor 2 of the LISA requirement at 1 mHz and within a factor 6 at 0.1 mHz. We also discuss the key elements of the physical model of disturbances, coming from LISA Pathfinder and ground measurement that will guarantee the LISA performance.

  7. From laboratory experiments to LISA Pathfinder: achieving LISA geodesic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Antonucci, F; Audley, H; Auger, G; Benedetti, M; Binetruy, P; Boatella, C; Bogenstahl, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Brandt, N; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesa, M; Chmeissani, M; Ciani, G; Conchillo, A; Congedo, G; Cristofolini, I; Cruise, M; Danzmann, K; De Marchi, F; Diaz-Aguilo, M; Diepholz, I; Dixon, G; Dolesi, R; Dunbar, N; Fauste, J; Ferraioli, L; Fertin, D; Fichter, W; Fitzsimons, E; Freschi, M; Marin, A García; Marirrodriga, C García; Gerndt, R; Gesa, L; Giardini, D; Gibert, F; Grimani, C; Grynagier, A; Guillaume, B; Guzmán, F; Harrison, I; Heinzel, G; Hewitson, M; Hollington, D; Hough, J; Hoyland, D; Hueller, M; Huesler, J; Jeannin, O; Jennrich, O; Jetzer, P; Johlander, B; Killow, C; Llamas, X; Lloro, I; Lobo, A; Maarschalkerweerd, R; Madden, S; Mance, D; Mateos, I; McNamara, P W; Mendestì, J; Mitchell, E; Monsky, A; Nicolini, D; Nicolodi, D; Nofrarias, M; Pedersen, F; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Perreca, A; Plagnol, E; Prat, P; Racca, G D; Rais, B; Ramos-Castro, J; Reiche, J; Perez, J A Romera; Robertson, D; Rozemeijer, H; Sanjuan, J; Schleicher, A; Schulte, M; Shaul, D; Stagnaro, L; Strandmoe, S; Steier, F; Sumner, T J; Taylor, A; Texier, D; Trenkel, C; Tombolato, D; Vitale, S; Wanner, G; Ward, H; Waschke, S; Wass, P; Weber, W J; Zweifel, P

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the performance of the upcoming LISA Pathfinder geodesic explorer mission. The findings are based on the results of extensive ground testing and simulation campaigns using flight hardware and flight control and operations algorithms. The results show that, for the central experiment of measuring the stray differential acceleration between the LISA test masses, LISA Pathfinder will be able to verify the overall acceleration noise to within a factor two of the LISA requirement at 1 mHz and within a factor 10 at 0.1 mHz. We also discuss the key elements of the physical model of disturbances, coming from LISA Pathfinder and ground measurement, that will guarantee the LISA performance.

  8. [The experiments with laboratory animals from a bioethical point of view--history, modern time, perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaladze, R A

    2004-01-01

    The origin of laboratory animal science was called forth by violent development of experimental biology and medicine in the XIX century on the one hand, and on the other hand by the necessity to have standard healthy animals for experiments with strictly definite biological characteristics. With this aim in view management technology and animal use in experiments have been constantly improved. "Laboratory animal" notion has been formed by the end of the XIX century. At the beginning of laboratory animal science development ethical problems were not as urgent as they are now. It is established that the three Rs bioethical conception of W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch (1959) has influence on modern state and perspectives of the development of animal experimental methods. It is shown that the existence of laboratory animal protection laws and the reflection in them of compulsory ethical review of scientific project and statistics of used laboratory animals is absolutely necessary.

  9. Laboratory Experiments on Enhanced Oil Recovery with Nitrogen Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siregar

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies, nitrogen injection could recover oil up to 45-90% of initial reserves. Although this method has a very good ability to produce oil, sometimes the operation pressure is higher than leak off formation pressure. In this study, operation pressure used a low pressure to solve this problem under immiscible process. Objective of this study is to determine the effect of injection pressure and displacement rate on oil recovery performance of continuous one dimensional nitrogen gas injection with a slim tube apparatus. The effect of nitrogen gas-oil contact on the gas composition was investigated using Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer apparatus. In the experiments, nitrogen gas was injected into an oil sample of 38.5 oAPI gravity at various rates: 20 cc/hr, 30 cc/hr and 36.66/hr under 1500 psi pressure, and then at 20 cc/hr undr 2500 psi pressure. The results showed that an increase in injection rate increased oil recovery factor. The recovery factor lies between 40-54% of original oil in place. Gas analysis before injection and at the injection outlet showed a change of composition. when oil was contacted by nitrogen, indicating that some molecular mass transfer had taken place.

  10. Experience with current multiaxial diagnostic systems: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastrup, Marianne

    2002-01-01

    It is difficult to capture the complexity of the psychiatric condition with a single diagnostic category, and a multiaxial approach provides a more comprehensive picture of the current disorder. The WPA section on classification has developed a multiaxial schema based on the ICD-10 family of classifications. Four axes are proposed. Axis I: on clinical disorders; axis II: on disabilities; axis III: on contextual factors, and axis IV: on quality of life. Even though the multiaxial approach has been widely taught and surveys report on its international acceptability, daily use by clinicians of the 'non-diagnostic' axes have till now been limited, despite expressed interest by the very same clinicians. The multiaxial formulation is still developing and transcultural experiences need to be gained.

  11. Closing the loop on improvement: Packaging experience in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waligora, Sharon R.; Landis, Linda C.; Doland, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its award-winning software process improvement program, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has developed an effective method for packaging organizational best practices based on real project experience into useful handbooks and training courses. This paper shares the SEL's experience over the past 12 years creating and updating software process handbooks and training courses. It provides cost models and guidelines for successful experience packaging derived from SEL experience.

  12. Investigating the Impacts of Previous and Current Learning Experiences on Student Teachers' Teaching Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögeyik, Muhlise Cosgun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impacts of the previous and current learning experiences of the student teachers on their microteaching practices. The study pursued threefold research goals: to diagnose the microteaching stance, to treat it, and to explore and evaluate the progress. The participants were 24 undergraduate third year student teachers…

  13. Oscillating load-induced acoustic emission in laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, Alexander; Lockner, David A.; Stroganova, S.; Stanchits, S.; Smirnov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of acoustic emission (AE) were studied. A pre-fractured cylinder of granite was loaded in a triaxial machine at 160 MPa confining pressure until stick-slip events occurred. The experiments were conducted at a constant strain rate of 10−7 s−1 that was modulated by small-amplitude sinusoidal oscillations with periods of 175 and 570 seconds. Amplitude of the oscillations was a few percent of the total load and was intended to simulate periodic loading observed in nature (e.g., earth tides or other sources). An ultrasonic acquisition system with 13 piezosensors recorded acoustic emissions that were generated during deformation of the sample. We observed a correlation between AE response and sinusoidal loading. The effect was more pronounced for higher frequency of the modulating force. A time-space spectral analysis for a “point” process was used to investigate details of the periodic AE components. The main result of the study was the correlation of oscillations of acoustic activity synchronized with the applied oscillating load. The intensity of the correlated AE activity was most pronounced in the “aftershock” sequences that followed large-amplitude AE events. We suggest that this is due to the higher strain-sensitivity of the failure area when the sample is in a transient, unstable mode. We also found that the synchronization of AE activity with the oscillating external load nearly disappeared in the period immediately after the stick-slip events and gradually recovered with further loading.

  14. New Titan Saltation Threshold Experiments: Investigating Current and Past Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.; Burr, D. M.; Marshall, J.; Smith, J. K.; Emery, J. P.; Horst, S. M.; Nield, E.; Yu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Titan exhibits aeolian sand dunes that cover ~20% of its surface, attesting to significant sediment transport by the wind. Recent experiments in the Titan Wind Tunnel (TWT) at NASA Ames Research Center [1,2] found that the threshold friction speed needed to detach Titanian "sand" is about 50% higher than previous estimates based on theory alone [3], a result that might be explained by the low ratio of particle to fluid density on the body [1]. Following the successful completion of the initial Titan threshold tests, we are conducting new experiments that expand the pressure range above and below current Titan values. The basic experimental techniques are described in [1], with minor updates to the instrumentation as described in [2]. To reproduce the kinematic viscosity and particle friction Reynolds number equivalent to that expected for Titan's nitrogen atmosphere at 1.4 bars and 94 K requires that TWT be pressurized to 12.5 bars for air at 293K. In addition to running experiments at this pressure to reproduce previous results [1] and investigate low density (high density ratio) materials, TWT pressures of 3 and 8 bars are in the experimental matrix to understand threshold under past Titan conditions when the atmospheric pressure may have been lower [4]. Higher pressures, at 15 and 20 bars in TWT, are also being run to understand the putative effects of low density ratio conditions. Our experimental matrix for this follow-on work uses some of the same materials as previously used, including walnut shells, basalt, quartz, glass spheres, and various low density materials to better simulate the gravity-equivalent weight of Titan sand. For these experiments, the TWT is now equipped with a new high pressure Tavis transducer with sufficient sensitivity to measure freestream speeds of less than 0.5 m s-1 at 12.5 bars. New techniques include video documentation of the experiments. We are also investigating methods of measuring humidity of the wind tunnel environment and

  15. The SNO+ experiment. Current status and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozza, Valentina [Institut fuer Kern- und Teilchenphysik, Zellescher Weg 19, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator based experiment that reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector. The detector, located 2 km underground in a mine near Sudbury, Canada, consists of a 12 m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with 780 tonnes of liquid scintillator. The main physics goal of SNO+ is to search for the neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decay of {sup 130}Te. During the double-beta phase, the liquid scintillator will be initially loaded with 0.3-0.5% natural tellurium. In 5 years of data taking, SNO+ expects to reach a sensitivity on the effective Majorana neutrino mass of 55-133 meV, just above the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy region. Recently, the possibility to deploy up to 10 times more natural tellurium has been investigated, by which SNO+ could explore deep into the parameter space for the inverted hierarchy in the near future. Designed as a general purpose neutrino experiment, SNO+ can additionally measure the reactor antineutrino oscillations, geo-neutrinos in a geologically-interesting location, watch supernova neutrinos and measure low-energy solar neutrinos. A first commissioning phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon. The scintillator phase is expected to start after few months of water data taking. The 0νββ decay phase is foreseen for the 2017. In this talk the current status and the broad physics program of SNO+ will be presented.

  16. Aquifer recharge with reclaimed water in the Llobregat Delta. Laboratory batch experiments and field test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobella, J.

    2010-05-01

    on the conditions to develop at the test site during artificial recharge. The data collected during the laboratory experiments and in the test site will be used to build and calibrate a numerical model of the physical-chemical-biochemical processes developing in the batches and of multicomponent reactive transport in the unsaturated/saturated zone in the test site area. 3. Field test site The infiltration site of Sant Vicenç dels Horts has been selected to assessing the biogeochemical processes occurring during SAT. The system consists of two ponds that have been built as compensatory measure for the reduction in natural recharge caused by the construction of the High Speed Train Line. The first pond acts as a decantation pond while the second one acts as an infiltration basin (Figure 1). Recharge water comes from the tertiary treatment plant of the El Prat de Llobregat WWTP and the river (?). The CUADLL (Lower Llobregat Aquifer End-Users Community) is now managing the system operation. Tasks that are currently being carried out at this Test Site aims at (i) improving the local experience on MAR through infiltration ponds operational aspects and (ii) monitoring the changes in water quality during the recharge processes (unsaturated and saturated zone). Special attention is being paid to the fate of emerging organic pollutants (pharmaceuticals, surfactants, pesticides, etc.). The yielding of the monitoring will be compared with the results from the laboratory batch experiments on the behaviour of selected emerging organic pollutants. To this end, observation wells have been constructed, pressure / temperature / electrical conductivity transducers have been installed and the vadose zone under the infiltration pond has been instrumented (tensiometers, water content probes and suction cups). In addition double ring and infiltration tests have been performed in order to forecast the infiltration capacity of the basin.

  17. Recording the PHILAE Touchdown using CASSE: Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapmeyer, Martin; Faber, Claudia; Tune, Jean-Baptiste; Arnold, Walter; Witte, Lars; Schröder, Silvio; Roll, Reinhard; Chares, Bernd; Fischer, Hans-Herbert; Möhlmann, Diedrich; Seidensticker, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The landing of Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is scheduled for November 11, 2014. Its landing feet house the triaxial acceleration sensors of CASSE (Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment) which will thus be the first sensors to be in mechanical contact with the cometary surface. It is planned that CASSE will be in listening mode to record the deceleration of the lander by the collision with the comet. The analysis of this data will not only support an engineering analysis of the landing process itself but also yield information about the mechanical properties of the comet's surface. Here, we describe a series of controlled landings of a lander model. The tests were conducted in the Landing & Mobility Test Facility (LAMA) of the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, where an industrial robot can be programmed to move landers or rovers along predefined paths and under simulated low gravity. The qualification model of the Philae landing gear was used in the tests. It consists of three legs manufactured of carbon fiber and metal joints. Attached to each leg is a foot with two soles and a mechanically driven ice screw to secure the lander on the comet. The right one of these soles, if viewed from the outside towards the lander body, houses a Brüel & Kjaer DeltaTron 4506 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometer as used on the spacecraft. Orientation of the three axes was such that the X-axis of the accelerometer points downwards while the Y and Z axes are horizontal. This somewhat uncommon orientation was necessary due to the position of the electric connector on the 4506. Data was recorded at a sampling rate of 8.2 kHz for a duration of 2 s. Touchdown measurements were conducted on three types of ground with different landing velocities. Landings with low velocities were carried out on the concrete floor of the LAMA to determine the stiffness of the landing gear based on the deceleration data measured with the accelerometer. Landings on fine

  18. Space Weathering Effects on Sulfates and Carbonates: Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Catherine; Bu, Caixia; Rodriguez lopez, Gerard; McFadden, Lucy Ann; Li, Jian-Yang; Ruesch, Ottaviano

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: The solar wind plasma continuously streams from the Sun, interacting with the surfaces of airless bodies throughout the solar system. Sulfates and carbonates, identified by the UV-Vis spectral slope [1] and 3.4 / 4.0 μm absorption features [2] on the surface of Ceres, will be exposed to solar H, He at ~1keV/amu. We investigate the stability of anhydrous salts under 4 keV He+ irradiation as proxy for the solar wind.Experiment: Anhydrous MgSO4, Na2SO4, and Na2CO3 powders are pressed into pellets, with compositions confirmed by XRD. Pellet samples are placed in ultra-high vacuum (10-9 Torr) and the effects of 4keV He+ irradiation on surface composition and chemistry are monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy, as a function of ion fluence. We measure ex situ diffuse optical reflectance prior and subsequent to irradiation through ranges 0.2-2.5µm (Lambda 1050) and 0.6-10µm (Thermo Nicolet 670).Results: Ion irradiation of MgSO4 damages the crystal structure, preferentially removing oxygen along with sulfur. XPS measurements imply the formation of MgO after 5x1017 He+cm-2 (~15,000 years at 2.7AU). During irradiation, we observe secondary ion ejection (Mg, MgO, O, OH, H, S, and SO) and neutral SO2. In addition, XPS sulfur spectra suggest the presence of a small amount of trapped SO2, confirming this decomposition product observed in the optical UV spectra at ~240 and 280nm [3,4] with dehydration, as well as in the IR at ~7.8μm [5] with irradiation. Our observations are consistent with the potential decomposition pathway for MgSO4 to SO2 provided by McCord et al. (2001) [6]. Spectral darkening and reddening in the UV-Vis region after irradiation are observed by ex situ optical spectroscopy. We suggest that space weathering by solar ions limits the stability of salts on Ceres and other airless bodies, which influences the optical reflectance.Acknowledgements: We thank the NASA SSW program for support

  19. Detecting Tsunami Source Energy and Scales from GNSS & Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y. T.; Yim, S. C.; Mohtat, A.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, tsunami warnings based on the earthquake magnitude have not been very accurate. According to the 2006 U.S. Government Accountability Office report, an unacceptable 75% false alarm rate has prevailed in the Pacific Ocean (GAO-06-519). One of the main reasons for those inaccurate warnings is that an earthquake's magnitude is not the scale or power of the resulting tsunami. For the last 10 years, we have been developing both theories and algorithms to detect tsunami source energy and scales, instead of earthquake magnitudes per se, directly from real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) stations along coastlines for early warnings [Song 2007; Song et al., 2008; Song et al., 2012; Xu and Song 2013; Titov et al, 2016]. Here we will report recent progress on two fronts: 1) Examples of using GNSS in detecting the tsunami energy scales for the 2004 Sumatra M9.1 earthquake, the 2005 Nias M8.7 earthquake, the 2010 M8.8 Chilean earthquake, the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, and the 2015 M8.3 Illapel earthquake. 2) New results from recent state-of-the-art wave-maker experiments and comparisons with GNSS data will also be presented. Related reference: Titov, V., Y. T. Song, L. Tang, E. N. Bernard, Y. Bar-Sever, and Y. Wei (2016), Consistent estimates of tsunami energy show promise for improved early warning, Pur Appl. Geophs., DOI: 10.1007/s00024-016-1312-1. Xu, Z. and Y. T. Song (2013), Combining the all-source Green's functions and the GPS-derived source for fast tsunami prediction - illustrated by the March 2011 Japan tsunami, J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., jtechD1200201. Song, Y. T., I. Fukumori, C. K. Shum, and Y. Yi (2012), Merging tsunamis of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake detected over the open ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2011GL050767. Song, Y. T., L.-L. Fu, V. Zlotnicki, C. Ji, V. Hjorleifsdottir, C.K. Shum, and Y. Yi, 2008: The role of horizontal impulses of the faulting continental slope in generating the 26 December 2004 Tsunami (2007

  20. Biological effects of an impulse current according to laboratory researches of electroshock devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal law "About Weapons" permits the use of electroshock devices if they are safe for people. We developed requirements for the procedure medical-biological testing on the safety of electroshock devices. We did an experimental study assessing medical-biological safety of electroshock devices. The assessment is based on a point system, which use ranges of biological effects. The experiments were performed in rabbits. We used 13 electroshock devices with different characteristics. Electroshock devices were made in Russia. We found that the response of a biological object to inrush current included convulsions, respiratory and cardiac activity. We analyzed the biological effects of pulsed current electroshock device obtained in experimental conditions. It is concluded that the characteristic clinical and physiological response to the action of electric current is pulsepolyparametric and depending on a combination of characteristics and condition of the electric impulse influence object.

  1. Educating Medical Laboratory Technologists: Revisiting Our Assumptions in the Current Economic and Health-Care Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Linder

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Health care occupies a distinct niche in an economy struggling to recover from recession. Professions related to the care of patients are thought to be relatively resistant to downturns, and thus become attractive to students typically drawn to more lucrative pursuits. Currently, a higher profile for clinical laboratory technology among college students and those considering career change results in larger and better prepared applicant pools. However, after decades of contraction marked by closing of programs, prospective students encounter an educational system without the capacity or vigor to meet their needs. Here discussed are some principles and proposals to allow universities, partnering with health-care providers, government agencies, and other stakeholders to develop new programs, or reenergize existing ones to serve our students and patients. Principles include academic rigor in biomedical and clinical science, multiple points of entry for students, flexibility in format, cost effectiveness, career ladders and robust partnerships.

  2. CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF THREE MILE ISLAND-2 CORE AND DEBRIS HANDLING AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, William Jonathan [Idaho National Laboratory; Braase, Lori Ann [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    Fuel recovery from severe accidents requires careful planning and execution. The Idaho National Laboratory played a key role in the Three Mile Island (TMI) fuel and core recovery. This involved technology development to locate and handle the damaged fuel; characterization of fuel and debris; analysis of fuel interaction with structural components and materials; development of fuel drying technology for long-term storage. However, one of the critical activities from the TMI project was the extensive effort document all the activities and archive the reports and photos. A historical review of the TMI project at the INL leads to the identification of current applications and considerations for facility designs, fuel handling, robotic applications, material characterization, etc.

