WorldWideScience

Sample records for current knowledge zelltodliganden

  1. Current knowledge on esophageal atresia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paulo Fernando Martins Pinheiro; Ana Cristina Sim(o)es e Silva; Regina Maria Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Esophageal atresia (EA) with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is the most common congenital anomaly of the esophagus.The improvement of survival observed over the previous two decades is multifactorial and largely attributable to advances in neonatal intensive care,neonatal anesthesia,ventilatory and nutritional support,antibiotics,early surgical intervention,surgical materials and techniques.Indeed,mortality is currently limited to those cases with coexisting severe life-threatening anomalies.The diagnosis of EA is most commonly made during the first 24 h of life but may occur either antenatally or may be delayed.The primary surgical correction for EA and TEF is the best option in the absence of severe malformations.There is no ideal replacement for the esophagus and the optimal surgical treatment for patients with long-gap EA is still controversial.The primary complications during the postoperative period are leak and stenosis of the anastomosis,gastro-esophageal reflux,esophageal dysmotility,fistula recurrence,respiratory disorders and deformities of the thoracic wall.Data regarding long-term outcomes and follow-ups are limited for patients following EA/TEF repair.The determination of the risk factors for the complicated evolution following EA/TEF repair may positively impact long-term prognoses.Much remains to be studied regarding this condition.This manuscript provides a literature review of the current knowledge regarding EA.

  2. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-06-28

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 strains of HEV have been genetically characterized from swine, sika deer, mongooses, sheep, and rabbits. Currently, there are approximately 11,000 human and animal sequences of HEV available at the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. HEV is the major cause of waterborne outbreaks of hepatitis in areas of poor sanitation. Additionally, it is responsible for sporadic cases of viral hepatitis in not only endemic but industrialized countries as well. Transmission of HEV occurs predominantly by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral and perinatal routes have been reported. HEV infection develops in most individuals as a self-limiting, acute, icteric hepatitis; with mortality rates around 1%. However, some affected individuals will develop fulminant hepatic failure, a serious condition that is frequently fatal without a liver transplant. This complication is particularly common when the infection occurs in pregnant women, where mortality rates rise dramatically to up to 25%. Among the preventive measures available to avoid HEV infection, two separate subunit vaccines containing recombinant truncated capsid proteins of HEV have been shown to be highly effective in the prevention of disease. One of them, HEV 239, was approved in China, and its commercialization by Innovax began in November 2012 under the name Hecolin(®).

  3. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge pert

  4. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge

  5. Loyalty Programmes : Current Knowledge and Research Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorotic, Matilda; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Loyalty programmes (LPs) have increased in number and popularity, but their effects on customer behaviour remain equivocal, due to a lack of understanding of the drivers of LP effectiveness and insufficient generalizable conclusions across prior studies. This paper synthesizes current knowledge pert

  6. Human bocavirus: Current knowledge and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Marcello; Tumolo, Maria Rosaria; Verri, Tiziano; Romano, Alessandro; Serio, Francesca; De Giorgi, Mattia; De Donno, Antonella; Bagordo, Francesco; Zizza, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus isolated about a decade ago and found worldwide in both respiratory samples, mainly from early life and children of 6-24 mo of age with acute respiratory infection, and in stool samples, from patients with gastroenteritis. Since then, other viruses related to the first HBoV isolate (HBoV1), namely HBoV2, HBoV3 and HBoV4, have been detected principally in human faeces. HBoVs are small non-enveloped single-stranded DNA viruses of about 5300 nucleotides, consisting of three open reading frames encoding the first two the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and nuclear phosphoprotein (NP1) and the third the viral capsid proteins 1 and 2 (VP1 and VP2). HBoV pathogenicity remains to be fully clarified mainly due to the lack of animal models for the difficulties in replicating the virus in in vitro cell cultures, and the fact that HBoV infection is frequently accompanied by at least another viral and/or bacterial respiratory and/or gastroenteric pathogen infection. Current diagnostic methods to support HBoV detection include polymerase chain reaction, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and enzyme immunoassay using recombinant VP2 or virus-like particle capsid proteins, although sequence-independent amplification techniques combined with next-generation sequencing platforms promise rapid and simultaneous detection of the pathogens in the future. This review presents the current knowledge on HBoV genotypes with emphasis on taxonomy, phylogenetic relationship and genomic analysis, biology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and diagnostic methods. The emerging discussion on HBoVs as true pathogen or innocent bystander is also emphasized.

  7. Current trends on knowledge-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valencia-García, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    This book presents innovative and high-quality research on the implementation of conceptual frameworks, strategies, techniques, methodologies, informatics platforms and models for developing advanced knowledge-based systems and their application in different fields, including Agriculture, Education, Automotive, Electrical Industry, Business Services, Food Manufacturing, Energy Services, Medicine and others. Knowledge-based technologies employ artificial intelligence methods to heuristically address problems that cannot be solved by means of formal techniques. These technologies draw on standard and novel approaches from various disciplines within Computer Science, including Knowledge Engineering, Natural Language Processing, Decision Support Systems, Artificial Intelligence, Databases, Software Engineering, etc. As a combination of different fields of Artificial Intelligence, the area of Knowledge-Based Systems applies knowledge representation, case-based reasoning, neural networks, Semantic Web and TICs used...

  8. [Hypnosis and pain: current and perspective knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioy, Antoine

    2012-06-27

    After further controversies, the definition of hypnosis is to be at the same time a modified state of consciousness and a particular intersubjective relation between a practitioner and his patient. In a synthetic way, we can say that mechanisms of hypnosis on acute pain are now well known, and its efficiency is particularly proved in the pain provoked by the care. On the other hand, the knowledge concerning the action of the hypnosis on chronic pain is much more complex to understand. If the hypnosis allows connoting differently pain and to decrease its implication in patient's life, otherWise the long-term reorganizations of hypnosis on chronic pain are still for the study. In practice, the field which his particularly in development is the analogical processes of the speech, because they are particularly present in pain medicine, and easy to use in hypnotic method.

  9. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that "cures" or "stops" SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.

  10. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian U.J. Yap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB. Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors and not peripherally (morphological factors. Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief.

  11. Sleep bruxism: Current knowledge and contemporary management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Adrian U.; Chua, Ai Ping

    2016-01-01

    Bruxism is defined as the repetitive jaw muscle activity characterized by the clenching or grinding of teeth. It can be categorized into awake and sleep bruxism (SB). Frequent SB occurs in about 13% of adults. The exact etiology of SB is still unknown and probably multifactorial in nature. Current literature suggests that SB is regulated centrally (pathophysiological and psychosocial factors) and not peripherally (morphological factors). Cited consequences of SB include temporomandibular disorders, headaches, tooth wear/fracture, implant, and other restoration failure. Chairside recognition of SB involves the use of subjective reports, clinical examinations, and trial oral splints. Definitive diagnosis of SB can only be achieved using electrophysiological tools. Pharmacological, psychological, and dental strategies had been employed to manage SB. There is at present, no effective treatment that “cures” or “stops” SB permanently. Management is usually directed toward tooth/restoration protection, reduction of bruxism activity, and pain relief. PMID:27656052

  12. Current Levels of Salt Knowledge: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Sarmugam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High salt intake increases the risk of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the role of knowledge as a determinant of food intake, this paper aims to review the current levels of salt knowledge and the association between salt knowledge and dietary salt intake and salt-related dietary practices in the general population. Twenty two studies were included in the review. In general, the studies showed consumers were able to identify the health risks associated with high salt intake. However, knowledge of recommended daily intakes, understanding of the relationships between salt and sodium and foods that contribute most salt to the diet were poor. Four of the five studies which examined the relationships between salt knowledge and salt-related dietary practices reported significant associations. Two important gaps in the current literature were identified. First, there is a need for a robustly validated tool to examine salt knowledge and its impact on salt intake. Second, a comprehensive salt knowledge assessment should include assessment of procedural, as well as declarative, knowledge.

  13. Marine aerosol production: a review of the current knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dowd, C.D.; Leeuw, G. de

    2007-01-01

    The current knowledge in primary and secondary marine aerosol formation is reviewed. For primary marine aerosol source functions, recent source functions have demonstrated a significant flux of submicrometre particles down to radii of 20 nm. Moreover, the source functions derived from different tech

  14. Diuretics in pediatrics: Current knowledge and future prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M.J. van der Vorst (Maria); M. Kist (Manfred); A.J. van der Heijden (Bert); J. Burggraaf (Jacobus)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis review summarizes current knowledge on the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical application of the most commonly used diuretics in children. Diuretics are frequently prescribed drugs in children. Their main indication is to reduce fluid overload in acute an

  15. Current knowledge and attitudes: Russian olive biology, ecology and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharlene E. Sing; Kevin J. Delaney

    2016-01-01

    The primary goals of a two-day Russian olive symposium held in February 2014 were to disseminate current knowledge and identify data gaps regarding Russian olive biology and ecology, distributions, integrated management, and to ascertain the feasibility and acceptance of a proposed program for classical biological control of Russian olive. The symposium was...

  16. Conceptual knowledge representation: A cross-section of current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Timothy T; Wolmetz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    How is conceptual knowledge encoded in the brain? This special issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology takes stock of current efforts to answer this question through a variety of methods and perspectives. Across this work, three questions recur, each fundamental to knowledge representation in the mind and brain. First, what are the elements of conceptual representation? Second, to what extent are conceptual representations embodied in sensory and motor systems? Third, how are conceptual representations shaped by context, especially linguistic context? In this introductory article we provide relevant background on these themes and introduce how they are addressed by our contributing authors.

  17. Azelaic acid in dermatological treatment – current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Reszke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azelaic acid (AZA is a naturally occurring substance produced by Malassezia furfur which exerts various effects on the skin. Azelaic acid has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, keratolytic, comedolytic, sebostatic and tyrosinase-inhibiting properties. Topical application of AZA as 20% cream or 15% gel is a well-established therapeutic method in various common dermatoses, mainly acne vulgaris, rosacea and disorders associated with hyperpigmentation. Azelaic acid is used as a component of chemical peels as well. The paper summarizes the most relevant issues concerning AZA application in dermatological treatment based on current knowledge.

  18. Nausea: current knowledge of mechanisms, measurement and clinical impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenward, Hannah; Pelligand, Ludovic; Savary-Bataille, Karine; Elliott, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Nausea is a subjective sensation, which often acts as a signal that emesis is imminent. It is a widespread problem that occurs as a clinical sign of disease or as an adverse effect of a drug therapy or surgical procedure. The mechanisms of nausea are complex and the neural pathways are currently poorly understood. This review summarises the current knowledge of nausea mechanisms, the available animal models for nausea research and the anti-nausea properties of commercially available anti-emetic drugs. The review also presents subjective assessment and scoring of nausea. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of nausea might reveal potential clinically useful biomarkers for objective measurement of nausea in species of veterinary interest.

  19. [In the light of current knowledge right ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taçoy, Gülten; Cengel, Atiye

    2014-09-01

    There are important differences between left and right ventricle. Due to anatomical location and structural features, in daily clinical practice the right ventricle cannot be assessed easily as the left ventricle. Therefore, the right ventricle has remained in the background of the left ventricle. Recent clinical studies and advanced imaging modalities have demonstrated that right ventricle is decisive for survival particularly in patients with congenital heart disease, pulmonary hypertension and heart failure. Therefore, the detailed evaluation of the right ventricle has become necessary in current clinical practice. For this reason, in our review we aimed to examine the embryological development, anatomical structure, physiological, metabolic characteristics, responses to different pathological conditions, effects on arrhythmias, causes of failure and imaging modalities of the right ventricle in light of the current knowledge's.

  20. Current knowledge, gaps and challenges in the Southern European Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanassiou, Evangelos

    2015-04-01

    New knowledge advances our current understanding on the selection and application of the appropriate tools for assessing the state of the marine environment in the Southern European Seas (SES). Diminishing the lack of knowledge is a prerequisite for sound policy decisions. Although gaps and knowledge are fewer today, the health of marine and coastal ecosystems in the SES is under pressure and shows, in places, some signs of deterioration and declining quality. Overall, there is a lack of data accessibility and long time series in the SES, while in many cases poorly constrained processes cannot really support knowledge-based policy making (e.g. ecosystem functioning, climate change, fisheries management, etc.). New knowledge has to be produced and excellence must be promoted to support sustainable economic growth. At the same time, existing and new capacities have to be upgraded and increased in order to support sustainable convergence between SES countries. There are several gaps that have been identified and processes that have been poorly understood in the SES, mainly from research projects that have been working at basin level. The main research priorities that have been identified from the SeasERA Project for both, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea include: the climate change and its impacts, the hydrological cycle, the ventilation and the inter-basin coupling, the marine biodiversity and the provision of goods and services, the marine protected areas, the deep sea ecosystems, the biological invasions, the marine pollution and the ocean and human health, the renewable energy, the maritime transport, the fisheries and aquaculture activities and the biotechnology and the exploitation of marine resources for industrial application. More important, however, is the fact that the economic, the social and the scientific and the environmental challenges must be collectively tackled. They should have prioritisation and clear objectives as well as data sharing for

  1. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Martins

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  2. Cyanobactins from Cyanobacteria: Current Genetic and Chemical State of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joana; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-11-13

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be one of the most promising sources of new, natural products. Apart from non-ribosomal peptides and polyketides, ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are one of the leading groups of bioactive compounds produced by cyanobacteria. Among these, cyanobactins have sparked attention due to their interesting bioactivities and for their potential to be prospective candidates in the development of drugs. It is assumed that the primary source of cyanobactins is cyanobacteria, although these compounds have also been isolated from marine animals such as ascidians, sponges and mollusks. The aim of this review is to update the current knowledge of cyanobactins, recognized as being produced by cyanobacteria, and to emphasize their genetic clusters and chemical structures as well as their bioactivities, ecological roles and biotechnological potential.

  3. The physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes: current knowledge, open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotz, G; Hietz, P

    2001-11-01

    The current knowledge of the physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes is reviewed here with an emphasis on the most recent literature. It is argued that by far the most relevant abiotic constraint for growth and vegetative function of vascular epiphytes is water shortage, while other factors such as nutrient availability or irradiation, are generally of inferior importance. However, it is shown that the present understanding of epiphyte biology is still highly biased, both taxonomically and ecologically, and it is concluded that any generalizations are still preliminary. Future studies should include a much wider range of taxa and growing sites within the canopy to reach a better understanding how abiotic factors are limiting epiphyte growth and survival which, in turn, should affect epiphyte community composition. Finally, a more integrative approach to epiphyte biology is encouraged: physiological investigations should be balanced by studies of other possible constraints, for example, substrate instability, dispersal limitation, competition or herbivory.

  4. A VIEWPOINT ON THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ANDREEA PAULA DUMITRU

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge management is seeking solutions to harmonize the objectives of organizations of the human group, which need to rationalize, to provide policy makers and to implement. This article aims to provide readers with an introduction to knowledge management basic definitions, theories and concepts such as types of knowledge, the differences between data, information and knowledge, etc, are given. But, why we need a knowledge management ? This article justified the need for companies to focus...

  5. Brown carbon in the cryosphere: Current knowledge and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Ming Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the light-absorbing organic carbon, i.e., brown carbon (BrC, has received an increasing attention, because they could significantly absorb the solar radiation in the range of short wavelengths rather than the purely scattering effect. BrC is ubiquitous in the troposphere. It could undergo long range transport within the atmospheric circulation. After the deposition on the surface of snow or ice in the cryospheric region, as the major light absorbing impurities with black carbon and dust, BrC could reduce the snow albedo and accelerate the glacier melting. In this context, this paper summarized the current knowledge of BrC (in aerosols and snow in the cryospheric regions including the Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpines. Although some works have been conducted in those region, the current dataset on the optical properties of BrC like Absorption Ångström Exponent (AAE and Mass Absorption Efficiency (MAE is still limited, which hampers stimulating an accurate evaluation of its climate effects. Especially in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where very limited information concerning BrC is available. Considering biomass burning as a dominant source of BrC, a large amount of emissions from biomass burning in South Asia could reach the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, where the climate effect of BrC merits more investigation in the future.

  6. A VIEWPOINT ON THE CURRENT STATE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT INSTRUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA PAULA DUMITRU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management is seeking solutions to harmonize the objectives of organizations of the human group, which need to rationalize, to provide policy makers and to implement. This article aims to provide readers with an introduction to knowledge management basic definitions, theories and concepts such as types of knowledge, the differences between data, information and knowledge, etc, are given. But, why we need a knowledge management ? This article justified the need for companies to focus management efforts on their intangible elements and provides the five enabling conditions for knowledge creation.

  7. Cardiovascular pharmacogenomics; state of current knowledge and implementation in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Payman; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is the science that examines how an individual's genetic make-up affects the safety and efficacy of therapeutic drugs. PGx of response to cardiovascular (CV) medications is of the most successfully translated branches of PGx into the clinical workout. However, the clinical implementation of PGx of CV drugs is yet far beyond the growth of our understanding of the role of genetics in drug therapy. A considerable amount of efforts have been devoted by the regulatory agents like the food and drug administration (FDA) as well as the expert-based networks such as the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) to overcome the existing barriers. This has been done, at least in part, for some of the most widely prescribed CV drugs, including clopidogrel, warfarin and simvastatin for which the PGx knowledge have been satisfactorily robust to provoke the CPIC to issue the guidelines for these drugs and the FDA to update the drugs' labeling, both strongly recommended the use of genotype-guided dosing for these medications, provided that the genetic data are available. For other drugs, however, studies have produced contradictory results and further large and well-designed clinical trials are required to expand and confirm the clinical utility of their PGx data. This review paper presents the current state of knowledge in the field of PGx of CV medications and describes the facilities assisting to the translation of PGx data into the clinical practice. Afterward, the existing body of PGx literature of the most-commonly used CV medications is comprehensively discussed.

  8. Current expertise location by exploiting the dynamics of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Nozicka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems for expertise location are either very expensive in terms of the costs of maintenance or they tend to become obsolete or incomplete during the time. This article presents a new approach to knowledge mapping/expertise location allowing reducing the costs of knowledge mapping by maintaining the accuracy of the knowledge map. The efficiency of the knowledge map is achieved by introducing the knowledge estimation measures analysing the dynamics of knowledge of company employees and their textual results of work. Finding an expert with most up-to date knowledge is supported by focusing publishing history analysis. The efficiency of proposed measures within various timeframes of publishing history is evaluated by evaluation method introduced within the article. The evaluation took place in the environment of a middle-sized software company allowing seeing directly a practical usability of the expertise location technique. The results form various implications deployment of knowledge map within the company.

  9. Microorganisms in Fermented Apple Beverages: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Fabien J; Le Guellec, Rozenn; Schlusselhuber, Margot; Dalmasso, Marion; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Cretenet, Marina

    2017-07-25

    Production of fermented apple beverages is spread all around the world with specificities in each country. 'French ciders' refer to fermented apple juice mainly produced in the northwest of France and often associated with short periods of consumption. Research articles on this kind of product are scarce compared to wine, especially on phenomena associated with microbial activities. The wine fermentation microbiome and its dynamics, organoleptic improvement for healthy and pleasant products and development of starters are now widely studied. Even if both beverages seem close in terms of microbiome and process (with both alcoholic and malolactic fermentations), the inherent properties of the raw materials and different production and environmental parameters make research on the specificities of apple fermentation beverages worthwhile. This review summarizes current knowledge on the cider microbial ecosystem, associated activities and the influence of process parameters. In addition, available data on cider quality and safety is reviewed. Finally, we focus on the future role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the development of even better or new beverages made from apples.

  10. Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pádraig J. Duignan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phocine distemper virus (PDV was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.

  11. Phocine distemper virus: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Pádraig J; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy T; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-22

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years.

  12. Phocine Distemper Virus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Pádraig J.; Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Baker, Jason D.; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M.; De Guise, Sylvain; de Swart, Rik L.; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Duprex, W. Paul; Early, Greg; Fauquier, Deborah; Goldstein, Tracey; Goodman, Simon J.; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R.; Gulland, Frances; Hall, Ailsa; Jensen, Brenda A.; Lamy, Karina; Matassa, Keith; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E.; Nielsen, Ole; Rotstein, David; Rowles, Teresa K.; Saliki, Jeremy T.; Siebert, Ursula; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2014-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was first recognized in 1988 following a massive epidemic in harbor and grey seals in north-western Europe. Since then, the epidemiology of infection in North Atlantic and Arctic pinnipeds has been investigated. In the western North Atlantic endemic infection in harp and grey seals predates the European epidemic, with relatively small, localized mortality events occurring primarily in harbor seals. By contrast, PDV seems not to have become established in European harbor seals following the 1988 epidemic and a second event of similar magnitude and extent occurred in 2002. PDV is a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus with minor sequence variation between outbreaks over time. There is now mounting evidence of PDV-like viruses in the North Pacific/Western Arctic with serological and molecular evidence of infection in pinnipeds and sea otters. However, despite the absence of associated mortality in the region, there is concern that the virus may infect the large Pacific harbor seal and northern elephant seal populations or the endangered Hawaiian monk seals. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on PDV with particular focus on developments in diagnostics, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine development, phylogenetics and modeling over the past 20 years. PMID:25533658

  13. Current status of knowledge on public-speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pull, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the current knowledge on public-speaking anxiety, that is, the fear of speaking in front of others. This article summarizes the findings from previous review articles and describes new research findings on basic science aspects, prevalence rates, classification, and treatment that have been published between August 2008 and August 2011. Recent findings highlight the major aspects of psychological and physiological reactivity to public speaking in individuals who are afraid to speak in front of others, confirm high prevalence rates of the disorder, contribute to identifying the disorder as a possibly distinct subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD), and give support to the efficacy of treatment programs using virtual reality exposure and Internet-based self-help. Public-speaking anxiety is a highly prevalent disorder, leading to excessive psychological and physiological reactivity. It is present in a majority of individuals with SAD and there is substantial evidence that it may be a distinct subtype of SAD. It is amenable to treatment including, in particular, new technologies such as exposure to virtual environments and the use of cognitive-behavioral self-help programs delivered on the Internet.

  14. Current Approaches Regarding the Knowledge Management Impact on SMEs Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela Carmen RIZEA (PIRNEA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing knowledge is a critical capability for small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to master because it helps them leverage their most critical resource. Organizational knowledge is the most salient resource at the disposal of SMEs in terms of availability, access, and depth. Successful SMEs are those who can leverage their knowledge in an effective and efficient manner, so as to make up for deficiencies in traditional resources, like land, labor, and capital. The purpose of this article is to identify the knowledge management impact on SMEs performance and to compare knowledge management in SMEs with knowledge management in large companies. The research discovered that SMEs do not manage knowledge the same way as larger organizations.

  15. 46 CFR 11.713 - Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters... § 11.713 Requirements for maintaining current knowledge of waters to be navigated. (a) If a first class... current knowledge of the route. Persons using this method of re-familiarization shall certify,...

  16. Prophylaxis and therapeutic potential of ozone in buiatrics: Current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đuričić, Dražen; Valpotić, Hrvoje; Samardžija, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Ozone therapy has been in use since 1896 in the USA. As a highly reactive molecule, ozone may inactivate bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeasts and protozoans, stimulate the oxygen metabolism of tissue, treat diseases, activate the immune system, and exhibit strong analgesic activity. More recently, ozone has been used in veterinary medicine, particularly in buiatrics, but still insufficiently. Medical ozone therapy has shown effectiveness as an alternative to the use of antibiotics, which are restricted to clinical use and have been withdrawn from non-clinical use as in-feed growth promoters in animal production. This review is an overview of current knowledge regarding the preventive and therapeutic effects of ozone in ruminants for the treatment of puerperal diseases and improvement in their fertility. In particular, ozone preparations have been tested in the treatment of reproductive tract lesions, urovagina and pneumomovagina, metritis, endometritis, fetal membrane retention and mastitis, as well as in the functional restoration of endometrium in dairy cows and goats. In addition, the preventive use of the intrauterine application of ozone has been assessed in order to evaluate its effectiveness in improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. No adverse effects were observed in cows and goats treated with ozone preparations. Moreover, there is a lot of evidence indicating the advantages of ozone preparation therapy in comparison to the application of antibiotics. However, there are certain limitations on ozone use in veterinary medicine and buiatrics, such as inactivity against intracellular microbes and selective activity against the same bacterial species, as well as the induction of tissue inflammation through inappropriate application of the preparation.

  17. Knowledge visualization currents from text to art to culture

    CERN Document Server

    Marchese, Francis T

    2012-01-01

    Presents the state of the art in visualization research and development Highlights research developing at key intersections with other disciplines and its applicability to addressing complex real-world problems Discusses how visualization researchers are addressing complex issues of representation in knowledge, art, and culture

  18. Birds of Pernambuco: Current state of ornithological knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Beserra de Farias

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the present state of ornithological knowledge is required for the guidance of researchers in their future investigations. This work provides a survey of literature describing the development of ornithological research in the state. Between 1880 and 2008, many lists were organized, which contributed towards the systematization of the knowledge about Pernambuco’s birds. Out if the 535 species recorded, 49 are found in marine environments or wetlands, 450 occur in the Atlantic Rainforest, and 270 reside in the semi-arid Caatinga. We suggest that studies on the birds of the Caatinga are most important and should be prioritized at present, in addition to effective actions for the conservation of endemic species and of species under risk of extinction.

  19. Current and future trends in metagenomics : Development of knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takuji; Kurokawa, Ken

    Microbes are essential for every part of life on Earth. Numerous microbes inhabit the biosphere, many of which are uncharacterized or uncultivable. They form a complex microbial community that deeply affects against surrounding environments. Metagenome analysis provides a radically new way of examining such complex microbial community without isolation or cultivation of individual bacterial community members. In this article, we present a brief discussion about a metagenomics and the development of knowledge bases, and also discuss about the future trends in metagenomics.

  20. THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY AND THE INFORMATION SOCIETY. THE CURRENT SITUATION IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    STELIAC Nela; POP Ciprian-Viorel; Diana-Aderina MOISUC

    2012-01-01

    Currently, human societies are experiencing a new type of economy: the knowledge economy which is founded on a knowledge society. The main driver of social and economic growth is knowledge itself. The new economy requires a rethinking of the production theory in that traditional factors change into secondary factors, while knowledge becomes the main, essential, production factor. An information society is a prerequisite stage towards a knowledge society; hence it needs to be implemented first...

  1. A Systematic Review of Athletes’ and Coaches’ Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakman, Gina L.; Forsyth, Adrienne; Devlin, Brooke L.; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Context: Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. Objectives: (1) To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2) to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Study Selection: 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Data extraction: Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items), study quality, and questionnaire quality. Data synthesis: All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Conclusions: Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge. PMID:27649242

  2. A Systematic Review of Athletes’ and Coaches’ Nutrition Knowledge and Reflections on the Quality of Current Nutrition Knowledge Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina L. Trakman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Nutrition knowledge can influence dietary choices and impact on athletic performance. Valid and reliable measures are needed to assess the nutrition knowledge of athletes and coaches. Objectives: (1 To systematically review the published literature on nutrition knowledge of adult athletes and coaches and (2 to assess the quality of measures used to assess nutrition knowledge. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscuss, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Study Selection: 36 studies that provided a quantitative measure of nutrition knowledge and described the measurement tool that was used were included. Data extraction: Participant description, questionnaire description, results (mean correct and responses to individual items, study quality, and questionnaire quality. Data synthesis: All studies were of neutral quality. Tools used to measure knowledge did not consider health literacy, were outdated with regards to consensus recommendations, and lacked appropriate and adequate validation. The current status of nutrition knowledge in athletes and coaches is difficult to ascertain. Gaps in knowledge also remain unclear, but it is likely that energy density, the need for supplementation, and the role of protein are frequently misunderstood. Conclusions: Previous reports of nutrition knowledge need to be interpreted with caution. A new, universal, up-to-date, validated measure of general and sports nutrition knowledge is required to allow for assessment of nutrition knowledge.

  3. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  4. Immunotherapies Targeting Fish Mucosal Immunity - Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshio, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, studies on the mucosal immunity in fish species have shown much progress. Although there are some organs such as skin, gills, and gut are directly associated with the mucosal immunity of fish species, this mini review emphasizes the general knowledge on the role and production figures of skin mucus and factors affecting the secretion of skin mucus of fish species. As the skin mucus of fish species is the first defense line for protection against invading microorganisms such as pathogens (bacteria, virus), parasites, etc., the information for understanding the roles of the skin mucus is very important. Furthermore, the information in the review will shed light on the development of high quality aquafeeds for the sustainable aquaculture field as well.

  5. Climate change and respiratory health: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Knowlton, Kim; Balmes, John R

    2013-08-01

    Climate change is a key driver of the accelerating environmental change affecting populations around the world. Many of these changes and our response to them can affect respiratory health. This is an expert opinion review of recent peer-reviewed literature, focused on more recent medical journals and climate-health relevant modeling results from non-biomedical journals pertaining to climate interactions with air pollution. Global health impacts in low resource countries and migration precipitated by environmental change are addressed. The major findings are of respiratory health effects related to heat, air pollution, shifts in infectious diseases and allergens, flooding, water, food security and migration. The review concludes with knowledge gaps and research need that will support the evidence-base required to address the challenges ahead.

  6. CURRENT SCENARIO: KNOWLEDGE OF BASIC LIFE SUPPORT IN MEDICAL COLLEGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmita Chaudhary

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A workshop has been conducted on basic skill of Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR among doctors and nursing staff in medical college. Theoretical aspect was explained through power point presentation whereas practical aspect was demonstrated through skill station. The results were analyzed by using an answer key prepared from BLS manual of American Heart Association (AHA. Out of 117 participants only three participants secured 80-90% marks in pretest whereas rest of secured less than 50% marks .Post workshop assessment was done with same question papers showed 70% candidates securing more than 80%. Hence BLS workshop is essential to improve knowledge and skill of CPR. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 80-82

  7. Arrhythmogenic KCNE gene variants: current knowledge and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn M Crump

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are twenty-five known inherited cardiac arrhythmia susceptibility genes, all of which encode either ion channel pore-forming subunits or proteins that regulate aspects of ion channel biology such as function, trafficking and localization. The human KCNE gene family comprises five potassium channel regulatory subunits, sequence variants in each of which are associated with cardiac arrhythmias. KCNE gene products exhibit promiscuous partnering and in some cases ubiquitous expression, hampering efforts to unequivocally correlate each gene to specific native potassium currents. Likewise, deducing the molecular etiology of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals harboring rare KCNE gene variants, or more common KCNE polymorphisms, can be challenging. In this review we provide an update on putative arrhythmia-causing KCNE gene variants, and discuss current thinking and future challenges in the study of molecular mechanisms of KCNE-associated cardiac rhythm disturbances.

  8. Current knowledge on diabetic retinopathy from humandonor tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jessica H Eisma; Jennifer E Dulle; Patrice E Fort

    2015-01-01

    According to the American Diabetes Association, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death, and diabetic retinopathy the leading cause of blindness in working age adults in the United States in 2010. Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia associated with either hypoinsulinemia or insulin resistance, and over time, this chronic metabolic condition may lead to various complications including kidney failure, heart attacks,and retinal degeneration. In order to better understandthe molecular basis of this disease and its complications,animal models have been the primary approach usedto investigate the effects of diabetes on various tissuesor cell types of the body, including the retina. However,inherent to these animal models are critical limitationsthat make the insight gained from these modelschallenging to apply to the human pathology. Thesedifficulties in translating the knowledge obtained fromanimal studies have led a growing number of researchgroups to explore the diabetes complications, especiallydiabetic retinopathy, on tissues from human donors.This review summarizes the data collected from diabeticpatients at various stages of diabetic retinopathy andclassifies the data based upon their relevance to themain aspects of diabetic retinopathy: retinal vasculaturedysfunction, inflammation, and neurodegeneration. Thisreview discusses the importance of those studies todiscriminate and establish the relevance of the findingsobtained from animal models but also the limitations ofsuch approaches.

  9. Vitamin K metabolism: current knowledge and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David J; Gorska, Renata; Cutler, Jacky; Harrington, Dominic J

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin K is an essential fat-soluble micronutrient that is required for the post-translational γ-carboxylation of specific glutamic acid residues in hepatic and extra-hepatic proteins involved in blood coagulation and preventing cartilage and vasculature calcification. In humans, sources of vitamin K are derived from plants as phylloquinone and bacteria as the menaquinones. Menadione is a synthetic product used as a pharmaceutical but also represents an intermediate in the tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, which preferentially resides in tissues such as brain. Research into vitamin K metabolism is essential for the understanding of vitamin K biology in health and disease. Progress in this area, driven by knowledge of vitamin K and the availability of markers of vitamin K status, has already proved beneficial in many areas of medicine and further opportunities present themselves. Areas of interest discussed in this review include prophylactic administration of vitamin K1 in term and preterm neonates, interactions between vitamins K and E, the industrial conversion of vitamin K to dihydro-vitamin K in foods, tissue-specific conversion of vitamin K to menaquinone-4, the biological activity of the five and seven carbon metabolites of vitamin K and circadian variations.

  10. The Effect of the "Weekly Reader" on Children's Knowledge of Current Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Carolyn Huie; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Lapp, Diane; Flood, James

    2000-01-01

    Studied the effects of reading the "Weekly Reader" on children's knowledge of current events. Results from 2,331 urban and suburban elementary school students, aged 8 to 12, show increased knowledge of current events among younger children who used the "Weekly Reader," but the effect was less in grades 4 through 6. (SLD)

  11. Prediction of severe acute pancreatitis: Current knowledge and novel insights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios I Papachristou

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common and potentially lethal acute inflammatory process with a highly variable clinical course. It is still unclear why some patients progress to organ failure and others do not. Physicians, ability to predict which patients will develop severe disease is limited. Routine clinical and laboratory data and multi-factorial clinical scores measured on admission and during the first 48 h of hospitalization are currently the standards of care used to estimate the magnitude of the inflammatory response to injury. Current literature highlights several common environmental, metabolic and genetic factors that increase the risk of AP development and subsequent adverse sequelae. Several cytokines have been found to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of AP by driving the subsequent inflammatory response, to include tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (HCP-1). Large, prospective studies are still needed to address these questions by identifying AP risk factors and serum biomarkers of severe disease.

  12. Current state of knowledge about nutritional care of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barretto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy involves a significant anabolic activity that leads to increased nutritional needs relative to the preconception period. This paper aims to review the current understanding of the energy needs of macro and micronutrients during pregnancy as well as guidelines to address common gastrointestinal disorders during pregnancy, the issue of pica and anthropometric assessment to ensure an optimum weight gain. With the exception of iron, most of the nutrients needed by the pregnancy can be provided by a complete and balanced diet. Currently the scientific evidence shows that routine supplementation with iron and folic acid during pregnancy is a practice that prevents iron deficiency anemia, neural tube disorders and preterm births. Intermittent iron supplementation can also be an appropriated intervention. If the diet does not guarantee and adequate support, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements should also be necessaries. The anthropometric assessment by the pattern of weight gain should be present at each prenatal care visit to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In situations where the mother’s weight cannot be assessed, arm muscle circumference is possible to make an overall assessment as it correlates with maternal weight gain alternative. Measurements of biceps, triceps and subscapular skinfolds are another alternative that is useful to evaluate the fatty deposits and their location, in a complementary way to gain weight.

  13. Current knowledge of the aetiology of human tubal ectopic pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.L.V.; Dey, S.K.; Critchley, H.O.D.; Horne, A.W.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy which occurs outside of the uterine cavity, and over 98% implant in the Fallopian tube. Tubal ectopic pregnancy remains the most common cause of maternal mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy. The epidemiological risk factors for tubal ectopic pregnancy are well established and include: tubal damage as a result of surgery or infection (particularly Chlamydia trachomatis), smoking and in vitro fertilization. This review appraises the data to date researching the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. METHODS Scientific literature was searched for studies investigating the underlying aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy. RESULTS Existing data addressing the underlying cause of tubal ectopic pregnancy are mostly descriptive. There are currently few good animal models of tubal ectopic pregnancy. There are limited data explaining the link between risk factors and tubal implantation. CONCLUSIONS Current evidence supports the hypothesis that tubal ectopic pregnancy is caused by a combination of retention of the embryo within the Fallopian tube due to impaired embryo-tubal transport and alterations in the tubal environment allowing early implantation to occur. Future studies are needed that address the functional consequences of infection and smoking on Fallopian tube physiology. A greater understanding of the aetiology of tubal ectopic pregnancy is critical for the development of improved preventative measures, the advancement of diagnostic screening methods and the development of novel treatments. PMID:20071358

  14. STR allele sequence variation: Current knowledge and future issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, Katherine Butler; Aponte, Rachel A; Vallone, Peter M; Butler, John M

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews what is currently known about short tandem repeat (STR) allelic sequence variation in and around the twenty-four loci most commonly used throughout the world to perform forensic DNA investigations. These STR loci include D1S1656, TPOX, D2S441, D2S1338, D3S1358, FGA, CSF1PO, D5S818, SE33, D6S1043, D7S820, D8S1179, D10S1248, TH01, vWA, D12S391, D13S317, Penta E, D16S539, D18S51, D19S433, D21S11, Penta D, and D22S1045. All known reported variant alleles are compiled along with genomic information available from GenBank, dbSNP, and the 1000 Genomes Project. Supplementary files are included which provide annotated reference sequences for each STR locus, characterize genomic variation around the STR repeat region, and compare alleles present in currently available STR kit allelic ladders. Looking to the future, STR allele nomenclature options are discussed as they relate to next generation sequencing efforts underway.

  15. Anterior point of reference: Current knowledge and perspectives in prosthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The opening and closing mandibular axis is not a purely theoretical postulation, but an absolutely demonstrable biomechanical entity. It is very crucial to accurately record and transfer to articulators for the purpose of maxillofacial rehabilitation. Following the Face bow record and transfer of the mandibular axis to an anatomic articulator, we can then mount the casts so that they open and close on the articulator in the same fashion as the patient′s jaws. For this reason one of the fixed factors presented by the patient is taken into the consideration, which if properly considered, can be of inestimable value in all phases of dental treatment. This paper has sought to review the current concepts and practical implications regarding anterior point of reference in prosthodontics.

  16. Police peer support programs: current knowledge and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauwiler, Peggy; Barocas, Briana; Mills, Linda G

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the current empirical research and literature on peer assistance programs, peer support, and peer-facilitated interventions for police officers. A literature search was conducted to identify studies on police, peer support, and peer assistance programs. Studies were examined in terms of the following criteria: description of data collection methods, findings, study limitations, implications for police, workplace assistance, and peer support. Articles on peer support in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001, World Trade Center rescue and recovery efforts were also reviewed. The research studies reviewed in this article do not evaluate peer program effectiveness from the perspective of those officers receiving peer services. To better serve this invaluable population, efforts must be made to incorporate their views. Information is also needed on the effectiveness of peer assistance programs and peer-driven crisis intervention models. Finally, research is needed that specifically examines the effectiveness of programs that utilize trained peers in partnership with professional mental health practitioners.

  17. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Efforts: Current Knowledge and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-06-01

    Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  18. Are iron oxide nanoparticles safe? Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Fernández-Bertólez, Natalia; Kiliç, Gözde; Costa, Carla; Costa, Solange; Fraga, Sonia; Bessa, Maria Joao; Pásaro, Eduardo; Teixeira, João Paulo; Laffon, Blanca

    2016-12-01

    Due to their unique physicochemical properties, including superparamagnetism, iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have a number of interesting applications, especially in the biomedical field, that make them one of the most fascinating nanomaterials. They are used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, in targeted drug delivery, and for induced hyperthermia cancer treatments. Together with these valuable uses, concerns regarding the onset of unexpected adverse health effects following exposure have been also raised. Nevertheless, despite the numerous ION purposes being explored, currently available information on their potential toxicity is still scarce and controversial data have been reported. Although ION have traditionally been considered as biocompatible - mainly on the basis of viability tests results - influence of nanoparticle surface coating, size, or dose, and of other experimental factors such as treatment time or cell type, has been demonstrated to be important for ION in vitro toxicity manifestation. In vivo studies have shown distribution of ION to different tissues and organs, including brain after passing the blood-brain barrier; nevertheless results from acute toxicity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity investigations in different animal models do not provide a clear overview on ION safety yet, and epidemiological studies are almost inexistent. Much work has still to be done to fully understand how these nanomaterials interact with cellular systems and what, if any, potential adverse health consequences can derive from ION exposure.

  19. Pain in Neurodegenerative Disease: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases are going to increase as the life expectancy is getting longer. The management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and other dementias, Parkinson’s disease (PD and PD related disorders, motor neuron diseases (MND, Huntington’s disease (HD, spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA, and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, is mainly addressed to motor and cognitive impairment, with special care to vital functions as breathing and feeding. Many of these patients complain of painful symptoms though their origin is variable, and their presence is frequently not considered in the treatment guidelines, leaving their management to the decision of the clinicians alone. However, studies focusing on pain frequency in such disorders suggest a high prevalence of pain in selected populations from 38 to 75% in AD, 40% to 86% in PD, and 19 to 85% in MND. The methods of pain assessment vary between studies so the type of pain has been rarely reported. However, a prevalent nonneuropathic origin of pain emerged for MND and PD. In AD, no data on pain features are available. No controlled therapeutic trials and guidelines are currently available. Given the relevance of pain in neurodegenerative disorders, the comprehensive understanding of mechanisms and predisposing factors, the application and validation of specific scales, and new specific therapeutic trials are needed.

  20. Oxytocin and Socioemotional Aging─Current Knowledge and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie C. Ebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The oxytocin (OT system is involved in various aspects of social cognition and prosocial behavior. Specifically, OT has been examined in the context of social memory, emotion recognition, cooperation, trust, empathy, and bonding, and─though evidence is somewhat mixed─intranasal OT appears to benefit aspects of socioemotional functioning. However, most of the extant data on aging and OT is from animal research and human OT research has focused largely on young adults. As such, though we know that various socioemotional capacities change with age, we know little about whether age-related changes in the OT system may underlie age-related differences in socioemotional functioning. In this review, we take a genetic-neuro-behavioral approach and evaluate current evidence on age-related changes in the OT system as well as the putative effects of these alterations on age-related socioemotional functioning. Looking forward, we identify informational gaps and propose an Age-Related Genetic, Neurobiological, Sociobehavioral Model of Oxytocin (AGeNeS-OT model which may structure and inform investigations into aging-related genetic, neural, and sociocognitive processes related to OT. As an exemplar of the use of the model, we report exploratory data suggesting differences in socioemotional processing associated with genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR in samples of young and older adults. Information gained from this arena has translational potential in depression, social stress, and anxiety─all of which have high relevance in aging─and may contribute to reducing social isolation and improving well-being of individuals across the lifespan.

  1. Diagnosis and management of chronic pancreatitis: current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Rudolf W

    2006-03-18

    This paper reviews the current literature on chronic pancreatitis (CP). Despite marked progress in diagnostic tools, predominately imaging methods, no consensus has been reached on the nomenclature of CP, ie diagnosis, classification, staging, pathomechanisms of pain and its optimal treatment. A major problem is that no single reliable diagnostic test exists for early-stage CP except histopathology (rarely available). This stage is characterised typically by recurrent acute pancreatitis +/- necrosis (eg pseudocysts). Acute pancreatitis is a well-defined condition caused in 80% of cases by gallstones or alcohol abuse. Alcoholic pancreatitis, in contrast to biliary pancreatitis, progresses to CP in the majority of patients. However, a definite CP-diagnosis is often delayed because progressive dysfunction and/or calcification, the clinical markers of CP, develop on average 5 years from disease onset. The progression rate is variable and depends on several factors eg aetiology, smoking, continued alcohol abuse. Repeated function testing eg by the faecal elastase test, is the best alternative for histology to monitor progression (or non-progression) of suspected (probable) to definite CP. The pathomechanism of pain in CP is multifactorial and data from different series are hardly comparable mainly because insufficient data of the various variables ie diagnosis, classification, staging of CP, pain pattern and presumptive pain cause, are provided. Pain in CP is rarely intractable except in the presence of cancer, opiate addiction or extra-pancreatic pain causes. Local complications like pseudocysts or obstructive cholestasis are the most common causes of severe persistent pain which can be relieved promptly by an appropriate drainage procedure. Notably, partial to complete pain relief is a common feature in 50-80% of patients with late-stage CP irrespective of surgery and about 50% of CP-patients never need surgery (or endoscopic intervention). The spontaneous "burn

  2. Lexical knowledge sources for cartography and GIS - development, current status and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wolf Günther

    2016-12-01

    Lexical knowledge sources are indispensable for research, education and general information. The transition of the reference works to the digital world has been a gradual one. This paper discusses the basic principles and structure of knowledge presentation, as well as user access and knowledge acquisition with specific consideration of contributions in German. The ideal reference works of the future should be interactive, optimally adapted to the user, reliable, current and quotable.

  3. Breast-feeding: Current knowledge, attitudes and practices of paediatricians and obstetricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Videlefsky

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Doctors, as part of the healthcare team, can have a significant impact on the successful initiation and maintenance of breastfeeding. There is a need for ongoing education and intervention programmes to update current knowledge on breastfeeding management.

  4. The relationship between chiropractor required and current level of business knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolfi, Michael Anthony; Kasen, Patsy Anne

    2017-01-01

    Chiropractors frequently practice within health care systems requiring the business acumen of an entrepreneur. However, some chiropractors do not know the relationship between the level of business knowledge required for practice success and their current level of business knowledge. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between chiropractors' perceived level of business knowledge required and their perceived level of current business knowledge. Two hundred and seventy-four participants completed an online survey (Health Care Training and Education Needs Survey) which included eight key business items. Participants rated the level of perceived business knowledge required (Part I) and their current perceived level of knowledge (Part II) for the same eight items. Data was collected from November 27, 2013 to December 18, 2013. Data were analyzed using Spearman's ranked correlation to determine the statistically significant relationships for the perceived level of knowledge required and the perceived current level of knowledge for each of the paired eight items from Parts I and II of the survey. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Tests were performed to determine the statistical difference between the paired items. The results of Spearman's correlation testing indicated a statistically significant (p ethical, (e) managerial decisions, and (f) operations. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks testing indicated a significant difference for three paired items: strategic management; marketing and; legal and ethical. The results suggest that relationships exist for the majority of business items (6 of 8) however a statistically difference was demonstrated in only three of the paired business items. The implications of this study for social change include the potential to improve chiropractors' business knowledge and skills, enable practice success, enhance health services delivery and positively influence the profession as a viable career.

  5. Survival in extreme environments – on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak

    2011-01-01

    of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially...... to below )20 C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation....

  6. Tiger Beetles' (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) pupal stage: current state of knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M

    2017-01-26

    The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.

  7. Creating healthy work in small enterprises - from understanding to action:Summary of current knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen, legg; Ian S., laird; Olsen, Kirsten Bendix; Hasle, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Although much is known about small and medium enterprises (SMEs), our current knowledge and understanding of occupational health and safety (OHS) and the work environment in SMEs is limited. Far less is known about how SMEs put our knowledge of OSH into action. In short, how do we create healthy work and healthy lives as well as ‘healthy business' in SMEs? The present paper, which also acts as an editorial for this special issue, addresses these questions by providing a summary of current kno...

  8. Poverty and health disparities for American Indian and Alaska Native children: current knowledge and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle; Spicer, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This report explores the current state of knowledge regarding inequalities and their effect on American Indian and Alaska Native children, underscoring gaps in our current knowledge and the opportunities for early intervention to begin to address persistent challenges in young American Indian and Alaska Native children's development. This overview documents demographic, social, health, and health care disparities as they affect American Indian and Alaska Native children, the persistent cultural strengths that must form the basis for any conscientious intervention effort, and the exciting possibilities for early childhood interventions.

  9. Taking stock of current societal, political and academic stakeholders in the Canadian healthcare knowledge translation agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott-Findlay Shannon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past 15 years, knowledge translation in healthcare has emerged as a multifaceted and complex agenda. Theoretical and polemical discussions, the development of a science to study and measure the effects of translating research evidence into healthcare, and the role of key stakeholders including academe, healthcare decision-makers, the public, and government funding bodies have brought scholarly, organizational, social, and political dimensions to the agenda. Objective This paper discusses the current knowledge translation agenda in Canadian healthcare and how elements in this agenda shape the discovery and translation of health knowledge. Discussion The current knowledge translation agenda in Canadian healthcare involves the influence of values, priorities, and people; stakes which greatly shape the discovery of research knowledge and how it is or is not instituted in healthcare delivery. As this agenda continues to take shape and direction, ensuring that it is accountable for its influences is essential and should be at the forefront of concern to the Canadian public and healthcare community. This transparency will allow for scrutiny, debate, and improvements in health knowledge discovery and health services delivery.

  10. Encouraging Civic Knowledge and Engagement: Exploring Current Events through a Psychological Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Debbie; Baugh, Stacey-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Engagement with political, social, and civil issues is a fundamental component of an educated population, but civic knowledge and engagement are decreasing among adolescents and young adults. A Psychology in Current Events class sought to increase this engagement and key skills such as critical thinking. A one-group pretest-posttest…

  11. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of myocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caforio, Alida L P; Pankuweit, Sabine; Arbustini, Eloisa

    2013-01-01

    In this position statement of the ESC Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases an expert consensus group reviews the current knowledge on clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis, and proposes new diagnostic criteria for clinically suspected myocarditis and its di...

  12. Developing genomic knowledge bases and databases to support clinical management: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huser, Vojtech; Sincan, Murat; Cimino, James J

    2014-01-01

    Personalized medicine, the ability to tailor diagnostic and treatment decisions for individual patients, is seen as the evolution of modern medicine. We characterize here the informatics resources available today or envisioned in the near future that can support clinical interpretation of genomic test results. We assume a clinical sequencing scenario (germline whole-exome sequencing) in which a clinical specialist, such as an endocrinologist, needs to tailor patient management decisions within his or her specialty (targeted findings) but relies on a genetic counselor to interpret off-target incidental findings. We characterize the genomic input data and list various types of knowledge bases that provide genomic knowledge for generating clinical decision support. We highlight the need for patient-level databases with detailed lifelong phenotype content in addition to genotype data and provide a list of recommendations for personalized medicine knowledge bases and databases. We conclude that no single knowledge base can currently support all aspects of personalized recommendations and that consolidation of several current resources into larger, more dynamic and collaborative knowledge bases may offer a future path forward.

  13. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes.

  14. Galictis cuja (Mammalia: an update of current knowledge and geographic distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A. Poo-Muñoz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lesser grison (Galictis cuja is one of the least-known mustelids in the Neotropics, despite its broad range across South America. This study aimed to explore current knowledge of the distribution of the species to identify gaps in knowledge and anticipate its full geographic distribution. Eighty-nine articles have mentioned G. cuja since 1969, but only 13 focused on the species. We generated a detailed model of the species' potential distribution that validated previous maps, but with improved detail, supporting previous southernmost records, and providing a means of identifying priority sites for conservation and management of the species.

  15. Key tasks in healthcare marketing: assessing importance and current level of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett, Pamela A; Henson, Steve W; Crow, Stephen M; Hartman, Sandra J

    2005-01-01

    When examining the healthcare industry, the need for continuing education in internal functions (i.e., HR management) has been documented. However, equally important to success in the healthcare industry are external functions such as marketing. In an expansion of research on internally focused functions, we report findings from an exploratory study designed to examine the perceptions of executives about managerial skill needs in the externally focused area of marketing. Specifically, we examine eight key tasks in marketing and ask executives to rate the level of knowledge required for each and then to assess current, or actual, levels of knowledge in the field. Findings suggest that pricing strategy, product strategy, and segmentation and targeting were the tasks that require the most knowledge for healthcare marketers, and that they do, in fact, perceive various gaps in all of the areas examined. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  16. Current knowledge on helicobacter pylori infection in end stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedmat Hossein

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric infection with Helicobacter Pylori in end-stage renal disease patients is of rele-vance because of its potential impact on the quality of life as well as morbidity and mortality of patients. Existed data on the issue are controversial, and we attempt in this article to evaluate the available data to approach extended perception of the current knowledge on the epidemiology, relevance, and optimum therapeutic strategies.

  17. Sensory perception in cetaceans: Part I – Current knowledge about dolphin senses as a representative species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee eKremers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the literature on sensory perception and behavior in dolphins is devoted to its well-developed vocal and echolocation abilities. In this review, we aim to augment current knowledge by examining the literature on dolphins’ entire Merkwelt (which refers to everything a subject perceives, creating a crucial part of the subject’s Umwelt. We will show that despite extensive knowledge on audition, aspects such as context relatedness, the social function of vocalizations or socio-sexual recognition, remain poorly understood. Therefore, we propose areas for further lines of investigation. Recent studies have shown that the sensory world of dolphins might well be much more diverse than initially thought. Indeed, although underwater and aerial visual systems differ in dolphins, they have both been shown to be important. Much debated electro- and magnetoreception appear to be functional senses according to recent studies. Finally, another neglected area is chemoreception. We will summarize neuroanatomical and physiological data on olfaction and taste, as well as corresponding behavioral evidence. Taken together, we will identify a number of technical and conceptual reasons for why chemosensory data appear contradictory, which is much debated in the literature. In summary, this article aims to provide both an overview of the current knowledge on dolphin perception, but also offer a basis for further discussion and potential new lines of research.

  18. Assessment of knowledge and awareness among radiology personnel regarding current computed tomography technology and radiation dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bradley, D. A.; Bahruddin, N. A.; Ang, W. C.; Salehhon, N.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the level of knowledge and awareness among 120 radiology personnel working in 7 public hospitals in Johor, Malaysia, concerning Computed Tomography (CT) technology and radiation doses based on a set of questionnaires. Subjects were divided into two groups (Medical profession (Med, n=32) and Allied health profession (AH, n=88). The questionnaires are addressed: (1) demographic data (2) relative radiation dose and (3) knowledge of current CT technology. One-third of respondents from both groups were able to estimate relative radiation dose for routine CT examinations. 68% of the allied health profession personnel knew of the Malaysia regulations entitled ‘Basic Safety Standard (BSS) 2010’, although notably 80% of them had previously attended a radiation protection course. No significant difference (p < 0.05) in mean scores of CT technology knowledge detected between the two groups, with the medical professions producing a mean score of (26.7 ± 2.7) and the allied health professions a mean score of (25.2 ± 4.3). This study points to considerable variation among the respondents concerning their understanding of knowledge and awareness of risks of radiation and CT optimization techniques.

  19. Ecology of Urban Bees: A Review of Current Knowledge and Directions for Future Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Frankie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban bee ecology is an emerging field that holds promise for advancing knowledge of bee community dynamics and promoting bee conservation. Published studies of bee communities in urban and suburban habitats are fewer than those documenting bees in agricultural and wildland settings. As land lost to urbanization is predicted to increase in coming years the necessity of studying urban bee populations is growing. We reviewed 59 publications on urban bee ecology with the following goals, to assess current knowledge, to highlight areas in need of further research, and to suggest applications of study findings to bee conservation. Identified trends in urban areas included the following, negative correlation between bee species richness and urban development, increase in abundance of cavity-nesters in urban habitats, and scarcity of floral specialists. Future directions for studying urban bee ecology include incorporation of landscape-scale assessments, conducting manipulative experiments and actively designing urban bee habitats.

  20. Atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides: An assessment of current knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pul, W.A.J. van; Bidleman, T.F.; Brorström-Lunden, E.

    1999-01-01

    there is a shortage of measurement data to evaluate the deposition and reemission processes. It was concluded that the mechanisms of transport and dispersion of pesticides can be described similarly to those for other air pollution components and these mechanisms are rather well-known. Large uncertainties are present......The current knowledge on atmospheric transport and deposition of pesticides is reviewed and discussed by a working group of experts during the Workshop on Fate of pesticides in the atmosphere; implications for risk assessment, held in Driebergen, the Netherlands, 22-24 April, 1998. In general...

  1. Comparative ecophysiology of active zoobenthic filter feeding, essence of current knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Larsen, P. S.

    2000-12-01

    The present contribution gives an overview of current knowledge of a comprehensive and steadily growing research field. The first section deals with water pumping and particle retention mechanisms in ciliary and muscular filter feeders. The second section examines the biological filter pumps in order to assess adaptation to the environment. Filter-feeding benthic invertebrates have evolved filter pumps to solve common basic problems. This has led to a large degree of similarity between otherwise distant standing species, which makes comparative studies interesting and important. The present review of zoobenthic filter feeding aims at accentuating such recognition.

  2. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy - historical report in comparison with the current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Agnieszka; Korwin, Magdalena; Bartnik, Ewa; Tońska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-15

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a genetic, maternally inherited disease caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial genome. LHON patients present with sudden, painless and usually bilateral loss of vision caused by optic nerve atrophy. The first clinical description of the disease was made by Theodor Leber, a German ophthalmologist, in 1871. Here we present his thorough notes about members of four families and their pedigrees. We also provide insights into the current knowledge about LHON pathology, genetics and treatment in comparison with Leber's findings.

  3. Global forces and local currents in Argentina's science policy crossroads: restricted access or open knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Javier Etchichury

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the tensions between two competing approaches to scientific policy in Argentina. The traditional vision favors autonomous research. The neoliberal conception fosters the link between science and markets. In the past few years, a neodevelopmentalist current also tries to stress relevance of scientific research. Finally, the article describes how the Open Access movement has entered the debate. The World Bank intervention and the human rights dimension of the question are discussed in depth. The article introduces the notion of open knowledge as a guiding criterion to design a human-rights based scientific policy.

  4. Impact of nanoparticles on DNA repair processes: current knowledge and working hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriere, Marie; Sauvaigo, Sylvie; Douki, Thierry; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The potential health effects of exposure to nanomaterials (NMs) is currently heavily studied. Among the most often reported impact is DNA damage, also termed genotoxicity. While several reviews relate the DNA damage induced by NMs and the techniques that can be used to prove such effects, the question of impact of NMs on DNA repair processes has never been specifically reviewed. The present review article proposes to fill this gap of knowledge by critically describing the DNA repair processes that could be affected by nanoparticle (NP) exposure, then by reporting the current state of the art on effects of NPs on DNA repair, at the level of protein function, gene induction and post-transcriptional modifications, and taking into account the advantages and limitations of the different experimental approaches. Since little is known about this impact, working hypothesis for the future are then proposed.

  5. Adequacy of Physicians Knowledge Level of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation to Current Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümmu Kocalar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to test the level of information on CPR and suitability to current application of the phsicians practicing in hospital ANEAH. Material and Method: The form of a test of 20 questions fort his purpose has been prepared in accordance with the 2010 AHA-ERC CPR guidelines. This form distributed to volunteer physicians to fill in. A total of 173 physicians agreed to participate in he study. The results were analyzed statistically and tried to determine the factors affecting the level of information. Results:According to the results of the study physicians gender, age and the total duration of physicians and medical asistance doesn%u2019t affect the level of information. The number of CPR within 1 month positively affect the level of knowledge. The number of theoretical and practical training in medical school, have taken the positive impact the level of knowledge of physicians. The training period after graduation, significantly increased the level of physicians information. The order of these training sessions with the asistant courses, congress, seminars and lessions on the sempozims are effective. Discussion: CPR trainig programs for physicians should be standardized, updated and expanded. Recurent in-service trainig should be provided to increase phsicians knowledge on skills.

  6. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica—Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiak-Zatonska, Michalina; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Michalak, Slawomir; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%–25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs) and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs). This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients. PMID:26950113

  7. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica-Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiak-Zatonska, Michalina; Kalinowska-Lyszczarz, Alicja; Michalak, Slawomir; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2016-03-02

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS), it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs) changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd) and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%-25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs) and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs). This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients.

  8. The Immunology of Neuromyelitis Optica—Current Knowledge, Clinical Implications, Controversies and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalina Jasiak-Zatonska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is an autoimmune, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS with typical clinical manifestations of optic neuritis and acute transverse myelitis attacks. Previously believed to be a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS, it is now considered an independent disorder which needs to be differentiated from MS. The discovery of autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgGs changed our understanding of NMO immunopathogenesis and revolutionized the diagnostic process. AQP4-IgG is currently regarded as a specific biomarker of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOsd and a key factor in its pathogenesis. Nevertheless, AQP4-IgG seronegativity in 10%–25% of NMO patients suggests that there are several other factors involved in NMO immunopathogenesis, i.e., autoantibodies against aquaporin-1 (AQP1-Abs and antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgGs. This manuscript reviews current knowledge about NMO immunopathogenesis, pointing out the controversial issues and showing potential directions for future research. Further efforts should be made to broaden our knowledge of NMO immunology which could have important implications for clinical practice, including the use of potential novel biomarkers to facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis, and modern treatment strategies improving long-term outcome of NMO patients.

  9. Current knowledge on the genetics of autism and propositions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeron, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by problems in social communication, as well as by the presence of restricted interests, stereotyped and repetitive behaviours. In the last 40years, genetic studies have provided crucial information on the causes of ASD and its diversity. In this article, I will first review the current knowledge on the genetics of ASD and then suggest three propositions to foster research in this field. Twin and familial studies estimated the heritability of ASD to be 50%. While most of the inherited part of ASD is captured by common variants, our current knowledge on the genetics of ASD comes almost exclusively from the identification of highly penetrant de novo mutations through candidate gene or whole exome/genome sequencing studies. Approximately 10% of patients with ASD, especially those with intellectual disability, are carriers of de novo copy-number (CNV) or single nucleotide variants (SNV) affecting clinically relevant genes for ASD. Given the function of these genes, it was hypothesized that abnormal synaptic plasticity and failure of neuronal/synaptic homeostasis could increase the risk of ASD. In addition to these discoveries, three propositions coming from institutions, researchers and/or communities of patients and families can be made to foster research on ASD: (i) to use more dimensional and quantitative data than diagnostic categories; (ii) to increase data sharing and research on genetic and brain diversity in human populations; (iii) to involve patients and relatives as participants for research. Hopefully, this knowledge will lead to a better diagnosis, care and integration of individuals with ASD.

  10. Stem cells for liver tissue repair:Current knowledge and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells from extra- or intrahepatic sources have been recently characterized and their usefulness for the generation of hepatocyte-like lineages has been demonstrated.Therefore,they are being increasingly considered for future applications in liver cell therapy.In that field,liver cell transplantation is currently regarded as a possible alternative to whole organ transplantation,while stem cells possess theoretical advantages on hepatocytes as they display higher in vitro culture performances and could be used in autologous transplant procedures.However,the current research on the hepatic fate of stem cells is still facing difficulties to demonstrate the acquisition of a full mature hepatocyte phenotype,both in vitro and in vivo.Furthermore,the lack of obvious demonstration of in vivo hepatocyte-like cell functionality remains associated to low repopulation rates obtained after current transplantation procedures.The present review focuses on the current knowledge of the stern cell potential for liver therapy.We discuss the characteristics of the principal cell candidates and the methods to demonstrate their hepatic potential in vitro and in vivo.We finally address the question of the future clinical applications of stem cells for liver tissue repair and the technical aspects that remain to be investigated.

  11. Survival in extreme environments - on the current knowledge of adaptations in tardigrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møbjerg, N; Halberg, K A; Jørgensen, A; Persson, D; Bjørn, M; Ramløv, H; Kristensen, R M

    2011-07-01

    Tardigrades are microscopic animals found worldwide in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystems. They belong to the invertebrate superclade Ecdysozoa, as do the two major invertebrate model organisms: Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. We present a brief description of the tardigrades and highlight species that are currently used as models for physiological and molecular investigations. Tardigrades are uniquely adapted to a range of environmental extremes. Cryptobiosis, currently referred to as a reversible ametabolic state induced by e.g. desiccation, is common especially among limno-terrestrial species. It has been shown that the entry and exit of cryptobiosis may involve synthesis of bioprotectants in the form of selective carbohydrates and proteins as well as high levels of antioxidant enzymes and other free radical scavengers. However, at present a general scheme of mechanisms explaining this phenomenon is lacking. Importantly, recent research has shown that tardigrades even in their active states may be extremely tolerant to environmental stress, handling extreme levels of ionizing radiation, large fluctuation in external salinity and avoiding freezing by supercooling to below -20 °C, presumably relying on efficient DNA repair mechanisms and osmoregulation. This review summarizes the current knowledge on adaptations found among tardigrades, and presents new data on tardigrade cell numbers and osmoregulation.

  12. Invasive Carassius Carp in Georgia: Current state of knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bella JAPOSHVILI, Levan MUMLADZE, Fahrettin KÜÇÜK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Georgia, crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758 was known from only one locality after Kesslers record (1877–1878 with no new findings until 1985. Since then C. carassius rapidly and simultaneously invaded almost all water bodies of Georgia. In 2004, it was for the first time noted that this invasive Carassius sp. could not be a C. Carassius, but was a form of Carassius gibelio (Bloch, 1792. However no further data is available about this invasive species in Georgia. The aim of the present study was to investigate taxonomic status of Carassius sp. in Georgia using mtDNA phylogenetic analyses and morphometric study of truss network system. Genetic analysis revealed that invasive Carassius sp. is closely related to the C. gibelio from Turkey and other countries. In contrast, morphometrically Carassius sp. from Georgia can be easily differentiated from those of Turkey indicating high intraspecific variability. This is the first time discussion on the current knowledge of the present distribution of invasive carp in Georgia with identifying current problems and future research directions needed [Current Zoology 59 (6: 732–739, 2013].

  13. ['I'm worthless' and other forms of self-criticism: Current knowledge and therapeutic interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Pauline; Kramer, Ueli

    2015-01-01

    Self-criticism is considered as a harsh or punitive evaluation of the self. It is omnipresent in culture, in daily life as well as in psychotherapy. Self-criticism can lead to question oneself but can also open new perspectives and guide us. However, it can become excessive, rigid, and might turn out to be deleterious. This present article focuses on the concept of self-criticism in clinical psychology and psychotherapy and aims to review current knowledge about this topic. First, its definition and the reasons for its development in individuals will be presented. Second, a description of the links between self-criticism and psychopathology will be made, in particular regarding depression. Finally, the third part of this article will be dedicated to the therapeutic interventions that can reduce self-criticism.

  14. Chemical and molecular factors in irritable bowel syndrome: current knowledge, challenges, and unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Oduyebo, Ibironke; Halawi, Houssam

    2016-11-01

    Several chemical and molecular factors in the intestine are reported to be altered and to have a potentially significant role in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), particularly in IBS with diarrhea. These include bile acids; short-chain fatty acids; mucosal barrier proteins; mast cell products such as histamine, proteases, and tryptase; enteroendocrine cell products; and mucosal mRNAs, proteins, and microRNAs. This article reviews the current knowledge and unanswered questions in the pathobiology of the chemical and molecular factors in IBS. Evidence continues to point to significant roles in pathogenesis of these chemical and molecular mechanisms, which may therefore constitute potential targets for future research and therapy. However, it is still necessary to address the interaction between these factors in the gut and to appraise how they may influence hypervigilance in the central nervous system in patients with IBS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Physiological Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Human Pregnancy: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to acute stress are important predictors of health outcomes in non-pregnant populations. Greater magnitude and duration of physiological responses have been associated with increased risk of hypertensive disorders and diabetes, greater susceptibility to infectious illnesses, suppression of cell-mediated immunity as well as risk for depression and anxiety disorders. Stress reactivity during pregnancy has unique implications for maternal health, birth outcomes, and fetal development. However, as compared to the larger literature, our understanding of the predictors and consequences of exaggerated stress reactivity in pregnancy is limited. This paper reviews the current state of this literature with an emphasis on gaps in knowledge and future directions. PMID:22800930

  16. Summary of knowledge gaps related to quality and efficacy of current influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleiderer, Michael; Trouvin, Jean-Hugues; Brasseur, Daniel; Gränstrom, Marta; Shivji, Ragini; Mura, Manuela; Cavaleri, Marco

    2014-07-31

    Influenza viruses are a public health threat, as they are pathogenic, highly transmissible and prone to genetic changes. For decades vaccination strategies have been based on trivalent inactivated vaccines, which are regulated by specific guidelines. The progress in scientific knowledge and the lessons learned from the A(H1N1)2009 pandemic have highlighted further the need to improve current guidelines, including the immunogenicity criteria set by the CHMP in 1997, and to promote the discussion on the shortcomings encountered, e.g. the evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the paediatric and elderly populations, the measurement of the naivety of a population, the impact of prior immunity on subsequent vaccinations, and the technical issues with the serological assays for detection of immunity and immunogenicity. The authors attempted to summarise and tackle key gaps in the existing evidence concerning quality and efficacy of influenza vaccines, aiming at favouring a common understanding and a coordinated approach across stakeholders.

  17. The enigmatic role of RUNX1 in female-related cancers - current knowledge & future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, Alessandra I; Blyth, Karen

    2017-08-01

    Historically associated with the aetiology of human leukaemia, the runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) gene has in recent years reared its head in an assortment of epithelial cancers. This review discusses the state-of-the-art knowledge of the enigmatic role played by RUNX1 in female-related cancers of the breast, the uterus and the ovary. The weight of evidence accumulated so far is indicative of a very context-dependent role, as either an oncogene or a tumour suppressor. This is corroborated by high-throughput sequencing endeavours which report different genetic alterations affecting the gene, including amplification, deep deletion and mutations. Herein, we attempt to dissect that contextual role by firstly giving an overview of what is currently known about RUNX1 function in these specific tumour types, and secondly by delving into connections between this transcription factor and the physiology of these female tissues. In doing so, RUNX1 emerges not only as a gene involved in female sex development but also as a crucial mediator of female hormone signalling. In view of RUNX1 now being listed as a driver gene, we believe that greater knowledge of the mechanisms underlying its functional dualism in epithelial cancers is worthy of further investigation. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes

    KAUST Repository

    Wilson, S. K.

    2010-02-26

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  19. Crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S K; Adjeroud, M; Bellwood, D R; Berumen, M L; Booth, D; Bozec, Y-Marie; Chabanet, P; Cheal, A; Cinner, J; Depczynski, M; Feary, D A; Gagliano, M; Graham, N A J; Halford, A R; Halpern, B S; Harborne, A R; Hoey, A S; Holbrook, S J; Jones, G P; Kulbiki, M; Letourneur, Y; De Loma, T L; McClanahan, T; McCormick, M I; Meekan, M G; Mumby, P J; Munday, P L; Ohman, M C; Pratchett, M S; Riegl, B; Sano, M; Schmitt, R J; Syms, C

    2010-03-15

    Expert opinion was canvassed to identify crucial knowledge gaps in current understanding of climate change impacts on coral reef fishes. Scientists that had published three or more papers on the effects of climate and environmental factors on reef fishes were invited to submit five questions that, if addressed, would improve our understanding of climate change effects on coral reef fishes. Thirty-three scientists provided 155 questions, and 32 scientists scored these questions in terms of: (i) identifying a knowledge gap, (ii) achievability, (iii) applicability to a broad spectrum of species and reef habitats, and (iv) priority. Forty-two per cent of the questions related to habitat associations and community dynamics of fish, reflecting the established effects and immediate concern relating to climate-induced coral loss and habitat degradation. However, there were also questions on fish demographics, physiology, behaviour and management, all of which could be potentially affected by climate change. Irrespective of their individual expertise and background, scientists scored questions from different topics similarly, suggesting limited bias and recognition of a need for greater interdisciplinary and collaborative research. Presented here are the 53 highest-scoring unique questions. These questions should act as a guide for future research, providing a basis for better assessment and management of climate change impacts on coral reefs and associated fish communities.

  20. Current knowledge on the photoneuroendocrine regulation of reproduction in temperate fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaud, H; Davie, A; Taylor, J F

    2010-01-01

    Seasonality is an important adaptive trait in temperate fish species as it entrains or regulates most physiological events such as reproductive cycle, growth profile, locomotor activity and key life-stage transitions. Photoperiod is undoubtedly one of the most predictable environmental signals that can be used by most living organisms including fishes in temperate areas. This said, however, understanding of how such a simple signal can dictate the time of gonadal recruitment and spawning, for example, is a complex task. Over the past few decades, many scientists attempted to unravel the roots of photoperiodic signalling in teleosts by investigating the role of melatonin in reproduction, but without great success. In fact, the hormone melatonin is recognized as the biological time-keeping hormone in fishes mainly due to the fact that it reflects the seasonal variation in daylength across the whole animal kingdom rather than the existence of direct evidences of its role in the entrainment of reproduction in fishes. Recently, however, some new studies clearly suggested that melatonin interacts with the reproductive cascade at a number of key steps such as through the dopaminergic system in the brain or the synchronization of the final oocyte maturation in the gonad. Interestingly, in the past few years, additional pathways have become apparent in the search for a fish photoneuroendocrine system including the clock-gene network and kisspeptin signalling and although research on these topics are still in their infancy, it is moving at great pace. This review thus aims to bring together the current knowledge on the photic control of reproduction mainly focusing on seasonal temperate fish species and shape the current working hypotheses supported by recent findings obtained in teleosts or based on knowledge gathered in mammalian and avian species. Four of the main potential regulatory systems (light perception, melatonin, clock genes and kisspeptin) in fish reproduction

  1. What Is the Current Level of Asthma Knowledge in Elementary, Middle, and High School Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined teacher asthma knowledge based on three areas including (a) the level of teacher asthma knowledge in the Maury County Public School System, (b) the level of teacher asthma knowledge based on five demographic factors, and (c) the level of teacher asthma knowledge in the Maury County Public School System compared with teacher…

  2. The order Corallinales sensu lato (Rhodophyta in the Iberian Atlantic: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Lugilde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A review of the order Corallinales sensu lato in the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula is presented with the aim of assessing its current state of knowledge in comparison with adjacent areas (British Isles-Atlantic France, Macaronesia and Iberian Mediterranean. According to the information compiled from more than 250 publications, herbarium data and manuscripts, we concluded that Atlantic Iberian coralline algae have been poorly studied, which resulted in only 49 species reported. By contrast, Macaronesia is the most species-rich region (91, followed by Spanish Mediterranean (67 and the British Isles-Atlantic France (61. In the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula, 17 species occurred commonly (present in more than 50% of the coastline, particularly those corresponding to the genera Amphiroa, Jania, Lithophyllum, Mesophyllum, and Phymatolithon. Instead, the genera Harveylithon, Hydrolithon, Leptophytum, Lithothamnion, Neogoniolithon and Pneophyllum have been occasionally reported. In the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula and adjacent regions, the epilithic growth-form was dominant, followed by the epiphytic, epizoic and the unattached (maerl/rodoliths; besides, sciaphilous taxa were more abundant than photophilous species. The low intertidal and shallow subtidal harbour a high diversity of coralline algae, as well as semi-exposed coasts or areas affected by currents. The present study confirms that studies on the Atlantic Iberian coralline algae are scarce, and that further research on this group is required.

  3. B-group vitamin production by lactic acid bacteria--current knowledge and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J G; Laiño, J E; del Valle, M Juarez; Vannini, V; van Sinderen, D; Taranto, M P; de Valdez, G Font; de Giori, G Savoy; Sesma, F

    2011-12-01

    Although most vitamins are present in a variety of foods, human vitamin deficiencies still occur in many countries, mainly because of malnutrition not only as a result of insufficient food intake but also because of unbalanced diets. Even though most lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are auxotrophic for several vitamins, it is now known that certain strains have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B-group (folates, riboflavin and vitamin B(12) amongst others). This review article will show the current knowledge of vitamin biosynthesis by LAB and show how the proper selection of starter cultures and probiotic strains could be useful in preventing clinical and subclinical vitamin deficiencies. Here, several examples will be presented where vitamin-producing LAB led to the elaboration of novel fermented foods with increased and bioavailable vitamins. In addition, the use of genetic engineering strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will also be discussed. This review will show that the use of vitamin-producing LAB could be a cost-effective alternative to current vitamin fortification programmes and be useful in the elaboration of novel vitamin-enriched products. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Sea urchin overgrazing of seagrasses: A review of current knowledge on causes, consequences, and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, J. S.; de la Torre-Castro, M.; Gullström, M.; Uku, J.; Muthiga, N.; Lyimo, T.; Bandeira, S. O.

    2008-09-01

    Sea urchins are one of the most common seagrass macro-grazers in contemporary seagrass systems. Occasionally their grazing rates exceed seagrass growth rates, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as overgrazing. Because of a reported increasing frequency of overgrazing events, concomitant with loss of seagrass-associated ecosystem services, it has been suggested that overgrazing is one of the key threats to tropical and subtropical seagrasses. In light of this, we review the current knowledge on causes, consequences, and management of sea urchin overgrazing of seagrasses. Initially we argue that the definition of overgrazing must include scale and impairment of ecosystem services, since this is the de facto definition used in the literature, and will highlight the potential societal costs of seagrass overgrazing. A review of 16 identified cases suggests that urchin overgrazing is a global phenomenon, ranging from temperate to tropical coastal waters and involving at least 11 seagrass and 7 urchin species. Even though most overgrazing events seem to affect areas of enrichment), top-down (reduced predation control due to e.g. overfishing), "side-in" mechanisms (e.g. changes in water temperature) and natural population fluctuations. Based on recent studies, there seems to be fairly strong support for the top-down and bottom-up hypotheses. However, many potential drivers often co-occur and interact, especially in areas with high anthropogenic pressure, suggesting that multiple disturbances—by simultaneously reducing predation control, increasing urchin recruitment and reducing the resistance of seagrasses—could pave the way for overgrazing. In management, the most common response to overgrazing has been to remove urchins, but limited knowledge of direct and indirect effects makes it difficult to assess the applicability and sustainability of this method. Based on the wide knowledge gaps, which severely limits management, we suggest that future research should focus

  5. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF: properties and frontier of current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aas IH Monrad

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF is well known internationally and widely used for scoring the severity of illness in psychiatry. Problems with GAF show a need for its further development (for example validity and reliability problems. The aim of the present study was to identify gaps in current knowledge about properties of GAF that are of interest for further development. Properties of GAF are defined as characteristic traits or attributes that serve to define GAF (or may have a role to define a future updated GAF. Methods A thorough literature search was conducted. Results A number of gaps in knowledge about the properties of GAF were identified: for example, the current GAF has a continuous scale, but is a continuous or categorical scale better? Scoring is not performed by setting a mark directly on a visual scale, but could this improve scoring? Would new anchor points, including key words and examples, improve GAF (anchor points for symptoms, functioning, positive mental health, prognosis, improvement of generic properties, exclusion criteria for scoring in 10-point intervals, and anchor points at the endpoints of the scale? Is a change in the number of anchor points and their distribution over the total scale important? Could better instructions for scoring within 10-point intervals improve scoring? Internationally, both single and dual scales for GAF are used, but what is the advantage of having separate symptom and functioning scales? Symptom (GAF-S and functioning (GAF-F scales should score different dimensions and still be correlated, but what is the best combination of definitions for GAF-S and GAF-F? For GAF with more than two scales there is limited empirical testing, but what is gained or lost by using more than two scales? Conclusions In the history of GAF, its basic properties have undergone limited changes. Problems with GAF may, in part, be due to lack of a research programme testing the effects of

  6. Process based inventory of isoprenoid emissions from European forests: model comparisons, current knowledge and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Keenan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Large uncertainties exist in our knowledge of regional emissions of non-methane biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC. We address these uncertainties through a two-pronged approach by compiling a state of the art database of the emissions potentials for 80 European forest species, and by a model assessment and inter-comparison, both at the local and regional scale, under present and projected future climatic conditions. We coupled three contrasting isoprenoid models with the ecophysiological forest model GOTILWA+ to explore the interactive effects of climate, vegetation distribution, and productivity, on leaf and ecosystem isoprenoid emissions, and to consider model behaviour in present climate and under projected future climate change conditions. Hourly, daily and annual isoprene emissions as simulated by the models were evaluated against flux measurements. The validation highlighted a general model capacity to capture gross fluxes but inefficiencies in capturing short term variability. A regional inventory of isoprenoid emissions for European forests was created using each of the three modelling approaches. The models agreed on an average European emissions budget of 1.03 TgC a−1 for isoprene and 0.97 TgC a−1 for monoterpenes for the period 1960–1990, which was dominated by a few species with largest aerial coverage. Species contribution to total emissions depended both on species emission potential and geographical distribution. For projected future climate conditions, however, emissions budgets proved highly model dependent, illustrating the current uncertainty associated with isoprenoid emissions responses to potential future conditions. These results suggest that current model estimates of isoprenoid emissions concur well, but future estimates are highly uncertain. We conclude that development of reliable models is highly urgent, but for the time being, future BVOC emission scenario estimates should consider

  7. Whole dairy matrix or single nutrients in assessment of health effects: current evidence and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorning, Tanja Kongerslev; Bertram, Hanne Christine; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; de Groot, Lisette; Dupont, Didier; Feeney, Emma; Ipsen, Richard; Lecerf, Jean Michel; Mackie, Alan; McKinley, Michelle C; Michalski, Marie-Caroline; Rémond, Didier; Risérus, Ulf; Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; Tholstrup, Tine; Weaver, Connie; Astrup, Arne; Givens, Ian

    2017-04-12

    Foods consist of a large number of different nutrients that are contained in a complex structure. The nature of the food structure and the nutrients therein (i.e., the food matrix) will determine the nutrient digestion and absorption, thereby altering the overall nutritional properties of the food. Thus, the food matrix may exhibit a different relation with health indicators compared to single nutrients studied in isolation. The evidence for a dairy matrix effect was presented and discussed by an expert panel at a closed workshop, and the following consensus was reached: 1) Current evidence does not support a positive association between intake of dairy products and risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e., stroke and coronary heart disease) and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, fermented dairy products, such as cheese and yogurt, generally show inverse associations. 2) Intervention studies have indicated that the metabolic effects of whole dairy may be different than those of single dairy constituents when considering the effects on body weight, cardiometabolic disease risk, and bone health. 3) Different dairy products seem to be distinctly linked to health effects and disease risk markers. 4) Different dairy structures and common processing methods may enhance interactions between nutrients in the dairy matrix, which may modify the metabolic effects of dairy consumption. 5) In conclusion, the nutritional values of dairy products should not be considered equivalent to their nutrient contents but, rather, be considered on the basis of the biofunctionality of the nutrients within dairy food structures. 6) Further research on the health effects of whole dairy foods is warranted alongside the more traditional approach of studying the health effects of single nutrients. Future diet assessments and recommendations should carefully consider the evidence of the effects of whole foods alongside the evidence of the effects of individual nutrients. Current knowledge gaps and

  8. Patient knowledge, perceptions, and acceptance of generic medicines: a comprehensive review of the current literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alrasheedy AA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alian A Alrasheedy,1 Mohamed Azmi Hassali,1 Kay Stewart,2 David CM Kong,2 Hisham Aljadhey,3 Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim,4 Saleh Karamah Al-Tamimi1 1Discipline of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Medication Safety Research Chair, Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Background: Generic medicines have the same quality, safety, and efficacy as their counterpart original brand medicines. Generic medicines provide the same therapeutic outcomes but at a much cheaper cost, so are promoted in many countries to contain pharmaceutical expenditure and sustain the health care system. Thus, the perspective of patients and medicine consumers as end users of these medicines is an important factor to enhance the use and utilization of generic medicines. The objective of this paper is to review patients’ and consumers’ knowledge, perceptions, acceptance, and views of generic medicines in the current literature. Methods: An extensive literature search was performed in several databases, namely Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and the Wiley online library, to identify relevant studies published in the English literature for the period 1990–2013. Results: A total of 53 studies were included in the review, comprising 24 studies from Europe, ten from North America, six from Asia, five from Australia and New Zealand, five from the Middle East, one from Africa, one from Latin America, and one from the Caribbean region. A large body of literature has reported misconceptions and negative perceptions about generic medicines on the part of patients and medicine consumers. Moreover, although it is reported in almost all countries, the percentage of consumers who had

  9. The iron-sulfur cluster assembly machineries in plants: current knowledge and open questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy eCouturier

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Many metabolic pathways and cellular processes occurring in most sub-cellular compartments depend on the functioning of iron-sulfur (Fe-S proteins, whose cofactors are assembled through dedicated protein machineries. Recent advances have been made in the knowledge of the functions of individual components through a combination of genetic, biochemical and structural approaches, primarily in prokaryotes and non-plant eukaryotes. Whereas most of the components of these machineries are conserved between kingdoms, their complexity is likely increased in plants owing to the presence of additional assembly proteins and to the existence of expanded families for several assembly proteins. This review focuses on the new actors discovered in the past few years, such as glutaredoxin, BOLA and NEET proteins as well as MIP18, MMS19, TAH18, DRE2 for the cytosolic machinery, which are integrated into a model for the plant Fe-S cluster biogenesis systems. It also discusses a few issues currently subjected to an intense debate such as the role of the mitochondrial frataxin and of glutaredoxins, the functional separation between scaffold, carrier and iron-delivery proteins and the crosstalk existing between different organelles.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of microcystins in aquatic fish species: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavagadhi, Shruti; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2013-10-15

    Microcystins (MCs) are algal toxins produced intracellularly within the algal cells, and are subsequently released into the aquatic systems. An increase in the frequency and intensity of occurrence of harmful algal blooms has directed the global attention towards the presence of MCs in aquatic systems. The effects of MCs on fish have been verified in a number of studies including histological, biochemical and behavioral effects. The toxicological effects of MCs on different organs of fish are related to the exposure route (intraperitoneal injection, feeding or immersion), the mode of uptake (passive or active transport) as well as biotransformation and bioaccumulation capabilities by different organs. This paper reviews the rapidly expanding literature on the toxicological evaluation of MCs in fish from both field studies and controlled laboratory experimental investigations, integrates the current knowledge available about the mechanisms involved in MC-induced effects on fish, and points out future research directions from a cross-disciplinary perspective. In addition, the need to carry out systematic fish toxicity studies to account for possible interactions between MCs and other environmental pollutants in aquatic systems is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvopina, Manuel; Armijos, Rodrigo X; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2004-11-01

    Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania) spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  12. The trigemino-cardiac reflex: an update of the current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Bernhard; Cornelius, Jan F; Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Koerbel, Andrei; Gnanalingham, Kanna; Sandu, Nora; Ottaviani, Giulia; Filis, Andreas; Buchfelder, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) is clinically defined as the sudden onset of parasympathetic activity, sympathetic hypotension, apnea, or gastric hypermotility during central or peripheral stimulation of any of the sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve. Clinically, the TCR has been reported to occur during craniofacial surgery, manipulation of the trigeminal nerve/ganglion and during surgery for lesion in the cerebellopontine angle, cavernous sinus, and the pituitary fossa. Apart from the few clinical reports, the physiologic function of this brainstem reflex has not yet been fully explored. The manifestation of the TCR can vary from bradycardia and hypotension to asystole. From the experimental findings, the TCR represents an expression of a central reflex leading to rapid cerebrovascular vasodilatation generated from excitation of oxygen-sensitive neurons in the rostral ventro-lateral medulla oblongata. By this physiologic response, the systemic and cerebral circulations may be adjusted in a way that augments cerebral perfusion. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about TCR.

  13. A REVIEW OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING SIZE-DEPENDENT AEROSOL REMOVAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Leiming Zhang; Robert Vet

    2006-01-01

    The status of current knowledge on size-dependent aerosol removal by dry and wet processes, including dry deposition and impaction and nucleation scavenging, is reviewed. The largest discrepancies between theoretical estimations and measurement data on dry deposition and below-cloud scavenging are for submicron particles. Early dry deposition models, which developed based on chamber and wind tunnel measurements, tended to underestimate dry deposition velocity (Vd) for submicron particles by around one order of magnitude compared to recent field measurements. Recently developed models are able to predict reasonable Vd values for submicron particles but shift unrealistically the predicted minimum Vd to larger particle sizes. Theoretical studies of impaction scavenging of aerosol particles by falling liquid drops also substantially underestimate the scavenging coefficients for submicron particles. Empirical formulas based on field measurements can serve as an alternative to the theoretical scavenging models. Future development of size-resolved impaction scavenging models needs to include more precipitation properties (e.g., droplet surface area) and to be evaluated by detailed cloud microphysical models and available measurements. Several recently developed nucleation scavenging parameterizations for in-cloud removal of interstitial aerosol give comparable results when evaluated against parcel models; however, they need to be verified once suitable field measurements are available.More theoretical and field studies are also needed in order to better understand the role of organic aerosols in the nucleation scavenging process.

  14. Humpback Dolphins of Western Australia: A Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanf, Daniella M; Hunt, Tim; Parra, Guido J

    2016-01-01

    Among the many cetacean species that occupy Australian coastal waters, Australian humpback dolphins, Sousa sahulensis, are one of the most vulnerable to extirpation due to human activities. This review summarises the existing knowledge, presently occurring and planned research projects, and current conservation measures for humpback dolphins in Western Australia (WA). Rapid and wide-scale coastal development along the northern WA coastline has occurred despite a lack of baseline data for inshore dolphins and, therefore, without a precautionary approach to their conservation. The distribution, abundance, habitat use, and population structure of humpback dolphins remain poorly understood. Less than 1% of their inferred distribution has so far been studied to understand local population demography. The sparse data available suggest that WA humpback dolphins occur as localised populations in low numbers within a range of inshore habitats, including both clear and turbid coastal waters. Marine protected areas cover a third of their inferred distribution in WA, but the efficacy of these reserves in protecting local cetacean populations is unknown. There is a pressing need for coordination and collaboration among scientists, government agencies, industry bodies, Traditional Owners, and local community groups to fill in the gaps of information on humpback dolphins in WA. The recently developed strategies and sampling guidelines developed by state and federal governments should serve as a best practise standard for collection of data aimed at assessing the conservation status of humpback dolphins in WA and Australia.

  15. Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes: current knowledge and implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetti, Raffaella; Zampetti, Simona; Maddaloni, Ernesto

    2017-09-08

    Adult-onset autoimmune diabetes is a heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a reduced genetic load, a less intensive autoimmune process and a mild metabolic decompensation at onset compared with young-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The majority of patients with adult-onset autoimmune diabetes do not require insulin treatment for at least 6 months after diagnosis. Such patients are defined as having latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), which is distinct from classic adult-onset T1DM. The extensive heterogeneity of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes is apparent beyond the distinction between classic adult-onset T1DM and LADA. LADA is characterized by genetic, phenotypic and humoral heterogeneity, encompassing different degrees of insulin resistance and autoimmunity; this heterogeneity is probably a result of different pathological mechanisms, which have implications for treatment. The existence of heterogeneous phenotypes in LADA makes it difficult to establish an a priori treatment algorithm, and therefore, a personalized medicine approach is required. In this Review, we discuss the current understanding and gaps in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology and clinical features of adult-onset autoimmune diabetes and highlight the similarities and differences with classic T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Sugar transporters in efficient utilization of mixed sugar substrates: current knowledge and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojima, Toru; Omumasaba, Crispinus A; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing interest in production of transportation fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, most desirably through biological fermentation. Considerable effort has been expended to develop efficient biocatalysts that convert sugars derived from lignocellulose directly to value-added products. Glucose, the building block of cellulose, is the most suitable fermentation substrate for industrial microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Other sugars including xylose, arabinose, mannose, and galactose that comprise hemicellulose are generally less efficient substrates in terms of productivity and yield. Although metabolic engineering including introduction of functional pentose-metabolizing pathways into pentose-incompetent microorganisms has provided steady progress in pentose utilization, further improvements in sugar mixture utilization by microorganisms is necessary. Among a variety of issues on utilization of sugar mixtures by the microorganisms, recent studies have started to reveal the importance of sugar transporters in microbial fermentation performance. In this article, we review current knowledge on diversity and functions of sugar transporters, especially those associated with pentose uptake in microorganisms. Subsequently, we review and discuss recent studies on engineering of sugar transport as a driving force for efficient bioconversion of sugar mixtures derived from lignocellulose.

  17. Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in the Nitrogen Uptake of Plants: Current Knowledge and Research Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Bücking

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi play an essential role for the nutrient uptake of the majority of land plants, including many important crop species. The extraradical mycelium of the fungus takes up nutrients from the soil, transfers these nutrients to the intraradical mycelium within the host root, and exchanges the nutrients against carbon from the host across a specialized plant-fungal interface. The contribution of the AM symbiosis to the phosphate nutrition has long been known, but whether AM fungi contribute similarly to the nitrogen nutrition of their host is still controversially discussed. However, there is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates that AM fungi can actively transfer nitrogen to their host, and that the host plant with its carbon supply stimulates this transport, and that the periarbuscular membrane of the host is able to facilitate the active uptake of nitrogen from the mycorrhizal interface. In this review, our current knowledge about nitrogen transport through the fungal hyphae and across the mycorrhizal interface is summarized, and we discuss the regulation of these pathways and major research gaps.

  18. Influence of Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields on the Circadian System: Current Stage of Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Lewczuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the side effects of each electrical device work is the electromagnetic field generated near its workplace. All organisms, including humans, are exposed daily to the influence of different types of this field, characterized by various physical parameters. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the effects of an electromagnetic field on the physiological and pathological processes occurring in cells, tissues, and organs. Numerous epidemiological and experimental data suggest that the extremely low frequency magnetic field generated by electrical transmission lines and electrically powered devices and the high frequencies electromagnetic radiation emitted by electronic devices have a potentially negative impact on the circadian system. On the other hand, several studies have found no influence of these fields on chronobiological parameters. According to the current state of knowledge, some previously proposed hypotheses, including one concerning the key role of melatonin secretion disruption in pathogenesis of electromagnetic field induced diseases, need to be revised. This paper reviews the data on the effect of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields on melatonin and cortisol rhythms—two major markers of the circadian system as well as on sleep. It also provides the basic information about the nature, classification, parameters, and sources of these fields.

  19. Transmission routes of African swine fever virus to domestic pigs: current knowledge and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinat, Claire; Gogin, Andrey; Blome, Sandra; Keil, Guenther; Pollin, Reiko; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Dixon, Linda

    2016-03-12

    African swine fever (ASF) is a major threat to the pig industry in Europe. Since 2007, ASF outbreaks have been ongoing in the Caucasus, Eastern Europe and the Baltic countries, causing severe economic losses for many pig farmers and pork producers. In addition, the number of ASF cases in wild boar populations has dramatically increased over the past few years. Evidence supports direct contact with infectious domestic pigs and wild boars, and consumption of contaminated feed, as the main transmission routes of ASF virus (ASFV) to domestic pigs. However, significant knowledge gaps highlight the urgent need for research to investigate the dynamics of indirect transmission via the environment, the minimal infective doses for contaminated feed ingestion, the probability of effective contacts between infectious wild boars and domestic pigs, the potential for recovered animals to become carriers and a reservoir for transmission, the potential virus persistence within wild boar populations and the influence of human behaviour for the spread of ASFV. This will provide an improved scientific basis to optimise current interventions and develop new tools and strategies to reduce the risk of ASFV transmission to domestic pigs.

  20. The rings of Saturn: State of current knowledge and some suggestions for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.

    1978-01-01

    The state of our current knowledge of the properties of the ring system as a whole, and of the particles individually, is assessed. Attention is primarily devoted to recent results and possibilities for exploration of the ring system by a Saturn orbiter. In particular, the infrared and microwave properties of the ring system are discussed. The behavior of the ring brightness is not well understood in the critical transition spectral region from approximately 100 micrometers to approximately 1 cm. Also, the dynamical behavior of the ring system is discussed. Recent theoretical studies show that ongoing dynamical effects continually affect the ring structure in azimuth (possibly producing the A ring brightness asymmetry) and in the vertical direction. Orbital spacecraft-based studies of the rings will offer several unique advantages and impact important cosmogonical questions. Bistatic radar studies and millimeter-wavelength spectrometer/radiometry will give particle sizes and composition limits needed to resolve the question of the density of the rings, and provide important boundary conditions on the state of Saturn's protoplanetary nebula near the time of planetary formation.

  1. Tropical forest responses to increasing [CO2]: current knowledge and opportunities for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernusak, Lucas [Australian National University, Canberra, Australia; Winter, Klaus [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Dalling, James [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Holtum, Joseph [James Cook University; Jaramillo, Carlos [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Korner, Christian [University of Basel; Leakey, Andrew D.B. [University of Illinois; Norby, Richard J [ORNL; Poulter, Benjamin [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environement, France; Turner, Benjamin [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute; Wright, S. Joseph [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute

    2013-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric [CO2] (ca) will undoubtedly affect the metabolism of tropical forests worldwide; however, critical aspects of how tropical forests will respond remain largely unknown. Here we review the current state of knowledge about physiological and ecological responses, with the aim of providing a framework that can help to guide future experimental research. Modelling studies have indicated that elevated ca can potentially stimulate photosynthesis more in the tropics than at higher latitudes, because suppression of photorespiration by elevated ca increases with temperature. However, canopy leaves in tropical forests could also potentially reach a high temperature threshold under elevated ca that will moderate the rise in photosynthesis. Belowground responses, including fine root production, nutrient foraging, and soil organic matter processing, will be especially important to the integrated ecosystem response to elevated CO2. Water-use efficiency will increase as ca rises, potentially impacting upon soil moisture status and nutrient availability. Recruitment may be differentially altered for some functional groups, potentially decreasing ecosystem carbon storage. Whole-forest CO2 enrichment experiments are urgently needed to test predictions of tropical forest functioning under elevated ca. Smaller scale experiments in the understory and in gaps would also be informative, and could provide stepping stones toward stand-scale manipulations.