  3. 78 FR 7795 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Executive Order 12564 and section 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace... Laboratory Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630 Laboratory...: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory) Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories, 110 West Cliff...

  4. 78 FR 46996 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs'', as... Laboratory Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630 Laboratory...: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory) Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories, 110 West Cliff...

  5. 78 FR 39757 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs'', as... Laboratory Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630 Laboratory...: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory) Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories, 110 West Cliff...

  6. 78 FR 72684 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory... Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725-2088 National...: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory...

  7. 76 FR 54477 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... 72209-7056, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center). Clinical...-5295/800-950-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1..., Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory). Pacific Toxicology Laboratories, 9348...

  8. 77 FR 26022 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ..., AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center...-5295/800-950-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1..., Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory). Pacific Toxicology Laboratories, 9348...

  9. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  10. Computation of Chemical Shifts for Paramagnetic Molecules: A Laboratory Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Benjamin P.; Simpson, Scott; Zurek, Eva; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    A computational experiment investigating the [superscript 1]H and [superscript 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of molecules with unpaired electrons has been developed and implemented. This experiment is appropriate for an upper-level undergraduate laboratory course in computational, physical, or inorganic chemistry. The…

  11. Computation of Chemical Shifts for Paramagnetic Molecules: A Laboratory Experiment for the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Benjamin P.; Simpson, Scott; Zurek, Eva; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    A computational experiment investigating the [superscript 1]H and [superscript 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of molecules with unpaired electrons has been developed and implemented. This experiment is appropriate for an upper-level undergraduate laboratory course in computational, physical, or inorganic chemistry. The…

  12. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  13. Laboratory Experiments on the Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment. Part 8. Microscale Simultaneous Photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Mena-Brito, Rodrigo; Fregoso-Infante, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    A microscale experiment in which the simultaneous oxidation of an organic compound and the reduction of a metal ion are photocatalytically performed in an aqueous slurry containing TiO[subscript 2] irradiated with UV light. This experiment can be performed in the laboratory session with simple chemicals and equipments.

  14. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm laboratory experiments : Data analysis and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; DAriano, M; Fei, SM; Haven, E; Hiesmayr, B; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Larsson, JA

    2012-01-01

    Data produced by laboratory Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB) experiments is tested against the hypothesis that the statistics of this data is given by quantum theory of this thought experiment. Statistical evidence is presented that the experimental data, while violating Bell inequalities, does n

  15. Cross-Disciplinary Thermoregulation and Sweat Analysis Laboratory Experiences for Undergraduate Chemistry and Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Gregory; Taylor, Nichole; Glen, Mary; Tomlin, Dona; Gaul, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-disciplinary (CD) learning experiences benefit student understanding of concepts and curriculum by offering opportunities to explore topics from the perspectives of alternate fields of study. This report involves a qualitative evaluation of CD health sciences undergraduate laboratory experiences in which concepts and students from two…

  16. An Enzymatic Clinical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment Incorporating an Introduction to Mathematical Method Comparison Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2004-01-01

    An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…

  17. Lysozyme Thermal Denaturation and Self-Interaction: Four Integrated Thermodynamic Experiments for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Schaefle, Nathaniel J.; Muth, Gregory W.; Miessler, Gary L.; Clark, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    As part of an effort to infuse our physical chemistry laboratory with biologically relevant, investigative experiments, we detail four integrated thermodynamic experiments that characterize the denaturation (or unfolding) and self-interaction of hen egg white lysozyme as a function of pH and ionic strength. Students first use Protein Explorer to…

  18. Discovering Inexpensive, Effective Catalysts for Solar Energy Conversion: An Authentic Research Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Sarah E.; Hooker, Paul D.; Nickel, Anne-Marie; Leichtfuss, Amanda R.; Adams, Carissa S.; de la Cerda, Dionisia; She, Yuqi; Gerken, James B.; Pokhrel, Ravi; Ambrose, Nicholas J.; Khaliqi, David; Stahl, Shannon S.; Schuttlefield Christus, Jennifer D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical water oxidation is a major focus of solar energy conversion efforts. A new laboratory experiment has been developed that utilizes real-time, hands-on research to discover catalysts for solar energy conversion. The HARPOON, or Heterogeneous Anodes Rapidly Perused for Oxygen Overpotential Neutralization, experiment allows an array of…

  19. Connecting Solubility, Equilibrium, and Periodicity in a Green, Inquiry Experiment for the General Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Amado, Jose; Evans, Jason J.; Sevian, Hannah

    2008-01-01

    We present a novel first-year chemistry laboratory experiment that connects solubility, equilibrium, and chemical periodicity concepts. It employs a unique format that asks students to replicate experiments described in different sample lab reports, each lacking some essential information, rather than follow a scripted procedure. This structure is…

  20. Thermodynamic Exploration of Eosin-Lysozyme Binding: A Physical Chemistry and Biochemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huisman, Andrew J.; Hartsell, Lydia R.; Krueger, Brent P.; Pikaart, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a modular pair of experiments for use in the undergraduate physical chemistry and biochemistry laboratories. Both experiments examine the thermodynamics of the binding of a small molecule, eosin Y, to the protein lysozyme. The assay for binding is the quenching of lysozyme fluorescence by eosin through resonant energy transfer. In…

  1. Surface river plume in a large lake under wind forcing: Observations and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchenko, Natalia; He, Cheng; Rao, Yerubandi R.; Valipour, Reza

    2017-10-01

    Observations of a small riverine plume (Grand River, ON) in the nearshore zones of Lake Erie were analyzed to describe its spatial variability and its thickness under different wind forcing conditions during late spring of 2012. Observational results reveal a well-marked frontal region in the vicinity of the river mouth, causing the plume to discharge into the lake in the surface layers (positive buoyant). Wind driven alongshore currents at the mid-depth had speeds of 2-9 cm/s, in comparison to those in the cross-shore 3-6 cm/s, which transported the plume along the shore during the measurement period. Series of laboratory experiments were conducted to obtain the propagation speed (U) of the buoyant plume in terms of buoyancy anomaly (Ba), Richardson number (Ri), dimensionless time (t‧), and aspect ratio (A). Based on our experiments, we developed two non-dimensional relationships describing the speed of propagation (U) as U/Ba1/2 = 8 Ri-1/2t‧1/3A and the plume thickness (h) as h/H = 0.8 Ri-1/4t‧1/2A in the water depth (H), which are in agreement with field observations.

  2. Reactive barrier system for nitrate removal from mine effluents in northern Sweden: Laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Roger

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory column experiments have been conducted to determine nitrate removal rates from mine effluents by denitrification, with the purpose of providing initial data for the construction of a pilot scale reactive barrier system at the Malmberget iron mine, Sweden. Experiments were conducted at several different flow rates at 5C, 10C and room temperature; annual mean temperatures at the Malmberget site lie close to 0C. Columns were filled with an organic substrate consisting of sawdust mixed with sewage sludge, the source of denitrifying bacteria, supported by oven-dried clay pellets. Apparent denitrification rates, calculated from inflow and outflow nitrate concentrations and column hydraulic residence time, ranged from 5 to 13 mg N/L/d, with the lowest rates corresponding to the 5C experiments. These rates are, however, limited to a certain degree by the low flow rate and the supply of electrons acceptors (i.e. nitrate) to denitrifying bacteria. Results from the column experiment have been used to construct a barrier system in Malmberget, Sweden. Trial runs with the pilot-scale barrier will be conducted during 2010, with the purpose of determining the performance of the barrier as mean air temperatures increase from below to above 0C and saturated flow commences in the barrier. The barrier system is constructed as a rectangular container with steel sheet walls (9m length in flow direction, 1.5m deep), and the flow rate will be adjusted to a hydraulic residence time of 1 day. The pilot-scale barrier system currently lies above ground, but a permanent barrier system would be installed below the ground surface so that the system can be maintained at positive temperatures throughout the year.

  3. Nonlinear effects on western boundary current structure and separation: a laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierini, S.; Falco, P.; Zambardino, G.; McClimans, T. A.; Ellingsen, I.

    2009-04-01

    The role played by nonlinear effects in shaping the structure of barotropic western boundary currents (WBCs) and in determining WBC separation from the coast has been investigated through laboratory simulations by means of the 5-m-diameter Coriolis rotating basin at SINTEF (Trondheim, Norway) in the framework of the HYDRALAB-III project. The laboratory setup consists of two parallel rectangular channels separated by an island and linked by two curved connections: in the first channel, a piston is forced at a constant speed U ranging from 0.05 to 3 cm/s over a distance of 2.5 m, producing a virtually unsheared current at the entrance of the second channel. In the latter, a linear reduction of the water depth provides the topographic beta-effect that produces the westward intensification. Nearly steady currents are obtained and measured photogrammetrically over a region of about 1 m2. The broad range of piston speeds permitted by the mechanical apparatus has allowed us to achieve an unprecedented coverage of the range of nonlinearity for WBCs in terms of experimental data, so that the cross-stream WBC profile could be analyzed from the nearly linear Munk-type case (e.g., for U=0.1 cm/s with T=30 s, where T is the rotation period of the basin) up to the more realistic highly nonlinear limit (particularly significant is the case U=1 cm/s and T=30 s, which is close to be dynamically similar to the Gulf Stream). Thanks to the large size of the rotating basin, cross-stream widths of the simulated WBC as large as 80 cm could be obtained. Moreover, in order to analyze the process of WBC separation, coastal variations have been introduced along the western boundary in the form of wedge-shaped continents with different coastline orientations, whose northern limit corresponds to an idealized Cape Hatteras. While weak WBCs follow the coast also past the cape, for sufficiently strong nonlinear effects the current detaches from the coast as a consequence of flow deceleration

  4. CURRENT APPROACHES TO THE LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF RHEUMATIC DISEASES: ROLE OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOMARKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Aleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    .The alternative therapies of RD include the use of low-molecular-weight chemically synthesized agents that suppress the activity of tyrosine kinases. The important area of this therapy is to restore immunological tolerance and to correct autoimmune disorders by means of autologous hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stromal cells, autologous tolerogenic dendritic cells, regulatory T and B cells, gene therapy, and peptide antigens. The prospects for the laboratory diagnosis of RD are associated with the necessity of harmonizing and standardizing the current methods to determine autoantibodies and with the search for and clinical validation of novel proteomic, transcriptomic, and genomic biomarkers.

  5. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Casolino, M.; Garipov, G. K.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Gorodetzky, P.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Sakaki, N.; Saprykin, O. A.; Sharakin, S. A.; Takizawa, Y.; Tkachev, L. G.; Yashin, I. V.; Zotov, M. Yu

    2015-08-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high- transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (±4.5°), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4 • 103 km2. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (∼ 2 m2) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16 x 16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 m2), which allows decreasing the energy threshold. The total effective field of view will be at least ±14° to exceed the annual exposure of the existing ground-based experiments. Several configurations of the detector are being currently considered. Finally, JEM-EUSO is a wide field of view (±30°) detector. The optics is composed of two curved double-sided Fresnel lenses with 2.65 m external diameter, a precision diffractive middle lens and a pupil. The ultraviolet photons are focused onto the focal surface, which consists of nearly 5000 multi-anode photomultipliers. It is developed by a large international collaboration. All three orbital detectors have multi-purpose character due to continuous monitoring of various atmospheric phenomena. The present status of development of the TUS and KLYPVE missions is reported, and a brief comparison of the projects with JEM-EUSO is given.

  6. Optimization of current waveform tailoring for magnetically driven isentropic compression experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, E. M.; Reisman, D. B.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Stygar, W. A.; Cuneo, M. E.; Haill, T. A.; Davis, J.-P.; Brown, J. L.; Seagle, C. T.; Spielman, R. B.

    2016-06-01

    The Thor pulsed power generator is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The design consists of up to 288 decoupled and transit time isolated capacitor-switch units, called "bricks," that can be individually triggered to achieve a high degree of pulse tailoring for magnetically driven isentropic compression experiments (ICE) [D. B. Reisman et al., Phys. Rev. Spec. Top.-Accel. Beams 18, 090401 (2015)]. The connecting transmission lines are impedance matched to the bricks, allowing the capacitor energy to be efficiently delivered to an ICE strip-line load with peak pressures of over 100 GPa. Thor will drive experiments to explore equation of state, material strength, and phase transition properties of a wide variety of materials. We present an optimization process for producing tailored current pulses, a requirement for many material studies, on the Thor generator. This technique, which is unique to the novel "current-adder" architecture used by Thor, entirely avoids the iterative use of complex circuit models to converge to the desired electrical pulse. We begin with magnetohydrodynamic simulations for a given material to determine its time dependent pressure and thus the desired strip-line load current and voltage. Because the bricks are connected to a central power flow section through transit-time isolated coaxial cables of constant impedance, the brick forward-going pulses are independent of each other. We observe that the desired equivalent forward-going current driving the pulse must be equal to the sum of the individual brick forward-going currents. We find a set of optimal brick delay times by requiring that the L2 norm of the difference between the brick-sum current and the desired forward-going current be a minimum. We describe the optimization procedure for the Thor design and show results for various materials of interest.

  7. Promoting Student Involvement with Environmental Laboratory Experiments in a General Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Brancaccio Taras

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study of a series of laboratory exercises on environmental microbiology carried out by students in a general microbiology course during eight of the twelve weeks of the semester. The revised laboratory component is predicated upon seawater and sediment samples collected by student pairs using marine sampling equipment on a field trip aboard a research vessel. Two longitudinal studies were performed: assay for antibiotic production from isolated actinomycetes and construction and observation of Winogradsky columns. Two additional experiments: culturing microalgae and water testing for coliforms also used the samples collected by the students. The advantages of long-term, challenging laboratory experiences actively involving the students in group process, self-direction, and scientific practices are discussed. Also considered are development of laboratory skills, scientific competencies, and students’ self-confidence in carrying out such environmental investigations. Plans for future assessment of student learning are presented.

  8. Promoting Student Involvement with Environmental Laboratory Experiments in a General Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Brancaccio Taras

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a descriptive study of a series of laboratory exercises on environmental microbiology carried out by students in a general microbiology course during eight of the twelve weeks of the semester. The revised laboratory component is predicated upon seawater and sediment samples collected by student pairs using marine sampling equipment on a field trip aboard a research vessel. Two longitudinal studies were performed: assay for antibiotic production from isolated actinomycetes and construction and observation of Winogradsky columns. Two additional experiments: culturing microalgae and water testing for coliforms also used the samples collected by the students. The advantages of long-term, challenging laboratory experiences actively involving the students in group process, self-direction, and scientific practices are discussed. Also considered are development of laboratory skills, scientific competencies, and students’ self-confidence in carrying out such environmental investigations. Plans for future assessment of student learning are presented.

  9. Zero-gravity cloud physics laboratory: Candidate experiments definition and preliminary concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L. R.; Greco, R. V.; Hollinden, A. B.

    1973-01-01

    The candidate definition studies on the zero-g cloud physics laboratory are covered. This laboratory will be an independent self-contained shuttle sortie payload. Several critical technology areas have been identified and studied to assure proper consideration in terms of engineering requirements for the final design. Areas include chambers, gas and particle generators, environmental controls, motion controls, change controls, observational techniques, and composition controls. This unique laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamics, electrical, or other type techniques to support the object under study. This report also covers the candidate experiment definitions, chambers and experiment classes, laboratory concepts and plans, special supporting studies, early flight opportunities and payload planning data for overall shuttle payload requirements assessments.

  10. 3-flavor oscillations with current and future reactor experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have been a crucial tool for our understanding of neutrinos. The disappearance of electron antineutrinos emitted by nuclear reactors has firmly established that neutrino flavor oscillates, and that neutrinos consequently have mass. The current generation of precision measurements rely on some of the world's most intense reactor facilities to demonstrate that the electron antineutrino mixes with the third antineutrino mass eigenstate (v3-). Accurate measurements of antineutrino energies robustly determine the tiny difference between the masses-squared of the v3- state and the two more closely-spaced v1- and v2- states. These results have given us a much clearer picture of neutrino mass and mixing, yet at the same time open major questions about how to account for these small but non-zero masses in or beyond the Standard Model. These observations have also opened the door for a new generation of experiments which aim to measure the ordering of neutrino masses and search for potential violation of CP symmetry by neutrinos. I will provide a brief overview of this exciting field. Work supported under DOE OHEP DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  11. Current advances in synchrotron radiation instrumentation for MX experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Robin L.; Juanhuix, Jordi; Fuchs, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Following pioneering work 40 years ago, synchrotron beamlines dedicated to macromolecular crystallography (MX) have improved in almost every aspect as instrumentation has evolved. Beam sizes and crystal dimensions are now on the single micron scale while data can be collected from proteins with molecular weights over 10 MDa and from crystals with unit cell dimensions over 1000 Å. Furthermore it is possible to collect a complete data set in seconds, and obtain the resulting structure in minutes. The impact of MX synchrotron beamlines and their evolution is reflected in their scientific output, and MX is now the method of choice for a variety of aims from ligand binding to structure determination of membrane proteins, viruses and ribosomes, resulting in a much deeper understanding of the machinery of life. A main driving force of beamline evolution have been advances in almost every aspect of the instrumentation comprising a synchrotron beamline. In this review we aim to provide an overview of the current status of instrumentation at modern MX experiments. The most critical optical components are discussed, as are aspects of endstation design, sample delivery, visualisation and positioning, the sample environment, beam shaping, detectors and data acquisition and processing.

  12. Current profile control experiments in EXTRAP T2R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsell, P.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J.; Franz, P.; Malmberg, J. A.; Marrelli, L.; Martin, P.; Spizzo, G.

    2002-11-01

    EXTRAP T2R is a high aspect ratio (R=1.24 m, a = 0.183 m) reversed-field pinch device, characterised by a double, thin shell system. The simultaneous presence of many m=1, |n| > 11 tearing modes is responsible for a magnetic field turbulence, which is believed to produce the rather high energy and particle transport that is observed in this type of magnetic configuration. In this paper first results from current profile control experiments (PPCD) in a thin shell device are shown. When an edge poloidal electric field is transiently applied, an increase of the electron temperature and of the electron density is seen, which is consistent with an increase of the thermal content of the plasma. At the same time, the soft x-ray emission, measured with a newly installed miniaturised camera, shows a peaking of the profile in the core. Furthermore, the amplitudes of the m=1 tearing modes are reduced and and the rotation velocities increase during PPCD, which is also consistent with a reduction of magnetic turbulence and a heating of the plasma

  13. Nuclear aspects of neutrino energy reconstruction in current oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Tina; Buss, Oliver; Mosel, Ulrich [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Alvarez-Ruso, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Universidad de Valencia - CSIC (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    There is an extensive experimental effort aiming at a precise determination of neutrino oscillation parameters. A critical quantity is the neutrino energy which can not be measured directly but has to be reconstructed from observables. A good knowledge of neutrino-nucleus interactions is thus necessary to minimize the systematic uncertainties in neutrino fluxes, backgrounds and detector responses. A reliable reconstruction has to account for in-medium modifications. We find that in particular final-state interactions inside the target nucleus modify considerably the distributions through rescattering, charge-exchange and absorption. These effects can be simulated with our coupled channel GiBUU transport model where the neutrino first interacts with a bound nucleon producing secondary particles which are then transported out of the nucleus. We consider, besides Fermi motion and Pauli blocking, full in-medium kinematics, mean-field potentials and in-medium spectral functions. In this contribution, we compare the reconstructed quantities obtained within our model to the ones obtained by the current experiments like MiniBooNE, which mostly rely on simple two-body kinematics. We then discuss how these uncertainties influence not only the cross section measurements but also the oscillation results.

  14. Current practice in laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. 
Survey of the Working group for laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Andrea Tešija; Đerek, Lovorka; Kozmar, Ana; Drvar, Vedrana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With the trend of increasing incidence of autoimmune diseases, laboratories are faced with exponential growth of the requests for tests relating the diagnosis of these diseases. Unfortunately, the lack of laboratory personnel experienced in this specific discipline of laboratory diagnostic, as well as an unawareness of a method limitation often results in confusion for clinicians. The aim was to gain insight into number and type of Croatian laboratories that perform humoral diagnostics with the final goal to improve and harmonize laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia. Materials and methods In order to get insight into current laboratory practice two questionnaires, consisting of 42 questions in total, were created. Surveys were conducted using SurveyMonkey application and were sent to 88 medical biochemistry laboratories in Croatia for the first survey. Out of 33 laboratories that declared to perform diagnostic from the scope, 19 were selected for the second survey based on the tests they pleaded to perform. The survey comprised questions regarding autoantibody hallmarks of systemic autoimmune diseases while regarding organ-specific autoimmune diseases was limited to diseases of liver, gastrointestinal and nervous system. Results Response rate was high with 80 / 88 (91%) laboratories which answered the first questionnaire, and 19 / 19 (1.0) for the second questionnaire. Obtained results of surveys indicate high heterogeneity in the performance of autoantibody testing among laboratories in Croatia. Conclusions Results indicate the need of creating recommendations and algorithms in order to harmonize the approach to laboratory diagnostics of autoimmune diseases in Croatia.

  15. A new high current laboratory and pulsed homopolar generator power supply at the University of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, J. E.; Aanstoos, T. A.

    1984-03-01

    The University of Texas at Austin is constructing a facility for research in pulse power technology for the Center for Electromechanics at the Balcones Research Center. The facility, designed to support high-current experiments, will be powered by six homopolar generators, each rated at 10 MJ and arranged to allow matching the requirements of resistive and inductive loads at various voltage and current combinations. Topics covered include the high bay, the power supply configuration and parameters, the speed and field control, and the magnetic circuit. Also considered are the removable air-cooled brushes, the water-cooled field coils, the hydraulic motor sizing and direct coupling, the low-impedance removable field coils, and the hydrostatic bearing design.

  16. 78 FR 19500 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ...-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center) Clinical Reference Lab..., OR 97232, 503-413-5295/800-950-5295 Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology... Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory) Pacific Toxicology...

  17. 76 FR 68201 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...) 202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center.) Clinical Reference Lab..., Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, (612) 725-2088. National..., (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...

  18. 76 FR 46309 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ...-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center) Clinical Reference Lab... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-3774 (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology...

  19. 76 FR 24501 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ...-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center) Clinical Reference Lab... 97232, 503-413-5295/800-950-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology... Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory) Pacific Toxicology...

  20. 76 FR 18770 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ...-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center). Clinical Reference Lab... 97232, 503-413-5295/800-950-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology... Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory). Pacific Toxicology...

  1. 77 FR 71605 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center.) Clinical Reference Lab...-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive..., Pasadena, TX 77504, 888-747-3774. (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry...

  2. 78 FR 25461 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Executive Order 12564 and section 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace... Laboratory Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630 Laboratory..., 800-328-6942. (Formerly: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory.) Pathology Associates...

  3. 78 FR 59946 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs,'' as amended... Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630. Laboratory Corporation of...: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory). Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories, 110 West Cliff...

  4. 78 FR 314 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ... initially developed in accordance with Executive Order 12564 and section 503 of Public Law 100-71. The... Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630 Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings, 7207...: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory) Pathology Associates Medical Laboratories, 110 West Cliff...

  5. 78 FR 66034 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ..., AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center... Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725-2088 National...: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory...

  6. 77 FR 32653 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory... 97232, 503-413-5295/800-950-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology... Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory). Pacific Toxicology...

  7. 76 FR 6147 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056. 501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory.... Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN... 77504. 888-747-3774. (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB...

  8. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment Facilitating Active Learning of Concepts in Transport Phenomena: Experiment with a Subliming Solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utgikar, Vivek P.

    2015-01-01

    An experiment based on the sublimation of a solid was introduced in the undergraduate Transport Phenomena course. The experiment required the students to devise their own apparatus and measurement techniques. The theoretical basis, assignment of the experiment, experimental results, and student/instructor observations are described in this paper.…

  9. Effects of neutral gas release on current collection during the CHARGE-2 rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, B. E.; Banks, P. M.; Neubert, T.; Williamson, P. R.; Myers, Neil B.; Raitt, W. John; Sasaki, S.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of current collection enhancements due to cold nitrogen gas control jet emissions from a highly charged rocket payload in the ionosphere are reported. These observations were made during the second cooperative high altitude rocket gun experiment (CHARGE-2) which was an electrically tethered mother/daughter payload system. The current collection enhancement was observed at the daughter payload located 100 to 400 m away from the mother which was firing an energetic electron beam. The authors interpret these results in terms of an electrical discharge forming in close proximity to the daughter during the short periods of gas emission. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance the electron current collection capability of positively charged vehicles by means of deliberate neutral gas releases into an otherwise undisturbed space plasma. These results can also be compared with recent laboratory observations of hollow cathode plasma contactors operating in the ignited mode. Experimental observations of current collection enhancements due to cold nitrogen gas control jet emissions from a highly charged, isolated daughter payload in the nighttime ionosphere were made. These observations were derived from the second cooperative high altitude rocket gun experiment (CHARGE-2) which was an electrically tethered mother-daughter payload system. The rocket flew from White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) in December, 1985. The rocket achieved an altitude of 261 km and carried a 1 keV electron beam emitting up to 48 mA of current (Myers, et al., 1989a). The mother payload, carried the electron beam source, while the daughter acted as a remote current collection and observation platform and reached a distance of 426 m away from the main payload. Gas emissions at the daughter were due to periodic thruster jet firings to maintain separation velocity between the two payloads.

  10. A Global Remote Laboratory Experimentation Network and the Experiment Service Provider Business Model and Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Ivar Eikaas

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from the IST KAII Trial project ReLAX - Remote LAboratory eXperimentation trial (IST 1999-20827, and contributes with a framework for a global remote laboratory experimentation network supported by a new business model. The paper presents this new Experiment Service Provider business model that aims at bringing physical experimentation back into the learning arena, where remotely operable laboratory experiments used in advanced education and training schemes are made available to a global education and training market in industry and academia. The business model is based on an approach where individual experiment owners offer remote access to their high-quality laboratory facilities to users around the world. The usage can be for research, education, on-the-job training etc. The access to these facilities is offered via an independent operating company - the Experiment Service Provider. The Experiment Service Provider offers eCommerce services like booking, access control, invoicing, dispute resolution, quality control, customer evaluation services and a unified Lab Portal.

  11. Fate of Methane and Ethanol-Blended Fuels in Soil: Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. M.; de Sieyes, N. R.; Peng, J.; Schmidt, R.; Buelow, M. C.; Felice, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our research site is within the UC Davis Putah Creek Riparian Reserve in Davis, CA; climate is semi-arid and soils are sandy loams and silts. We are conducting three types of controlled release experiments in the field: 1) Gas mixture, a continuous release of methane, sometimes with other gases included, with the composition and release rate changing over time to allow examination of various hypotheses, 2) E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol): a continuous release of E10 NAPL at rate equal to documented low rate releases from underground storage tanks (USTs) that are difficult or impossible to detect with current practical approaches (<0.04 gallons per day); 3) E85: release at same rate as the E10 release. In the field experiments, gas or NAPL is released from a stainless steel drive point with 0.5 cm slotted section at 1 m bgs; we monitor temperature, pressure, moisture content, and soil gas composition in the soil, and efflux of carbon dioxide, methane, oxygen, water vapor, and other species to/ from soil to atmosphere. Periodic coring allows examination of the microbial community composition with depth. Laboratory microcosm and column tests assisted in planning the E10 and E85 field experiments above, evaluated the effect of moisture content on methane oxidation, and allowed testing and refinement of the monitoring approaches in the field We found that up to 40% of the methane released can be accounted for by efflux from soil to the atmosphere. The percentage in the efflux depends on the rate of release, and, based on literature and our microcosms with methane-spiked PCRR soils, we hypothesize that the very low moisture content of the soils in this drought year limits in situ methane oxidation. Efflux of carbon dioxide accounted for up to 20% of the E10 release rate under our lab column conditions, which we believe were oxygen-limited compared to the field conditions. We also detected low molecular weight hydrocarbons in the column efflux, though the concentrations

  12. Insights From Laboratory Experiments On Simulated Faults With Application To Fracture Evolution In Geothermal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory experiments provide a wealth of information related to mechanics of fracture initiation, fracture propagation processes, factors influencing fault strength, and spatio-temporal evolution of fracture properties. Much of the existing literature reports on laboratory studies involving a coupling of thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, and/or chemical processes. As these processes operate within subsurface environments exploited for their energy resource, laboratory results provide insights into factors influencing the mechanical and hydraulic properties of geothermal systems. I report on laboratory observations of strength and fluid transport properties during deformation of simulated faults. The results show systematic trends that vary with stress state, deformation rate, thermal conditions, fluid content, and rock composition. When related to geophysical and geologic measurements obtained from engineered geothermal systems (e.g. microseismicity, wellbore studies, tracer analysis), laboratory results provide a means by which the evolving thermal reservoir can be interpreted in terms of physico-chemical processes. For example, estimates of energy release and microearthquake locations from seismic moment tensor analysis can be related to strength variations observed from friction experiments. Such correlations between laboratory and field data allow for better interpretations about the evolving mechanical and fluid transport properties in the geothermal reservoir – ultimately leading to improvements in managing the resource.

  13. Laboratory study of magnetic reconnection with a density asymmetry across the current sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Myers, Clayton E; Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-08-29

    The effects of a density asymmetry across the current sheet on anti-parallel magnetic reconnection are studied systematically in a laboratory plasma. Despite a significant density ratio of up to 10, the in-plane magnetic field profile is not significantly changed. On the other hand, the out-of-plane Hall magnetic field profile is considerably modified; it is almost bipolar in structure with the density asymmetry, as compared to quadrupolar in structure with the symmetric configuration. Moreover, the ion stagnation point is shifted to the low-density side, and the electrostatic potential profile also becomes asymmetric with a deeper potential well on the low-density side. Nonclassical bulk electron heating together with electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range is observed near the low-density-side separatrix. The dependence of the ion outflow and reconnection electric field on the density asymmetry is measured and compared with theoretical expectations. The measured ion outflow speeds are about 40% of the theoretical values.

  14. Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Modern Astronomy With Comprehensive Development of the Physical Principles

    CERN Document Server

    Golden, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This book presents experiments which will teach physics relevant to astronomy. The astronomer, as instructor, frequently faces this need when his college or university has no astronomy department and any astronomy course is taught in the physics department. The physicist, as instructor, will find this intellectually appealing when faced with teaching an introductory astronomy course. From these experiments, the student will acquire important analytical tools, learn physics appropriate to astronomy, and experience instrument calibration and the direct gathering and analysis of data. Experiments that can be performed in one laboratory session as well as semester-long observation projects are included. This textbook is aimed at undergraduate astronomy students.

  15. The generation and amplification of intergalactic magnetic fields in analogue laboratory experiments with high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.

    2015-11-01

    The advent of high-power laser facilities has, in the past two decades, opened a new field of research where astrophysical environments can be scaled down to laboratory dimensions, while preserving the essential physics. This is due to the invariance of the equations of magneto-hydrodynamics to a class of similarity transformations. Here we review the relevant scaling relations and their application in laboratory astrophysics experiments with a focus on the generation and amplification of magnetic fields in cosmic environment. The standard model for the origin of magnetic fields is a multi stage process whereby a vanishing magnetic seed is first generated by a rotational electric field and is then amplified by turbulent dynamo action to the characteristic values observed in astronomical bodies. We thus discuss the relevant seed generation mechanisms in cosmic environment including resistive mechanism, collision-less and fluid instabilities, as well as novel laboratory experiments using high power laser systems aimed at investigating the amplification of magnetic energy by magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Future directions, including efforts to model in the laboratory the process of diffusive shock acceleration are also discussed, with an emphasis on the potential of laboratory experiments to further our understanding of plasma physics on cosmic scales.

  16. High current, 0.5-MA, fast, 100-ns, linear transformer driver experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mazarakis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD is a new method for constructing high current, high-voltage pulsed accelerators. The salient feature of the approach is switching and inductively adding the pulses at low voltage straight out of the capacitors through low inductance transfer and soft iron core isolation. Sandia National Laboratories are actively pursuing the development of a new class of accelerator based on the LTD technology. Presently, the high current LTD experimental research is concentrated on two aspects: first, to study the repetition rate capabilities, reliability, reproducibility of the output pulses, switch prefires, jitter, electrical power and energy efficiency, and lifetime measurements of the cavity active components; second, to study how a multicavity linear array performs in a voltage adder configuration relative to current transmission, energy and power addition, and wall plug to output pulse electrical efficiency. Here we report the repetition rate and lifetime studies performed in the Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory. We first utilized the prototype ∼0.4-MA, LTD I cavity which could be reliably operated up to ±90-kV capacitor charging. Later we obtained an improved 0.5-MA, LTD II version that can be operated at ±100  kV maximum charging voltage. The experimental results presented here were obtained with both cavities and pertain to evaluating the maximum achievable repetition rate and LTD cavity performance. The voltage adder experiments with a series of double sized cavities (1 MA, ±100  kV will be reported in future publications.

  17. The laboratory of the mind thought experiments in the natural sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James Robert

    1993-01-01

    Thought experiments are performed in the laboratory of the mind. Beyond this metaphor it is difficult to say just what these remarkable devices for investigating nature are or how they work. Though most scientists and philosophers would admit their great importance, there has been very little serious study of them. This volume is the first book-length investigation of thought experiments. Starting with Galileo's argument on falling bodies, Brown describes numerous examples of the most influential thought experiments from the history of science. Following this introduction to the subject, some substantial and provocative claims are made, the principle being that some thought experiments should be understood in the same way that platonists understand mathematical activity: as an intellectual grasp of an independently existing abstract realm. With its clarity of style and structure, The Laboratory of the Mind will find readers among all philosophers of science as well as scientists who have puzzled over how thou...

  18. Laboratory Experiments on Electrochemical Remediation of the Environment: Electrocoagulation of Oily Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Jorge G.; Takimoto, Martha M.; Vasquez, Ruben C.; Basak, Sanjay; Myung, Noseung; Rajeshwar, Krishnan

    1995-11-01

    A laboratory experiment illustrating the principle and application of electrocoagulation is described using oil-water emulsions as the medium to be treated and iron as the anode. The destabilized oil droplets are shown to be separated from the aqueous phase via electrolysis and iron hydrooxide coagulant formation. This simple experiment is shown to afford opportunities for exploring concepts related to colloid chemistry, electrochemistry, corrosion, and analytical chemistry.

  19. Lecture Meets Laboratory - Experimental Experiences for Large Audiences: Concept and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Temmen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Lecture courses are an integral part of academia with a long tradition. The efficiency of such courses can be notably increased by active participation of students in the learning process. This article will elaborate on a re-structuring of an engineering lecture attended by more than 400 students; during the course, laboratory experiments are integrated directly into the lecture, allowing students to gain their own practical experience.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A DERIVATIVE CYCLOHEXANONE CHALCONE-TYPE, AS AN INTEGRAL LABORATORY EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perla E. Hernández-González

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, chemistry teachers are searching new models that allow integrative laboratory experiences, converging interdisciplinary knowledge of the Chemistry field. With this framework of ideas, this work describes the synthesis and characterization of the (2E,6E-2,6-bis(4-methoxybenzylidenecyclohexanone compound as axis of knowledge in order to encourage the students to develop their cognitive skills, such as critical thinking and problem solving, and also interpretation and analysis of results. The compound was synthesized by a Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction, involving an aromatic aldehyde and cyclohexanone. The compound was characterized spectroscopically by NMR, IR and UV-Vis. Melting point and solubility tests were also performed. The chemical structure was confirmed by single crystal X-Ray diffraction. In conclusion, this laboratory experience allows students to get involved with the techniques and procedures commonly used in the organic chemistry laboratory to the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds.

  1. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  2. Designing Experiments on Thermal Interactions by Secondary-School Students in a Simulated Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkos, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of investigative activities with manipulations in a virtual laboratory on students' ability to design experiments. Sample: Fourteen students in a lower secondary school in Greece attended a teaching sequence on thermal phenomena based on the use of information and…

  3. Bacterial Production of Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate): An Undergraduate Student Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kristi L.; Oldham, Charlie D.; May, Sheldon W.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary course that is cross-listed between five departments, we developed an undergraduate student laboratory experiment for culturing, isolating, and purifying the biopolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB. This biopolyester accumulates in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells under specific growth conditions, and it has…

  4. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

  5. Understanding Fluorescence Measurements through a Guided-Inquiry and Discovery Experiment in Advanced Analytical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek-Vera, Grazyna; Salin, Eric Dunbar

    2011-01-01

    An experiment on fluorescence spectroscopy suitable for an advanced analytical laboratory is presented. Its conceptual development used a combination of the expository and discovery styles. The "learn-as-you-go" and direct "hands-on" methodology applied ensures an active role for a student in the process of visualization and discovery of concepts.…

  6. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  7. Gravimetric Analysis of Bismuth in Bismuth Subsalicylate Tablets: A Versatile Quantitative Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric; Cheung, Ken; Pauls, Steve; Dick, Jonathan; Roth, Elijah; Zalewski, Nicole; Veldhuizen, Christopher; Coeler, Joel

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory experiment, lower- and upper-division students dissolved bismuth subsalicylate tablets in acid and precipitated the resultant Bi[superscript 3+] in solution with sodium phosphate for a gravimetric determination of bismuth subsalicylate in the tablets. With a labeled concentration of 262 mg/tablet, the combined data from three…

  8. Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

  9. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  10. Microwave-Assisted Esterification: A Discovery-Based Microscale Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Maureen K.; King, Ryan P.; Wagner, Alexander J.; King, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    An undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory experiment has been developed that features a discovery-based microscale Fischer esterification utilizing a microwave reactor. Students individually synthesize a unique ester from known sets of alcohols and carboxylic acids. Each student identifies the best reaction conditions given their particular…

  11. The Quartz-Crystal Microbalance in an Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsionsky, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    The study explains the quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) technique, which is often used as an undergraduate laboratory experiment for measuring the mass of a system. QCM can be used as a mass sensor only when the measured mass is rigidly attached to the surface.

  12. Coulometric Titration of Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) with Spectrophotometric Endpoint Detection: An Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.; Young, Vaneica Y.; Killian, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) is commonly used as an anticoagulant in blood-collection procedures. In this experiment for the instrumental analysis laboratory, students determine the quantity of EDTA in commercial collection tubes by coulometric titration with electrolytically generated Cu[superscript 2+]. The endpoint is detected…

  13. The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: A real effort laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is

  14. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  15. Reform in a General Chemistry Laboratory: How Do Students Experience Change in the Instructional Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, I.; O'Connor, J.; Pancho, R.; Chrzanowski, M.; Sandi-Urena, S.

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the experience of a cohort of students exposed consecutively to two substantially different environments in their General Chemistry Laboratory programme. To this end, the first semester in a traditional expository programme was followed by a semester in a cooperative, problem-based, multi-week format. The focus…

  16. If you pay peanuts: a laboratory experiment on reward schemes in employment service contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meerendonk, A.; Onderstal, S.

    2010-01-01

    The design of tenders and contracts is a crucial factor in the success or failure of the contracting-out of reintegration services. In a laboratory experiment with professionals from private reintegration service providers, we tested two tender designs. In the first design, the government announces

  17. Development of a Web-Enabled Learning Platform for Geospatial Laboratories: Improving the Undergraduate Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Amy B.; Nelson, Sarah; Huang, Bruce; He, Yuhong; Wilson, Kathi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a web-enabled learning platform providing remote access to geospatial software that extends the learning experience outside of the laboratory setting. The platform was piloted in two undergraduate courses, and includes a software server, a data server, and remote student users. The platform was designed to improve the quality…

  18. Quantum Dots in a Polymer Composite: A Convenient Particle-in-a-Box Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Giffin, Guinevere A.