  2. Role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease: current knowledge in large animal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann, U; Buechner-Maxwell, V A; Witonsky, S G; Hite, R D

    2009-01-01

    Lung surfactant is produced by type II alveolar cells as a mixture of phospholipids, surfactant proteins, and neutral lipids. Surfactant lowers alveolar surface tension and is crucial for the prevention of alveolar collapse. In addition, surfactant contributes to smaller airway patency and improves mucociliary clearance. Surfactant-specific proteins are part of the innate immune defense mechanisms of the lung. Lung surfactant alterations have been described in a number of respiratory diseases. Surfactant deficiency (quantitative deficit of surfactant) in premature animals causes neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Surfactant dysfunction (qualitative changes in surfactant) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome and asthma. Analysis of surfactant from amniotic fluid allows assessment of fetal lung maturity (FLM) in the human fetus and exogenous surfactant replacement therapy is part of the standard care in premature human infants. In contrast to human medicine, use and success of FLM testing or surfactant replacement therapy remain limited in veterinary medicine. Lung surfactant has been studied in large animal models of human disease. However, only a few reports exist on lung surfactant alterations in naturally occurring respiratory disease in large animals. This article gives a general review on the role of lung surfactant in respiratory disease followed by an overview of our current knowledge on surfactant in large animal veterinary medicine.

  3. Horizontal gene transfer among microorganisms in food: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Rizzotti, Lucia; Felis, Giovanna E; Torriani, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    The possibility of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) among microorganisms in food matrices has been specifically targeted in a few investigations, though most current knowledge has been obtained indirectly or derived from genome sequence analyses. In this review, we have assembled reported examples of the HGT events that probably occurred in food matrices since the bacterial partners involved are commonly found in association in a food matrix or are specifically adapted to it. Exchanged genes include those encoding for substrate utilization, bacteriocin, exopolysaccharide and biogenic amine (BA) production, immunity to bacteriophages and antibiotic resistance (AR). While the acquisition of new traits involved in substrate utilization led to the natural genetic improvement of the microbial cultures for food production, the acquisition of hazardous traits, e.g., AR, virulence or BA production genes, can give rise to health concerns in otherwise innocuous species. Available evidence suggests that it would be opportune to determine what conditions favour HGT among bacteria in food ecosystems in order to naturally obtain improved starter or adjunct cultures, and also to prevent the propagation of hazardous traits.

  4. Epidemiology of leishmaniasis in Ecuador: current status of knowledge - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Calvopina

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Although leishmaniasis is regarded as a significant health problem in Ecuador by the Ministry of Health, and the incidence has increased over the last years, an official map on the geographic distribution of disease and sand fly vectors or a control strategy do not exist yet. This article reviews the current situation based on published information to improve our knowledge and understand the epidemiological situation of leishmaniasis in Ecuador in order to help future research and to develop a national control strategy. The disease is endemic in most provinces throughout Pacific coastal region, Amazonian lowlands, and some inter-Andean valleys with a total 21,805 cases reported during 1990-2003. Whereas cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is found throughout Ecuador, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL appears to be restricted to the Amazon region; one, parasitologically unconfirmed case of visceral form was reported in 1949. Most human infections are caused by Leishmania (Viannia spp., which is distributed in the subtropical and tropical lowlands; infections due to L. (Leishmania spp. are found in the Andean highlands and in the Pacific lowlands as well. The proven vectors are Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. ayacuchensis. Canis familiaris, Sciurus vulgaris, Potos flavus, and Tamandua tetradactyla have been found infected with Leishmania spp. It is estimated that around 3000-4500 people may be infected every year, and that 3.1 to 4.5 millions people are estimated to be at risk of contracting leishmaniasis.

  5. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus......Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  6. Estado de conocimiento del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia Current knowledge of Patagonian Ephemeroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pessacq

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento actual del orden Ephemeroptera en la Patagonia se debe en gran parte a la labor original y compilatoria de M.L. Pescador, W.L. Peters y E. Domínguez, llevada a cabo en la década del 80 del siglo pasado. Se suman a ésta, importantes contribuciones que han conducido a un adecuado conocimiento del grupo en la cordillera norte y centro de la Patagonia, aunque menor en la zona austral de esta región (Santa Cruz y Tierra del Fuego y las áreas de estepa. Merced al trabajo de campo realizado en 80 sitios de muestreo relevados en el marco del "Darwin Initiative Project" en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, se incluyen aquí nuevos registros para la Argentina (Hapsiphlebia anastomosis Demoulin, la región Andina (Apobaetis Day y la provincia de Río Negro (Chaquihua bullocki (Navás, Andesiops ardua (Lugo-Ortíz & McCafferty, Murphyella needhami Lestage y Dactylophlebia carnulenta Pescador & Peters. Con estos registros, la riqueza de Ephemeroptera de la Patagonia alcanza 43 especies y 24 géneros, de las cuales 33 (en 20 géneros se conocen para la Argentina.The current knowledge of the Patagonian Ephemeroptera is due to the original and compiling work by M.L. Pescador, W.L. Peters and E. Domínguez during last Century's 80´s . Besides, other previous publications exist that contributed to achieve a reasonable knowledge of its taxonomy for the norhtern and central Patagonian Andes, though poor for the southernmost mountain areas (Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces and the steppe. From the field work carried in 80 collecting sites during the development of the "Darwin Initiative Project" in the Nahuel Huapi Nacional Park, some species are recorded for the first time in Argentina (Hapsiphlebia anastomosis Demoulin, the Andean region (Apobaetis Day and the province of Río Negro (Chaquihua bullock (Navás, Andesiops ardua (Lugo-Ortíz & McCafferty, Murphyella needhami Lestage, Dactylophlebia carnulenta Pescador & Peters. With

  7. Examine the Gaps between Current and Ideal State of Knowledge Management in the Department of Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Hasani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive world, knowledge has become the strategic resource in many organizations. Nonaka believes that in today's volatile situation, the only viable source of sustainable competitive advantage is knowledge. Thus, the knowledge management has become a major task for organizations that are looking to take advantage of this valuable asset. In this case the goal of this study is to examine the gaps between current and ideal state of knowledge management in the Department of Physical Education in Iran. Research's method was descriptive-menstruation. Study sample consisted of all employees of the Department of Physical Education of Kurdistan that were 320 members and it was selected by using Morgan table that were 175 members. The reliability of the questionnaire was measured and verified based on Cronbach's Alpha for the knowledge management dimension equals 0/89. Also a questionnaire to be standardized and be normalized in internal research, ensure validity of test. Used statistical methods in current study is use SPSS software and descriptive statistics to describe sex, age, education level and staff's job precedence variables and Kolmogorov – Smirnov test (K-S to verify data to be normal and to verify or reject hypothesis, Paired t-test is been used. Research results showed, there are meaningful differences among knowledge management Dimensions, including Technology infrastructure, organizational culture and organizational structure from the perspective of the Kurdistan's physical education staff in current situation with the ideal situation.

  8. Synthesis of current knowledge on post-fire seeding for soil stabilization and invasive species control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Jan L.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy

    2015-01-01

    The General Accounting Office has identified a need for better information on the effectiveness of post-fire emergency stabilization and rehabilitation methods used by the U.S. Forest Service and Department of Interior (DOI) agencies. Since reviews were published on treatment effectiveness in the early 2000s, treatment choices have changed and increased monitoring has been done. Greater use of native species has added substantially to burned area emergency response (BAER) treatment costs, for example, but quantitative data on this treatment were scarce in earlier reviews. We synthesized current information on the effectiveness of post-fire seeding for both soil stabilization and for prevention of the spread of invasive species in rangelands. We reviewed published literature (peer-reviewed and “gray”) and agency monitoring reports, as well as compiled and analyzed quantitative data in agency files. Products of this review include a web-accessible database of monitoring reports and published information, a scientific journal paper summarizing findings of scientific studies, an annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed papers, a summary report published as a General Technical Report that will be available online (in progress), and presentations to scientific meetings and BAER/ESR team training sessions and workshops. By combining results from studies done by Forest Service and DOI agency personnel with research studies published since the initial reviews, we presented a comprehensive synthesis of seeding effectiveness knowledge that complements the review of other hillslope treatments published by other researchers. This information will help federal land managers make more cost-effective decisions on post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments.

  9. Current knowledge of tooth development: patterning and mineralization of the murine dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catón, Javier; Tucker, Abigail S

    2009-04-01

    The integument forms a number of different types of mineralized element, including dermal denticles, scutes, ganoid scales, elasmoid scales, fin rays and osteoderms found in certain fish, reptiles, amphibians and xenarthran mammals. To this list can be added teeth, which are far more widely represented and studied than any of the other mineralized elements mentioned above, and as such can be thought of as a model mineralized system. In recent years the focus for studies on tooth development has been the mouse, with a wealth of genetic information accrued and the availability of cutting edge techniques. It is the mouse dentition that this review will concentrate on. The development of the tooth will be followed, looking at what controls the shape of the tooth and how signals from the mesenchyme and epithelium interact to lead to formation of a molar or incisor. The number of teeth generated will then be investigated, looking at how tooth germ number can be reduced or increased by apoptosis, fusion of tooth germs, creation of new tooth germs, and the generation of additional teeth from existing tooth germs. The development of mineralized tissue will then be detailed, looking at how the asymmetrical deposition of enamel is controlled in the mouse incisor. The continued importance of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions at these later stages of tooth development will also be discussed. Tooth anomalies and human disorders have been well covered by recent reviews, therefore in this paper we wish to present a classical review of current knowledge of tooth development, fitting together data from a large number of recent research papers to draw general conclusions about tooth development.

  10. Pharmaceutical residues in environmental waters and wastewater: current state of knowledge and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Meric, Sureyya; Nikolaou, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Pollution from pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now recognized as an environmental concern in many countries. This has led to the creation of an extensive area of research, including among others: their chemical identification and quantification; elucidation of transformation pathways when present in wastewater-treatment plants or in environmental matrices; assessment of their potential biological effects; and development and application of advanced treatment processes for their removal and/or mineralization. Pharmaceuticals are a unique category of pollutants, because of their special characteristics, and their behavior and fate cannot be simulated with other chemical organic contaminants. Over the last decade the scientific community has embraced research in this specific field and the outcome has been immense. This was facilitated by advances in chromatographic techniques and relevant biological assays. Despite this, a number of unanswered questions exist and still there is much room for development and work towards a more solid understanding of the actual consequences of the release of pharmaceuticals in the environment. This review tries to present part of the knowledge that is currently available with regard to the occurrence of pharmaceutical residues in aquatic matrices, the progress made during the last several years on identification of such compounds down to trace levels, and of new, previously unidentified, pharmaceuticals such as illicit drugs, metabolites, and photo-products. It also tries to discuss the main recent findings in respect of the capacity of various treatment technologies to remove these contaminants and to highlight some of the adverse effects that may be related to their ubiquitous existence. Finally, socioeconomic measures that may be able to hinder the introduction of such compounds into the environment are briefly discussed.

  11. Genetic considerations for mollusc production in aquaculture: current state of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eAstorga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available IIn 2012, world mollusk production in aquaculture reached a volume of 15,171,000 tons, representing 23% of total aquaculture production and positioning mollusks as the second most important category of aquaculture products (fishes are the first. Clams and oysters are the mollusk species with the highest production levels, followed in descending order by mussels, scallops and abalones. In view of the increasing importance attached to genetic information on aquaculture, which can help with good maintenance and thus the sustainability of production, the present work offers a review of the state of knowledge on genetic and genomic information about mollusks produced in aquaculture. The analysis was applied to mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture, with emphasis on the 5 species with the highest production levels. According to FAO, these are: Japanese clam Ruditapes philippinarum; Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas; Chilean mussel Mytilus chilensis; Blood clam Anadara granosa and Chinese clam Sinonovacula constricta. To date, the genomes of 5 species of mollusks have been sequenced, only one of which, Crassostrea gigas, coincides with the species with the greatest production in aquaculture. Another important species whose genome has been sequenced is Mytilus galloprovincialis, which is the second most important mussel in aquaculture production, after M. chilensis. Few genetic improvement programs have been reported in comparison with the number reported in fish species. The most commonly investigated species are oysters, with at least 5 genetic improvement programs reported, followed by abalones with 2 programs and mussels with one. The results of this work will establish the current situation with respect to the genetics of mollusks which are of importance for aquaculture production, in order to assist future decisions to ensure the sustainability of these resources.

  12. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross

    2017-03-01

    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  13. Skin Wound Healing: An Update on the Current Knowledge and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Heiko; Tilkorn, Daniel J; Hager, Stephan; Hauser, Jörg; Mirastschijski, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    repair have been delineated in part, many underlying pathophysiological processes are still unknown. The purpose of the following update on skin wound healing is to focus on the different phases and to brief the reader on the current knowledge and new insights. Skin wound healing is a complex process, which is dependent on many cell types and mediators interacting in a highly sophisticated temporal sequence. Although some interactions during the healing process are crucial, redundancy is high and other cells or mediators can adopt functions or signaling without major complications. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Ghosal

    2016-08-01

    PAHs. The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment.

  15. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K.; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment. PMID:27630626

  16. Current State of Knowledge in Microbial Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosal, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Shreya; Dutta, Tapan K; Ahn, Youngho

    2016-01-01

    purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge of bacteria, halophilic archaea, fungi and algae mediated degradation/transformation of PAHs. In addition, factors affecting PAHs degradation in the environment, recent advancement in genetic, genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques are also highlighted with an aim to facilitate the development of a new insight into the bioremediation of PAH in the environment.

  17. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Frantz, Adrien; Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between

  18. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  19. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  20. Greek Primary School Teachers' Understanding of Current Environmental Issues: An Exploration of Their Environmental Knowledge and Images of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Sirmo; Stamou, Anastasia G.; Stamou, George P.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the Greek primary school teachers' understanding of three current environmental issues (acid rain, the ozone layer depletion, and the greenhouse effect) as well as the emerging images of nature were examined. The study revealed that teachers held several environmental knowledge gaps and misconceptions about the three phenomena.…

  1. Investigating Relationships among Pre-Service Science Teachers' Conceptual Knowledge of Electric Current, Motivational Beliefs and Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaltun, Hüseyin; Ates, Salih

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine relationships among pre-service science teachers' conceptual knowledge of electric current, motivational beliefs, and self-regulation. One hundred and twenty-seven students (female = 107, male = 20) enrolled in the science education program of a public university in Ankara participated the study. A concept…

  2. Content knowledge development in a chemistry teacher preparation program: A current potentials and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhiyanti, Tuszie; Treagust, David F.; Mocerino, Mauro; Vishnumolakala, Venkat

    2017-08-01

    One of the essential facets in teacher education program is the development of the teachers' content knowledge and it has been suggested by many scholars that the study to analyse the process of content knowledge development in teacher education program is necessary. Regarding this, the aim of this research is to evaluate the existing program of developing pre-service chemistry teachers' content knowledge, especially in the topic about the particulate nature of matter. The curriculum of content knowledge development was analysed using the forms of the curriculum evaluation (Akker, 1998; Goodlad, Klein, and Tye (1979); Treagust, 1987). Within this framework, the curriculum was evaluated in several aspects including the vision and intention of the curriculum as mentioned in the curriculum documents (intended curriculum), the users' interpretation and perception about the curriculum (perceived curriculum), the actual process of curriculum implementation (implemented curriculum), and the outcomes of the curriculum (achieved curriculum). According to the framework used for this study, the research combined qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection and the interpretation including document analysis, classroom observation, interviews, and two-tier diagnostic test. Through this research we examined the coherence among those aspects. The results reveal that although the content knowledge development is explicitly intended in a curriculum, its implementation and lecturers' perceptions give influence in the results as appear in pre-service teachers' achievements. In general, this research provides basic information about the effectiveness of the program including the challenges and the potentials for a reconsideration of the program in the future.

  3. Knowledge Mobilization in Canadian Educational Research: Identifying Current Developments and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Ratkovic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue of Brock Education: Journal for Educational Research and Practice, we build on the knowledge mobilization (KMb discourses initiated by the Ontario Ministry of Education (MOE, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC, Knowledge Network for Applied Education Research (KNAER, Canadian Society for the Study of Education (CSSE, and School District-University Research Exchange (SURE network. We feature five journal articles and a book review addressing the three main KMb questions: How to assess KMb efforts across educational systems?  To what extent do educators use research to inform their praxis? How to make KMb work?

  4. Malassezia: Estado del conocimiento y perspectivas en su estudio Malassezia: Current knowledge and study perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo E. Giusiano

    2006-03-01

    knowledge of the ecology and epidemiology of this genus. Noteworthy antifungal susceptibility variations have been observed in some species, although there is not a standard method for these yeasts. There are few data about their biochemical characteristics, and the enzymes they produce might be important virulence factors, favouring host tissue invasion. Malassezia has been recognised as a member of the normal human and animal skin. Its implication in pathologic processes, including skin diseases to systemic infections, is the main issue in current investigations in order to determine the real pathogenic role of these yeasts.

  5. A Case Analysis to Increase Awareness of Current USMC Knowledge Management (KM) Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    communities” (p. 63; Virtanen, 2013, p. 119)  Capeda- Carrion (2006) states KM to be “the formalized, integrated approach of managing an enterprise’s...management and intellectual capital research,” Knowledge and Process Management,15(4): 235–246. doi:10.1002/kpm.314 Capeda- Carrion , G. (2006). Competitive

  6. Current Situation and Analysis of Geography Teachers' Active Learning Knowledge and Usage in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Fikret

    2012-01-01

    In parallel to the developments in the approach to education, the secondary education geography curriculum in Turkey was renewed in 2005. This new programme encourages the use of active learning methods and techniques in the classroom by adopting the idea that students should construct and interpret knowledge by actively participating in the…

  7. Civic Education and Charter Schools: Current Knowledge and Future Research Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudowsky, Naomi; Chudowsky, Victor

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, as schools have shifted more attention to English language arts and mathematics, several groups have made a plea for renewed attention to civic education for all students. One such group is the Spencer Foundation, which promotes research to improve students' civics knowledge and skills and their dispositions for responsible…

  8. Current Knowledge and Training Needs of Certified Rehabilitation Counselors to Work Effectively with Veterans with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frain, Michael; Bishop, Malachy; Tansey, Timothy; Sanchez, Jennifer; Wijngaarde, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Veterans with disabilities have gained national attention in recent years because of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. This study examined certified rehabilitation counselors' (CRCs) knowledge and preparation for working with veterans with disabilities on their rehabilitation. Results indicate that CRCs report low levels of preparation in…

  9. Feed Efficiency: An Assessment of Current Knowledge from a Voluntary Subsample of the Swine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Josh R.; Tokach, Mike D.; DeRouchey, Joel M.; Goodband, Robert D.; Dritz, Steve S.; Nelssen, Jim L.; Patience, John F.

    2014-01-01

    A voluntary sample of pork producers and advisers to the swine industry were surveyed about feed efficiency. The questionnaire was designed to accomplish three objectives: (a) determine the level of knowledge related to feed efficiency topics, (b) identify production practices used that influence feed efficiency, and (c) identify information gaps…

  10. Racial/ethnic differences in electronic cigarette knowledge, social norms, and risk perceptions among current and former smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Kolar, Stephanie K

    2017-04-01

    Psychosocial factors that may affect electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) initiation or maintenance among racial/ethnic minorities are not well-understood. This study examined racial/ethnic differences in e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and social norms among current and former smokers. Individuals with a tobacco smoking history and an awareness of e-cigarettes (N=285) were recruited from the community from June to August 2014. Telephone-administered surveys assessed demographics, smoking status, and e-cigarette knowledge, risk perceptions, and normative beliefs. Analyses of covariance and multinomial logistic regression tested associations by race/ethnicity. Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, White participants scored significantly higher on e-cigarette knowledge, compared to both Hispanics and African Americans/Blacks. Knowledge was lower among African Americans/Blacks compared to Hispanics. Compared to both Whites and Hispanics, African American/Black participants held lower perceptions regarding e-cigarette health risks and were less likely to view e-cigarettes as addictive. Normative beliefs did not differ by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, e-cigarette knowledge, health risk perceptions, and perceived addictiveness differed by race/ethnicity. The variation in e-cigarette knowledge and beliefs among smokers and former smokers has implications for use, and potentially, dual use. Understanding these relationships in unrepresented populations can inform future research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A review on current knowledge and future prospects of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in Asian birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasi, Naeem Akhtar [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Frantz, Adrien [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UPEC, Paris 7, CNRS, INRA, IRD, Institut d' Ecologie et des Sciences de l' Environnement de Paris, F-75005, Paris (France); Jaspers, Veerle Leontina Bernard [Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The release of harmful chemicals in the Asian environment has recently increased dramatically due to rising industrial and agricultural activities. About 60% of the global human population is currently living on the Asian continent and may thus be exposed to a large range of different chemicals. Different classes of organohalogen chemicals have indeed been reported in various environmental compartments from Asia including humans and wildlife, but this issue has received less attention in birds. In this article, we reviewed the available literature on levels of legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and various flame retardants (FRs) in Asian avifauna to analyze the existing pool of knowledge as well as to identify the gaps that should be addressed in future research. Furthermore, we discussed the variation in levels of organohalogens based on differences in regions, trophic level, dietary sources and migratory behaviors of species including distribution patterns in different tissues of birds. Although the mass of published literature is very low and even absent in many important regions of Asia, we deduced from the reported studies that levels of almost all classes of organohalogens (OHCs) including FRs were highest in East Asian countries such as Japan, China and South Korea, except for HCHs that were found at maximum levels in birds of South India. Concentrations (ng/g LW) of different OHCs in Asian birds ranged between < LOD (limit of detection) to 14,000,000 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), < LOD to 790,000 for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), < LOD to 12,000 for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), < LOD to 29,000 for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), < LOD to 47,000 for chlordanes (CHLs) and < LOD to 4600 for total cyclodienes. Further, ranges (ng/g LW) of 1.1 to 150,000 for Co-PCBs; < LOD to 27 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); < LOD to 45 for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 0.02 to 73 for PCDD/DFs have been reported in Asian aves

  12. Geothermal projects funded under the NER 300 programme - current state of development and knowledge gained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uihlein, Andreas; Salto Saura, Lourdes; Sigfusson, Bergur; Lichtenvort, Kerstin; Gagliardi, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Introduction The NER 300 programme, managed by the European Commission is one of the largest funding programmes for innovative low-carbon energy demonstration projects. NER 300 is so called because it is funded from the sale of 300 million emission allowances from the new entrants' reserve (NER) set up for the third phase of the EU emissions trading system (ETS). The programme aims to successfully demonstrate environmentally safe carbon capture and storage (CCS) and innovative renewable energy (RES) technologies on a commercial scale with a view to scaling up production of low-carbon technologies in the EU. Consequently, it supports a wide range of CCS and RES technologies (bioenergy, concentrated solar power, photovoltaics, geothermal, wind, ocean, hydropower, and smart grids). Funded projects and the role of geothermal projects for the programme In total, about EUR 2.1 billion have been awarded to 39 projects through the programme's 2 calls for proposals (the first awarded in December 2012, the second in July 2014). The programme has awarded around 70 mEUR funding to 3 geothermal projects in Hungary, Croatia and France (see Annex). The Hungarian geothermal project awarded funding under the first call will enter into operation at the end of 2015 and the rest are expected to start in 2016 (HR) and in 2018 (FR), respectively. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing requirements are built into the legal basis of the programme as a critical tool to lower risks in bridging the transition to large-scale production of innovative renewable energy and CCS deployment. Projects have to submit annually to the European Commission relevant knowledge gained during that year in the implementation of their project. The relevant knowledge is aggregated and disseminated by the European Commission to industry, research, government, NGO and other interest groups and associations in order to provide a better understanding of the practical challenges that arise in the important step of

  13. Geothermal projects funded under the NER 300 programme - current state of development and knowledge gained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Ruth; Uihlein, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Introduction The NER 300 programme, managed by the European Commission is one of the largest funding programmes for innovative low-carbon energy demonstration projects. NER 300 is so called because it is funded from the sale of 300 million emission allowances from the new entrants' reserve (NER) set up for the third phase of the EU emissions trading system (ETS). The programme aims to successfully demonstrate environmentally safe carbon capture and storage (CCS) and innovative renewable energy (RES) technologies on a commercial scale with a view to scaling up production of low-carbon technologies in the EU. Consequently, it supports a wide range of CCS and RES technologies (bioenergy, concentrated solar power, photovoltaics, geothermal, wind, ocean, hydropower, and smart grids). Funded projects and the role of geothermal projects for the programme In total, about EUR 2.1 billion have been awarded through the programme's 2 calls for proposals (the first awarded in December 2012, the second in July 2014). The programme has awarded around EUR 70 million funding to 3 geothermal projects in Hungary, Croatia and France. The Croatian geothermal project will enter into operation during 2017 the Hungarian in 2018, and the French in 2020. Knowledge Sharing Knowledge sharing requirements are built into the legal basis of the programme as a critical tool to lower risks in bridging the transition to large-scale production of innovative renewable energy and CCS deployment. Projects have to submit annually to the European Commission relevant knowledge gained during that year in the implementation of their project. The relevant knowledge is aggregated and disseminated by the European Commission to industry, research, government, NGO and other interest groups and associations in order to provide a better understanding of the practical challenges that arise in the important step of scaling up technologies and operating them at commercial scale. The knowledge sharing of the NER 300

  14. [Epidemiologic knowledge and current situation of Chagas disease in the state of Jalisco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Kasten, Felipe; Magallón-Gastélum, Ezequiel; Soto-Gutiérrez, Margarita; Kasten-Monges, Marina; Bosseno, Marie-France; Brenière, Simone Frédérique

    2008-01-01

    Chagas disease in the state of Jalisco, Mexico was described for the first time in 1967; however, knowledge on the disease remains in a slow process. Between 1967 and 2006, the disease was described in its acute and chronic forms. The vector species have been identified, and the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi has been isolated and genetically characterized. Also, the magnitude of the infection in humans has been determined through serological studies of different populations as well as of blood donors. The up-to-dateness of knowledge of the disease in the state of Jalisco, unveils a necessity of increased research on the epidemiology of Chagas disease as well as on clinical studies to assess the health of individuals and the populations.

  15. Preface: conservation of european ponds-current knowledge and future needs

    OpenAIRE

    Miracle, Rosa; Oertli, Beat; Céréghino, Régis; Hull, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Ponds are common elements of the landscape with an important role in the global processes of biosphere and biodiversity preservation. Recent research indicates that ecological characteristics of ponds are different from other inland water systems, but scientific knowledge is still insufficient and poor compared to lakes and rivers. Therefore, whilst indicators and conservation tools have been developed for most aquatic systems, there is also a gap between existing basic information on pond ec...

  16. Mycobacterium bovis infection in the lion (Panthera leo): Current knowledge, conundrums and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; van Helden, Paul D; Millar, Robert P

    2015-06-12

    Mycobacterium bovis has global public-health and socio-economic significance and can infect a wide range of species including the lion (Panthera leo) resulting in tuberculosis. Lions are classified as vulnerable under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and have experienced a 30% population decline in the past two decades. However, no attempt has been made to collate and critically evaluate the available knowledge of M. bovis infections in lions and potential effects on population. In this review we set out to redress this. Arguments suggesting that ingestion of infected prey animals are the main route of infection for lions have not been scientifically proven and research is needed into other possible sources and routes of infection. The paucity of knowledge on host susceptibility, transmission directions and therefore host status, manifestation of pathology, and epidemiology of the disease in lions also needs to be addressed. Advances have been made in diagnosing the presence of M. bovis in lions. However, these diagnostic tests are unable to differentiate between exposure, presence of infection, or stage of disease. Furthermore, there are contradictory reports on the effects of M. bovis on lion populations with more data needed on disease dynamics versus the lion population's reproductive dynamics. Knowledge on disease effects on the lion reproduction and how additional stressors such as drought or co-morbidities may interact with tuberculosis is also lacking. Filling these knowledge gaps will contribute to the understanding of mycobacterial infections and disease in captive and wild lions and assist in lion conservation endeavours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A survey of current knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviour in Italian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Drago; Giulia Ciccarese; Francesca Zangrillo; Giulia Gasparini; Ludovica Cogorno; Silvia Riva; Sanja Javor; Emanuele Cozzani; Francesco Broccolo; Susanna Esposito; Aurora Parodi

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 137...

  18. How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. Objective This study ...

  19. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    d’Avigdor, Elizabeth; Wohlmuth, Hans; Asfaw, Zemede; Awas, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an e...

  20. Fascia--Current knowledge and future directions in physiatry: narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Evan H; Findley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Fascia can be considered part of the connective tissues that permeates the human body. However, in medical training its definition is not clear, and even among specialists its role is not completely understood. Physiatrists have a unique opportunity to add to the growing scientific and clinical knowledge about fascia, particularly about how this connective tissue network may apply clinically to musculoskeletal disorders. In this narrative review, the structure and function of fascia is discussed from the perspective of physiatry.

  1. Current Challenges for the Knowledge Society. Toward Digital Inclusion in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migdalia Pineda

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This work makes reference to the subject of the present challenges of the society of the knowledge as far as the profit of the digital inclusion, mainly in Latin America, for which one stops in analyzing the incidence of the technologies of the information and the communication in the construction of the knowledge in the contemporary societies. Also, one approaches the problem of the social innovation in the production of popular contents and knowledge, and of the social inclusion like condition indispensable for an inclusion sustained in the social appropriation of the TIC. Methodologically, the investigation when being cradle in an ampler theoretical study, at the moment in course, titleholder: “Society of the Information, post modernity and culture of masses”, is of documentary and bibliographical character, so that it makes a conceptual analysis of the subjects boarded. Finally some actions and recommendations for the digital inclusion set out, by means of the creation of social networks, the sectors and worked against communities more in the zone.

  2. A Review on Current Status of Stability and Knowledge on Liquid Electrolyte-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Sauvage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to gather the current background in materials development and provide the reader with an accurate image of today’s knowledge regarding the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells. This contribution highlights the literature from the 1970s to the present day on nanostructured TiO2, dye, Pt counter electrode, and liquid electrolyte for which this review is focused on.

  3. Systematic review of the current status of programs and general knowledge of diagnosis and management of retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Ramírez-Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: There is an immediate need in Mexico to expand primary care providers’ knowledge of Rb and to expand and upgrade current Rb programs to meet the needs of the population adequately. Diagnosis and care of Rb patients in Mexico can also be improved by the establishment of a national Rb registry and a national early detection program, and by increased use of the national treatment protocol.

  4. How Do Clinicians Learn About Knowledge Translation? An Investigation of Current Web-Based Learning Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damarell, Raechel A; Tieman, Jennifer J

    2017-07-13

    Clinicians are important stakeholders in the translation of well-designed research evidence into clinical practice for optimal patient care. However, the application of knowledge translation (KT) theories and processes may present conceptual and practical challenges for clinicians. Online learning platforms are an effective means of delivering KT education, providing an interactive, time-efficient, and affordable alternative to face-to-face education programs. This study investigates the availability and accessibility of online KT learning opportunities for health professionals. It also provides an analysis of the types of resources and associated disciplines retrieved by a range of KT synonyms. We searched a range of bibliographic databases and the Internet (Google advanced option) using 9 KT terms to identify online KT learning resources. To be eligible, resources had to be free, aimed at clinicians, educational in intent, and interactive in design. Each term was searched using two different search engines. The details of the first 100 websites captured per browser (ie, n=200 results per term) were entered into EndNote. Each site was subsequently visited to determine its status as a learning resource. Eligible websites were appraised for quality using the AACODS (Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance) tool. We identified 971 unique websites via our multiple search strategies. Of these, 43 were health-related and educational in intent. Once these sites were evaluated for interactivity, a single website matched our inclusion criteria (Dementia Knowledge Translation Learning Centre). KT is an important but complex system of processes. These processes overlap with knowledge, practice, and improvement processes that go by a range of different names. For clinicians to be informed and competent in KT, they require better access to free learning opportunities. These resources should be designed from the viewpoint of the clinician, presenting KT

  5. HISTORICAL CRITICAL PEDAGOGY AND OBJECTIVE KNOWLEDGE VERSUS THE MULTICULTURALISM AND RELATIVISM CURRENT ACADEMIC DEBATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Malanchen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the existing antagonistic understanding among the authors who discuss curriculum from the multiculturalist perspective and the authors of the Historical-Critical Pedagogy. The aim is to explain the postmodern relativists bases and multiculturalism, which opposes the defense of objective knowledge as central to the organization of a curriculum. Finally we point out what content should integrate an academic, with the objective, human development, human emancipation and social transformation, which allow the human being aim to provide social and consciously so increasingly free and universal.

  6. The ecotoxicity of graphene family materials: current status, knowledge gaps and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzębska, Agnieszka Maria; Olszyna, Andrzej Roman

    2015-01-01

    Recently, graphene family materials (GFMs) have been introduced among all fields of science and still get numerous attention. Also, the applicability of these materials in many areas makes them very attractive. GFMs have attracted both academic and industrial interest as they can produce a dramatic improvement in materials properties at very low filler content. The aim of this review is to identify, summarize, and present the first available information on the influence of GFMs on soil and water environment as well as identify the knowledge gaps and indicate the directions for the next generation of the original scientific investigations. The paper also presents our first preliminary impact assessment and potential pathways of GFMs distribution in the environment. We used as an example the reduced graphene oxide/Al2O3 nanocomposite (RGO/Al2O3) that has been previously designed and synthesized by us. Authors believe that further work should focus on improvement of characterization methodology applicable for ecotoxicity analyses and possible interactions between GFMs and different living ecosystems. Consequently, the potential impact of graphene and its derivatives on environmental health is a matter of academic interest. However, potential hazards sufficient for risk assessment and concerned with GFMs usage in consumer products first need to be investigated and identified. Further research should focus on gathering knowledge on GFMs properties for life cycle analyses, which still poses a great challenge for scientists.

  7. Microbiology of Wind-eroded Sediments: Current Knowledge and Future Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind erosion is a threat to the sustainability and productivity of soils that takes place at local, regional, and global scales. Current estimates of cost of wind erosion have not included the costs associated with the loss of soil biodiversity and reduced ecosystem functions. Microorganisms carrie...

  8. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Perspective on Current Evidence and Clinical Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Habib

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the current published data regarding open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF in relation to minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF. Introduction. MI-TLIF, a modern method for lumbar interbody arthrodesis, has allowed for a minimally invasive method to treat degenerative spinal pathologies. Currently, there is limited literature that compares TLIF directly to MI-TLIF. Thus, we seek to discuss the current literature on these techniques. Methods. Using a PubMed search, we reviewed recent publications of open and MI-TLIF, dating from 2002 to 2012. We discussed these studies and their findings in this paper, focusing on patient-reported outcomes as well as complications. Results. Data found in 14 articles of the literature was analyzed. Using these reports, we found mean follow-up was 20 months. The mean patient study size was 52. Seven of the articles directly compared outcomes of open TLIF with MI-TLIF, such as mean duration of surgery, length of post-operative stay, blood loss, and complications. Conclusion. Although high-class data comparing these two techniques is lacking, the current evidence supports MI-TLIF with outcomes comparable to that of the traditional, open technique. Further prospective, randomized studies will help to further our understanding of this minimally invasive technique.

  9. Chilean jagged lobster, Projasus bahamondei, in the southeastern Pacific Ocean: current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio M Arana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean jagged lobster (Projasus bahamondei is a deep-water crustacean (175-550 m occurring in certain areas of the southeastern Pacific Ocean, including the Nazca Ridge, Desventuradas Islands, the Juan Fernandez archipelago and ridge, and the continental slope off the central coast of Chile. This review describes the taxonomic status, geographical and bathymetric distribution, some biological aspects and habitat characteristics of this species. Additionally, both artisanal and industrial exploitation attempts made within the region are detailed, as well as fishing operation results, chemical composition, different elaboration procedures and the destination of the catch. The main objectives of this review are to contribute to the knowledge of P. bahamondei as a component of the deep-sea ecosystem and to highlight its importance as a potential fishery resource.

  10. Mapping fire effects on ash and soil properties. Current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Strielko, Irina

    2014-05-01

    floor consumption (Lewis et al., 2011), ash cover (Robichaud et al., 2007) and other aspects related with soil as the vegetation factors that affect post-fire erosion risk (Fox et al., 2008). Field studies had also indented to estimate and map the impacts of fire in soil properties. Contrary to remote sensing studies, the mapping of fire effects on ash and soil properties in the field is specially carried out at small scale (e.g. slope or plot). The small scale resolution studies are important because identify small patterns that are normally ignored by remote sensing studies, but fundamental to understand the post-fire evolution of the burned areas. One of the important aspects of the small scale studies of fire effect on ash and soil properties is the great spatial variability, showing that the impact of fire is extremely heterogeneous in space and time (Outeiro et al., 2008; Pereira et al. in press). The small scale mapping of fire effects on soil properties normally is carried out using Geostatistical methods or using deterministic interpolation methods (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013). Several reports were published on the spatial distribution and mapping of ash and duff thickness (Robichaud and Miller, 1999; Pereira et al., 2013; Pereira et al. in press), fire severity (Pereira et al., 2014), ash chemical characteristics as total nitrogen (Pereira et al., 2010a), and ash extractable elements (Pereira et al., 2010b). Also, previous works mapped fire effects on soil temperature (Gimeno-Garcia et al., 2004), soil hydrophobicity (Woods et al., 2007), total nitrogen (Hirobe et al., 2003), phosphorous (Rodriguez et al., 2009) and major cations (Outeiro et al., 2008). It is important to integrate remote sensing and field based works of fire effects on ash and soil properties in order to have a better validation of the models predicted. The aim of this work is present the current knowledge about mapping fire effects in ash and soil properties at diverse

  11. Hydrogeology and management of freshwater lenses on atoll islands: Review of current knowledge and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Adrian D.; Sharp, Hannah K.; Galvis, Sandra C.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Sinclair, Peter

    2017-08-01

    On atoll islands, fresh groundwater occurs as a buoyant lens-shaped body surrounded by saltwater derived from the sea, forming the main freshwater source for many island communities. A review of the state of knowledge of atoll island groundwater is overdue given their susceptibility to adverse impacts, and the task to address water access and sanitation issues within the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals framework before the year 2030. In this article, we review available literature to summarise the key processes, investigation techniques and management approaches of atoll island groundwater systems. Over fifty years of investigation has led to important advancements in the understanding of atoll hydrogeology, but a paucity of hydrogeological data persists on all but a small number of atoll islands. We find that the combined effects of buoyancy forces, complex geology, tides, episodic ocean events, strong climatic variability and human impacts create highly dynamic fresh groundwater lenses. Methods used to quantify freshwater availability range from simple empirical relationships to three-dimensional density-dependent models. Generic atoll island numerical models have proven popular in trying to unravel the individual factors controlling fresh groundwater lens behaviour. Major challenges face the inhabitants and custodians of atoll island aquifers, with rising anthropogenic stresses compounded by the threats of climate variability and change, sea-level rise, and some atolls already extracting freshwater at or above sustainability limits. We find that the study of atoll groundwater systems remains a critical area for further research effort to address persistent knowledge gaps, which lead to high uncertainties in water security issues for both island residents and surrounding environs.

  12. Early life determinants of physical activity and sedentary time: Current knowledge and future research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guro Pauck Øglund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous findings of the association between low birth weight and subsequent health outcomes have led to the “developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis”. Furthermore, modifiable and partly modifiable early life factors may also influence behaviors such as physical activity and sedentary behavior. The aim of the present review was to summarize the existing knowledge on early life determinants (birth weight, rapid infant weight gain, motor development and infant temperament of childhood physical activity and sedentary time, and suggest opportunities for future research based on the Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Inconsistent results have been observed when relating birth weight to later physical activity, likely explained by differences in methodology when assessing physical activity between studies. There is limited data on whether rapid weight gain in early life predicts later physical activity and few studies have examined the association between birth weight and infant weight gain with subsequent sedentary time. Motor development may be a predictor for childhood physical activity, however methodological limitations preclude firm conclusions. The association between motor development and sedentary time has rarely been examined. Conflicting results have been reported for the association between infant temperament and subsequent physical activity and sedentary time in toddlers. Finally, it is unknown whether physical activity modifies the association between birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and later health outcomes in youth. Additional research in well-characterized birth cohorts can be used to generate new knowledge on possible early life determinants of children’s and youth’s physical activity and sedentary time which may inform evidence-based public health interventions.

  13. Current knowledge about and recommendations for ocular methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Francis S; Davidson, Richard; Holland, Edward J; Hovanesian, John; John, Thomas; Kanellopoulos, John; Shamie, Neda; Starr, Christopher; Vroman, David; Kim, Terry

    2014-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important and common pathogen that infects patients following cataract surgery, laser in situ keratomileusis, and photorefractive keratectomy. It is reported to be the second most common pathogen causing bacterial keratitis around the world. Of special concern are increasing reports of postoperative methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) infection. For example, MRSA wound infections have been reported with clear corneal phacoemulsification wounds, penetrating keratoplasty, lamellar keratoplasty, and following ex vivo epithelial transplantation associated with amniotic membrane grafts. These and other data suggest that MRSA has become increasingly prevalent worldwide. In this article, we review the current medical literature and describe the current challenge of ocular MRSA infections. Recommendations are made based on an evidence-based review to identify, treat, and possibly reduce the overall problem of this organism. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Current knowledge on evidence-based shockwave treatments for shoulder pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Daniel; Ramón, Silvia; Guiloff, Leonardo; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger

    2015-12-01

    Shoulder pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal pathologies. Treatment by ESWT (extracorporeal shockwave therapy) has emerged as an alternative when conservative treatment fails in rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, prior to invasive procedures. The clinical efficacy of ESWT in non-calcific tendinopathy remains controversial. The good results in the treatment of rotator cuff calcifications, have led to indications of ESWT being expanded to other shoulder pathologies. We review the current state of indications and evidence based practice.

  15. Family planning knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru indigenous women in Bangladesh: a multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam MR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available M Rakibul Islam1, Gunnar Thorvaldsen21Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh; 2Norwegian Historical Data Centre, University of Tromsø, NorwayBackground: This article aims to understand the family planning (FP knowledge and current use of contraception and its predictors among women of the Mru people – the most underprivileged indigenous community in Bangladesh.Methods: In this study, 374 currently married Mru women were interviewed and selected purposively from three upazilas (administrative subdistricts of the Bandarban area, where most of the Mru people live. The association between the variables was assessed in bivariate analysis using the Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were employed to explore the predictors of FP knowledge and current use of contraception among the Mru women.Results: Only about 40% of respondents had ever heard FP messages or about FP methods – two-fifths of the national figure (99.9%. The current use of contraception was much lower (25.1% among the Mru people than at the national level (55.8%. Among both modern and traditional methods, the contraceptive pill ranked first. About two-thirds (66.0% of married women used this method – more than two times than the national figure (28.5%. On the other hand, the prevalence of male methods was comparatively lower than at the national level. Logistic regression models revealed that place of residence, religion, age, school attendance, husband's school attendance, service provided in the community, distance to the service center, and exposure to mass media had significant effects on knowledge of FP and on use of contraception.Conclusion: Education for mothers and vernacular language-based doorstep FP programs with special emphasis on awareness are suggested for the community.Keywords: family planning, contraceptive use, the Mru, logistic regression, Bangladesh

  16. HORSE SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: The microbiome of the horse hindgut: History and current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julliand, V; Grimm, P

    2016-06-01

    In the early 1990s, the equine hindgut microbial ecosystem looked like a "black box." Its vital role in hydrolyzing and fermenting fiber, thus providing energy to the host, was recognized. Although there was a critical lack of information on the hindgut microbes, their role in preventing intestinal diseases was suggested. Traditionally, the microbes of the horse hindgut were studied using culture-dependent techniques. More recently, culture-independent methods have been used and provided further insight. This review presents the history and updated knowledge regarding the microbes that live inside the different intestinal ecosystems and which collective genomes compose the hindgut microbiome. In the first section, the quantification and diversity are described for each microbial community as well as the implication of plant fiber degradation and their crucial role for an herbivore host. The microbial communities are presented in chronological order of discovery: due to their large size, protozoa were brought to light as early as 1843 in the horse cecum; in 1897, bacteria were described in the horse intestine; as early as 1910, monoflagellated eukaryotic organisms resembling protozoa were observed in the horse cecum; since then, they have been identified to be zoospores of anaerobic fungi; in 1970, bacteriophage-like particles were recognized in the cecum and colon of pony and horse; and finally, in 1996, archaea were identified in the horse cecum. The second section discusses the variations that can occur between digestive segments or between individuals. The representativeness of the fecal microbiota to the hindgut one is debated, especially as the majority of recent studies conducted on the horse hindgut are in fact focused on the feces, rather than the cecum or colon. Also, the representation of microbiota between individuals is questioned. It has long been suggested in the literature that some ponies or horses that were more susceptible to intestinal diseases

  17. Current knowledge of prenatal diagnosis of mosaic autosomal trisomy in amniocytes: karyotype/phenotype correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Robert; Misra, Sonya; Dugar, R Bryce; Alem, Monika; Mazzoni, Ronit; Garabedian, Matthew J

    2015-09-01

    Genetic counseling for prenatal diagnosis of autosomal trisomy is complex because of the uncertainty of outcome, which is important for management decisions. Compilation of cases of prenatally diagnosed autosomal trisomies in amniocytes has been done previously in an attempt to elucidate the clinical phenotype of these pregnancies. It has been greater than a decade since these studies were completed. To update this work, we reviewed cases reported in the literature since that time. These cases are correlated with the prior reports to increase knowledge about outcomes and to hopefully improve the data available for genetic counseling. The risk of abnormal outcome can be summarized as: very high risk (>60%) for 47,+2/46; 47,+9/46; 47,+16/46; 47,+20/46; and 47,+22/46; high risk (40-59%) for 47,+5/46; 47,+14/46; and 47,+15/46; moderately high risk (20-39%) for 47,+7/46 47,+12/46; and 47,+17/46; moderate risk (up to 19%) for 47,+6/46 and 47,+8/46, and none were low risk. 47,+6/46 was originally indeterminate, 47,+7/46 was originally moderate risk, 47,+9/46 was originally high risk, and 47,+17/46 was originally low risk. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Historical first descriptions of Cajal-Retzius cells: from pioneer studies to current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eGil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Ramón y Cajal developed a great body of scientific research during the last decade of 19th century, mainly between 1888 and 1892, when he published more than 30 manuscripts. The neuronal theory, the structure of dendrites and spines, and fine microscopic descriptions of numerous neural circuits are among these studies. In addition, numerous cell types (neuronal and glial were described by Ramón y Cajal during this time using this ‘reazione nera’ or Golgi method. Among these neurons were the special cells of the molecular layer of the neocortex. These cells were also termed Cajal cells or Retzius cells by other colleagues. Today these cells are known as Cajal-Retzius cells. From the earliest description, several biological aspects of these fascinating cells have been analyzed (e.g., cell morphology, physiological properties, origin and cellular fate, putative function during cortical development, etc. In this review we will summarize in a temporal basis the emerging knowledge concerning this cell population with specific attention the pioneer studies of Santiago Ramón y Cajal.

  19. A review of current knowledge of the complement system and the therapeutic opportunities in inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    2006-01-01

    The complement activation system, a key component of the innate immune system, protects the host from microorganisms such as bacteria, and other foreign threats including abnormal cells. However, it is also double-edged in that it can have negative effects in the host; excessive complement activation damages the host and can even kill in anaphylactic shock and septic shock. Regulation of the complement system is a useful strategy to control inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease worldwide. Many medicines are developed to control inflammation, including recently developed biological response modifiers such as anti-TNF and IL-6 agents. Nevertheless, in some patients disease remains difficult to control because of complications, side effects and tolerance of medicines. In inflammatory arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, there is abundant evidence implicating complement activation in humans and animal models. Therefore, anti-complement agents might be beneficial as part of clinical treatment. However, at present, there are still no applicable agents for therapeutic regulation of excessive complement activation in chronic disease. Novel agents in development might be useful as a strategy to control complement activation. Here I describe recent knowledge of the complement system in inflammatory arthritis, the recent developments in anti-complement agents and their considerable potential for the future.

  20. Current knowledge of environmental exposure in children during the sensitive developmental periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlroth, Norma Helena; Castelo Branco, Christina Wyss

    This study aims to identify the scientific evidence on the risks and effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in children during sensitive developmental periods. The search was performed in the Bireme database, using the terms: children's health, environmental exposure, health vulnerability, toxicity pathways and developmental disabilities in the LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO systems. Children differ from adults in their unique physiological and behavioral characteristics and the potential exposure to risks caused by several threats in the environment. Exposure to toxic agents is analyzed through toxicokinetic processes in the several systems and organs during the sensitive phases of child development. The caused effects are reflected in the increased prevalence of congenital malformations, diarrhea, asthma, cancer, endocrine and neurological disorders, among others, with negative impacts throughout adult life. To identify the causes and understand the mechanisms involved in the genesis of these diseases is a challenge for science, as there is still a lack of knowledge on children's susceptibility to many environmental contaminants. Prevention policies and more research on child environmental health, improving the recording and surveillance of environmental risks to children's health, should be an ongoing priority in the public health field. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Q Fever: current state of knowledge and perspectives of research of a neglected zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sarah Rebecca; Czaplicki, Guy; Mainil, Jacques; Guattéo, Raphaël; Saegerman, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental) and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection.

  2. Q Fever: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Research of a Neglected Zoonosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rebecca Porter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis caused by an resistant intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. In certain areas, Q fever can be a severe public health problem, and awareness of the disease must be promoted worldwide. Nevertheless, knowledge of Coxiella burnetii remains limited to this day. Its resistant (intracellular and environmental and infectious properties have been poorly investigated. Further understanding of the interactions between the infected host and the bacteria is necessary. Domestic ruminants are considered as the main reservoir of bacteria. Infected animals shed highly infectious organisms in milk, feces, urine, vaginal mucus, and, very importantly, birth products. Inhalation is the main route of infection. Frequently asymptomatic in humans and animals, Q fever can cause acute or chronic infections. Financial consequences of infection can be dramatic at herd level. Vaccination with inactive whole-cell bacteria has been performed and proved effective in humans and animals. However, inactive whole-cell vaccines present several defects. Recombinant vaccines have been developed in experimental conditions and have great potential for the future. Q fever is a challenging disease for scientists as significant further investigations are necessary. Great research opportunities are available to reach a better understanding and thus a better prevention and control of the infection.

  3. Expanding current knowledge on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the genus Lactarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-12-10

    Despite the presence of toxic compounds in inedible mushrooms, the question whether the chemical nutrients and non-nutrients compositions in edible and inedible Lactarius species are similar remains unanswered. To answer this question, Lactarius citriolens Pouzar and Lactarius turpis (Weinm.) Fr., two inedible species, were studied in order to obtain information about their chemical composition and bioactivity. Free sugars, fatty acids, tocopherols, organic and phenolic acids were analysed by chromatographic techniques coupled to different detectors. L. citriolens and L. turpis methanolic extracts were tested regarding antioxidant potential (reducing power, radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition). The composition of macronutrients varied among the two species, but the profiles were similar between them and among other Lactarius species; L. citriolens gave the highest energy contribution, saturated fatty acids and organic acids, while the L. turpis sample was richer in free sugars, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic compounds. L. turpis methanolic extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. The absence of hepatoxicity of the methanolic extracts was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells (in vitro conditions). The present study provided new information about wild L. citriolens and L. turpis, comparing their chemical composition and antioxidant properties with other Lactarius species, and expanding the knowledge about this genus.

  4. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Drago

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD. Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females aged 14–21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy. For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  5. A Survey of Current Knowledge on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Sexual Behaviour in Italian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Ciccarese, Giulia; Zangrillo, Francesca; Gasparini, Giulia; Cogorno, Ludovica; Riva, Silvia; Javor, Sanja; Cozzani, Emanuele; Broccolo, Francesco; Esposito, Susanna; Parodi, Aurora

    2016-04-13

    Worldwide, 500 million people a year acquire a sexually transmitted disease (STD). Adolescents, accounting for 25% of the sexually active population, are the most affected. To analyze sexual behavior among Italian adolescents and their knowledge of STDs, with the goal of preventing their transmission, a questionnaire was administered to 2867 secondary school students (1271 males and 1596 females) aged 14-21 years. For the study, 1492 students were interviewed in Genoa (Northern Italy) and 1375 in Lecce (Southern Italy). For 37% of the respondents, parents and teachers were the main source of information on sex, and 95% believed that school should play the primary role in sex education. However, only 9% considered the sex education they received in school good. Noteworthy, only 0.5% of the teenagers recognized the sexually transmitted diseases from a list of diseases, and 54% of them did not know what a Pap test was. Confusion about the meaning of contraception and prevention was evident; only 22% knew that condoms and abstinence are the only methods for preventing STDs. Finally, a consistent number of students are exposed to risk factors for STDs transmission; e.g., alcohol and recreational drug use, promiscuity and improper condom use. On the basis of our study, there is an urgent need for the introduction of sex education as a proper subject in Italian schools.

  6. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolyniak MJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Wolyniak,1 Lynne T Bemis,2 Amy J Prunuske2 1Department of Biology, Hampden-Sydney College, Hampden-Sydney, VA, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota Medical School, Duluth, MN, USA Abstract: Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. Keywords: genetics education, medical genetics, pedagogical practice, active learning, problem-based learning

  7. Reviewing current knowledge in snatch performance and technique: the need for future directions in applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lester K W; Lorenzen, Christian; Wilson, Cameron J; Saunders, John E; Williams, Morgan D

    2014-02-01

    This is a review of current research trends in weightlifting literature relating to the understanding of technique and its role in successful snatch performance. Reference to the world records in the snatch from the 1960s onwards indicates little progress across all weight categories. With such mediocre advances in performance at the International level, there is a need to better understand how snatch technique can improve performance even if only by a small margin. Methods of data acquisition for technical analysis of the snatch have involved mostly 2-dimensional barbell and joint kinematics. Although key variables which play a role in the successful outcome of a snatch lift have been heavily investigated, few studies have combined variables relating both the barbell and the weightlifter in their analyses. This suggests the need for a more detailed approach integrating both barbell-related and weightlifter-related data to enhance understanding of the mechanics of a successful lift. Currently, with the aid of technical advances in motion analysis, data acquisition, and methods of analysis, a more accurate representation of the movement can be provided. Better ways of understanding the key characteristics of technique in the snatch could provide the opportunity for more effective individualized feedback from the coach to the athlete, which should in turn lead to improved performance in competition.

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current knowledge on nucleic acid amplification techniques and serological diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eLoens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs, including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0% to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies.Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice.

  9. Heat waves and morbidity: current knowledge and further direction-a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Gu, Shaohua; Bi, Peng; Yang, Jun; Liu, Qiyong

    2015-05-18

    In the past few decades, several devastating heat wave events have significantly challenged public health. As these events are projected to increase in both severity and frequency in the future, it is important to assess the relationship between heat waves and the health indicators that can be used in the early warning systems to guide the public health response. Yet there is a knowledge gap in the impact of heat waves on morbidity. In this study, a comprehensive review was conducted to assess the relationship between heat waves and different morbidity indicators, and to identify the vulnerable populations. The PubMed and ScienceDirect database were used to retrieve published literature in English from 1985 to 2014 on the relationship between heat waves and morbidity, and the following MeSH terms and keywords were used: heat wave, heat wave, morbidity, hospital admission, hospitalization, emergency call, emergency medical services, and outpatient visit. Thirty-three studies were included in the final analysis. Most studies found a short-term negative health impact of heat waves on morbidity. The elderly, children, and males were more vulnerable during heat waves, and the medical care demand increased for those with existing chronic diseases. Some social factors, such as lower socioeconomic status, can contribute to heat-susceptibility. In terms of study methods and heat wave definitions, there remain inconsistencies and uncertainties. Relevant policies and guidelines need to be developed to protect vulnerable populations. Morbidity indicators should be adopted in heat wave early warning systems in order to guide the effective implementation of public health actions.

  10. How can countries achieve sustainable food supply in 2050: current knowledge and way forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Fader, M.; Gerten, D.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Jalava, M.; Jägermeyr, J.; Pfister, S.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Varis, O.

    2016-12-01

    urgent need to integrate these, and other potential measures, together and deepen the knowledge of their combined impact on future sustainable food supply.

  11. Current knowledge and future research perspectives on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) chemical defenses: An agroecological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Zevallos, Delia M; Pareja, Martín; Ambrogi, Bianca G

    2016-10-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production. Plant chemical defenses hold the potential for developing pest management strategies, as these plant traits can influence the behavior and performance of both pests and beneficial arthropods. Cassava plants are well-defended and produce a number of compounds involved in direct defense, such as cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoid glycosides, and hydroxycoumarins. In addition, volatile organic compounds induced upon herbivory and the secretion of extrafloral nectar act as indirect defense against herbivores by recruiting natural enemies. Here, cassava chemical defenses against pest arthropods are reviewed, with the aim of identifying gaps in our knowledge and areas of research that deserve further investigation for developing sound pest control strategies to improve sustainable production of this crop, and how these defenses can be used to benefit other crops. Cyanogenic content in cassava is also highly toxic to humans, and can cause irreversible health problems even at sub-lethal doses when consumed over prolonged periods. Therefore, the promotion of chemical defense in this crop should not aggravate these problems, and must be accompanied with the education on processing methods that reduce human exposure to cyanide.

  12. Current knowledge and pending challenges in zoonosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lago, Laura; Navarro, Yurena; García-de-Viedma, Darío

    2014-10-01

    Mycobacterium bovis is both the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and a zoonotic pathogen. In humans, considerably fewer cases of TB are caused by M. bovis than M. tuberculosis; nevertheless, diagnostic limitations mean that currently available data on prevalence grossly underestimate the true dimension of the problem. The routes of transmission from animals to humans are well known and include direct exposure to infected animals or consumption of contaminated animal products. Application of fingerprinting tools facilitates analysis of the molecular epidemiology of M. bovis in animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission. Apart from cattle and M. bovis, other animal species and members within the M. tuberculosis complex can contribute to the zoonosis. Improvements in diagnostic techniques, application of more advanced discriminatory genotyping tools, and collaboration between veterinary and human health care researchers are key to our understanding of this zoonosis.

  13. An analysis of risk markers in husband to wife violence: the current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, G T; Sugarman, D B

    1986-01-01

    The present review involves the evaluation of 97 potential risk markers of husband to wife violence. Using 52 case-comparison studies as the source of data, markers were divided into four categories: consistent risk, inconsistent risk, consistent nonrisk, and risk markers with insufficient data. Based on this classification, it appears that a number of widely held hypotheses about husband to wife violence have little empirical support. Only witnessing violence in the wife's family of origin was consistently associated with being victimized by violence. Furthermore, it seems that characteristics associated with either the husband-offender or the couple have greater utility for assessing the risk of husband to wife violence than characteristics of the wife-victim. Findings are discussed in terms of the methodological and theoretical implications of current research on this form of adult domestic violence.

  14. [Pathological buying. A review of the current knowledge regarding this condition of behavioral excess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2010-04-01

    Compulsive buying is characterized by frequent excessive purchasing of items that are primarily not needed or used. The compulsive buying behavior results in mental, social, financial and often legal problems. Although compulsive buying affects a significant percentage of the general population and has received increasing attention in research, it has largely been ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder is currently conceptualized as an"impulse control disorder not otherwise specified". However, the appropriate classification continues to be debated. Compulsive buying is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity, especially with depressive, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, substance use, personality, and other impulse control disorders. Small controlled trials failed to confirm the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder, whereas early evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is helpful in alleviating compulsive buying symptoms. Further research is needed to establish a better understanding of etiology, classification, and treatment strategies.

  15. Chemical pollution in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic marine ecosystems: an overview of current knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savinova, T.N.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Falk-Petersen, S.

    1995-02-01

    This report is part of a research project in the framework of the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Cooperation, which was initiated in 1991 to elucidate the present status of environmental contaminants in the highly sensitive Arctic aquatic ecosystem, with special focus on sea birds. Although these ecosystems are the least polluted areas in the world, they are contaminated. The main pathways of contamination into Arctic and sub-Arctic marine ecosystems are atmospheric transport, ocean currents and rivers and in some areas, dumping and ship accidents. A literature survey reveals: (1) there is a lack of data from several trophic levels, (2) previous data are difficult to compare with recent data because of increased quality requirement, (3) not much has been done to investigate the effects of contaminants on the cellular level, at individual or population levels. 389 refs., 7 figs., 32 tabs.

  16. Etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponic crops: current knowledge and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Clifford Sutton

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and epidemiology of Pythium root rot in hydroponically-grown crops are reviewed with emphasis on knowledge and concepts considered important for managing the disease in commercial greenhouses. Pythium root rot continually threatens the productivity of numerous kinds of crops in hydroponic systems around the world including cucumber, tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, lettuce, nasturtium, arugula, rose, and chrysanthemum. Principal causal agents include Pythium aphanidermatum, Pythium dissotocum, members of Pythium group F, and Pythium ultimum var. ultimum. Perspectives are given of sources of initial inoculum of Pythium spp. in hydroponic systems, of infection and colonization of roots by the pathogens, symptom development and inoculum production in host roots, and inoculum dispersal in nutrient solutions. Recent findings that a specific elicitor produced by P. aphanidermatum may trigger necrosis (browning of the roots and the transition from biotrophic to necrotrophic infection are considered. Effects on root rot epidemics of host factors (disease susceptibility, phenological growth stage, root exudates and phenolic substances, the root environment (rooting media, concentrations of dissolved oxygen and phenolic substances in the nutrient solution, microbial communities and temperature and human interferences (cropping practices and control measures are reviewed. Recent findings on predisposition of roots to Pythium attack by environmental stress factors are highlighted. The commonly minor impact on epidemics of measures to disinfest nutrient solution as it recirculates outside the crop is contrasted with the impact of treatments that suppress Pythium in the roots and root zone of the crop. New discoveries that infection of roots by P. aphanidermatum markedly slows the increase in leaf area and whole-plant carbon gain without significant effect on the efficiency of photosynthesis per unit area of leaf are noted. The platform of

  17. A synthesis of current knowledge on forests and carbon storage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C; Ryan, Michael G; Birdsey, Richard A; Giardina, Christian P; Harmon, Mark E; Heath, Linda S; Houghton, Richard A; Jackson, Robert B; Morrison, James F; Murray, Brian C; Patakl, Diane E; Skog, Kenneth E

    2011-09-01

    Using forests to mitigate climate change has gained much interest in science and policy discussions. We examine the evidence for carbon benefits, environmental and monetary costs, risks and trade-offs for a variety of activities in three general strategies: (1) land use change to increase forest area (afforestation) and avoid deforestation; (2) carbon management in existing forests; and (3) the use of wood as biomass energy, in place of other building materials, or in wood products for carbon storage. We found that many strategies can increase forest sector carbon mitigation above the current 162-256 Tg C/yr, and that many strategies have co-benefits such as biodiversity, water, and economic opportunities. Each strategy also has trade-offs, risks, and uncertainties including possible leakage, permanence, disturbances, and climate change effects. Because approximately 60% of the carbon lost through deforestation and harvesting from 1700 to 1935 has not yet been recovered and because some strategies store carbon in forest products or use biomass energy, the biological potential for forest sector carbon mitigation is large. Several studies suggest that using these strategies could offset as much as 10-20% of current U.S. fossil fuel emissions. To obtain such large offsets in the United States would require a combination of afforesting up to one-third of cropland or pastureland, using the equivalent of about one-half of the gross annual forest growth for biomass energy, or implementing more intensive management to increase forest growth on one-third of forestland. Such large offsets would require substantial trade-offs, such as lower agricultural production and non-carbon ecosystem services from forests. The effectiveness of activities could be diluted by negative leakage effects and increasing disturbance regimes. Because forest carbon loss contributes to increasing climate risk and because climate change may impede regeneration following disturbance, avoiding

  18. Air travel and radiation risks - review of current knowledge; Flugreisen und Strahlenrisiken - eine aktuelle Uebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeeb, H. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Gesundheitswissenschaften; Blettner, M. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie, Epidemiologie und Informatik

    2004-07-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to cosmic radiation, in particular when travelling routes close to the poles and in high altitudes. The paper reviews current radiation measurement and estimation approaches as well as the actual level of cosmic radiation that personnel and travellers receive and summarizes the available epidemiological evidence on health effects of cosmic radiation. On average, German aircrew is exposed to les than 5 mSv per annum, and even frequent travellers only rarely reach values above 1 mSv/year. Cohort studies among aircrew have found very little evidence for an increased incidence or mortality of radiation-associated cancers. Only malignant melanoma rates have consistently found to be increased among male aircrew. Socioeconomic and reproductive aspects are likely to contribute to the slightly elevated breast cancer risk of female aircrew. Cytogenetic studies have not yielded consistent results. Based on these data overall risk increases for cancer among occupationally exposed aircrew appear unlikely. This also applies to air travellers who are usually exposed to much lower radiation levels. Occasional air travel during pregnancy does not pose a significant radiation risk, but further considerations apply in this situation. The currently available studies are limited with regard to methodological issues and case numbers so that a continuation of cohort studies in several European countries is being planned. (orig.) [German] Sowohl Flugpersonal wie Flugreisende sind kosmischer Strahlung ausgesetzt, insbesondere wenn sie auf polnahen Routen und in grossen Flughoehen reisen. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen aktuellen Ueberblick ueber Mess- und Schaetzverfahren sowie das Ausmass der kosmischen Strahlenexposition und fasst die derzeit bekannte epidemiologische Evidenz zu gesundheitlichen Aspekten der kosmischen Strahlenexposition zusammen. Die durchschnittliche jaehrliche Strahlenexposition beruflich exponierten Flugpersonals liegt in

  19. Microbiome and nutrition in autism spectrum disorder: current knowledge and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berding, Kirsten; Donovan, Sharon M

    2016-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing neurodevelopmental disorder in the United States. Besides genetic risks, environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the increase in ASD diagnosis over the past decade. Several studies have reported abnormalities in microbiota composition and differences in microbial metabolites in children with ASD. Gastrointestinal discomfort is commonly reported in children with ASD. Additionally, food selectivity and picky eating patterns are commonly reported. A number of mechanisms underlying the interaction between nutrition, the gut microbiota, and ASD symptoms via the microbiota-gut-brain axis have been proposed, including immune, hormonal, or neuronal pathways. Here, the current evidence base regarding the gut environment and nutritional status of children with ASD is reviewed. Potential underlying mechanisms of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in ASD and the interplay between nutrition, microbiota, and ASD symptoms are also reviewed. Future studies investigating the microbiota in the context of dietary intake are needed to increase understanding of the interplay between diet and the gut microbiota in ASD and to identify potential dietary, probiotic, or prebiotic intervention strategies.

  20. Bacterial Diseases of Bananas and Enset: Current State of Knowledge and Integrated Approaches Toward Sustainable Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Blomme

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial diseases of bananas and enset have not received, until recently, an equal amount of attention compared to other major threats to banana production such as the fungal diseases black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis and Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. However, bacteria cause significant impacts on bananas globally and management practices are not always well known or adopted by farmers. Bacterial diseases in bananas and enset can be divided into three groups: (1 Ralstonia-associated diseases (Moko/Bugtok disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and banana blood disease caused by R. syzygii subsp. celebesensis; (2 Xanthomonas wilt of banana and enset, caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum and (3 Erwinia-associated diseases (bacterial head rot or tip-over disease Erwinia carotovora ssp. carotovora and E. chrysanthemi, bacterial rhizome and pseudostem wet rot (Dickeya paradisiaca formerly E. chrysanthemi pv. paradisiaca. Other bacterial diseases of less widespread importance include: bacterial wilt of abaca, Javanese vascular wilt and bacterial fingertip rot (probably caused by Ralstonia spp., unconfirmed. This review describes global distribution, symptoms, pathogenic diversity, epidemiology and the state of the art for sustainable disease management of the major bacterial wilts currently affecting banana and enset.

  1. Biotherapy in Inflammatory Diseases of the CNS: Current Knowledge and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collongues, Nicolas; Michel, Laure; de Seze, Jérôme

    2017-05-01

    Biotherapy represents an innovative therapeutic approach that includes immunotherapy (vaccines, apheresis, and antibodies); gene therapy; and stem cell transplants. Their development helps to cross the bridge from bench to bedside and brings new hope of a cure for severe diseases in different fields of medicine. In neurology, a growing range of applications is being developed for these medications. Valuable results are now available in the field of autoimmunity, neuro-oncology, paraneoplastic manifestations, and neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we examine the current and future applications of biotherapy in the field of inflammation of the central nervous system. We demonstrate its contribution in clinical practice, where it has enabled a significant level of effectiveness to be achieved. Indeed, the efficacy of these new biodrugs provides a solution for patients refractory to standard therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulins in limbic encephalitis, plasma exchanges in neuromyelitis optica and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in multiple sclerosis. They also mark the first steps towards individualized medicine.

  2. Current knowledge on tumour induction by computed tomography should be carefully used

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela-Juan, Cristian [La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Radioprotection Department, Valencia (Spain); Montoro, Alegria; Villaescusa, Juan Ignacio [La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Radioprotection Department, Valencia (Spain); IIS La Fe, Biomedical Imaging Research Group GIBI230, Valencia (Spain); Ruiz-Martinez, Enrique; Marti-Bonmati, Luis [IIS La Fe, Biomedical Imaging Research Group GIBI230, Valencia (Spain); La Fe University and Polytechnic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    Risks associated to ionising radiation from medical imaging techniques have focused the attention of the medical society and general population. This risk is aimed to determine the probability that a tumour is induced as a result of a computed tomography (CT) examination since it makes nowadays the biggest contribution to the collective dose. Several models of cancer induction have been reported in the literature, with diametrically different implications. This article reviews those models, focusing on the ones used by the scientific community to estimate CT detriments. Current estimates of the probability that a CT examination induces cancer are reported, highlighting its low magnitude (near the background level) and large sources of uncertainty. From this objective review, it is concluded that epidemiological data with more accurate dosimetric estimates are needed. Prediction of the number of tumours that will be induced in population exposed to ionising radiation should be avoided or, if given, it should be accompanied by a realistic evaluation of its uncertainty and of the advantages of CTs. Otherwise they may have a negative impact in both the medical community and the patients. Reducing doses even more is not justified if that compromises clinical image quality in a necessary investigation. (orig.)

  3. Mirizzi syndrome: History, current knowledge and proposal of a simplified classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcelo A Beltrán

    2012-01-01

    Chronic complications of symptomatic gallstone disease,such as Mirizzi syndrome,are rare in Western developed countries with an incidence of less than 1% a year.The importance and implications of this condition are related to their associated and potentially serious surgical complications such as bile duct injury,and to its modern management when encountered during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.The pathophysiological process leading to the subtypes of Mirizzi syndrome has been explained by means of a pressure ulcer caused by an impacted gallstone at the gallbladder infundibulum,leading to an inflammatory response causing first external obstruction of the bile duct,and eventually eroding into the bile duct and evolving to a cholecystocholedochal or cholecystohepatic fistula.This article reviews the life of Pablo Luis Mirizzi,describes the earlier and later descriptions of Mirizzi syndrome,discusses the pathophysiological process leading to the development of these uncommon fistulas,reviews the current diagnostic modalities and surgical approaches and finally proposes a simplified classification for Mirizzi syndrome intended to standardize the reports on this condition and to eventually develop a consensual surgical approach to this unexpected and seriously dangerous condition.

  4. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha for Retinal Diseases: Current Knowledge and Future Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mirshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and T-cells. It plays an important role both in inflammation and apoptosis. In the eye, TNF-α appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, edematous, neovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Several TNF-blocking drugs have been developed and approved, and are in clinical use for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. TNF-α blockers are widely used in ophthalmology as an off-label alternative to "traditional" immunosuppressive and immune-modulatory treatments in noninfectious uveitis. Preliminary studies suggest a positive effect of intravenously administered TNF-α blockers, mainly infliximab, for treating refractory diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, much of the current data raises considerable safety concerns for intravitreal use of TNF-α inhibitors, in particular, intraocular inflammatory responses have been reported after intravitreal injection of infliximab. Results of dose-finding studies and humanized antibody or antibody fragments (e.g. adalimumab are anticipated in the coming years; these will shed light on potential benefits and risks of local and systemic TNF-α blockers used for treatment of diseases of the retina and choroid.

  5. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha for retinal diseases: current knowledge and future concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, Alireza; Hoehn, René; Lorenz, Katrin; Kramann, Christina; Baatz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages and T-cells. It plays an important role both in inflammation and apoptosis. In the eye, TNF-α appears to have a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory, edematous, neovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Several TNF-blocking drugs have been developed and approved, and are in clinical use for inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. TNF-α blockers are widely used in ophthalmology as an off-label alternative to "traditional" immunosuppressive and immune-modulatory treatments in noninfectious uveitis. Preliminary studies suggest a positive effect of intravenously administered TNF-α blockers, mainly infliximab, for treating refractory diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Unfortunately, much of the current data raises considerable safety concerns for intravitreal use of TNF-α inhibitors, in particular, intraocular inflammatory responses have been reported after intravitreal injection of infliximab. Results of dose-finding studies and humanized antibody or antibody fragments (e.g. adalimumab) are anticipated in the coming years; these will shed light on potential benefits and risks of local and systemic TNF-α blockers used for treatment of diseases of the retina and choroid.

  6. Social stress as a cause of diseases in farm animals: Current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Kathryn; Habing, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, biomedical research has established a strong linkage between psychosocial stress and disease risk in humans, which has transformed the understanding of stress and the role it plays in human lives. This research has led to personalized medicine where a reduction in daily life stress is a main goal for many people with debilitating illnesses. This review describes the supporting evidence that social stress also plays a critical role in farm animal disease prevention, and may be a mediator by which common management practices can increase disease risk. There is evidence that social factors, including deprivation of social contact ('social isolation'), reducing space allowance ('crowding') and disturbing social order ('social instability') trigger physiological and behavioral indicators of stress in livestock. Less research exists, however, linking management practices that trigger social stress with higher disease risk. Suggestions are offered for future research opportunities, and practical, evidence-based recommendations are made for reducing the negative effects of social isolation, instability and crowding. The current evidence that social factors contribute to disease risk in farm animals is not as convincing as the human literature, but remains a promising and important area for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Adjuvants and immunostimulants in fish vaccines: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafalla, Carolina; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy A

    2013-12-01

    Vaccination is the most adequate method to control infectious diseases that threaten the aquaculture industry worldwide. Unfortunately, vaccines are usually not able to confer protection on their own; especially those vaccines based on recombinant antigens or inactivated pathogens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants or immunostimulants is often necessary to increase the vaccine efficacy. Traditional adjuvants such as mineral oils are routinely used in different commercial bacterial vaccines available for fish; however, important side effects may occur with this type of adjuvants. A search for alternative molecules or certain combinations of them as adjuvants is desirable in order to increase animal welfare without reducing protection levels. Especially, combinations that may target specific cell responses and thus a specific pathogen, with no or minor side effects, should be explored. Despite this, the oil adjuvants currently used are quite friendlier with respect to side effects compared with the oil adjuvants previously used. The great lack of fish antiviral vaccines also evidences the importance of identifying optimal combinations of a vaccination strategy with the use of a targeting adjuvant, especially for the promising fish antiviral DNA vaccines. In this review, we summarise previous studies performed with both traditional adjuvants as well as the most promising new generation adjuvants such as ligands for Toll receptors or different cytokines, focussing mostly on their protective efficacies, and also on what is known concerning their effects on the fish immune system when delivered in vivo.

  8. The current state of knowledge about shatter cones: Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratoux, David; Reimold, Wolf Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Shatter cones are a fracture phenomenon that is exclusively associated with shock metamorphism and has also been produced in the laboratory in several shock experiments. The occurrence of shatter cones is the only accepted meso- to macroscopic recognition criterion for impact structures. Shatter cones exhibit a number of geometric characteristics (orientation, apical angles, striation angles, sizes) that can be best described as varied, from case to case. Possible links between geometric properties with impact or crater parameters have remained controversial and the lack of understanding of the mechanism of formation of shatter cones does not offer a physical framework to discuss or understand them. A database of shatter cone occurrences has been produced for this introduction paper to the special issue of Meteoritics and Planetary Science on shatter cones. Distribution of shatter cones with respect to crater size and lithology suggests that shatter cones do not occur in impact craters less than a few kilometers in diameter, with a few, currently questionable exceptions. All pertinent hypotheses of formation are presented and discussed. Several may be discarded in light of the most recent observations. The branching fracture mechanism and the interference models proposed, respectively, by Sagy et al. (2002) and Baratoux and Melosh (2003) require further evaluation. New observations, experiments, or theoretical considerations presented in this special issue promise an important step forward, based on a renewed effort to resolve the enigmatic origin of these important features.

  9. IGF-I abuse in sport: current knowledge and future prospects for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Nishan; Sönksen, Peter H; Holt, Richard I G

    2009-08-01

    As the tests for detecting growth hormone (GH) abuse develop further, it is likely that athletes will turn to doping with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). IGF-I mediates many of the anabolic actions of growth hormone. It stimulates muscle protein synthesis, promotes glycogen storage and enhances lipolysis, all of which make IGF-I attractive as a potential performance-enhancing agent. Pharmaceutical companies have developed commercial preparations of recombinant human IGF-I (rhIGF-I) for use in disorders of growth. The increased availability of rhIGF-I increases the opportunity for athletes to acquire supplies of the drug on the black market. The long-term effects of IGF-I administration are currently unknown but it is likely that these will be similar to the adverse effects of chronic GH abuse. The detection of IGF-I abuse is a challenge for anti-doping organisations. Research has commenced into the development of a test for IGF-I abuse based on the measurement of markers of GH action. Simultaneously, the effects of rhIGF-I on physical fitness, body composition and substrate utilisation in healthy volunteers are being investigated.

  10. Current knowledge and importance of dGEMRIC techniques in diagnosis of hip joint diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zilkens, Christoph; Krauspe, Ruediger; Bittersohl, Bernd [University of Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duesseldorf (Germany); Tiderius, Carl Johann [Lund University Hospital, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-08-15

    Accurate assessment of early hip joint cartilage alterations may help optimize patient selection and follow-up of hip joint preservation surgery. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage (dGEMRIC) is sensitive to the glycosaminoglycan content in cartilage that is lost early in the development of osteoarthritis (OA). Hence, the dGEMRIC technique holds promise for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, because of the location of the hip joint deep within the body and due to the fairly thin cartilage layers that require high spatial resolution, the diagnosis of early hip joint cartilage alterations may be problematic. The purpose of this review is to outline the current status of dGEMRIC in the assessment of hip joint cartilage. A literature search was performed with PubMed, using the terms ''cartilage, osteoarthritis, hip joint, MRI, and dGEMRIC'', considering all levels of studies. This review revealed that dGEMRIC can be reliably used in the evaluation of early stage cartilage pathology in various hip joint disorders. Modifications in the technique, such as the operation of three-dimensional imaging and dGEMRIC after intra-articular contrast medium administration, have expanded the range of application. Notably, the studies differ considerably in patient selection and technical prerequisites. Furthermore, there is a need for multicenter prospective studies with the required technical conditions in place to establish outcome based dGEMRIC data to obtain, in conjunction with clinical data, reliable threshold values for normal and abnormal cartilage, and for hips that may benefit from conservative or surgical treatment. (orig.)

  11. HONGOS ENDÓFITOS TROPICALES: CONOCIMIENTO ACTUAL Y PERSPECTIVAS Tropical Endophytic Fungi: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIGUEL A GAMBOAGAITÁN

    Full Text Available Los organismos endófitos, particularmente los hongos, han recibido una creciente atención en los años recientes. Este grupo de microrganismos vive asintomáticamente dentro de tejidos vegetales sanos, y ha mostrado poseer un gran potencial económico en áreas como la agronomía y la medicina. También se han usado como grupo modelo para estudiar aspectos teóricos de la ecología de comunidades y de la interacción planta microorganismo. En la presente revisión se ha recopilado la literatura existente acerca de los hongos endófitos tropicales, y se analiza comparativamente con algunos trabajos de zonas templadas. Se discuten algunos de los aspectos más relevantes y promisorios en este sistema simbiótico y se hacen recomendaciones acerca de tópicos particulares hacia los que debe dirigirse la investigación en este campo.Endophytic microorganisms are symptomless inhabitants of plant tissues. This group is receiving a growing attention due to its potential in fields as varied as agronomy and medicine. Some more basic aspects of science, such as ecology of communities and plantmicrobe interactions have also been studied in this group. This review emphasizes on current literature about tropical endophytes and work in this theme is compared with those developed in temperate zones when appropriate. The most important ecological aspects of this system are discussed, and recommendations about the future directions of research in this field are done, especially those related to the use of endophytes as a model group in modern biology.

  12. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato genotypes infecting humans--review of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Romig, Thomas; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2014-01-01

    the G5, G8 and G10 genotypes. No cases of human infection with G4 have been described. Biological differences between the species and genotypes have potential to affect the transmission dynamics of the parasite, requiring modification of methods used in disease control initiatives. Recent investigations have revealed that the protective vaccine antigen (EG95), developed for the G1 genotype, is immunologically different in the G6 genotype. Further research will be required to determine whether the current EG95 vaccine would be effective against the G6 or G7 genotypes, or whether it will be necessary, and possible, to develop genotype-specific vaccines.

  13. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Griffiths

    Full Text Available Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of just over 1 million km(2. Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System data center (which stores data from a wider African region. A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy and demersal (hake sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well

  14. Current Knowledge and Future Research on Infant Feeding in the Context of HIV: Basic, Clinical, Behavioral, and Programmatic Perspectives12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Chantry, Caroline J.; Geubbels, Eveline P.; Israel-Ballard, Kiersten; Cohan, Deborah; Vosti, Stephen A.; Latham, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, between 129,000 and 194,000 of the 430,000 pediatric HIV infections worldwide were attributable to breastfeeding. Yet in many settings, the health, economic, and social consequences of not breastfeeding would have dire consequences for many more children. In the first part of this review we provide an overview of current knowledge about infant feeding in the context of HIV. Namely, we describe the benefits and risks of breastmilk, the evolution of recommended infant feeding modalities in high-income and low-income countries in the last two decades, and contextualize the recently revised guidelines for infant feeding in the context of HIV current knowledge. In the second section, we suggest areas for future research on the postnatal prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) in developing and industrialized countries. We suggest two shifts in perspective. The first is to evaluate PMTCT interventions more holistically, to include the psychosocial and economic consequences as well as the biomedical ones. The second shift in perspective should be one that contextualizes postnatal PMTCT efforts in the cascade of maternal health services. We conclude by discussing basic, clinical, behavioral, and programmatic research questions pertaining to a number of PMTCT efforts, including extended postnatal ARV prophylaxis, exclusive breastfeeding promotion, counseling, breast milk pasteurization, breast milk banking, novel techniques for making breast milk safer, and optimal breastfeeding practices. We believe the research efforts outlined here will maximize the number of healthy, thriving, HIV-free children around the world. PMID:22332055

  15. Black (pyrogenic) carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C. M.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2006-09-01

    The carbon (C) cycle in boreal regions is strongly influenced by fire, which converts biomass and detrital C mainly to gaseous forms (CO2 and smaller proportions of CO and CH4), and some 1-3% of mass to pyrogenic C (PyC). PyC is mainly produced as solid charred residues, including visually-defined charcoal, and a black carbon (BC) fraction chemically defined by its resistance to laboratory oxidation, plus much lower proportions of volatile soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). All PyC is characterized by fused aromatic rings, but varying in cluster sizes, and presence of other elements (N, O) and functional groups. The range of PyC structures is often described as a continuum from partially charred plant materials, to charcoal, soot and ultimately graphite which is formed by the combination of heat and pressure. There are several reasons for current interest in defining more precisely the role of PyC in the C cycle of boreal regions. First, PyC is largely resistant to decomposition, and therefore contributes to very stable C pools in soils and sediments. Second, it influences soil processes, mainly through its sorption properties and cation exchange capacity, and third, soot aerosols absorb solar radiation and may contribute to global warming. However, there are large gaps in the basic information needed to address these topics. While charcoal is commonly defined by visual criteria, analytical methods for BC are mainly based on various measures of oxidation resistance, or on yield of benzenepolycarboxylic acids. These methods are still being developed, and capture different fractions of the PyC structural continuum. There are few quantitative reports of PyC production and stocks in boreal forests (essentially none for boreal peatlands), and results are difficult to compare due to varying experimental goals and methods, as well as inconsistent terminology. There are almost no direct field measurements of BC aerosol production from boreal wildfires, and

  16. Black (pyrogenic carbon: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties with special consideration of boreal regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The carbon (C cycle in boreal regions is strongly influenced by fire, which converts biomass and detrital C mainly to gaseous forms (CO2 and smaller proportions of CO and CH4, and some 1–3% of mass to pyrogenic C (PyC. PyC is mainly produced as solid charred residues, including visually-defined charcoal, and a black carbon (BC fraction chemically defined by its resistance to laboratory oxidation, plus much lower proportions of volatile soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. All PyC is characterized by fused aromatic rings, but varying in cluster sizes, and presence of other elements (N, O and functional groups. The range of PyC structures is often described as a continuum from partially charred plant materials, to charcoal, soot and ultimately graphite which is formed by the combination of heat and pressure. There are several reasons for current interest in defining more precisely the role of PyC in the C cycle of boreal regions. First, PyC is largely resistant to decomposition, and therefore contributes to very stable C pools in soils and sediments. Second, it influences soil processes, mainly through its sorption properties and cation exchange capacity, and third, soot aerosols absorb solar radiation and may contribute to global warming. However, there are large gaps in the basic information needed to address these topics. While charcoal is commonly defined by visual criteria, analytical methods for BC are mainly based on various measures of oxidation resistance, or on yield of benzenepolycarboxylic acids. These methods are still being developed, and capture different fractions of the PyC structural continuum. There are few quantitative reports of PyC production and stocks in boreal forests (essentially none for boreal peatlands, and results are difficult to compare due to varying experimental goals and methods, as well as inconsistent terminology. There are almost no direct field measurements of BC aerosol production from boreal

  17. Black (pyrogenic carbon in boreal forests: a synthesis of current knowledge and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Preston

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The carbon (C cycle in boreal regions is strongly influenced by fire, which converts biomass and detrital C mainly to gaseous forms (CO2 and smaller proportions of CO and CH4, and some 1–7% of mass to pyrogenic C (PyC. PyC is mainly produced as solid charred residues, including visually-defined charcoal, and a black carbon (BC fraction chemically defined by its resistance to laboratory oxidation, plus much lower proportions of volatile soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. All PyC is characterized by fused aromatic rings, but varying in cluster sizes, and presence of other elements (N, O and functional groups. There are several reasons for current interest in defining more precisely the role of PyC in the C cycle of boreal regions. First, PyC is resistant to decomposition, and therefore contributes to very stable C pools in soils and sediments. Second, it influences soil processes, mainly through its sorption properties and cation exchange capacity, and third, soot aerosols absorb solar radiation and may contribute to global warming. However, there are large gaps in the basic information needed to address these topics. While charcoal is commonly defined by visual criteria, analytical methods for BC are mainly based on various measures of oxidation resistance, or on yield of benzenepolycarboxylic acids. These methods are still being developed, and capture different fractions of the PyC "continuum". There are few quantitative reports of PyC production and stocks in boreal forests (essentially none for boreal peatlands, and results are difficult to compare due to varying experimental goals and methods, as well as inconsistent terminology. There are almost no direct field measurements of BC aerosol production from boreal wildfires, and little direct information on rates and mechanisms for PyC loss. Structural characterization of charred biomass and forest floor from wildfires generally indicates a low level of

  18. Oral cancer--current knowledge, practices and implications for training among an Irish general medical practitioner cohort.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Riordain, Richeal

    2009-11-01

    This study investigated the current knowledge and practices of general medical practitioners (GMPs) in Ireland regarding the examination of the oral cavity and the detection of oral malignancy and the training they had received at both undergraduate and postgraduate level and since commencing in practice. A questionnaire survey of GMPs in Ireland was conducted. One hundred and fifty four (65.3%) of the practitioners reported regularly examining the oral mucosa of their patients. Almost half of these (n=68) further qualified this response by stating that they only examined the oral mucosa if the patient reported pain in this area or if the patient specifically requested an oral examination for some reason. Eighty one (34.3%) practitioners surveyed felt confident in their ability to detect oral malignancies with the remaining two thirds unsure of whether they would be able to detect oral cancer. There was a significant association between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on examination of the oral cavity and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=4.811, p<0.05]. A statistically significant association was also found between the undergraduate and postgraduate teaching on the diagnosis of oral malignant disease and whether practitioners felt confident in their ability to detect oral cancer [chi(2)(1)=6.194, p<0.05]. In conclusion the level of knowledge of Irish general medical practitioners needs to be addressed with appropriate initiatives both at undergraduate level and via CME.

  19. Microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments: Evaluating the current understanding to identify the knowledge gaps and future research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Alice A; Walton, Alexander; Spurgeon, David J; Lahive, Elma; Svendsen, Claus

    2017-05-15

    Plastic debris is an environmentally persistent and complex contaminant of increasing concern. Understanding the sources, abundance and composition of microplastics present in the environment is a huge challenge due to the fact that hundreds of millions of tonnes of plastic material is manufactured for societal use annually, some of which is released to the environment. The majority of microplastics research to date has focussed on the marine environment. Although freshwater and terrestrial environments are recognised as origins and transport pathways of plastics to the oceans, there is still a comparative lack of knowledge about these environmental compartments. It is highly likely that microplastics will accumulate within continental environments, especially in areas of high anthropogenic influence such as agricultural or urban areas. This review critically evaluates the current literature on the presence, behaviour and fate of microplastics in freshwater and terrestrial environments and, where appropriate, also draws on relevant studies from other fields including nanotechnology, agriculture and waste management. Furthermore, we evaluate the relevant biological and chemical information from the substantial body of marine microplastic literature, determining the applicability and comparability of this data to freshwater and terrestrial systems. With the evidence presented, the authors have set out the current state of the knowledge, and identified the key gaps. These include the volume and composition of microplastics entering the environment, behaviour and fate of microplastics under a variety of environmental conditions and how characteristics of microplastics influence their toxicity. Given the technical challenges surrounding microplastics research, it is especially important that future studies develop standardised techniques to allow for comparability of data. The identification of these research needs will help inform the design of future studies, to

  20. A review of current knowledge on toxic benthic freshwater cyanobacteria--ecology, toxin production and risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, Quiblier; Susanna, Wood; Isidora, Echenique-Subiabre; Mark, Heath; Aurélie, Villeneuve; Jean-François, Humbert

    2013-10-01

    Benthic cyanobacteria are found globally in plethora of environments. Although they have received less attention than their planktonic freshwater counterparts, it is now well established that they produce toxins and reports of their involvement in animal poisonings have increased markedly during the last decade. Most of the known cyanotoxins have been identified from benthic cyanobacteria including: the hepatotoxic microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsins, the neurotoxic saxitoxins, anatoxin-a and homoanatoxin-a and dermatotoxins, such as lyngbyatoxin. In most countries, observations of toxic benthic cyanobacteria are fragmented, descriptive and in response to animal toxicosis events. Only a limited number of long-term studies have aimed to understand why benthic proliferations occur, and/or how toxin production is regulated. These studies have shown that benthic cyanobacterial blooms are commonly a mixture of toxic and non-toxic genotypes and that toxin concentrations can be highly variable spatially and temporally. Physiochemical parameters responsible for benthic proliferation vary among habitat type with physical disturbance (e.g., flow regimes, wave action) and nutrients commonly identified as important. As climatic conditions change and anthropogenic pressures on waterways increase, it seems likely that the prevalence of blooms of benthic cyanobacteria will increase. In this article we review current knowledge on benthic cyanobacteria: ecology, toxin-producing species, variables that regulate toxin production and bloom formation, their impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms and current monitoring and management strategies. We suggest research needs that will assist in filling knowledge gaps and ultimately allow more robust monitoring and management protocols to be developed.

  1. Efficacy of misoprostol for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: current knowledge and implications for health care planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prata N

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ndola Prata, Karen Weidert Bixby Center for Population, Health and Sustainability, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA Background: A myriad of interventions exist to treat postpartum hemorrhage (PPH, ranging from uterotonics and hemostatics to surgical and aortic compression devices. Nonetheless, PPH remains the leading cause of maternal mortality worldwide. The purpose of this article is to review the available evidence on the efficacy of misoprostol for the treatment of primary PPH and discuss implications for health care planning. Data and methods: Using PubMed, Web of Science, and GoogleScholar, we reviewed the literature on randomized controlled trials of interventions to treat PPH with misoprostol and non-randomized field trials with controls. We discuss the current knowledge and implications for health care planning, especially in resource-poor settings. Results: The treatment of PPH with 800 µg of misoprostol is equivalent to 40 IU of intravenous oxytocin in women who have received oxytocin for the prevention of PPH. The same dose might be an option for the treatment of PPH in women who did not receive oxytocin for the prevention of PPH and do not have access to oxytocin for treatment. Adding misoprostol to standard uterotonics has no additional benefits to women being treated for PPH, but the beneficial adjunctive role of misoprostol to conventional uterotonics is important in reducing intra- and postoperative hemorrhage during cesarean section. Conclusion: Misoprostol is an effective uterotonic agent in the treatment of PPH. Clinical guidelines and treatment protocols should be updated to reflect the current knowledge on the efficacy of misoprostol for the treatment of PPH with 800 µg sublingually. Keywords: PPH treatment, uterotonics, low-resource settings, cesarean section, retained placenta

  2. Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm-Herold, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

  3. [Undesired awareness phenomena during general anesthesia: Evidence-based state of knowledge, current discussions and strategies for prevention and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, P; Rundshagen, I; Schneider, G

    2015-10-01

    Patient awareness during general anesthesia and the later recall of what happened during surgery can be experienced by patients as horrifying events that leave lasting mental trauma in the form of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSS). Awareness is related to a temporary insufficient depth of anesthesia. This phenomenon has been discussed for more than 20 years. According to randomized controlled studies, in the absence of risk factors awareness phenomena occur in 1-2 per 1000 operations involving general anesthesia (0.1-0.2%) and are classified as occasionally occurring critical events. An astonishing twist occurred elicited by the recent data from the 5th National Audit Project from Great Britain (NAP5) published in the British Journal of Anaesthesia and in Anaesthesia. The NAP5 evaluated patient reports of accidental awareness during general anesthesia (AAGA) in a multicenter manner in more than 2.7 million cases and indicated incidences of awareness of only 1:19,600, a frequency 20 times less than previously reported. These results gave rise to some controversy. It seems likely that, due to the absence of structured interviews, the NAP5 data only demonstrated the tip of the iceberg and may have vastly underestimated the real incidence of intraoperative awareness. The present overview summarizes the current knowledge about awareness. Furthermore, it addresses the question whether the awareness problem has been overestimated by evidence-based criteria or underestimated by the results of the NAP5. The responsibility for sufficient anesthesia in the clinical routine requires knowledge of awareness risks and potential sequelae. A formal recommendation from the German Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI) concerning awareness is not yet available; however, the recognition of evidence-based strategies in the management of anesthesia may minimize the occurrence of awareness and its sequelae.

  4. Library and Information Professionals as Knowledge Engagement Specialists. Theories, Competencies and Current Educational Possibilities in Accredited Graduate Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Javier Calzada; Marzal, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The role of library and information science professionals as knowledge facilitators is solidly grounded in the profession's theoretical foundations as much as connected with its social relevance. Knowledge science is presented in this paper as a convenient theoretical framework for this mission, and knowledge engagement…

  5. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-04-01

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced 'omics' technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account.

  6. Determinants of healthy eating in Aboriginal peoples in Canada: the current state of knowledge and research gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willows, Noreen D

    2005-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples are the original inhabitants of Canada. These many diverse peoples have distinct languages, cultures, religious beliefs and political systems. The current dietary practices of Aboriginal peoples pose significant health risks. Interventions to improve the nutritional status of Aboriginal peoples must reflect the realities of how people make food choices and therefore should be informed by an understanding of contemporary patterns of food procurement, preparation and distribution. Most of the literature documenting the health of Aboriginal peoples is primarily epidemiologic, and there is limited discussion of the determinants that contribute to health status. The majority of studies examining dietary intake in Aboriginal communities do not aim to study the determinants of food intake per se even though many describe differences in food intake across sex, age groups, seasons and sometimes communities, and may describe factors that could have an effect on food consumption (e.g., employment status, level of education, household size, presence of a hunter/trapper/fisher, occupation, main source of income). For these reasons, there are many gaps in knowledge pertaining to the determinants of healthy eating in Aboriginal peoples that must be filled. Given the diversity of Aboriginal peoples, research to address the gaps should take place at both the national level and at a more local level. Research would be important for each of Inuit, Métis and First Nations.