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are at the forefront of materials science chemistry with applications in biological imaging and photovoltaic technologies. We have developed a simple laboratory experiment to measure the quantum-dot size from fluorescence spectra. A major roadblock of quantum-dot based exercises is the particle synthesis and handling;…

  19. Thermodynamics of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) Micellization: An Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolongo, Juan P.; Mirenda, Martin

    2011-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory experiment is presented that allows a thermodynamic characterization of micelle formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the degree of micelle ionization (alpha) are obtained at different temperatures by conductimetry. The molar standard free energy…

  20. Variability of Biological Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in an Aerobic Aquifer Determined by Laboratory Batch Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The biological aerobic degradation of 7 aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, o-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, naphthalene and biphenyl) was studied for 149 days in replicate laboratory batch experiments with groundwater and sediment from 8 localities representing a 15 m × 30 m...

  1. If you pay peanuts: a laboratory experiment on reward schemes in employment service contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meerendonk, A.; Onderstal, S.

    2010-01-01

    The design of tenders and contracts is a crucial factor in the success or failure of the contracting-out of reintegration services. In a laboratory experiment with professionals from private reintegration service providers, we tested two tender designs. In the first design, the government announces

  2. Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Insecticides from Juice: An Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Samantha A.; Hunter, Ronald E., Jr.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P. Barry

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to target analytical chemistry students and to teach them about insecticides in food, sample extraction, and cleanup. Micro concentrations (sub-microgram/mL levels) of 12 insecticides spiked into apple juice samples are extracted using liquid-liquid extraction and cleaned up using either a primary-secondary…

  3. Determination of Mercury in Milk by Cold Vapor Atomic Fluorescence: A Green Analytical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Green analytical chemistry principles were introduced to undergraduate students in a laboratory experiment focused on determining the mercury concentration in cow and goat milk. In addition to traditional goals, such as accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and limits of detection in method selection and development, attention was paid to the…

  4. The effect of noise in a performance measure on work motivation: A real effort laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; van Praag, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an individual real effort laboratory experiment where subjects are paid for measured performance. Measured performance equals actual performance plus noise. We compare a stable environment where the noise is small with a volatile environment where the noise is large

  5. Book Review "Advances on remote laboratories and e-learning experiences"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A. del Alamo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Book Review "Advances on remote laboratories and e-learning experiences", book editors: Luís Gomes and Javier García-Zubía, University of Deusto, Spain. Reviewed by Jesús A. del Alamo, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, M.I.T.

  6. Suitability of coarse-grade gypsum for sodic soil reclamation: a laboratory experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, van den S.; Kamphorst, A.

    1990-01-01

    Costs of sodic soil reclamation can be reduced when coarse-grade gypsum is used, as the production and transport prices of this gypsum are much lower than that of agricultural-grade gypsum. In a feasibility study laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the leaching water requirements for f

  7. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  8. Nitration of Phenols Using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2]: Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Urvashi; Mande, Hemant; Ghalsasi, Prasanna

    2012-01-01

    An easy-to-complete, microwave-assisted, green chemistry, electrophilic nitration method for phenol using Cu(NO[subscript 3])[subscript 2] in acetic acid is discussed. With this experiment, students clearly understand the mechanism underlying the nitration reaction in one laboratory session. (Contains 4 schemes.)

  9. Transitioning from Expository Laboratory Experiments to Course-Based Undergraduate Research in General Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Ricciardo, Rebecca; Weaver, Tyler

    2016-01-01

    General chemistry courses predominantly use expository experiments that shape student expectations of what a laboratory activity entails. Shifting within a semester to course-based undergraduate research activities that include greater decision-making, collaborative work, and "messy" real-world data necessitates a change in student…

  10. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  11. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  12. Early experience with the Intel iPSC/860 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, M.T.; Geist, G.A.; Drake, J.B.

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the early experience in using the Intel iPSC/860 parallel supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The hardware and software are described in some detail, and the machine's performance is studied using both simple computational kernels and a number of complete applications programs. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Early experience with the Intel iPSC/860 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, M.T.; Geist, G.A.; Drake, J.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US))

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the early experience in using the Intel iPSC/860 parallel supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The hardware and software are described in some detail, and the machine's performance is studied using both simple computational kernels and a number of complete applications programs.

  14. Measurement of the Compressibility Factor of Gases: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Bendelsmith, Andrew J.; Kuwata, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students measure the compressibility factor of two gases, helium and carbon dioxide, as a function of pressure at constant temperature. The experimental apparatus is relatively inexpensive to construct and is described and diagrammed in detail.…

  15. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  16. Optimization of Superconducting Focusing Quadrupoles for the HighCurrent Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, GianLuca; Gourlay, Steve; Gung, Chen-yu; Hafalia, Ray; Lietzke, Alan; Martovetski, Nicolai; Mattafirri, Sara; Meinke, Rainer; Minervini, Joseph; Schultz, Joel; Seidl, Peter

    2005-09-16

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is progressing through a series of physics and technology demonstrations leading to an inertial fusion power plant. The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is exploring the physics of intense beams with high line-charge density. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles have been developed for the HCX magnetic transport studies. A baseline design was selected following several pre-series models. Optimization of the baseline design led to the development of a first prototype that achieved a conductor-limited gradient of 132 T/m in a 70 mm bore, without training, with measured field errors at the 0.1% level. Based on these results, the magnet geometry and fabrication procedures were adjusted to improve the field quality. These modifications were implemented in a second prototype. In this paper, the optimized design is presented and comparisons between the design harmonics and magnetic measurements performed on the new prototype are discussed.

  17. The hybrid mesons quest: the MesonEx experiment at Jefferson Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Alessandro [Univ. of Rome Tor Vergata (Italy)

    2016-03-01

    The meson spectroscopy plays nowadays a central role in the investigation of hadron structure thanks to the possible existence of exotic hybrid mesons, quark-antiquark-gluon bound states. Their explicit gluonic degrees of freedom which should clearly emerge from a Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) of the corresponding Dalitz plot of the exotic particle decay, may result in final JPC configurations not allowed in the constituent quark model. Besides this clear signature, hybrid mesons are also expected to have a large particle multiplicity decays, requiring for their search an experimental apparatus with high performances in terms of rate capability, resolution and almost a full acceptance to apply PWA methods. New-generation experiments are planned at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (VA, USA) for which an unprecedented statistics of large multiplicity decay events with fully reconstructed kinematics will be available. In particular for the MesonEx (CLAS12) experiment in Hall B, a wide scientific program that will start in 2016 has been deployed to study the meson spectrum at energies up to 11 GeV. A key role in such program is played by the Forward Tagger apparatus of the experiment, which will allow to extend the study of meson electro-production to very low Q2 values, in a quasi-real photo production kinematical region, where the production of hybrid mesons is expected to be favorite. Currently a new analysis framework for the search of the hybrid mesons is being set up by the HASPECT network, an international structure which gather people involved into theoretical and experimental hadronic physics all over the world. The goals of the network is to develop new analysis models and statistical techniques to unfold the signal and background distributions in high-statistics datasets. In this work are briefly presented the first preliminary results from the application of a statistical technique, namely the sPlot, to the data already acquired by the CLAS experiment for

  18. The GEOFLOW experiment missions in the Fluid Science Laboratory on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Gerold; Carpy, Rodrigo; Fabritius, Gerd; Dettmann, Jan; Minster, Olivier; Winter, Josef; Ranebo, Hans; Dewandre, Thierry; Castiglione, Luigi; Mazzoni, Stefano; Egbers, Christoph; Futterer, Birgit

    The GEOFLOW I experiment has been successfully performed on the International Space Sta-tion (ISS) in 2008 in the Columbus module in order to study the stability, pattern formation and transition to turbulence in a viscous incompressible fluid layer enclosed in two concentric co-rotating spheres subject to a radial temperature gradient and a radial volumetric force field. The objective of the study is the experimental investigation of large scale astrophysical and geophysical phenomena in spherical geometry stipulated by rotation, thermal convections and radial gravity fields. These systems include earth outer core or mantle convection, differen-tial rotation effects in the sun, atmosphere of gas planets as well as a variety of engineering applications. The GEOFLOW I experimental instrument consists of an experiment insert for operation in the Fluid Science Laboratory, which is part of the Columbus Module of the ISS. It was first launched in February 2008 together with Columbus Module on STS 122, operated periodically for 9 month and returned to ground after 14 month on orbit with STS 119. The primary objective was the experimental modelling of outer earth core convection flow. In order to allow for variations of the characteristic scaling for different physical phenomena, the experiment was designed and qualified for a total of nine flights to the ISS, with ground refurbishment and geometrical or fluid modification after each mission. The second mission of GEOFLOW (II) is currently under preparation in terms of hardware refurbishment and modification, as well as science parameter development in order to allow use of a new experimental model fluid with a strongly temperature dependent viscosity, a adaptation of the experimental thermal parameter range in order to provide a representative model for earth mantle convection. The GEOFLOW II instrument is foreseen to be launched with the second mission of the Eu-ropean Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). The flight to ISS

  19. Current drive experiments in the Helicity Injected Torus - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamp, W. T.; Redd, A. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; O'Neill, R. G.; Raman, R.; Sieck, P. E.; Smith, R. J.; Mueller, D.

    2006-10-01

    The HIT-II spherical torus (ST) device has demonstrated four toroidal plasma current drive configurations to form and sustain a tokamak: 1) inductive (ohmic) current drive, 2) coaxial helicity injection (CHI) current drive, 3) CHI initiated plasmas with ohmic sustainment (CHI+OH), and 4) ohmically initiated plasmas with CHI edge current drive (OH+ECD). CHI discharges with a sufficiently high ratio of injector current to toroidal field current form a closed flux core, and amplify the injector poloidal flux through magnetic reconnection. CHI+OH plasmas are more robust than unassisted ohmic discharges, with a wider operating space and more efficient use of the transformer Volt-seconds. Finally, edge CHI can enhance the plasma current of an ohmic discharge without significantly degrading the quality of the discharge. Results will be presented for each HIT-II operating regime, including empirical performance scalings, applicable parametric operating spaces, and requirements to produce these discharges. Thomson scattering measurements and EFIT simulations are used to evaluate confinement in several representative plasmas. Finally, we outline extensions to the HIT-II CHI studies that could be performed with NSTX, SUNIST, or other ST devices.

  20. Copper sulphate reduces the metabolic activity of Gammarus fossarum in laboratory and field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidlin, Lara, E-mail: lara.schmidlin@unibas.ch; Fumetti, Stefanie von; Nagel, Peter

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Copper-contaminated food significantly reduces the ETS activity of G. fossarum. • The ETS and feeding activity of G. fossarum were significantly higher in the lab. • A combination of test chamber experiments in the laboratory and field is optimal. - Abstract: The specialised fauna of freshwater springs is affected by contamination of the water with xenobiotics from human activities in the surrounding landscape. We assessed the effects of exposure to toxins in laboratory and field experiments by using copper sulphate as a model substance and Gammarus fossarum Koch, 1836, as the model organism. This amphipod is a common representative of the European spring fauna and copper is a widespread contaminant, mainly from agricultural practice. The experiments were conducted in test chambers placed in flow channels and directly in a spring. The gammarids were fed with conditioned beech leaf discs, which had been exposed to a 0.8 mg Cu/L solution for 96 h. The feeding activity of the amphipods was quantified on the level of the organism; and the respiratory electron transport system (ETS) assay was conducted in order to determine changes on the cellular level in the test organisms. The results show that the feeding activity, when the leaf discs were contaminated with copper, was not significantly different from the control. The ETS activity of the gammarids, which had been feeding on the copper contaminated leaf discs was however significantly reduced. The results followed the same pattern for gammarids from both the laboratory and the spring. By conducting the experiments not only in a laboratory but also directly in a spring in the field, we took a crucial step towards a more realistic approach when examining environmental pollutants on an organism. Our findings demonstrate the importance of conducting experiments out in the field, in natural conditions, as well as in the laboratory.

  1. 77 FR 12862 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., a Division of LabOne, Inc.). Maxxam Analytics,* 6740 Campobello Road, Mississauga, ON, Canada L5N 2L8, 905-817-5700, (Formerly: Maxxam Analytics Inc., NOVAMANN (Ontario), Inc.). * The Standards..., Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory). Pacific Toxicology Laboratories,...

  2. 78 FR 33429 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Executive Order 12564 and section 503 of Public Law 100-71. The ``Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace... Gamma-Dynacare Laboratory Partnership, 245 Pall Mall Street, London, ONT, Canada N6A 1P4, 519-679-1630..., 800-328-6942, (Formerly: Centinela Hospital Airport Toxicology Laboratory). Pathology Associates...

  3. 77 FR 20832 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ..., (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center). Clinical Reference Lab, 8433 Quivira Road... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-747-3774 (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology...

  4. 78 FR 54903 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... Rock, AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center... Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725-2088... (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...

  5. 78 FR 14100 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...--Toxicology Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-3774 (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology...

  6. 77 FR 54597 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...-Toxicology Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology... 97232, 503-413-5295/800-950-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology... Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology Laboratory). Pacific Toxicology...

  7. 76 FR 11802 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... 72209-7056, 501-202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center); Clinical... Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725-2088..., (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...

  8. 76 FR 75889 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., AR 72209-7056, (501) 202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center..., Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, (612) 725-2088. National..., (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...

  9. 76 FR 40924 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ...-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center). Clinical Reference Lab... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology ] Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-747-3774 (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology...

  10. 77 FR 69642 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ...-Toxicology Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209 -7056, 501-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology... 97232, 503-413-5295/800-950-5295. Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology... Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology- Toxicology Laboratory.) Pacific Toxicology...

  11. 77 FR 126 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ..., AR 72209-7056, (501) 202-2783, (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center..., Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, (612) 725-2088. National..., (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology-Toxicology...

  12. 77 FR 60449 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ...--Toxicology Laboratory, 11401 I-30, Little Rock, AR 72209-7056, 501-202-2783 (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology... 97232, 503-413-5295/800-950-5295. ] Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology... Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology- Toxicology Laboratory). Pacific Toxicology...

  13. 76 FR 61110 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...-202-2783. (Formerly: Forensic Toxicology Laboratory Baptist Medical Center.) Clinical Reference Lab... Affairs Medical Center, Forensic Toxicology Laboratory, 1 Veterans Drive, Minneapolis, MN 55417, 612-725...-747-3774. (Formerly: University of Texas Medical Branch, Clinical Chemistry Division; UTMB Pathology...

  14. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Suresh C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO) manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA), sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI) have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men's health for reproductive success.

  15. Current updates on laboratory techniques for the diagnosis of male reproductive failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh C Sikka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of male reproductive failure leading to infertility, whether due to delayed parenthood, environmental issues, genetic factors, drugs, etc., is increasing throughout the world. The diagnosis and prognosis of male subfertility have become a challenge. While the basic semen assessment has been performed for many years, a number of studies question the value of the traditional semen characteristics. This is partly due to inadequate methods and standardization, limited knowledge of technical requirements for quality assurance, and an incomplete understanding of what clinical information a semen assessment can provide. Laboratories currently performing semen and endocrine assessment show great variability. The World Health Organization (WHO manual for the evaluation of semen has been the core of andrology and fertility evaluation that has helped in further development of this field over many years. These include the physical appearance of the ejaculate, assessments of sperm count, motility, vitality, morphology, and functional aspects of the sperm and semen sample. These tests also include male endocrine profile, biochemical evaluation of the semen, detection of antisperm antibodies in serum, the use of computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA, sperm DNA integrity, and its damage due to oxidative stress. Assisted reproductive techniques (e.g., IVF, ICSI have shown great success but are too expensive. Further development in this field with newer techniques and extensive training/instructions can improve accuracy and reduce variability, thus maintaining the quality and standards of such an evaluation. There is an urgent need to have standardized training centers and increased awareness in this area of men′s health for reproductive success.

  16. Fast laboratory-based micro-computed tomography for pore-scale research: Illustrative experiments and perspectives on the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultreys, Tom; Boone, Marijn A.; Boone, Matthieu N.; De Schryver, Thomas; Masschaele, Bert; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle

    2016-09-01

    Over the past decade, the wide-spread implementation of laboratory-based X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanners has revolutionized both the experimental and numerical research on pore-scale transport in geological materials. The availability of these scanners has opened up the possibility to image a rock's pore space in 3D almost routinely to many researchers. While challenges do persist in this field, we treat the next frontier in laboratory-based micro-CT scanning: in-situ, time-resolved imaging of dynamic processes. Extremely fast (even sub-second) micro-CT imaging has become possible at synchrotron facilities over the last few years, however, the restricted accessibility of synchrotrons limits the amount of experiments which can be performed. The much smaller X-ray flux in laboratory-based systems bounds the time resolution which can be attained at these facilities. Nevertheless, progress is being made to improve the quality of measurements performed on the sub-minute time scale. We illustrate this by presenting cutting-edge pore scale experiments visualizing two-phase flow and solute transport in real-time with a lab-based environmental micro-CT set-up. To outline the current state of this young field and its relevance to pore-scale transport research, we critically examine its current bottlenecks and their possible solutions, both on the hardware and the software level. Further developments in laboratory-based, time-resolved imaging could prove greatly beneficial to our understanding of transport behavior in geological materials and to the improvement of pore-scale modeling by providing valuable validation.

  17. Student Reciprocal Peer Teaching as a Method for Active Learning: An Experience in an Electrotechnical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-García, Miguel A.; Moreda, Guillermo P.; Hernández-Sánchez, Natalia; Valiño, Vanesa

    2012-10-01

    Active learning is one of the most efficient mechanisms for learning, according to the psychology of learning. When students act as teachers for other students, the communication is more fluent and knowledge is transferred easier than in a traditional classroom. This teaching method is referred to in the literature as reciprocal peer teaching. In this study, the method is applied to laboratory sessions of a higher education institution course, and the students who act as teachers are referred to as "laboratory monitors." A particular way to select the monitors and its impact in the final marks is proposed. A total of 181 students participated in the experiment, experiences with laboratory monitors are discussed, and methods for motivating and training laboratory monitors and regular students are proposed. The types of laboratory sessions that can be led by classmates are discussed. This work is related to the changes in teaching methods in the Spanish higher education system, prompted by the Bologna Process for the construction of the European Higher Education Area

  18. Art, Meet Chemistry; Chemistry, Meet Art: Case Studies, Current Literature, and Instrumental Methods Combined to Create a Hands-On Experience for Nonmajors and Instrumental Analysis Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivens, Delana A.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Verges, Katie J.; Jamieson, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    Case studies and current literature are combined with spectroscopic analysis to provide a unique chemistry experience for art history students and to provide a unique inquiry-based laboratory experiment for analytical chemistry students. The XRF analysis method was used to demonstrate to nonscience majors (art history students) a powerful…

  19. Wave-current interaction, experiments with controlled uniform shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bruno; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Vertically varying currents have a non negligible impact on the propagation of waves. Even though the analytical aspect of the interaction between wave and sheared current is being an active subject of research, experimental data remain rare. Here, the effects of a uniformly shear were investigated in the 10 m long by 0.3 m wide wave flume of the Université de Toulon, France. The main difficulty of the study was to produce several conditions of current with constant shear (du/dz = cst) that would persist along the channel. This was achieved by using curved wire screens upstream the channel (Dunn and Tavoularis, 2007). The geometry and properties of the screens were adjusted to deflect the streamline towards the channel bed or the free surface in order to change the velocity profile. The study focused on regular wave propagating against the current for several wave frequencies and amplitudes. Properties of the free surface and flow velocity are discussed for current with positive and negative shear in order to quantify the influence of the current on the waves. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N° ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  20. The Colorful Chemical Bottle Experiment Kit: From School Laboratory To Public Demonstration

    CERN Document Server

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham

    2015-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment was first introduced to the chemical education literature as a simple demonstration on kinetics. Its original formulation contains only glucose, NaOH and small amount of methylene blue. The solution turns blue when shaken and fades to colorless upon standing. This bluing/de-bluing cycle may be repeated and may be compared to blood colors in animal's respiratory cycle. Inspired by the blue bottle experiment, the colorful chemical bottle experiment kit was commercially developed in 2006. The kit is a versatile pedagogical tool, not only for physical chemistry but also for analytical, biological and organic chemistry. It also helps teaching concepts in scientific method and laboratory safety. This manuscript contains four parts, brief review on literature relating to the blue bottle experiment, description of the colorful chemical bottle experiment kit, pedagogical discussion of the experiments and preliminary evaluation from students.

  1. Current Status and Future Prospects of the SNO+ Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Arushanova, E; Asahi, S; Askins, M; Auty, D J; Back, A R; Barnard, Z; Barros, N; Beier, E W; Bialek, A; Biller, S D; Blucher, E; Bonventre, R; Braid, D; Caden, E; Caravaca, J; Carvalho, J; Cavalli, L; Chauhan, D; Chen, M; Chkvorets, O; Clark, K; Cleveland, B; Coulter, I T; Cressy, D; Dai, X; Darrach, C; Davis-Purcell, B; Deen, R; Depatie, M M; Descamps, F; Di Lodovico, F; Duhaime, N; Duncan, F; Dunger, J; Falk, E; Fatemighomi, N; Ford, R; Gorel, P; Grant, C; Grullon, S; Guillian, E; Hallin, A L; Hallman, D; Hans, S; Hartnell, J; Harvey, P; Hedayatipour, M; Heintzelman, W J; Helmer, R L; Howe, M; Hreljac, B; Hu, J; Iida, T; Jackson, C M; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jones, C; Jones, P G; Kamdin, K; Kaptanoglu, T; Kaspar, J; Keener, P; Khaghani, P; Kippenbrock, L; Klein, J R; Knapik, R; Kofron, J N; Kormos, L L; Korte, S; Kraus, C; Krauss, C B; Labe, K; Lam, I; Lan, C; Land, B J; Langrock, S; LaTorre, A; Lawson, I; Lefeuvre, G M; Leming, E J; Lidgard, J; Liu, X; Liu, Y; Lozza, V; Maguire, S; Maio, A; Majumdar, K; Manecki, S; Maneira, J; Marzec, E; Mastbaum, A; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McMillan, J E; Mekarski, P; Miller, C; Mony, E; Mottram, M J; Novikov, V; O'Keeffe, H M; O'Sullivan, E; Gann, G D Orebi; Parnell, M J; Peeters, S J M; Pershing, T; Petriw, Z; Prior, G; Prouty, J C; Quirk, S; Reichold, A; Robertson, A; Rose, J; Rosero, R; Rost, P M; Rumleskie, J; Schumaker, M A; Schwendener, M H; Scislowski, D; Secrest, J; Seddighin, M; Segui, L; Seibert, S; Shantz, T; Shokair, T M; Sibley, L; Sinclair, J R; Singh, K; Skensved, P; Sonley, T; Stainforth, R; Strait, M; Stringer, M I; Svoboda, R; Soerensen, A; Tatar, J; Tian, L; Tolich, N; Tseng, J; Tseung, H W C; Van Berg, R; Virtue, C; von Krosigk, B; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E; Walker, J M G; Walker, M; Wasalski, O; Waterfield, J; White, R F; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Winchester, T J; Wright, A; Yeh, M; Zhao, T; Zuber, K

    2015-01-01

    SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator-based experiment located 2km underground at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Canada. It reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector, consisting of a 12m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with about 780 tonnes of ultra-pure liquid scintillator. Designed as a multi-purpose neutrino experiment, the primary goal of SNO+ is a search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0$\

  2. Insight into the dynamics of granular column collapse using Discrete Element Methods and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Hugo; Mangeney, Anne; Farin, Maxime; Richard, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The mechanical behavior of granular flows is still an open issue. In particular, quantitative agreement between the detailed dynamics of the flow and laboratory experiments is necessary to better constrain the performance and limits of the models. We propose here to compare quantitatively the flow profiles and the force during granular column collapse simulated using Discrete Element Models and laboratory experiments. These small scale experiments are performed with dry granular material released initially from a cylinder on a sloping plane. The flow profiles and the acoustic signal generated by the granular impacts and stresses on the plane are recorded systematically [Farin et al., 2015]. These experiments are simulated using the Discrete Element Method Modys [Richard et al., 2000]. We show that the effect of the removing gate should be taken into account in the model in order to quantatively reproduce the flow dynamics. Furthermore we compare the simulated and observed acoustic signals that are generated by the fluctuating stresses exerted by the grains on the substrate in different frequency bands. [1] P. Richard et Luc Oger. 2000 Etude de la géométrie de milieux granulaires modèles tridimensionnels par simulation numérique. [2] Farin, M., Mangeney, A., Toussaint, R., De Rosny, J., Shapiro, N., Dewez, T., Hibert, C., Mathon, C., Sedan, O., Berger. 2015, Characterization of rockfalls from seismic signal: insights from laboratory experiments

  3. Experimenting with impacts in a conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-07-01

    What follows is a description of the procedure for and results of a simple experiment on the formation of impact craters designed for the laboratory portions of lower mathematical-level general education science courses such as conceptual physics or descriptive astronomy. The experiment provides necessary experience with data collection and analysis as well as practice with quantitative skills such as measurement and calculation in a manner that does not exceed the mathematical scope of the courses while, due to its hands-on nature and interesting topic, remaining engaging.

  4. Magnetic field reversals: the geodynamo, laboratory experiments and models (Lewis Fry Richardson Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauve, S.

    2009-04-01

    I will first compare reversals of Earth's magnetic field known from palaeomagnetic data to the ones observed in a laboratory experiment for the magnetic field generated by a turbulent flow of liquid sodium (VKS experiment). Despite major differences between the flow in Earth's core and in the experiment, both systems display reversals that share a lot of similar properties. I will understand them using a simple model in the framework of low dynamical system theory. Finally, I will discuss what can be learnt from numerical simulations.

  5. The Laboratory of the Mind Thought Experiments in the Natural Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James Robert

    2010-01-01

    Newton's bucket, Einstein's elevator, Schrödinger's cat - these are some of the best-known examples of thought experiments in the natural sciences. But what function do these experiments perform? Are they really experiments at all? Can they help us gain a greater understanding of the natural world?  How is it possible that we can learn new things just by thinking?   In this revised and updated new edition of his classic text The Laboratory of the Mind, James Robert Brown continues to defend apriorism in the physical world. This edition features two new chapters, one on "counter

  6. Simulations and experiments of intense ion beam current density compression in space and timea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefkow, A. B.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Anders, A.; Coleman, J. E.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S. M.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Yu, S. S.; Welch, D. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has achieved 60-fold longitudinal pulse compression of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) [P. K. Roy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 234801 (2005)]. To focus a space-charge-dominated charge bunch to sufficiently high intensities for ion-beam-heated warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy studies, simultaneous transverse and longitudinal compression to a coincident focal plane is required. Optimizing the compression under the appropriate constraints can deliver higher intensity per unit length of accelerator to the target, thereby facilitating the creation of more compact and cost-effective ion beam drivers. The experiments utilized a drift region filled with high-density plasma in order to neutralize the space charge and current of an ˜300 keV K+ beam and have separately achieved transverse and longitudinal focusing to a radius 2 MeV) ion beam user-facility for warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy-relevant target physics experiments.

  7. PROPOSAL FOR AN EXPERIMENT PROGRAM IN NEUTRINO PHYSICS AND PROTON DECAY IN THE HOMESTAKE LABORATORY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIWAN, M.; KETTELL, S.; LITTENBERG, W.; MARIANO, W.; PARSA, Z.; SAMIOS, N.; WHITE, S.; ET AL.

    2006-07-24

    This report is intended to describe first, the principal physics reasons for an ambitious experimental program in neutrino physics and proton decay based on construction of a series of massive water Cherenkov detectors located deep underground (4850 ft) in the Homestake Mine of the South Dakota Science and Technology Authority (SDSTA); and second, the engineering design of the underground chambers to house the Cherenkov detector modules; and third, the conceptual design of the water Cherenkov detectors themselves for this purpose. In this proposal we show the event rates and physics sensitivity for beams from both FNAL (1300 km distant from Homestake) and BNL (2540 km distant from Homestake). The program we propose will benefit with a beam from FNAL because of the high intensities currently available from the Main Injector with modest upgrades. The possibility of tuning the primary proton energy over a large range from 30 to 120 GeV also adds considerable flexibility to the program from FNAL. On the other hand the beam from BNL over the larger distance will produce very large matter effects, and consequently a hint of new physics (beyond CP violation) can be better tested with that configuration. In this proposal we focus on the CP violation physics. Included in this document are preliminary costs and time-to-completion estimates which have been exposed to acknowledged experts in their respective areas. This presentation is not, however, to be taken as a technical design report with the extensive documentation and contingency costs that a TDR usually entails. Nevertheless, some contingency factors have been included in the estimates given here. The essential ideas expressed here were first laid out in a letter of intent to the interim director of the Homestake Laboratory on July 26, 2001. Since that time, the prospect of a laboratory in the Homestake Mine has been realized, and the design of a long baseline neutrino experiment has been refined. The extrapolation

  8. Derivation of dynamo current drive in a closed-current volume and stable current sustainment in the HIT-SI experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, A. C.; Sutherland, D. A.; Jarboe, T. R.

    2017-02-01

    A derivation is given showing that the current inside a closed-current volume can be sustained against resistive dissipation by appropriately phased magnetic perturbations. Imposed-dynamo current drive theory is used to predict the toroidal current evolution in the helicity injected torus with steady inductive helicity injection (HIT-SI) experiment as a function of magnetic fluctuations at the edge. Analysis of magnetic fields from a HIT-SI discharge shows that the injector-imposed fluctuations are sufficient to sustain the measured toroidal current without instabilities whereas the small, plasma-generated magnetic fluctuations are not sufficiently large to sustain the current.

  9. Simulating the volatilization of solvents in unsaturated soils during laboratory and field infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. Jean; Jaffe, Peter R.; Smith, James A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field experiments which were conducted to study the dynamics of trichloroethylene (TCE) as it volatilized from contaminated groundwater and diffused in the presence of infiltrating water through the unsaturated soil zone to the land surface. The field experiments were conducted at the Picatinny Arsenal, which is part of the United States Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. In both laboratory and field settings the gas and water phase concentrations of TCE were not in equilibrium during infiltration. Gas-water mass transfer rate constants were calibrated to the experimental data using a model in which the water phase was treated as two phases: a mobile water phase and an immobile water phase. The mass transfer limitations of a volatile organic compound between the gas and liquid phases were described explicitly in the model. In the laboratory experiment the porous medium was nonsorbing, and water infiltration rates ranged from 0.076 to 0.28 cm h−1. In the field experiment the water infiltration rate was 0.34 cm h−1, and sorption onto the soil matrix was significant. The laboratory-calibrated gas-water mass transfer rate constant is 3.3×10−4 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.076 cm h−1 and 1.4×10−3 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.28 cm h−1. The overall mass transfer rate coefficients, incorporating the contribution of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water phases and the variation of interfacial area with moisture content, range from 3×10−4 h−1 to 1×10−2 h−1. A power law model relates the gas-water mass transfer rate constant to the infiltration rate and the fraction of the water phase which is mobile. It was found that the results from the laboratory experiments could not be extrapolated to the field. In order to simulate the field experiment the very slow desorption of TCE from the soil matrix was incorporated into the mathematical model. When desorption from the soil

  10. Solute and heat transport model of the Henry and hilleke laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D; Dausman, Alyssa M; Sukop, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    SEAWAT is a coupled version of MODFLOW and MT3DMS designed to simulate variable-density ground water flow and solute transport. The most recent version of SEAWAT, called SEAWAT Version 4, includes new capabilities to represent simultaneous multispecies solute and heat transport. To test the new features in SEAWAT, the laboratory experiment of Henry and Hilleke (1972) was simulated. Henry and Hilleke used warm fresh water to recharge a large sand-filled glass tank. A cold salt water boundary was represented on one side. Adjustable heating pads were used to heat the bottom and left sides of the tank. In the laboratory experiment, Henry and Hilleke observed both salt water and fresh water flow systems separated by a narrow transition zone. After minor tuning of several input parameters with a parameter estimation program, results from the SEAWAT simulation show good agreement with the experiment. SEAWAT results suggest that heat loss to the room was more than expected by Henry and Hilleke, and that multiple thermal convection cells are the likely cause of the widened transition zone near the hot end of the tank. Other computer programs with similar capabilities may benefit from benchmark testing with the Henry and Hilleke laboratory experiment.

  11. 75 FR 22150 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies Correction In notice...

  12. The role of fluid pressure in frictional stability and earthquake triggering: insights from laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Scuderi, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Fluid overpressure has been proposed as one of the primary mechanisms that facilitate earthquake slip along faults. However, elastic dislocation theory combined with friction laws suggests that fluid overpressure may inhibit the dynamic instabilities that result in earthquakes, by controlling the critical fault stiffness (kc). This controversy poses a serious problem in our understanding of earthquake physics, with severe implications for both natural and human-induced seismic hazard. Nevertheless, currently, there are no systematic studies on the role of fluid pressure under controlled, laboratory conditions for which the evolution of friction parameters and slip stability can be measured. We have used a state-of-the-art biaxial rock deformation apparatus within a pressure vessel, in order to allow a true triaxial stress field, in a double direct shear configuration. We tested carbonate fault gouge, Carrara marble, sieved to a grain size of 125 μm. Normal stresses and confining pressure were held constant throughout the experiment at values of 5 to 40 MPa, and the pore fluid pressure was varied from hydrostatic up to near lithostatic values. Shear stress was induced by a constant displacement rate and sliding velocities varied from 0.1-1000 μm/s, in order to evaluate slip stability via rate- and state- dependent frictional parameters, such as (a-b), Dc and kc. Our data show that sliding velocity controls the values of friction parameters. In addition we observe a general increase of (a-b) and a decrease of Dc with increasing fluid pressure. Our observations suggest that fluid overpressure does not only facilitate fault reactivation but it also influences frictional parameters with important implications for fault stability and earthquake triggering.

  13. Collective action and the risk of ecosystem regime shifts: insights from a laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems can undergo regime shifts that potentially lead to a substantial decrease in the availability of provisioning ecosystem services. Recent research suggests that the frequency and intensity of regime shifts increase with growing anthropogenic pressure, so understanding the underlying social-ecological dynamics is crucial, particularly in contexts where livelihoods depend heavily on local ecosystem services. In such settings, ecosystem services are often derived from common-pool resources. The limited capacity to predict regime shifts is a major challenge for common-pool resource management, as well as for systematic empirical analysis of individual and group behavior, because of the need for extensive preshift and postshift data. Unsurprisingly, current knowledge is mostly based on theoretical models. We examine behavioral group responses to a latent endogenously driven regime shift in a laboratory experiment. If the group exploited the common-pool resource beyond a certain threshold level, its renewal rate dropped drastically. To determine how the risk of such a latent shift affects resource management and collective action, we compared four experimental treatments in which groups were faced with a latent shift with different probability levels (0.1, 0.5, 0.9, 1.0. Our results suggest that different probability levels do not make people more or less likely to exploit the resource beyond its critical potential threshold. However, when the likelihood of the latent shift is certain or high, people appear more prone to agree initially on a common exploitation strategy, which in turn is a predictor for averting the latent shift. Moreover, risk appears to have a positive effect on collective action, but the magnitude of this effect is influenced by how risk and probabilities are communicated and perceived.

  14. Communication and laboratory performance in parapsychology experiments: demand characteristics and the social organization of interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooffitt, Robin

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports findings from a conversation analytic study of experimenter-participant interaction in parapsychology experiments. It shows how properties of communication through which the routine business of the experiment is conducted may have an impact on the research participant's subsequent performance. In this, the study explores social psychological features of the psychology laboratory. In particular, it examines aspects of Orne's (1962) account of what he called the demand characteristics of the psychological experiment. The data come from a corpus of audio recordings of experimenter-participant interaction during experiments on extra-sensory perception. These kinds of experiments, and the phenomena they purport to study, are undoubtedly controversial; however, the paper argues that there are grounds for social psychologists to consider parapsychology experiments as a class (albeit distinctive) of psychology experiments, and, therefore, as sites in which general social psychological and communicative phenomena can be studied. The empirical sections of the paper examine interaction during part of the experimental procedure when the experimenter verbally reviews a record of the participant's imagery reported during an earlier part of the experiment. The analysis shows that the way in which the experimenter acknowledges the research participants' utterances may be significant for the trajectory of the experiment and explores how the participants' subsequent performance in the experiment may be influenced by interactionally generated contingencies.

  15. [REPORTING CRITICAL LAB RESULTS, A CHALLENGE FOR THE LAB AND THE PHYSICIAN - A SUMMARY OF FOUR YEARS OF EXPERIENCE IN MEIR MEDICAL CENTER LABORATORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Gloria; Goldman, Jacob; Weinstein, Doron; Tohami, Tali; Neumark, Eran; Weiss, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Critical laboratory results require prompt reporting to the attending physician, as they may indicate that a patient is in a life-threatening condition. Although this important subject has been covered in many publications, it needs more attention from our healthcare organizations, which have no official policy on the subject. Matching expectations between the doctor and the laboratory needs to be better defined. The aim of this work was to inform the community of doctors and laboratories about the multiple problems concerning the reporting of critical laboratory results, to create a platform for exchanging views and ideas, and to build an extensive infrastructure for developing a unified plan to address this important issue. We present the results of four years of experience of reporting critical laboratory values at the Meir Medical Center Laboratories. The idea leading this work was to present the relatively low rate of critical results reported by the laboratories in 2010, sharing the problems discovered while investigating the situation in depth, and presenting the solutions that enabled us to obtain the desired results within four years. Gradual implementation of these improvements resulted in critical value reporting increasing from 55% in 2010 to 95% currently. We suggest a model for improving critical laboratory values reporting based on our 4-year experience, which emphasizes: (1) The importance of selecting proper tests and values for critical results; (2) The significance of using technology and computerized measures to support the process; and (3) Developing quick procedures for monitoring and controlling the process.

  16. Comparison of laboratory and field experience of PWSCC in Alloy 182 weld metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.; Meunier, M.-C.; Steltzlen, F. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, Paris La Defense (France); Calonne, O.; Foucault, M. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique, Le Creusot Cedex (France); Combrade, P. [ACXCOR, Saint Etienne (France); Amzallag, C. [EDF, SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    2007-07-01

    Laboratory studies of stress corrosion cracking of the nickel base weld metal, Alloy 182, in simulated PWR primary water suggest similar resistance to crack initiation and somewhat enhanced propagation rates relative to wrought Alloy 600. By contrast, field experience of cracking in the primary circuits of PWRs shows in general much better performance for Alloy 182 relative to Alloy 600 than would be anticipated from laboratory studies. This paper endeavours to resolve this apparent conundrum. It draws on the conclusions of recent research that has focussed on the role of surface finish, particularly cold work and residual stresses resulting from different fabrication processes, on the risk of initiating IGSCC in nickel base alloys in PWR primary water. It also draws on field experience of stress corrosion cracking that highlights the important role of surface finish for crack initiation. (author)

  17. Laboratory experiments on membrane filter sampling of airborne mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys atra corda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Nikulin, M.; Tuomainen, M.; Berg, S.; Parikka, P.; Hintikka, E.-L.

    A membrane filter method for sampling of airborne stachybotrystoxins was studied in the laboratory. Toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys atra on wallpaper, grain, hay and straw were used as toxin sources in the experiments. Air samples were collected on cellulose nitrate and polycarbonate membrane filters at air flow rates of 10-20 ℓ min -1. After the filter sampling, the air was passed through methanol. The results showed that stachybotrystoxins (trichothecenes) were concentrated in airborne fungal propagules, and thus can be collected on filters. Polycarbonate filters with a pore size of 0.2 μm collected the highest percentage of toxic samples. The laboratory experiments indicated that polycarbonate filter sampling for the collection of airborne mycotoxins is a promising method for extension to field measurements.