  7. Photocatalytic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on aquatic organisms-Current knowledge and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Vena N; Ward, J Evan; Russell, Brandon J; Agrios, Alexander G

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticles are entering natural systems through product usage, industrial waste and post-consumer material degradation. As the production of nanoparticles is expected to increase in the next decade, so too are predicted environmental loads. Engineered metal-oxide nanomaterials, such as titanium dioxide, are known for their photocatalytic capabilities. When these nanoparticles are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in the environment, however, they can produce radicals that are harmful to aquatic organisms. There have been a number of studies that have reported the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the absence of light. An increasing number of studies are assessing the interactive effects of nanoparticles and ultraviolet light. However, most of these studies neglect environmentally-relevant experimental conditions. For example, researchers are using nanoparticle concentrations and light intensities that are too high for natural systems, and are ignoring water constituents that can alter the light field. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the photocatalytic effects of TiO2 nanoparticles on aquatic organisms, discuss the limitations of these studies, and outline environmentally-relevant factors that need to be considered in future experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport: Current State of Knowledge from a Nuclear Waste Repository Risk Assessment Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zavarin, Mavrik [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Yifeng [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-25

    This report provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport from a nuclear waste repository risk assessment perspective. It draws on work that has been conducted over the past 3 decades, although there is considerable emphasis given to work that has been performed over the past 3-5 years as part of the DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign. The timing of this report coincides with the completion of a 3-year DOE membership in the Colloids Formation and Migration (CFM) partnership, an international collaboration of scientists studying colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides at both the laboratory and field-scales in a fractured crystalline granodiorite at the Grimsel Test Site in Switzerland. This Underground Research Laboratory has hosted the most extensive and carefully-controlled set of colloid-facilitated solute transport experiments that have ever been conducted in an in-situ setting, and a summary of the results to date from these efforts, as they relate to transport over long time and distance scales, is provided in Chapter 3 of this report.

  9. A review of the current knowledge of the crustal and lithospheric structure of the Valencia Trough Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, C.; Torne, M.; Roca, E.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we review the current geophysical knowledge of the Valencia Trough Basin, and the surround- ing areas. For this purpose, we summarize the most significant regional geophysical datasets acquired since the seventies to investigate the trough (seismic, gravity, geoid and heat flow data). We then focus on the discussion regarding the geometry and physical properties of the present day crustal and lithospheric structure derived from seismic images, as well as combined potential field modelling and their relationships with the Alpine geo dynamic evolution of the Valencia Trough. Finally, we discuss the differences in the results regard- ing the geometry of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary obtained by different modelling approaches and the features that, in our view, require further investigation to unravel the true nature of the Valencia Trough, including what could have caused the differences between the crustal structure observed in the SW region compared to the NE region, the asymmetric style of thinning across the trough; the origin of the changes in the lower crustal reflectivity across the basin; the fabric of the uppermost mantle, characterized by anomalously low P-wave velocities; and the physical properties of the lithosphere mantle (density, P- waves velocity, thermal conductivity, temperature distribution, mineralogical composition, etc.). (Author)

  10. Application of current knowledge and trends in sports training of top level volleyball teams in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve the best results in top volleyball it is necessary to analyze the current state and to react adequately to development trends, which characterize modern volleyball. OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to acquire information regarding how do top volleyball coaches of senior and junior volleyball teams in the Czech Republic put current knowledge and trends in volleyball sport training and coaching in practice. METHODS: We created a survey consisting of 31 questions, which were divided into 5 areas: respecting of the current requirements of game performance in training, training efficiency, conditioning, coaching and psycho-social aspects. The survey was sent to 49 coaches, 24 of them replied (response rate 49 %. RESULTS: The research shows that coaches do not apply all important knowledge and trends for players' preparation (76 % of correct answers in total. Groups of coaches were further divided to subgroups according to gender of the trained teams, age categories, coaches work load and 1st and 2nd class coaches. The comparison of the answers in the subgroup of coaches with respect to segregated areas has only pointed at a difference between male and female teams in the area of psycho-social training aspects (Z = 1.756; p = 0.079; d = 0.717. The comparison of coaches' groups answers to individual questions show that: a coaches of male teams base their training sessions on real game situations and choose the content of the exercises with the ball more thoroughly (Z = 1.85; p = 0.07; d = 0.75 and require defensive game combinations at the net more often (Z = 1.81; p = 0.07; d = 0.74; b junior teams are behind (Z = 1.90; p = 0.06; d = 0.77 senior teams in the number of training hours with the ball a week and in making conditions for successful realization of offensive game combinations with fast set (Z = 2.10; p = 0.04; d = 0.86; c 1st class coaches within the scope of condition training pay more attention to core training

  11. Targeted Therapy Database (TTD: a model to match patient's molecular profile with current knowledge on cancer biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Mocellin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain clinically untested and therefore do not translate into a therapeutic benefit for patients. OBJECTIVE: To present a computational method aimed to comprehensively exploit the scientific knowledge in order to foster the development of personalized cancer treatment by matching the patient's molecular profile with the available evidence on targeted therapy. METHODS: To this aim we focused on melanoma, an increasingly diagnosed malignancy for which the need for novel therapeutic approaches is paradigmatic since no effective treatment is available in the advanced setting. Relevant data were manually extracted from peer-reviewed full-text original articles describing any type of anti-melanoma targeted therapy tested in any type of experimental or clinical model. To this purpose, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane databases were searched. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We created a manually annotated database (Targeted Therapy Database, TTD where the relevant data are gathered in a formal representation that can be computationally analyzed. Dedicated algorithms were set up for the identification of the prevalent therapeutic hypotheses based on the available evidence and for ranking treatments based on the molecular profile of individual patients. In this essay we describe the principles and computational algorithms of an original method

  12. Targeted Therapy Database (TTD): A Model to Match Patient's Molecular Profile with Current Knowledge on Cancer Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Shrager, Jeff; Scolyer, Richard; Pasquali, Sandro; Verdi, Daunia; Marincola, Francesco M.; Briarava, Marta; Gobbel, Randy; Rossi, Carlo; Nitti, Donato

    2010-01-01

    Background The efficacy of current anticancer treatments is far from satisfactory and many patients still die of their disease. A general agreement exists on the urgency of developing molecularly targeted therapies, although their implementation in the clinical setting is in its infancy. In fact, despite the wealth of preclinical studies addressing these issues, the difficulty of testing each targeted therapy hypothesis in the clinical arena represents an intrinsic obstacle. As a consequence, we are witnessing a paradoxical situation where most hypotheses about the molecular and cellular biology of cancer remain clinically untested and therefore do not translate into a therapeutic benefit for patients. Objective To present a computational method aimed to comprehensively exploit the scientific knowledge in order to foster the development of personalized cancer treatment by matching the patient's molecular profile with the available evidence on targeted therapy. Methods To this aim we focused on melanoma, an increasingly diagnosed malignancy for which the need for novel therapeutic approaches is paradigmatic since no effective treatment is available in the advanced setting. Relevant data were manually extracted from peer-reviewed full-text original articles describing any type of anti-melanoma targeted therapy tested in any type of experimental or clinical model. To this purpose, Medline, Embase, Cancerlit and the Cochrane databases were searched. Results and Conclusions We created a manually annotated database (Targeted Therapy Database, TTD) where the relevant data are gathered in a formal representation that can be computationally analyzed. Dedicated algorithms were set up for the identification of the prevalent therapeutic hypotheses based on the available evidence and for ranking treatments based on the molecular profile of individual patients. In this essay we describe the principles and computational algorithms of an original method developed to fully exploit

  13. Genetic analysis in inherited metabolic disorders--from diagnosis to treatment. Own experience, current state of knowledge and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertheim-Tysarowska, Katarzyna; Gos, Monika; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Bal, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Inherited metabolic disorders, also referred to as inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), are a group of congenital disorders caused by mutation in genomic or mitochondrial DNA. IEM are mostly rare disorders with incidence ranging from 1/50,000-1/150,000), however in total IEM may affect even 1/1000 people. A particular mutation affects specific protein or enzyme that improper function leads to alterations in specific metabolic pathway. Inborn errors of metabolism are monogenic disorders that can be inherited in autosomal recessive manner or, less frequently, in autosomal dominant or X-linked patterns. Some exceptions to Mendelian rules of inheritance have also been described. Vast majority of mutations responsible for IEM are small DNA changes affecting single or several nucleotides, although larger rearrangements were also identified. Therefore, the methods used for the identification of pathogenic mutations are mainly based on molecular techniques, preferably on Sanger sequencing. Moreover, the next generation sequencing technique seems to be another prospective method that can be successfully implemented for the diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. The identification of the genetic defect underlying the disease is not only indispensable for genetic counseling, but also might be necessary to apply appropriate treatment to the patient. Therapeutic strategies for IEM are continuously elaborated and tested (eg. enzyme replacement therapy, specific cells or organ transplantation or gene therapy, both in vivo and ex vivo) and have already been implemented for several disorders. In this article we present current knowledge about various aspects of IEM on the basis of our own experience and literature review.

  14. E-resource knowledge bases and link resolvers: an assessment of the current products and emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Breeding

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the findings of a study on e-resource knowledge bases and OpenURL-based link resolvers sponsored by the National Library of Sweden. The project involved soliciting detailed information from each of the providers of the major products in this genre, reviewing product information available on the web and in published articles, and conducting a survey addressed to libraries using these products. The report identified and presented comparative information on a top tier of products that includes KnowledgeWorks and 360 Link from Serials Solutions; SFX Global KnowledgeBase and the SFX link resolver from Ex Libris; LinkSource and the EBSCO Integrated Knowledge Base from EBSCO and the WorldCat knowledge base from OCLC. A second tier included TOUResolver from TDNet, Gold Rush from the Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries and GODOT from Simon Fraser University. Innovative Interfaces, Inc offers the WebBridge link resolver but does not produce a knowledge base. The library survey revealed relatively narrow differences in the statistical results. Serial Solutions emerged as more favorable in most categories except for end-user functionality where Ex Libris received higher ratings. The Global Open Knowledgebase project (GOKb is noteworthy as a nascent community-based effort to produce a knowledge base. Key trends noted include less emphasis on knowledge bases and link resolvers as stand-alone products as they become integral components of comprehensive discovery and automation products.

  15. SON68 nuclear glass dissolution kinetics: Current state of knowledge and basis of the new GRAAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P.; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD SECM LCLT, 30 (France)

    2009-06-15

    Complete text of publication follows: Based on a review of the current state of knowledge concerning the aqueous alteration of SON68 nuclear glass GRAAL (Glass Reactivity with Allowance for the Alteration Layer) mechanistic model has been proposed [1]: An amorphous layer at the glass/solution interface gradually reorganized by hydrolysis and condensation mechanisms constitutes a barrier against the transport of water toward the glass and of solvated glass ions into solution [2]. The existence of this transport-inhibiting effect rapidly causes this layer to control glass alteration. The reaction affinity responsible for the glass alteration rate drop is expressed with respect to this passivating reactive interphase (PRI). Some glass constituent elements precipitate as crystallized secondary phases on the external surface and can sustain glass alteration. Correctly modeling the seat of recondensation (PRI or secondary crystallized phases) of elements is a key point for understanding their effect on glass alteration. Describing not only (1) solution chemistry but also ion transport (2) in solution by at a macroscopic scale and (3) by reactive interdiffusion in the PRI at a nanometer scale by means of a single model at each point in space and time is a complex task. Most existing models describe only one or two of these aspects. GRAAL describes a simple and still effective manner of coupling theses three phenomena using a calculation code coupling chemistry and transport HYTEC [3]. The model results are compared with experimental data for SON68 glass leached in initially pure water both in a closed system and in renewed media. The comparison shows the model very satisfactorily accounts for variations in the pH and the element concentrations in solution as a function of time, glass surface area in contact with solution, and solution renewal rate. Interdiffusion through the PRI cannot be disregarded under most experimental conditions - if only to predict the solution p

  16. The roles of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation and infancy: review of current knowledge and consensus recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Lien, Eric; Agostoni, Carlo;

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on the role of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), in maternal and term infant nutrition as well as infant development. Consensus recommendations and practice guidelines...

  17. Dietary fibre in Europe: current state of knowledge on definitions, sources, recommendations, intakes and relationships to health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, Alison M; Champ, Martine M-J; Cloran, Susan J

    2017-01-01

    Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition table...

  18. Is current knowledge about psychopathy reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry? – controversies around psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we try to respond to a question about the ways current knowledge about psychopathy is reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry. Such a response seems necessary since the subject matter of psychopathy is still interesting due to its complexity, and is associated with the quest for the sources of evil in human beings. The term psychopathy also refers to personality disorders. Therefore, controversies might arise when it comes to the use of clinical knowledge and various verification methods by non-experts in this field. It seems that such situations bring our attention to those issues that need improvement in science. It is our hope that this article might add some reflections to the discussion about the necessity of “protecting” clinical knowledge from its extensive popularization.

  19. Is current knowledge about psychopathy reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry? – controversies around psychopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pastwa-Wojciechowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we try to respond to a question about the ways current knowledge about psychopathy is reflected in Jon Ronson’s book The Psychopath Test: A Journey Through the Madness Industry. Such a response seems necessary since the subject matter of psychopathy is still interesting due to its complexity, and is associated with the quest for the sources of evil in human beings. The term psychopathy also refers to personality disorders. Therefore, controversies might arise when it comes to the use of clinical knowledge and various verification methods by non-experts in this field. It seems that such situations bring our attention to those issues that need improvement in science. It is our hope that this article might add some reflections to the discussion about the necessity of “protecting” clinical knowledge from its extensive popularization.

  20. Interactions of metal-based engineered nanoparticles with aquatic higher plants: A review of the state of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwala, Melusi; Klaine, Stephen J; Musee, Ndeke

    2016-07-01

    The rising potential for the release of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) into aquatic environments requires evaluation of risks to protect ecological health. The present review examines knowledge pertaining to the interactions of metal-based ENPs with aquatic higher plants, identifies information gaps, and raises considerations for future research to advance knowledge on the subject. The discussion focuses on ENPs' bioaccessibility; uptake, adsorption, translocation, and bioaccumulation; and toxicity effects on aquatic higher plants. An information deficit surrounds the uptake of ENPs and associated dynamics, because the influence of ENP characteristics and water quality conditions has not been well documented. Dissolution appears to be a key mechanism driving bioaccumulation of ENPs, whereas nanoparticulates often adsorb to plant surfaces with minimal internalization. However, few reports document the internalization of ENPs by plants; thus, the role of nanoparticulates' internalization in bioaccumulation and toxicity remains unclear, requiring further investigation. The toxicities of metal-based ENPs mainly have been associated with dissolution as a predominant mechanism, although nano toxicity has also been reported. To advance knowledge in this domain, future investigations need to integrate the influence of ENP characteristics and water physicochemical parameters, as their interplay determines ENP bioaccessibility and influences their risk to health of aquatic higher plants. Furthermore, harmonization of test protocols is recommended for fast tracking the generation of comparable data. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1677-1694. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Current Status of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Healthcare Ethics among Doctors and Nurses from Northern India - A Multicentre Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Chopra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent raise in litigation againsthealthcare practitioners is definitely an issueof immediate concern and may reflect an in-crease in unethical practices by them. Profes-sional relations between physicians and nursesmay have differences with respect to their atti-tudes towards patient-care. Aim and Objec-tives: To assess the knowledge of, and attitudesto healthcare ethics among north Indian physi-cians and nurses. Material and Methods: Thepresent cross sectional study was carried outamong 298 physicians and 107 nurses of threemedical colleges of northern India in the monthof July-August 2011 using pretested self ad-ministered questionnaire. Data analysis wasdone using SPSS version 20. Result and Con-clusion: There was a statistically significantdifference between the opinion of physiciansand nurses with respect to adherence to confi-dentiality, paternalistic attitude of doctors (doc-tors should do their best for the patient irre-spective of the patient’s opinion, informingclose relatives of a patients for consent proce-dures. The study highlighted gaps in the knowl-edge about practical aspects of health care eth-ics among physicians and nurses which theyencounter in day to day practice at workplace.Measures of workplace education like sensiti-zation workshops, CME’s, conferences onhealth care ethics would assist in bridging thisgap to a certain extent.

  2. Legal rights to safe abortion: knowledge and attitude of women in North-West Ethiopia toward the current Ethiopian abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzeyen, R; Ayichiluhm, M; Manyazewal, T

    2017-07-01

    To assess women's knowledge and attitude toward Ethiopian current abortion law. A quantitative, community-based cross-sectional survey. Women of reproductive age in three selected lower districts in Bahir Dar, North-West Ethiopia, were included. Multi-stage simple random sampling and simple random sampling were used to select the districts and respondents, respectively. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire comprising questions related to knowledge and attitude toward legal status of abortion and cases where abortion is currently allowed by law in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and multivariable logistic regression computed to assess the magnitude and significance of associations. Of 845 eligible women selected, 774 (92%) consented to participate and completed the interview. A total of 512 (66%) women were aware of the legal status of the Ethiopian abortion law and their primary sources of information were electronic media such as television and radio (43%) followed by healthcare providers (38.7%). Among women with awareness of the law, 293 (57.2%) were poor in knowledge, 188 (36.7%) fairly knowledgeable, and 31 (6.1%) good in knowledge about the cases where abortion is allowed by law. Of the total 774 women included, 438 (56.5%) hold liberal and 336 (43.5%) conservative attitude toward legalization of abortion. In the multivariable logistic regression, age had a significant association with knowledge, whereas occupation had a significant association with attitude toward the law. Women who had poor knowledge toward the law were more likely to have conservative attitude toward the law (adjusted odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.61). Though the Ethiopian criminal code legalized abortion under certain circumstances since 2005, a significant number of women knew little about the law and several protested legalization of abortion. Countries such as Ethiopia with high maternal mortality records need to lift

  3. Development of DSM-V and ICD-11: tendencies and potential of new classifications in psychiatry at the current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2009-10-01

    A reason for the necessity to revise ICD-10 and DSM-IV is the increase of knowledge in the past 20 years, especially neurobiological knowledge. But is this increase of knowledge, for example in the field of neurogenetics, of such magnitude that a revision of the psychiatric classification is necessary and promises to be fruitful? The current plans for DSM-V or ICD-11, respectively, focus on different improvements. In this context also the introduction of a purely syndromatic/dimensional approach without including etiopathogenetic hypotheses, is discussed. A switch to such a dimensional approach, which was discussed among others in the DSM-V task force Deconstructing Psychosis, would be the most radical development. It could avoid many theoretical pre-assumptions about causal hypotheses, which are still associated with ICD-10 and DSM-IV. This would indeed increase the validity of psychiatric classification, but it would also reduce the information as compared to traditional diagnostic categories with all the current implications concerning etiopathogenesis, therapy and prognosis. Such a dimensional approach would also mean that the syndromes would have to be assessed in a standardized way for each person seeking help from the psychiatric service system or for each person undergoing psychiatric research. This would have to be a multi-dimensional assessment covering all syndromes existing within different psychiatric disorders. Based on the different aspects that must be considered in this context, a careful revision seems more advisable than a radical change of classification.

  4. Modeling the theory of planned behavior for intention to improve oral health behaviors: the impact of attitudes, knowledge, and current behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandrina L; Wagle, Madhu; Dogaru, Beatrice C; Manolescu, Bogdan

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the efficiency of an extended model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intention to improve oral health behaviors. The participants in this cross-sectional study were 153 first-year medical students (mean age 20.16, 50 males and 103 females) who completed a questionnaire assessing intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, oral health knowledge, and current oral hygiene behaviors. Attitudes toward oral health behaviors and perceived behavioral control contributed to the model for predicting intention, whereas subjective norms did not. Attitudes toward oral health behaviors were slightly more important than perceived behavioral control in predicting intention. Oral health knowledge significantly affected affective and cognitive attitudes, while current behavior was not a significant predictor of intention to improve oral health behavior. The model had a slightly better fit among females than among males, but was similar for home and professional dental health care. Our findings revealed that attitude, perceived behavioral control, and oral health knowledge are predictors of intention to improve oral health behaviors. These findings may help both dentists and dental hygienists in educating patients in oral health and changing patients' oral hygiene habits.

  5. The use of questionnaires for acquiring information on public perception of natural hazards and risk mitigation – a review of current knowledge and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Bird

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaires are popular and fundamental tools for acquiring information on public knowledge and perception of natural hazards. Questionnaires can provide valuable information to emergency management agencies for developing risk management procedures. Although many natural hazards researchers describe results generated from questionnaires, few explain the techniques used for their development and implementation. Methodological detail should include, as a minimum, response format (open/closed questions, mode of delivery, sampling technique, response rate and access to the questionnaire to allow reproduction of or comparison with similar studies. This article reviews current knowledge and practice for developing and implementing questionnaires. Key features include questionnaire design, delivery mode, sampling techniques and data analysis. In order to illustrate these aspects, a case study examines methods chosen for the development and implementation of questionnaires used to obtain information on knowledge and perception of volcanic hazards in a tourist region in southern Iceland. Face-to-face interviews highlighted certain issues with respect to question structure and sequence. Recommendations are made to overcome these problems before the questionnaires are applied in future research projects. In conclusion, basic steps that should be disclosed in the literature are provided as a checklist to ensure that reliable, replicable and valid results are produced from questionnaire based hazard knowledge and risk perception research.

  6. Belowground ecology of scarabs feeding on grass roots: current knowledge and future directions for management in Australasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eFrew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scarab beetles spend the majority of their lives belowground as larvae, feeding on grass roots. Many of these larvae are significant pests, causing damage to crops and grasslands. Damage by larvae of the greyback cane beetle (Dermolepida albohirtum, for example, can cause financial losses of up to AU$40 million annually to the Australian sugarcane industry. We review the ecology of some scarab larvae in Australasia, focusing on three subfamilies; Dynastinae, Rutelinae and Melolonthinae, containing key pest species. Although considerable research on the control of some scarab pests has been carried out in Australasia, for some species, the basic biology and ecology remains largely unexplored. We synthesize what is known about these scarab larvae and outline key knowledge gaps to highlights future research directions with a view to improve pest management. We do this by presenting an overview of the scarab larval host plants and feeding behavior; the impacts of abiotic (temperature, moisture and fertilization and biotic (pathogens, natural enemies and microbial symbionts factors on scarab larvae and conclude with how abiotic and biotic factors can be applied in agriculture for improved pest management, suggesting future research directions.Several host plant microbial symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and endophytes, can improve plant tolerance to scarabs and reduce larval performance, which have shown promise for use in pest management. In addition to this, several microbial scarab pathogens have been isolated for commercial use in pest management with particularly promising results. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae caused a 50% reduction in cane beetle larvae while natural enemies such as entomopathogenic nematodes have also shown potential as a biocontrol. Continued research should focus on filling the gaps in the knowledge of the basic ecology and feeding behavior of scarab larval species within Australasia

  7. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field.

  8. Drought Predictability and Prediction in a Changing Climate: Assessing Current Predictive Knowledge and Capabilities, User Requirements and Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Drought is fundamentally the result of an extended period of reduced precipitation lasting anywhere from a few weeks to decades and even longer. As such, addressing drought predictability and prediction in a changing climate requires foremost that we make progress on the ability to predict precipitation anomalies on subseasonal and longer time scales. From the perspective of the users of drought forecasts and information, drought is however most directly viewed through its impacts (e.g., on soil moisture, streamflow, crop yields). As such, the question of the predictability of drought must extend to those quantities as well. In order to make progress on these issues, the WCRP drought information group (DIG), with the support of WCRP, the Catalan Institute of Climate Sciences, the La Caixa Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Science Foundation, has organized a workshop to focus on: 1. User requirements for drought prediction information on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 2. Current understanding of the mechanisms and predictability of drought on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 3. Current drought prediction/projection capabilities on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales 4. Advancing regional drought prediction capabilities for variables and scales most relevant to user needs on sub-seasonal to centennial time scales. This introductory talk provides an overview of these goals, and outlines the occurrence and mechanisms of drought world-wide.

  9. Current scenario of attitude and knowledge of physicians about rational prescription: A novel cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Mahajan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last 30 years concepts in pharmacology have moved from Essential Medicines (EM to P-drugs via the Rational Use of Medicines (RUM, but no structured study has evaluated the level of understanding among the working clinicians about these concepts. Aim: The present study was designed to assess the attitude and knowledge of clinical practitioners about the concepts of RUM, EM, P-drugs, and sources of drug-information, across North India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in and around the teaching hospitals attached to Medical Colleges, enrolling 504 clinicians from six centers across North India to fill-up a questionnaire containing 25 questions. Statistical Analysis: The results were compiled using percentages and averages. Univariate analysis, which explores each variable in a data set separately, was carried out by using the Fisher′s exact test. Results: Only one-fourth of the participants claimed that they always prescribed Essential Medicine; no one could correctly count the number of drugs / drug combinations in the Indian Essential Drug list; only 15.1% of the clinicians wrote the generic names of drugs on the prescription slip; about one-third of clinicians were not fully aware about the adverse effects, drug interactions, and contraindications of the drugs they prescribed; about 83% of physicians admitted to relying on information from Medical Representatives and an interest in research activities seemed to be lost. Conclusion: Results show a sorry state of affairs among clinicians, as far as the level of understanding about EM, P-drugs, and RUM is concerned, and it points toward arranging more continuing medical education (CME for clinicians with regard to these concepts.

  10. [Current situation on fertility preservation in cancer patients in Spain: Level of knowledge, information, and professional involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Colino, Carmen; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Vazquez, María Ángeles; Echevarria, Aizpea; Gutierrez, Ignacio; Andión, Maitane; Berlanga, Pablo

    2017-07-01

    The estimated risks of infertility in childhood cancer due to radiation, chemotherapy and surgery are well known. The involvement of professionals and advances in the different methods of preservation are increasing. However, many patients do not receive information or perform any method of preservation. Questionnaires to paediatric onco-haematology institutions throughout Spain. The questionnaire consisted of 22 questions assessing their usual practices and knowledge about fertility preservation. Fifty members of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology, representing 24 of 43 centres, responded. These represented 82% of centres that treated higher numbers of patients. The effect of treatment on fertility was known by 78% of those who responded, with 76% admitting not knowing any guideline on fertility in children or adolescents. As for the ideal time and place to inform the patient and/or family, only 14% thought it should be done in the same cancer diagnosis interview. In clinical practice, 12% of those surveyed never referred patients to Human Reproduction Units, another 12% only did so if the patients showed interest, and 38% only refer patients in puberty. Just over one-third (34%) of those referrals were going to receive highly gonadotoxic treatment. There are clear differences between pre-puberty and puberty patients. The frequency with which some method of fertility preservation is performed in patients is low. All respondents believe that the existence of national guidelines on the matter would be of interest. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. SON68 nuclear glass dissolution kinetics: Current state of knowledge and basis of the new GRAAL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frugier, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France)], E-mail: pierre.frugier@cea.fr; Gin, S.; Minet, Y.; Chave, T. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Bonin, B. [CEA Saclay, DEN/DIR/DS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Godon, N.; Lartigue, J.-E.; Jollivet, P. [CEA Marcoule, DTCD/SECM/LCLT, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Ayral, A. [IEM/CNRS-ENSCM Universite Montpellier 2, CC 047, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); De Windt, L. [ENSMP, CG, 35 rue St Honore, 77305 Fontainebleau cedex (France); Santarini, G. [CEA Saclay HC/CAB, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2008-10-15

    This article summarizes the present state of knowledge concerning aqueous alteration of R7T7-type nuclear containment glasses, represented mainly by the inactive reference glass designated SON68. Based on this review, we propose to describe the glass alteration kinetics up to and including the final residual rate regime by means of a new mechanistic model known as GRAAL (glassreactivitywithallowanceforthealterationlayer). Phenomenological analysis findings are reviewed for the various glass alteration regimes: interdiffusion, initial rate, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular circumstances, resumption of alteration. These alteration regimes are associated with predominant mechanisms. Published work interpreting and modeling these mechanisms was examined in detail. There is a broad consensus on the general mechanisms of the initial rate and even the interdiffusion regime, whereas the mechanisms controlling the rate drop remain a subject of dispute not only with regard to nuclear glasses but also for the dissolution of silicate minerals. The reaction affinity responsible for the rate drop is expressed differently by different authors and depending on the underlying theories. The disagreement concerns the nature of the phase (glass or gel) or the activated complex controlling the rate drop, which in turn determines the elements that must be taken into account in the overall affinity term. Progress in recent years, especially in identifying the mechanisms responsible for the residual rate, has shed new light on these issues, allowing us to propose new theoretical foundations for modeling the different kinetic regimes of SON68 nuclear glass dissolution. The GRAAL model considers that water diffusion in the passivating reaction zone (the gel formed under saturation conditions) is a rate-limiting step in the overall glass dissolution kinetics. Moreover, this passivation zone is a soluble phase whose stability is directly dependent on the nature of the

  12. Position statement—altitude training for improving team-sport players’ performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-01-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213

  13. Position statement--altitude training for improving team-sport players' performance: current knowledge and unresolved issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2013-12-01

    Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.

  14. Hippocampal-dependent neurocognitive impairment following cranial irradiation observed in pre-clinical models: current knowledge and possible future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomé, Wolfgang A; Gökhan, Şölen; Gulinello, Maria E; Brodin, N Patrik; Heard, John; Mehler, Mark F; Guha, Chandan

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the literature for studies pertaining to impaired adult neurogenesis leading to neurocognitive impairment following cranial irradiation in rodent models. This compendium was compared with respect to radiation dose, converted to equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (EQD2) to allow for direct comparison between studies. The effects of differences between animal species and the dependence on animal age as well as for time after irradiation were also considered. One of the major sites of de novo adult neurogenesis is the hippocampus, and as such, this review also focuses on assessing evidence related to the expression and potential effects of inflammatory cytokines on neural stem cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and whether this correlates with neurocognitive impairment. This review also discusses potential strategies to mitigate the detrimental effects on neurogenesis and neurocognition resulting from cranial irradiation, and how the rationale for these strategies compares with the current outcome of pre-clinical studies.

  15. Skin academy: hair, skin, hormones and menopause - current status/knowledge on the management of hair disorders in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Atkin, Stephen; Gieler, Uwe; Grimalt, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is defined by 12 months of amenorrhea after the final menstrual period. The reduction in ovarian hormones and increased androgen levels can manifest as hair and skin disorders. Although hirsutism, unwanted facial hair, alopecia, skin atrophy and slackness of facial skin are common issues encountered by post-menopausal women, these problems receive very little attention relative to other menopausal symptoms. The visibility of these disorders has been shown to cause significant anxiety and may impact on patients' self-esteem and quality of life, particularly given the strong association of hair and skin with a woman's femininity and beauty, which is demonstrated by extensive marketing by the cosmetic industry targeting this population and the large expenditure on these products by menopausal women. The proportion of the female population who are in the post-menopausal age group is rising. Therefore, the prevalence of these dermatological symptoms is likely to increase. Current therapies aim to rectify underlying hormonal imbalances and improve cosmetic appearance. However, there is little evidence to support treatment for these disorders specifically in post-menopausal women. This review discusses the assessment and treatment of both the physiological and psychological aspects of hair and skin disorders pertinent to the growing post-menopausal population.

  16. The epidemiology of dengue infection: Harnessing past experience and current knowledge to support implementation of future control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Gyawali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important mosquito-borne viral infection of humans. Although outbreaks of disease which are now recognized as clinically consistent with dengue have been reported for centuries, it was not until half a century ago that laboratory identification of dengue viruses as the etiological agent of febrile illness was achieved. This debilitating and sometimes fatal disease is widely distributed in >125 countries in tropical and subtropical zones of the world. Asia, South America and the Pacific Islands are hyper-epidemic regions while currently there is less prevalence in Europe, North America and Australia. The estimated global incidence ranges between 200 and 400 million clinical cases per year. While some areas of past epidemics are now considered to be under control, recent decades have witnessed an epidemic rise in dengue worldwide. Major factors facilitating expansion include climate change and increase in urbanization and international travel. Concurrently, the non-availability of an efficacious antiviral drug or vaccine and a lack of effective vector control strategies collectively make dengue a serious public health concern. Thus, it is of paramount importance to analyze the history of the spread of infection and to gain a deeper understanding of patterns of transmission in order to anticipate epidemiological trends more accurately, thereby enabling better preparedness for future outbreaks.

  17. A review of the anterolateral ligament of the knee: current knowledge regarding its incidence, anatomy, biomechanics, and surgical dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomajzl, Ryan; Maerz, Tristan; Shams, Christienne; Guettler, Joseph; Bicos, James

    2015-03-01

    To systematically review current literature on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee. We searched the PubMed/Medline database for publications specifically addressing the ALL. We excluded studies not written in English, studies not using human cadavers or subjects, and studies not specifically addressing the ALL. Data extraction related to the incidence, anatomy, morphometry, biomechanics, and histology of the ALL and its relation to the Segond fracture was performed. The incidence of the ALL ranged from 83% to 100%, and this range occurs because of small discrepancies in the definition of the ALL's bony insertions. The ALL originates anterior and distal to the femoral attachment of the lateral collateral ligament. It spans the joint in an oblique fashion and inserts between the fibular head and Gerdy tubercle on the tibia. Exact anatomic and morphometric descriptions vary in the literature, and there are discrepancies regarding the ALL's attachment to the capsule and lateral meniscus. The ALL is a contributor to tibial internal rotation stability, and histologically, it exhibits parallel, crimped fibers consistent with a ligamentous microstructure. The footprint of the ALL has been shown to be at the exact location of the Segond fracture. The ALL is a distinct ligamentous structure at the anterolateral aspect of the knee, and it is likely involved in tibial internal rotation stability and the Segond fracture. Level IV, systematic review of anatomic and imaging studies. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between ammonia stomatal compensation point and nitrogen metabolism in arable crops: Current status of knowledge and potential modelling approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massad, Raia Silvia [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)], E-mail: massad@grignon.inra.fr; Loubet, Benjamin; Tuzet, Andree; Cellier, Pierre [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Environnement et Grandes Cultures, 78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2008-08-15

    The ammonia stomatal compensation point of plants is determined by leaf temperature, ammonium concentration ([NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}) and pH of the apoplastic solution. The later two depend on the adjacent cells metabolism and on leaf inputs and outputs through the xylem and phloem. Until now only empirical models have been designed to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point, except the model of Riedo et al. (2002. Coupling soil-plant-atmosphere exchange of ammonia with ecosystem functioning in grasslands. Ecological Modelling 158, 83-110), which represents the exchanges between the plant's nitrogen pools. The first step to model the ammonia stomatal compensation point is to adequately model [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}. This [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo} has been studied experimentally, but there are currently no process-based quantitative models describing its relation to plant metabolism and environmental conditions. This study summarizes the processes involved in determining the ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf scale and qualitatively evaluates the ability of existing whole plant N and C models to include a model for [NH{sub 4}{sup +}]{sub apo}. - A model for ammonia stomatal compensation point at the leaf level scale was developed.

  19. What is the Current Knowledge About the Cardiovascular Risk for Users of Cannabis-Based Products? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanjus, Emilie; Raymond, Valentin; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Wolff, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the published evidence on the cardiovascular risk related to the use of cannabis-based products by performing a systematic review of recent literature. The World Health Organization (WHO) emphasizes that cannabis use represents a risky behavior as it may lead to many adverse effects, and in particular, cardiovascular effects. A systematic review of articles published between January 1, 2011 and May 31, 2016 was performed in agreement with the PRISMA statement. Articles presenting data on humans exposed to cannabis-based products and suffering from any cardiovascular condition were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion process was based on a search algorithm and performed in a blinded standardized manner. Overall, 826 articles were found in the literature search, 115 of which remained after performing the inclusion procedure. These were 81 case reports, 29 observational studies, 3 clinical trials, and 2 experimental studies. A total of 116 individuals was the subject of case reports. The mean age was 31 years (95%CI = 29-34), and patients were more frequently men (81.9%) than women (18.1%). They mainly suffered from ischemic strokes or myocardial infarctions. Data provided by the 29 included observational studies evidenced an association between exposure to cannabis-based products and cardiovascular disease. Currently, this evidence is stronger for ischemic strokes than for any other cardiovascular diseases. While the data are limited, there is some suggestion that cannabis use may have negative cardiovascular consequences, particularly at large doses.

  20. Histopathological, Molecular, and Genetic Profile of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer: Current Knowledge and Challenges for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Gullo, Irene; Oliveira, Carla; Tang, Laura H; Grabsch, Heike I; O'Donovan, Maria; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; van Krieken, Han; Carneiro, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Familial clustering is seen in 10 % of gastric cancer cases and approximately 1-3 % of gastric cancer arises in the setting of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC). In families with HDGC, gastric cancer presents at young age. HDGC is predominantly caused by germline mutations in CDH1 and in a minority by mutations in other genes, including CTNNA1. Early stage HDGC is characterized by a few, up to dozens of intramucosal foci of signet ring cell carcinoma and its precursor lesions. These include in situ signet ring cell carcinoma and pagetoid spread of signet ring cells. Advanced HDGC presents as poorly cohesive/diffuse type carcinoma, normally with very few typical signet ring cells, and has a poor prognosis. Currently, it is unknown which factors drive the progression towards aggressive disease, but it is clear that most intramucosal lesions will not have such progression.Immunohistochemical profile of early and advanced HDGC is often characterized by abnormal E-cadherin immunoexpression, including absent or reduced membranous expression, as well as "dotted" or cytoplasmic expression. However, membranous expression of E-cadherin does not exclude HDGC. Intramucosal HDGC (pT1a) presents with an "indolent" phenotype, characterized by typical signet ring cells without immunoexpression of Ki-67 and p53, while advanced carcinomas (pT > 1) display an "aggressive" phenotype with pleomorphic cells, that are immunoreactive for Ki-67 and p53. These features show that the IHC profile is different between intramucosal and more advanced HDGC, providing evidence of phenotypic heterogeneity, and may help to define predictive biomarkers of progression from indolent to aggressive, widely invasive carcinomas.

  1. A review of current knowledge of resistance aspects for the next-generation succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierotzki, Helge; Scalliet, Gabriel

    2013-09-01

    The new broad-spectrum fungicides from the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) class have been quickly adopted by the market, which may lead to a high selection pressure on various pathogens. Cases of resistance have been observed in 14 fungal pathogens to date and are caused by different mutations in genes encoding the molecular target of SDHIs, which is the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme. All of the 17 marketed SDHI fungicides bind to the same ubiquinone binding site of the SDH enzyme. Their primary biochemical mode of action is the blockage of the TCA cycle at the level of succinate to fumarate oxidation, leading to an inhibition of respiration. Homology models and docking simulations explain binding behaviors and some peculiarities of the cross-resistance profiles displayed by different members of this class of fungicides. Furthermore, cross-resistance patterns among SDHIs is complex because many mutations confer full cross resistance while others do not. The nature of the mutations found in pathogen populations varies with species and the selection compound used but cross resistance between all SDHIs has to be assumed at the population level. In most of the cases where resistance has been reported, the frequency is still too low to impact field performance. However, the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee has developed resistance management recommendations for pathogens of different crops in order to reduce the risk for resistance development to this class of fungicides. These recommendations include preventative usage, mixture with partner fungicides active against the current pathogen population, alternation in the mode of action of products used in a spray program, and limitations in the total number of applications per season or per crop.

  2. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Richard C; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M; Schultz, Ted R; Price, Dana C; Strickman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the "number and nature of the characters that support the branches" subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K's generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data become

  3. Expression and actions of GnIH and its orthologs in vertebrates: Current status and advanced knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahim; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Huang, Ke; Fu, Jun-Fen; Wahab, Fazal; Shahab, Muhammad

    2016-10-01

    The physiology of reproduction is very complex and is regulated by multiple factors, including a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides. In last few decades, various neuropeptides have been discovered to be involved in stimulation or inhibition of reproduction. In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues uncovered gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), a neuropeptide generating inhibitory drive to the reproductive axis, in the brain of Coturnix quail. Afterward, GnIH orthologs were discovered in other vertebrates from fish to mammals including human. In these vertebrates, all the discovered GnIH and its ortholgs have LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) sequence at C-terminus. GnIH orthologs of mammals and primates are also termed as RFamide-related peptide (RFRP)-1 and -3 that too have an LPXRFamide (X=L or Q) motif at their C-terminus. GnIH and its orthologs form a member of the RFamide peptide family. GnIH signals via its canonical G protein coupled receptor 147 (GPR147). Both GnIH and GPR147 are expressed in hypothalamus and other brain regions. Besides actions through the hypothalamic GnRH and kisspeptinergic neurons, GnIH-GPR147 signaling exerts inhibitory effect on the reproductive axis via pituitary gonadotropes and directly at gonadal level. Various factors including availability and quality of food, photoperiod, temperature, social interaction, various stresses and some diseases modulate GnIH-GPR147 signaling. In this review, we have discussed expression and actions of GnIH and its orthologs in vertebrates. Special emphasis is given on the role of GnIH-GPR147 signaling pathway in the regulation of reproduction. We have also reviewed and discussed currently available literature on the participation of GnIH-GPR147 signaling pathway in the stress modulation of reproduction.

  4. An overview of current knowledge concerning the health and environmental consequences of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Wu, Junwen; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the scientific community has worked to identify the exact transport and deposition patterns of radionuclides released from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) in Japan. Nevertheless, there still remain many unknowns concerning the health and environmental impacts of these radionuclides. The present paper reviews the current understanding of the FDNPP accident with respect to interactions of the released radionuclides with the environment and impacts on human and non-human biota. Here, we scrutinize existing literature and combine and interpret observations and modeling assessments derived after Fukushima. Finally, we discuss the behavior and applications of radionuclides that might be used as tracers of environmental processes. This review focuses on (137)Cs and (131)I releases derived from Fukushima. Published estimates suggest total release amounts of 12-36.7PBq of (137)Cs and 150-160PBq of (131)I. Maximum estimated human mortality due to the Fukushima nuclear accident is 10,000 (due to all causes) and the maximum estimates for lifetime cancer mortality and morbidity are 1500 and 1800, respectively. Studies of plants and animals in the forests of Fukushima have recorded a range of physiological, developmental, morphological, and behavioral consequences of exposure to radioactivity. Some of the effects observed in the exposed populations include the following: hematological aberrations in Fukushima monkeys; genetic, developmental and morphological aberrations in a butterfly; declines in abundances of birds, butterflies and cicadas; aberrant growth forms in trees; and morphological abnormalities in aphids. These findings are discussed from the perspective of conservation biology.

  5. Making Mosquito Taxonomy Useful: A Stable Classification of Tribe Aedini that Balances Utility with Current Knowledge of Evolutionary Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Richard C.; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Fonseca, Dina M.; Schultz, Ted R.; Price, Dana C.; Strickman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The tribe Aedini (Family Culicidae) contains approximately one-quarter of the known species of mosquitoes, including vectors of deadly or debilitating disease agents. This tribe contains the genus Aedes, which is one of the three most familiar genera of mosquitoes. During the past decade, Aedini has been the focus of a series of extensive morphology-based phylogenetic studies published by Reinert, Harbach, and Kitching (RH&K). Those authors created 74 new, elevated or resurrected genera from what had been the single genus Aedes, almost tripling the number of genera in the entire family Culicidae. The proposed classification is based on subjective assessments of the “number and nature of the characters that support the branches” subtending particular monophyletic groups in the results of cladistic analyses of a large set of morphological characters of representative species. To gauge the stability of RH&K’s generic groupings we reanalyzed their data with unweighted parsimony jackknife and maximum-parsimony analyses, with and without ordering 14 of the characters as in RH&K. We found that their phylogeny was largely weakly supported and their taxonomic rankings failed priority and other useful taxon-naming criteria. Consequently, we propose simplified aedine generic designations that 1) restore a classification system that is useful for the operational community; 2) enhance the ability of taxonomists to accurately place new species into genera; 3) maintain the progress toward a natural classification based on monophyletic groups of species; and 4) correct the current classification system that is subject to instability as new species are described and existing species more thoroughly defined. We do not challenge the phylogenetic hypotheses generated by the above-mentioned series of morphological studies. However, we reduce the ranks of the genera and subgenera of RH&K to subgenera or informal species groups, respectively, to preserve stability as new data

  6. Critical assessment of the current understanding/ knowledge of the framework of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries in the Mediterranean and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sartor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A critical review was carried out involving experts from 17 countries, to identify, summarize and evaluate the current understanding related to the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries management (EAF in the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The existing information available at country level, coming from research and monitoring projects and other types of activities, was explored. The evaluation was done following a standardized protocol and using simple semi-quantitative methods. The results highlighted an overall low-medium degree of fulfilment of the requirements of the EAF, with some differences related to the different issues considered. The highest scores were reported for the knowledge related to fleet structure/ behaviour and species/habitat distribution, whereas the lowest scores were reported for modelling, and socio-economic and management issues. Although only semi-quantitative, these results provided an initial picture at a broad regional level on the state of knowledge with a view to a proper implementation of the EAF in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and identified gaps in scientific knowledge that should be covered.

  7. A review on emerging contaminants in wastewaters and the environment: current knowledge, understudied areas and recommendations for future monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    of using an integrated analytical approach which compliments targeted and non-targeted screening with biological assays to measure ecological impact. With respect to current toxicity testing protocols, failure to consider the enantiomeric distribution of chiral compounds found in the environment, and the possible toxicological differences between enantiomers is concerning. Such information is essential for the development of more accurate environmental risk assessment.

  8. Nitrogen dioxide - current knowledge on the pollution situation and health effects; Stickstoffdioxid - Kenntnisstand zur Belastungssituation und zu gesundheitlichen Wirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, H.G. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene

    1999-07-01

    Since the 1990s atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) pollution has mainly been determined by the volume of road traffic, especially in the urban centres of Germany. NO{sub 2} can be regarded as an important air pollutant inasmuch as it affects the health of a large part of the population. In places exposed to road traffic NO{sub 2} concentrations can easily reach and even exceed mean annual values of 100 {mu}g/m-3 and short-time peaks of 200 {mu}g/m-3. The main NO{sub 2} sources of indoor air pollution are open fireplaces (e.g. gas stoves, gas-fired heating systems and water heaters) and tobacco smoking. NO{sub 2} measurements in German kitchens yielded mean concentrations of up to 50 {mu}g/m-3 and peak concentrations of almost 200 {mu}g/m-3. Indoor NO{sub 2} concentrations in rooms without internal NO{sub 2} sources are determined by local atmospheric concentrations and have been found to lie between 20 and 30 {mu}g/m-3 on average. The WHO's revised NO{sub 2} guide values of 1998 are 40 {mu}g/m-3 in the annual average and 200 {mu}g/m-3 as hourly mean level. Being an oxidative and slightly water-soluble the tear gas NO{sub 2} mainly affects the periphery of the lungs. Its chief health effects are changes in pulmonary function and an increase in bronchial reactivity. Exposure studies on current pollution levels have shown that indoor sources contribute up to 5 {mu}g/m-3 on average and airing habits are an important influencing factor. [German] Seit den 90er Jahren bestimmt ueberwiegend der Kfz-Verkehr die Belastung der Aussenluft durch Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}), vor allem in den staedtischen Ballungsraeumen Deutschlands. NO{sub 2} kann als eine wichtige Luftschadstoffkomponente fuer die Gesundheit eines Grossteils der Bevoelkerung angesehen werden. An Kfz-exponierten Messstellen koennen die NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen durchaus 100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} im Jahresmittel und 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} als kurzzeitige Spitzenwerte erreichen oder ueberschreiten. Offene

  9. Current Public Knowledge Pertaining to Traumatic Brain Injury: Influence of Demographic Factors, Social Trends, and Sport Concussion Experience on the Understanding of Traumatic Brain Injury Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Zachary C; Van Patten, Ryan; Lace, John

    2017-03-01

    The current study aimed to assess current broad traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related knowledge in the general public, as well as understanding regarding specific TBI-related conditions including post-concussive syndrome (PCS) and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Data were collected from 307 domestic and 73 international individuals via online researcher-developed survey instrumentation utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk marketplace, a recently developed website that allows for a streamlined process of survey-based participant recruitment and data collection. Participants completed background demographics questions, a 31-item true/false questionnaire pertaining to TBI-related knowledge, and an inquiry related to willingness to allow (future) child(ren) to participate in several popular U.S. sports. The overall accuracy rate of our U.S. sample was 61%. No accuracy differences were present for gender or geographic region (p's > .05). Participants who self-reported a prior concussion diagnosis, who reported receiving formal concussion training, and who endorsed participation in collegiate, semi-professional, or professional athletic competition, all exhibited lower accuracy rates than the respective comparison groups (p's < .001). Finally, individual item analysis revealed the presence of significant misconceptions pertaining to PCS and CTE. Misconceptions regarding TBI remain highly prevalent within the general public and may be explained, to some extent, by inefficiencies in current TBI-education practices. Moreover, misconceptions regarding PCS and CTE are also prevalent and likely reflect inconsistencies in the scientific literature, coupled with misleading media reports. To combat these trends, greater emphasis must be placed on construct definition within the field and streamlined, efficient communication with the general public.

  10. Mainstreaming: Our Current Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Percy, Ed.

    The nine author contributed chapters are intended to provide a basic introduction to the rationale and processes of mainstreaming handicapped children. The first paper, "The Whys and Hows of Mainstreaming" by T. Tice, provides a philosophical examination of the basic principles of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, and…

  11. Current knowledge about sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramuková B

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature contains an abundance of informationon the nutritional demands of athletes. However, designingthe most suitable sports diet is very difficult.The principal aim of this article is to summarize knowledgeabout sports nutrition, especially the intake of macronutrientsand dietary supplements.