  18. Using Laboratory Experiments to Design Efficient Market Institutions: The case of wholesale electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Staropoli, Carine; Jullien, Celine

    2006-01-01

    International audience; This paper assesses the contribution of laboratory experiments to the economics of design applied to the electricity industry. The analysis is dedicated to wholesale markets, and reviews the results accumulated to date concerning both the general architecture of power markets and the very details of the market rules or institution, that is the auction rule. We argue that these experimental results contribute to a better understanding of the performances properties and ...

  19. Application of maximum entropy optimal projection design synthesis to the NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Dave; Davis, Larry

    1984-01-01

    The scope of this study covered steady-state, continuous-time vibration control under disturbances applied to the Space Shuttle and continuous-time models of actuators, sensors, and disturbances. Focus was on a clear illustration of the methodology, therefore sensor/actuator dynamics were initially ignored, and a finite element model of the NASA Spacecraft Control Laboratory Experiment (SCOLE) was conducted, including products of inertia and offset of reflector CM from the mast tip.

  20. A Laboratory experiment on vermicomposting of winery residues and sewage sledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriano, M. D.; Molina, M. J.; Llinares, J.; Pons, V.; Pallares, L.

    2009-07-01

    Organic waste addition to agricultural soils is proposed as a disposal strategy to improve the structural properties and organic matter content of soils. In this work, the results obtained after a vermicomposting process are reported. The process has been performed mixing rabitt crop wastes with increasing addition of either vinasse bio solids or municipal sewage sludges. For this purpose, a laboratory experiment was conducted in which both wastes were inoculated with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) and maintained under controlled conditions for 4 months. (Author)

  1. UBioLab: a web-LABoratory for Ubiquitous in-silico experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Bartocci, Ezio; Cacciagrano, Diletta; Di Berardini, Maria Rita; Merelli, Emanuela; Vito, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    The huge and dynamic amount of bioinformatic resources (e.g., data and tools) available nowadays in Internet represents a big challenge for biologists - for what concerns their management and visualization - and for bioinformaticians - for what concerns the possibility of rapidly creating and executing in-silico experiments involving resources and activities spread over the WWW hyperspace. Any framework aiming at integrating such resources as in a physical laboratory has imperatively to tackl...

  2. Laboratory experiments in the study of the chemistry of the outer planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, T. W.

    It is shown that much information about planetary chemistry and physics can be gained through laboratory work. The types of experiments relevant to planetary research concern fundamental properties, spectral/optical properties, 'Miller-Urey' syntheses, and detailed syntheses. Specific examples of studies of the chemistry in the atmosphere of Titan are described with attention given to gas phase chemistry in the troposphere and the composition of model Titan aerosols. A list of work that still needs to be done is provided.

  3. A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting...

  4. XperimentR: painless annotation of a biological experiment for the laboratory scientist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomlinson Chris D

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today’s biological experiments often involve the collaboration of multidisciplinary researchers utilising several high throughput ‘omics platforms. There is a requirement for the details of the experiment to be adequately described using standardised ontologies to enable data preservation, the analysis of the data and to facilitate the export of the data to public repositories. However there are a bewildering number of ontologies, controlled vocabularies, and minimum standards available for use to describe experiments. There is a need for user-friendly software tools to aid laboratory scientists in capturing the experimental information. Results A web application called XperimentR has been developed for use by laboratory scientists, consisting of a browser-based interface and server-side components which provide an intuitive platform for capturing and sharing experimental metadata. Information recorded includes details about the biological samples, procedures, protocols, and experimental technologies, all of which can be easily annotated using the appropriate ontologies. Files and raw data can be imported and associated with the biological samples via the interface, from either users’ computers, or commonly used open-source data repositories. Experiments can be shared with other users, and experiments can be exported in the standard ISA-Tab format for deposition in public databases. XperimentR is freely available and can be installed natively or by using a provided pre-configured Virtual Machine. A guest system is also available for trial purposes. Conclusion We present a web based software application to aid the laboratory scientist to capture, describe and share details about their experiments.

  5. Effect of Biochar on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Nitrogen Cycling in Laboratory and Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Harter, Johannes; Kaldamukova, Radina; Ruser, Reiner; Graeff-Hönninger, Simone; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers in agriculture is a major source of anthropogenic N2O emissions contributing 8% to global greenhouse gas emissions. Soil biochar amendment has been suggested as a means to reduce both CO2 and non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions. The reduction of N2O emissions by biochar has been demonstrated repeatedly in field and laboratory experiments. However, the mechanisms of the reduction remain unclear. Further it is not known how biochar field-weathering affects GHG emissions and how agro-chemicals, such as the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), that is often simultaneously applied together with commercial N-fertilizers, impact nitrogen transformation and N2O emissions from biochar amended soils. In order investigate the duration of the biochar effect on soil N2O emissions and its susceptibility to DMPP application we performed a microcosm and field study with a high-temperature (400 ° C) beech wood derived biochar (60 t ha-1 and 5 % (w/w) biochar in the field and microcosms, respectively). While the field site contained the biochar already for three years, soil and biochar were freshly mixed for the laboratory microcosm experiments. In both studies we quantified GHG emissions and soil nitrogen speciation (nitrate, nitrite, ammonium). While the field study was carried out over the whole vegetation period of the sunflower Helianthus annuus L., soil microcosm experiments were performed for up to 9 days at 28° C. In both experiments a N-fertilizer containing DMPP was applied either before planting of the sunflowers or at the beginning of soil microcosms incubation. Laboratory microcosm experiments were performed at 60% water filled pore space reflecting average field conditions. Our results show that biochar effectively reduced soil N2O emissions by up to 60 % in the field and in the soil microcosm experiments. No significant differences in N2O emission mitigation potential between field-aged and fresh

  6. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogi, Y., E-mail: kogi@fit.ac.jp; Higashi, T.; Matsukawa, S. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-0811 (Japan); Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5202 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  7. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, Y; Higashi, T; Matsukawa, S; Mase, A; Kohagura, J; Nagayama, Y; Kawahata, K; Kuwahara, D; Yoshikawa, M

    2014-11-01

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  8. Low-cost nonlinear optics experiment for undergraduate instructional laboratory and lecture demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchiello, Rozane de F.; Pereira, Luiz A. A.; Gómez, Sergio L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a simple and affordable experiment on the thermal lens effect, suitable for an undergraduate educational laboratory or as a tabletop demonstration in a lecture on nonlinear optics. Such an experiment exploits the formation of a lens in an absorbing medium illuminated by a laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. As an absorber, we use a commercial soy sauce, which exhibits a strong thermal lensing effect. Additionally, we show how to measure the radius of a Gaussian beam using the knife-edge method, and how to estimate the focal length of the induced thermal lens.

  9. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Matter Antimatter Asymmetries at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Parkes, Chris; Gutierrez, J

    2015-01-01

    This document is the student manual for a third year undergraduate laboratory experiment at the University of Manchester. This project aims to measure a fundamental difference between the behaviour of matter and antimatter through the analysis of data collected by the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The three-body dmecays $B^\\pm \\rightarrow h^\\pm h^+ h^-$, where $h^\\pm$ is a $\\pi^\\pm$ or $K^\\pm$ are studied. The inclusive matter antimatter asymmetry is calculated, and larger asymmetries are searched for in localized regions of the phase-space.

  10. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra [Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN Milano Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano,ITALY (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  11. Correlation of pre-earthquake electromagnetic signals with laboratory and field rock experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bleier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the 2007 M5.4 Alum Rock earthquake near San José California showed that magnetic pulsations were present in large numbers and with significant amplitudes during the 2 week period leading up the event. These pulsations were 1–30 s in duration, had unusual polarities (many with only positive or only negative polarities versus both polarities, and were different than other pulsations observed over 2 years of data in that the pulse sequence was sustained over a 2 week period prior to the quake, and then disappeared shortly after the quake. A search for the underlying physics process that might explain these pulses was was undertaken, and one theory (Freund, 2002 demonstrated that charge carriers were released when various types of rocks were stressed in a laboratory environment. It was also significant that the observed charge carrier generation was transient, and resulted in pulsating current patterns. In an attempt to determine if this phenomenon occurred outside of the laboratory environment, the authors scaled up the physics experiment from a relatively small rock sample in a dry laboratory setting, to a large 7 metric tonne boulder comprised of Yosemite granite. This boulder was located in a natural, humid (above ground setting at Bass Lake, Ca. The boulder was instrumented with two Zonge Engineering, Model ANT4 induction type magnetometers, two Trifield Air Ion Counters, a surface charge detector, a geophone, a Bruker Model EM27 Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectrometer with Sterling cycle cooler, and various temperature sensors. The boulder was stressed over about 8 h using expanding concrete (Bustartm, until it fractured into three major pieces. The recorded data showed surface charge build up, magnetic pulsations, impulsive air conductivity changes, and acoustical cues starting about 5 h before the boulder actually broke. These magnetic and air conductivity pulse signatures resembled both the laboratory

  12. Lower Hybrid Current Drive Experiments in Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Wilson, S. Bernabei, P. Bonoli, A. Hubbard, R. Parker, A. Schmidt, G. Wallace, J. Wright, and the Alcator C-Mod Team

    2007-10-09

    A Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system has been installed on the Alcator C-MOD tokamak at MIT. Twelve klystrons at 4.6 GHz feed a 4x22 waveguide array. This system was designed for maximum flexibility in the launched parallel wave-number spectrum. This flexibility allows tailoring of the lower hybrid deposition under a variety of plasma conditions. Power levels up to 900 kW have been injected into the tokomak. The parallel wave number has been varied over a wide range, n|| ~ 1.6–4. Driven currents have been inferred from magnetic measurements by extrapolating to zero loop voltage and by direct comparison to Fisch-Karney theory, yielding an efficiency of n20IR/P ~ 0.3. Modeling using the CQL3D code supports these efficiencies. Sawtooth oscillations vanish, accompanied with peaking of the electron temperature (Te0 rises from 2.8 to 3.8 keV). Central q is inferred to rise above unity from the collapse of the sawtooth inversion radius, indicating off-axis cd as expected. Measurements of non-thermal x-ray and electron cyclotron emission confirm the presence of a significant fast electron population that varies with phase and plasma density. The x-ray emission is observed to be radialy broader than that predicted by simple ray tracing codes. Possible explanations for this broader emission include fast electron diffusion or broader deposition than simple ray tracing predictions (perhaps due to diffractive effects).

  13. Current Status and Future Prospects of the SNO+ Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Andringa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SNO+ is a large liquid scintillator-based experiment located 2 km underground at SNOLAB, Sudbury, Canada. It reuses the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory detector, consisting of a 12 m diameter acrylic vessel which will be filled with about 780 tonnes of ultra-pure liquid scintillator. Designed as a multipurpose neutrino experiment, the primary goal of SNO+ is a search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay (0νββ of 130Te. In Phase I, the detector will be loaded with 0.3% natural tellurium, corresponding to nearly 800 kg of 130Te, with an expected effective Majorana neutrino mass sensitivity in the region of 55–133 meV, just above the inverted mass hierarchy. Recently, the possibility of deploying up to ten times more natural tellurium has been investigated, which would enable SNO+ to achieve sensitivity deep into the parameter space for the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy in the future. Additionally, SNO+ aims to measure reactor antineutrino oscillations, low energy solar neutrinos, and geoneutrinos, to be sensitive to supernova neutrinos, and to search for exotic physics. A first phase with the detector filled with water will begin soon, with the scintillator phase expected to start after a few months of water data taking. The 0νββ Phase I is foreseen for 2017.

  14. Laboratory evaporation experiments in undisturbed peat columns for determining peat soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, U.; Frahm, E.; Bechtold, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about hydraulic properties of organic soils is crucial for the interpretation of the hydrological situation in peatlands. This in turn is the basis for designing optimal rewetting strategies, for assessing the current and future climatic water balance and for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O, which are strongly controlled by the depth of the peat water table. In contrast to mineral soils, the hydraulic properties of organic soils differ in several aspects. Due to the high amount of organic components, strong heterogeneity, and shrinkage and swelling of peat, accompanied by changing soil volume and bulk density, the applicability of standard hydraulic functions developed for mineral soils for describing peat soil moisture dynamics is often questioned. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of the commonly applied van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) parameterization and to evaluate model errors for various peat types. Laboratory column experiments with undisturbed peat soils (diameter: 30 cm, height: 20 cm) from 5 different peatlands in Germany were conducted. In numerical simulations using HYDRUS-1D the experimental data were used for an inverse estimation of the soil hydraulic parameters. Using the VGM parameterization, the model errors between observed and measured pressure heads were quantified with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 20 - 65 cm. The RMSE increased for soils with higher organic carbon content and higher porosity. Optimizing the VGM 'tortuosity' parameter (τ) instead of fixing it to its default of 0.5 strongly reduced the RMSE, especially for the soils that showed high pressure head gradients during the experiment. Due to the fact, that very negative pressure heads in peatlands occur rarely, we reduced the range of pressured heads in the inversion to a 'field-relevant' range from 0 to -200 cm which strongly reduced the RMSE to 6 - 12 cm and makes the VGM parameterization applicable for all

  15. Design of a Flexible Hardware Interface for Multiple Remote Electronic practical Experiments of Virtual Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Said

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to present a new design of a Flexible Hardware Interface (FHI based on PID control techniques to use in a virtual laboratory. This flexible hardware interface allows the easy implementation of different and multiple remote electronic practical experiments for undergraduate engineering classes. This interface can be viewed as opened hardware architecture to easily develop simple or complex remote experiments in the electronic domain. The philosophy of the use of this interface can also be expanded to many other domains as optic experiments for instance. It is also demonstrated that software can be developed to enable remote measurements of electronic circuits or systems using only Web site Interface. Using standard browsers (such as Internet explorer, Firefox, Chrome or Safari, different students can have a remote access to different practical experiments at a time.

  16. Using polymer mats to biodegrade atrazine in groundwater: laboratory column experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, B. M.; Franzmann, P. D.; Davis, G. B.; Elbers, J.; Zappia, L. R.

    2002-02-01

    Large-scale column experiments were undertaken to evaluate the potential of in situ polymer mats to deliver oxygen into groundwater to induce biodegradation of the pesticides atrazine, terbutryn and fenamiphos contaminating groundwater in Perth, Western Australia. The polymer mats, composed of woven silicone (dimethylsiloxane) tubes and purged with air, were installed in 2-m-long flow-through soil columns. The polymer mats proved efficient in delivering dissolved oxygen to anaerobic groundwater. Dissolved oxygen concentrations increased from biodegradation rates, suggesting that organic carbon was not limiting biodegradation. Atrazine degradation rates estimated in the column experiments were similar to rates determined in laboratory culture experiments, using pure cultures of atrazine-mineralising bacteria. No significant degradation of terbutryn or fenamiphos was observed under the experimental conditions within the time frames of the study. Results from these experiments indicate that remediation of atrazine in a contaminated aquifer may be achievable by delivery of oxygen using an in situ polymer mat system.

  17. One-dimensional light localization with classical scatterers: An advanced undergraduate laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, K. J.; Barker, S.; Guthrie, J.; Hagood, B.; Havey, M. D.

    2016-10-01

    The phenomenon of electronic wave localization through disorder remains an important area of fundamental and applied research. Localization of all wave phenomena, including light, is thought to exist in a restricted one-dimensional geometry. We present here a series of experiments to illustrate, using a straightforward experimental arrangement and approach, the localization of light in a quasi-one-dimensional physical system. In the experiments, reflected and transmitted light from a stack of glass slides of varying thickness reveals an Ohm's law type behavior for small thicknesses, and evolution to exponential decay of the transmitted power for larger thicknesses. For larger stacks of slides, a weak departure from one-dimensional behavior is also observed. The experiment and analysis of the results, showing many of the essential features of wave localization, is relatively straightforward, economical, and suitable for laboratory experiments at an undergraduate level.

  18. Analysis of Currently Available Analgesic Tablets by Modern Liquid Chromatography: An Undergraduate Laboratory Introduction to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagel, R. A.; Farwell, S. O.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results, are provided for an undergraduate experiment in which analgesic tablets are analyzed using liquid chromatography. The experiment, an improved, modified version of the Waters Associates Inc. experiment, is simple to prepare, requiring little glassware and minimal sample manipulation by students. (JN)

  19. Analysis of Currently Available Analgesic Tablets by Modern Liquid Chromatography: An Undergraduate Laboratory Introduction to HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagel, R. A.; Farwell, S. O.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, procedures, and results, are provided for an undergraduate experiment in which analgesic tablets are analyzed using liquid chromatography. The experiment, an improved, modified version of the Waters Associates Inc. experiment, is simple to prepare, requiring little glassware and minimal sample manipulation by students. (JN)

  20. Therapeutic drug monitoring for imatinib: Current status and Indian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Brijesh; Gota, Vikram; Menon, Hari; Sengar, Manju; Nair, Reena; Patial, Pankaj; Banavali, S D

    2013-07-01

    Imatinib is the current gold standard for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Recent pharmacokinetic studies have shown considerable variability in trough concentrations of imatinib due to variations in its metabolism, poor compliance, or drug-drug interactions and highlighted its impact on clinical response. A trough level close to 1000 ng/mL, appears to be correlated with better cytogenetic and molecular responses. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) for imatinib may provide useful added information on efficacy, safety and compliance than clinical assessment alone and help in clinical decision making. It may be particularly helpful in patients with suboptimal response to treatment or treatment failure, severe or rare adverse events, possible drug interactions, or suspected nonadherence. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm relationship between imatinib plasma concentrations with response, and to define effective plasma concentrations in different patient populations.

  1. 76 FR 161 - Current List of Laboratories and Instrumented Initial Testing Facilities Which Meet Minimum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ....) Maxxam Analytics,\\*\\ 6740 Campobello Road, Mississauga, ON, Canada L5N 2L8.905-817-5700. (Formerly: Maxxam Analytics Inc., NOVAMANN (Ontario), Inc.) * The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its.... Toxicology & Drug Monitoring Laboratory, University of Missouri Hospital & Clinics, 301 Business Loop 70...

  2. Alternative donor transplants for severe aplastic anemia: current experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupo, Andrea; Sica, Simona

    2016-04-01

    Patients with acquired severe aplastic anemia (SAA), who lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling donor (SIB), have two therapeutic options: immunosuppressive therapy with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA), or a transplant from an alternative donor. In these patients, the current guidelines of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) call for a course of ATG + CsA first and transplantation in case of no response. The alternative donor source can be an unrelated donor (UD), a cord blood (CB) unit, or a family mismatched member, in most instances genetically HLA haplo-mismatched (HAPLO). In the present review, we will discuss recent results of transplants from matched UD and SIB donors, with significantly improved outcome, especially with UD in the past decade. We will also be looking at CB transplants, and the problems of limited stem cell dose. Finally HAPLO grafts have been explored in patients lacking or having rejected an unrelated or CB graft: early results seem encouraging, though the procedure should still be considered experimental.

  3. The current status of orbital experiments for UHECR studies

    CERN Document Server

    Panasyuk, M I; Garipov, G K; Ebisuzaki, T; Gorodetzky, P; Khrenov, B A; Klimov, P A; Morozenko, V S; Sakaki, N; Saprykin, O A; Sharakin, S A; Takizawa, Y; Tkachev, L G; Yashin, I V; Zotov, M Yu

    2015-01-01

    Two types of orbital detectors of extreme energy cosmic rays are being developed nowadays: (i) TUS and KLYPVE with reflecting optical systems (mirrors) and (ii) JEM-EUSO with high-transmittance Fresnel lenses. They will cover much larger areas than existing ground-based arrays and almost uniformly monitor the celestial sphere. The TUS detector is the pioneering mission developed in SINP MSU in cooperation with several Russian and foreign institutions. It has relatively small field of view (+/-4.5 deg), which corresponds to a ground area of 6.4x10^3 sq.km. The telescope consists of a Fresnel-type mirror-concentrator (~2 sq.m) and a photo receiver (a matrix of 16x16 photomultiplier tubes). It is to be deployed on the Lomonosov satellite, and is currently at the final stage of preflight tests. Recently, SINP MSU began the KLYPVE project to be installed on board of the Russian segment of the ISS. The optical system of this detector contains a larger primary mirror (10 sq.m), which allows decreasing the energy thr...