  12. [Current knowledge of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Opavski, Nataša; Mijač, Vera; Ranin, Lazar

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, earlier termed nonspecific vaginitis (anaerobic vaginosis) because of the absence of recognized pathogens, is most common vaginal syndrome of women of childbearing age affecting 15-30%. This syndrome, whose aetiology and pathogenesis remains unknown, is characterized by significant changes in the vaginal ecosystem. These changes consist of a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and a large increase in the number of anaerobic organisms. The bacteria adhere to desquamated epithelial cells with a distinctive appearance of clue cells The main complaints of women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis include vaginal discharge and odour. However, a significant number of all women who have bacterial vaginosis deny symptoms. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with a number of gynaecologic and obstetric complications including cervicitis, cervical neoplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, postoperative infections, and preterm labour.The diagnosis is most frequently made based on vaginal smear stained according to Gram (Nugent scoring method). Metronidazole and clindamycin are the drugs of choice for treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. Which women should undergo treatment? According to the prevailing attitude, it should include women with symptoms. Symptomatic women with frequent relapses of bacterial vaginosisas, as a rule, have poor response to the applied therapy. To achieve better efficiency in the treatment of such women, it is necessary to have more extensive understanding of all factors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  13. Current knowledge of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis, earlier termed nonspecific vaginitis (anaerobic vaginosis because of the absence of recognized pathogens, is most common vaginal syndrome of women of childbearing age affecting 15-30%. This syndrome, whose aetiology and pathogenesis remains unknown, is characterized by significant changes in the vaginal ecosystem. These changes consist of a decrease in the number of lactobacilli and a large increase in the number of anaerobic organisms. The bacteria adhere to desquamated epithelial cells with a distinctive appearance of clue cells The main complaints of women with symptomatic bacterial vaginosis include vaginal discharge and odour. However, a significant number of all women who have bacterial vaginosis deny symptoms. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with a number of gynaecologic and obstetric complications including cervicitis, cervical neoplasia, pelvic inflammatory disease, postoperative infections, and preterm labour. The diagnosis is most frequently made based on vaginal smear stained according to Gram (Nugent scoring method. Metronidazole and clindamycin are the drugs of choice for treatment of women with bacterial vaginosis. Which women should undergo treatment? According to the prevailing attitude, it should include women with symptoms. Symptomatic women with frequent relapses of bacterial vaginosisas, as a rule, have poor response to the applied therapy. To achieve better efficiency in the treatment of such women, it is necessary to have more extensive understanding of all factors in the pathogenesis of the syndrome.

  14. Current Knowledge on Hepatitis E

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Gracia, María Teresa; García, Mario; Suay, Beatriz; Mateos-Lindemann, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Although only a single serotype of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, has been identified, there is great genetic variation among the different HEV isolates reported. There are at least four major recognized genotypes of HEV: genotypes 1 and 2 are mainly restricted to humans and linked to epidemic outbreaks in nonindustrialized countries, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic in both developing and industrialized countries. Besides human strains, genotype 3 and 4 st...

  15. Methicillin-resistant food-related Staphylococcus aureus: a review of current knowledge and biofilm formation for future studies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Di Ciccio, Pierluigi; Ianieri, Adriana; Nychas, George-John E

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the public health impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Food and animal are vectors of transmission, but the contribution of a contaminated environment is not well characterized. With regard to this, staphylococcal biofilms serve as a virulence factor, allowing MRSA strains to adhere to surfaces and other materials used in the food industry. Methicillin resistance and biofilm-forming capacity may contribute to the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen in both health care and community settings and the food production chain. This review summarizes current knowledge about the significance of food- and animal-derived MRSA strains and provides data on attachment and biofilm formation of MRSA. In addition, the impact of quorum sensing on MRSA gene expression and biofilm formation is examined.

  16. Parasitism by larval tapeworms genus Spirometra in South American amphibians and reptiles: new records from Brazil and Uruguay, and a review of current knowledge in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Fabrício H; Borteiro, Claudio; da Graça, Rodrigo J; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo R; Crampet, Alejandro; Guerra, Vinicius; Lima, Flávia S; Bellay, Sybelle; Karling, Letícia C; Castro, Oscar; Takemoto, Ricardo M; Pavanelli, Gilberto C

    2016-12-01

    Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively. We also summarize current knowledge of Spirometra in the continent, along with an updated of host taxonomy. We could gather from the literature a total of 15 studies about amphibian and reptile hosts, published between 1850 and 2016, corresponding to 43 case reports, mostly from Brazil (29) and Uruguay (8), Argentina (3), Peru (2), and Venezuela (1); the majority of them related to reptiles (five lizards and 26 snake species), and 14 corresponded to amphibians (9 anurans). Plerocercoid larvae were located in different organs of the hosts, such as subcutaneous tissue, coelomic cavity, peritoneum, and musculature. The importance of amphibians and reptiles in the transmission of the disease to humans in South America is discussed. Relevant issues to be studied in the near future are the taxonomic characterization of Spirometra in the region and the biological risk of reptile meat for aboriginal and other rural communities.

  17. Changing Clinical Presentation, Current Knowledge-Attitude-Practice, and Current Vision Related Quality of Life in Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Retinopathy in Eastern India: The LVPEI Eye and Diabetes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Taraprasad; Wallang, Batriti; Semwal, Preeti; Basu, Soumyava; Padhi, Tapas R; Ali, Mohd Hasnat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To document the changing clinical presentation of diabetic retinopathy (DR) over a decade, the current knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) of known type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and the current vision related quality of life (VR-QOL) of patients with DR in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India. Methods. Two hundred and forty patients with known type-2 DM were evaluated. The evaluation included status of DR (n = 240), KAP (n = 232), and VR-QOL (n = 75). International classification of DR was used in the study. The DR status was compared with another cohort (n = 472) examined a decade earlier, in year 2001. The KAP-25 questions were designed after literature review. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ; including optional items) was validated by Rasch analysis. Both KAP and VR-QOL were analyzed according to degree of DR, duration of known DM, and educational qualification. Results. Average age of the current cohort (n = 240) was 57.16 ± 9.03 years; there were 205 (85.4%) male patients and 143 (59.6%) patients had received less than graduate qualification. The mean duration of DM since diagnosis was 10 ± 7.8 months (range 8 months to 30 years); 118 (49.16%) patients had DR. In a decade time, 2001 to 2011, there was a change of retinopathy status at presentation (more often nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, NPDR). One-third of NPDR patients had poor vision and half of them were hypertensive. KAP was better in patients with higher education and those having DR. VFQ score was higher in better seeing patients. Conclusion. Patients currently presenting at earlier stage of retinopathy are probably related to poor vision. Early detection and treatment of DR is likely to preserve and/or improve vision.

  18. Changing Clinical Presentation, Current Knowledge-Attitude-Practice, and Current Vision Related Quality of Life in Self-Reported Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Retinopathy in Eastern India: The LVPEI Eye and Diabetes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraprasad Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To document the changing clinical presentation of diabetic retinopathy (DR over a decade, the current knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP of known type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM patients, and the current vision related quality of life (VR-QOL of patients with DR in a tertiary eye care center in Eastern India. Methods. Two hundred and forty patients with known type-2 DM were evaluated. The evaluation included status of DR (n=240, KAP (n=232, and VR-QOL (n=75. International classification of DR was used in the study. The DR status was compared with another cohort (n=472 examined a decade earlier, in year 2001. The KAP-25 questions were designed after literature review. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ; including optional items was validated by Rasch analysis. Both KAP and VR-QOL were analyzed according to degree of DR, duration of known DM, and educational qualification. Results. Average age of the current cohort (n=240 was 57.16 ± 9.03 years; there were 205 (85.4% male patients and 143 (59.6% patients had received less than graduate qualification. The mean duration of DM since diagnosis was 10 ± 7.8 months (range 8 months to 30 years; 118 (49.16% patients had DR. In a decade time, 2001 to 2011, there was a change of retinopathy status at presentation (more often nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, NPDR. One-third of NPDR patients had poor vision and half of them were hypertensive. KAP was better in patients with higher education and those having DR. VFQ score was higher in better seeing patients. Conclusion. Patients currently presenting at earlier stage of retinopathy are probably related to poor vision. Early detection and treatment of DR is likely to preserve and/or improve vision.

  19. Current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene in a developed residential community of Singapore: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Junxiong; Chua, Shao Wei Jonathan Lumen; Hsu, Liyang

    2015-06-21

    Diarrhoea incidence has been increasing progressively over the past years in developed countries, including Singapore, despite the accessibility and availability to clean water, well-established sanitation infrastructures and regular hygiene promotion. The aim of this study is to determine the current knowledge, attitude and behaviour of hand and food hygiene, and the potential risk factors of diarrhoea in a residential community of Singapore. A cross-sectional study was conducted within a residential area in the west of Singapore from June to August 2013. A total of 1,156 household units were randomly sampled and invited to participate in an interviewer-assisted survey using standardised questionnaires. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's Exact test and multivariate logistic regression modelling, respectively. R program was used for all statistical analysis. All tests were conducted at 5% level of significance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) reported where applicable. A total of 240 units (20.8%) consented and responded to the survey invitation. About 77% of the expected knowledge and attitude were observed in at least 80% of the participants, compared to only about 31% of the expected behaviours and practises. Being single [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.16-4.48], having flu in the past six month (AOR = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.74-6.06), preferred self-medication (AOR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.06-4.12) were risk factors of diarrhoea. Washing hands with water before attending to children or sick persons (AOR = 0.30; 95% CI = 0.11-0.82), washing hands with water (AOR = 0.16; 95% CI = 0.05-0.45) and water with soap (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.12-0.72) after attending to children or sick persons, and hand washing between 30 s to a minute (AOR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.90) were protective factors against diarrhoea. Good knowledge and attitude of the

  20. Current «policies of knowledge» in the European Union : mapping and critically assessing «quality» in a «measurable» Europe of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K. Pasias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the content and the different «dimensions» of «quality» in the current «policies of knowledge» of the European Union as they are specified by the renewed Lisbon Strategy and in the frame of the construction of a «measurable Europe of Knowledge». The study analyses critically the policy discourses and policy practices of the European Union from 1994 to 2010 using both primary (e.g. official documents and secondary (e.g. scholarly articles, studies and research sources. It consists of four sections: The first section refers to the current constructions of quality discourse in the European context (e.g. globalization, knowledge economies and GATS, new public management, new governance, etc.. In the second section, we examine the integration of «quality» in the EU’s discourses and policies (Treaties, Action Programs as well as in the general, vocational and higher education initiatives. The third section reviews the quality discourse in the context of the late EU’s policy processes (Lisbon, Bologna and Copenhagen. In the final section we put forward a critical reading of the «audit/ quality» nexus based on a «policy by numbers» technocratic-managerial rationale aiming at the construction of a measurable «Europe of knowledge».Este artículo investiga el contenido y las diferentes «dimensiones» de «calidad» en las actuales «políticas de conocimiento» de la Unión Europea, del modo en que están especificadas por la renovada «Estrategia de Lisboa» y en el marco de la construcción de una «Europa del Conocimiento Medible ». El estudio analiza en profundidad los discursos políticos y las prácticas políticas de la Unión Europea desde 1994 hasta 2010, utilizando a la vez fuentes primarias (por ejemplo, documentos oficiales y secundarias (por ejemplo, artículos, estudios e investigación académicos. Consta de cuatro secciones: La primera sección se refiere a las actuales construcciones del

  1. Knowledge Management as Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the case of product development for insights into the potential role of knowledge management. Current literature on knowledge management entertains the notion that knowledge management is a specific set of practices - separate enough to allow specialization of responsibility....... By common standard, the proclaimed responsibility of knowledge management is shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action in an organization. The significance of the practices of knowledge management is the intention of shared knowledge, saved learning costs and coordinated action....

  2. The current status of foot self-care knowledge, behaviours, and analysis of influencing factors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Li

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: The status of foot self-care knowledge and behaviours are not optimistic. According to the patients' own characteristics, the theory of knowledge, attitude and practice applies to encouraging patients to go for periodic inspection and education about diabetic complications so as to enhance the knowledge and promote the self-care behaviours.

  3. Development and Preliminary Validation of a Comprehensive Questionnaire to Assess Women’s Knowledge and Perception of the Current Weight Gain Guidelines during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Ockenden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and validate an electronic questionnaire, the Electronic Maternal Health Survey (EMat Health Survey, related to women’s knowledge and perceptions of the current gestational weight gain guidelines (GWG, as well as pregnancy-related health behaviours. Constructs addressed within the questionnaire include self-efficacy, locus of control, perceived barriers, and facilitators of physical activity and diet, outcome expectations, social environment and health practices. Content validity was examined using an expert panel (n = 7 and pilot testing items in a small sample (n = 5 of pregnant women and recent mothers (target population. Test re-test reliability was assessed among a sample (n = 71 of the target population. Reliability scores were calculated for all constructs (r and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC, those with a score of >0.5 were considered acceptable. The content validity of the questionnaire reflects the degree to which all relevant components of excessive GWG risk in women are included. Strong test-retest reliability was found in the current study, indicating that responses to the questionnaire were reliable in this population. The EMat Health Survey adds to the growing body of literature on maternal health and gestational weight gain by providing the first comprehensive questionnaire that can be self-administered and remotely accessed. The questionnaire can be completed in 15–25 min and collects useful data on various social determinants of health and GWG as well as associated health behaviours. This online tool may assist researchers by providing them with a platform to collect useful information in developing and tailoring interventions to better support women in achieving recommended weight gain targets in pregnancy.

  4. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: current knowledge and clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Agata; Witkowska, Magdalena; Smolewski, Piotr

    2014-09-11

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is one of the most common non-Hodgkin lymphomas in adults. The disease is very heterogeneous in its presentation, that is DLBCL patients may differ from each other not only in regard to histology of tissue infiltration, clinical course or response to treatment, but also in respect to diversity in gene expression profiling. A growing body of knowledge on the biology of DLBCL, including abnormalities in intracellular signaling, has allowed the development of new treatment strategies, specifically directed against lymphoma cells. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway plays an important role in controlling proliferation and survival of tumor cells in various types of malignancies, including DLBCL, and therefore it may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Currently, novel anticancer drugs are undergoing assessment in different phases of clinical trials in aggressive lymphomas, with promising outcomes. In this review we present a state of art review on various classes of small molecule inhibitors selectively involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and their clinical potential in this disease.

  5. [Biomechanical aspects of load-bearing capacity after total endoprosthesis replacement of the hip joint. An evaluation of current knowledge and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, D C; Heller, K D; Niethard, F U

    1998-01-01

    Purpose of the study was to summarize the current scientific knowledge of the interaction between rehabilitative procedures and the periprosthetic bone remodeling processes in the early postoperative phase of total hip arthroplasties. In a comprehensive review of the international literature we analysed the interdependence between osseointegration, primary implant stability, relative micromotion of implant versus bone, and joint loading forces during mobilisation or physiotherapy. Accordingly, guidelines for the rehabilitation of cemented as well as cementless hip arthroplasties were established in order to eliminate factors disturbing prosthetic integration and hence provide for the best long-term stability of the implanted prosthesis possible. Osseointegration of cementless implants is impossible if relative micromotions exceed > 150 microns. Furthermore, torsional stresses (i.e. alternate climbing of stairs, rising from seated position without arm support) will destabilize uncemented femoral shaft implants. Cemented prostheses may be loaded with full body weight. Uncemented implants should be loaded only partially for at least 6 weeks. Loadings of the hip joint with more than twice the body-weight (i.e. walking without crutches, physical exercise against high resistances or long levers) are to be avoided for 3 months. The transition from the three-points walking to the two-points walking technique depends particularly on the conditions of the muscles stabilizing the hip joint. The rehabilitation of patients after total hip arthroplasty has to be brought into line with the changed biomechanical situation, the particulars of the implants and the individual requirements of the patients.

  6. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: Current Knowledge and Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Majchrzak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL is one of the most common non-Hodgkin lymphomas in adults. The disease is very heterogeneous in its presentation, that is DLBCL patients may differ from each other not only in regard to histology of tissue infiltration, clinical course or response to treatment, but also in respect to diversity in gene expression profiling. A growing body of knowledge on the biology of DLBCL, including abnormalities in intracellular signaling, has allowed the development of new treatment strategies, specifically directed against lymphoma cells. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway plays an important role in controlling proliferation and survival of tumor cells in various types of malignancies, including DLBCL, and therefore it may be a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Currently, novel anticancer drugs are undergoing assessment in different phases of clinical trials in aggressive lymphomas, with promising outcomes. In this review we present a state of art review on various classes of small molecule inhibitors selectively involving PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and their clinical potential in this disease.

  7. Phase Equilibrium Experiments on Potential Lunar Core Compositions: Extension of Current Knowledge to Multi-Component (Fe-Ni-Si-S-C) Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous geophysical and geochemical studies have suggested the existence of a small metallic lunar core, but the composition of that core is not known. Knowledge of the composition can have a large impact on the thermal evolution of the core, its possible early dynamo creation, and its overall size and fraction of solid and liquid. Thermal models predict that the current temperature at the core-mantle boundary of the Moon is near 1650 K. Re-evaluation of Apollo seismic data has highlighted the need for new data in a broader range of bulk core compositions in the PT range of the lunar core. Geochemical measurements have suggested a more volatile-rich Moon than previously thought. And GRAIL mission data may allow much better constraints on the physical nature of the lunar core. All of these factors have led us to determine new phase equilibria experimental studies in the Fe-Ni-S-C-Si system in the relevant PT range of the lunar core that will help constrain the composition of Moon's core.

  8. What’s now, what’s new and what’s next in virgin olive oil elaboration systems? A perspective on current knowledge and future trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lisa Clodoveo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of virgin olive oil elaboration process is to obtain the highest recovery of the best quality oil from the fruits. The aim of the researchers is to understand the key elements that allow to modulate the complex series of physical, physico-chemical, chemical and biochemical transformations in order to develop innovative and sustainable plant solutions able to increase simultaneously both yield and quality of product. The basic principles applied also in the newest olive oil industrial plants still follow the technical knowledge which have been empirically learned by humans thousands of years ago. In fact, it is well known that three factors, mixing, water adding and warming, are the three macroscopic driving forces able to favour the separation of the oily phase from the mass of crushed olives. In this consolidated scenario, can new elements emerge? The whole process should be considered more than a simple extraction of the oil present in fruit cells, but a complex elaboration of a product, which is depleted and enriched of both constitutive and neo-synthesised compounds through complex phenomena only in part discovered. In fact, while it is evident that numerous studies have been conducted to elucidate the behaviour of olive paste during virgin olive oil extraction process, a key conclusion is that the current level of understanding can be improved further by means the development of more rigorous researches with more focused targets aimed to understand the rheological changes, the coalescence phenomena, the changes in hydrophobic and hydrophilic phenomena, the partition equilibrium of minor compounds between aqueous and oily phases and, last but not least, the favourable and unfavourable enzymatic reactions. This paper provides an analysis of the present research field and its strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Potentially important future directions for research are also proposed.

  9. Fibromialgia: diagnóstico y tratamiento. El estado de la cuestión Fibromyalgia: diagnosis and treatment. Current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Villanueva

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available La fibromialgia es una patología crónica y compleja que provoca dolor muscular generalizado que puede llegar a ser invalidante, asociado a mal descanso nocturno y fatigabilidad, y que afecta a las esferas biológica, psicológica y social de los pacientes. Además su elevada prevalencia hace de ella un problema sanitario de primera magnitud. Dificultad añadida supone el que sus criterios diagnósticos únicamente sean clínicos y que su etiopatogenia todavía no haya sido aclarada, lo que dificulta aún más su estudio y por supuesto su abordaje terapéutico. En su tratamiento resulta fundamental el abordaje multidisciplinar en contraposición a un abordaje biomédico tradicional, dada la enorme complejidad que suelen presentar estos pacientes. En esta revisión intentamos aunar los conocimientos actuales en la literatura médica aunque hay que resaltar que diariamente multitud de estudios y referencias médicas y paramédicas abordan el tema con mayor o menor rigor científico.Fibromyalgia is a chronic and complex pathology that provokes muscular pain which may become invalidant, associated to a badly night rest and fatigue that affects the biological, psychological and social environment of the patients. Its high prevalence makes fibromyalgia a first magnitude sanitary problem. The fact that its diagnostic criteria is only clinical, and that its aetiopathogenesis has not yet been clarified. This makes very difficult the study and therapeutical approach of the disease. The multidisciplinary approach for its treatment is very important, against the traditional biomedical approach, because of the high complexity of the patients. In this review, we try to bring together the current knowledgements in the literature, though it has to be highlighted that many studies and medical and paramedical references approach the topic with complete scientific rigour.

  10. Engineering Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallace, Ken M.; Ahmed, Saeema; Bracewell, Rob

    2005-01-01

    The need to improve engineering knowledge management is driven by the current challenges facing manufacturing organisations in the emerging global economy and, in particular by the important role knowledge plays in the engineering design process. Industrial organisations are facing increasing...

  11. First-year university Physics students’ knowledge about direct current circuits: probing improvement in understanding as a function of teaching and learning interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard; van der Ventel, Brandon; Hanekom, Crischelle

    2017-07-01

    Probing university students’ understanding of direct-current (DC) resistive circuits is still a field of active physics education research. We report here on a study we conducted of this understanding, where the cohort consisted of students in a large-enrollment first-year physics module. This is a non-calculus based physics module for students in the life sciences stream. The study involved 366 students enrolled in the physics (bio) 154 module at Stellenbosch University in 2015. Students’ understanding of DC resistive circuits was probed by means of a standardized test instrument. The instrument comprises 29 multiple choice questions that students have to answer in ~40 min. Students were required to first complete the standardized test at the start of semester (July 2015). For ease of reference we call this test the pre-test. Students answered the pre-test having no university-level formal exposure to DC circuits in theory or practice. The pre-test therefore served to probe students’ school level knowledge of DC circuits. As the semester progressed students were exposed to a practical (E1), lectures, a prescribed textbook, a tutorial and online videos focusing on DC circuits. The E1 practical required students to solve DC circuit problems by means of physically constructing circuits, algebraically using Kirchhoff's Rules and Ohm’s Law, and by means of simulating circuits using the app iCircuit running on iPads (iOS platform). Each E1 practical involved ~50 students in a three hour session. The practical was repeated three afternoons per week over an eight week period. Twenty three iPads were distributed among students on a practical afternoon in order for them to do the circuit simulations in groups (of 4-5 students). At the end of the practical students were again required to do the standardized test on circuits and complete a survey on their experience of the use of the iPad and iCircuit app. For ease of reference we refer to this second test as the

  12. Toxicity of seven priority hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) to marine organisms: Current status, knowledge gaps and recommendations for future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S., E-mail: cristinasrocha@gmail.com; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Galhano, Victor; Ferreira, Marta, E-mail: marta.ferreira@usp.ac.fj; Guimarães, Laura

    2016-01-15

    Shipping industry and seaborne trade have rapidly increased over the last fifty years, mainly due to the continuous increasing demand for chemicals and fuels. Consequently, despite current regulations, the occurrence of accidental spills poses an important risk. Hazardous and noxious substances (HNSs) have been raising major concern among environmental managers and scientific community for their heterogeneity, hazardous potential towards aquatic organisms and associated social-economic impacts. A literature review on ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic organisms was conducted for seven HNSs: acrylonitrile, n-butyl acrylate, cyclohexylbenzene, hexane, isononanol, trichloroethylene and xylene. Information on the mechanisms of action of the selected HNS was also reviewed. The main purpose was to identify: i) knowledge gaps in need of being addressed in future research; and ii) a set of possible biomarkers suitable for ecotoxicological assessment and monitoring in both estuarine and marine systems. Main gaps found concern the scarcity of information available on ecotoxicological effects of HNS towards marine species and their poorly understood mode of action in wildlife. Differences were found between the sensitivity of freshwater and seawater organisms, so endpoints produced in the former may not be straightforwardly employed in evaluations for the marine environment. The relationship between sub-individual effects and higher level detrimental alterations (e.g. behavioural, morphological, reproductive effects and mortality) are not fully understood. In this context, a set of biomarkers associated to neurotoxicity, detoxification and anti-oxidant defences is suggested as potential indicators of toxic exposure/effects of HNS in marine organisms. Overall, to support the development of contingency plans and the establishment of environmental safety thresholds, it will be necessary to undertake targeted research on HNS ecotoxicity in the marine environment. Research should

  13. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical part: Basic terms of knowledge management, knowledge worker, knowledge creation and conversion process, prerequisites and benefits of knowledge management. Knowledge management and it's connection to organizational culture and structure, result measurements of knowledge management, learning organization and it's connection to knowledge management. Tacit knowledge management tools -- stories -- types, how to create, practical use, communities, coaching. Value Based Organization. Pr...

  14. Female soccer knee injury: observed knowledge gaps in injury prevention among players/parents/coaches and current evidence (the KNOW study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, B; Brown, C; Hemsing, J; McCormick, T; Pound, S; Otto, D; Emery, C A; Beaupre, L A

    2013-06-01

    This study sought to determine if knowledge regarding the risk for knee injuries and the potential for their prevention is being translated to female adolescent soccer players (13-18 years), their parents, and coaches. Eligible participants in the 2007 indoor soccer season were surveyed to determine their knowledge of the risk for and the potential to prevent knee injuries, and their knowledge of effective prevention strategies, if they felt that injury prevention was possible. Team selection was stratified to be representative of both competitive and recreational level play and age group distributions within the selected soccer association. Of the study subjects, 773/1396 (55.4%) responded to the survey: 408 (53%) players, 292 (38%) parents, and 73 (9%) coaches. Most respondents (538 [71%]) were aware of the risk for knee injury. Coaches and parents were more likely than players to view knee injuries as preventable; however, appropriate prevention strategies were often not identified. Four hundred eighty-four (63.8%) respondents reported that they had never received information on knee injuries. Substantial knowledge gaps regarding knee injury prevention and effective preventative strategies were identified. Given the predominance of knee injuries in female adolescent soccer players, there is an urgent need for knowledge translation of prevention strategies to decrease both incidence and long-term consequences of knee injuries. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Current knowledge on population studies on five continental molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia of Santa Catarina State (SC, Central Southern Brazil region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ignacio Agudo-Padrón

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although still very scarce, available knowledge on population studies on continental (land and freshwatermolluscs in the territory of Santa Catarina State is shortly analyzed and discussed. Based on the IUCN“Restricted Distribution” criterion, a total of 54 nominal species, including 31 terrestrial gastropods, 15freshwater gastropods and 8 limnic bivalves, were considered strong candidates as threatened taxa. Out of allthese endangered species, only 5 limnic forms (2 gastropods and 3 bivalves were previously analysed, in someway, at population level.

  16. Sixty years of research of tick-borne encephalitis--a basis of the current knowledge of the epidemiological situation in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Benes, C; Danielová, V; Kríz, B

    2011-11-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus was isolated for the first time in Central Europe in 1948 from both a patient and Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in the area where the patient had been tick bitten (the Beroun area - Central Bohemia) and concomitantly from a TBE patient in Moravia (the Vyskov area). Another priority discovery was alimentary transmission of TBE virus via the milk from tick infected grazing goats that was made during a TBE outbreak in Roznava (SE Slovakia). This outbreak of 660 cases has been the largest of its kind. Both of these discoveries were a challenge to multidisciplinary research into the natural focality of TBE. The results obtained were published by Czech and Slovak authors in the first European TBE monograph (1954) and were the stimulus for further research in this area. From the epidemiological point of view, among others, the impact of meteorological factors (on TBE incidence associated with I. ricinus host-seeking activity) and recreational nature of TBE were clearly defined then. At the same time, TBE became a notifiable disease (since 1971 laboratory confirmed TBE cases only). In the following decades, the phenomenon of natural focality of TBE (including anthropic impacts) was extensively studied and the determinants of high-risk areas in the field were analyzed. The results were used in the creation of I. ricinus and TBE risk prediction maps for the Czech Republic generated for the first time in Europe using LANDSAT 5 satellite data and GIS technology (1990). In the early 1990s (in particular since 1993), similarly to other countries, the Czech Republic reported a sharp rise in TBE cases that continues, with some fluctuations, until now. The cooperation with climatologists in the analysis of historical data, current epidemiological observations, and study of I. ricinus in the field have shown a decisive impact of the ongoing climate change. The analysis of the socio-economic conditions in high-risk areas for TBE has not revealed

  17. Knowledge translation in biostatistics: a survey of current practices, preferences, and barriers to the dissemination and uptake of new statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullenayegum, Eleanor M; Platt, Robert W; Barwick, Melanie; Feldman, Brian M; Offringa, Martin; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-03-15

    The use of standard statistical methods in the medical literature has been studied extensively; however, the adoption of new methods has received less attention. We sought to understand (i) whether there is a perception that new methods are underused, (ii) what the barriers to use of new methods are, (iii) what dissemination activities are used, and (iv) user preferences for learning about new methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of members of the Statistical Society of Canada (SSC) and of principal investigators (knowledge-users) funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR). There were 157 CIHR respondents (14% response rate), and 39 respondents were statisticians from the Statistical Society of Canada. Seventy percent of CIHR respondents and 82% of statisticians felt that new developments were under-used. Barriers to use of new methods included lack of access to the necessary expertise (selected by over 90% of respondents), lack of suitable software (selected by 81% of statisticians), and lack of time to implement new methods (selected by 78% of statisticians). Greater access to statistical colleagues with an interest in collaboration and availability of software to implement new methods were the top-rated preferences among knowledge-users. There was a clear perception among all respondents that new statistical methods are underused. Encouraging statistical methodologists to develop a knowledge translation plan for improved dissemination and uptake, placing greater value on the role of the statistical collaborator in research, and providing software alongside new methods may improve the use of newly developed statistical methods. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparison of the volatile emission profiles of ground almond and pistachio mummies: part 1 – addressing a gap in knowledge of current attractants of navel orangeworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the years various tissues of almond and pistachios have been evaluated for their ability to attract the navel orangeworm moth, a major insect pest to almond and pistachio orchards in California. Almond meal, which typically consists of ground almond kernels, is the current monitoring tool for n...

  19. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES REGARDING “THE R OLE OF SPIRITUALITY IN CURRENT MEDICAL PRACTICE AMONGST ME DICAL PROFESSIONALS” IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Spirituality has been integral part of medicine and h ealth since ancient age. This has been accepted in various devel oped countries as evident by a plethora of published articles. However, the extent of spiritual component in medical practice in India is largely unknown. The present study is a questionnair e based study to assess the extent of knowledge (awareness, attitude and practices among medical professionals at a tertiary care Hospital regarding role of spirituality in management of health and diseases. METHODS: A pre- designed validated list of questionnaire was distri buted among 250 doctors of all specialties at the hospital along with brief introduction on purpos e and scope of the study. The questions were collected back personally after giving sufficie nt time to attempt them. Doctors were evaluated regarding their knowledge, attitude and pr actice about spirituality in medicine using multiple choice question format. RESULTS: The response rate from participants was 80% (200/250. More than 90% participants had a good deal of knowledge of spirituality but unable to distinguish between truly spiritual practices from traditionally followed religious rituals. More than 70% felt that there is relevance of spirit ual practices in health and diseases but pointed out lack of credible scientific data to inco rporate these in health management strategy. There was wide variation among participants regardi ng underlying mechanism/s responsible for spiritual healing. Most of them believed this to be Psychological (90%, Neuroendocrine (70% or Immunology (26% and only (4% attributed it to all these factors. Majority of the participants agreed that spirituality offers maximum h ealth benefits in chronic and incurable diseases. Participants vouched for introduction of spiritual m edicine in medical curriculum to be taught by medical professionals with expertise in spir ituality. They also opined that there is need to involve

  20. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    /global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation.......It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...

  1. Nationwide survey of specialist knowledge on current standard of care (Peg-IFN/RBV) and barriers of care in chronic hepatitis C patients in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lai; Li, Jie; Yang, Xizhong; Wang, Guiqiang; Feng, Bo; Hou, Jinlin; Duan, Zhongping; Jia, Jidong; Ren, Hong; Niu, Junqi; Chen, Xinyue; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Shang, Jia; Bo, Qingyan; Li, Runqin; Liu, Yang; Zhuang, Hui

    2016-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In China, it is a major national health problem that demands nationwide coordinated emphasis on prevention and treatment. To inform these initiatives, a nationwide survey was conducted from January to April 2015 to evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and perceived obstacles to HCV care. A sample of 1000 HCV specialists across mainland China were recruited. Respondents were asked a series of 30 open-ended single or multiple response and Likert-scale questions about their HCV treatment knowledge, experience, assessment of HCV care status in China, and perceptions about treatment barriers. Sixty percent of the respondents answered incorrectly to more than half of the questions on basic HCV treatment principles. Over half of them incorrectly believed that maintenance therapy should be prescribed for non-responders (72%) and longer treatment duration improved sustained viral response rates (62%), regardless of HCV RNA level changes. Sixty-six percent of them believed that HCV treatment would still be interferon-based therapy in the next 5 years in China. Patient-related barriers, in particular lack of disease awareness, were considered to be the most significant barriers to HCV care. Payer and medical-provider barriers included affordability issues, lack of reimbursement coverage for testing and treatments, and lack of referral to HCV specialists. Focused and intense patient and provider education should be carried out to increase awareness. More effective direct-acting antivirals should be made available and affordable in China. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology published by Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Infant feeding and allergy prevention: a review of current knowledge and recommendations. A EuroPrevall state of the art paper.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grimshaw, K E C

    2009-10-01

    The relationship between infant feeding patterns and the later development of food allergies has been the focus of much debate and research over the last decade. National recommendations have been made by many countries on how to feed infants to reduce the risk of food allergy but due to the lack of firm evidence the recommendations differ widely. This review has been developed as part of EuroPrevall, a European multicentre research project funded by the European Union, to document the differing feeding recommendations made across Europe, to investigate the current evidence base for any allergy prevention feeding recommendations and to identify areas where further research is needed. This review will also provide information which, when combined with the infant feeding data collected as part of EuroPrevall, will give an indication of compliance to national feeding guidelines which can be utilised to assess the effectiveness of current dissemination and implementation strategies.

  3. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... reducing complexity and dividing knowledge into to dichotomies or hierarchies, knowledge workers should be enabled to use different strategies for knowledge sharing, -transfer and –creation depending on the task and the nature of the knowledge. However if the ambition is to have a strategy for sharing...

  4. Brain morphometry and the neurobiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias: current knowledge and future potential for translational pre-clinical neuroimaging studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare eFinlay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine replacement therapy in the form of levodopa results in a significant proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD developing debilitating dyskinesia. This significantly complicates further treatment and negatively impacts patient quality of life. A greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID is therefore crucial to develop new treatments to prevent or mitigate LID. Such investigations in humans are largely confined to assessment of neurochemical and cerebrovascular blood flow changes using positron emission tomography (PET and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. However, recent evidence suggests that LID is associated with specific morphological changes in the frontal cortex and midbrain, detectable by structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Current human neuroimaging methods however lack sufficient resolution to reveal the biological mechanism driving these morphological changes at the cellular level. In contrast, there is a wealth of literature from well-established rodent models of LID documenting detailed post-mortem cellular and molecular measurements. The combination therefore of advanced neuroimaging methods and rodent LID models offers an exciting opportunity to bridge these currently disparate areas of research. To highlight this opportunity, in this mini-review, we provide an overview of the current clinical evidence for morphological changes in the brain associated with LID and identify potential cellular mechanisms as suggested from human and animal studies. We then suggest a framework for combining small animal MRI imaging with rodent models of LID, which may provide important mechanistic insights into the neurobiology of LID.

  5. Brain morphometry and the neurobiology of levodopa-induced dyskinesias: current knowledge and future potential for translational pre-clinical neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Clare J; Duty, Susan; Vernon, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine replacement therapy in the form of levodopa results in a significant proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease developing debilitating dyskinesia. This significantly complicates further treatment and negatively impacts patient quality of life. A greater understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is therefore crucial to develop new treatments to prevent or mitigate LID. Such investigations in humans are largely confined to assessment of neurochemical and cerebrovascular blood flow changes using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. However, recent evidence suggests that LID is associated with specific morphological changes in the frontal cortex and midbrain, detectable by structural MRI and voxel-based morphometry. Current human neuroimaging methods however lack sufficient resolution to reveal the biological mechanism driving these morphological changes at the cellular level. In contrast, there is a wealth of literature from well-established rodent models of LID documenting detailed post-mortem cellular and molecular measurements. The combination therefore of advanced neuroimaging methods and rodent LID models offers an exciting opportunity to bridge these currently disparate areas of research. To highlight this opportunity, in this mini-review, we provide an overview of the current clinical evidence for morphological changes in the brain associated with LID and identify potential cellular mechanisms as suggested from human and animal studies. We then suggest a framework for combining small animal MRI imaging with rodent models of LID, which may provide important mechanistic insights into the neurobiology of LID.

  6. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  7. Evolutionary morphology of the male reproductive system, spermatozoa and seminal fluid of spiders (Araneae, Arachnida)--current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Peter; Ramírez, Martín J

    2014-07-01

    The male reproductive system and spermatozoa of spiders are known for their high structural diversity. Spider spermatozoa are flagellate and males transfer them to females in a coiled and encapsulated state using their modified pedipalps. Here, we provide a detailed overview of the present state of knowledge of the primary male reproductive system, sperm morphology and the structural diversity of seminal fluids with a focus on functional and evolutionary implications. Secondly, we conceptualized characters for the male genital system, spermiogenesis and spermatozoa for the first time based on published and new data. In total, we scored 40 characters for 129 species from 56 families representing all main spider clades. We obtained synapomorphies for several taxa including Opisthothelae, Araneomorphae, Dysderoidea, Scytodoidea, Telemidae, Linyphioidea, Mimetidae, Synotaxidae and the Divided Cribellum Clade. Furthermore, we recovered synspermia as a synapomorphy for ecribellate Haplogynae and thus propose Synspermiata as new name for this clade. We hope that these data will not only contribute to future phylogenetic studies but will also stimulate much needed evolutionary studies of reproductive systems in spiders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Submarine and deep-sea mine tailing placements: A review of current practices, environmental issues, natural analogs and knowledge gaps in Norway and internationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Trannum, Hilde C; Evenset, Anita; Levin, Lisa A; Andersson, Malin; Finne, Tor Erik; Hilario, Ana; Flem, Belinda; Christensen, Guttorm; Schaanning, Morten; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-08-15

    The mining sector is growing in parallel with societal demands for minerals. One of the most important environmental issues and economic burdens of industrial mining on land is the safe storage of the vast amounts of waste produced. Traditionally, tailings have been stored in land dams, but the lack of land availability, potential risk of dam failure and topography in coastal areas in certain countries results in increasing disposal of tailings into marine systems. This review describes the different submarine tailing disposal methods used in the world in general and in Norway in particular, their impact on the environment (e.g. hyper-sedimentation, toxicity, processes related to changes in grain shape and size, turbidity), current legislation and need for future research. Understanding these impacts on the habitat and biota is essential to assess potential ecosystem changes and to develop best available techniques and robust management plans.

  9. Pseudo-nitzschia species on the Catalan coast: characterization and contribution to the current knowledge of the distribution of this genus in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Quijano-Scheggia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Proliferations of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia recur along the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean throughout the year. The establishment of 58 clonal cultures facilitated morphological studies with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and ITS 5.8S rDNA sequence characterization. Moreover, strains of each species were examined with respect to sexual compatibility and toxicity. The results of the morphological and phylogenetic studies confirmed nine species of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia: P. brasiliana, P. calliantha, P. delicatissima clade A/del 2, P. arenysensis, P. fraudulenta, P. galaxiae, P. linea, P. multistriata and P. pungens clade I. Moreover, two Pseudo-nitzschia species, P. caciantha and P. cf mannii, could only be identified following SEM analysis of their morphology. None of the cultured strains of Pseudo-nitzschia analyzed produced domoic acid in amounts above the limit of detection. The current distributions of the Pseudo-nitzschia species in the Mediterranean Sea were plotted on maps, which led to the following observations: i diversity within this genus is much greater than previously considered, ii some species have a broad distribution (e.g. P. calliantha, iii whereas the distribution of others is narrowly restricted (e.g. P. pungens clade I. Moreover, this study reports the first detection of P. linea in the Mediterranean Sea and is the first description of P. galaxiae and P. cf mannii along the Catalan coast. Morphological studies coupled with molecular biological characterization, mating tests and biogeographic distribution analyses provide a critical theoretical basis for testing and/or implementing the current phylogenetic framework in the genus Pseudo-nitzschia.

  10. Inventory of the freshwater fishes from a densely collected area in South America-a case study of the current knowledge of Neotropical fish diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertaco, Vinicius A; Ferrer, Juliano; Carvalho, Fernando R; Malabarba, Luiz R

    2016-07-18

    We herein analyse the history of the description of the freshwater fish fauna from three drainages in one of the most densely collected areas of Brazil, and possibly of South America, the Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil. An updated inventory of the freshwater fish species from rio Uruguay (partial) in Brazil, Laguna dos Patos (complete) and rio Tramandaí basins (complete) is presented. We found the number of new species described in these drainages increased nearly 56% since 1981, reaching a total of 422 species, but even now 10% of this number still corresponds to undescribed species. This rate of species description suggests that previous estimates of the Neotropical fish fauna are low, and we predict a final number of Neotropical fishes larger than the largest prediction estimate (8,000 species), after other regions of South and Central Americas become densely sampled. We discuss and attempt to demonstrate that species diversity knowledge is historically and strictly related to collecting efforts. We also demonstrate that the ecoregions in eastern South America with the highest density of species per area correspond to the areas more densely sampled in collections, and this may represent a bias in such kinds of analyses. This uneven sampling in Brazilian regions is apparently associated with the uneven distribution of Zoological research centers in different regions of the country. Small-sized species represents an important source of new species, along with little explored regions or little explored habitats, sometimes associated with restricted range species, and species complexes that need revisionary work. In contrast to other Neotropical regions, Atheriniformes are relatively diverse, sharing the fifth place in species richness with Gymnotiformes, and there is a remarkably high number of species of Rivulidae. Eight species are endemic to the rio Tramandaí drainage, 68 to the Laguna dos Patos system, and 78 to the rio Uruguay drainage. Almost 10

  11. Mechanisms of Silver Nanoparticle Release, Transformation and Toxicity: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Studies and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseult Lynch

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, due to its small particle size and enormous specific surface area, facilitates more rapid dissolution of ions than the equivalent bulk material; potentially leading to increased toxicity of nanosilver. This, coupled with their capacity to adsorb biomolecules and interact with biological receptors can mean that nanoparticles can reach sub-cellular locations leading to potentially higher localized concentrations of ions once those particles start to dissolve or degrade in situ. Further complicating the story is the capacity for nanoparticles to generate reactive oxygen species, and to interact with, and potentially disturb the functioning of biomolecules such as proteins, enzymes and DNA. The fact that the nanoparticle size, shape, surface coating and a host of other factors contribute to these interactions, and that the particles themselves are evolving or ageing leads to further complications in terms of elucidating mechanisms of interaction and modes of action for silver nanoparticles, in contrast to dissolved silver species. This review aims to provide a critical assessment of the current understanding of silver nanoparticle toxicity, as well as to provide a set of pointers and guidelines for experimental design of future studies to assess the environmental and biological impacts of silver nanoparticles. In particular; in future we require a detailed description of the nanoparticles; their synthesis route and stabilisation mechanisms; their coating; and evolution and ageing under the exposure conditions of the assay. This would allow for comparison of data from different particles; different environmental or biological systems; and structure-activity or structure-property relationships to emerge as the basis for predictive toxicology. On the basis of currently available data; such comparisons or predictions are difficult; as the characterisation and time-resolved data is not available; and a full understanding of silver

  12. Modulation of systemic and intestinal immune response by interleukin-2 therapy in gastrointestinal surgical oncology. Personal experience in the context of current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespoli, Luca; Uggeri, Fabio; Romano, Fabrizio; Nespoli, Angelo; Brivo, Fernando; Fumagalli, Luca; Sargenti, Manuela; Uggeri, Franco; Gianotti, Luca

    2012-03-01

    Interactions between host and malignant tumor is currently under intensive investigation. The immune system seems to have a key role in cancer development and spread. Novel strategies to actively modulate the immune system have been proposed to improve the outcome of disease in patients with neoplasms. Our experience with systemic immunomodulation by interleukin-2 (IL-2) focused on both systemic and local immunity in surgical gastrointestinal cancer. Preoperative IL-2 subcutaneous injection was effective in counteracting postoperative immunosuppression, with a reduction of serum levels of IL-6 and the maintenance of preoperative levels of IL-12, a higher number of circulating total lymphocytes, and CD3(+) and CD4(+) T-cells, and a smaller decrease in circulating mature and immature dendritic cells (DCs), as well as a reduction in postoperative serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. At the intestinal level, in patients with colorectal cancer, preoperative administration of IL-2 affected both phenotype and function of resident dendritic cells and T-cells, skewing local immunity toward a more immunogenic one. Our data showed that immunomodulation by IL-2 was effective in counteracting the systemic postoperative immune suppression related to surgical stress. IL-2 was also active at a local level on intestinal immunity, affecting both phenotype and function of resident T-cells and DCs. Future studies will encompass the possibility of reaching more adequate intratumoral IL-2 concentrations by direct intralesional injection to maximize immunostimulatory effects and minimize adverse effects.

  13. Human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their progeny: current state of knowledge, the widening gap in translational research and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purba, Talveen S; Haslam, Iain S; Poblet, Enrique; Jiménez, Francisco; Gandarillas, Alberto; Izeta, Ander; Paus, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial hair follicle stem cells (eHFSCs) are required to generate, maintain and renew the continuously cycling hair follicle (HF), supply cells that produce the keratinized hair shaft and aid in the reepithelialization of injured skin. Therefore, their study is biologically and clinically important, from alopecia to carcinogenesis and regenerative medicine. However, human eHFSCs remain ill defined compared to their murine counterparts, and it is unclear which murine eHFSC markers really apply to the human HF. We address this by reviewing current concepts on human eHFSC biology, their immediate progeny and their molecular markers, focusing on Keratin 15 and 19, CD200, CD34, PHLDA1, and EpCAM/Ber-EP4. After delineating how human eHFSCs may be selectively targeted experimentally, we close by defining as yet unmet key challenges in human eHFSC research. The ultimate goal is to transfer emerging concepts from murine epithelial stem cell biology to human HF physiology and pathology.

  14. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators...... and carriers. By contrast, theexplicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held byindividuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, andthe development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulatedknowledge within...... an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization....

  15. Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  16. Estado actual del conocimiento de la familia Ceratopogonidae en la Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera Current knowledge of the family Ceratopogonidae in Patagonia (Diptera: Nematocera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R. Spinelli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopogonidae incluye pequeños dípteros nematoceros que crían en hábitats acuáticos o semiacuáticos. Hasta los '80, el conocimiento de su taxonomía en la Patagonia se hallaba limitado a la contribución de los comienzos de los '30 de Ingram y Macfie, sobre la base de material capturado en 1926-27, en el área del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi y zonas vecinas de Chile. En los últimos 25 años, se pusieron en marcha diferentes proyectos, resultando la descripción o registro de numerosos taxones para la región. Si se contabilizan los datos publicados, 102 especies habitan en la Patagonia, de las cuales 86 (84,31% son endémicas para la región. Este alto porcentaje es evidente en los bosques de Nothofagus, con 71 especies endémicas de este bioma, nueve lo son de la estepa y seis presentan registros en bosque y estepa. Datos aún no publicados concuerdan con este esquema. Diecinueve géneros están representados en la Patagonia, diez de ellos con amplia distribución, tres de distribución transantártica y seis son endémicos para el área. Para la misma, se hallan publicadas las revisiones de Forcipomyia, Atrichopogon, Borkenthelea, Macrurohelea y Paradasyhelea; se han finalizado y aún no publicado aquellas de Dasyhelea y Palpomyia, está muy avanzada la de Stilobezzia y se prevé comenzar con las de Austrohelea, Austrosphaeromias, Physohelea y Bezzia. Se calcula que estos datos no divulgados contienen al menos 55 especies todavía no descriptas. Con respecto a los aspectos biogeográficos se pueden destacar estudios que tienden a establecer relaciones entre las áreas reconocidas en esquemas biogeográficos propuestos para la región andina.Ceratopogonidae includes small nematoceran Diptera which breed in aquatic and semiaquatic habitats. Until the 80´s its taxonomic knowledge in Patagonia was limited to the early 30´s contribution of Ingram and Macfie, from material collected in 1926-27 in the area of the Nahuel Huapi National

  17. Reply to "Critical assessment of the current state of scientific knowledge, terminology, and research needs concerning the ecological effects of elevated atmospheric nitrogen deposition in China"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fengxue; Zhang, Yuandong; Huang, Mei; Tao, Bo; Yan, Huimin; Guo, Rui; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    In their assessment, Pan et al. (2016) criticize that our estimation of 2.32 g N m-2 yr-1 in 2010 underestimates the total nitrogen (N) deposition amounts by a factor around two by comparing with the estimation of Xu et al. (2015). Our paper entitled "Nitrogen deposition and its effect on carbon storage in Chinese forests during 1981-2010" aims to evaluate the influence of elevated N deposition in China on carbon storage in forest ecosystems by using a process-based model. As limited by observed N deposition dataset availability, we developed a simple algorithm to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations in N deposition based on the relationships among N deposition, precipitation, N fertilizer use, and fuel consumption with reference to the method of Lin et al. (2000). Our results show that the rate of N deposition increased by 0.058 g N m-2 yr-1 between 1981 and 2010. The N deposition rate in 2010 was 2.32 g N m-2 yr-1, and it showed a large spatial variation from 0 to 0.25 g N m-2 yr-1 on the northwestern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to over 4.5 g N m-2 yr-1 in the southeastern China. We really underestimated the total N deposition in China because we were lack of dry deposition observation dataset in our research. However, we think Pan et al. (2016) overestimated the difference between our estimation and that in Xu et al. (2015). It should be encouraged to discuss the past and current status of N deposition in China based on both observation and simulation. All comments, assessments and suggestions contribute to promote the scientific understanding of N deposition and its influence on ecosystems.