  4. Current experience with computed tomographic cystography and blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deck, A J; Shaves, S; Talner, L; Porter, J R

    2001-12-01

    We present our experience with computed tomographic (CT) cystography for the diagnosis of bladder rupture in patients with blunt abdominal and pelvic trauma and compare the results of CT cystography to operative exploration. We identified all blunt trauma patients diagnosed with bladder rupture from January 1992 to September 1998. We also reviewed the radiology computerized information system (RIS) for all CT cystograms performed for the evaluation of blunt trauma during the same time period. The medical records and pertinent radiographs of the patients with bladder rupture who underwent CT cystography as part of their admission evaluation were reviewed. Operative findings were compared to radiographic findings. Altogether, 316 patients had CT cystograms as part of an initial evaluation for blunt trauma. Of these patients, 44 had an ultimate diagnosis of bladder rupture; 42 patients had CT cystograms indicating bladder rupture. A total of 28 patients underwent formal bladder exploration; 23 (82%) had operative findings that exactly (i.e., presence and type of rupture) matched the CT cystogram interpretation. The overall sensitivity and specificity of CT cystography for detection of bladder rupture were 95% and 100%, respectively. For intraperitoneal rupture, the sensitivity and specificity were 78% and 99%, respectively. CT cystography provides an expedient evaluation for bladder rupture caused by blunt trauma and has an accuracy comparable to that reported for plain film cystography. We recommend CT cystography over plain film cystography for patients undergoing CT evaluation for other blunt trauma-related injuries.

  5. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Cheberyako

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on the socio-economic development. Studied the European countries model of local budgets. The features of formation of revenues of local budgets under decentralization. The role in shaping tax revenues of local budgets in foreign countries and Ukraine. The analysis of state policy of financial support for regional development in Ukraine. The structure of tax revenue in the context of changes in the budget and tax legislation in a decentralized tax powers. Systematized features of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine. Problems and grounded main ways of optimizing the formation of local budgets in a decentralized tax powers. Formed selection of areas targeted as ways to increase economic and financial independence of regions of Ukraine.

  6. A comparison of traditional physical laboratory and computer-simulated laboratory experiences in relation to engineering undergraduate students' conceptual understandings of a communication systems topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Giti

    2005-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate an alternative to the use of traditional physical laboratory activities in a communication systems course. Specifically, this study examined whether as an alternative, computer simulation is as effective as physical laboratory activities in teaching college-level electronics engineering education students about the concepts of signal transmission, modulation and demodulation. Eighty undergraduate engineering students participated in the study, which was conducted at a southeastern four-year university. The students were randomly assigned to two groups. The groups were compared on understanding the concepts, remembering the concepts, completion time of the lab experiments and perception toward the laboratory experiments. The physical group's (n = 40) treatment was to conduct laboratory experiments in a physical laboratory. The students in this group used equipment in a controlled electronics laboratory. The Simulation group's (n = 40) treatment was to conduct similar experiments in a PC laboratory. The students in this group used a simulation program in a controlled PC lab. At the completion of the treatment, scores on a validated conceptual test were collected once after the treatment and again three weeks after the treatment. Attitude surveys and qualitative study were administered at the completion of the treatment. The findings revealed significant differences, in favor of the simulation group, between the two groups on both the conceptual post-test and the follow-up test. The findings also revealed significant correlation between simulation groups' attitude toward the simulation program and their post-test scores. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the two groups on their attitude toward their laboratory experience in favor of the simulation group. In addition, there was significant difference between the two groups on their lab completion time in favor of the simulation group. At the same time, the

  7. Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Subsurface Flow and Transport Resulting from Tank Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.

    2014-09-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct laboratory experiments and supporting numerical simulations to improve the understanding of water flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface between waste tanks and ancillary facilities at Waste Management Area C. The work scope included two separate sets of experiments: •Small flow cell experiments to investigate the occurrence of potential unstable fingering resulting from leaks and the limitations of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator to predict flow patterns and solute transport behavior under these conditions. Unstable infiltration may, under certain conditions, create vertically elongated fingers potentially transporting contaminants rapidly through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. The types of leak that may create deeply penetrating fingers include slow release, long duration leaks in relatively permeable porous media. Such leaks may have occurred below waste tanks at the Hanford Site. •Large flow experiments to investigate the behavior of two types of tank leaks in a simple layered system mimicking the Waste Management Area C. The investigated leaks include a relatively large leak with a short duration from a tank and a long duration leak with a relatively small leakage rate from a cascade line.

  8. A Loop Current experiment: Field and remote measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis; Sheinbaum, Julio

    2016-12-01

    An overview of a new comprehensive observational study of the Loop Current (LC) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico that encompassed full-depth and near-bottom moorings, pressure-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) and remote sensing is presented. The study array was designed to encompass the LC from the Campeche Bank to the west Florida escarpment. This overview centers about principal findings as they pertain to mesoscale dynamics. Two companion papers provide in-depth analyses. Three LC anticyclonic eddy separation events were observed with good 3D spatial coverage over the 2½ year extent of the field study; the three separations exhibited similar processes after the LC had extended into the eastern Gulf. Large scale (∼300 km wavelength, 40-60 day periods) southward propagating meanders developed on the eastern side of the LC over deep (∼3000 m) water that were the result of baroclinic instability between the upper layer meandering jet and lower layer cyclones and anticyclones. The lower layer was only highly energetic during relatively short (∼2-3 months) intervals just prior to or during eddy detachments because of baroclinic instability. The steepening of the meanders lead to a pinch-off of LC eddies. The deep lower-layer eddies, constrained by the closed topography of the southeastern Gulf, propagated westward across the detachment zone and appear to assist in achieving separation. Small scale (∼50-100 km, periods ∼10 days) frontal eddies, observed on the western side of the LC along the Campeche Bank slope, decay over the deep water of the northern part of an extended LC, and have little influence on lower layer eddies, the east side meanders and the eddy detachment processes.

  9. Fault healing promotes high-frequency earthquakes in laboratory experiments and on natural faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Thomas, Amanda M.; Glaser, Steven D.; Nadeau, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Faults strengthen or heal with time in stationary contact and this healing may be an essential ingredient for the generation of earthquakes. In the laboratory, healing is thought to be the result of thermally activated mechanisms that weld together micrometre-sized asperity contacts on the fault surface, but the relationship between laboratory measures of fault healing and the seismically observable properties of earthquakes is at present not well defined. Here we report on laboratory experiments and seismological observations that show how the spectral properties of earthquakes vary as a function of fault healing time. In the laboratory, we find that increased healing causes a disproportionately large amount of high-frequency seismic radiation to be produced during fault rupture. We observe a similar connection between earthquake spectra and recurrence time for repeating earthquake sequences on natural faults. Healing rates depend on pressure, temperature and mineralogy, so the connection between seismicity and healing may help to explain recent observations of large megathrust earthquakes which indicate that energetic, high-frequency seismic radiation originates from locations that are distinct from the geodetically inferred locations of large-amplitude fault slip

  10. Program experience with micronutrient powders and current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; dePee, Saskia; Kraemer, Klaus; Steiger, Georg; Bloem, Martin W; Spiegel, Paul; Wilkinson, Caroline; Bilukha, Oleg

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of micronutrient powders (MNP) in the treatment of anemia in moderately anemic children aged 6-24 mo has been clearly demonstrated. The evidence of the effectiveness of MNP in large-scale programs, however, is scarce. This article describes the program experience and findings of large-scale MNP distribution in refugee camps and in an emergency context in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Kenya. The MNP contained 15-16 micronutrients as per the WHO/World Food Programme/UNICEF joint statement, whereas the iron content was reduced to 2.5 mg from NaFeEDTA in a malaria-endemic area in Kenya. Hundreds of thousands of children aged 6-59 mo and pregnant and lactating women were targeted to consume MNP either daily or every other day over an extended period of time. Extensive social marketing campaigns were undertaken to promote regular use of the product. A number of studies were embedded in the programs to assess the impact of MNP on the nutritional status of target beneficiaries. Some improvements in anemia prevalence estimates were observed in particular subgroups, but other results did not show significant improvements. A significant decrease in the prevalence of stunting was observed in Nepal and Kenya but not in Bangladesh. Diarrhea episodes decreased significantly among children receiving MNP in Nepal. A key challenge is to ensure high MNP acceptance and adherence among beneficiaries. Investigation of non-nutritional causes of anemia is warranted in settings with high compliance but no improvement in hemoglobin status. Further investigation into the most appropriate manner to use MNP in malaria endemic settings is warranted.

  11. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koenen, K.; Uttenthal, Åse; Meindl-Böhmer, A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning...... of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those...

  12. Evidence of lead biomagnification in invertebrate predators from laboratory and field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Franchini, Isidoro [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Avenida Universidad 940, CP 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Rico-Martinez, Roberto, E-mail: rrico@correo.uaa.mx [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Avenida Universidad 940, CP 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico)

    2011-07-15

    This report includes atomic absorption data from water column, elutriates and zooplankton that demonstrate that lead biomagnifies at El Niagara reservoir, Mexico. Results include field data (bioaccumulation factors) (BAFs) and laboratory data (bioconcentration factors) (BCFs). Two findings: high BAFs for invertebrate predator like Acanthocyclops robustus, Asplanchna brightwellii, Culex sp. larvae, and Hyalella azteca, compared to grazer species Moina micrura and Simocephalus vetulus; low BCF's found for some predators, suggested that lead biomagnifications were taking place. The presence of Moina micrura in the gut of Asplanchna allowed us to design experiments where A. brightwellii was fed lead-exposed M. micrura neonates. The BAF of Asplanchna was 123,684, BCF was 490. Asplanchna individuals fed exposed Moina had 13.31 times more lead than Asplanchna individuals just exposed 48-h to lead, confirming that lead biomagnification occurs. Results of two fish species showed no lead biomagnification, suggesting that lead biomagnification might be restricted to invertebrate predators. - Highlights: > Study shows lead biomagnification evidence in reservoirs where top predators are invertebrates. > Study discusses why in previous studies lead biomagnifications were not detected. > Evidence of biomagnification comes from field and laboratory studies. - This study shows evidence (from field and laboratory experiments) of lead biomagnification in a freshwater reservoir where the main predators are invertebrates.

  13. Crack-Detection Experiments on Simulated Turbine Engine Disks in NASA Glenn Research Center's Rotordynamics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woike, Mark R.; Abdul-Aziz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The development of new health-monitoring techniques requires the use of theoretical and experimental tools to allow new concepts to be demonstrated and validated prior to use on more complicated and expensive engine hardware. In order to meet this need, significant upgrades were made to NASA Glenn Research Center s Rotordynamics Laboratory and a series of tests were conducted on simulated turbine engine disks as a means of demonstrating potential crack-detection techniques. The Rotordynamics Laboratory consists of a high-precision spin rig that can rotate subscale engine disks at speeds up to 12,000 rpm. The crack-detection experiment involved introducing a notch on a subscale engine disk and measuring its vibration response using externally mounted blade-tip-clearance sensors as the disk was operated at speeds up to 12 000 rpm. Testing was accomplished on both a clean baseline disk and a disk with an artificial crack: a 50.8-mm- (2-in.-) long introduced notch. The disk s vibration responses were compared and evaluated against theoretical models to investigate how successful the technique was in detecting cracks. This paper presents the capabilities of the Rotordynamics Laboratory, the baseline theory and experimental setup for the crack-detection experiments, and the associated results from the latest test campaign.

  14. Current experience with renal transplantation across the ABO barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P W; Helling, T S; Shield, C F; Beck, M; Bryan, C F

    1992-11-01

    Solid organ transplantation has traditionally been governed by the rules of blood group compatibility. Thus, it has been demonstrated that crossing the ABO blood group barrier generally results in hyperacute rejection. However, the A2 subtype of the blood group A is a weaker antigen. Under certain circumstances, organs from donors with blood group A2 can be transplanted across the ABO blood group barrier into recipients of O or B blood type. Since 1986, 33 patients including 24 blood group O and 9 blood group B patients received A2 (30) or A2B (3) donor kidneys. Both cadaver donor (31) and living-related grafts (2) have been undertaken. The mean follow-up since transplantation for the 21 patients with functioning grafts is 36 months, with a 67.2% current graft survival. Immunosuppression for these transplants consisted of azathioprine, prednisone, and cyclosporine, often in combination with prophylactic OKT3 or antilymphocyte globulin as protocol dictated. Special immunosuppressive protocols such as splenectomy or plasmapheresis were not used. The serum of the potential recipient was analyzed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) forms of antibody against A1 and A2 red blood cells. There is a strong correlation between a low (less than or equal to 1:8) anti-A1 IgG titer and both early and long-term graft function. Recipients with an IgG titer greater than 1:8 in the pretransplant serum had a much higher incidence of early graft failure. We no longer recommend transplantation of A2 kidneys into O or B recipients with a pretransplant titer of greater than 1:8 but found that recipients with low titers have graft function rates essentially equal to those of ABO-compatible patients. Patients with blood group B have, over time, lower anti-A IgG titers than do blood group O patients. In addition, the graft survival among blood group B patients is 89% compared with 58% among group O recipients. This may be due to the generally low titers found in blood

  15. [Evoked potentials in intracranial operations: current status and our experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, H E; Hess, W; Pohlen, G; Marggraf, G; Rimpel, J

    1987-03-01

    Intraoperative neuromonitoring, especially evoked potential monitoring, has gained interest in recent years for both the anesthesiologist evaluating cerebral function and the neurosurgeon wishing to avoid neuronal lesions during intracranial operations. Before evoked potential monitoring can be introduced as a routine method of intraoperative management, experience with this method particularly in intensive care units, is imperative. We recorded evoked potentials with the Compact Four (Nicolet) and Basis 8000 (Schwarzer Picker International) computer systems. Preoperative derivations should be done with the same apparatus used intraoperatively and parameters of peri- and intraoperative derivations should not be changed. The patient's head must be fixed in a Mayfield clamp in order to avoid artefacts during trepanation. The possible artefacts due to apparatus, patient, or anesthesia are summarized in the tables. The derivations of evoked potentials should be supervised by a person who is not involved in the anesthesia or the surgical procedure; this condition may change in the future with full automatization of the recording technique and alarms. Good communication between surgeon, anesthesiologist, and neurophysiological assistant is a prerequisite. The modality is chosen in accordance with the affected neuronal system: visual-evoked potential (VEP) monitoring in the management of processes affecting the visual pathway, brain stem auditory-(BAER) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring in lesions affecting these pathways, in particular space-occupying lesions of the posterior fossa. VEP monitoring may be useful, but we observed alterations of the responses without changes in the level of anesthesia or manipulation of the visual pathways. In space-occupying processes of the cerebellopontine angle, BAER could not be developed in nearly all cases because the large underlying tumor had caused the disappearance of waves II-V. In these cases SSEP monitoring

  16. Large-scale laboratory testing of bedload-monitoring technologies: overview of the StreamLab06 Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Jeffrey D.G.; Gray, John R.; Davis, Broderick E.; Ellis, Chris; Johnson, Sara; Gray, John R.; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Marr, Jeffrey D.G.

    2010-01-01

    A 3-month-long, large-scale flume experiment involving research and testing of selected conventional and surrogate bedload-monitoring technologies was conducted in the Main Channel at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory under the auspices of the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics. These experiments, dubbed StreamLab06, involved 25 researchers and volunteers from academia, government, and the private sector. The research channel was equipped with a sediment-recirculation system and a sediment-flux monitoring system that allowed continuous measurement of sediment flux in the flume and provided a data set by which samplers were evaluated. Selected bedload-measurement technologies were tested under a range of flow and sediment-transport conditions. The experiment was conducted in two phases. The bed material in phase I was well-sorted siliceous sand (0.6-1.8 mm median diameter). A gravel mixture (1-32 mm median diameter) composed the bed material in phase II. Four conventional bedload samplers – a standard Helley-Smith, Elwha, BLH-84, and Toutle River II (TR-2) sampler – were manually deployed as part of both experiment phases. Bedload traps were deployed in study Phase II. Two surrogate bedload samplers – stationarymounted down-looking 600 kHz and 1200 kHz acoustic Doppler current profilers – were deployed in experiment phase II. This paper presents an overview of the experiment including the specific data-collection technologies used and the ambient hydraulic, sediment-transport and environmental conditions measured as part of the experiment. All data collected as part of the StreamLab06 experiments are, or will be available to the research community.

  17. First results of the IGEX dark matter experiment at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebrian, S.; Morales, A.; Aalseth, C.E.; Avignone, F.T.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Garcia, E.; Gonzalez, D.; Hensley, W.K.; Irastorza, I.G.; Kirpichnikov, I.V.; Klimenko, A.A.; Miley, H.S.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Osetrov, S.B.; Pogosov, V.S.; Puimedon, J.; Reeves, J.H.; Sarsa, M.L.; Scopel, S.; Smolnikov, A.A.; Tamanyan, A.G.; Vasenko, A.A.; Vasiliev, S.I.; Villar, J.A

    2001-04-01

    The enriched {sup 76}Ge double-beta decay detectors from the International Germanium EXperiment (IGEX), operating in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory with an overbuden of 2450 m.w.e., were recently upgraded to use them also in a search for WIMPs. This paper presents a description of the experiment and the data analysis as well as a new exclusion plot, {sigma}(m), derived from the IGEX data for WIMP-nucleon spin-independent interaction. To obtain this result, 30 days of data from one 2-kg IGEX detector, with an energy threshold E{sub thr} {approx} 4 keV, have been considered. These results improve the exclusion limits derived from other conventional ionization germanium experiments in the {approx} 50 GeV DAMA region.

  18. Neutron background at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory and its contribution to the IGEX-DM dark matter experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Carmona, J M; García, E; Irastorza, I G; Luzón, G; Morales, A; Morales, J; De Solorzano, A O; Puimedón, J; Sarsa, M L; Villar, J A

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative study of the neutron environment in the Canfranc Underground Laboratory has been performed. The analysis is based on a complete set of simulations and, particularly, it is focused on the IGEX-DM dark matter experiment. The simulations are compared to the IGEX-DM low energy data obtained with different shielding conditions. The results of the study allow us to conclude, with respect to the IGEX-DM background, that the main neutron population, coming from radioactivity from the surrounding rock, is practically eliminated after the implementation of a suitable neutron shielding. The remaining neutron background (muon-induced neutrons in the shielding and in the rock) is substantially below the present background level thanks to the muon veto system. In addition, the present analysis gives us a further insight on the effect of neutrons in other current and future experiments at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. The comparison of simulations with the body of data available has allowed to set the ...

  19. Investigating Controls on Denitrification Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge: Linking Field and Laboratory Column Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Karim, P.; Saltikov, C.; Hernandez, J.; Fisher, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    We present initial results from a series of laboratory column experiments aimed at elucidating the underlying controls on water quality improvement during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). During field infiltration experiments, we have observed decreases in nitrate (NO3-) concentrations of up to 20% at infiltration rates as high as 15 m/day in the presence of woodchips, but no nitrate removal in the absence of woodchips at slower infiltration rates. These results suggest that the extent of nitrate removal is strongly influenced by the rate of infiltrating water and the presence of a carbon amendment in the form of redwood chips or biochar, which facilitates microbial processing. We probe these relationships at a finer spatial scale with laboratory flow-through column experiments. The columns are constructed as analogues to field experiments, with fluid and substrate sampled directly from field sites. Each day, we sample fluid along the length of the column during experiments to analyze for nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved organic carbon, in order to track changes in redox conditions and biogeochemistry. The experimental setup allows us to finely control the fluid flow rate and fluid residence time, in order to quantify the relationship between nitrate removal rate and total infiltration rate over a wider range of conditions than is possible during field studies. To determine how the addition of reactive media might increase nitrate removal rates, we conduct side-by-side comparisons of native soil and soil amended with a carbon source. We also analyze changes in nitrate isotope enrichment and microbial ecology to gain a better understanding of the microbial processes and communities responsible for nitrate removal. These field and lab experiments are helping us learn how fluid flow rate, soil type, and availability of carbon sources influences nitrate removal during infiltration for MAR, which can improve the quality of MAR water resources.

  20. Randomized block experimental designs can increase the power and reproducibility of laboratory animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized block experimental designs have been widely used in agricultural and industrial research for many decades. Usually they are more powerful, have higher external validity, are less subject to bias, and produce more reproducible results than the completely randomized designs typically used in research involving laboratory animals. Reproducibility can be further increased by using time as a blocking factor. These benefits can be achieved at no extra cost. A small experiment investigating the effect of an antioxidant on the activity of a liver enzyme in four inbred mouse strains, which had two replications (blocks) separated by a period of two months, illustrates this approach. The widespread failure to use these designs more widely in research involving laboratory animals has probably led to a substantial waste of animals, money, and scientific resources and slowed down the development of new treatments for human and animal diseases.

  1. Iceberg capsize hydrodynamics: a comparison of laboratory experiments and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, J. C.; Cathles, L. M.; Correa-Legisos, S.; Ellowitz, J.; Darnell, K.; Zhang, W. W.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Large icebergs are often observed to capsize in open water near fjords. During capsize, large amounts of gravitational potential energy are released which can lead to coastal tsunamis, mixing of the water column, and possibly lead to further calving at the glacier terminus. This process is rarely studied; in nature the scale and irregular timing of the events makes observations exceedingly difficult. Here we compare laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the capsize process to better understand the coupling of the hydrodynamic forces to the solid iceberg. Although the characteristic Reynolds number is much lower for both the laboratory model and the numerical simulations, the comparison provides a starting point to quantify and identify generic features that can be estimated in the field, such as hydrodynamic pressure, water flow velocities, vertical mixing, and elastic stresses on the iceberg itself, which could lead to fracture.

  2. Determining the EDTA Content in a Consumer Shower Cleaner. An Introductory Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, Willis A.

    2000-10-01

    At Altoona College, Chemistry 11 is offered to students as a preparatory course for the University's Chemical Principles course, Chem 12. A relevant laboratory is a source of motivation for the students to learn the chemistry. One way of making the laboratory relevant is to analyze the chemical components of consumer products. Several new shower-cleaning products have been introduced, which advertise that cleaning the shower is no longer necessary. The cleaners work using a combination of surfactants, alcohols, and a chelating agent. The Web site of a popular shower cleaner lists EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate ion) as the chelating agent. The classic EDTA/calcium complexometric titration can be used to determine the EDTA content of the cleaner. This article describes the experiment to determine the EDTA content in a shower-cleaning product.

  3. Flyer-Plate-Based Current Diagnostic for Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneker, Joseph; Gomez, Matthew; Hess, Mark; Jennings, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    Accurate measurements of the current delivered to Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion (MagLIF) loads on the Z machine are important for understanding the dynamics of liner implosions. Difficulty acquiring a reliable load current measurement with the standard Z load B-dots has spurred the development of alternative load current diagnostics. Velocimetry of an electromagnetically-accelerated flyer plate can be used to infer the drive current on a flyer surface. A load current diagnostic design is proposed using a cylindrical flyer plate in series with the MagLIF target. Aspects of the flyer plate design were optimized using magnetohydrodynamic simulations. Design and preliminary results will be presented. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Experiment Laboratory engineering concepts/design tradeoffs. Volume 1: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, R. V.; Eaton, L. R.; Wilkinson, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    The work is summarized which was accomplished from January 1974 to October 1974 for the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory. The definition and development of an atmospheric cloud physics laboratory and the selection and delineation of candidate experiments that require the unique environment of zero gravity or near zero gravity are reported. The experiment program and the laboratory concept for a Spacelab payload to perform cloud microphysics research are defined. This multimission laboratory is planned to be available to the entire scientific community to utilize in furthering the basic understanding of cloud microphysical processes and phenomenon, thereby contributing to improved weather prediction and ultimately to provide beneficial weather control and modification.

  5. Diffusion Experiments with Opalinus and Callovo-Oxfordian Clays: Laboratory, Large-Scale Experiments and Microscale Analysis by RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Alonso, U.; Missana, T.; Cormenzana, J.L.; Mingarro, M.; Morejon, J.; Gil, P.

    2009-09-25

    Consolidated clays are potential host rocks for deep geological repositories for high-level radioactive waste. Diffusion is the main transport process for radionuclides (RN) in these clays. Radionuclide (RN) diffusion coefficients are the most important parameters for Performance Assessment (PA) calculations of clay barriers. Different diffusion methodologies were applied at a laboratory scale to analyse the diffusion behaviour of a wide range of RN. Main aims were to understand the transport properties of different RNs in two different clays and to contribute with feasible methodologies to improve in-situ diffusion experiments, using samples of larger scale. Classical laboratory essays and a novel experimental set-up for large-scale diffusion experiments were performed, together to a novel application of the nuclear ion beam technique Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), for diffusion analyses at the micrometer scale. The main experimental and theoretical characteristics of the different methodologies, and their advantages and limitations are here discussed. Experiments were performed with the Opalinus and the Callovo-Oxfordian clays. Both clays are studied as potential host rock for a repository. Effective diffusion coefficients ranged between 1.10{sup -}10 to 1.10{sup -}12 m{sup 2}/s for neutral, low sorbing cations (as Na and Sr) and anions. Apparent diffusion coefficients for strongly sorbing elements, as Cs and Co, are in the order of 1.10-13 m{sup 2}/s; europium present the lowest diffusion coefficient (5.10{sup -}15 m{sup 2}/s). The results obtained by the different approaches gave a comprehensive database of diffusion coefficients for RN with different transport behaviour within both clays. (Author) 42 refs.

  6. Fusion virtual laboratory: The experiments' collaboration platform in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, H., E-mail: nakanisi@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kojima, M.; Takahashi, C.; Ohsuna, M.; Imazu, S.; Nonomura, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Hasegawa, M. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8560 (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [PRC, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    'Fusion virtual laboratory (FVL)' is the experiments' collaboration platform covering multiple fusion projects in Japan. Major Japanese fusion laboratories and universities are mutually connected through the dedicated virtual private network, named SNET, on SINET4. It has 3 different categories; (i) LHD remote participation, (ii) bilateral experiments' collaboration, and (iii) remote use of supercomputer. By extending the LABCOM data system developed at LHD, FVL supports (i) and (ii) so that it can deal with not only LHD data but also the data of two remote experiments: QUEST at Kyushu University and GAMMA10 at University of Tsukuba. FVL has applied the latest 'cloud' technology for both data acquisition and storage architecture. It can provide us high availability and performance scalability of the whole system. With a well optimized TCP data transferring method, the unified data access platform for both experimental data and numerical computation results could become realistic on FVL. The FVL project will continue demonstrating the ITER-era international collaboration schemes and the necessary technology.

  7. Colonization by aerobic bacteria in karst: Laboratory and in situ experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personne, J.-C.; Poty, F.; Mahler, B.J.; Drogue, C.

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the potential for bacterial colonization of different substrates in karst aquifers and the nature of the colonizing bacteria. Laboratory batch experiments were performed using limestone and PVC as substrates, a natural bacterial isolate and a known laboratory strain (Escherichia coli [E. coli]) as inocula, and karst ground water and a synthetic formula as growth media. In parallel, fragments of limestone and granite were submerged in boreholes penetrating two karst aquifers for more than one year; the boreholes are periodically contaminated by enteric bacteria from waste water. Once a month, rock samples were removed and the colonizing bacteria quantified and identified. The batch experiments demonstrated that the natural isolate and E. coli both readily colonized limestone surfaces using karst ground water as the growth medium. In contrast, bacterial colonization of both the limestone and granite substrates, when submerged in the karst, was less intense. More than 300 bacterial strains were isolated over the period sampled, but no temporal pattern in colonization was seen as far as strain, and colonization by E. coli was notably absent, although strains of Salmonella and Citrobacter were each observed once. Samples suspended in boreholes penetrating highly fractured zones were less densely colonized than those in the borehole penetrating a less fractured zone. The results suggest that contamination of karst aquifers by enteric bacteria is unlikely to be persistent. We hypothesize that this may be a result of the high flow velocities found in karst conduits, and of predation of colonizing bacteria by autochthonous zooplankton.

  8. Modeling extreme wave heights from laboratory experiments with the nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. D.; Guedes Soares, C.; Cherneva, Z.; Onorato, M.

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variation of nonlinear wave groups with different initial envelope shapes is theoretically studied first, confirming that the simplest nonlinear theoretical model is capable of describing the evolution of propagating wave packets in deep water. Moreover, three groups of laboratory experiments run in the wave basin of CEHIPAR (Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinámicas de El Pardo, known also as El Pardo Model Basin) was founded in 1928 by the Spanish Navy. are systematically compared with the numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Although a little overestimation is detected, especially in the set of experiments characterized by higher initial wave steepness, the numerical simulation still displays a high degree of agreement with the laboratory experiments. Therefore, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation catches the essential characteristics of the extreme waves and provides an important physical insight into their generation. The modulation instability, resulting from the quasi-resonant four-wave interaction in a unidirectional sea state, can be indicated by the coefficient of kurtosis, which shows an appreciable correlation with the extreme wave height and hence is used in the modified Edgeworth-Rayleigh distribution. Finally, some statistical properties on the maximum wave heights in different sea states have been related with the initial Benjamin-Feir index.

  9. Current research on cigarette toxicity: critical appraisal in view of clinical laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajwal Gyawali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking has been implicated as a potential risk factor for development and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and cardiovascular disease (CVD, including ischemic heart disease. Although, several methods are in existence to measuring cigarette toxicity, evidence regarding adoption of a gold standard technique is still imprecise. In this study, we reviewed articles describing methods of measuring cigarette toxicity in relation to clinical laboratory practice. A critical analysis of the benefits and limitations of each method in relation to low-middle income countries is discussed. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 1785-1793

  10. Observations of wind-generated waves on variable current. [laboratory ocean dynamics for water wave generator research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. R.; Huang, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory measurements utilizing a laser probe are made for the slopes of wind waves generated on both positive and negative currents at different values of fetch. The data are then processed electronically to yield an average wave-slope spectrum in frequency space with 128 degrees of freedom. These spectra are used to obtain the growth of the spectral components at various frequency bands for increasing wind and different values of fetch and current. The results indicate that the growth of these components is not monotonic with the frictional wind speed, but rather exhibits an 'overshoot' phenomena at lower values of frictional wind speed, and in addition, displays a significant effect due to current. The peak location and spectral intensity of the spectra also show strong influence by the current condition. This results in the rms surface slope value increasing with negative current and decreasing with positive current. The results agree qualitatively with some theoretical predictions. The potential use of the current-induced effects as a means for remote sensing of ocean current is also briefly discussed.

  11. A Model Computing Laboratory for University Schools of Nursing: The Michigan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Samuel

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an historical view of a prototype four-phase developmental system for university level instruction in computing and data analysis for nursing curricula. Specific hardware, instrumented classrooms and computing laboratory designs are discussed as they relate to typical program growth. Although the historical view presents a system which spans more than 13 years of growth, the paper concludes with a presentation of the current state-of-the-art microcomputer system and an archetypical four-phase system model potentially useful for other health science computing curricula.

  12. Laboratory Automation and Intra-Laboratory Turnaround Time: Experience at the University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; De Cesaris, Marina; Hart, Jonathan George; Urbano, Michele; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Fragliasso, Fulvio; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2015-12-01

    Intra-laboratory turnaround time (TAT) is a key indicator of laboratory performance. Improving TAT is a complex task requiring staff education, equipment acquisition, and adequate TAT monitoring. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intra-laboratory TAT after laboratory automation implementation (June 2013-June 2014) and to compare it to that in the preautomation period (July 2012-May 2013). Intra-laboratory TAT was evaluated both as the mean TAT registered and the percentage of outlier (OP) exams. The mean TAT was 36, 38, and 34 min during the study periods, respectively. These values respected the goal TAT established at 45 min. The OP, calculated at 45 min as well as at 60 min, decreased from 26 to 21 and from 11 to 5, respectively. From a focused analysis on blood count cell, troponin I, and prothrombin (PT) test, TAT improvement was more evident for tests requiring longer preanalytical process. The follow-up of TAT from June 2013 to June 2014 revealed the reduction of the mean TAT as well as of the OP exams after automation implementation and that automation more strongly affects the test in the preanalytical phase including centrifugation of the sample, such as troponin I and PT.

  13. Evaluation of the use of surrogate Laminaria digitata in eco-hydraulic laboratory experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL Maike; HENRY Pierre-Yves T

    2014-01-01

    Inert surrogates can avoid husbandry and adaptation problems of live vegetation in laboratories. Surrogates are generally used for experiments on vegetation-hydrodynamics interactions, but it is unclear how well they replicate field conditions. Here, surrogates for the brown macroalgae Laminaria digitata were developed to reproduce its hydraulic roughness. Plant shape, stiffness and buoyancy of L. digitata were evaluated and compared to the properties of inert materials. Different surrogate materials and shapes were exposed to unidirectional flow. It is concluded that buoyancy is an important factor in low flow conditions and a basic shape might be sufficient to model complex shaped plants resulting in the same streamlined shape.

  14. An Laboratory Experiment for Comparing Effectiveness of Three Types of Online Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Lin; WANG Kanliang

    2008-01-01

    The widespread use of Internet accelerates the rapid development of business to customer electronic commerce. To reduce information overload and help their customers to make better purchase decisions, e-commerce websites are beginning to use online recommendations. This paper compares the effectiveness of three types of online recommendations, the personalized recommendation, best sellers, and consumers' reviews, which are widely used in e-commerce. This research used a laboratory experiment combined with a questionnaire. This paper also establishes an integrated model of the facts that influence recommendation effectiveness.

  15. An experiment towards characterizing seahorse sound in a laboratory controlled environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A; Sreepada, R.A; Chakraborty, B.; Fernandes, W.A; Srivastava, R.; Kuncolienker, D.S.; Gawde, G.

    N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n E l e c t r o n i c T e c h n o l o g i e s 1 5 t h & 1 6 t h A p r i l 2 K 1 1 | 138 An Experiment towards Characterizing Seahorse Sound in a Laboratory Controlled Environment Arvind K. Saran1, R.... A. Sreepada1, Bishwajit Chakraborty1, William Fernandes1, Ratan Srivastava1 1National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Dinanath Sinai Kuncolienker 2 , Gajanan Gawde2 2Goa Engineering College, Farmagudi Ponda, Goa, India...

  16. A Laboratory Plasma Experiment for Studying Magnetic Dynamics of Accretion Discs and Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, S C

    2002-01-01

    This work describes a laboratory plasma experiment and initial results which should give insight into the magnetic dynamics of accretion discs and jets. A high-speed multiple-frame CCD camera reveals images of the formation and helical instability of a collimated plasma, similar to MHD models of disc jets, and also plasma detachment associated with spheromak formation, which may have relevance to disc winds and flares. The plasmas are produced by a planar magnetized coaxial gun. The resulting magnetic topology is dependent on the details of magnetic helicity injection, namely the force-free state eigenvalue alpha_gun imposed by the coaxial gun.

  17. Anisotropic viscosity and fabric evolution from laboratory experiments and field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lars; Warren, Jessica; Zimmerman, Mark; Kohlstedt, David; Skemer, Philip; Hirth, Greg

    2013-04-01

    Crystallographic alignment of grains during solid-state deformation imparts anisotropic material properties to the bulk rock, which results in significant macroscopic anisotropy in viscosity. The majority of previous laboratory studies on geological materials have performed experiments on relatively untextured samples, making it difficult to quantify the magnitude of anisotropy. Here we present results of laboratory deformation experiments that first produce strong crystallographic fabrics and then test the viscosity of these textured aggregates in multiple stress states. Our results are used in a model for shear zone evolution to reproduce field measurements of strain variation across a natural shear zone. Two sets of deformation experiments were performed in a gas-medium apparatus at 1473 K and 300 MPa confining pressure. In the first set of experiments (Hansen et al., Nature, 2012), large-strain torsion imparts a fabric in which the dominant [100] orientation is parallel to the shear direction and the dominant [010] orientation is normal to the shear plane, typical of a fabric due to shear on the (010)[100] slip system. Subsequent tension parallel to the initial torsion axis occurs with most grains having unfavorable orientations for slip on available slip systems. In the second set of experiments, samples were initially deformed in tension and subsequently deformed in torsion, with the torsion axis parallel to the initial tensional load. Tension imparts a fabric in which the dominant [100] orientation is parallel to the tension direction, with girdles of [010] and [001] axes. Subsequent torsion occurs with some grains having favorable orientations for (100)[001] slip and other grains having unfavorable orientations for slip on available slip systems. Electron-backscatter diffraction maps of axial sections of samples reveal that the crystallographic fabric reorients into a more favorable orientation at a shear strain of ~1.5. In both sets of experiments the

  18. Estimated Uncertainties in the Idaho National Laboratory Matched-Index-of-Refraction Lower Plenum Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald M. McEligot; Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Ryan C. Johnson

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the fluid dynamics experiments in the MIR (Matched-Index-of-Refraction) flow system at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions of the momentum equations, scalar mixing, and turbulence models for typical Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) plenum geometries in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. The experiments use optical techniques, primarily particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the INL MIR flow system. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The objective of the present report is to develop understanding of the magnitudes of experimental uncertainties in the results to be obtained in such experiments. Unheated MIR experiments are first steps when the geometry is complicated. One does not want to use a computational technique, which will not even handle constant properties properly. This report addresses the general background, requirements for benchmark databases, estimation of experimental uncertainties in mean velocities and turbulence quantities, the MIR experiment, PIV uncertainties, positioning uncertainties, and other contributing measurement uncertainties.

  19. Accretion shocks in the laboratory: Design of an experiment to study star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Hartigan, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present the design of a laboratory-astrophysics experiment to study magnetospheric accretion relevant to young, pre-main-sequence stars. Spectra of young stars show evidence of hotspots created when streams of accreting material impact the surface of the star and create shocks. The structures that form during this process are poorly understood, as the surfaces of young stars cannot be spatially resolved. Our experiment would create a scaled ;accretion shock; at a major (several kJ) laser facility. The experiment drives a plasma jet (the ;accretion stream;) into a solid block (the ;stellar surface;), in the presence of a parallel magnetic field analogous to the star's local field. We show that this experiment is well-scaled when the incoming jet has ρ ∼10-6 -10-5gcm-3 and u ∼ 100 - 200kms-1 in an imposed field of B ∼ 10 T. Such an experiment would represent an average accretion stream onto a pre-main sequence star with B ∼ 700 G.

  20. Laboratory Study Of Magnetic Reconnection With A Density Asymmetry Across The Current Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Joseph; Yamada, Massaaki; Ji, Hantao; Meyers,, Clayton E.; Jara-Almonte,; Chen, Li-Jen

    2014-04-18

    The effects of an upstream density asymmetry on magnetic reconnection are studied systematically in a laboratory plasma. Despite a significant upstream density asymmetry of up to 10, the reconnecting magnetic field pro file is not signifi cantly changed. On the other hand, the out-of-plane magnetic field profile is considerably modified; it is almost bipolar in structure with the density asymmetry, as compared to the quadrupolar structure in the symmetric configuration. The in-plane ion flow pattern and the electrostatic potential pro file are also affected by the density asymmetry. Strong bulk electron heating is observed near the low-density-side separatrix together with electromagnetic fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range. The dependence of the ion outflow and reconnection electric field on the density asymmetry is measured and compared with theoretical expectations.