  18. A Survey of 25 North Carolina Health Departments/Districts on Knowledge, Attitudes, and Current Practices to Seeking Reimbursement From Third-Party Payers for Sexually Transmitted Disease Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovar, Cheryl L; Carter, Susan

    2017-06-01

    North Carolina Administrative Code 10A Chapter 41A.0204 (a) states "local health departments shall provide diagnosis, testing, treatment, follow-up, and preventive services for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, … These services shall be provided upon request and at no charge to the patient." Although health departments/districts may bill governmental or nongovernmental insurance providers for sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, current billing practices are unknown. Because of its high STD morbidity, the eastern region of North Carolina was targeted. Using a Qualtrics Survey developed to measure attitudes as well as knowledge and reimbursement practices, this descriptive study was performed with staff from 25 eastern North Carolina health departments/districts. Snowball sampling was used to allow for greater inclusion. Analysis of data was performed at the individual and agency level based on types of questions in the survey. For knowledge, 87% of the respondents reported being aware of the possibility of reimbursement from third-party payers/commercial insurance carriers for STD services. In regard to current billing of these services, 20 health departments/districts (80%) reported they were billing these payers. When asked about their attitude of seeking reimbursement from commercial insurance, 92% reported it was acceptable or very acceptable. But when asked if STD services should remain a free service at the health department, 55% supported and 45% did not. These data provide a knowledge base for assisting health departments/districts to move forward in improving STD services as well as maximizing reimbursement from third-party payers/commercial insurance carriers when possible.

  19. 流动人口在现居住地获得避孕知识情况及影响因素分析%Acquisition.of contraceptive knowledge at current place of residence among migrants of Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉艳; 武俊青; 周颖; 王瑞平; 詹绍康; 余金明; 程建萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore acquisition of the contraceptive knowledge at the current place of residence, so as to provide a basis for high quality services of family planning and reproductive health among migrants in Shanghai. Methods; A cluster and stratified sampling was used to recruited 2 001 migrants and they were interviewed by the trained investigators with a questionnaire. Results; The awareness of contraceptive methods was less than 70% , and fewer migrants knew side - effects of each contraceptive method. About 42. 73% acquired contraceptive knowledge at the current place of residence last year. The average knowledge score of migrants who acquired knowledge at the current place of residence last year was 31. 39 ± 20. 72, higher than that (24. 06 ±20. 54) of those without acquisition of the knowledge (P <0. 01) . The main knowledge sources were brochures (30. 76% ) , movie, magazine and newspaper ( 16. 96% ) , and blackboard ( 16. 26% ). More respondents younger and with higher educational level acquired contraceptive knowledge. And more unmarried respondents with sexual behaviour and more married ones acquired contraceptive knowledge than those who were not married and without sexual behaviour. In addition , more respondents working in a factory acquired contraceptive knowledge than those serving for a construction site and an entertainment site. Conclusion: Fewer migrants acquire contraceptive knowledge at the current place of residence. The age, marriage status, educational level and occupational place have impacts on acquisition of contraceptive knowledge. The IEC and counseling service of family planning and reproductive health should be improved for migrants, especially for those who are younger and have no sexual behaviour, and those with lower educational level and working in building sites and service/entertainment sites.%目的:了解流动人口在现居住地获得避孕知识的情况并分析影响因素,为开展流动人口避孕节育/生殖

  20. [Current knowledge on the effect of technology and sterilization on the structure, properties and longevity of UHMWPE in total joint replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorný, D; Šlouf, M; Fulín, P

    2012-01-01

    Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is the most frequently used bearing surface in currently used total joint replacements (TJR). According to the literature available, UHMWPE is the best polymer material, in terms of biocompatibility, mechanical properties and wear resistance, for this application. In spite of this fact, UHMWPE wear (i.e., release of microscopic particles from the polymer surface) remains one of the main reasons of TJR failures. Consequently, the wear of UHMWPE is a subject of intensive study by both materials scientists and orthopaedic surgeons. The structure and properties of UHMWPE strongly depend on the way of processing and post-processing modifications. The processing includes polymer resin preparation (microparticles about 100 ěm in size) and resin consolidation (forming bulk material). Post-processing modifications aim at increasing wear resistance and oxidation stability which are regarded as major factors involved in TJR failure. In order to maintain high purity materials for medical application, it is not allowed to use additional chemicals during the modification processes. The only exception is the use of vitamin E, a natural stabilizer and antioxidant. Considering all the above mentioned facts, the modifications can be based on (I) ionizing radiation such as gamma rays or accelerated electrons, (II) thermal modification, (III) additional stabilization with vitamin E, and (IV) sterilization. According to the modifications, we usually differentiate three generations of UHMWPE. The 1st generation UHMWPE is not modified except for obligatory sterilization. The sterilization procedures based on chemical procedures (formaldehyde vapours, hot water) have lately been forbidden, abandoned and replaced by gamma-irradiation with doses of 25-45 kGy. In the course of time, sterilization by means of gamma-irradiation showed to be unsuitable due to oxidative degradation of UHMWPE, which resulted in lower wear resistance, worse

  1. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  2. Knowledge Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

  3. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants - current knowledge and knowledge gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2014-01-01

    information on fluorochemicals. Polyfluorinated alkyl phosphate ester surfactants (PAPs) belong to the group of polyfluorinated alkyl surfactants. They have been detected in indoor dust and are widely used in food-contact materials, from which they have the ability to migrate into food. Toxicological data...

  4. Knowledge and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge and Inference discusses an important problem for software systems: How do we treat knowledge and ideas on a computer and how do we use inference to solve problems on a computer? The book talks about the problems of knowledge and inference for the purpose of merging artificial intelligence and library science. The book begins by clarifying the concept of """"knowledge"""" from many points of view, followed by a chapter on the current state of library science and the place of artificial intelligence in library science. Subsequent chapters cover central topics in the artificial intellig

  5. Artisanal knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raven, Diederick

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the ensuing problem that in general it is nothelpful to talk about non-standard knowledge practices as modeled after our Western ideas of what knowledge is. It negotiates this problem by arguing that artisanal knowledge is an independent and self-contained mode of knowledge and is arranged in three parts. In the first part an outline is given of the key assumptions of the interactionist conception of knowledge that needs to be put in place as an alternative to the basically Kantian mixture of empiricist and rationalist assumptions of the folk model of Western academic thinking about knowledge. In this interactionist conception of knowledgeartisanal knowledge gets center stage. In the second part, the notion of craftknowledge is opened up as much as possible. The third and final part takes upthe question whether craft knowledge is a cultural universal.

  6. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  7. Rett Syndrome: A Review of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acker, Rick

    1991-01-01

    This review describes Rett syndrome as a disorder afflicting females and characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive and motor skills and development of stereotypic hand movements. The paper discusses its clinical manifestations, etiology, diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis, prevalence, pathogenesis, treatment, and educational…

  8. [Schizophrenic disorders: current etiologic and clinical knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Lôo, Henri

    2005-05-01

    Brain anomalies associated with schizophrenic disorders may be of a cognitive, neurophysiological or neurological nature [the latter being relatively minor and nonspecific]. Brain imaging has revealed early anomalies such as cortical-subcortical atrophy and abnormal gyration. These anomalies can also be present in relatives free of schizophrenic symptoms. This raises the question of what determines the transition from vulnerability to clinical onset. There is now evidence that schizophrenic disorders are true brain diseases. This is based on neuropathological studies, brain imaging and clinical findings such as "soft" neurological signs (pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, coordination difficulties, etc.). Cognitive dysfunctions such as attention and memory disorders and abnormal verbal fluency have also been described. Oculomotor pursuit and auditive evoked potentials have identified specific neurophysiological disorders such as N300 and P50 wave modifications. Schizophrenic disorders can also be associated with neuronal abnormalities, notably affecting factors involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity. For example, BDNF protein deficit is linked to certain late-onset forms of schizophrenia. Genetic studies are no longer focusing on a possible disease genotype but rather on phenotypic characteristics determined by simpler genotypes (P50 wave modulation, COMT and BDNF genes). The ultimate objective is to identify high-risk subjects, in order to shorten the treatment delay and thereby improve long-term outcome. The benefit of primary prophylaxis remains to be determined, however.

  9. Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Françoise Van Bressem

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus, from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis, from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported.

  10. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melinda; Duvernoy, Claire

    2015-07-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a form of heart failure occurring at the end of pregnancy or early in the postpartum period. Women may recover, have persistent cardiac dysfunction or suffer complications and death. Women who are African-American, older, hypertensive or have multiple gestation pregnancies have increased risk. Diagnosis and treatment may be delayed due to similarities between symptoms of normal pregnancy and heart failure. Echocardiography is essential for the diagnosis, and B-type natriuretic peptide can be helpful. Treatment for systolic heart failure must be adjusted during pregnancy, and anticoagulation may be indicated. Even after recovery, subsequent pregnancy confers substantial risk of worsening heart failure. Further investigations into the etiology, duration of treatment and risks for relapse are needed.

  11. Current Knowledge on Microarray Technology - An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    our understanding of these techniques and the data they generate improves. From its ... These are synthesized in situ on each silicon chip using ... from both test and reference samples using dyes with a single ... The expression levels of ... proteins rather than make inferences based ... binding properties of native proteins.

  12. Faecal incontinence: Current knowledges and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Faecal incontinence (FI) is a disabling and frequentsymptom since its prevalence can vary between 5%and 15% of the general population. It has a particularnegative impact on quality of life. Many tools arecurrently available for the treatment of FI, from conservativemeasures to invasive surgical treatments. Theconservative treatment may be dietetic measures,various pharmacological agents, anorectal rehabilitation,posterior tibial nerve stimulation, and transanal irrigation.If needed, patients may have miniinvasive approachessuch as sacral nerve modulation or antegrade irrigation.In some cases, a surgical treatment is proposed, mainlyexternal anal sphincter repair. Although these differenttherapeutic options are available, new techniques arearriving allowing new hopes for the patients. Moreover,most of them are non-invasive such as local applicationof an α1-adrenoceptor agonist, stem cell injections,rectal injection of botulinum toxin, acupuncture. Newmore invasive techniques with promising results arealso coming such as anal magnetic sphincter andantropylorus transposition. This review reports the maincurrent available treatments of FI and the developingtherapeutics tools.

  13. Lactose intolerance – current state of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Edyta Mądry; Ewa Fidler; Jarosław Walkowiak

    2010-01-01

    Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT), more commonly known as lactase, is an enzyme responsible for cleaving lactose into absorbable monosaccharides, glucose and galactose. LCT deficiency (hypolactasia – HL) is caused by a decreased activity of LCT in the small intestinal villi and potentially results in lactose malabsorption what may lead to the development of clinical symptoms (diarrhea, bloating, flatulence and cramps) andavoiding milk products in the diet. HL is the world’...

  14. Lactose intolerance – current state of knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Mądry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LCT, more commonly known as lactase, is an enzyme responsible for cleaving lactose into absorbable monosaccharides, glucose and galactose. LCT deficiency (hypolactasia – HL is caused by a decreased activity of LCT in the small intestinal villi and potentially results in lactose malabsorption what may lead to the development of clinical symptoms (diarrhea, bloating, flatulence and cramps andavoiding milk products in the diet. HL is the world’s most common enzyme deficiency in humans. HL exists in three distinct forms – congenital, primary and secondary. Adult type hypolactasia (ATH is the most common phenotype found in human. It is a genetically predetermined physiological condition inherited through an autosomal recessive mode which results in a decline of lactase activity after weaning. ATH is associated with the LCT -13910 C>T polymorphism worldwide, except in Africa. Lactase non-persistence has been observed in individuals with the C/C-13910 genotype, whereas lactase persistence in subjects with remaining allelic variants. Small intestine biopsy is the only diagnostic procedure allowing for the direct measurement of LCT activity, however due to its invasive nature it is hardly accepted by patients. Therefore, LCT status is often inferred simply by assessing the patient’s lactose digestion. A lactose tolerance test can be performed after lactose load and then measuring blood glucose concentration or breath hydrogen (preferably hydrogen and methane expiration. A genetic test of the C/T-13910 polymorphism is also available at present. It is a reliable method in excluding/confirming ATH predisposition. However, it definitely does not assess lactose tolerance or malabsorption.

  15. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belguesmia, Yanath; Naghmouchi, Karim; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Drider, Djamel

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are known to produce antibacterial peptides and small proteins called bacteriocins, which enable them to compete against other bacteria in the environment. Bacteriocins fall structurally and chemically into three different classes, I, II, and III. Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides with antagonism against closely related bacteria. This late observation has evolved because bacteriocins active against Gram-negative bacteria have recently been reported. Members of class IIa bacteriocins, referred to as pediocin-like bacteriocins, are among the most studied bacteriocins. This chapter is aimed at providing an updated review on the biology of class IIa bacteriocins.

  16. Intestinal microbiota transplant - current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczyszyn, Jarosław Jerzy; Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials.

  17. Asteroid hyalosis--current state of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłońska, Anna; Ciszewska, Joanna; Kęcik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    The search query into the Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and ScienceDirect enabled selection of research papers addressing the issue of asteroid hyalosis published in English between 1963 and January 2014. Asteroid hyalosis is a degenerative condition of the vitreous in which small, creamy or white, spherical particles (asteroid bodies) are randomly diffused within the vitreous. They consist mainly of calcium and phosphorus and have a structure of hydroxy lapatite. In 80.2-92.0% of cases the condition affects one eye only and it occurs in 0.36-1.96% of population, mostly in patients over 50 years of age and in males. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are systemic risk factors, but asteroid hyalosis is postulated to occur more often in retinitis pigmentosa and Leber amaurosis caused by mutations in lecithin retinol acyltransferase gene. Asteroid hyalosis also causes calcification of some intraocular lenses--mostly silicone ones. Vitreous of patients with asteroid hyalosis shows reduced gel liquefaction and anomalous vitreoretinal adhesion.

  18. Cetacean morbillivirus: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Duignan, Pádraig J; Banyard, Ashley; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Domingo, Mariano; Fauquier, Deborah; Fernandez, Antonio; Goldstein, Tracey; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R; Gulland, Frances; Jensen, Brenda A; Jepson, Paul D; Hall, Ailsa; Kuiken, Thijs; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Raga, Juan A; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy; Sierra, Eva; Stephens, Nahiid; Stone, Brett; Tomo, Ikuko; Wang, Jianning; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2014-12-22

    We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported.

  19. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  20. Cetacean Morbillivirus: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Duignan, Pádraig J.; Banyard, Ashley; Barbieri, Michelle; Colegrove, Kathleen M; De Guise, Sylvain; Di Guardo, Giovanni; Dobson, Andrew; Domingo, Mariano; Fauquier, Deborah; Fernandez, Antonio; Goldstein, Tracey; Grenfell, Bryan; Groch, Kátia R.; Gulland, Frances; Jensen, Brenda A; Jepson, Paul D; Hall, Ailsa; Kuiken, Thijs; Mazzariol, Sandro; Morris, Sinead E; Nielsen, Ole; Raga, Juan A; Rowles, Teresa K; Saliki, Jeremy; Sierra, Eva; Stephens, Nahiid; Stone, Brett; Tomo, Ikuko; Wang, Jianning; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James FX

    2014-01-01

    We review the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) and the diagnosis and pathogenesis of associated disease, with six different strains detected in cetaceans worldwide. CeMV has caused epidemics with high mortality in odontocetes in Europe, the USA and Australia. It represents a distinct species within the Morbillivirus genus. Although most CeMV strains are phylogenetically closely related, recent data indicate that morbilliviruses recovered from Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus), from Western Australia, and a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), from Brazil, are divergent. The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) cell receptor for CeMV has been characterized in cetaceans. It shares higher amino acid identity with the ruminant SLAM than with the receptors of carnivores or humans, reflecting the evolutionary history of these mammalian taxa. In Delphinidae, three amino acid substitutions may result in a higher affinity for the virus. Infection is diagnosed by histology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, RT-PCR, and serology. Classical CeMV-associated lesions include bronchointerstitial pneumonia, encephalitis, syncytia, and lymphoid depletion associated with immunosuppression. Cetaceans that survive the acute disease may develop fatal secondary infections and chronic encephalitis. Endemically infected, gregarious odontocetes probably serve as reservoirs and vectors. Transmission likely occurs through the inhalation of aerosolized virus but mother to fetus transmission was also reported. PMID:25533660

  1. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  2. Systematic Knowledge Research. Rethinking Epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenther Abel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Systematic Knowledge Research is the approach used to (i describe the specific characteristics of various forms of knowledge (such as e.g. conceptual and non-conceptual knowledge; explicit and implicit knowledge; knowing-how and knowing-that. It (ii investigates the overlapping points among the various kinds of knowledge forms, and it (iii elucidates the mechanisms of interpenetration among them. Systematic Knowledge Research (iv grasps the dynamic of various forms of knowledge and their interplay, and (v describes the practices and the manifestations of knowledge. Systematic Knowledge Research provides analyses and suggestions for modeling each of the five fields as well as their interconnections. Because of these objectives Systematic Knowledge Research is different from both the traditional theory of knowledge and the varieties of science studies and meets the current desideratum to systematically broaden and revise the territory of epistemology.

  3. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  4. Knowledge to Manage the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to make evident the inadequateness of concepts and language based on industrial knowledge still used in current practices by managers to cope with problems of the post-industrial societies characterised by non-linear process of emergence and acquisition of properties. The purpose is to allow management to…

  5. Knowledge Work and Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address how instruction influences the creative knowledge work. Based on different perspectives on instructions and the actions followed, this paper reveal how educators, having different competencies of ICT-instructions, influence students’ creative knowledge work......, and students’ knowledge creation....

  6. Knowledge cycle and strategic knowledge within company

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  7. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  8. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  9. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  10. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...

  11. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating......Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...

  12. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O'Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  13. Disappearing knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nišavić Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the exposition of the basic standpoints of contextualism in relation to invariantistic position, which takes the concept of knowledge in its rigorous and fixed meaning, the text continues to deal with the analysis of the concept of knowledge offered by David Lewis, with a goal to solve common epistemological problems, one of those being the lottery paradox. Accepting fallibilism as the only plausible option regarding the possibility of acquiring knowledge, Lewis claims that, with the postulated rules that allow us to properly eliminate alternative possibilities, it is possible to resolve the previously mentioned paradox. If we want to base knowledge on probability, and not on certainty, and to directly stipulate it with the context in which it is being imposed or expressed, than it is obvious that knowledge will depend on whether the requirements for knowledge are high or low. Thus, in one case it might occur that we have knowledge, and in the other that we do not, even though nothing is changed except the conversational conditions that are already ”in the game”. Such, elusive knowledge, that gets lost, De Rose labels ”now you know it, now you don’t” and considers it to be a direct consequence of Lewis’s analysis. As such, the analysis should not be accepted.

  14. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  15. Outcome knowledge and false belief

    OpenAIRE

    Siba eGhrear; Susan eBirch; Daniel eBernstein

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind’. Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of theory of mind. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closi...

  16. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  17. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world......; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case...

  18. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  19. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  20. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...

  1. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  2. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis iden...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  3. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  4. Vocabulary knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严爽

    2016-01-01

    Knowing a word refers to more than just a matter of knowing its form, meaning, pronunciation and spelling. It also refers to one's knowledge of the relationships the word is involved in, such as its collocations, semantic associations and so on. Words are not isolated entities. This paper focuses on vocabulary knowledge and helps us get an idea of what needs to be learned and the process of English vocabulary learning.

  5. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  6. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  7. Las aventuras de Alicia en el maravilloso mundo del conocimiento: el camino hacia la actual alfabetización Alice's adventures in the wonderland of knowledge: the path to current literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanz-Valero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alicia quiere estudiar con libros divertidos y llenos de dibujos de colores. El cuento de "Alicia en el país de las maravillas" sirve como excusa para introducir y discutir la importancia actual de la alfabetización digital y cómo las tecnologías de la comunicación e información han modificado la forma de trasmitir y divulgar el conocimiento. Para reflexionar, como corolario, que en la actualidad Alicia tendría acceso a un montón de bonitos documentos multimedia, de mayor o menor calidad, a través de múltiples caminos. Sin embargo, conocer su verdadero valor y aptitud es un privilegio que por su incipiente formación aún no ha alcanzado. ¡Este es su reto!Alice wants to study with amusing books filled with colorful drawings. "Alice's adventures in Wonderland" serves as excuse to introduce and discuss the current importance of digital literacy and how communication and information technologies have changed the way of transmitting and disseminating knowledge. Considering as a corollary, Alice today would have access to a multitude of beautiful multimedia documents, of greater or lesser quality, available through multiple paths. However, given her incipient education, knowing their true worth and aptitude is a privilege she has yet to obtain. This is her challenge!

  8. PRAGMATIC KNOWLEDGE OR NOBLE KNOWLEDGE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MANOLESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Disputes about the opportunity to introduce competence-based education are increasingly present in terms of educational policies and strategies. Obviously, in the last decade and a half, several countries have introduced competence based education. Although specific knowledge acquisition should be an essential component of student learning, assessing such knowledge in adult life depends largely on the individual purchase of more general concepts and skills. The article discusses pragmatic knowledge and noble knowledge. This is a collective dilemma, to the extent that the education system lives in the tension between the two logics. The two positions or divergent attitudes can coexist as long ast hey do not become extremist. Educational dilemma is especially now a priority.

  9. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions f...

  10. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...

  11. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also......-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...... on such an opportunity, than a strong tie would be. Furthermore, a number of organizational enablers for this open inter-organizational search and knowledge brokering strategy are identified. The main arguments point to the role of a general technological competence and the R&D department being the networking department....

  12. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  13. Current knowledge and perspectives for the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in oral and maxillofacial surgery part 1: Periodontal and dentoalveolar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, Marco; Vervelle, Alain; Simonpieri, Alain; Jimbo, Ryo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2012-06-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are innovative tools of regenerative medicine, and were widely tested in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Unfortunately, the literature on the topic is contradictory and the published data are difficult to sort and interpret. In periodontology and dentoalveolar surgery, the literature is particularly dense about the use of the various forms of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) - Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP) or Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP) - but still limited about Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) subfamilies. In this first article, we describe and discuss the current published knowledge about the use of PRP and PRF during tooth avulsion or extraction, mucogingival surgery, Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) or bone filling of periodontal intrabony defects, and regeneration of alveolar ridges using Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR), in a comprehensive way and in order to avoid the traps of a confusing literature and to highlight the underlying universal mechanisms of these products. Finally, we particularly insist on the perspectives in this field, through the description and illustration of the systematic use of L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet- Rich Fibrin) clots and membranes during tooth avulsion, cyst exeresis or the treatment of gingival recessions by root coverage. The use of L-PRF also allowed to define new therapeutic principles: NTR (Natural Tissue Regeneration) for the treatment of periodontal intrabony lesions and Natural Bone Regeneration (NBR) for the reconstruction of the alveolar ridges. In periodontology, this field of research will soon find his golden age by the development of user-friendly platelet concentrate procedures, and the definition of new efficient concepts and clinical protocols.

  14. Knowledge Granularity and Representation of Knowledge: Towards Knowledge Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Mach, Maria A.; Owoc, Mieczyslaw L.

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Knowledge granularity, usually identified with the size of knowledge granules, seems to be real challenge for knowledge consumers as well as for knowledge creators. In this paper, relationships between knowledge granularity as a result of different ways of a knowledge representation are considered. The paper deals with the problem of developing knowledge grid in the context of encapsulation of knowledge including different dimensions and measures. The origin of the pro...

  15. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able t...

  16. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  17. Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

  18. Knowledge Management Analysis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecha, Ezi I.; Desai, Mayur S.; Richards, Thomas C.

    2009-01-01

    It is imperative for businesses to manage knowledge and stay competitive in the marketplace. Knowledge management is critical and is a key to prevent organizations from duplicating their efforts with a subsequent improvement in their efficiency. This study focuses on overview of knowledge management, analyzes the current knowledge management in…

  19. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  20. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT TOOLS FOR THE EUROPEAN KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona – Diana Leon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly more literature mention that in the current competitive environment, knowledge have become the main source of the competitive advantages, while recent researches regarding economic growth and development have defined knowledge as being the most critical resource of the emerging countries.Therefore, the organizations interest for knowledge has increased, the latter being defined as knowledge management process in order to meet existing needs, to identify and exploit existing and/or acquired knowledge and developing new opportunities.In other words, knowledge management facilitates productive information usage, intelligence growth, storing intellectual capital, strategic planning, flexible acquisition, collection of best practices, increasing the likelihood of being successful as well as a more productive collaboration within the company.In order to benefit from all these advantages, it is required the usage of specific tools including models and systems to stimulate the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge held by each employee and the organization as a whole.

  1. Investigation and analysis of the current cognition status of anesthesia-related knowledge for surgical nurses%外科护士对麻醉相关知识认知现状调查与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭琳; 沈祎蕾; 韩文军

    2016-01-01

    目的 调查并分析某三级甲等医院外科病房护士对麻醉相关知识的掌握情况及其影响因素,为围麻醉期护理管理提供参考. 方法 采用问卷调查法,对上海市某三级甲等综合性医院12个手术科室的护士进行麻醉相关知识调查.调查问卷在文献回顾基础上结合围麻醉期护理常规自行设计,经专家评议和预调查内容效度系数为0.90,信度系数为0.81~0.92.采用整群抽样法,调查所有符合纳入标准的330名护士. 结果 问卷的回收与有效率均为98.18%.324名外科护士对麻醉相关知识的平均得分,折合百分制后为(32±14)分;各维度得分由高至低依次为:麻醉前准备(54±29)分、麻醉后护理要点(31±18)分和基本概念(18±30)分.单因素方差分析显示:学历、职称、年龄、工作年限、科室、是否接受过麻醉课程培训均影响到护士的麻醉相关知识得分且差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而进一步多元回归分析显示,仅年龄、科室以及是否参加过培训进入回归方程,可解释其总变异的35.6%. 结论 建议依据外科护士所在的科室、年资、培训经历等,有的放矢地实施围麻醉期的理论与技能培训,通过多途径系统化培训提高其对麻醉相关知识的认知水平和参与围麻醉期患者管理的能力,从而确保其能够为围麻醉期患者提供更为安全、专业的预见性护理.%Objective To investigate and analysis of the current cognition status of surgical nurses' anesthesia-related knowledge in a certain hospital at the level of grade Ⅲ class A in Shanghai,and to provide a scientific basis for perianesthesia nursing management.Methods Using questionnaires,330 nurses from 12 surgical departments were investigated with their informed consent.Questionnaire was self-designed based on the literature review combined with the perianesthesia care and the validity is 0.90,reliability is 0.81-0.92.Results Both the questionnaire

  2. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas...... his critical attitude has become superseded. A critical discussion on the heritage from Bacon leads to a focus on the concepts of truth, utility, and goodness. Unification of skills and Bildung, it is stated, should imply the ability to deal explicitly with these concepts and their interrelations....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  3. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also...... includes a perspective on the strength of the organizational relation. In this paper, an in-depth case study of a High-Tech-Small-Firm (HTSF) is presented. By combining the literature on inter-organizational search and social networks, the study contributes by showing the implications of an inter......-organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...

  4. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  5. Emotion Processes in Knowledge Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevors, Gregory J.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Butterfuss, Reese

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a number of insights have been gained into the cognitive processes that explain how individuals overcome misconceptions and revise their previously acquired incorrect knowledge. The current study complements this line of research by investigating the moment-by-moment emotion processes that occur during knowledge revision using a…

  6. Current knowledge and perspectives for the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in oral and maxillofacial surgery part 2: Bone graft, implant and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonpieri, Alain; Del Corso, Marco; Vervelle, Alain; Jimbo, Ryo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Dohan Ehrenfest, David M

    2012-06-01

    Platelet concentrates for surgical use are innovative tools of regenerative medicine, and were widely tested in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Unfortunately, the literature on the topic is contradictory and the published data are difficult to sort and interpret. In bone graft, implant and reconstructive surgery, the literature is particularly dense about the use of the various forms of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) - Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP) or Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP) - but still limited about Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) subfamilies. In this second article, we describe and discuss the current published knowledge about the use of PRP and PRF during implant placement (particularly as surface treatment for the stimulation of osseointegration), the treatment of peri-implant bone defects (after peri-implantitis, during implantation in an insufficient bone volume or during immediate post-extraction or post-avulsion implantation), the sinuslift procedures and various complex implant-supported treatments. Other potential applications of the platelet concentrates are also highlighted in maxillofacial reconstructive surgery, for the treatment of patients using bisphosphonates, anticoagulants or with post-tumoral irradiated maxilla. Finally, we particularly insist on the perspectives in this field, through the description and illustration of the use of L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin) clots and membranes during the regeneration of peri-implant bone defects, during the sinus-lift procedure and during complex implant-supported rehabilitations. The use of L-PRF allowed to define a new therapeutic concept called the Natural Bone Regeneration (NBR) for the reconstruction of the alveolar ridges at the gingival and bone levels. As it is illustrated in this article, the NBR principles allow to push away some technical limits of global implant-supported rehabilitations, particularly when combined with other powerful biotechnological tools

  7. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    at different bureaucratic levels and among researchers in university departments and research institutes. Researchers had a range of disciplinary backgrounds, in anthropology, sociology, public health, education and health economy, all bringing different ideas about the construction of knowledge to health...... promotion. These actors shared a working style formed by ‘reflexivity’, implying thoughtful considerations on a broad range of factors relevant for decisions in policymaking as well as in research. I suggest that this reflexivity is based in an academic culture that has crept into policymaking as a result...

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Hypertension among Antihypertensive Medication Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakti Shrestha

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: The current knowledge, attitude and practice among hypertensive patients using antihypertensive medication can be improved. Keywords: attitude; hypertension; knowledge; practice. | PubMed

  9. Nutrition knowledge and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, J; Parmenter, K; Waller, J

    2000-06-01

    In many studies, correlations between nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour have failed to reach statistical significance, leading researchers to question the relevance of nutrition knowledge to food choice, and the value of nutrition education campaigns. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between knowledge and intake of fat, fruit and vegetables using a well-validated measure of nutrition knowledge. The study was a postal survey, using 1040 adult participants selected at random from General Practitioners' lists in England. Nutrition knowledge and food intake followed the expected demographic patterns. Knowledge was significantly associated with healthy eating, and the effect persisted after controlling for demographic variables. Logistic regression showed that respondents in the highest quintile for knowledge were almost 25 times more likely to meet current recommendations for fruit, vegetable and fat intake than those in the lowest quintile. Nutrition knowledge was shown to be a partial mediator of the socio-demographic variation in intake, especially for fruit and vegetables. This demonstrates the value of using more sophisticated statistical techniques to investigate associations between knowledge and food intake and indicates that knowledge is an important factor in explaining variations in food choice. The results support the likely value of including nutrition knowledge as a target for health education campaigns aimed at promoting healthy eating.

  10. Knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon; Hardahl, Nicolai; Hvid, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    , the change process has encountered ups and downs that are easily forgotten in the post-rationalization process that characterizes successes. Starting from the realization that current Enterprise Architecture (EA) literature is quite scant regarding detail accounts of successful maturity processes...

  11. Knowledge Technology Applications for Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Kent

    2000-01-01

    We investigate how the knowledge in knowledge technology applications for knowledge management can be represented to let the user directly manage the knowledge content of the applications. In paper I we design a representation of diagnosis knowledge that allows the user to add new components and inspect the function of the device. The representation allows an integration of model based knowledge with compiled and heuristic knowledge so that the device and its function can be represented a sui...

  12. Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2003-02-01

    Schools are expected to lay the foundation upon which knowledge can be built and equip students with the tools necessary to accomplish the construction. The role of the teacher in this building process is crucial to the type of structure the student can build. Whether you call it constructivism, discussion teaching, project-based learning, inquiry learning, or any of the other names given to the instructional strategies being suggested by education researchers, the key is getting students to become active participants in the process. While some students may be able to learn from eloquently delivered lectures and dynamic demonstrations, the majority of students cannot effectively retain and apply ideas communicated in this manner.

  13. Method and Application of Comprehensive Knowledge Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHA Zongyao; BIAN Fuling

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes the principle of comprehensive knowledge discovery. Unlike most of the current knowledge discovery methods, the comprehensive knowledge discovery considers both the spatial relations and attributes of spatial entities or objects. We introduce the theory of spatial knowledge expression system and some concepts including comprehensive knowledge discovery and spatial union information table(SUIT). In theory, SUIT records all information contained in the studied objects, but in reality, because of the complexity and varieties of spatial relations,only those factors of interest to us are selected. In order to find out the comprehensive knowledge from spatial databases, an efficient comprehensive knowledge discovery algorithm called recycled algorithm (RAR) is suggested.

  14. Construction of a Conceptualization of Personal Knowledge within a Knowledge Management Perspective Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to construct a conceptualization of personal knowledge within a knowledge management (KM) perspective. The need for the current research was based on the use of just two categories of knowledge, explicit and tacit, within KM literature to explain diverse characteristics of personal…

  15. Construction of a Conceptualization of Personal Knowledge within a Knowledge Management Perspective Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straw, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to construct a conceptualization of personal knowledge within a knowledge management (KM) perspective. The need for the current research was based on the use of just two categories of knowledge, explicit and tacit, within KM literature to explain diverse characteristics of personal…

  16. University, Knowledge and Regional Development: Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in a Developing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongwa, Neba Samuel; Marais, Lochner

    2016-01-01

    The role of knowledge in the current knowledge economy cannot be overly emphasised. Successful regions are continuously being linked to excellence in the production, accumulation, and application of knowledge. Universities have increasingly been at the centre of such knowledge production, application and transfer. Yet, there is little research and…

  17. University, Knowledge and Regional Development: Factors Affecting Knowledge Transfer in a Developing Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongwa, Neba Samuel; Marais, Lochner

    2016-01-01

    The role of knowledge in the current knowledge economy cannot be overly emphasised. Successful regions are continuously being linked to excellence in the production, accumulation, and application of knowledge. Universities have increasingly been at the centre of such knowledge production, application and transfer. Yet, there is little research and…

  18. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  19. Collaborative Knowledge Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the conditions for working with collaborative research in current academic settings. On the basis of reflections on goals, challenges and results of earlier projects, the author looks into how economic and political shifts and transformations in work have...... changed the conditions for shared knowledge production with the institutionalization of neo-liberal discourse of the knowledge economy as managerial regimes. She questions if context-specific enactments of the discourse of participation can be handled, when neoliberal managerial regimes guide research...... activities and other working practices and the identities of academics and other professionals who are inscribed as subjects in these regimes. The conclusion is, that we have to look for cracks in the wall and insist on collaborative research because it is it the process of “being in relation that forms...

  20. School Nurses' Knowledge of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine school nurses' working knowledge of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current knowledge of school nurses was investigated by means of a mixed-method exploratory descriptive pilot study. Instrumentation included a scale that measured the knowledge of school nurses in regard to ASD, including medication…

  1. Intra-firm Horizontal Knowledge Transfer Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yaowu; WANG Yanhang

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge transfer is widely emphasized as a strategic issue for firm competition. A model for intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer is proposed to model horizontal knowledge transfer to solve some demerits in current knowledge transfer researches. The concept model of intra-firm horizontal knowledge transfer was described and a framework was provided to define the main components of thetransfer process. Horizontal knowledge transfer is that knowledge is transferred from the source to the same hierarchical level recipients as the target. Horizontal knowledge transfer constitutes a strategic area of knowledge management research. However, little is known about the circumstances under which one particular mechanism is the most appropriate. To address these issues, some significant conclusions are drawn concerning knowledge transfer mechanisms in a real-world setting.

  2. Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Akshey; Michailova, Snejina

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study of the knowledge-sharing difficulties experienced by three departments in a knowledge-intensive firm. The case organization is a global consulting firm that has been on the forefront of knowledge management and has won several knowledge management related international accla...

  3. Outcome Knowledge and False Belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrear, Siba E; Birch, Susan A J; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or 'theory of mind (ToM).' Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge). In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of ToM. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan.

  4. Outcome knowledge and false belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siba eGhrear

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Virtually every social interaction involves reasoning about the perspectives of others, or ‘theory of mind’. Previous research suggests that it is difficult to ignore our current knowledge when reasoning about a more naïve perspective (i.e., the curse of knowledge. In this Mini Review, we discuss the implications of the curse of knowledge for certain aspects of theory of mind. Particularly, we examine how the curse of knowledge influences key measurements of false belief reasoning. In closing, we touch on the need to develop new measurement tools to discern the mechanisms involved in the curse of knowledge and false belief reasoning, and how they develop across the lifespan.

  5. On Knowledge Workers in the Knowledge Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yu-wei; WANG Shu-hong

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a study on our present knowledge society and knowledge workers. After analyzing the reason that knowledge workers are the newly emerging dominant group in this knowledge society, it gets to the point that the real leadership in the age of knowledge are knowledge workers. Yet, they have to actively organize and learn together, otherwise, they would be same as the workers of industrial model. Only through organizational learning can knowledge workers turn into a very innovative learning organization dancing with the unexpected.

  6. Assessing Knowledge in Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.; Strømgren, Ole; Sato, Toyoko

    2013-01-01

    The Synopsis–Based Oral Examination (S–BOE) is described as deployed in international management education programs in a Danish business school. It assesses students in light of specified learning objectives through time–constrained presentation and dialogue. The format is premised on prior...... submission of a synopsis, although the synopsis has no bearing on grade assessment. Practitioner experience and student feedback suggest that students experience this type of examination as an important learning experience, in itself, in addition to testing course–related knowledge. We reviewed the current...

  7. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  8. Knowledge Management in E-Learning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica MIHALCA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge management systems focus on knowledge acquisition, storage, retrieval and maintenance. Yet, for that knowledge to be operational, to become knowledge rather than information, requires internalization and learning. E- learning systems and courseware, on the other hand, are all too often monolithic and inert and fail to facilitate the development and sharing of knowledge. In this paper we discuss some aspects about knowledge providing and present our research in this field through an e-learning system for major risks management.

  9. A Knowledge Economy Assessment of Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This knowledge economy assessment of Qatar ranks it using the following indices: the Knowledge Economy Index (KEI), Knowledge Index, Economic Incentive and Institutional Regime, Education, Innovation and Information Infrastructure (ICT). The assessment compares Quatar to the rest of the 131 countries in the Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM). In more detail, it is compared to Finland, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Singapore and United Arab Emirates. Qatar s current KEI is 5.83. It ranks higher th...

  10. Organizational Politics, Social Network, and Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Kang, Sora; Lee, Jongwon

    This research identifies the social relationship and structure among members as well as organization’s political inclination, through which, it also identifies the current status of knowledge management. The result shows that the socio-technological factors (individual, knowledge and IT factors) affect knowledge transfer and the knowledge transfer influences performance and that the members’ relationship based on the political inclination of the organization has a major moderating effect on the above two relation.

  11. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  12. Survey on current knowledge and demands of reproductive health among male migrant workers%企业男性流动人口生殖健康认知现况和服务需求调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the status of knowledge and demands of reproductive health service among male migrant workers and provide the evidences for the optimal comprehensive intervention pattern. Methods; A total of 533 male migrant workers in Zhongshan city were interviewed with a questionnaire including general demography characteristics, sex activities,' knowledge and demands of reproductive health service. Results; About 87.1 percent of the participants desired regular sex ac- -tivity. The mean score of reproductive health knowledge for unmarried and married workers was 5.32 and 6.28, respectively, showing significant difference (P < 0.01). The results of logistic regression analysis suggested the scores were statistically influenced by marital status, educational level, with sex partner or not, contraceptive use or not, with unexpected pregnance or not and willing of taking part in reproductive health education for male migrant workers. Among them, 73.7 percent had never-obtained sexual and reproductive health education or contraceptive consulting services in their transient living areas. About 94. 52 percent of them wanted to participate reproductive health education, especially consulting services. Conclusion; The awareness of sexual and reproductive health is lower among male migrant workers. They eager for specific contraceptive and reproductive knowledge and personalized reproductive health services.%目的:了解外来男性生殖健康认知现况及服务需求,探讨相关影响因素,为建立最佳综合干预模式提供参考.方法:对中山市企业外来533名男性进行面访式问卷调查.结果:87.1%的男性渴望有规律性生活.性与生殖健康知识得分未婚男性(5.32±1.94)低于已婚男性(6.28±2.57) (P <0.01).logistic回归分析结果提示婚姻状况、文化程度、有无性伴侣、是否使用过避孕措施、有无导致性伴侣意外妊娠、是否愿意参加性与生殖健康宣教等影响调查男性的

  13. Metaphors for Knowledge in Knowledge Intensive Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We live in a knowledge society. This fact places certain demands on education, cooperation, knowledge sharing, knowledge transfer, knowledge workers, knowledge communication and on management. However it also places demands on our perception of knowledge. Theory would suggest a number of differen...... using metaphors as tools for understanding employees and their attitude and feelings in e.g. change processes and strategy work. Thus the perspective is dual. Metaphors in organizational development and management can act as both tools for communication and tools for understanding...

  14. Research on Current Situation of Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Elite Paddlers in Guangdong Province%广东省优秀划船运动员营养知信行的现状调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康琰琰; 张援; 孙娟; 陈颖; 官凌菊

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解广东省划船运动员营养知识(Knowledge)、态度(Attitude)、行为(Practice)(简称 KAP)情况及相关影响因素,为制定科学的营养教育方案,实施有效的营养干预措施提供科学依据。方法:对广东省运动队79名优秀划船运动员进行膳食营养 KAP 调查。结果:划船运动员营养知识掌握较为欠缺;营养态度整体表现较好,部分男子皮划艇运动员营养态度不够端正,需要加以正确引导;营养行为情况良好,但仍存在一些问题,主要表现为营养素摄入不均衡、零食不当、三餐餐次不合理等方面。划船运动员营养知识与态度,营养态度与行为均呈非常显著正相关(p <0.01);KAP 总分与文化程度呈显著正相关(p <0.05)。结论:把运动员管理和餐厅膳食管理进行有效结合,使营养教育及膳食营养调控真正起到事半功倍的效果。%This paper aims to provide a scientific base for setting up nutrition education programs and carrying out effective intervening measures on nutrition by studying the affecting factors of paddlers 'nutrition knowledge, aptitude and practice with an investigation of 79 elite paddlers 'KAP.The results show that,on the whole, paddlers'attitude and practice of nutrition is remarkable,but they lack nutrition knowledge and some peddlers'poor attitudes need guidance.Problems also occur in their practice,such as imbalance of nutrition intake,snacks and three meals.Remarkable positive correlations (p <0.01)prove to exist between paddlers'nutrition knowledge and attitudes,between nutrition attitudes and practice.The whole score of KAP is also positively correlated (p <0.05)with paddlers'education.The paper concludes that an effective combination of paddlers'management with dieting will yield greater efforts on nutrition education and balance.

  15. Knowledge management: organizing nursing care knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jane A; Willson, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Almost everything we do in nursing is based on our knowledge. In 1984, Benner (From Novice to Expert: Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park, CA: Addison-Wesley; 1984) described nursing knowledge as the culmination of practical experience and evidence from research, which over time becomes the "know-how" of clinical experience. This "know-how" knowledge asset is dynamic and initially develops in the novice critical care nurse, expands within competent and proficient nurses, and is actualized in the expert intensive care nurse. Collectively, practical "know-how" and investigational (evidence-based) knowledge culminate into the "knowledge of caring" that defines the profession of nursing. The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of knowledge management as a framework for identifying, organizing, analyzing, and translating nursing knowledge into daily practice. Knowledge management is described in a model case and implemented in a nursing research project.

  16. Overcoming knowledge stickiness in scientific knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Deborah; Benson, Angela M

    2012-07-01

    This paper explores the transfer and dissemination of knowledge between scientists, the volunteers who collect the knowledge and the communities which learn from it in order to implement change. The role of knowledge "stickiness" in the reduction of knowledge transfer is outlined. The characteristics of the knowledge and the situation combine to develop a range of factors, "stickiness predictors," which can deter knowledge transfer. These stickiness predictors are used to analyse data gathered from three qualitative cases, which were developed from both participant observation and semi-structured interviews studying the interactions between the scientists, volunteers and organisations. A reconsideration of the way that knowledge and knowledge transfer are being conceptualised by scientists is proposed, in order to enable "stickiness" factors to be recognised and managed, thereby increasing the potential for scientific literacy. A move towards a more broadly constituted community of practice is proposed.

  17. Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization...

  18. Knowledge Based Strategies for Knowledge Based Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In the present, we can observe that a new economy is arising. It is an economy based on knowledge and ideas, in which the key factor for prosperity and for creation of the new jobs is the knowledge capitalization. Knowledge capitalization, intellectual capital, obtaining prosperity in the market economy imposes a new terminology, new managerial methods and techniques, new technologies and also new strategies. In other words, knowledge based economy, as a new type of economy; impose a new type...

  19. Inferential knowledge, externalism and self-knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    R G Ford

    2004-01-01

    Privileged self-knowledge says, roughly, that we have non-empirical knowledge of our own thoughts. Externalism about mental content says, roughly, that our mental states are determined at least in part by our environment. It has been alleged that jointly assuming externalism about mental content and privileged self-knowledge are true has the consequence that any subject can have non-empirical knowledge of her own environment and this is intuitively absurd. The thesis investigates in various w...

  20. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Hoc Tan; Smith-Keune, Carolyn; Wolanski, Eric; Jones, Clive M; Jerry, Dean R

    2015-01-01

    Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798) in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003). A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  1. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoc Tan Dao

    Full Text Available Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798 in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003. A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  2. Estado de conocimiento de las concentraciones de cadmio, mercurio y plomo en organismos acuáticos de Venezuela - Current state of knowledge of the concentrations of cadmium, mercury and lead from aquatic organisms of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salazar Lugo, Raquel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn Venezuela, la contaminación por metales pesados está relacionadacon el desarrollo de la industria siderúrgica y petrolera, así como a la explotación indiscriminada de otros metales como el oro. Está bastante documentada la contaminación del lago de Maracaibo dado al desarrollo en sus cercanías de actividades urbanas, industriales, mineras y agropecuarias; del lago de Valencia, del río Tuy, Orinoco y Manzanares, entre otros En este trabajo se revisa el estado de conocimiento, en los últimos 10 años, de la concentración de plomo, cadmio y mercurio en especies acuáticas de diferentes áreas del País.SummaryContamination due to trace metals in Venezuela is related withindiscriminate exploitation of metals like gold, transport of river runoff, oil and siderurgica industries and urban zones. The Tuy, Orinoco, Tigre, Manzanares rivers and others basins as Valencia and Maracaibo lakes has been reported as polluted for many years. In this work, we reviewed the state of knowledge, in the last 10 years, of metals concentrations specially lead, cadmium and mercury, in aquatic species from diverse areas of country.

  3. Knowledge Management, Codification and Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method: The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who…

  4. A further contribution to the knowledge of two inadequately known species of geophilid centipedes from the Andes of South-Central Chile, currently assigned to the genus Plateurytion Attems, 1909 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2015-10-06

    Two poorly known species of geophilid centipedes from the Andes of South-Central Chile, i.e., Plateurytion mundus (Chamberlin, 1955) and Plateurytion zapallar (Chamberlin, 1955) (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha), are herein redescribed and illustrated after type specimens of both taxa and new material of the latter, rectifying the condition of the coxosternites of the second maxillae, which are medially joined through a narrow, hyaline and non-areolate membranous isthmus only (instead of "broadly fused as in Pachymerium", as stated by Chamberlin), this being consistent with the current generic assignment of these species under Plateurytion Attems, 1909. New data on many morphological features of specific value, until now unknown, are also given for both taxa. Plateurytion zapallar is reported for the first time from Coquimbo region, 11 Km N of Los Vilos (Elqui province), Valparaíso region, Quebrada Huaquén, Pichicuy (Petorca province), La Campana National Park (Quillota province), and Quebrada el Tigre, Cachagua (Valparíso province). A key for identification of the South American species currently included in Plateurytion is given.

  5. Discovering Knowledge Through Visual Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, James J.; Cowley, Paula J.; Kuchar, Olga A.; Nowell, Lucy T.; Thomson, Judi R.; Wong, Pak C.

    2001-07-12

    This paper describes a vision for the near future in digital content analysis as it relates to the creation, verification, and presentation of knowledge. This paper focuses on how visualization enables humans to gain knowledge. Visualization, in this context, is not just the picture representing the data, but a two-way interaction between the human and their information resources for the purposes of knowledge discovery, verification, and the sharing of knowledge with others. We present PNNL-developed software to demonstrate how current technology can use visualization tools to analyze large diverse collections of text. This will be followed by lessons learned and the presentation of a core concept for a new human information discourse.

  6. Manufacturing in the knowledge economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis; Winther, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies stress the relevance of a broad conceptualization of the knowledge economy which goes beyond the strong, current policy focus on high-tech industries. Today, low-tech industries continue to have a significant role in European manufacturing in terms of employment, value added......-tech industries. This calls for a rethinking of manufacturing’s position in contemporary capitalism and a redefinition of the central categories based on research and development (R & D) intensity that dominate the debate on the knowledge economy....... and export. However, the character and activities of these industries are profoundly changing as they become increasingly knowledge intensive. Thus, innovation processes and knowledge production in manufacturing are much more complex than suggested by the classic division into high-, medium-and low...

  7. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  8. The Politics of Management Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Stewart R., Ed.; Palmer, Gill, Ed.

    This book recognizes the political nature of management knowledge, as a discourse produced from, and reproducing, power processes within and between organizations. Critical examinations of certain current management theories--lean production, excellence, entrepreneurship--are examples of relations of power that intermingle with relations of…

  9. Librarians' Attitudes toward Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Noa

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an understanding of the factors that support or constrain the individual's sharing knowledge in the organization. The current study seeks to explore whether personality (self-efficacy and self-esteem) and situational (cognitive appraisal: threat versus challenge) characteristics influence participants'…

  10. Expert and Knowledge Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaid, Adrian; Edwards, Lyndon

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature and current state of knowledge-based systems and expert systems. Describes an expert system from the viewpoints of a computer programmer and an applications expert. Addresses concerns related to materials selection and forecasts future developments in the teaching of materials engineering. (ML)

  11. Proposing a Knowledge Base for Teaching Academic Content to English Language Learners: Disciplinary Linguistic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkan, Sultan; De Oliveira, Luciana C.; Lee, Okhee; Phelps, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: The current research on teacher knowledge and teacher accountability falls short on information about what teacher knowledge base could guide preparation and accountability of the mainstream teachers for meeting the academic needs of ELLs. Most recently, research on specialized knowledge for teaching has offered ways to…

  12. The Influence of Relational Knowledge and Executive Function on Preschoolers' Repeating Pattern Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Loehr, Abbey M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Children's knowledge of repeating patterns (e.g., ABBABB) is a central component of early mathematics, but the developmental mechanisms underlying this knowledge are currently unknown. We sought clarity on the importance of relational knowledge and executive function (EF) to preschoolers' understanding of repeating patterns. One hundred…

  13. Conocimiento actual sobre la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens en el estado de Durango, México Current status of knowledge on the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis annectens in Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Charre-Medellín

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se revisó el estado del conocimiento sobre la distribución de la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis para el estado de Durango, México, con base en bibliografía previa y 2 nuevos registros basados en excretas. Sólo 3 de los reportes históricos disponibles estuvieron documentados con evidencia física u observaciones. El análisis de las excretas reveló principalmente restos de peces, en su mayoría nativos. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus y Scartomyzon austrinus no se habían registrado previamente en la dieta de L. longicaudis en México. La presencia de la nutria neotropical en las partes altas y media de 3 grandes cuencas (Mezquital-San Pedro, Nazas y Grande de Santiago apunta a la importancia de preservar las cabeceras de estos ríos, donde la nutria puede persistir aún cuando sus partes bajas tengan un fuerte efecto antropogénico.An update on the state of knowledge on the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis for the state of Durango, Mexico is presented based on the revision of literature reports and the addition of 2 new records. Upon revision, only 3 of the previous reports are supported by physical evidence or observations; and 2 more are newly documented records based on scats. Analysis of these samples indicated that the main items consumed by otters in Durango were mostly native fishes. Catostomus plebeius, Campostoma ornatum, Gila conspersa, Carassius auratus and Scartomyzon austrinus had not been recorded previously in the neotropical otter's diet. Neotropical otters are able to persist at the headwaters of at least 3 major basins (San Pedro-Mezquital, Nazas, and Grande de Santiago even though strong anthropogenic disturbances have already occurred downstream, thus pointing to the need of effective conservation strategies for these areas.

  14. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  15. From Knowledge to Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Møller, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    of a greater process of bringing knowledge to action, encompassing the social and organisational contexts of research utilisation. The article concludes by stating that knowledge portals have the potential to be effective instruments in knowledge-to-action processes. The two main challenges, however......In recent years, focus has been on the utilisation of research-based knowledge and evidence in social work policy and practice in order to make it more effective. A part of this process has been the launch of knowledge portals to make use of knowledge from research. In this article, we investigate...... how knowledge portals about vulnerable children and youth present knowledge and evidence, and how they try to work as ?knowledge brokers? or intermediaries of evidence. We argue that knowledge portals are not merely channels for dissemination of knowledge. Knowledge portals could be considered as part...

  16. Parallel retrieval and application to conceptual knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, C.P.; Dyer, M.

    1987-01-01

    Humans have the ability to recognize and reason about a wide variety of social behaviors in their fellows: deception, professional relationships, goal seeking, argumentation, etc. Much of this ability is centered around our ability to manipulate conceptual knowledge. There have been a number of computer programs which have demonstrated the capability to use conceptual knowledge as modeled by data structures in symbolic languages. Three fundamental problems are knowledge representation, knowledge access (i.e. which knowledge structures to activate) and knowledge application to specific instances (i.e. which symbols or roles in the knowledge structures are bound to which objects in the current situation). Although results have been enlightening as to processes underlying the use of conceptual knowledge, they have all been based on serial examination of symbolic data structures. This serial approach is unacceptable as a complete model of human performance. This paper presents a distributed connectionist model which retrieves and applies conceptual structures in parallel.

  17. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    This empirical paper explores knowledge outflow from MNC subsidiaries and its impact on the MNC performance. We develop and test hypotheses derived from literature on MNC knowledge flows integrated with the perspective of knowledge-creating, self-interested MNC subsidiaries. The hypotheses are de...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  18. Big Data Knowledge Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Umar Banuqitah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Big Data (BD era has been arrived. The ascent of big data applications where information accumulation has grown beyond the ability of the present programming instrument to catch, manage and process within tolerable short time. The volume is not only the characteristic that defines big data, but also velocity, variety, and value. Many resources contain BD that should be processed. The biomedical research literature is one among many other domains that hides a rich knowledge. MEDLINE is a huge biomedical research database which remain a significantly underutilized source of biological information. Discovering the useful knowledge from such huge corpus leading to many problems related to the type of information such as the related concepts of the domain of texts and the semantic relationship associated with them. In this paper, an agent-based system of two–level for Self-supervised relation extraction from MEDLINE using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS Knowledgebase, has been proposed . The model uses a Self-supervised Approach for Relation Extraction (RE by constructing enhanced training examples using information from UMLS with hybrid text features. The model incorporates Apache Spark and HBase BD technologies with multiple data mining and machine learning technique with the Multi Agent System (MAS. The system shows a better result in comparison with the current state of the art and naïve approach in terms of Accuracy, Precision, Recall and F-score.

  19. Western Hemisphere Knowledge Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. F.

    2001-05-01

    Society in general, and geophysicists in particular, are challenged by problems and opportunities in the prospects for an additional three billion people on finite planet Earth by 2050 in a global economy four to six times larger than it is at present. A problem was identified by the Pilot Assessment of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): "If we choose to continue our current patterns of use, we face almost certain decline in the ability of ecosystems to yield their broad spectrum of benefits - from clean water to stable climate, fuel wood to food crops, timber to wildlife habitat." This is the issue of environmental sustainability. Another problem is the widening gap in wealth and health between affluent nations and impoverished countries. Every day each of the more than a billion people in the industrial nations produces goods and services worth nearly 60 dollars to meet their basic needs and "wants." This figure increases by about 85 cents annually. Every day each of the 600 million people in the least developed countries produces goods and services worth about 75 cents to meet their basic needs and limited wants. That number grows by less that a penny a day annually. This is the issue of economic prosperity and equity. By harnessing revolutionary technologies in communications to distribute expanding knowledge in the physical, chemical, and geophysical sciences and exploding knowledge in the biological and health sciences, a new vision for world society is brought within reach in The Knowledge Age. It is a society in which all of the basic human needs and an equitable share of human wants can be met while maintaining healthy, attractive, and biologically productive ecosystems. This society is environmentally sustainable, economically prosperous and equitable, and therefore likely to be politically stable. The time has arrived to fashion a strategy to pursue that vision. A knowledge-based and human-centered strategy will involve the discovery, integration, dissemination

  20. Knowledge Repository for Fmea Related Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândea, Gabriela Simona; Kifor, Claudiu Vasile; Cândea, Ciprian

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents innovative usage of knowledge system into Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) process using the ontology to represent the knowledge. Knowledge system is built to serve multi-projects work that nowadays are in place in any manufacturing or services provider, and knowledge must be retained and reused at the company level and not only at project level. The system is following the FMEA methodology and the validation of the concept is compliant with the automotive industry standards published by Automotive Industry Action Group, and not only. Collaboration is assured trough web-based GUI that supports multiple users access at any time

  1. The analyst's knowledge and authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S A

    1998-01-01

    Current controversies about the nature of the knowledge analysts offer their patients and the kinds of authority they can legitimately claim are of central importance in the evolution of psychoanalytic ideas. These controversies reflect deep differences regarding basic assumptions about both epistemology and the nature of mind. An approach to these issues is offered which, it is argued, is closer to broad cultural shifts in thinking about knowledge in general than is the traditional psychoanalytic stance. Implications for theory and clinical practice are explored.

  2. Knowledge and Its Enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

  3. Knowledge at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Sylvia

    1985-01-01

    Activity theory posits that culturally organized actions guide the acquisition and organization of knowledge. This theory was applied to the organization of knowledge within a large milk processing plant. The dairy was found to be organized by social knowledge, yet individuals creatively synthesized several domains of knowledge to organize their…

  4. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  5. Exploring Knowledge Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahoney, Joseph T

    Knowledge governance is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management. In particular, it represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management, and theories of the firm. Knowledge governance considers how...... deployment of governance mechanisms influences knowledge processes: sharing, retaining, and creating knowledge. We survey the papers in this volume of the special issue, and discuss the remaining research challenges....

  6. Knowledge Management and Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The 21 st century is an era of knowledge, know le dge is said to be particularly important. Knowledge and information have become the economy's primary raw material and its most important outcome. Under increas ingly competitive pressure, many enterprises are examining how they can better m anage their knowledge. During the last years, another concept has gained increas ing interest: knowledge management. The emerging field of knowledge management a ddresses the broad processes of locating, organizing, ...

  7. Knowledge Service Engineering Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Kantola, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Covering the emerging field of knowledge service engineering, this groundbreaking handbook outlines how to acquire and utilize knowledge in the 21st century. Drawn on the expertise of the founding faculty member of the world's first university knowledge engineering service department, this book describes what knowledge services engineering means and how it is different from service engineering and service production. Presenting multiple cultural aspects including US, Finnish, and Korean, this handbook provides engineering, systemic, industry, and consumer use viewpoints to knowledge service sy

  8. Recovery room nurses' knowledge regarding postoperative airway ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    patients. Aim: To determine the knowledge of recovery room nurses regarding postoperative airway emergencies in adult patients in private hospitals ..... sia nursing care, as well as current research findings and new technologies in this field.

  9. Educating for the Knowledge Economy? Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…

  10. Educating for the Knowledge Economy? Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…

  11. Assessing Schematic Knowledge of Introductory Probability Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birney, Damian P.; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Plank, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    The ability to identify schematic knowledge is an important goal for both assessment and instruction. In the current paper, schematic knowledge of statistical probability theory is explored from the declarative-procedural framework using multiple methods of assessment. A sample of 90 undergraduate introductory statistics students was required to…

  12. Just Say Know? Schooling the Knowledge Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willinsky, John

    2005-01-01

    This review essay challenges the practice of rooting educational theory in the economic assumptions that underlie the current championing of a knowledge society. It examines the approaches of three recent works: one book, Andy Hargreaves's Teaching in a Knowledge Society, and two edited collections, Barry Smith's Liberal Education in a Knowledge…

  13. Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kenneth R.; De Miranda, Michael A.; Shin, Jinseup

    2009-01-01

    Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) has been embraced by many of the recent educational reform documents as a way of describing the knowledge possessed by expert teachers. These reform documents have also served as guides for educators to develop models of teacher development. However, in the United States, few if any of the current models…

  14. Integrating Economic Knowledge in Data Mining Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniëls, H.A.M.; Feelders, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of knowledge derived from databases depends on many factors. Decision makers often need to convince others about the correctness and effectiveness of knowledge induced from data.The current data mining techniques do not contribute much to this process of persuasion.Part of this

  15. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…

  16. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…

  17. Why Explicit Knowledge Cannot Become Implicit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Bill

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, I review one of the conclusions in Lindseth (2016) published in "Foreign Language Annals." That conclusion suggests that explicit learning and practice (what she called form-focused instruction) somehow help the development of implicit knowledge (or might even become implicit knowledge). I argue for a different…

  18. Estado del conocimieno de las concentraciones de mercurio y otros metales pesados en peces dulceacuícolas de Colombia Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-León Ricardo

    2006-06-01

    fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis y Grundulus bogotensis.One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.

  19. ESTADO DEL CONOCIMIENTO DE LAS CONCENTRACIONES DE MERCURIO Y OTROS METALES PESADOS EN PECES DULCEACUÍCOLAS DE COLOMBIA Current State of Knowledge of the Concentration of Mercury and Other Heavy Metals in Fresh Water Fish in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NÉSTOR JAVIER MANCERA-RODRÍGUEZ

    2006-06-01

    fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis y Grundulus bogotensis.One of the most important environmental problems in the country refers to the indiscriminate use of chemical precursors in illicit activities, the use of heavy metals as mercury in mining activities, the spill of served waters and another type of compound related with the industrial activities of raw and the inadequate agricultural practices. This has led to chemical contamination especially by heavy metals, considered one of the most dangerous for the aquatic ecosystems and the present species in them. Fish have the capacity to store these compounds in their organism in a concentration higher than that in the surrounding environment (water, therefore, their concentration are important indicators of the contamination level, but also this implies that their consumption can become a serious health problem for the populations that feeds from them. The concentration of heavy metals in fish of fresh water is better known in the basin of the Magdalena river, especially in the region of the Mojana and in the marshes of the south of the Department of Bolivar where the levels of contamination by mercury and other metals has been studied due to the development of multiple industrial activities, including gold mining and petrochemical industries. However, little is known in the country about the problem generated by the disposal heavy metals in rivers and lakes and their impact on the fish resource, deterioration of ecosystems and human health. Based in the current norms bio-assays have been used to check the effects of the aquatic contamination on fresh waters fish and the evaluation of at least three parameters (heavy metals, temperature, effluents in eight species of fresh waters fish: Carassius auratus, Oreochromis spp., Piractus brachypomus, Prochilodus magdalenae, Astyanax fasciatus, Colossoma bidens, Gambusia affinis and Grundulus bogotensis.

  20. 医院管理层和相关临床科室营养知识现状调查%Investigation on the current situation of mastery of knowledge of nutrition of hospital management staff and medical personnel of related clinical departments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立勇; 张洁; 孟妍

    2011-01-01

    目的:调查医院管理层和相关临床科室营养科普知识、营养专业知识、临床营养知识的现状.方法:选择山东省30所医院为研究对象,设计调查表,请各所医院的医院管理层和相关临床科室医护人员进行营养学知识问卷调查.调查内容包括一般情况,营养科普知识、营养专业知识、临床营养知识和知识来源及应用.结果:医院管理层和相关临床科室医护人员的临床营养学知识普遍不足,营养科普知识掌握好于营养专业知识和临床营养知识(P<0.01);不同类别医院之间知识掌握情况有显著性差异(P<0.01).不同专业之间知识,掌握有差异,内外科明显优于其他科室(P<0.05).不同职称的医生之间营养学知识答题得分差异无显著性.不同学历之间营养知识的掌握有差异,博士与硕士高于本科及以下学历(P<0.01).结论:我省三级医院管理群体及普通医护人员基础营养、临床营养知识不足,建议医学院校适当增加营养学课程学时,适当增加培训以提高医护人员营养学知识水平及整体医疗素质.%Objective: To investigate the current situation of mastery of popular knowledge of nutrition, professional and clinical knowledge of nutrition of hospital management staff and medical personnel of the related clinical departments. Methods:30 hospitals in Shandong province were selected as the research objects, and hospital management staff and medical personnel of the related clinical departments were investigated by the designed questionnaire which included general information, the channel to gain the popular knowledge of nutrition, professional and clinical knowledge of nutrition and its application. Results: The mastery of clinical knowledge of nutrition of hospital management staff and medical personnel is inadequate. The command of popular knowledge of nutrition was better than that of professional and clinical knowledge of nutrition (P <0. 01 ); the

  1. Reduction zero-knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yunlei; DENG Xiaotie; LEE C. H.; ZHU Hong

    2004-01-01

    The nature of zero-knowledge is re-examined and the evidence for the following belief is shown:the classic simulation based definitions of zero-knowledge(simulation zero-knowledge)may be somewhat too strong to include some "nice" protocols in which the malicious verifier seems to learn nothing but we do not know how to construct a zero-knowledge simulator for it.To overcome this problem a new relaxation of zero-knowledge,reduction zero-knowledge,is introduced.It is shown that reduction zero-knowledge just lies between simulation zero-knowledge and witness indistinguishability.Under the assumption of existence of one-way permutations a 4-round public-coin reduction zero-knowledge proof system for NP is presented and in practice this protocol works in 3 rounds since the first verifier's message can be fixed once and for all.

  2. On Granular Knowledge Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge plays a central role in human and artificial intelligence. One of the key characteristics of knowledge is its structured organization. Knowledge can be and should be presented in multiple levels and multiple views to meet people's needs in different levels of granularities and from different perspectives. In this paper, we stand on the view point of granular computing and provide our understanding on multi-level and multi-view of knowledge through granular knowledge structures (GKS). Representation of granular knowledge structures, operations for building granular knowledge structures and how to use them are investigated. As an illustration, we provide some examples through results from an analysis of proceeding papers. Results show that granular knowledge structures could help users get better understanding of the knowledge source from set theoretical, logical and visual point of views. One may consider using them to meet specific needs or solve certain kinds of problems.

  3. The Knowledge Governance Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize a `knowledge governance approach' as a distinctive, emerging field that cuts across the fields of knowledge management, organisation studies, strategy and human resource management. Knowledge governance is taken up with how the deployment of administrative...... apparatus influences knowledge processes, such as sharing, retaining and creating knowledge. It insists on clear behavioural foundations, adopts an economizing perspective and examines efficient alignment between knowledge transactions with diverse characteristics and governance structures and mechanisms...... with diverse capabilities of handling these transactions. Various open research issues that a knowledge governance approach may illuminate are sketched. Although knowledge governance draws clear inspiration from organizational economics and `rational' organization theory, it recognizes that knowledge...

  4. Reliable knowledge discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Honghua; Smirnov, Evgueni

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Knowledge Discovery focuses on theory, methods, and techniques for RKDD, a new sub-field of KDD. It studies the theory and methods to assure the reliability and trustworthiness of discovered knowledge and to maintain the stability and consistency of knowledge discovery processes. RKDD has a broad spectrum of applications, especially in critical domains like medicine, finance, and military. Reliable Knowledge Discovery also presents methods and techniques for designing robust knowledge-discovery processes. Approaches to assessing the reliability of the discovered knowledge are introduc

  5. The tourism knowledge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tribe, John; Liburd, Janne J.

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual study addresses the significant need for every mature field of knowledge to understand itself. It builds upon previous studies of the epistemology and ontology of tourism by critiquing, synthesising, discarding, re-ordering and adding material. Its contribution is an original...... reconceptualisation of the structure, systems, processes and outcomes that define the field of tourism. These are explained by the creation of a model and detailed analysis that examines knowledge space, the knowledge force-field, knowledge networks, four key domains in knowledge creation and their interrelationships....... Finally the model is used to examine some of the key challenges and consequences that the knowledge system reveals for tourism and its research....

  6. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  7. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  8. 医护人员性健康指导知信行状况及其影响因素%Investigation of current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical staff on sexual health guidance and analysis of influence factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何平; 张安琴; 张蒙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of medical staff among different clinic unit on sexual health guidance,and analyze the influence factors. Methods A self-devetoped KAP questionnaire for medical staff was used, and 460 medical personnel in Chengdu city were investigated. The data were statistically analyzed. Results The scores of KAP of sexual health guidance were tow. There was a significant difference in KAP among different clinic units ( F = l. 063 , 6.746,7.618 for knowledge,attitude and practice,respectively;all P<0. 001) with the best in the department of gynaecotogy. The primary influence factor for guidance behavior was that the patients lacked consulting knowledge. The secondary factor was that medical staff lacked sexual knowledge. Conclusion The most clinical medical staff lack knowledge of sexual health guidance and ignore patients' sexual health problems. The guidance behavior is also limited. Therefore,it will be a tong way for sexual health guidance.%目的 了解医护人员对患者性健康指导现状,分析性健康指导知信行的影响因素.方法 自行设计问卷调查表,调查460名临床医护人员的性健康指导知信情况,并对数据进行分析统计.结果 医护人员对患者性健康指导的知信行分值均偏低;不同科室医护人员在性健康指导知识、态度和行为方面存在差异(F值分别为7.063、6.746和7.618,均P<0.001),妇科在性健康指导方面做得最好(P<0.01);影响健康指导行为的首要因素是没有患者咨询性知识,其次为医护人员性知识缺乏.结论 临床科室医护人员普遍存在性健康指导知识缺乏、忽视患者性健康问题、健康行为受限的诸多问题.性健康教育任重道远.

  9. Current ornithology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of the first volume of a projected series is the occasion for comment on scope, aims, and genesis of the work. The scope of Current Ornithology is all of the biology of birds. Ornithology, as a whole-organism science, is concerned with birds at every level of bi­ ological organization, from the molecular to the community, at least from the Jurassic to the present time, and over every scholarly discipline in which bird biology is done; to say this is merely to expand a dic­ tionary definition of "ornithology. " The aim of the work, to be realized over several volumes, is to present reviews or position statements con­ cerning the active fields of ornithological research. The reviews will be relatively short, and often will be done from the viewpoint of a readily­ identified group or school. Such a work could have come into being at any time within the past fifty years, but that Current Ornithology appears now is a result of events that are only seven to eight years old. One important event wa...

  10. Wild edible plant knowledge, distribution and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Theilade, Ida; Meilby, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    –1985 with WEPs as the main source of food. Major variables possibly determining knowledge and therefore investigated were socio-demographic characteristics, distance to and abundance of natural resources and main source of knowledge transmission. A reference list of species was prepared with the help of three......% of the cases, which led to increased knowledge of plants and ability to recognise them. Conclusions: The WEP survey may serve as a reference point and as a useful compilation of knowledge for the community for their current and future generations. This study shows that the elder and the refugees living...

  11. Evaluating the Knowledge Assets of Innovative Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maen Al-Hawari

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge has long been recognised as a valuable resource for organisational growth and sustained competitive advantage, especially for organisations competing in an uncertain environment (Miller & Shamsie 1987. In the current post-industrial society, knowledge is recognised as a primary source of a company’s wealth. However knowledge assets are much more difficult to identify and measure than are the physical assets with which we are much more familiar. (Boisot 1998 As a company’s innovative capacity may be dependent upon its ability to take advantage of its knowledge assets, it is important to be able to identify and measure those assets. While large companies can afford extensive knowledge management projects, there is a acute need for a method by which managers in smaller organisations can easily and reliably locate, quantify and compare their knowledge assets in order to maximise their potential for innovation. The paper will begin with an overview of current thinking on the topic of Knowledge Management (KM. It will then introduce the three functions of the knowledge life cycle (Bhatt 2000, Tan 2000, the four modes of conversion between tacit and explicit knowledge (Nonaka 1995 and the five knowledge enablers (Von Krogh 2000. The research, reported here, aims to identify, from the literature, a set of knowledge elements that will give a balanced view of knowledge assets across the four modes and five enablers. An integrated model, which is the result of research to date by the authors, will then be defined. This model combines the functions of the knowledge life cycle and Nonaka’s knowledge creation spiral with the notion of I-Space, which has been used to classify information across three dimensions, to form a new model of K-Space, which can be used to classify the knowledge elements. The paper will present this model and discuss the appropriateness of a set of knowledge elements as a means of measuring the knowledge asset of an

  12. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    This empirical paper explores knowledge outflow from MNC subsidiaries and its impact on the MNC performance. We develop and test hypotheses derived from literature on MNC knowledge flows integrated with the perspective of knowledge-creating, self-interested MNC subsidiaries. The hypotheses...... are developed using a simultaneous equation model applied to a unique dataset encompassing a German MNC, HeidelbergCement. Enablers and impediments of knowledge outflows are assessed in order to explain why subsidiaries share their knowledge with other MNC units. Implications are examined by studying the link...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  13. Stop the Knowledge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Faria, Pedro; Sofka, Wolfgang; Shehu, Edlira

    Recent research has given special attention to international knowledge spillovers. Yet, multinational companies (MNCs) subsidiaries are generally treated as passive actors by most studies. We challenge this assumption by investigating the drivers of knowledge protection intensity of MNC...

  14. The Knowledge Explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulding, Kenneth E.

    1970-01-01

    Although human knowledge has expanded rapidly, especially during the scientific era, man is far from the limits of knowledge about the human learning process itself. Greatly increased effort in this area of inquiry is required for survival. (JH)

  15. Testosterone and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men: Current Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieschlag E

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Circumstances of life and food supply have changed in developed countries, resulting in an increasing prevalence of overweight. As a consequence, a complex disorder consisting of visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hypertension emerges: the so-called metabolic syndrome leads to the manifestation of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. In men, testosterone deficiency contributes to the generation of the metabolic syndrome, as demonstrated by epidemiological and interventional approaches. Correspondingly, testosterone substitution in hypogonadal men is able to invalidate the mechanisms of the metabolic syndrome by various pathways. It has reciprocal effects on the generation of muscle and visceral fat tissue by exerting influence on the commitment of pluripotent stem cells. In addition, testosterone inhibits further development of pre-adipocytes. It also enhances insulin sensitivity of muscle cells by augmenting mitochondrial capacity and fostering expression of oxidative phosphorylation genes. Testosterone is also able to break the vicious circle of leptin resistance and generation of new adipose tissue. These effects are exerted by androgen receptor-mediated mechanisms. As epidemiological studies indicate, testosterone substitution is especially helpful in preventing or attenuating the metabolic syndrome in aging men with late-onset hypogonadism and in Klinefelter patients.

  16. Testosterone and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men: Current Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Nieschlag E; Zitzmann M

    2006-01-01

    Circumstances of life and food supply have changed in developed countries, resulting in an increasing prevalence of overweight. As a consequence, a complex disorder consisting of visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hypertension emerges: the so-called metabolic syndrome leads to the manifestation of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. In men, testosterone deficiency contributes to the generation of the metabolic syndrome, as demonstrated by epidemiological and inter...

  17. Current knowledge and pharmacological profile of berberine: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Ekavali; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Mukherjee, Madhurima; Pottabathini, Raghavender; Dhull, Dinesh K

    2015-08-15

    Berberine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, occurs as an active constituent in numerous medicinal plants and has an array of pharmacological properties. It has been used in Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine for its antimicrobial, antiprotozoal, antidiarrheal and antitrachoma activity. Moreover, several clinical and preclinical studies demonstrate ameliorative effect of berberine against several disorders including metabolic, neurological and cardiological problems. This review provides a summary regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic features of berberine, with a focus on the different mechanisms underlying its multispectrum activity. Studies regarding the safety profile, drug interactions and important clinical trials of berberine have also been included. Clinical trials with respect to neurological disorders need to be undertaken to exploit the beneficiary effects of berberine against serious disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Also, clinical studies to detect rare adverse effects of berberine need to be initiated to draw a complete safety profile of berberine and strengthen its applicability.

  18. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus : current knowledge and unmet needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sarah H.; Hoogenberg, Klaas; Lutgers, Helen L.; Van den Berg, Paul P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a global health concern, not only because its prevalence is high and on the increase, but also because of the potential implications for the health of mothers and their offspring. Unfortunately, there is considerable controversy in the literature surrounding th

  19. Filoviruses in Bats: Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Olival

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Filoviruses, including Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus, pose significant threats to public health and species conservation by causing hemorrhagic fever outbreaks with high mortality rates. Since the first outbreak in 1967, their origins, natural history, and ecology remained elusive until recent studies linked them through molecular, serological, and virological studies to bats. We review the ecology, epidemiology, and natural history of these systems, drawing on examples from other bat-borne zoonoses, and highlight key areas for future research. We compare and contrast results from ecological and virological studies of bats and filoviruses with those of other systems. We also highlight how advanced methods, such as more recent serological assays, can be interlinked with flexible statistical methods and experimental studies to inform the field studies necessary to understand filovirus persistence in wildlife populations and cross-species transmission leading to outbreaks. We highlight the need for a more unified, global surveillance strategy for filoviruses in wildlife, and advocate for more integrated, multi-disciplinary approaches to understand dynamics in bat populations to ultimately mitigate or prevent potentially devastating disease outbreaks.

  20. Intestinal microbiota transplant – current state of knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomski, Marek; Leszczyszyn, Anna Maria

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such as production of short-chain fatty acids or components of the inflammatory cascade, caused by changes in microbiome diversity, variability and richness have been observed among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, type 2 diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. The published clinical results are encouraging, but still there is huge demand for FMT controlled clinical trials. PMID:27407273

  1. Microchimerism and thyroid disorders: current knowledge and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Arturovna Sabanova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review will provide an overview of a novel phenomenon in medicine and endocrinology known as microchimerism (MC. MC is defined as the long-term presence of genetically distinct populations of cells in peripheral blood and tissues of individual. This condition may be caused by the transplacental bidirectional cell trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Other sources are the passage from a twin or a vanished twin and iatrogenic interventions such as organ transplantation and blood transfusion.Long-term consequences of MC and its influence on woman's health are under active investigation. Recent studies have shown a broad spectrum of its biological effects either beneficial or adverse.MC has been suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. It is assumed that microchi-meric cells could initiate a "graft versus host" or "host versus graft" reactions. MC has been extensively studied in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD. MC could explain the higher prevalence of AITD in females and frequent manifestation during the postpartum period.It is proposed that microchimeric cells could reduce the risk of cancer development and be a part of tissue repair. MC has also been investigated in papillary thyroid cancer. Further studies of this phenomenon are mandatory to get more insights about its role in thyroid cancer and AITD development. This could provide novel therapeutic, preventive or prognostic perspectives regarding these diseases.

  2. Patient Participation: Current Knowledge and Applicability to Patient Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Longtin, Yves; Sax, Hugo; Leape, Lucian L; Sheridan, Susan E.; Donaldson, Liam; Pittet, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Patient participation is increasingly recognized as a key component in the redesign of health care processes and is advocated as a means to improve patient safety. The concept has been successfully applied to various areas of patient care, such as decision making and the management of chronic diseases. We review the origins of patient participation, discuss the published evidence on its efficacy, and summarize the factors influencing its implementation. Patient-related factors, such as accept...

  3. Current knowledge on the crustal properties of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Morelli

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in experimental petrography together with the information derived from the super-deep drilling projects have provided additional constraints for the interpretation of refraction and reflection seismic data. These constraints can also be used in the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data to resolve nonuniqueness. In this study, we re-interpret the magnetic and gravity data of the Italian peninsula and neighbouring areas. In view of the constraints mentioned above, it is now possible to find an agreement between the seismic and gravity models of the Central Alps. By taking into account the overall crustal thickness, we have recognized the existence of three types of Moho: 1 European which extends to the north and west of the peninsula and in the Corsican-Sardinian block. Its margin was the foreland in the Alpine Orogeny and it was the ramp on which European and Adriatic mantle and crustal slices were overthrusted. This additional load caused bending and deepening and the Moho which now lies beneath the Adriatic plate reaching a maximum depth of approximately 75 km. 2 Adriatic (or African which lies beneath the Po plain, the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea. The average depth of the Moho is about 30-35 km below the Po plain and the Adriatic Sea and it increases toward the Alps and the Tyrrhenian Sea (acting as foreland along this margin. The maximum depth (50 km is reached in Calabria. 3 Pery-Tyrrhenian. This is an oceanic or thinned continental crust type of Moho. It borders the oceanic Moho of the Tyrrhenian Sea and it acquires a transitional character in the Ligurian and Provençal basins (<15 km thickness while further thickening occurs toward the East where the Adriatic plate is overthrusted. In addition, the interpretation of the heat flow data appears to confirm the origin of this Moho and its geodynamic allocation.

  4. Obesity and asthma : current knowledge and future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of weight

  5. Current knowledge on the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Meléndez, Adrián; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Morfin-Otero, Rayo; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor Jesús; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Garza-González, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a spore-forming, toxin-producing, gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that is the principal etiologic agent of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile (CDI) is characterized by diarrhea in clinical syndromes that vary from self-limited to mild or severe. Since its initial recognition as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis, C. difficile has spread around the world. CDI is one of the most common healthcare-associated infections and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among older adult hospitalized patients. Due to extensive antibiotic usage, the number of CDIs has increased. Diagnosis of CDI is often difficult and has a substantial impact on the management of patients with the disease, mainly with regards to antibiotic management. The diagnosis of CDI is primarily based on the clinical signs and symptoms and is only confirmed by laboratory testing. Despite the high burden of CDI and the increasing interest in the disease, episodes of CDI are often misdiagnosed. The reasons for misdiagnosis are the lack of clinical suspicion or the use of inappropriate tests. The proper diagnosis of CDI reduces transmission, prevents inadequate or unnecessary treatments, and assures best antibiotic treatment. We review the options for the laboratory diagnosis of CDI within the settings of the most accepted guidelines for CDI diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of CDI. PMID:28321156

  6. Intestinal microbiota transplant – current state of knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has induced a lot scientific interest and hopes for the last couple of years. FMT has been approved as a treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis. Highly sophisticated molecular DNA identification methods have been used to assess the healthy human microbiome as well as its disturbances in several diseases. The metabolic and immunologic functions of the microbiome have become more clear and understandable. A lot of pathological changes, such ...

  7. Management of acute pancreatitis: current knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Lorenzo; Tomassetti, Paola; Pezzilli, Raffaele

    2006-05-23

    In recent years, a number of articles have been published on the treatment of acute pancreatitis in experimental models and most of them concerned animals with mild disease. However, it is difficult to translate these results into clinical practice. For example, infliximab, a monoclonal TNF antibody, was experimentally tested in rats and it was found to significantly reduce the pathologic score and serum amylase activity and also to alleviate alveolar edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, no studies are available in clinical human acute pancreatitis. Another substance, such as interleukin 10, was efficacious in decreasing the severity and mortality of lethal pancreatitis in rats, but seems to have no effect on human severe acute pancreatitis. Thus, the main problem in acute pancreatitis, especially in the severe form of the disease, is the difficulty of planning clinical studies capable of giving reliable statistically significant answers regarding the benefits of the various proposed therapeutic agents previously tested in experimental settings.According to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, the efficacy of the drugs already available, such as gabexate mesilate, lexipafant and somatostatin should be re-evaluated and should be probably administered in a different manner. Of course, also in this case, we need adequate studies to test this hypothesis.

  8. Management of acute pancreatitis: current knowledge and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomassetti Paola

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent years, a number of articles have been published on the treatment of acute pancreatitis in experimental models and most of them concerned animals with mild disease. However, it is difficult to translate these results into clinical practice. For example, infliximab, a monoclonal TNF antibody, was experimentally tested in rats and it was found to significantly reduce the pathologic score and serum amylase activity and also to alleviate alveolar edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome; however, no studies are available in clinical human acute pancreatitis. Another substance, such as interleukin 10, was efficacious in decreasing the severity and mortality of lethal pancreatitis in rats, but seems to have no effect on human severe acute pancreatitis. Thus, the main problem in acute pancreatitis, especially in the severe form of the disease, is the difficulty of planning clinical studies capable of giving reliable statistically significant answers regarding the benefits of the various proposed therapeutic agents previously tested in experimental settings. According to the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, the efficacy of the drugs already available, such as gabexate mesilate, lexipafant and somatostatin should be re-evaluated and should be probably administered in a different manner. Of course, also in this case, we need adequate studies to test this hypothesis.

  9. Metabolomics of cereals under biotic stress: current knowledge and techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eBalmer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prone to attacks by pathogens and pests, plants employ intricate chemical defense mechanisms consisting of metabolic adaptations. However, many plant attackers are manipulating the host metabolism to counteract defense responses and to induce favorable nutritional conditions. Advances in analytical chemistry have allowed the generation of extensive metabolic profiles during plant-pathogen and pest interactions. Thereby, metabolic processes were found to be highly specific for given tissues, species and plant-pathogen/pest interactions. The clusters of identified compounds not only serve as base in the quest of novel defense compounds, but also as markers for the characterization of the plants’ defensive state. The latter is especially useful in agronomic applications where meaningful markers are essential for crop protection. Cereals such as maize make use of their metabolic arsenal during both local and systemic defense responses, and the chemical response is highly adapted to specific attackers. Here, we summarize highlights and recent findings of metabolic patterns of cereals under pathogen and pest attack.

  10. [Global spread of Zika virus epidemic: current knowledges and uncertainties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahiner, Fatih

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped RNA virus that belongs to the Flaviviridae family. Although more than 60 years have passed since the discovery and first reported human cases of the virus, only a small number (Zika virus was known as a virus which caused sporadic infections and was confined to Africa and Asia along a narrow equatorial line. In 2007, however, the first major outbreak of ZIKV occurred in Yap Island (Micronesia), and so it was reported for the first time outside of Africa and Asia. Between the years of 2007 and 2014, ZIKV spreaded to island groups located in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, and in 2015-2016, it has spread to South and Central America and the Caribbean. Today, travel-related imported cases is still been reported in Europe, North America, and other countries in the Far East. According to the data from the World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, as of March 2016, ZIKV infections have already spread locally in more than 30 countries, and travel alerts have been issued for the countries where the virus is present. Zika virus infections are generally asymptomatic or may present with a moderate clinical picture (e.g. acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and nonpurulent conjunctivitis). Although no deaths were attributed to ZIKV infection over the past 60 years, as of November 2015, it has been suggested that three deaths in Brazil, including the death of a newborn with microcephaly, may be attributed to ZIKV infection. In addition, concurrent with outbreaks in 2013 in French Polynesia and in 2015 in Brazil, there have been significant rises reported in the incidence of some autoimmune and neurodevelopmental disorders, including Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly; these reports have caused considerable international concern. There are many points that are still unclear about ZIKV, including: (1) intrauterine transmission risk, frequency, and effects of the infection on fetal development; (2) the probability of perinatal transmission and if so the possible risks; (3) association with autoimmune and neurological diseases, and presence of long-term sequelae risks after infection; (4) possible routes of transmission other than mosquito bites, such as sexual contact, blood transfusion, and other body fluids (saliva, semen, or urine); (5) presence of reservoir(s) and different mosquito vectors; (6) diagnostic difficulties including cross reactivity in serological tests and standardization of testing procedures; (7) severity of the infection in immunocompromised patients; and (8) the potential effectiveness of antiviral therapy or preventive vaccines. In this review, updated information and recommendations regarding ZIKV outbreaks and risks, and the epidemiology, diagnosis and characteristics of ZIKV infections, are summarized in light of the most recent literature.

  11. Current knowledge and future prospects for SAPHO syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C

    2014-11-01

    SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by osteoarticular and cutaneous symptoms. Most patients experience bone pain and dermatologic manifestations. Diagnosis of SAPHO syndrome is based on exclusion of infectious arthritis and septic osteomyelitis with findings of hyperostosis or chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis involving axial or peripheral skeleton, with or without skin manifestations. The pathophysiology of SAPHO is unclear, although several hypotheses exist. Some of these hypotheses have led to the ever growing treatment options of medications. Broad varieties of medications have been used, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and disease-modifying agents. New therapeutic options, such as tumor necrosis factor inhibitors have evolved and have shown promising results.

  12. Plasmablastic Lymphoma: A Review of Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Elyamany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL, which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM. PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death. There is no standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment of PBL. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP or CHOP-like regimens have been the backbone while more intensive regimens such as cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC, or dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (DA-EPOCH are possible options. Recently, a few studies have reported the potential value of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and thalidomide in PBL patients. The introduction of genes encoding artificial receptors called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs and CAR-modified T cells targeted to the B cell-specific CD19 antigen have demonstrated promising results in multiple early clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in epidemiology; pathophysiology; clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics; therapy; and outcome in patients with PBL.

  13. Current knowledge of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Youhui; Diao, Qingyun

    2017-01-01

    The western honey bee Apis mellifera is the most important managed pollinator species in the world. Multiple factors have been implicated as potential causes or factors contributing to colony collapse disorder, including honey bee pathogens and nutritional deficiencies as well as exposure to pesticides. Honey bees' genome is characterized by a paucity of genes associated with detoxification, which makes them vulnerable to specific pesticides, especially to combinations of pesticides in real field environments. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms involved in detoxification of xenobiotics/pesticides in honey bees, from primal enzyme assays or toxicity bioassays to characterization of transcript gene expression and protein expression in response to xenobiotics/insecticides by using a global transcriptomic or proteomic approach, and even to functional characterizations. The global transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to learn that detoxification mechanisms in honey bees involve multiple genes and pathways along with changes in energy metabolism and cellular stress response. P450 genes, is highly implicated in the direct detoxification of xenobiotics/insecticides in honey bees and their expression can be regulated by honey/pollen constitutes, resulting in the tolerance of honey bees to other xenobiotics or insecticides. P450s is also a key detoxification enzyme that mediate synergism interaction between acaricides/insecticides and fungicides through inhibition P450 activity by fungicides or competition for detoxification enzymes between acaricides. With the wide use of insecticides in agriculture, understanding the detoxification mechanism of insecticides in honey bees and how honeybees fight with the xenobiotis or insecticides to survive in the changing environment will finally benefit honeybees' management.

  14. Lipid Quality in Infant Nutrition: Current Knowledge and Future Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Delplanque, Bernadette; Gibson, Robert; Koletzko, Berthold; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Strandvik, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dietary lipids are key for infants to not only meet their high energy needs but also fulfill numerous metabolic and physiological functions critical to their growth, development, and health. The lipid composition of breast milk varies during lactation and according to the mother's diet, whereas the lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the blend of different fat sources. This report compares the compositions of lipids in breast milk and infant formulae, and highlig...

  15. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus : current knowledge and unmet needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Sarah H.; Hoogenberg, Klaas; Lutgers, Helen L.; Van den Berg, Paul P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a global health concern, not only because its prevalence is high and on the increase, but also because of the potential implications for the health of mothers and their offspring. Unfortunately, there is considerable controversy in the literature surrounding

  16. Diabetes and Cancer: a Review of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, J; Krajewski, W; Bolanowski, M; Kręcicki, T; Zatoński, T

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), one of the most common life-threatening illnesses worldwide, is a group of metabolic diseases, characterized by sustained hyperglycemia. The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus among adults reached 387 millions in 2014 and is still rising. It is suggested there is a strong association between diabetes mellitus (especially type 2 diabetes mellitus) and carcinogenesis. The possible biological links between diabetes mellitus and cancer comprise hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and fat-induced chronic inflammation. Although, the strongest association refers to pancreas and liver, there are many other organs involved in carcinogenesis in diabetic patients including breast, endometrium, bladder and kidney.Recent studies suggest that there is also association between cancer incidence and anti-diabetic medications. It was observed that some medications decrease the risk of carcinogenesis and some increase that risk. The majority of studies concern metformin, a drug of choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its anti-neoplastic and tumor-suppressing activity. The positive effect of metformin was found in numerous researches investigating breast, pancreas, liver, colon, ovaries and prostate tumors.Because a variety of studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus and cancer are frequently coexisting diseases, recently published studies try to explain the influence of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic medications on carcinogenesis in different organs.We present the review of the latest studies investigating the association between both diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic medications and cancer incidence and prognosis.Particularly we highlight the problem of concomitant head and neck cancers in diabetics, rarely analysed and often omitted in studies.

  17. Current knowledge and future perspectives on acute hepatitis C infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullegie, S. J.; Arends, J. E.; Rijnders, B. J A; Irving, W. L.; Salmon, D.; Prins, M.; Wensing, A. M.; Klenerman, P.; Leblebicioglu, H.; Boesecke, C.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Hoepelman, A. I M

    2015-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are frequently seen worldwide in certain risk groups, with an annual incidence rate varying between 0.08% and 66%. Although this incidence is substantial, a delayed diagnosis during chronic infection is most often made in the absence of clinical symptoms in

  18. MRI quantification of rheumatoid arthritis: Current knowledge and future perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boesen, Mikael [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)], E-mail: parker@frh.regionh.dk; Ostergaard, Mikkel [Department of Rheumatology, Hvidovre and Herlev University Hospitals, Copenhagen (Denmark); Cimmino, Marco A. [Department of Rheumatology, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Kubassova, Olga [Image Analysis LTD, Leeds (United Kingdom); Jensen, Karl Erik [Department of Radiology, MR section, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bliddal, Henning [Parker Institute, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    The international consensus on treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) involves early initiation of disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for which a reliable identification of early disease is mandatory. Conventional radiography of the joints is considered the standard method for detecting and quantifying joint damage in RA. However, radiographs only show late disease manifestations as joint space narrowing and bone erosions, whereas it cannot detect synovitis and bone marrow oedema, i.e., inflammation in the synovium or the bone, which may be visualized by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) months to years before erosions develop. Furthermore, MRI allows earlier visualization of bone erosions than radiography. In order to allow early treatment initiation and optimal guidance of the therapeutic strategy, there is a need for methods which are capable of early detection of inflammatory joint changes. In this review, we will discuss available data, advantages, limitations and potential future of MRI in RA.

  19. Silicon and Plants: Current Knowledge and Technological Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Marie; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Lutts, Stanley; Guerriero, Gea

    2017-01-01

    Elemental silicon (Si), after oxygen, is the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust, which is mainly composed of silicates. Si is not considered essential for plant growth and development, however, increasing evidence in the literature shows that this metalloid is beneficial to plants, especially under stress conditions. Indeed Si alleviates the toxic effects caused by abiotic stresses, e.g., salt stress, drought, heavy metals, to name a few. Biogenic silica is also a deterrent against herbivores. Additionally, Si ameliorates the vigor of plants and improves their resistance to exogenous stresses. The protective role of Si was initially attributed to a physical barrier fortifying the cell wall (e.g., against fungal hyphae penetration), however, several studies have shown that the action of this element on plants is far more complex, as it involves a cross-talk with the cell interior and an effect on plant metabolism. In this study the beneficial role of Si on plants will be discussed, by reviewing the available data in the literature. Emphasis will be given to the protective role of Si during (a)biotic stresses and in this context both priming and the effects of Si on endogenous phytohormones will be discussed. A whole section will be devoted to the use of silica (SiO2) nanoparticles, in the light of the interest that nanotechnology has for agriculture. The paper also discusses the potential technological aspects linked to the use of Si in agriculture and to modify/improve the physical parameters of plant fibers. The study indeed provides perspectives on the use of Si to increase the yield of fiber crops and to improve the thermal stability and tensile strength of natural fibers.

  20. Bacterial vaginosis: a critical analysis of current knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasioudis, D; Linhares, I M; Ledger, W J; Witkin, S S

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the change from a Lactobacillus-dominant vaginal microbiota to an anaerobic and facultative bacterial dominance, is associated with pathological sequelae. In many BV-positive women their microbiota is in fact normal and unrelated to pathology. Whether or not the dominance of BV-associated bacteria persists depends upon interactions between host and bacterial factors. Inconsistencies in diagnosis and erroneous associations with pathology may be due to a failure to differentiate between sub-populations of women. It is only in those women with a BV diagnosis in which the identified bacteria are atypical and persist that BV may be a clinical problem requiring intervention.